WorldWideScience

Sample records for farm animal welfare

  1. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lisa M.; Part, Chérie E.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In this review paper we discuss the different modeling techniques that have been used in animal welfare research to date. We look at what questions they have been used to answer, the advantages and pitfalls of the methods, and how future research can best use these approaches to answer some of the most important upcoming questions in farm animal welfare. Abstract The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively) based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested. PMID:26487411

  2. Farm animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou; Appleby, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    , there was a positive link between moral intensity/moral imperative associated with an issue and people’s stated wtp for policy to address the issue. The paper discusses the relevance of the findings of the survey in the context of the debate concerning the relationship between moral and economic values and the use......An experimental survey was undertaken to explore the links between the characteristics of a moral issue, the degree of moral intensity/moral imperative associated with the issue (Jones, 1991), and people’s stated willingness to pay (wtp) for policy to address the issue. Two farm animal welfare...... issues were chosen for comparison and the contingent valuation method was used to elicit people’s wtp. The findings of the survey suggest that increases in moral characteristics do appear to result in an increase in moral intensity and the degree of moral imperative associated with an issue. Moreover...

  3. INVITED REVIEW: Farm size and animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, J A; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Fraser, D; Weary, D M

    2016-12-01

    Critics of agricultural intensification have argued that the transition from smaller to larger farms has compromised animal welfare. To critically examine evidence relevant to this claim, we reviewed more than 150 publications that examined the relationship between farm size and at least one animal welfare indicator. Although much of this literature focuses on dairy cattle, we also reference other farmed species where appropriate. We found little evidence of any simple relationship, negative or positive, between farm size and animal welfare. Instead, the evidence suggests that larger farms provide some opportunities to improve animal welfare but may also create welfare risks. For example, larger farms permit more specialized and professional management of animal health but can make it more difficult to accommodate outdoor access that some view as integral to animal welfare. Future research should attempt to specify the underlying casual mechanisms by which statistical associations between farm size and indicators of welfare are believed to occur. We also suggest that policy and advocacy efforts aimed at reversing increases in farm size would be better directed toward improving welfare on farms of all sizes.

  4. Assessing farm animal welfare without visiting the farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jan Tind; Houe, Hans; Sandøe, Peter

    Animal welfare is typically assessed on farms by external observers making systematic observations of animals and/or the environment. External observers are costly, and efforts to minimize the time spent by external observers are giving rise to a delicate discussion of priorities of costs, validity...... and reliability. In this situation, it is worthwhile to consider the option of systems for assessing the animal welfare without having an external observer visiting the farm....

  5. Corporate Reporting on Farm Animal Welfare: An Evaluation of Global Food Companies’ Discourse and Disclosures on Farm Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Rory; Amos, Nicky; van de Weerd, Heleen A.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Companies that produce or sell food products from farm animals can have a major influence on the lives and welfare of these animals. The Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare (BBFAW) conducts an annual evaluation of the farm animal welfare-related disclosures of some of the world’s largest food companies. The programme looks at companies’ published policies and commitments and examines whether these might lead to actions that can improve animal welfare on farms. It also assesses whether companies show leadership in this field. The BBFAW found that, in 2012 and 2013, around 70% of companies acknowledged animal welfare as a business issue, and that, between 2012 and 2013, there was clear evidence of an increased level of disclosure on farm animal welfare awareness in the companies that were assessed. However, only 34% (2012) and 44% (2013) of companies had published comprehensive farm animal welfare policies, suggesting that many companies have yet to report on farm animal welfare as a business issue or disclose their approach to farm animal welfare to stakeholders and society. Abstract The views that food companies hold about their responsibilities for animal welfare can strongly influence the lives and welfare of farm animals. If a company’s commitment is translated into action, it can be a major driver of animal welfare. The Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare (BBFAW) is an annual evaluation of farm animal welfare-related practices, reporting and performance of food companies. The framework evaluates how close, based on their disclosures, companies are to best practice in three areas: Management Commitment, Governance & Performance and Leadership & Innovation. The BBFAW analysed information published by 68 (2012) and 70 (2013) of the world’s largest food companies. Around 70% of companies acknowledged animal welfare as a business issue. Between 2012 and 2013, the mean BBFAW score increased significantly by 5% (p animal welfare

  6. The globalisation of farm animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, D

    2014-04-01

    Animal welfare has achieved significant global prominence for perhaps three reasons. First, several centuries of scientific research, especially in anatomy, evolutionary biology and animal behaviour, have led to a gradual narrowing of the gap that people perceive between humans and other species; this altered perception has prompted grass-roots attention to animals and their welfare, initially in Western countries but now more globally asthe influence of science has expanded. Second, scientific research on animal welfare has provided insights and methods for improving the handling, housing and management of animals; this 'animal welfare science' is increasingly seen as relevant to improving animal husbandry worldwide. Third, the development and use of explicit animal welfare standards has helped to integrate animal welfare as a component of national and international public policy, commerce and trade. To date, social debate about animal welfare has been dominated bythe industrialised nations. However, as the issue becomes increasingly global, it will be important for the non-industrialised countries to develop locally appropriate approaches to improving animal welfare, for example, by facilitating the provision of shelter, food, water and health care, and by improving basic handling, transportation and slaughter.

  7. A Survey of Chinese Citizens’ Perceptions on Farm Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xiaolin; Li, Yibo; Zhang, Min; Yan, Huoqi; Zhao, Ruqian

    2014-01-01

    Farm animal welfare has been gradually recognized as an important issue in most parts of the world. In China, domestic animals were traditionally raised in backyard and treated as an important component of family wealth. Industrialization of animal production brings forth the farm animal welfare concerns recently in China, yet the modern concept of animal welfare has not been publicized and a comprehensive recognition on how consumers and farmers perceive animal welfare is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a survey on public opinions toward farm animal welfare in China, based on pigs (including sows, piglets, and fattening pigs), domestic fowls (including layers and broilers) and their products. From 6,006 effective questionnaires approximately two thirds of the respondents had never heard of ‘animal welfare’; 72.9% of the respondents claimed that, for the sake of animal derived food safety, human beings should improve the rearing conditions for pigs and domestic fowls; 65.8% of the respondents totally or partly agreed on establishing laws to improve animal welfare; more than half of the respondents were willing, or to some extent willing, to pay more for high-welfare animal products, whereas 45.5% of the respondents were not willing or reluctant to pay more. In summary, farm animal welfare is still in its early stage of development and more efforts are needed to improve the public conception to animal welfare in the process of establishing farm animal welfare standards and legislations in China. PMID:25314159

  8. Farm workers’ perception of animal welfare – A Danish Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anneberg, Inger

    2017-01-01

    The welfare of farm animals depends on development in production systems, economic drivers and regulation but also human factors – such as farmers’ perceptions of animal welfare, management strategies, communication, knowledge and training. In this study I have examined the perception of animal...... welfare among farm workers employed at five different Danish farms (pig, dairy cattle and mink). The methodology employed ethnographic field studies during daily work at the farms and qualitative interviews with 23 farm workers, of which some are of Danish nationality and others from other countries....

  9. Mapping farm animal welfare education at university level in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Illmann, G.; Keeling, L.; Melisova, M.; Simeckova, M.; Ilieski, V.; Winckler, C.; Kostal, L.; Meunier-Salaun, M.; Mihina, S.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to map farm animal welfare university education in an enlarged Europe with emphasis on identifying existing differences and gaps. Information on 210 courses dealing with farm animal welfare from 98 universities in 26 European countries were obtained. Statistical analysis

  10. Healthy, happy and humane: evidence in farm animal welfare policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bock, B.B.; Buller, H.

    2013-01-01

    There has been a dramatic expansion and diversification of knowledge, expertise and expectation associated with farm animal welfare and we witness its increasing adoption within legislative and policy strategies. This article examines how the understanding of what constitutes farm animal welfare and

  11. Corporate Reporting on Farm Animal Welfare: An Evaluation of Global Food Companies’ Discourse and Disclosures on Farm Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory Sullivan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The views that food companies hold about their responsibilities for animal welfare can strongly influence the lives and welfare of farm animals. If a company’s commitment is translated into action, it can be a major driver of animal welfare. The Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare (BBFAW is an annual evaluation of farm animal welfare-related practices, reporting and performance of food companies. The framework evaluates how close, based on their disclosures, companies are to best practice in three areas: Management Commitment, Governance & Performance and Leadership & Innovation. The BBFAW analysed information published by 68 (2012 and 70 (2013 of the world’s largest food companies. Around 70% of companies acknowledged animal welfare as a business issue. Between 2012 and 2013, the mean BBFAW score increased significantly by 5% (p < 0.001, Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test. However, only 34% (2012 and 44% (2013 of companies published comprehensive animal welfare policies. This increase suggests that global food companies are increasingly aware that farm animal welfare is of interest to their stakeholders, but also that many companies have yet to acknowledge farm animal welfare as a business issue or to demonstrate their approach to farm animal welfare to stakeholders and society.

  12. The interaction of ethical questions and farm animal welfare science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Forkman, Björn; Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2012-01-01

    In the early days of farm animal welfare science it was often claimed that a sharp distinction should be drawn between, on one hand, the science-based study of animal welfare and, on the other hand, ethical investigation of what is right, and what is wrong, in our dealings with animals. However...

  13. Animal welfare decisions in Dutch poultry and pig farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gocsik, E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract

    The minimum level of animal welfare (AW) is guaranteed by EU and national legislation in most European countries. Within the current international economic and political environment further improvements in the welfare of farm animals predominantly rely on market

  14. Mapping farm animal welfare research in an enlarged Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchner, Marlene K.; Košťál, Ľubor; Bilčík, Boris

    2017-01-01

    Against the background of divergent political developments across Europe, farm animal welfare (FAW) science has evolved during the last three decades as an inter-disciplinary research area. Recent achievements include pan-European research projects and the implementation of animal welfare assessm...

  15. Farm animal welfare across borders: A vision for the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm; Zhao, Ruquian

    2012-01-01

    The concern for farm animal welfare is increasing. The people concerned are not only consumers and producers of animal products, but also politicians, retailers, and economists trying to determine the type and strength of motivation behind demands to ensure farm animal welfare standards (Olynk......, 2012; Matthews and Hemsworth, 2012). The cost of and willingness to pay for improved farm animal welfare infl uence not only international markets, but also i ncentives, education, guidelines, and legislation put in place to change the way we raise production species. These issues are highly pertinent...... for countries emerging on the global food market for several reasons. In rapidly developing countries, animal welfare standards are likely to be lower on the list of immediate concerns of the farmer, for whom availability and quality of animal feed, production yield and disease control may rank higher...

  16. Animal based parameters are no panacea for on-farm monitoring of animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.

    2007-01-01

    On-farm monitoring of animal welfare is an important, present-day objective in animal welfare science. Scientists tend to focus exclusively on animal-based parameters, possibly because using environment-based parameters could be begging the question why welfare has been affected and because

  17. Animal Welfare in Relation to Standards in Organic Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammarberg Karl-Erik

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The new EU-regulations on organic farming (1804/1999 are also influencing the animal welfare. A lot of positive regulations is to find, but also regulations that seen to mind more about the general public and customer and their view on organic farming, than the health and welfare of the animals. The paper specially focus on the impact of the regulations and the recommendations that phytotherapeutic essences and homeopathic products take precedence over the so called chemically-synthesised allopatic veterinary medical products, and that the use of the same is prohibited for preventive treatments. Key questions here are the lack of scientific evidence concerning homeopathy in animals, and that Swedish veterinarians are not allowed to work with homeopathy. Differences in interpretation of the regulations between animal owners and veterinarians will also be discussed. What is a disease that needs treatment? Who is to decide about the treatment? Parasitic infections are discussed as an illustrative example. Other consequences of the regulations concerning the animal welfare are problems in certain geographical zones, for instance subarctic areas where necessary crops are impossible to grow. Animal transports and splitting mother-offspring are briefly discussed as future problems to be handled in the regulations, and the paper ends by presenting the need of regulated herd health control programs in organic husbandry, which can detect and focus on welfare and production problems. The organic movement is not static, and must not be so.

  18. Animal behavior and well-being symposium: Farm animal welfare assurance: science and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushen, J; Butterworth, A; Swanson, J C

    2011-04-01

    Public and consumer pressure for assurances that farm animals are raised humanely has led to a range of private and public animal welfare standards, and for methods to assess compliance with these standards. The standards usually claim to be science based, but even though researchers have developed measures of animal welfare and have tested the effects of housing and management variables on welfare within controlled laboratory settings, there are challenges in extending this research to develop on-site animal welfare standards. The standards need to be validated against a definition of welfare that has broad support and which is amenable to scientific investigation. Ensuring that such standards acknowledge scientific uncertainty is also challenging, and balanced input from all scientific disciplines dealing with animal welfare is needed. Agencies providing animal welfare audit services need to integrate these scientific standards and legal requirements into successful programs that effectively measure and objectively report compliance. On-farm assessment of animal welfare requires a combination of animal-based measures to assess the actual state of welfare and resource-based measures to identify risk factors. We illustrate this by referring to a method of assessing welfare in broiler flocks. Compliance with animal welfare standards requires buy-in from all stakeholders, and this will be best achieved by a process of inclusion in the development of pragmatic assessment methods and the development of audit programs verifying the conditions and continuous improvement of farm animal welfare.

  19. Mapping farm animal welfare research in an enlarged Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchner, Marlene K.; Košťál, Ľubor; Bilčík, Boris

    2017-01-01

    assessment systems on-farm. The aim of this study was mapping activities for FAW science and investigating geographical differences in FAW research in Europe (EU28 + candidate countries and the European Economic Area) with regard to available resources (e.g. human resources, infrastructure, funding...... factors from 5 self-named citations was 3.0 ± 2.8 (mean, SD) in the Eastern hubs and 7.5 ± 4.4 in the Western Hubs. When investigating associations of the economic status of EU countries with resource factors and achievements in FAW research, the ‘Coefficient of National Innovation Capacity (NIC......Against the background of divergent political developments across Europe, farm animal welfare (FAW) science has evolved during the last three decades as an inter-disciplinary research area. Recent achievements include pan-European research projects and the implementation of animal welfare...

  20. From cruelty to welfare: the emergence of farm animal welfare in Britain, 1964-71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Abigail

    2012-03-01

    There is a long history of concern in Britain for how animals are treated. Until the 1960s, these concerns were expressed largely in terms of cruelty or suffering, which was prevented through various acts of Parliament. Over the period 1964-71, amidst public debates about intensive farming, a new discourse of animal welfare emerged. To understand what welfare meant and how it became established as a term, a concept and a target of government regulation, it is necessary to examine farming politics and practices, the existing tradition of animal protection and attempts to rethink the nature of animal suffering. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sequential sampling: a novel method in farm animal welfare assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, C A E; Main, D C J; Mullan, S; Haskell, M J; Browne, W J

    2016-02-01

    Lameness in dairy cows is an important welfare issue. As part of a welfare assessment, herd level lameness prevalence can be estimated from scoring a sample of animals, where higher levels of accuracy are associated with larger sample sizes. As the financial cost is related to the number of cows sampled, smaller samples are preferred. Sequential sampling schemes have been used for informing decision making in clinical trials. Sequential sampling involves taking samples in stages, where sampling can stop early depending on the estimated lameness prevalence. When welfare assessment is used for a pass/fail decision, a similar approach could be applied to reduce the overall sample size. The sampling schemes proposed here apply the principles of sequential sampling within a diagnostic testing framework. This study develops three sequential sampling schemes of increasing complexity to classify 80 fully assessed UK dairy farms, each with known lameness prevalence. Using the Welfare Quality herd-size-based sampling scheme, the first 'basic' scheme involves two sampling events. At the first sampling event half the Welfare Quality sample size is drawn, and then depending on the outcome, sampling either stops or is continued and the same number of animals is sampled again. In the second 'cautious' scheme, an adaptation is made to ensure that correctly classifying a farm as 'bad' is done with greater certainty. The third scheme is the only scheme to go beyond lameness as a binary measure and investigates the potential for increasing accuracy by incorporating the number of severely lame cows into the decision. The three schemes are evaluated with respect to accuracy and average sample size by running 100 000 simulations for each scheme, and a comparison is made with the fixed size Welfare Quality herd-size-based sampling scheme. All three schemes performed almost as well as the fixed size scheme but with much smaller average sample sizes. For the third scheme, an overall

  2. A Scenario Analysis on the Implementation of a Farm Animal Welfare Assessment System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Blokhuis, H.J.; Butterworth, A.; Keeling, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    There have been important developments in the measurement of farm animal welfare in recent years. Measuring animal welfare is one thing, implementing a farm animal welfare assessment system another. The implementation of such a system occurs in an environment that is influenced by economic,

  3. Assessing farm animal welfare – guidelines for on-farm self-assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Zapf

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Animal Welfare Act from 2014 requires that livestock keepers shall execute an on-farm self-assessment. They have to assess and monitor appropriate indicators in order to evaluate the welfare of their animals. However, the Animal Welfare Act does not contain any secondary legislation, so there is a lack of more precise provisions regarding details and scope of the self-assessment system. In order to identify appropriate indicators which address the most important animal welfare problems known from practice, KTBL organised expert group discussions. The sets of largely animal-based indicators for cattle, pigs and poultry selected by the experts were published in 2016 in descriptive manuals. This paper discusses the benefit of on-farm self-assessments and presents the manuals.

  4. Transgenesis may affect farm animal welfare: a case for systematic risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reenen, van C.; Meuwissen, T.H.E.; Hopster, H.; Oldenbroek, K.; Kruip, T.A.; Blokhuis, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers (potentially) harmful consequences of transgenesis for farm animal welfare and examines the strategy of studying health and welfare of transgenic farm animals. Evidence is discussed showing that treatments imposed in the context of farm animal transgenesis are by no means

  5. Animal Health and Welfare Planning in Organic Dairy Cattle Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Winckler, Christoph; Roderick, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    as well as animal health and welfare professionals (veterinarians and advisors) is paramount. This paper provides an overview of some current animal health and welfare planning initiatives and explains the principles of animal health and welfare planning which are being implemented in ANIPLAN partner...

  6. Road transport of farm animals: effects of journey duration on animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm; Dybkjær, Lise; Herskin, Mette S

    2011-01-01

    Transport of farm animals gives rise to concern about their welfare. Specific attention has been given to the duration of animal transport, and maximum journey durations are used in legislation that seek to minimise any negative impact of transport on animal welfare. This paper reviews......, and those aspects that may be exacerbated by journey time. We identify four aspects of animal transport, which have increasing impact on welfare as transport duration increases. These relate to (i) the physiological and clinical state of the animal before transport; and - during transport - to (ii) feeding...... and watering; (iii) rest and (iv) thermal environment. It is thus not journey duration per se but these associated negative aspects that are the cause of compromised welfare. We suggest that with a few exceptions, transport of long duration is possible in terms of animal welfare provided that these four issues...

  7. Role of joy in farm animal welfare legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Gall, Philipp; Gjerris, Mickey

    2017-01-01

    While animal welfare is commonly invoked in legal debates regarding non-human animals kept for food purposes, the concept of animal joy is rarely mentioned in such contexts. This paper analyzes the relationship between welfare and joy in the German animal protection law (GAPL) and in the EU direc...... that overlooking elements of joy cannot be justified from any ethical perspective that claims to take animal welfare into consideration. In order to clarify the aims of the legal provisions, decision-makers need to define the role joy ought to play in welfare legislation....

  8. Qualitative stakeholder analysis for the development of sustainable monitoringssystem for farm animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Greef, de K.H.; Hopster, H.

    2005-01-01

    Continued concern for animal welfare may be alleviated when welfare would be monitored on farms. Monitoring can be characterized as an information system where various stakeholders periodically exchange relevant information. Stakeholders include producers, consumers, retailers, the government,

  9. The relationship between animal welfare and economic performance at farm level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Arne; Czekaj, Tomasz Gerard; Forkman, Björn

    2018-01-01

    We propose a theoretical framework for the relationship between animal welfare and the economic performance of livestock farms. We empirically analyse this relationship based on a unique dataset of randomly sampled Danish pig herds that includes information from unannounced inspections...... economic performance and animal welfare so that good farm managers are able to meet all animal welfare regulations, while achieving a high economic performance....... of the compliance with the animal welfare legislation. We find large variations in economic performance and animal welfare. The relationship between these two indicators is rather weak, but tends to be slightly positive. A possible explanation for our results is that management has a major influence on both...

  10. The Effect of Steps to Promote Higher Levels of Farm Animal Welfare across the EU. Societal versus Animal Scientists’ Perceptions of Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averós, Xavier; Aparicio, Miguel A.; Ferrari, Paolo; Guy, Jonathan H.; Hubbard, Carmen; Schmid, Otto; Ilieski, Vlatko; Spoolder, Hans A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary We studied different EU production standards and initiatives to determine whether there is still room or not for further animal welfare improvement, and which should be the best way to achieve it. Many of the adopted measures in these standards and initiatives are scientifically supported, but other aspects that are equally important for animal welfare are not included in any of them. Animal welfare improvement should consider, for each country, those aspects actually benefiting animals, but also the social expectations within each country. Economic constraints might explain the gap between what society demands, and what farm animals actually need. Abstract Information about animal welfare standards and initiatives from eight European countries was collected, grouped, and compared to EU welfare standards to detect those aspects beyond minimum welfare levels demanded by EU welfare legislation. Literature was reviewed to determine the scientific relevance of standards and initiatives, and those aspects going beyond minimum EU standards. Standards and initiatives were assessed to determine their strengths and weaknesses regarding animal welfare. Attitudes of stakeholders in the improvement of animal welfare were determined through a Policy Delphi exercise. Social perception of animal welfare, economic implications of upraising welfare levels, and differences between countries were considered. Literature review revealed that on-farm space allowance, climate control, and environmental enrichment are relevant for all animal categories. Experts’ assessment revealed that on-farm prevention of thermal stress, air quality, and races and passageways’ design were not sufficiently included. Stakeholders considered that housing conditions are particularly relevant regarding animal welfare, and that animal-based and farm-level indicators are fundamental to monitor the progress of animal welfare. The most notable differences between what society offers and what

  11. Animal welfare in brown trout farming: hematological results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Forneris

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of stress resulting from fish farming has received considerable attention in this last period and fish welfare in aquaculture is a relevant topic, very important for the future of aquaculture (Watson et al., 2004; Klinger et al., 1996; Peres et al., 2004; Ron et al., 1995;Wagner et al., 1995;Watson et al., 1998. Brown trout farming is less developed then rainbow trout farming, but this kind of fish farming is increasing, mainly for fish conservation and restocking aquaculture.

  12. The Effect of Steps to Promote Higher Levels of Farm Animal Welfare across the EU. Societal versus Animal Scientists' Perceptions of Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averós, Xavier; Aparicio, Miguel A; Ferrari, Paolo; Guy, Jonathan H; Hubbard, Carmen; Schmid, Otto; Ilieski, Vlatko; Spoolder, Hans A M

    2013-08-14

    Information about animal welfare standards and initiatives from eight European countries was collected, grouped, and compared to EU welfare standards to detect those aspects beyond minimum welfare levels demanded by EU welfare legislation. Literature was reviewed to determine the scientific relevance of standards and initiatives, and those aspects going beyond minimum EU standards. Standards and initiatives were assessed to determine their strengths and weaknesses regarding animal welfare. Attitudes of stakeholders in the improvement of animal welfare were determined through a Policy Delphi exercise. Social perception of animal welfare, economic implications of upraising welfare levels, and differences between countries were considered. Literature review revealed that on-farm space allowance, climate control, and environmental enrichment are relevant for all animal categories. Experts' assessment revealed that on-farm prevention of thermal stress, air quality, and races and passageways' design were not sufficiently included. Stakeholders considered that housing conditions are particularly relevant regarding animal welfare, and that animal-based and farm-level indicators are fundamental to monitor the progress of animal welfare. The most notable differences between what society offers and what farm animals are likely to need are related to transportation and space availability, with economic constraints being the most plausible explanation.

  13. The Effect of Steps to Promote Higher Levels of Farm Animal Welfare across the EU. Societal versus Animal Scientists’ Perceptions of Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlatko Ilieski

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Information about animal welfare standards and initiatives from eight European countries was collected, grouped, and compared to EU welfare standards to detect those aspects beyond minimum welfare levels demanded by EU welfare legislation. Literature was reviewed to determine the scientific relevance of standards and initiatives, and those aspects going beyond minimum EU standards. Standards and initiatives were assessed to determine their strengths and weaknesses regarding animal welfare. Attitudes of stakeholders in the improvement of animal welfare were determined through a Policy Delphi exercise. Social perception of animal welfare, economic implications of upraising welfare levels, and differences between countries were considered. Literature review revealed that on-farm space allowance, climate control, and environmental enrichment are relevant for all animal categories. Experts’ assessment revealed that on-farm prevention of thermal stress, air quality, and races and passageways’ design were not sufficiently included. Stakeholders considered that housing conditions are particularly relevant regarding animal welfare, and that animal-based and farm-level indicators are fundamental to monitor the progress of animal welfare. The most notable differences between what society offers and what farm animals are likely to need are related to transportation and space availability, with economic constraints being the most plausible explanation.

  14. A survey to determine public opinion about the ethics and governance of farm animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Jayson L; Norwood, F Bailey

    2008-10-01

    To determine the attitude of the public toward farm animal welfare and identify beliefs regarding how decisions about farm animal welfare should be made. Telephone survey. A random sample of 1,019 US households. US households were contacted by telephone and asked to take part in a survey consisting of 48 items. A majority (437/773 [56.4%]) of respondents believed decisions about farm animal welfare should be made by experts rather than being based on the views of the public. Such advocates of expert decision making were less likely to believe the government should regulate farm animal welfare. Most (420/773 [54.3%]) respondents believed decisions about farm animal welfare should be based on scientific measures of animal well-being, as opposed to moral and ethical considerations. Those individuals who believed farm animal welfare decisions should be made by experts and be based on scientific measures were the least concerned about farm animal welfare issues. People who believed animal welfare decisions should be made by experts and be based on scientific measures were most responsive to information about use of gestation crates for sows. These results should help increase recognition that changing public opinion is not simply a matter of convincing the public to support positions established by veterinarians and animal scientists. People's views about the role of the democratic process in regulating technologic change are important determinants of whether people accept the changes in animal agriculture that have occurred during the past century.

  15. Public Concern with Farm-Animal Welfare: Religion, Politics, and Human Disadvantage in the Food Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deemer, Danielle R.; Lobao, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    The welfare of farm animals has become a continuing source of controversy as states seek greater regulation over the livestock industry. However, empirical studies addressing the determinants of public concern for farm-animal welfare are limited. Religion and politics, two institutional bases of attitudes, are rarely explored. Nor have…

  16. Update welzijnsprestaties biologische veehouderij = Update animal welfare status of organic farming in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruis, M.A.W.; Pinxterhuis, J.B.; Vrolijk, M.

    2010-01-01

    Organic farming intends to farm in a socially responsible manner, with attention for, among others, environment, climate, nature and landscape, food quality, income and animal welfare. This report focuses on animal welfare, as one of the sustainability themes. The existing knowledge about the

  17. Viewpoint of animal welfare organisations on the long distance transportation of farm animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Garcés

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA describes the viewpoint of non-governmental organisations (NGOs involved in the welfare of farm animals undergoing long distance transportation. The guiding principle is that the potential for poor animal welfare increases with the distance and duration of travel. Thus, farm animals should be slaughtered as close to their farm of origin as possible and trade in live animals for slaughter should be replaced with a trade in meat only. The challenge for reform in long distance transportation of animals is to raise community awareness about the issue without invoking the psychological phenomenon of cognitive dissonance, which has the paradoxical effect of reinforcing adverse behaviour. NGO activity in long distance transportation of animals is described for Australia, the United States and the European Union and aspirations elsewhere in the world are discussed. Importantly, animal welfare NGOs are now recognised by and have a voice in the forums of international bodies such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (Office International des Epizooties: OIE and the International Finance Corporation. Challenges for the future include the development of partnerships in global markets to replace the trade in live animals with a meat-only trade.

  18. [The attitude of German veterinarians towards farm animal welfare: results of a cluster analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, Heinke; Kemper, Nicole; Theuvsen, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    In recent years the issue of animal welfare in intensive livestock production systems has been subjected to increasing criticism from the broad public. Some groups in society ask for higher animal welfare standards and there is an increas- ing number of consumers who prefer meat from more animal friendly husbandry systems. An intense social debate on animal welfare has flared up in the recent past. Veterinarians are considered as experts for the assessment of animal welfare. Nevertheless they are rarely consulted in the current debate. Therefore, only little is known about their attitude towards animal welfare in livestock farming. Even for Germany, there is so far no comprehensive analysis about their atti- tudes towards animal welfare and animal welfare programs. In the present study, 433 veterinarians were questioned via an online survey. The results show that veterinarians have a very differentiated perception of the issue animal welfare. Four groups (clusters) which have different attitudes towards livestock farming, voluntary animal welfare programs, farm size and the effects of national animal welfare standards were identified.

  19. Farm Animal Welfare Influences on Markets and Consumer Attitudes in Latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Einar; Miranda-de la Lama, Genaro C.; Teixeira, Dayane Lemos

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, animal welfare has become an important element of sustainable production that has evolved along with the transformation of animal production systems. Consumer attitudes towards farm animal welfare are changing around the world, especially at emerging markets of Asia, Africa...... and Latin America. Survey-based research on consumer attitudes towards farm animal welfare has increased. However, the geographical coverage of studies on consumer attitudes and perceptions about farm animal welfare has mostly been limited to Europe, and North America. Until now, Latin American consumers......’ attitudes towards animal welfare have not been well studied. Despite the fact that Mexico, Chile and Brazil belong to the same region (according to international organizations), there are marked differences between these countries in terms of their economical and geographical characteristics among other...

  20. Adverse impact of industrial animal agriculture on the health and welfare of farmed animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Silva, Joyce

    2006-03-01

    Industrial animal agriculture is grounded in the concept of maximizing productivity and profit. Selective breeding for maximum productivity in one characteristic of the animal (e.g. milk yield in cows, or breast meat in broiler chickens) has resulted in genotypes and phenotypes that may predispose the animals to poor health and welfare. The conditions in which these individuals are kept may also frustrate many inherited behaviors that they are strongly motivated to perform. In order to curb the resulting harmful aberrant behaviors, such as feather-pecking in chickens, we sometimes resort to mutilating the animals. In many places chickens are routinely de-beaked by means of a hot metal guillotine. Compassion in World Farming (an international organization that promotes the humane treatment of farm animals) believes that it is unethical to treat sentient beings in such ways. We have a duty to respect farm animals' sentience by providing them with housing conditions that take their needs and wants into account, and by reverting to the use of dual-purpose, slower-growing breeds that have the potential for good welfare. Alternatives to current farming practices are available, and we owe it to the animals, and to our consciences, to pursue them.

  1. A pilot survey of farm animal welfare in Serbia, a country preparing for EU accession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phythian, Clare J; Mullan, Siobhan; Butterworth, Andrew; Lambton, Sarah; Ilić, Jelena; Burazerović, Jelena; Burazerović, Elvir; Leach, Katharine A

    2017-11-01

    The selection and field application of animal-based welfare measures for pigs, sheep, dairy cows and broilers was the first step towards the future development of welfare improvement schemes for Serbia - a country that is applying for EU accession. The aim of this pilot study was to: (1) test the feasibility of a protocol for monitoring farm animal welfare in Serbia, (2) ascertain preliminary data on animal-based outcomes of farm welfare and (3) gain insight into Serbian farmers' understanding of animal welfare as part of a wider project working towards inclusion of animal-based assessments in a 'higher welfare' voluntary assurance scheme. This study encompasses the first national survey of farm animal welfare in which animal-based outcomes were tested on 105 farms by a total of ten trained assessors. Data on the views and aspirations of the farmers from these 105 farms were also systematically gathered during face-to-face interviews. Existing animal-based measures for pigs, sheep, dairy cows and broilers that have been successfully applied and identified as valid, reliable and feasible measures in other countries, were found to be largely transferable. However, some on-farm protocols, previously used in other countries, had to be shortened for logistical reasons when used in Serbia. Our findings suggest that further refinement may be needed in order to allow local application of all measures. While the term 'animal welfare' has only recently been introduced into the Serbian language, seventy-three percent of farmers had heard of it. Overall, few positive associations were found between farmer satisfaction with animals' living conditions and animal-based data. Many farmers had aspirations to develop and expand their farms, which may potentially enhance animal welfare, but these farmers identified that financial and technical advice and support would be needed in order to achieve these goals.

  2. Mutilating Procedures, Management Practices, and Housing Conditions That May Affect the Welfare of Farm Animals: Implications for Welfare Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Nordquist

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of mutilating procedures, such as dehorning in cattle and goats and beak trimming in laying hens, are common in farm animal husbandry systems in an attempt to prevent or solve problems, such as injuries from horns or feather pecking. These procedures and other practices, such as early maternal separation, overcrowding, and barren housing conditions, raise concerns about animal welfare. Efforts to ensure or improve animal welfare involve adapting the animal to its environment, i.e., by selective breeding (e.g., by selecting “robust” animals adapting the environment to the animal (e.g., by developing social housing systems in which aggressive encounters are reduced to a minimum, or both. We propose adapting the environment to the animals by improving management practices and housing conditions, and by abandoning mutilating procedures. This approach requires the active involvement of all stakeholders: veterinarians and animal scientists, the industrial farming sector, the food processing and supply chain, and consumers of animal-derived products. Although scientific evidence about the welfare effects of current practices in farming such as mutilating procedures, management practices, and housing conditions is steadily growing, the gain in knowledge needs a boost through more scientific research. Considering the huge number of animals whose welfare is affected, all possible effort must be made to improve their welfare as quickly as possible in order to ban welfare-compromising procedures and practices as soon as possible.

  3. Mutilating Procedures, Management Practices, and Housing Conditions That May Affect the Welfare of Farm Animals: Implications for Welfare Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordquist, Rebecca E; van der Staay, Franz Josef; van Eerdenburg, Frank J C M; Velkers, Francisca C; Fijn, Lisa; Arndt, Saskia S

    2017-02-21

    A number of mutilating procedures, such as dehorning in cattle and goats and beak trimming in laying hens, are common in farm animal husbandry systems in an attempt to prevent or solve problems, such as injuries from horns or feather pecking. These procedures and other practices, such as early maternal separation, overcrowding, and barren housing conditions, raise concerns about animal welfare. Efforts to ensure or improve animal welfare involve adapting the animal to its environment, i.e., by selective breeding (e.g., by selecting "robust" animals) adapting the environment to the animal (e.g., by developing social housing systems in which aggressive encounters are reduced to a minimum), or both. We propose adapting the environment to the animals by improving management practices and housing conditions, and by abandoning mutilating procedures. This approach requires the active involvement of all stakeholders: veterinarians and animal scientists, the industrial farming sector, the food processing and supply chain, and consumers of animal-derived products. Although scientific evidence about the welfare effects of current practices in farming such as mutilating procedures, management practices, and housing conditions is steadily growing, the gain in knowledge needs a boost through more scientific research. Considering the huge number of animals whose welfare is affected, all possible effort must be made to improve their welfare as quickly as possible in order to ban welfare-compromising procedures and practices as soon as possible.

  4. On farm development of bedded pack dairy barns in The Netherlands : animal welfare and milk quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouweltjes, W.; Smolders, E.A.A.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes figures on animal health and welfare on three Dutch commercial dairy farms that house their cows in bedded pack barns. Moreover, some milk quality parameters and culling and replacement figures are reported.

  5. Dilemmas experienced by government veterinarians when responding professionally to farm animal welfare incidents in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, C; Kelly, P; Blake, M; Hanlon, A; More, S J

    2014-01-01

    This paper identifies the dilemmas experienced by government veterinarians during their investigations of farm animal welfare incidents that involve herd owner social, health, and/or psychological difficulties. The paper builds on exploratory qualitative research into the impact of these difficulties on farm animal welfare. The study used a qualitative research approach. Focus groups were conducted. In Ireland, an Early Warning System (EWS), which brings together relevant agencies, is in place to identify and prevent farm animal welfare problems before they become critical. This study is concerned with the experiences of government veterinarians who respond to farm animal welfare incidents. Specific focus is on incidents that involve herd owner social/psychological/health-related difficulties. In total, n=18 government veterinarians (representing 15 per cent of the population sample), all with a keen interest in farm animal welfare, participated. These were selected on the basis of their interest, experience, and involvement in farm animal welfare. One government veterinarian declined to participate. Four focus groups were conducted with government veterinarians. These took place in the south (S), south-west (SW), midlands (M), and north-west region of Ireland (NW). All 16 District Veterinary Offices (DVOs) were represented in the focus groups. The results reveal three professional dilemmas that exist for government veterinarians: (1) defining professional parameters; (2) determining the appropriate response; (3) involvement versus detachment. Participants reported not wanting any additional training. Instead, it was agreed that a formal bridge to social service providers who have the professional capability to respond appropriately and with confidence, was required. Clearly defined guidelines are required for government veterinarians in their encounters with farm animal welfare incidents where there is a complex human component. A coordinated multiagency approach

  6. Dilemmas experienced by government veterinarians when responding professionally to farm animal welfare incidents in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, C.; Kelly, P.; Blake, M.; Hanlon, A.; More, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This paper identifies the dilemmas experienced by government veterinarians during their investigations of farm animal welfare incidents that involve herd owner social, health, and/or psychological difficulties. The paper builds on exploratory qualitative research into the impact of these difficulties on farm animal welfare. Design The study used a qualitative research approach. Focus groups were conducted. Setting In Ireland, an Early Warning System (EWS), which brings together relevant agencies, is in place to identify and prevent farm animal welfare problems before they become critical. This study is concerned with the experiences of government veterinarians who respond to farm animal welfare incidents. Specific focus is on incidents that involve herd owner social/psychological/health-related difficulties. Participants In total, n=18 government veterinarians (representing 15 per cent of the population sample), all with a keen interest in farm animal welfare, participated. These were selected on the basis of their interest, experience, and involvement in farm animal welfare. One government veterinarian declined to participate. Four focus groups were conducted with government veterinarians. These took place in the south (S), south-west (SW), midlands (M), and north-west region of Ireland (NW). All 16 District Veterinary Offices (DVOs) were represented in the focus groups. Results The results reveal three professional dilemmas that exist for government veterinarians: (1) defining professional parameters; (2) determining the appropriate response; (3) involvement versus detachment. Participants reported not wanting any additional training. Instead, it was agreed that a formal bridge to social service providers who have the professional capability to respond appropriately and with confidence, was required. Conclusions Clearly defined guidelines are required for government veterinarians in their encounters with farm animal welfare incidents where there is a

  7. Consumers’ perception of farm animal welfare: an Italian and European perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Martelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of some recent European and Italian surveys on consumer perception of farm animal welfare are shown and discussed. Special attention is paid to consumers’ opinions about animal welfare attributes, differences among species (and across countries in terms of animal welfare perception, “animal-friendly” labels and willingness of purchasers to pay more for food (eggs deriving from animals raised under higher welfare conditions. From a general standpoint, consumers’ perception and knowledge of animal welfare varies among European countries and it is mainly affected by their economic and educational level. Among animal welfare attributes, a strong preference is given to the availability of spaces, and, in the case of Italian respondents, also to the absence of movement restrictions (chains or tethers. Laying hens (44%, followed by broilers (42% and pigs (28% are the categories/species for which rearing conditions in the EU are judged to need the highest improvement in terms of welfare. Italian consumers appear less concerned about swine welfare (17% than other Europeans. It is noteworthy that 12% of EU respondents states that all farmed animals need more welfare and/or protection. With respect to labels on food packaging, claims for animal welfare often fall within wider schemes for quality assurance and, with the exception of eggs and organic goods, in many countries the possibility of identifying animal friendly products and the knowledge of the specific legislation on farm animal protection are still limited. According to the Community Action Plan on the Protection and Welfare of Animals 2006-2010, the establishment of an EU label for animal welfare, based on standardised scientific indicators, is an option to be explored which could promote the consumption of products elaborated under high welfare standards thus facilitating the choice of consumers. The readiness of consumers to pay more for a higher animal welfare level has

  8. The relationship between animal welfare and economic performance at farm level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Arne; Czekaj, Tomasz Gerard; Forkman, Björn

    We propose a theoretical framework for the relationship between animal welfare and the economic performance of livestock farms. We empirically analyse this relationship based on a unique data set of randomly sampled Danish pig herds that includes information from unannounced inspections...... performance and animal welfare so that good farm managers are able to obey all animal welfare regulations and, at the same time, achieve a high economic performance....... of the compliance with the animal welfare legislation. We find large variations in economic performance indicators and animal welfare indicators. The relationship between these two indicators is rather weak, but tends to be slightly positive. We conclude that management has a major influence on both economic...

  9. Mutilating Procedures, Management Practices, and Housing Conditions That May Affect the Welfare of Farm Animals: Implications for Welfare Research

    OpenAIRE

    Nordquist, Rebecca E.; van der Staay, Franz Josef; van Eerdenburg, Frank J. C. M.; Velkers, Francisca C.; Fijn, Lisa; Arndt, Saskia S.

    2017-01-01

    Simple summary Intensive farming systems are confronted with a number of animal welfare issues such as injuries from horns in cattle and feather pecking in poultry. To solve these problems, mutilating procedures, such as dehorning in cattle and goats and beak trimming in laying hens, are applied routinely. These and other procedures such as early maternal separation, overcrowding, and barren housing conditions impair animal welfare. Scientific underpinning of the efficacy of these interventio...

  10. Provinciaal beleid en dierenwelzijn: analyse gericht op landbouwhuisdieren in Noord- Holland = Provincial policy and animal welfare: analysis for farm animals in the province of North Holland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenstra, F.R.

    2009-01-01

    Provincial States of North Holland wants to consider the options to stimulate proctices for better welfare among farm animals. This report describes these options for the major farm animal species in North Holland: sheep, dairy cattle, farmed fish and horses

  11. Indicators for on-farm self-assessment of animal welfare – Example: dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Zapf

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The “on-farm self-assessment” specified by the Animal Welfare Act from 2014 requires the livestock keeper to assess and monitor appropriate animal-based measures (“animal welfare indicators” with the aim to achieve higher individual responsibility of livestock keepers for the well-being of their animals. The assessment serves to raise awareness among livestock keepers and to enable them to identify any weaknesses existing. As the Animal Welfare Act does not contain any secondary legislation, there has so far been a lack of more precise provisions regarding the content and scope of the self-assessment system. In order to identify appropriate indicators which address the most important animal welfare problems known from practice, around 50 experts have selected indicators for assessing animal welfare with regard to reliability, validity and practicability. In on-farm self-assessment, the sets of largely animal-based indicators selected for cattle, pigs and poultry (hens and turkeys should be surveyed and evaluated as completely as possible. Integration into farm management systems is recommended. This paper exemplarily presents the set of indicators proposed for dairy cattle.

  12. How assessing relationships between emotions and cognition can improve farm animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissy, A; Lee, C

    2014-04-01

    The assessment of farm animal welfare requires a good understanding of the animals' affective experiences, including their emotions. Emotions are transient reactions to short-term triggering events and can accumulate to cause longer-lasting affective states, which represent good or bad welfare. Cognition refers to the mechanisms by which animals acquire, process, store and act on information from the environment. The objective of this paper is to highlight the two-way relationships between emotions and cognition that were originally identified in human psychology, and to describe in what ways these can be used to better access affective experiences in farm animals. The first section describes a recent experimental approach based on the cognitive processes that the animal uses to evaluate its environment. This approach offers an integrative and functional framework to assess the animal's emotions more effectively. The second section focuses on the influence of emotions on cognitive processes and describes recently developed methodologies based on that relationship, which may enable an assessment of long-term affective states in animals. The last section discusses the relevance of behavioural strategies to improve welfare in animals by taking their cognitive skills into account. Specific cognitive processes eliciting positive emotions will be emphasised. Research into affective states of animals is progressing rapidly and the ability to scientifically access animal feelings should contribute to the development of innovative farming practices based on the animals' sentience and their cognitive skills in order to truly improve their welfare.

  13. The welfare of farmed mink should be easy to assess in a correct way and lead to animal welfare improvements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Britt

    2015-01-01

    A three year PhD-study in assessment of mink welfare has contributed with methods and knowledge on how to get the welfare assessments as efficient and correct as possible and how to use the assessments in order to increase the welfare of the animals. The study found, that it might be possible...... periods have the same effect of date of assessment. The study also found that mink farmers are generally positive towards the structural way of working in stable schools and that including a discussion of the WelFur results related to the different farms in a stable school will make the feedback...

  14. Mexican consumers' perceptions and attitudes towards farm animal welfare and willingness to pay for welfare friendly meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-de la Lama, G C; Estévez-Moreno, L X; Sepúlveda, W S; Estrada-Chavero, M C; Rayas-Amor, A A; Villarroel, M; María, G A

    2017-03-01

    Increasing concerns about farm animal welfare have led to an increase in the availability of welfare-friendly-products (WFP), but little is known about how much more consumers are willing-to-pay (WTP) for WFP or about their buying trends in Latin America. In this study, a survey was given to 843 meat consumers in the city of Toluca, Mexico. The results show that consumers were interested in farm animal welfare issues and their ethical, sociological and economic implications, as in Europe. The people surveyed also conveyed a high level of empathy with animal feelings and emotions, however they clearly demanded more information and regulations related to farm animal welfare. The majority of respondents expressed that they were WTP more for properly certified WFP, but mostly based on the benefits in terms of product quality and human health. If the demand for WFP begins to increase in Mexico, the supply chain should consider a certification system to guarantee product origin based on current conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Is the profitability of Canadian freestall farms associated with their performance on an animal welfare assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villettaz Robichaud, M; Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M; Vasseur, E; Haley, D; Orsel, K; Pellerin, D

    2018-03-01

    Improving animal welfare on farm can sometimes require substantial financial investments. The Canadian dairy industry recently updated their Code of Practice for the care of dairy animals and created a mandatory on-farm animal care assessment (proAction Animal Care). Motivating dairy farmers to follow the recommendations of the Code of Practice and successfully meet the targets of the on-farm assessment can be enhanced by financial gain associated with improved animal welfare. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the association between meeting or not meeting several criteria from an on-farm animal welfare assessment and the farms' productivity and profitability indicators. Data from 130 freestall farms (20 using automatic milking systems) were used to calculate the results of the animal care assessment. Productivity and profitability indicators, including milk production, somatic cell count, reproduction, and longevity, were retrieved from the regional dairy herd improvement association databases. Economic margins over replacement costs were also calculated. Univariable and multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate the associations between welfare and productivity and profitability indicators. The proportion of automatic milking system farms that met the proAction criterion for hock lesions was higher compared with parlor farms and lower for the neck lesion criterion. The proAction criterion for lameness prevalence was significantly associated with average corrected milk production per year. Average days in milk (DIM) at first breeding acted as an effect modifier for this association, resulting in a steeper increase of milk production in farms that met the criterion with increasing average DIM at first breeding. The reproduction and longevity indicators studied were not significantly associated with meeting or not meeting the proAction criteria investigated in this study. Meeting the proAction lameness prevalence parameter was associated

  16. Role of oxytocin in improving the welfare of farm animals - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Siyu; Sato, Shusuke

    2017-04-01

    Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the welfare of farm animals, which have been evaluated using behavioral and physiological measures. However, so far, the measures have almost always been used to estimate poor welfare. In this review, firstly we focus on how oxytocin (OT) relates to positive social behavior, pleasure, and stress tolerance, and second on which management factors stimulate OT release. OT induces maternal and affiliative behaviors and has an anti-stress effect. Further, OT is produced during enjoyable events, and has positive feedback on its own release as well. Therefore, to some extent, the relationship of OT to positive normal behavior was mutually beneficial-heightened OT concentration owing to comfortable rearing conditions induces positive social behavior, which in turn may increase OT concentration. Hence, studies on animal welfare should pay more attention to increasing comfort and the stress tolerance, rather than only focusing on when stress occurs in farm animals.

  17. An on-farm investigation of beef suckler herds using an animal welfare index (AWI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Mickael; Prendiville, Daniel J; Crowe, Mark A; Veissier, Isabelle; Earley, Bernadette

    2010-12-13

    Beef suckler farms (194 farms throughout 13 counties) were assessed once with housed cattle and once with cattle at grass using an animal welfare index (AWI). Twenty-three of the 194 farms were revisited a year later and re-evaluated using the AWI and the Tier-Gerechtheits-Index 35L/2000 (TGI35L/2000). Thirty-three indicators were collected in five categories: locomotion (5 indicators); social interactions (between animals) (7), flooring (5), environment (7) and Stockpersonship (9). Three indicators relating to the size of the farm were also collected.Improving animal welfare is an increasingly important aspect of livestock production systems predominantly due to increased consumer concern about the source of animal products. The objectives were (i) to evaluate animal welfare of Irish beef suckler herds using an animal welfare index (AWI), (ii) to examine correlations between parameters, how they influence the AWI and investigate the applicability of the parameters used, (iii) to investigate the impact of the activity of the farmer (full-time or part-time), the interest of the farmer and the number of animals on the AWI. The mean AWI was 65% and ranged from 54% to 83%. The grazing period represented 16.5% of the total points of the AWI. Seventy percent of the farms were rated as "Very Good" or "Excellent". There was no difference (P > 0.05) in AWI between full-time and part-time farmers. Part-time farmers had greater (P = 0.01) "social interactions": calving (P = 0.03) and weaning (P animals (P = 0.03) and their animals had less lameness (P = 0.01). The number of animals on-farm and the interest of the Stockperson were negatively and positively correlated (P = 0.001), respectively, with the AWI. A hierarchical classification was performed to examine how the indicators influenced the AWI. The AWI was easily applicable for an on-farm evaluation of welfare. The Stockpersonship was an important factor in determining the AWI (11% of the total variation) more

  18. Public morals in private hands? : a study into the evolving path of farm animal welfare governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toschi Maciel, C.

    2015-01-01

    Executive summary

    The advancement of regulatory instruments providing for farm animal welfare measures has been marked by various political and regulatory constraints in both domestic and international settings.In an attempt to overcome some of these constraints, a number of

  19. The concept of animal welfare at the interface between producers and scientists: the example of organic pig farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeb, Christine

    2011-06-01

    In organic farming animal welfare is one important aspect included in the internationally agreed organic principles of health, ecology, fairness and care (IFOAM 2006), reflecting expectation of consumers and farmers. The definition of organic animal welfare includes-besides traditional terms of animal welfare-'regeneration' and 'naturalness'. Organic animal welfare assessment needs to reflect this and use complex parameters, include natural behaviour and a systemic view. Furthermore, various parties with seemingly conflicting interests are involved, causing ethical dilemmas, such as the use of nose rings for outdoor sows (impaired animal welfare vs. destruction of humus). Solutions can only be found when foundational concepts are translated and applied to practical situations. On-farm animal welfare assessment and implementation of improvement strategies are increasingly relevant scientific areas. They combine on-farm welfare assessment, identification of key problem areas and connected risk factors. Constant communication between all parties is crucial for success. Animal health and welfare planning is one application of this approach, which was carried out on Austrian organic pig farms as well as organic dairy farms in seven European countries. The projects included welfare assessment, feedback and benchmarking as a tool for communication between farmers, advisors and scientists. Finally goals were set by the farmer and improvement strategies applicable to organic farming were implemented. This included prevention of disease by management strategies instead of routine treatment with pharmaceutical products. It appeared that next to problem structuring, multidisciplinary problem solving demands good communications skills to relate animal welfare science to value reflections.

  20. [Voluntary testing procedures of farm animal housing equipment according to the Animal Welfare Act of 1998].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, D; Knierim, U; von Borell, E; Herrmann, H; Koch, L; Müller, C; Rauch, H W; Sachser, N; Schwabenbauer, K; Zerbe, F

    1999-04-01

    Before its broad application in practice, housing equipment should be tested, in particular with regard to animal welfare. The differing positions of the German Federal Council (Bundesrat) and the German Federal Parliament (Bundestag), whether such testing should be mandatory or voluntary, have been conciliated in the amended animal welfare act by empowering the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries (BML) to fix official standards for voluntary testing procedures by regulation. On request of the BML, a report as scientific basis for a draft regulation is currently prepared by the scientific animal welfare committee of the German Agricultural Society (DLG). The scientific animal welfare committee has been appointed by the DLG in order to provide support in the effort to strengthen animal welfare aspects in the DLG-utility testing procedure of housing equipment, which is in place since 1953. The committee elaborates standards concerning testing methods, assessment criteria and the necessary size of investigations. As required, the scientific animal welfare committee may support the DLG-testing bodies in the implementation of the animal welfare part of the testing procedure. It will, moreover, be involved in the welfare assessment based on the testing results. The amendments of the already established testing procedure will help to fulfill the general requirements on an acceptable animal welfare testing procedure. While keeping in mind that there are certain limits in what can be achieved by a voluntary testing procedure, the enhanced consideration of animal welfare aspects within the DLG-utility testing procedure has the advantage to be relatively unbureaucratic and in line with EU legislation, and is, therefore, an appropriate tool for a contibrution to improved animal welfare in livestock housing.

  1. The effect of steps to promote higher levels of farm animal welfare across the EU. Societal versus animal scientists’ perceptions of animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Averós, X.; Aparicio, M.A.; Ferrari, P.; Guy, J.H.; Hubbard, C.; Schmid, O.; Ilieski, V.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Information about animal welfare standards and initiatives from eight European countries was collected, grouped, and compared to EU welfare standards to detect those aspects beyond minimum welfare levels demanded by EU welfare legislation. Literature was reviewed to determine the scientific

  2. Attitudes of veterinary students at one US college toward factors relating to farm animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Emily D; Mills, Daniel S; Houpt, Katherine A

    2005-01-01

    The American Veterinary Medical Association's policy states that veterinarians are obliged to promote good animal welfare. In order to establish how compatible the attitudes of future veterinarians in one North American Veterinary College were with the promotion of good animal welfare, students were surveyed with respect to their opinions about the humaneness of commonly employed agricultural procedures (e.g., hot branding) and their beliefs about the cognitive ability of various domesticated species. A Web-based questionnaire was made available to all veterinary students at Cornell University. Descriptive summary data were collected with regards to students' perceptions of the cognitive abilities of six different domesticated species. Students were also asked if they considered certain agricultural procedures to be humane for each of these species. The data were analyzed with respect to students' future career goals. Chi-squared tests and nonparametric statistical techniques were used to examine differences between species and desired career goals. Veterinary students were more likely to believe that dogs and cats had cognitive abilities than farm animals did. Students considered various procedures to be more humane for farm mammals than for dogs and cats. Students aspiring to work with food animals considered more procedures to be humane for all species than did students aspiring to work with small animals. The inconsistency of students' attitudes for different species has implications for veterinary education and animal welfare. Scientific fields integral to understanding animal welfare may need to be emphasized within the veterinary educational curriculum.

  3. An on-farm investigation of beef suckler herds using an animal welfare index (AWI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veissier Isabelle

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beef suckler farms (194 farms throughout 13 counties were assessed once with housed cattle and once with cattle at grass using an animal welfare index (AWI. Twenty-three of the 194 farms were revisited a year later and re-evaluated using the AWI and the Tier-Gerechtheits-Index 35L/2000 (TGI35L/2000. Thirty-three indicators were collected in five categories: locomotion (5 indicators; social interactions (between animals (7, flooring (5, environment (7 and Stockpersonship (9. Three indicators relating to the size of the farm were also collected. Improving animal welfare is an increasingly important aspect of livestock production systems predominantly due to increased consumer concern about the source of animal products. The objectives were (i to evaluate animal welfare of Irish beef suckler herds using an animal welfare index (AWI, (ii to examine correlations between parameters, how they influence the AWI and investigate the applicability of the parameters used, (iii to investigate the impact of the activity of the farmer (full-time or part-time, the interest of the farmer and the number of animals on the AWI. Results The mean AWI was 65% and ranged from 54% to 83%. The grazing period represented 16.5% of the total points of the AWI. Seventy percent of the farms were rated as "Very Good" or "Excellent". There was no difference (P > 0.05 in AWI between full-time and part-time farmers. Part-time farmers had greater (P = 0.01 "social interactions": calving (P = 0.03 and weaning (P Conclusion The AWI was easily applicable for an on-farm evaluation of welfare. The Stockpersonship was an important factor in determining the AWI (11% of the total variation more specifically, the interest of the farmer. Part and full-time farming did not differ (P > 0.05 in AWI scores. This method could, with further development, be used in countries with both intensive and/or extensive production systems and would require substantially less resources

  4. Cool roofs with high solar reflectance for the welfare of dairy farming animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santunione, G.; Libbra, A.; Muscio, A.

    2017-01-01

    Ensuring livestock welfare in dairy farming promotes the production capacity of the animals in terms of both quantity and quality. In welfare conditions, the animals can produce at their full potential. For the dairy cattle the most debilitating period of the year is summer, when the stress arising from overheating induces physiological alterations that compromise the animals’ productivity. In this study, the summer discomfort of dairy animals is primarily quantified and the production loss is quantified versus the Temperature Humidity Index (THI), which correlates the values of temperature and relative humidity to the thermal stress. In order to reduce or eliminate such thermal stress, it is then proposed to coat the roof of the stables with a paint having high solar reflectance and thermal emittance, that is a cool roof product. This type of roofing solution can considerably limit the overheating of stables caused by solar radiation, thus providing a positive impact on the animals’ welfare and improving significantly their productivity in summer.

  5. Survey on animal welfare in nine hundred and forty three Italian dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Peli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The final results of a survey on welfare of dairy cows in 7 Italian Regions are presented. The study has been performed on 943 farms in southern and central Italy to highlight critical and strong points concerning animal welfare in dairy systems, by using direct and indirect criteria. To assess animal welfare, a checklist based on 303 parameters has been used; indirect criteria have been organised in 5 general areas concerning Farm management, Farming and housing systems, Environment, Feeding, Health and hygiene; other resource-based criteria were considered in 5 specific areas for the different productive categories (lactating cows, dry cows, pregnant heifers, cows comeback, calves up to 8 weeks and calves between 8 weeks and 6 months; finally, an Indicators section focused on animal based criteria. Parameters have been valued as conforming or not conforming on the basis of the current lesgislation on animal welfare, and in the other cases by the use of a semi-quantitative scale such as poor, satisfactory, good or very good referring to scientific literature and reports by the Animal Health and Animal Welfare panel of the European Food Safety Authority. Among the 249 examined parameters (54 criteria have been valued as descriptive, 15 showed a failure prevalence inferior to 1%; for the remaining parameters, the overall non-compliance prevalence on the whole sample ranged from a maximum of 67% to a minimum of 2%, showing an inverse proportionality correlation with the herd size. One hundred and ten parameters were judged as poor (96 or not in compliance with the rules in force (14 in more than 10% of the examined herds. The most common non-compliance aspects detected in the different areas concern calves management, staff training and prophylaxis programmes; staff training levels were inversely related to failure prevalences in almost all areas. The combination of direct and indirect criteria has allowed to fully embrace recommendations on the

  6. FARM ANIMAL WELFARE LEGAL REQUIREMENTS AND TRADITIONAL PRACTICES: A CASE STUDY OF WELANIMAL PARTNER COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZEHRA BOZKURT

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available According to the Amsterdam Treaty, animals are sentient creatures and animal welfare requirements should be precisely met while preparing and implementing the Commission laws. Accomplishing this, cultural, religious and regional characteristics should be considered. However, more and more regulations and laws are continuously introduced in Europe and worldwide. Ongoing WELANIMAL Project was financed by EU Commission adapting of vocational training products and results of training tools of WELFOOD related to the animal welfareenvironment- food quality interactions is being enriched with consideration of cultural, socio-economic and religious approaches in order to determine a common work definition for all sectorial workers having different moral and social values on the subject of animal welfare and food safety Central and South-eastern Europe region. Although there is slight differences, national legislation in partner countries of EU in Project were harmonious with legal framework in EU regarding for all farm species. It is expected that three draft regulations in compliance with legal requirements animal protection in farms and during transportation and slaughtering and killing in Turkey, as a candidate country to membership into EU, in 2009. Also, due to in participating countries to the Project have ethnicity, history, tradition and religious structure show a great diversity it has been guessed that welfare concept which is a moral issue can be effected by people’s cultural, religious and social composition. In the WELANIMAL Project, the effects of socio-cultural, religious and regional historical differences of workers and consumers within animal production chain on understanding of animal welfare concepts are being analysed. Furthermore in the light of obtained data a common vocational animal welfare definition and animal welfare, food quality and environment interaction will be evaluated. Through the Project web page (www

  7. Is the profitability of Canadian tiestall farms associated with their performance on an animal welfare assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villettaz Robichaud, M; Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M; Vasseur, E; Haley, D B; Pellerin, D

    2018-03-01

    In order for dairy producers to comply with animal welfare recommendations, financial investments may be required. In Canada, a new dairy animal care assessment program is currently being implemented under the proAction Initiative to determine the extent to which certain aspects of the Code of Practice are being followed and to assess the care and well-being of dairy cattle on farm. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the association between meeting the proAction animal-based and the electric trainer placement criteria and certain aspects of productivity and profitability on tiestall dairy farms. The results of a previous on-farm cow comfort assessment conducted on 100 Canadian tiestall farms were used to simulate the results of a part of the proAction Animal Care assessment on these farms. Each farm's productivity and profitability data were retrieved from the regional dairy herd improvement associations. Univariable and multivariable linear regressions were used to evaluate the associations between meeting these proAction criteria and the farms' average yearly: corrected milk production, somatic cell count (SCC), calving interval, number of breedings/cow, culling rate, prevalence of cows in third or higher lactation, and margins per cow and per kilogram of quota calculated over replacement costs. The association between milk production and the proAction lameness criterion was moderated through an interaction with the milk production genetic index which resulted in an increase in milk production per year with increasing genetic index that was steeper in farms that met the proAction lameness criterion compared with farms that did not. Meeting the proAction body condition score criterion was associated with reduced SCC and meeting the proAction electric trainer placement criterion was associated with SCC through an interaction with the farms' average SCC genetic index. The increase in SCC with increasing SCC genetic index was milder in farms that met this

  8. ASSURING QUALITY IN FARM ANIMAL WELFARE CURRICULA: THE CASE OF WELFOOD CURRICULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVANGELIA N. SOSSIDOU

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to analyze virtual learning environments and to provide a framework for assuring quality in farm animal welfare curricula. The framework is constructed according to the experimental learning for a case study developed in the context of the Leonardo da Vinci Community Vocational Training Action Pilot Project entitled “WELFOOD-Promoting quality assurance in animal welfare-environment-food quality interaction studies through upgraded e-Learning”. WELFOOD addressed objectives such as improvement and competencies of the skills in vocational training to promote employability and facilitate integration and reintegration in terms of capabilities and knowledge, needed for improved technologies in animal husbandry and food industry.

  9. Invited review: Animal-based indicators for on-farm welfare assessment for dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battini, M; Vieira, A; Barbieri, S; Ajuda, I; Stilwell, G; Mattiello, S

    2014-11-01

    This paper reviews animal-based welfare indicators to develop a valid, reliable, and feasible on-farm welfare assessment protocol for dairy goats. The indicators were considered in the light of the 4 accepted principles (good feeding, good housing, good health, appropriate behavior) subdivided into 12 criteria developed by the European Welfare Quality program. We will only examine the practical indicators to be used on-farm, excluding those requiring the use of specific instruments or laboratory analysis and those that are recorded at the slaughterhouse. Body condition score, hair coat condition, and queuing at the feed barrier or at the drinker seem the most promising indicators for the assessment of the "good feeding" principle. As to "good housing," some indicators were considered promising for assessing "comfort around resting" (e.g., resting in contact with a wall) or "thermal comfort" (e.g., panting score for the detection of heat stress and shivering score for the detection of cold stress). Several indicators related to "good health," such as lameness, claw overgrowth, presence of external abscesses, and hair coat condition, were identified. As to the "appropriate behavior" principle, different criteria have been identified: agonistic behavior is largely used as the "expression of social behavior" criterion, but it is often not feasible for on-farm assessment. Latency to first contact and the avoidance distance test can be used as criteria for assessing the quality of the human-animal relationship. Qualitative behavior assessment seems to be a promising indicator for addressing the "positive emotional state" criterion. Promising indicators were identified for most of the considered criteria; however, no valid indicator has been identified for "expression of other behaviors." Interobserver reliability has rarely been assessed and warrants further attention; in contrast, short-term intraobserver reliability is frequently assessed and some studies consider mid

  10. Use and non-use values as motivational construct dimensions for farm animal welfare: impacts on the economic outcome for the farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, H; Lagerkvist, C J; Azar, G

    2018-01-24

    This study explored how farmers' motivation in terms of use values and/or non-use values to work with farm animal welfare are associated with the economic outcome for the farm. Use values in farm animal welfare refer to economic value derived from productivity and profitability considerations. Non-use values in farm animal welfare refer to economic value derived from good animal welfare, irrespective of the use the farmer derives from the animal, currently or in the future. The analysis was based on detailed information about the income statements of a sample of Swedish dairy farmers, obtained from the Swedish Farm Economic Survey, complemented with survey information about their perceived use and non-use values in farm animal welfare. The findings suggest that farm economic outcome is significantly associated with motivation in terms of use values, but not so much with motivation in terms of non-use values. This is interesting from a policy point of view, because it indicates that farmers with different approaches to farm animal welfare may experience different economic outcomes for their farms. Findings can, for instance, be used to strengthen farmers' engagement in various private quality assurance standards, which generally focus on values of non-use type, by pointing to that realisation of such values will not impair the economic outcome of the farms. Moreover, findings also suggest that farmers' economic incentives for engagement in such standards may need to be further strengthened in order to become more attractive, as findings point to that a focus on non-use values generally is not associated with more favourable economic outcomes.

  11. Pig husbandry in a changing social and economic environment : societal attitudes, farm economics and animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, T.J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Dutch pig sector is attempting to address citizens’ concerns about animal welfare practices. Measures to improve animal welfare that were introduced by the pig sector did, however, not have the desired effect on citizens’ attitudes toward pig husbandry. This indicates that

  12. Elements of societal perception of farm animal welfare: A quantitative study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, B.K.; Oosting, S.J.; Bock, B.B.

    2006-01-01

    To study societal perception of animal welfare in The Netherlands and to search for intervention possibilities to influence this perception, 1074 randomly selected Dutch respondents completed a questionnaire on animal welfare. We analysed 15 propositions (4-point Likert scale) and through factor

  13. Setting the farm animal welfare scene in North America /ESTABELECENDO O CENÁRIO DE BEM-ESTAR ANIMAL NA AMÉRICA DO NORTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNA K. JOHNSON

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe main areas of interest that this paper will address are to, set the scene on what animal welfare is, the schools that one can subscribe and how this could influence the direction that farm animal welfare could go. Second, to provide an overview on some of the critical farm animal welfare events that have occurred over the past 10 years in North America and finally to detail the legislative events; past and future that will affect farm animal welfare. Animal welfare is not a term that arose in science to express a scientific concept; rather it arose in western civilization through society to express ethical concern regarding the treatment of animals. There are three “schools of welfare”, the first school is feeling-based, the second is functioning-based and the third is nature-based. Over the past decade there has been an escalation of welfare related events inNorth America, ranging from agribusiness and marketing through to humane and animal rights groups. These events include under cover investigations that have been conducted on farm and in plants. There have been numerous campaigns against fast food chain restaurants and more recently humane and rights groups have purchased shares into these companies to voice their opinions and to have a vote. In addition there has been a push for assuring on farm animal welfarethrough a plethora of assessment, certification and third party auditing programs. More recently, successful legislative initiatives have altered the way producers are able to house farm animals in several states and in 2005 there was an update to the 28 hour rule. In conclusion, all individuals involved in keeping animals for food have a huge responsibility in making sure that their animals are housed, raised, transported and processed humanely. In addition agribusinesses will need to show increasing accountability back to their customers and consumers that farm animal welfare is of critical

  14. Animal welfare in a global perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bracke, M.B.M.

    2009-01-01

    Global survey of animal-welfare regulations, practices and perceptions, with case studies on poultry meat from Brazil and Thailand, eggs from India and the USA, welfare regulations of farmed fish and welfare aspects related to (perceived) overpopulation of wildlife

  15. Impact of animal health and welfare planning on medicine use, herd health and production in European organic dairy farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivemeyer, S; Smolders, G; Brinkmann, J

    2012-01-01

    medicine use through animal health and welfare planning (AHWP). Medicine use (excluding complementary treatments such as homeopathic remedies) was assessed as the total number of treatments and as the number of treatments of various disease categories (udder, fertility, metabolism, locomotion and others......Achieving and maintaining high herd health and welfare status and low veterinary medicine inputs are important aims in organic livestock farming. Therefore, an on-farm intervention study (CORE Organic ANIPLAN) was conducted on 128 organic dairy farms in seven European countries aiming at minimising...... be regarded as a feasible approach to minimising medicine use without the impairment of production and herd health under several organic dairy farming conditions in Europe....

  16. Paving the way for farm animal welfare in international relations: an EU–Brazil case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maciel, C.; Mol, A.P.J.; Bock, B.B.

    2015-01-01

    As a sensitive area in international trade, animal welfare measures have encountered resistance in negotiations at the World Trade Organization (WTO). Consequently, alternative avenues have been pursued to reach international trade policy convergence. To further understand the contemporary trade

  17. What Difference Does a Visit Make? Changes in Animal Welfare Perceptions after Interested Citizens Tour a Dairy Farm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Ann Ventura

    Full Text Available Citizens' concerns about farm animal welfare are often dismissed on the assumption that they are not well informed about farming practices. We conducted exploratory surveys of interested citizens (n = 50 before and after a self-guided tour of a 500-head dairy farm. 'Before' survey questions explored perceptions, concerns, and values about dairy cattle farming and welfare, in addition to a short knowledge-based quiz on dairy cattle husbandry. An 'after' survey explored the extent to which these constructs shifted after the tour. Before, most participants correctly answered quiz questions about general feeding and housing practices, but scores were low on questions about specific practices such as cow-calf separation. Participants considered several elements as necessary for a 'good' life for dairy cattle: fresh food and water, pasture access, gentle handling, space, shelter, hygiene, fresh air and sunshine, social companions, absence of stress, health, and safety from predators. These elements reflect a diverse conception of animal welfare that incorporates values for physical and mental well-being, natural living, and humane care. The visit had a mixed effect on perceptions of whether dairy cows had a 'good' life, improving perceptions for a quarter of participants, worsening perceptions in a third, with no shift in the remaining participants. The visit appeared to mitigate some concerns (e.g., provision of adequate food and water, gentle humane care while reinforcing or eliciting others (e.g., lack of pasture access, early cow-calf separation. Moreover, animal welfare-relevant values held by participants (e.g., natural living, care appeared to play an important role in influencing perceptions of farm practices. These results suggest that education and exposure to livestock farming may resolve certain concerns, but other concerns will likely persist, especially when practices conflict with deeply held values around animal care.

  18. What Difference Does a Visit Make? Changes in Animal Welfare Perceptions after Interested Citizens Tour a Dairy Farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Beth Ann; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G; Wittman, Hannah; Weary, Daniel M

    2016-01-01

    Citizens' concerns about farm animal welfare are often dismissed on the assumption that they are not well informed about farming practices. We conducted exploratory surveys of interested citizens (n = 50) before and after a self-guided tour of a 500-head dairy farm. 'Before' survey questions explored perceptions, concerns, and values about dairy cattle farming and welfare, in addition to a short knowledge-based quiz on dairy cattle husbandry. An 'after' survey explored the extent to which these constructs shifted after the tour. Before, most participants correctly answered quiz questions about general feeding and housing practices, but scores were low on questions about specific practices such as cow-calf separation. Participants considered several elements as necessary for a 'good' life for dairy cattle: fresh food and water, pasture access, gentle handling, space, shelter, hygiene, fresh air and sunshine, social companions, absence of stress, health, and safety from predators. These elements reflect a diverse conception of animal welfare that incorporates values for physical and mental well-being, natural living, and humane care. The visit had a mixed effect on perceptions of whether dairy cows had a 'good' life, improving perceptions for a quarter of participants, worsening perceptions in a third, with no shift in the remaining participants. The visit appeared to mitigate some concerns (e.g., provision of adequate food and water, gentle humane care) while reinforcing or eliciting others (e.g., lack of pasture access, early cow-calf separation). Moreover, animal welfare-relevant values held by participants (e.g., natural living, care) appeared to play an important role in influencing perceptions of farm practices. These results suggest that education and exposure to livestock farming may resolve certain concerns, but other concerns will likely persist, especially when practices conflict with deeply held values around animal care.

  19. On-farm animal welfare assessment in beef bulls: consistency over time of single measures and aggregated Welfare Quality(®) scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, M K; Schulze Westerath, H; Knierim, U; Tessitore, E; Cozzi, G; Winckler, C

    2014-03-01

    Consistency over time of (on-farm) animal welfare assessment systems forms part of reliability, meaning that results of the assessment should be representative of the longer-term welfare state of the farm as long as the housing and management conditions have not changed considerably. This is especially important if assessments are to be used for certification purposes. It was the aim of the present study to investigate consistency over time of the Welfare Quality(®) (WQ(®)) assessment system for fattening cattle at single measure level, aggregated criterion and principle scores, and overall classification across short-term (1 month) and longer-term periods (6 months). We hypothesized that consistency over time of aggregated criterion and principle scores is higher than that of single measures. Consistency was also expected to be lower with longer intervals between assessments. Data were obtained using the WQ(®) protocol for fattening cattle during three visits (months 0, 1 and 7) on 63 beef farms in Austria, Germany and Italy. Only data from farms where no major changes in housing and management had taken place were considered for analysis. At the single measure level, Spearman rank correlations between visits were >0.7 and variance was lower within farms than between farms for six and two of 19 measures after 1 month and 6 months, respectively. After aggregation of single measures into criterion and principle scores, five and two of 10 criteria and three and one of four principles were found reliable after 1 and 6 months, respectively. At the WQ(®) principle level, this was the case for three and one of four principles. Seventy-nine per cent and 75% of the farms were allocated to the same overall welfare category after 1 month and 6 months. Possible reasons for a lack of consistency are seasonal effects or short-term fluctuations that occur under normal farm conditions, low prevalence of clinical measures and probably insufficient sample size, whereas poor

  20. Mutilating procedures, management practices, and housing conditions that may affect the welfare of farm animals : Implications for welfare research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nordquist, Rebecca E; van der Staay, Franz Josef; van Eerdenburg, Frank J C M; Velkers, Francisca C; Fijn, Lisa; Arndt, Saskia S

    2017-01-01

    A number of mutilating procedures, such as dehorning in cattle and goats and beak trimming in laying hens, are common in farm animal husbandry systems in an attempt to prevent or solve problems, such as injuries from horns or feather pecking. These procedures and other practices, such as early

  1. A Prototype Tool to Enable Farmers to Measure and Improve the Welfare Performance of the Farm Animal Enterprise: The Unified Field Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colditz, Ian G.; Ferguson, Drewe M.; Collins, Teresa; Matthews, Lindsay; Hemsworth, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Benchmarking is a tool widely used in agricultural industries that harnesses the experience of farmers to generate knowledge of practices that lead to better on-farm productivity and performance. We propose, by analogy with production performance, a method for measuring the animal welfare performance of an enterprise and describe a tool for farmers to monitor and improve the animal welfare performance of their business. A general framework is outlined for assessing and monitoring risks to animal welfare based on measures of animals, the environment they are kept in and how they are managed. The tool would enable farmers to continually improve animal welfare. Abstract Schemes for the assessment of farm animal welfare and assurance of welfare standards have proliferated in recent years. An acknowledged short-coming has been the lack of impact of these schemes on the welfare standards achieved on farm due in part to sociological factors concerning their implementation. Here we propose the concept of welfare performance based on a broad set of performance attributes of an enterprise and describe a tool based on risk assessment and benchmarking methods for measuring and managing welfare performance. The tool termed the Unified Field Index is presented in a general form comprising three modules addressing animal, resource, and management factors. Domains within these modules accommodate the principle conceptual perspectives for welfare assessment: biological functioning; emotional states; and naturalness. Pan-enterprise analysis in any livestock sector could be used to benchmark welfare performance of individual enterprises and also provide statistics of welfare performance for the livestock sector. An advantage of this concept of welfare performance is its use of continuous scales of measurement rather than traditional pass/fail measures. Through the feedback provided via benchmarking, the tool should help farmers better engage in on-going improvement of

  2. Applying animal-based welfare assessments on New Zealand dairy farms: feasibility and a comparison with United Kingdom data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laven, R A; Fabian, J

    2016-07-01

    To assess the feasibility of applying animal-based welfare assessments developed for use in Europe on New Zealand dairy farms; in particular, to identify measures which could be evaluated during a single visit at milking time alongside whole herd locomotion scoring. A protocol for animal welfare assessment, developed in the United Kingdom (UK), was evaluated. Measures that were suitable for use on pasture-based dairy farms in New Zealand were then assessed for practicability on 59 farms across New Zealand, during and immediately after milking, alongside whole herd locomotion scoring. Where data were collected the results were compared to those from a UK study of 53 dairy farms. Thirteen observations of the physical condition of cows were considered suitable for measurement, excluding observations related to hock lesions as they are rarely observed on pasture-based farms. Five of these measures were not assessed as there was not time to do so during milking alongside whole herd locomotion scoring. Thus, the prevalence of dirty flanks, hind limbs and udders, dull coat, thick hairy coat, significant hair loss, very fat cows (body condition score (BCS) ≥7 on 1-10 scale) and very thin cows (BCS≤3), were recorded. Three measures of behaviour were considered suitable for measurement on-farm, but only locomotion score was practicable and was measured. Farmer-estimates for the incidence of mastitis, lameness, sudden death, milk fever and other diseases were also obtained.Overall, dirty flanks, dirty udders and estimated milk fever incidence were more prevalent in this study than in the UK. The prevalence of thin and fat cows, lame cows and estimated mastitis incidence were much lower in the present study than on UK farms. Animal-based assessments can be used on dairy farms in New Zealand, but need to be modified from those developed for housed cows.Welfare on these farms was generally good compared to those in the UK, but these results need to be confirmed on more farms

  3. Strategies to promote farm animal welfare in Latin America and their effects on carcass and meat quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Mateus J R Paranhos; Huertas, Stella M; Gallo, Carmen; Dalla Costa, Osmar A

    2012-11-01

    Several initiatives, including research and development, increasing stakeholders' awareness and application of legislation and recommendation, have been carried out in Latin America to promote animal welfare and meat quality. Most activities focused on the impact of pre-slaughter conditions (facilities, equipment and handling procedures) on animal welfare and meat quality. The results are encouraging; data from Brazil, Chile and Uruguay showed that the application of the improved pre-slaughter handling practices reduced aggressive handling and the incidence of bruised carcasses at slaughter in cattle and pigs. These outcomes stimulated some to apply animal welfare concepts in livestock handling within the meat production chain as shown by the increasing demand for personnel training on the best. To attend this demand is important to expand local studies on farm animal welfare and to set up (or maintain) an efficient system for knowledge transfer to all stakeholders in the Latin America meat production chains. However, it is clear that to promote the long-term progress in this field is important to deliver practical solutions, assuring that they match the technical and financial conditions of those who are the target of training programs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Animal Welfare Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Jayson L. Lusk; F. Bailey Norwood

    2011-01-01

    This article highlights some key areas where economics can contribute to the current debate about animal welfare. Production economics reveals that producers will not maximize animal welfare, even if animal well-being is highly correlated with output. Welfare economics raises thorny issues about the double-counting of benefits when humans exhibit altruism towards animals, while public economics uncovers potential market failures and possible solutions. Consumer economics provides a means of d...

  5. The problem of pain in farm animals and its effects on animal welfare and certain economic results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denaburski, J; Tworkowska, A

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the nature of a primary and secondary pain in domestic animals and reasons for its occurrence. The above-mentioned problem is very important, as pain, apart from causing animal suffering, can also bring about significant economic losses. Attempts to prevent and limit pain fulfill expectations of meat consumers from many countries, who are interested in humanitarian aspects of the relationship between people and animals. The clients are looking forward to obtain products from animals when they are convinced that a high level of welfare has been assured on each stage of their production.

  6. Animal Welfare: What's coming down the pipe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concern for farm animal welfare is not a new concept. However, increased public pressure and an increasingly entangled global economy are effecting change across the world. The conversation about farm animal welfare is difficult because the world’s population has become disconnected from agricultur...

  7. Impact of animal health and welfare planning on medicine use, herd health and production in European organic dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivemeyer, S.; Smolders, E.A.A.; Brinkmann, J.; Gratzer, E.; Hansen, B.; Henriksen, B.I.F.; Huber, J.; Leeb, C.; March, S.; Mejdell, C.; Nicholas, P.; Roderick, S.; Stöger, E.; Vaarst, M.; Whistance, L.K.; Winckler, C.; Walkenhorst, M.

    2012-01-01

    Achieving and maintaining high herd health and welfare status and low veterinary medicine inputs are important aims in organic livestock farming. Therefore, an on-farm intervention study (CORE Organic ANIPLAN) was conducted on 128 organic dairy farms in seven European countries aiming at minimising

  8. Policing Farm Animal Welfare in Federated Nations: The Problem of Dual Federalism in Canada and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Terry L.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In any federation of states, societal oversight of farm animal welfare (agriculture policy arena, prevention) is more difficult to achieve than providing punishment of individuals abusing of companion animals (post injury). The constitutional division of powers and historical policy related to animal agriculture and non-government organization policing cruelty of companion animals may be entrenched. With changing societal expectations of agriculture production, each level of government may hesitate to take the lead, due to financial or ideological beliefs and simultaneously, obstruct the other government level from taking the lead, based on constitutional grounds. The tradition of private policing of companion animal abuse offences may be unworkable in the provision of protection for animals used in industrial production. Abstract In recent European animal welfare statutes, human actions injurious to animals are new “offences” articulated as an injury to societal norms in addition to property damage. A crime is foremost a violation of a community moral standard. Violating a societal norm puts society out of balance and justice is served when that balance is returned. Criminal law normally requires the presence of mens rea, or evil intent, a particular state of mind; however, dereliction of duties towards animals (or children) is usually described as being of varying levels of negligence but, rarely can be so egregious that it constitutes criminal societal injury. In instrumental justice, the “public goods” delivered by criminal law are commonly classified as retribution, incapacitation and general deterrence. Prevention is a small, if present, outcome of criminal justice. Quazi-criminal law intends to establish certain expected (moral) standards of human behavior where by statute, the obligations of one party to another are clearly articulated as strict liability. Although largely moral in nature, this class of laws focuses on achieving

  9. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Conington, J.; Lawrence, A.B.

    2010-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits...

  10. Trade, Environment & Animal Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Peter; Nielsen, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights.......Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights....

  11. Policing Farm Animal Welfare in Federated Nations: The Problem of Dual Federalism in Canada and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Terry L

    2013-12-02

    In recent European animal welfare statutes, human actions injurious to animals are new "offences" articulated as an injury to societal norms in addition to property damage. A crime is foremost a violation of a community moral standard. Violating a societal norm puts society out of balance and justice is served when that balance is returned. Criminal law normally requires the presence of mens rea, or evil intent, a particular state of mind; however, dereliction of duties towards animals (or children) is usually described as being of varying levels of negligence but, rarely can be so egregious that it constitutes criminal societal injury. In instrumental justice, the "public goods" delivered by criminal law are commonly classified as retribution, incapacitation and general deterrence. Prevention is a small, if present, outcome of criminal justice. Quazi-criminal law intends to establish certain expected (moral) standards of human behavior where by statute, the obligations of one party to another are clearly articulated as strict liability. Although largely moral in nature, this class of laws focuses on achieving compliance, thereby resulting in prevention. For example, protecting the environment from degradation is a benefit to society; punishing non-compliance, as is the application of criminal law, will not prevent the injury. This paper will provide evidence that the integrated meat complex of Canada and the USA is not in a good position to make changes to implement a credible farm animal protection system.

  12. Policing Farm Animal Welfare in Federated Nations: The Problem of Dual Federalism in Canada and the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry L. Whiting

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent European animal welfare statutes, human actions injurious to animals are new “offences” articulated as an injury to societal norms in addition to property damage. A crime is foremost a violation of a community moral standard. Violating a societal norm puts society out of balance and justice is served when that balance is returned. Criminal law normally requires the presence of mens rea, or evil intent, a particular state of mind; however, dereliction of duties towards animals (or children is usually described as being of varying levels of negligence but, rarely can be so egregious that it constitutes criminal societal injury. In instrumental justice, the “public goods” delivered by criminal law are commonly classified as retribution, incapacitation and general deterrence. Prevention is a small, if present, outcome of criminal justice. Quazi-criminal law intends to establish certain expected (moral standards of human behavior where by statute, the obligations of one party to another are clearly articulated as strict liability. Although largely moral in nature, this class of laws focuses on achieving compliance, thereby resulting in prevention. For example, protecting the environment from degradation is a benefit to society; punishing non-compliance, as is the application of criminal law, will not prevent the injury. This paper will provide evidence that the integrated meat complex of Canada and the USA is not in a good position to make changes to implement a credible farm animal protection system.

  13. Product differentiation under the WTO; An analysis of labelling and tariff or tax measures concerning farm animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eaton, D.J.F.; Bourgeois, J.; Achterbosch, T.J.

    2005-01-01

    This report examines the possibility of giving preferential treatment to imports of meat products that meet improved standards in terms of animal welfare in production. Three specific forms of preferential treatment are considered here as possible measures for increasing levels of animal welfare in

  14. Final model of multicriterionevaluation of animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Marianne; Botreau, R; Bracke, MBM

    One major objective of Welfare Quality® is to propose harmonized methods for the overall assessment of animal welfare on farm and at slaughter that are science based and meet societal concerns. Welfare is a multidimensional concept and its assessment requires measures of different aspects. Welfare...... Quality® proposes a formal evaluation model whereby the data on animals or their environment are transformed into value scores that reflect compliance with 12 subcriteria and 4 criteria of good welfare. Each animal unit is then allocated to one of four categories: excellent welfare, enhanced welfare......, acceptable welfare and not classified. This evaluation model is tuned according to the views of experts from animal and social sciences, and stakeholders....

  15. Win–win strategies for high beef quality, consumer satisfaction, and farm efficiency, low environmental impacts and improved animal welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Hocquette, Jean-François; Botreau, Raphaëlle; Legrand, Isabelle; Polkinghorne, Rod; Pethick, David William; Lherm, Michel; Picard, Brigitte; Doreau, Michel; Terlouw, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Meat quality includes intrinsic qualities (the characteristics of the product itself) and extrinsic qualities (e.g. animal health and welfare, environmental impacts, price). There is still a high level of variability in beef palatability, which induces consumer dissatisfaction. We also observe a general trend towards an increasing importance of healthiness and safety (intrinsic) and environmental issues and animal welfare (extrinsic). Most grading systems describe carcasses using only animal ...

  16. To inspect, to motivate - or to do both? - A dilemma for on-farm inspections of animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anneberg, Inger; Vaarst, Mette; Sandøe, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The ultimate aim of this paper is to study and discuss a central dilemma within inspection of animal welfare. On the one hand, it may be argued that controllers should check only whether farmers comply or not with animal welfare regulation. Here, the key value is the rule of law, and that all...... or strategies of the inspectors may affect the outcome of animal welfare inspections, both on a short- and long-term basis. We argue that this study can initiate a necessary and more open discussion of the aforementioned dilemma....

  17. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    This paper identifies revealed willingness to pay for animal welfare using a panel mixed logit model allowing for correlation between willingness to pay for different types of production. We utilize a unique household level panel, combining real purchases with survey data on perceived public...... and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...... control for private good attributes such as food safety also connected to the label. Our results suggest that altruistic motives may play an important role in the demand for agricultural products....

  18. The Freedoms and Capabilities of Farm Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabaret, Jacques; Chylinski, Caroline; Vaarst, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Organic farming promotes animal husbandry practices that consider the welfare of the animals on the farm. The concept of animal welfare and the standards that should encompass this concept have in many cases been largely generalised in practice, which leaves relevant aspects of animal freedom...

  19. What We Know about the Public's Level of Concern for Farm Animal Welfare in Food Production in Developed Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Amelia; Raubenheimer, David; McGreevy, Paul

    2016-11-16

    Population growth and rising consumption of meat, dairy, eggs and fish are forcing the world to face the intersecting challenges of how to sustainably feed a population expected to exceed 9 billion by 2050, while also controlling the impact of food production on the planet, on people and on animals. This review acknowledges the absence of a globally accepted definition of animal welfare and then explores the literature regarding different levels of concern for animal welfare in food production by such stakeholders as veterinarians, farmers, and the general public. It focuses on the evidence that the general public's level of concern for animal welfare is linked to various demographic and personal characteristics, such as age, gender, religion, location, meat eating, and knowledge of animal welfare. Certain animals have characteristics that influence concern for their welfare, with those species that are considered more intelligent being afforded more concern. There is compelling evidence that the general public's understanding of animal welfare in food production is poor. Acknowledging that public concern can be a driving force to change current production methods, the authors suggest widespread consciousness raising to redefine socially acceptable methods of food production from animals and to ensure that it remains in step with societal concerns.

  20. ANIMAL BEHAVIOR AND WELL-BEING SYMPOSIUM: Interaction between coping style/personality, stress, and welfare: Relevance for domestic farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolhaas, J M; Van Reenen, C G

    2016-06-01

    This paper will argue that understanding animal welfare and the individual vulnerability to stress-related disease requires a fundamental understanding of functional individual variation as it occurs in nature as well as the underlying neurobiology and neuroendocrinology. Ecological studies in feral populations of mice, fish, and birds start to recognize the functional significance of phenotypes that individually differ in their behavioral and neuroendocrine response to environmental challenge. Recent studies indicate that the individual variation within a species may buffer the species for strong fluctuations in the natural habitat. Similarly, evolutionary ancient behavioral trait characteristics have now been identified in a range of domestic farm animals including cattle, pigs, and horses. Individual variation in behavior can be summarized in a 3-dimensional model with coping style, emotionality, and sociality as independent dimensions. These dimensions can be considered trait characteristics that are stable over time and across situations within the individual. This conceptual model has several consequences. First, the coping style dimension is strongly associated with differential stress vulnerability. Social stress studies show that proactive individuals are resilient under stable environmental conditions but vulnerable when outcome expectancies are violated. Reactive individuals are, in fact, rather flexible and seem to adapt more easily to a changing environment. A second consequence relates to genetics and breeding. Genetic selection for one trait usually implies selection for other traits as well. It is discussed that a more balanced breeding program that takes into account biologically functional temperamental traits will lead to more robust domestic farm animals. Finally, the relationship between temperamental traits, animal production, fitness, and welfare is discussed.

  1. Building "Cowshed Cultures": A Cultural Perspective on the Promotion of Stockmanship and Animal Welfare on Dairy Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Rob J. F.; Peoples, Sue; Cooper, Mark H.

    2012-01-01

    Improving animal welfare is an important part of the development of the agricultural industry, particularly at a time when intensification and the encroachment of factory-style production systems is making the maintenance of human-animal relations increasingly difficult. Animal science deals with the issue of improving stockmanship by focusing on…

  2. Veterinarian challenges to providing a multi-agency response to farm animal welfare problems in Ireland: responding to the human factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, C; Kelly, P; Blake, M; Hanlon, A; More, S J

    2013-12-01

    In 2012, the authors undertook a study of the challenges facing government and private veterinarians in responding to the human element of farm animal welfare incidents (i.e. the personal problems and difficulties of farmers that can result in farm animal neglect). This paper reports their findings and examines the role of veterinarians in responding to the difficulties of farmers. It also looks at their experiences of attempting to build a multi-agency approach involving veterinary and human support services. This paper builds on a study whereby the authors considered how social, health and attitudinal factors, as well as mental health problems, contribute to farm animal welfare incidents in Ireland. An early warning system involving relevant agencies is in place to identify and prevent farm animal welfare problems before they become critical. The literature provides examples of private veterinarians combining with support services where there are indicators of animal and human abuse. Yet there are no research examples of government or private veterinarians linking with support services to resolve farm animal welfare cases where there are social, health, and/or mental health difficulties with the herd owner. Four focus groups were conducted with government veterinarians (n = 18) and three with private veterinarians (n = 12). Government veterinarians made contact with support services to seek advice on how best to respond to the human element of farm animal welfare incidents, and/or to seek support for the herd owner. Contact between government and private veterinarians was driven by the former. Communication between agencies was influenced by individual efforts and personal contacts. Formal structures and guidelines, perceived professional capabilities in determining herd owner needs, and client confidentiality concerns among support services and private veterinarians were less influential. The fear of losing clients and the financial implications of this were

  3. Animal welfare impact assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Gamborg, Christian

    2017-01-01

    of this paper is to evaluate the potential of AWIA. We begin by showing how ideas akin to AWIA already play a significant role in other animal ethics controversies, particularly those concerning laboratory animal use and livestock production; and we bring in lessons learnt from these controversies. Then we......Control of wild animals may give rise to controversy, as is seen in the case of badger control to manage TB in cattle in the UK. However, it is striking that concerns about the potential suffering of the affected animals themselves are often given little attention or completely ignored in policies...... aimed at dealing with wild animals. McCulloch and Reiss argue that this could be remedied by means of a “mandatory application of formal and systematic Animal Welfare Impact Assessment (AWIA)”. Optimistically, they consider that an AWIA could help to resolve controversies involving wild animals. The aim...

  4. Quality control on dairy farms with emphasis on public health, food safety, animal health and welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.; Metz, J.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Consumer concern about livestock production methodologies is increasing over the last decades due to various outbreaks of food-borne zoonoses and animal diseases. Quality assurance programmes in the different production chains have been installed by industry to counteract the problems occurring. The

  5. Farm Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... H7 infections among visitors to a dairy farm . New England Journal of Medicine . 2002; 347:555–560. Cryptosporidiosis Outbreak at a Summer Camp – North Carolina, 2009 . Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report . 2011 ... in Humans – New York, Illinois, California, and Tennessee, 2004-2005 . Morbidity ...

  6. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  7. Animal behavior and animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houpt, K A

    1991-04-15

    The value of behavioral techniques in assessing animal welfare, and in particular assessing the psychological well being of animals, is reviewed. Using cats and horses as examples, 3 behavioral methods are presented: (1) comparison of behavior patterns and time budgets; (2) choice tests; and (3) operant conditioning. The behaviors of intact and declawed cats were compared in order to determine if declawing led to behavioral problems or to a change in personality. Apparently it did not. The behavior of free ranging horses was compared with that of stabled horses. Using two-choice preference tests, the preference of horses for visual contact with other horses and the preference for bedding were determined. Horses show no significant preference for locations from which they can make visual contact with other horses, but they do prefer bedding, especially when lying down. Horses will perform an operant response in order to obtain light in a darkened barn or heat in an outside shed. These same techniques can be used to answer a variety of questions about an animal's motivation for a particular attribute of its environment.

  8. Animal-based measures for welfare assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino Sevi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal welfare assessment can’t be irrespective of measures taken on animals. Indeed, housing parametersrelatedtostructures, designandmicro-environment, evenifreliable parameters related to structures, design and micro-environment, even if reliable and easier to take, can only identify conditions which could be detrimental to animal welfare, but can’t predict poor welfare in animals per se. Welfare assessment through animal-based measures is almost complex, given that animals’ responses to stressful conditions largely depend on the nature, length and intensity of challenges and on physiological status, age, genetic susceptibility and previous experience of animals. Welfare assessment requires a multi-disciplinary approach and the monitoring of productive, ethological, endocrine, immunological and pathological param- eters to be exhaustive and reliable. So many measures are needed, because stresses can act only on some of the mentioned parameters or on all of them but at different times and degree. Under this point of view, the main aim of research is to find feasible and most responsive indicators of poor animal welfare. In last decades, studies focused on the following parameters for animal wel- fare assessment indexes of biological efficiency, responses to behavioral tests, cortisol secretion, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, lymphocyte proliferation, production of antigen specific IgG and cytokine release, somatic cell count and acute phase proteins. Recently, a lot of studies have been addressed to reduce handling and constraint of animals for taking measures to be used in welfare assessment, since such procedures can induce stress in animals and undermined the reliability of measures taken for welfare assessment. Range of animal-based measures for welfare assessment is much wider under experimental condition than at on-farm level. In welfare monitoring on-farm the main aim is to find feasible measures of proved validity and reliability

  9. Highlighting ethical decisions underlying the scoring of animal welfare in the Welfare Quality® scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veissier, I.; Jensen, Karsten Klint; Botreau, R.

    2011-01-01

    ), and any welfare scoring system will reflect a focus upon one or other definition. In Welfare Quality® 12 welfare criteria were defined, and the entire list of criteria was intended to cover relevant definitions of animal welfare. Second, two dimensions can structure an overall evaluation of animal welfare......, but the rules governing the assignment of an animal unit to a category take into account what had been observed on European farms. The scientists behind Welfare Quality® are keen to make the value-based choices underlying assessments of animal welfare transparent. This is essential to allow stakeholder groups...

  10. Feasibility and validity of animal-based indicators for on-farm welfare assessment of thermal stress in dairy goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battini, Monica; Barbieri, Sara; Fioni, Luna; Mattiello, Silvana

    2016-02-01

    This investigation tested the feasibility and validity of indicators of cold and heat stress in dairy goats for on-farm welfare assessment protocols. The study was performed on two intensive dairy farms in Italy. Two different 3-point scale (0-2) scoring systems were applied to assess cold and heat stress. Cold and heat stress scores were visually assessed from outside the pen in the morning, afternoon and evening in January-February, April-May and July 2013 for a total of nine sessions of observations/farm. Temperature (°C), relative humidity (%) and wind speed (km/h) were recorded and Thermal Heat Index (THI) was calculated. The sessions were allocated to three climatic seasons, depending on THI ranges: cold (65). Score 2 was rarely assessed; therefore, scores 1 and 2 were aggregated for statistical analysis. The amount of goats suffering from cold stress was significantly higher in the cold season than in neutral ( P < 0.01) and hot ( P < 0.001) seasons. Signs of heat stress were recorded only in the hot season ( P < 0.001). The visual assessment from outside the pen confirms the on-farm feasibility of both indicators: No constraint was found and time required was less than 10 min. Our results show that cold and heat stress scores are valid indicators to detect thermal stress in intensively managed dairy goats. The use of a binary scoring system (presence/absence), merging scores 1 and 2, may be a further refinement to improve the feasibility. This study also allows the prediction of optimal ranges of THI for dairy goat breeds in intensive husbandry systems, setting a comfort zone included into 55 and 70.

  11. Scientific assessment of animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsworth, P H; Mellor, D J; Cronin, G M; Tilbrook, A J

    2015-01-01

    Animal welfare is a state within the animal and a scientific perspective provides methodologies for evidence-based assessment of an animal's welfare. A simplistic definition of animal welfare might be how the animal feels now. Affective experiences including emotions, are subjective states so cannot be measured directly in animals, but there are informative indirect physiological and behavioural indices that can be cautiously used to interpret such experiences. This review enunciates several key science-based frameworks for understanding animal welfare. The biological functioning and affective state frameworks were initially seen as competing, but a recent more unified approach is that biological functioning is taken to include affective experiences and affective experiences are recognised as products of biological functioning, and knowledge of the dynamic interactions between the two is considered to be fundamental to managing and improving animal welfare. The value of these two frameworks in understanding the welfare of group-housed sows is reviewed. The majority of studies of the welfare of group-housed sows have employed the biological functioning framework to infer compromised sow welfare, on the basis that suboptimal biological functioning accompanies negative affective states such as sow hunger, pain, fear, helplessness, frustration and anger. Group housing facilitates social living, but group housing of gestating sows raises different welfare considerations to stall housing, such as high levels of aggression, injuries and stress, at least for several days after mixing, as well as subordinate sows being underfed due to competition at feeding. This paper highlights the challenges and potential opportunities for the continued improvement in sow management through well-focused research and multidisciplinary assessment of animal welfare. In future the management of sentient animals will require the promotion of positive affective experiences in animals and this

  12. A balanced perspective on animal welfare for improved meat and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increased public concern for animal welfare in the logistics chain has led to a rise in the scrutiny of the treatment of food animals. Factors affecting the status of welfare of slaughter animals begin at the farm and occur during transportation and at the abattoir. The activities that animals pass through before slaughter are ...

  13. ANIMAL BEHAVIOR AND WELL-BEING SYMPOSIUM: The Common Swine Industry Audit: Future steps to assure positive on-farm animal welfare utilizing validated, repeatable and feasible animal-based measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pairis-Garcia, M; Moeller, S J

    2017-03-01

    The Common Swine Industry Audit (CSIA) was developed and scientifically evaluated through the combined efforts of a task force consisting of university scientists, veterinarians, pork producers, packers, processers, and retail and food service personnel to provide stakeholders throughout the pork chain with a consistent, reliable, and verifiable system to ensure on-farm swine welfare and food safety. The CSIA tool was built from the framework of the Pork Quality Assurance Plus (PQA Plus) site assessment program with the purpose of developing a single, common audit platform for the U.S. swine industry. Twenty-seven key aspects of swine care are captured and evaluated in CSIA and cover the specific focal areas of animal records, animal observations, facilities, and caretakers. Animal-based measures represent approximately 50% of CSIA evaluation criteria and encompass critical failure criteria, including observation of willful acts of abuse and determination of timely euthanasia. Objective, science-based measures of animal well-being parameters (e.g., BCS, lameness, lesions, hernias) are assessed within CSIA using statistically validated sample sizes providing a detection ability of 1% with 95% confidence. The common CSIA platform is used to identify care issues and facilitate continuous improvement in animal care through a validated, repeatable, and feasible animal-based audit process. Task force members provide continual updates to the CSIA tool with a specific focus toward 1) identification and interpretation of appropriate animal-based measures that provide inherent value to pig welfare, 2) establishment of acceptability thresholds for animal-based measures, and 3) interpretation of CSIA data for use and improvement of welfare within the U.S. swine industry.

  14. Stress influencing production and welfare in farmed mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Results linking stress, production and welfare in farmed mink, with special focus on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis, are presented. Interpretation of stress responses are discussed, combining context, neuroendocrine and behavioural indicators. Results from the development and valid...... animals and whether fur-chewing/stereotypic behaviour is associated with hippocampal neurogenesis in mink. Perspectives and suggested future research aiming to improve production and welfare in farmed mink are given....

  15. Animal welfare and international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiermann, A B; Babcock, S

    2005-08-01

    Globalisation is becoming a force that is revolutionising international trade, particularly that of animals and animal products. There is increasing interest in animal welfare worldwide, and as part of its 2001-2005 Strategic Plan the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) identified the development of international standards on animal welfare as a priority. The OIE's scientific approach to standard-setting provides the foundation for the development, and acceptance by all OIE Member Countries, of these animal welfare guidelines. The paper discusses how these guidelines on animal welfare can be implemented, both within the provisions of World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements and within the framework of voluntary codes of conduct. Even if animal welfare guidelines are not covered by any WTO agreements in the future, bi- and multilateral agreements, voluntary corporate codes, and transparent labelling of products should result in a progressive acceptance of OIE guidelines. Ultimately, consumer demands and demonstrable gains in animal production will result in an incremental evolution in animal welfare consciousness and adherence to international standards.

  16. The economics of animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, T J; Jackson, E L

    2017-04-01

    This paper examines four examples of animal welfare issues, demonstrating the interactions between welfare and economic principles. Welfare issues associated with purebred companion animals are examined in terms of predicted inherited diseases, highlighting the power of supply and demand in perpetuating traits in pets that compromise their well-being. The livestock industry is presented from the point of view of pig production and the impact that a major disease (pleurisy) has on production and the animals' welfare. The authors investigate the conflicting and complementary demands of animal welfare and economic gains during the transport and slaughter of livestock and poultry. Finally, wildlife species are considered in terms of their prevalence as pests, and the different types of economic analysis that have been conducted to understand the losses caused by these organisms. Also included in this example are decisions made about cost effectiveness and opportunity costs, and regulatory and financial barriers to the development of humane control agents. In conclusion, animal welfare is illustrated as a central factor in the benefits that humans enjoy from the role played by animals in society. There are, however, tradeoffs between optimal animal welfare and meeting the needs of modern human society.

  17. WelFur-mink: on-farm welfare assessment of mink (Neovision vision) - effect of sample size on animal based measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rousing, Tine; Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Steffen W

    2012-01-01

    European Fur Breeder's Association initiated the "WelFur project" in 2009 which is aiming at developing an applicable on farm welfare assessment protocol for mink based on the Welfare Quality® principles. Such a welfare assessment system should possess the following qualities: It should be "high...... measures such as "stereotypy", "tremperament" and "body condition". These measures were in each fo 9 Danish mink farms on approximately 250 adult mink on each farm collected during the nursing season 2011 by a total of 8 observers working in pairs. Descriptive result showed a large between herd variations...

  18. Attitudes of Dutch pig farmers towards animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huik, van M.M.; Bock, B.B.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose ¿ The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into the rationale of Dutch pig farmers concerning animal welfare and animal-friendly production. It aims to show the interrelations between farmers' production logic, their ideas about good farming and animal welfare and the characteristics

  19. The science of animal welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    People differ in their culture, education, economic status, and values; thus they may view an animal’s welfare status as good or poor based on their individuality. However, regardless of these human differences in perception the actual state of welfare for the animal does exist in a range from good ...

  20. ADVANCES IN ANIMAL WELFARE FOR FREE-LIVING ANIMALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Over several decades, animal welfare has grown into its own free-standing field of scientific study, from its early beginnings in laboratory animal research to eventually include exhibited animals and farm animals. While it has always been present to some degree, consideration of animal welfare for free-ranging animals has lagged behind, developing as a field of study in the last 20 yr or so. Part of that increase was that animal welfare legislation was finally applied to studies being done on free-ranging animals. But it is the appreciation by the biologists and veterinarians working on wild animals, in which the quality of their results is largely controlled by the quality of the animals they use in their studies, which has resulted in increased attention to the well-being or welfare of the animals that they use. Other important influences driving the recognition of wildlife welfare have been changes in the public's expectations of how wild animals are dealt with, a shift in focus of wildlife professionals from managing animals that can be hunted or angled to include nongame species, the decrease in participation in hunting and fishing by members of the public, and the entry of large numbers of women into fish and wildlife agencies and departments and into veterinary medicine. Technical improvements have allowed the safe capture and handling of large or dangerous animals as immobilization drugs and equipment have been developed. The increasing use of sedating drugs allows for handling of animals with reduced stress and other impacts. A number of topics, such as toe-clipping, branding, defining which taxa can or cannot feel pain, catch-and-release fishing, and more, remain controversial within wildlife science. How we treat the wild animals that we deal with defines who we are as wildlife professionals, and animal welfare concerns and techniques for free-ranging animals will continue to develop and evolve.

  1. Consumer perception and communication on welfare in organic laying hen farming

    OpenAIRE

    Heerkens, Jasper; Tuyttens, Frank

    2012-01-01

    A major reason for increased societal popularity of organic production systems is the growing general discontent with intensive farming practices. However, urbanization leads to limited knowledge of farming and farm animal welfare. Consumers believe organic farming leads to better animal welfare, although most health and welfare issues seen in conventional systems are also found in organic poultry systems. The majority of consumers do not translate attitude and good intention into action, the...

  2. The 'Real Welfare' scheme: benchmarking welfare outcomes for commercially farmed pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, F; Stoddart, K; Wainwright, N; Kyriazakis, I; Edwards, S A

    2017-10-01

    Animal welfare standards have been incorporated in EU legislation and in farm assurance schemes, based on scientific information and aiming to safeguard the welfare of the species concerned. Recently, emphasis has shifted from resource-based measures of welfare to animal-based measures, which are considered to assess more accurately the welfare status. The data used in this analysis were collected from April 2013 to May 2016 through the 'Real Welfare' scheme in order to assess on-farm pig welfare, as required for those finishing pigs under the UK Red Tractor Assurance scheme. The assessment involved five main measures (percentage of pigs requiring hospitalization, percentage of lame pigs, percentage of pigs with severe tail lesions, percentage of pigs with severe body marks and enrichment use ratio) and optional secondary measures (percentage of pigs with mild tail lesions, percentage of pigs with dirty tails, percentage of pigs with mild body marks, percentage of pigs with dirty bodies), with associated information about the environment and the enrichment in the farms. For the complete database, a sample of pens was assessed from 1928 farm units. Repeated measures were taken in the same farm unit over time, giving 112 240 records at pen level. These concerned a total of 13 480 289 pigs present on the farm during the assessments, with 5 463 348 pigs directly assessed using the 'Real Welfare' protocol. The three most common enrichment types were straw, chain and plastic objects. The main substrate was straw which was present in 67.9% of the farms. Compared with 2013, a significant increase of pens with undocked-tail pigs, substrates and objects was observed over time (P0.3). The results from the first 3 years of the scheme demonstrate a reduction of the prevalence of animal-based measures of welfare problems and highlight the value of this initiative.

  3. Animal welfare: what has changed in the past 50 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-12

    The 3(rd) CABI symposium on animal welfare and behaviour was held on June 11, and featured a range of talks on 'animals as machines'. The symposium marked the 50(th) anniversary of the publication of the book 'Animal Machines' by Ruth Harrison. The book decried the conditions experienced at that time by many animals kept in intensive farming systems, and the speakers at the symposium discussed how far animal welfare had come since its publication. Georgina Mills reports. British Veterinary Association.

  4. The idea of animal welfare - developments and tensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on developments and tensions within the idea of animal welfare. There is divergence among those who believe in the idea of animal welfare. First, we discuss what it takes for farm animal welfare to be good enough. How far should society go beyond the starting point...... of the Brambell Committee, which was to prevent avoidable suffering? Secondly, we turn to the tricky question of how welfare should be distributed between animals. Here, a tension within the concept of animal welfare, between a focus on the indivudual animal and on the herd, flock or shoal, is pointed out....... Finally, the role of economic considerations is considered, given that animal production takes place in a global market with free trade between countries with various standards of animal welfare....

  5. Animal Welfare in Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Popović

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal welfare is becoming an evermore-important factorfor air carriers from the economical viewpoint, due to its importantimpact on the carrier public image. High standard care hasto be taken of animals during transport in order to satisfy an importantsegment of airline customers, either the Business/Firstclass passengers travelling with pets, or influential shippers ofracing horses, dogs, Zoo species etc.Air transp011 of animals, disregarding other advantages,may pose a threat to their health and welfare being a significantmultifactorial stressor. Along with cardiovascular, endocrineand metabolic abe1mtions, it affects the immune response ofan animal and increases susceptibility to infection. Therefore,strict conditions for air transport of eve1y animal species havebeen imposed. Transport of only healthy animals is approved,as it is necessG/y to prevent the spread of disease during transportand to provide satisfactOJy environment for animals to betransported.

  6. Behavioural indicators of welfare in farmed fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, C.I.; Galhardo, L.; Noble, C.; Damsgard, B.; Spedicato, M.T.; Zupa, W.; Beauchaud, M.; Kulczykowska, E.; Massabuau, J.C.; Carter, T.; Planellas, S.R.; Kristiansen, T.

    2012-01-01

    Behaviour represents a reaction to the environment as fish perceive it and is therefore a key element of fish welfare. This review summarises the main findings on how behavioural changes have been used to assess welfare in farmed fish, using both functional and feeling-based approaches. Changes in

  7. On-farm broiler welfare assessment and associated training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Butterworth

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Around the world, people who care for animals as stock keepers, stockmen, farmers, producers are placed in a position where they can greatly influence the quality of life of the animals they manage. This is particularly true in broiler chickens, where large numbers of animals can be cared for by comparatively small numbers of people. There is an international progression to start to assess poultry welfare on farm by looking at the animals themselves using (Animal Based Measures ABMs rather than by looking exclusively at the resources provided (space, light heat, litter material - Resource Based Measures RBM's. In general, the areas being assessed are: Are the animals properly fed and supplied with water? Are the animals properly housed? Are the animals healthy? Can the animals express a range of behaviours and emotional states? Different types of organisations are starting to use ABM's - Government inspection bodies - for example state veterinary staff, Research institutes - wishing to use standardized assessment methods for research, Animal Welfare NGO's, Farm assurance companies and Legislators. The WelfareQualityNetwork® (WQN http://www.welfarequality.net/everyone has described ABM's which address twelve health and welfare criteria and has tested them on a large number of farms across Europe. Some examples from this assessment scheme are described.

  8. Highlighting ethical decisions underlying the scoring of animal welfare in the Welfare Quality® scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veissier, I.; Jensen, Karsten Klint; Botreau, R.

    2011-01-01

    All systems of scoring animal units (groups, farms, slaughter plants, etc.) according to the level of the animals’ welfare are based inevitably on normative decisions. Similarly, all methods of labelling, in terms of acceptability, are based on choices reflecting ethical values. The evaluative...... system, which was designed in accordance with assessments and judgments from experts in animal and social sciences and stakeholders, we identify value-based decisions at the following five levels. First, there are several definitions of animal welfare (eg hedonist, perfectionist, and preferentialist......), and any welfare scoring system will reflect a focus upon one or other definition. In Welfare Quality® 12 welfare criteria were defined, and the entire list of criteria was intended to cover relevant definitions of animal welfare. Second, two dimensions can structure an overall evaluation of animal welfare...

  9. What We Know about the Public’s Level of Concern for Farm Animal Welfare in Food Production in Developed Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Amelia; Raubenheimer, David; McGreevy, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary The production of food from animals poses many ethical challenges. This review explores what we know about different levels of concern for animal welfare in food production by such stakeholders as veterinarians, farmers, and the general public. Despite the general public’s level of concern for animal welfare in food production being high, their understanding and knowledge is poor. Thus, it is suggested that through widespread consciousness raising we can encourage the public to accurately translate their concerns into market drivers, in turn improving the welfare of billions of animals. Abstract Population growth and rising consumption of meat, dairy, eggs and fish are forcing the world to face the intersecting challenges of how to sustainably feed a population expected to exceed 9 billion by 2050, while also controlling the impact of food production on the planet, on people and on animals. This review acknowledges the absence of a globally accepted definition of animal welfare and then explores the literature regarding different levels of concern for animal welfare in food production by such stakeholders as veterinarians, farmers, and the general public. It focuses on the evidence that the general public’s level of concern for animal welfare is linked to various demographic and personal characteristics, such as age, gender, religion, location, meat eating, and knowledge of animal welfare. Certain animals have characteristics that influence concern for their welfare, with those species that are considered more intelligent being afforded more concern. There is compelling evidence that the general public’s understanding of animal welfare in food production is poor. Acknowledging that public concern can be a driving force to change current production methods, the authors suggest widespread consciousness raising to redefine socially acceptable methods of food production from animals and to ensure that it remains in step with societal concerns. PMID

  10. The prospect of market-driven improvements in animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, Lennart Ravn; Christensen, Tove; Sandøe, Peter

    2013-01-01

    . Yet considerable uncertainties exist about the ability of the market to promote animal welfare. So far the consumption of most welfare-friendly products has been limited, and the impact of driving and limiting factors is poorly understood. Reviewing market studies, we identify the factors that have...... shaped the relatively successful market for grass milk in Denmark. We conclude that the positive drivers such as an appealing animal welfare attribute and animal welfare being bundled with other qualities are essentially the same as those operating in connection with less successful animal welfare......-friendly products. It is therefore to be expected that other animal welfare-friendly food products marketed via “natural behaviors” in the farm animals will catch the interest of consumers. However, grass milk consumption has been supported by proper labeling, ready availability and low price premiums as well...

  11. The assessment and implementation of animal welfare: theory into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, J

    2005-08-01

    This paper reviews the procedures and protocols necessary for the development of a practical programme for the assessment and implementation of animal welfare on farms and in other commercial situations. An effective programme must incorporate measures of both husbandry and welfare. Most current systems are based almost entirely on measures of husbandry provision, e.g. resources and management. However, what the public and the animals need are guarantees of satisfactory welfare and these guarantees must involve animal-based measurements of welfare outcomes. The development and testing of the Bristol Welfare Assurance Programme is described in outline and illustrated with detailed reference to the assessment of welfare in dairy cows. The final section describes how such a programme can be incorporated into the broader concept of quality assurance schemes that incorporate a proper concern for animal welfare into the reasonable needs of different societies for wholesome, affordable food.

  12. Laboratory Animal Welfare Supplement IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluckstein, Fritz P., Comp.

    This document is the fourth supplement to a 1984 bibliography on laboratory animal welfare. Items presented were selected because they represent some of the most significant of those providing recent information or because they were considered useful. The period covered is October, 1986 through October, 1987. Monographs, conference proceedings,…

  13. What We Know about the Public’s Level of Concern for Farm Animal Welfare in Food Production in Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Cornish

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Population growth and rising consumption of meat, dairy, eggs and fish are forcing the world to face the intersecting challenges of how to sustainably feed a population expected to exceed 9 billion by 2050, while also controlling the impact of food production on the planet, on people and on animals. This review acknowledges the absence of a globally accepted definition of animal welfare and then explores the literature regarding different levels of concern for animal welfare in food production by such stakeholders as veterinarians, farmers, and the general public. It focuses on the evidence that the general public’s level of concern for animal welfare is linked to various demographic and personal characteristics, such as age, gender, religion, location, meat eating, and knowledge of animal welfare. Certain animals have characteristics that influence concern for their welfare, with those species that are considered more intelligent being afforded more concern. There is compelling evidence that the general public’s understanding of animal welfare in food production is poor. Acknowledging that public concern can be a driving force to change current production methods, the authors suggest widespread consciousness raising to redefine socially acceptable methods of food production from animals and to ensure that it remains in step with societal concerns.

  14. Dairy cattle management, health and welfare in smallholder farms: An organic farming perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odhong, Charles; Wahome, Raphael; Vaarst, Mette

    2015-01-01

    livestock production practices as specified by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements and the East Africa Organic Product Standard. A longitudinal study of 24 farms was conducted to document and assess management practices and their potential effect on animal health and welfare......Organic production principles aim at achieving good animal health and welfare of livestock. The objective of the present study was to investigate animal management, health and welfare in smallholder dairy farms in Kenya, Africa, and to be able to give recommendations which can guide organic...... type, aspects of the housing system, farm characteristics, and management routines. The average herd size was 3.15 in Kiambu and 3.91 in Kajiado, with all the cows’ zero-grazed. Seventy five percent of the cubicles were small (less than 2.50m2). Many of the farmers sprayed their animals weekly (47...

  15. Contrasting Attitudes towards Animal Welfare Issues within the Food Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Braghieri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Intensive systems have facilitated the production of animal-based products at relatively low prices. On one hand, these methods have been increasingly considered to be responsible for a dramatic reduction in animal welfare, as indicated by the high prevalence of stereotypies in sows, brittle bones in hens, lameness in broilers and short life span in dairy cattle. As a consequence, large segments of animal welfare-sensitive consumers have been identified. On the other hand, price conscious consumers, if accepting higher prices, are more likely to require explicit justification of returns in quality. Therefore, scientifically validated monitoring systems for assessing the welfare of farm animals have been developed in order to provide a certification system, allow the differentiation of animal-based products through constant and reliable signaling systems, and promote animal welfare friendly farming systems.

  16. Monitoring the on-farm welfare of sheep and goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino Sevi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Schemes for on-farm welfare assessment in sheep and goats are not yet available. Factors responsible for this lack of availability are discussed in the first part of this review. Requisites for reliable methods of welfare assessment to be used in sheep and goat farms are discussed, taking into account the peculiarities of the small ruminant production systems in terms of flock management and farm location. Some housing parameters related to structures, design and micro-environment are reviewed and could be included in schemes of welfare assessment on farm. Human-animal interaction, health status of the animals in terms of body condition scoring, skin and hair conditions, lameness and injuries, and management practices in relation to cleanliness, animal handling and moving, milking procedures and abnormal behaviours, are proposed as potential animal-based indicators. When available, validity, reliability and feasibility of the proposed parameters are discussed. The voluntary adhesion to welfare standards in Sardinia and the application of a scientifically validated protocol in Basilicata are reported as examples of practical experiences.

  17. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals.

  18. How can economists help to improve animal welfare?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove; Lawrence, A.; Lund, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    To-date, the dominant approach to improving farm animal welfare has consisted of a combination of voluntary improvements undertaken by farmers and the tightening of legal requirements. However, history suggests that there is a limit to the improvements capable of being secured by this approach....... In this paper, it is argued that economic principles can and should have an important role when new, market-driven and other approaches are set up to improve farm animal welfare. The paper focuses on two ways in which economic principles can improve analyses of animal welfare. The first is by helping to define...... in the right way. Where the benefits and costs of improving animal welfare are initially distributed unevenly across stakeholders so that a socially desirable situation will not develop automatically, or be implemented, suitable economic principles may help to create incentives which correct this situation...

  19. The Supply Chain’s Role in Improving Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, David; Hubbard, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary The ability of supply chains to deliver high(er) levels and standards of animal welfare is subject to two critical conditions: (a) the innovative and adaptive capacity of actors in the chain to respond to society’s demands; (b) consumers actually buying animal-friendly products. Unless citizens are willing to support suppliers who comply with high(er) standards, their votes for better animal welfare risk exporting poor animal welfare to other countries with less rigorous standards. The logic of market failure in the case of animal welfare points to the superiority of consumer subsidies over producer subsidies to deliver improved animal welfare. Abstract Supply chains are already incorporating citizen/consumer demands for improved animal welfare, especially through product differentiation and the associated segmentation of markets. Nonetheless, the ability of the chain to deliver high(er) levels and standards of animal welfare is subject to two critical conditions: (a) the innovative and adaptive capacity of the chain to respond to society’s demands; (b) the extent to which consumers actually purchase animal-friendly products. Despite a substantial literature reporting estimates of willingness to pay (WTP) for animal welfare, there is a belief that in practice people vote for substantially more and better animal welfare as citizens than they are willing to pay for as consumers. This citizen-consumer gap has significant consequences on the supply chain, although there is limited literature on the capacity and willingness of supply chains to deliver what the consumer wants and is willing to pay for. This paper outlines an economic analysis of supply chain delivery of improved standards for farm animal welfare in the EU and illustrates the possible consequences of improving animal welfare standards for the supply chain using a prototype belief network analysis. PMID:26479533

  20. Social Networks and Welfare in Future Animal Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koene, Paul; Ipema, Bert

    2014-03-17

    It may become advantageous to keep human-managed animals in the social network groups to which they have adapted. Data concerning the social networks of farm animal species and their ancestors are scarce but essential to establishing the importance of a natural social network for farmed animal species. Social Network Analysis (SNA) facilitates the characterization of social networking at group, subgroup and individual levels. SNA is currently used for modeling the social behavior and management of wild animals and social welfare of zoo animals. It has been recognized for use with farm animals but has yet to be applied for management purposes. Currently, the main focus is on cattle, because in large groups (poultry), recording of individuals is expensive and the existence of social networks is uncertain due to on-farm restrictions. However, in many cases, a stable social network might be important to individual animal fitness, survival and welfare. For instance, when laying hens are not too densely housed, simple networks may be established. We describe here small social networks in horses, brown bears, laying hens and veal calves to illustrate the importance of measuring social networks among animals managed by humans. Emphasis is placed on the automatic measurement of identity, location, nearest neighbors and nearest neighbor distance for management purposes. It is concluded that social networks are important to the welfare of human-managed animal species and that welfare management based on automatic recordings will become available in the near future.

  1. Involving the animal as a contributor in design to overcome animal welfare related trade-offs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeghel, van Ellen; Bos, Bram; Spoelstra, Sierk; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W.G.

    2016-01-01

    Allowing farm animals to have active control and influence over their environment through the expression of intrinsically motivated behaviours contributes to their (positive)welfare. However, farm animals are predominantly seen as passive receivers of what husbandry systems should provide for

  2. Health and welfare in animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenfelt, Lennart

    2011-06-01

    This paper contains a brief comparative analysis of some philosophical and scientific discourses on human and animal health and welfare, focusing mainly on the welfare of sentient animals. The paper sets forth two kinds of proposals for the analysis of animal welfare which do not appear in the contemporary philosophical discussion of human welfare, viz. the coping theory of welfare and the theory of welfare in terms of natural behaviour. These proposals are scrutinized in the light of some similar theories dealing with human health and quality of life. My conclusion is that the coping theory and the natural behaviour theory are not in themselves adequate for the characterization of welfare, either for humans or for sentient animals. I contend, finally, that, in the light of the previous discussion, there are good arguments for a particular set of analyses of both animal and human welfare, viz. the ones that are based on the notions of preference satisfaction and positive subjective experiences.

  3. A Universal Animal Welfare Framework for Zoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Ron; Carter, Scott; Allard, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The Detroit Zoological Society's (DZS) Center for Zoo Animal Welfare (CZAW) was created to advance the science and policy of the welfare of exotic nonhuman animals in captivity. This important part of the DZS mission is achieved through assessments of, and research on, the welfare of animals in zoos; by recognizing extraordinary achievement in the advancement of animal welfare; by widely sharing knowledge through a bibliographic resource center; by conducting professional training for animal care staff; and by convening important discussions in the form of international symposia. This special issue of the Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science features selected papers from the most recent international CZAW symposium held at the Detroit Zoo in November 2014, as well as a universal framework for zoo animal welfare developed by the DZS. PMID:26440494

  4. Private Animal Welfare Standards—Opportunities and Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röcklinsberg, Helena

    2018-01-01

    Simple Summary In all European countries, farmers keeping animals must comply with European and national animal welfare legislation. Each government has a responsibility to make sure that the legislation is complied with by the farmers. However, during the last decades it has become increasingly common that private organisations, such as the industry, farmers’ organisations, or animal welfare organisations, develop additional animal welfare regulations (‘private standards’) that the farmers also need to comply with. These private standards have the opportunity to improve animal welfare above the legislative level, however, in our study we have shown that this is not always the case and that all of these different private standards, in addition to the legislation, makes it difficult to get an overview of the animal welfare regulation and control arena. For the sake of the farmers, the animal welfare inspectors, the consumers, and the animals we conclude that it is important that policymakers consider this arena as a whole and not their own regulation as a single phenomenon. Abstract The current shift moves the governance of animal welfare away from the government towards the private market and the consumers. We have studied the intentions, content, and on-farm inspection results from different sets of animal welfare legislation and private standards with an aim to highlight the most important opportunities and risks identified in relation to the trend of increasingly relying on private standards for safeguarding or improving farm animal welfare. Our results show that different focuses, intentions, animal welfare requirements, inspection methods (i.e., methods for measuring and evaluating the compliance with a regulation), and inspection results, together with the use of vague wordings and a drive towards more flexible regulations does certainly not facilitate the interpretation and implementation of animal welfare regulations, especially not in relation to

  5. Private Animal Welfare Standards-Opportunities and Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundmark, Frida; Berg, Charlotte; Röcklinsberg, Helena

    2018-01-02

    The current shift moves the governance of animal welfare away from the government towards the private market and the consumers. We have studied the intentions, content, and on-farm inspection results from different sets of animal welfare legislation and private standards with an aim to highlight the most important opportunities and risks identified in relation to the trend of increasingly relying on private standards for safeguarding or improving farm animal welfare. Our results show that different focuses, intentions, animal welfare requirements, inspection methods (i.e., methods for measuring and evaluating the compliance with a regulation), and inspection results, together with the use of vague wordings and a drive towards more flexible regulations does certainly not facilitate the interpretation and implementation of animal welfare regulations, especially not in relation to each other. Since farmers today often have to comply with several animal welfare regulations, including private standards, it is important to stress that a given regulation should never be seen as a single, stand-alone phenomenon, and the policymakers must hence consider the bigger picture, and apply the standards in relation to other existing regulations. This is especially relevant in relation to the legislation, a level that a private standard can never ignore.

  6. Rights, solidarity and the animal welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harfeld, Jes

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that aspects of the animal rights view can be constructively modulated through a communitarian approach and come to promote animal welfare through the social contexts of expanded caring communities. The Nordic welfare state is presented as a conceivable caring community within...... which animals could be viewed and treated appropriately as co-citizens with solidarity based rights and duties....

  7. Drivers for animal welfare policies in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Villa, P; Matthews, L R; Alessandrini, B; Messori, S; Migliorati, G

    2014-04-01

    The European region has been, and remains, a global leader in the development of animal welfare policies. The region has a great diversity of cultures and religions, different levels of socio-economic development, and varied legislation, policies and practices. Nevertheless, there are common drivers for animal welfare policy based on a history of animal welfare ethics and obligations to animal users and society in general. A unifying goal of countries in the region is to achieve sustainable compliance with the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) standards on animal health and welfare. Ethics isthe overarching driver, supported by the actions of governmental, inter-governmental and non-governmental activities, markets and trade, science and knowledge. Historically, organisations involved in promoting animal welfare have tended to act in isolation. For example, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have run campaigns to influence retailers and the welfare policies of their farmer suppliers. Increasingly, different organisations with common or complementary goals are working together. For example, competent authorities, inter-governmental bodies and NGOs have combined their efforts to address dog population control across several countries in the region. Also, animal welfare is becoming integrated into the corporate social responsibility targets of private companies. Science and knowledge, as drivers and tools, are assisting with the harmonisation of welfare standards, e.g. by providing a common basis for measuring welfare impacts through animal-based measures and widespread sharing of this information. Current trends suggest that there will be greater collaboration among the organisations driving change, and increasing convergence of animal welfare strategies and welfare assessment tools. The result will be increased harmonisation of animal welfare standards throughout the region.

  8. The Supply Chain's Role in Improving Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, David; Hubbard, Carmen

    2013-08-14

    Supply chains are already incorporating citizen/consumer demands for improved animal welfare, especially through product differentiation and the associated segmentation of markets. Nonetheless, the ability of the chain to deliver high(er) levels and standards of animal welfare is subject to two critical conditions: (a) the innovative and adaptive capacity of the chain to respond to society's demands; (b) the extent to which consumers actually purchase animal-friendly products. Despite a substantial literature reporting estimates of willingness to pay (WTP) for animal welfare, there is a belief that in practice people vote for substantially more and better animal welfare as citizens than they are willing to pay for as consumers. This citizen-consumer gap has significant consequences on the supply chain, although there is limited literature on the capacity and willingness of supply chains to deliver what the consumer wants and is willing to pay for. This paper outlines an economic analysis of supply chain delivery of improved standards for farm animal welfare in the EU and illustrates the possible consequences of improving animal welfare standards for the supply chain using a prototype belief network analysis.

  9. The Supply Chain’s Role in Improving Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Harvey

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Supply chains are already incorporating citizen/consumer demands for improved animal welfare, especially through product differentiation and the associated segmentation of markets. Nonetheless, the ability of the chain to deliver high(er levels and standards of animal welfare is subject to two critical conditions: (a the innovative and adaptive capacity of the chain to respond to society’s demands; (b the extent to which consumers actually purchase animal-friendly products. Despite a substantial literature reporting estimates of willingness to pay (WTP for animal welfare, there is a belief that in practice people vote for substantially more and better animal welfare as citizens than they are willing to pay for as consumers. This citizen-consumer gap has significant consequences on the supply chain, although there is limited literature on the capacity and willingness of supply chains to deliver what the consumer wants and is willing to pay for. This paper outlines an economic analysis of supply chain delivery of improved standards for farm animal welfare in the EU and illustrates the possible consequences of improving animal welfare standards for the supply chain using a prototype belief network analysis.

  10. Objecthood, Agency and Mutualism in Valenced Farm Animal Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Ian G. Colditz

    2018-01-01

    Genetic selection of farm animals for productivity, and intensification of farming practices have yielded substantial improvements in efficiency; however, the capacity of animals to cope with environmental challenges has diminished. Understanding how the animal and environment interact is central to efforts to improve the health, fitness, and welfare of animals through breeding and management strategies. The review examines aspects of the environment that are sensed by the animal. The predict...

  11. Implications of Animal Welfare on Toxicity Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Otto A.

    1993-01-01

    The testing strategy for chemical substances is discussed with regard to obtaining improved quality of data for health assessment while respecting the ethical responsibility for consideration of the welfare of the animals involved. Ensuring animal welfare without indulging too much in anthropomor...... in anthropomorphism leads to better research/testing. Current trends in toxicity testing will result in tests involving more sophisticated techniques, better quality of laboratory animals, and eventually the use of fewer animals.......The testing strategy for chemical substances is discussed with regard to obtaining improved quality of data for health assessment while respecting the ethical responsibility for consideration of the welfare of the animals involved. Ensuring animal welfare without indulging too much...

  12. Actions of and interactions between authorities and livestock farmers - in relation to animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anneberg, Inger

    understand animal welfare in daily practice and I explore if animal welfare, from an anthropological perspective, can be understood as a social technology. The methods used in the following four papers have been: 1.Ethnographic fieldwork, following inspectors on unannounced inspections of animal welfare. 2.......Following this fieldwork semi-structured interviews were performed with inspectors and farmers from 12 selected inspections. 3.Fieldwork by working at four different farms, two pig farms and two farms with dairy cattle for one month at each site. 4.Following this fieldwork semi-structured interviews were...... performed with the people I met at the farms. 5.Semi-structured interviews with a group of farmers being charged for neglect of farm animals. The papers of this thesis address the following four issues: Paper 1 The experience of animal welfare inspections as perceived by Danish livestock farmers...

  13. A history of animal welfare science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Donald M

    2011-06-01

    Human attitudes to animals have changed as non-humans have become more widely incorporated in the category of moral agents who deserve some respect. Parallels between the functioning of humans and non-humans have been made for thousands of years but the idea that the animals that we keep can suffer has spread recently. An improved understanding of motivation, cognition and the complexity of social behaviour in animals has led in the last 30 years to the rapid development of animal welfare science. Early attempts to define welfare referred to individuals being in harmony with nature but the first usable definition incorporated feelings and health as part of attempts to cope with the environment. Others considered that welfare is only about feelings but it is argued that as feelings are mechanisms that have evolved they are a part of welfare rather than all of it. Most reviews of welfare now start with listing the needs of the animal, including needs to show certain behaviours. This approach has used sophisticated studies of what is important to animals and has replaced the earlier general guidelines described as freedoms. Many measures of welfare are now used and indicate how good or how poor the welfare is. Naturalness is not a part of the definition of welfare but explains why some needs exist. In recent years, welfare has become established as one of various criteria used to decide on whether a system is sustainable because members of the public will not accept systems that cause poor welfare. The study of welfare has become part of the scientific basis upon which important political decisions are made.

  14. The Impacts of Climate Change Mitigation Strategies on Animal Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Shields, Sara; Orme-Evans, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Climate change is probably the most important environmental issue of our time. Raising animals for food contributes to the production of greenhouse gases implicated in the global warming that is causing climate change. To combat this ecological disaster, a number of mitigation strategies involving changes to agricultural practices have been proposed. However, some of these changes will impact the welfare of farmed animals. This paper reviews selected climate change mitigation s...

  15. Positive animal welfare states and reference standards for welfare assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, D J

    2015-01-01

    Developments in affective neuroscience and behavioural science during the last 10-15 years have together made it increasingly apparent that sentient animals are potentially much more sensitive to their environmental and social circumstances than was previously thought to be the case. It therefore seems likely that both the range and magnitude of welfare trade-offs that occur when animals are managed for human purposes have been underestimated even when minimalistic but arguably well-intentioned attempts have been made to maintain high levels of welfare. In light of these neuroscience-supported behaviour-based insights, the present review considers the extent to which the use of currently available reference standards might draw attention to these previously neglected areas of concern. It is concluded that the natural living orientation cannot provide an all-embracing or definitive welfare benchmark because of its primary focus on behavioural freedom. However assessments of this type, supported by neuroscience insights into behavioural motivation, may now carry greater weight when used to identify management practices that should be avoided, discontinued or substantially modified. Using currently accepted baseline standards as welfare reference points may result in small changes being accorded greater significance than would be the case if they were compared with higher standards, and this could slow the progress towards better levels of welfare. On the other hand, using "what animals want" as a reference standard has the appeal of focusing on the specific resources or conditions the animals would choose themselves and can potentially improve their welfare more quickly than the approach of making small increments above baseline standards. It is concluded that the cautious use of these approaches in different combinations could lead to recommendations that would more effectively promote positive welfare states in hitherto neglected areas of concern.

  16. Knowledge of the Animal Welfare Act and Animal Welfare Regulations Influences Attitudes toward Animal Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Recent public-opinion polls indicate that Americans have shown a decline in support for animal experimentation, and several reports suggest a relationship between people's knowledge of animal welfare regulations and their attitudes toward animal research. Therefore, this study was designed to assess respondent's knowledge of several provisions in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and Animal Welfare Regulations (AWR), and determine whether exposure to elements of this legislation would influence an individual's attitudes toward the use of animals in research. A survey was used to assess knowledge of animal research regulations and attitudes toward animal research from a sample of individuals recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing marketplace. Results from study 1 confirmed the hypothesis that respondents had little knowledge of various federal regulations that govern animal research activities. Data from study 2 revealed that exposure to elements of the AWA and AWR influenced participants’ attitudes toward the use of animals in research. These results suggest that providing information to the general public about the AWA and AWR that protect laboratory animals from abuse and neglect may help alleviate concerns about using animals in research settings. PMID:25651094

  17. Animal welfare: neuro-cognitive approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Morgante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many people maintain a naive belief that non-human animals consciously experience pain and suffering in similar ways to humans. Others tend to assume a more sceptical or agnostic attitude. Drawing on recent advances in research on animal cognition and neuroscience, the science of animal welfare is now beginning to address these issues empirically. We describe recent advances that may contribute to the main questions of animal welfare, namely whether animals are conscious and how we can assess good and bad welfare in animals. Evidence from psychology is described which demonstrate that many complex actions in humans can be carried out quite unconsciously and that human patients with certain sorts of brain damage can behave and manipulate objects properly while at the same time o consciously denying experience of them. The relevance of these findings with respect to the issue of animal consciousness is discussed. Evidence from animal cognition is described concerning the possibility that animals monitor the state of their own memories, show episodic-like knowledge and exhibit self-medication. Evidence from neuroscience concerning brain lateralization in non-human animals and its relevance to animal welfare is described. It is argued that in animals raised for economic purposes (milk and meat production differences in cognitive abilities and brain lateralization can affect adaptive behavioural, physiological and immune responses to environmental stressors.

  18. Animal welfare: a social networks perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhappel, Tanja K; John, Elizabeth A; Pike, Thomas W; Wilkinson, Anna; Burman, Oliver H P

    2016-01-01

    Social network theory provides a useful tool to study complex social relationships in animals. The possibility to look beyond dyadic interactions by considering whole networks of social relationships allows researchers the opportunity to study social groups in more natural ways. As such, network-based analyses provide an informative way to investigate the factors influencing the social environment of group-living animals, and so has direct application to animal welfare. For example, animal groups in captivity are frequently disrupted by separations, reintroductions and/or mixing with unfamiliar individuals and this can lead to social stress and associated aggression. Social network analysis ofanimal groups can help identify the underlying causes of these socially-derived animal welfare concerns. In this review we discuss how this approach can be applied, and how it could be used to identify potential interventions and solutions in the area of animal welfare.

  19. Basic principles of experimental animals welfare protection

    OpenAIRE

    Vučinić Marijana

    2007-01-01

    Ethical considerations of animal protection and welfare require that the use of experimental animals is limited as much as possible. Animal experiments should only be performed when no alternative is available and when the benefit of the experiment outweighs the suffering of the animal. This review paper describes the basic principles for the ethical use of experimental animals. These are: "Three Rs rule" (replacement, reduction and refinement), "five fr...

  20. Animal Welfare: Data from an Online Consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechi, Paola; Baldinelli, Chiara; Iulietto, Maria F; Goga, Beniamino T Cenci

    2015-11-02

    This paper analyses data obtained from an online survey related to animal welfare and religious slaughter topics. The questionnaire was conducted with the purpose of examining the purchase behaviour of a group of consumers (with different religious orientation) and their views on animal protection and ritual slaughter. The main results of the consultation were two. The first evidenced the respondents' great interest about the question on animal welfare, which is in accordance with the growing interest of European citizens concerning this issue. The second was the demand for a more transparent labelling of animal products, which would also reflect animal welfare and the slaughter method used. These results are in contrast with marketing analysis, which finds that consumers want to only receive positive information. Paradoxically, the more information is transmitted to reassure consumers, the higher is the risk to alarm them.

  1. Synthesis of semantic modelling and risk analysis methodology applied to animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Edwards, S.A.; Metz, J.H.M.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.; Algers, B.

    2008-01-01

    Decision-making on animal welfare issues requires a synthesis of information. For the assessment of farm animal welfare based on scientific information collected in a database, a methodology called `semantic modelling¿ has been developed. To date, however, this methodology has not been generally

  2. Towards the creation of a welfare assessment system in intensive beef cattle farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop an assessment scheme for the evaluation at farm level of beef cattle welfare in the intensive rearing system that is capable of both identifying weak points in animal welfare and grading farms to such extent. The basic principle of the method was the avoidance of animal handling and the prolonged observation of cattle using animal-based and resource provision measures grouped in four classes of parameters: 1 Housing systems and facilities; 2 Health and cleanliness; 3 Animal behaviour and reactivity; 4 Quality of management and stockmanship. Each parameter was graded giving the highest scores to the best option for animal welfare, and the threshold value for distinguishing good from poor welfare conditions was set primarily on the results of scientific reports and investigations. An overall Welfare Index was calculated summing the scores of the 4 classes of parameters to formulate a general judgement of the farm and to allow comparison among them. The protocol was applied to 102 Italian intensive beef cattle farms rearing more than 300 young bulls/year. Regarding housing and facilities, the study showed that space allowance and space at the manger were the most frequent critical points. Within the “poor welfare” farms, more than 80% provided less than 3.5 m2/head to bulls weighing more than 500 kg, and none adopted a feeding frontage of at least 60 cm/head. Negatively judged farms compared to those ranked in the good welfare area for health and cleanliness showed a higher incidence of emergency slaughter (score 1.7: >1% vs score 3: 0.5-1%, P<0.05 and lameness (score 1.9: 1.5-3% vs score 3.3: <1.5%, P<0.05. Animal behaviour and reactivity parameters showed that in the “poor welfare” farms, bulls had a quicker flight reaction to the presence of both farmer and observer (P<0.01 likely due to a negative human-animal interaction. The quality of stockmanship was the category in which the highest number of farms

  3. Scientific Opinion on the use of animal-based measures to assess welfare in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broom, D.; Doherr, M.G.; Edwards, S.

    2013-01-01

    Animal-based measures, identified on the basis of scientific evidence, can be used effectively in the evaluation of the welfare of on-farm pigs in relation to laws, codes of practice, quality assurance schemes and management. Some of these measures are also appropriate for ante-mortem inspection...... and there are additional post-mortem animal-based measures which can be taken at the slaughterhouse. Non-animal-based measures can be used when the association between them and the welfare outcome is strong and when they are more efficient than animal-based measures as a means to safeguard welfare. Both animal......-based and non-animal-based measures can be useful predictors of welfare in pigs. In order to assess welfare, a wide range of measures is needed. However, to assess aspects of welfare it is unnecessary to use all animal-based measures on every occasion. The choice of animal-based measures will depend upon...

  4. Industrial halal meat production and animal welfare: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, M M; Pufpaff, K M; Amir, M

    2016-10-01

    Islam teaches zero-tolerance to all forms of animal abuse throughout the halal meat production supply chain and demands that when animals are slaughtered, they must be slaughtered in the mindful and attentive way espoused by the Prophet Muhammad. Why then are poor practices and animal welfare abuses still occurring during halal meat production, and how can they be reduced or eliminated? In this review we discuss how improvements might be achieved through: (1) training of staff regarding the religious and regulatory requirements of animal welfare from on-farm to slaughter; (2) empathy and compassion assessment of applicants prior to employment; (3) installation of CCTV cameras around lairage and slaughter sites; (4) regular employee follow-up training to minimise 'compassion fatigue'; (5) incorporating animal welfare requirements in halal certification; (6) using mosque-based sermons by Imams to increase awareness of animal welfare issues; and (7) making portable humane slaughter units available to small cottage operations and home/neighbourhood-kills through mosque-based organizations/structures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Animal welfare towards sustainability in pork meat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velarde, Antonio; Fàbrega, Emma; Blanco-Penedo, Isabel; Dalmau, Antoni

    2015-11-01

    Animal welfare is an important pillar of sustainability in meat production and is associated with other aspects of this concept, such as animal health, productivity, food safety, food quality and efficiency from a cost of production perspective. These interactions are present at all stages of the production cycle, from the beginning of the animals' farm life until their slaughter. On farm, some of the main welfare issues are related to neonatal mortality and low level of sensory input, which are likely to engender stereotypes and injurious behaviours, such as tail-biting. Pre-slaughter handling refers to the interaction between humans and animals prior to and during transport and at slaughter. Strategies to reduce pre-slaughter stress will benefit carcass and meat quality, being the training of stockpeople one of the most cost-effective policies to improve animal welfare. These strategies include also the implementation of standard monitoring procedures to detect signs of consciousness after stunning, before sticking and during bleeding until death occurs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Meat liking, animal welfare and consumer willingness to pay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Napolitano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Three products (beef, lamb and chicken were used to assess the effect of information about animal welfare on meat liking. Each experiment was planned in three tests. In the first test the consumers were offered the product, and asked to taste it and rate their liking receiving no information (perceived liking. In the second test the subjects received the information concerning farming conditions and their effects on animal welfare. They were asked to read the information and give their liking expectation for that product (expected liking. In the third test consumers were given the product along with the information sheet. They were instructed to read the information before tasting the sample and express their liking score (actual liking. Consumers rated the products on a nine-point hedonic scale. Only for beef, a second-price sealed-bid auction was used to assess consumer willingness to pay (WTP according to the level of welfare of the animals used in the production process. Results from the three experiments showed that expectations induced by the information on animal welfare affected quality perception. Thus, if expectations were negatively disconfirmed (the product was worse than expected, the assimilation model was generally applicable, which means that hedonic ratings moved towards the expectations when external information on animal welfare was given compared to tasting without information. In addition, consumers showed a WTP for beef paired with information higher than its actual commercial value (P<0.001. In conclusion, information about animal welfare can be a major determinant of animal-based food liking and consumer WTP.

  7. Review of human-animal interactions and their impact on animal productivity and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, Idrus

    2013-07-15

    Humans and animals are in regular and at times close contact in modern intensive farming systems. The quality of human-animal interactions can have a profound impact on the productivity and welfare of farm animals. Interactions by humans may be neutral, positive or negative in nature. Regular pleasant contact with humans may result in desirable alterations in the physiology, behaviour, health and productivity of farm animals. On the contrary, animals that were subjected to aversive human contact were highly fearful of humans and their growth and reproductive performance could be compromised. Farm animals are particularly sensitive to human stimulation that occurs early in life, while many systems of the animals are still developing. This may have long-lasting impact and could possibly modify their genetic potential. The question as to how human contact can have a positive impact on responses to stressors, and productivity is not well understood. Recent work in our laboratory suggested that pleasant human contact may alter ability to tolerate various stressors through enhanced heat shock protein (hsp) 70 expression. The induction of hsp is often associated with increased tolerance to environmental stressors and disease resistance in animals. The attitude and consequent behaviour of stockpeople affect the animals' fear of human which eventually influence animals' productivity and welfare. Other than attitude and behaviour, technical skills, knowledge, job motivation, commitment and job satisfaction are prerequisites for high job performance.

  8. Transgenic Farm Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Morse B.; Eastridge, Janet S.; Paroczay, Ernest W.

    Conventional science to improve muscle and meat parameters has involved breeding strategies, such as selection of dominant traits or selection of preferred traits by cross breeding, and the use of endogenous and exogenous hormones. Improvements in the quality of food products that enter the market have largely been the result of postharvest intervention strategies. Biotechnology is a more extreme scientific method that offers the potential to improve the quality, yield, and safety of food products by direct genetic manipulation. In the December 13, 2007 issue of the Southeast Farm Press, an article by Roy Roberson pointed out that biotechnology is driving most segments of U.S. farm growth. He indicated that nationwide, the agriculture industry is booming and much of that growth is the result of biotechnology advancements.

  9. Literary Fiction Influences Attitudes Toward Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małecki, Wojciech; Pawłowski, Bogusław; Sorokowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Literary fiction has been credited with considerable power to improve attitudes toward outgroups. It was even argued that it has been an important factor behind the global decline of violence against various minorities in the last centuries. Could it also help to reduce the human-inflicted suffering of animals? To test this, we studied the attitude toward animal welfare of n = 921 (experimental group) people of both sexes who read a short fragment of an unpublished novel with a motif of the physical abuse of an animal. The control group (n = 912) read a fragment of a similar length but not related to animals. After reading the text all subjects filled out an on-line questionnaire with seven items (camouflaged among many others items) measuring attitudes toward animal welfare. The questionnaire included also demographical questions, such as whether the subject keeps pets. We found that in comparison with the control group, the experimental group was significantly more concerned about animal welfare. This result indicates that literary fiction can influence attitudes toward other species. It is also worth noting that our study is characterized by a high level of ecological validity, i.e. a relatively high extent to which its results can be generalized (or extended) to real-world settings. Due to its specific design, which involved the cooperation of a bestselling author and his publisher, the study approximated the typical conditions in which people read fiction in a remarkably accurate way. Finally, our research has potential practical implications for promoting animal welfare.

  10. Farm animal proteomics - A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Emøke; Danielsen, Marianne; Hollung, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    in large-scale operations, with the aim to obtain animal products for human consumption. Hence, understanding the biological traits that impact yield and quality of these products is the specific aim of much biological experimentation. However, most of the data gathered from experiments on e.g. swine......In agricultural sciences as in all other areas of life science, the implementation of proteomics and other post-genomic tools is an important step towards more detailed understanding of the complex biological systems that control physiology and pathology of living beings. Farm animals are raised...... and cattle are relevant not only for farm animal sciences, but also for adding to our understanding of complex biological mechanisms of health and disease in humans. The aim of this review is to present an overview of the specific topics of interest within farm animal proteomics, and to highlight some...

  11. Production costs and animal welfare for four stylized hog production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Lacey; Norwood, F Bailey

    2011-01-01

    Nonhuman animal welfare is arguably the most contentious issue facing the hog industry. Animal advocacy groups influence the regulation of hog farms and induce some consumers to demand more humane pork products. Hog producers are understandably reluctant to improve animal well being unless the premium they extract exceeds the corresponding increase in cost. To better understand the relationship between animal welfare and production costs under different farm systems, this study investigates 4 stylized hog production systems. The results show that increasing animal welfare for all hogs in the United States will increase retail pork prices by a maximum of 2% for a small welfare increase and 5% for a large welfare increase. The cost of banning gestation crates measured by this study is lower than the consumer willingness-to-pay from other studies.

  12. Welfare transitions and its correlates among cocoa farming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined the correlates of welfare using panel data collected in heavy and light cocoa seasons through multistage sampling techniques from 366 cocoa farming households. Data collected were subjected to descriptive and Ordered Probit model of analysis using STATA. Welfare categories were based on the ...

  13. The impact of broiler production system practices on consumer perceptions of animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Janneke; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2013-12-01

    This research explores the extent to which different farm management practices influence the perceived animal friendliness of broiler production systems, and how this differs between individuals. Using a conjoint design with paired comparisons, respondents evaluated broiler production systems that were described on the basis of 7 animal welfare-related practices. It was found that practices in the area of outdoor access, stocking density, and day-night rhythm were overall perceived to have a larger impact on perceptions of animal friendliness than other practices, such as transport duration or the type of breed used. However, individuals differed regarding the extent to which they believed the different farm management practices influenced the animal friendliness of the production system. Differences between individuals regarding their knowledge about and familiarity with livestock farming, degree of anthropomorphism, and their moral beliefs regarding animal welfare partly explained the relative importance individuals attached to farm management practices. The obtained insight into which welfare-related farm management practices, in consumers' minds, most strongly contribute to animal welfare, and the existence of differences between consumers, can be helpful in the development of animal welfare-based certification schemes that are appealing to consumers, as well as the positioning of welfare concepts in the market.

  14. Animal welfare and use of silkworm as a model animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekimizu, N; Paudel, A; Hamamoto, H

    2012-08-01

    Sacrificing model animals is required for developing effective drugs before being used in human beings. In Japan today, at least 4,210,000 mice and other mammals are sacrificed to a total of 6,140,000 per year for the purpose of medical studies. All the animals treated in Japan, including test animals, are managed under control of "Act on Welfare and Management of Animals". Under the principle of this Act, no person shall kill, injure, or inflict cruelty on animals without due cause. "Animal" addressed in the Act can be defined as a "vertebrate animal". If we can make use of invertebrate animals in testing instead of vertebrate ones, that would be a remarkable solution for the issue of animal welfare. Furthermore, there are numerous advantages of using invertebrate animal models: less space and small equipment are enough for taking care of a large number of animals and thus are cost-effective, they can be easily handled, and many biological processes and genes are conserved between mammals and invertebrates. Today, many invertebrates have been used as animal models, but silkworms have many beneficial traits compared to mammals as well as other insects. In a Genome Pharmaceutical Institute's study, we were able to achieve a lot making use of silkworms as model animals. We would like to suggest that pharmaceutical companies and institutes consider the use of the silkworm as a model animal which is efficacious both for financial value by cost cutting and ethical aspects in animals' welfare.

  15. Model to evaluate welfare in dairy cow farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Calamari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of herd welfare is a scientific discipline that is rapidly developing. The scientific community plays an important role in delivering appropriate, repeatable, valid and feasible models for this assessment. Unfortunately, there are different feelings regarding the welfare of animals and it is imperative for its assessment that certain agreement on the meaning of animal welfare is accepted. Then it is necessary to look at the goals of the models of welfare assessment because different goals require a different combination of welfare indicators. The different models for welfare assessment can be categorized broadly into research, legislative requirements, certification systems, and advisory/management tools. These models may have various goals: quantification of welfare, provision of welfare assurance or welfare management. However, it is widely accepted that welfare is best assessed with multiple different measures; therefore, a welfare assessment model for a livestock herd can include two types of measure: a description of the housing system and management (indirect indicators and data recording on how the animals react to the system (direct indicators. The first type provides information on risk factors for welfare problems. Direct measures on the animals provide information on their response to the environment and are more direct measures of welfare than their counterparts, but direct welfare indicators alone do not point out the causes of impaired welfare. Because welfare is a complex construct, different approaches for the aggregation of the different aspects of welfare have been proposed, although the aggregation in an overall welfare value is not sufficient. The thresholds between acceptable and unacceptable welfare levels have to be included in the model of welfare assessment but it seems useful to set certain minimum standards for each single welfare aspect. Afterward, judging the validity of a common welfare assessment

  16. Mapping farm animal genomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čepica, Stanislav

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 9 (1998), s. 386 ISSN 0044-4847. [Genetics Day-International conference on animal genetics /18./. 08.09.1998-10.09.1998, České Budějovice] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/96/0597 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  17. Genomic imprinting in farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiuchun Cindy

    2014-02-01

    The mouse is the first species in which genomic imprinting was studied. Imprinting research in farm species has lagged behind owing to a lack of sequencing and genetic background information, as well as long generation intervals and high costs in tissue collection. Since the creation of Dolly, the first cloned mammal from an adult sheep, studies on genomic imprinting in domestic species have accelerated because animals from cloning and other assisted reproductive technologies exhibit phenotypes of imprinting disruptions. Although this review focuses on new developments in farm animals, most of the imprinting mechanism information was derived from the mouse.

  18. Fun, animal welfare or community development? Understanding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores the impact of young travellers' value orientations on their choice for a wildlife tourism package. On the basis of existing literature, four different packages were designed: one mirroring the traditional offer of wildlife tourism as a hedonic experience; one enhancing the animal welfare aspect and intended ...

  19. Actions of and interactions between authorities and livestock farmers - in relation to animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anneberg, Inger

    named as belonging to the domain of production) which is supposed to be known by the farmers, but the farmers in this investigation (with their language about animal welfare belonging to the private domain) express their experience as uncertainty, never knowing if they are able to get things right. We...... also discuss if it is possible to create space for farmers to reflect in a more open way on their own views of the welfare of their animals. Paper 2 To inspect, to motivate – or to do both? A dilemma for on-farm inspection of animal welfare The aim of the paper was to investigate and discuss how...... the points of view or strategies of the inspectors affected the outcome of animal welfare inspections on farms. Using an ethnographic approach, the meeting between the farmers and inspectors was observed at 22 farms. 11 inspectors were selected for interviews. The results are divided into two major themes...

  20. Animal health and welfare: equivalent or complementary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicks, B; Vandenheede, M

    2014-04-01

    The concepts of 'health' and 'welfare', whether applied to humans or animals, are increasingly becoming linked. But are they really indissociable, or even synonymous? Although human health is generally defined as a complete state of physical, mental and social well-being, animal health is still considered as simply the absence of disease. However, recent advances in scientific knowledge are forcing us to revise our ideas about the mental complexity of animals and to recognise their ability to feel emotions and to have needs and a degree of consciousness. The precise objective of animal welfare science is to study their mental states and their ability to adapt to domestication. Pending a global application of this concept of health, including mental health, to animals as well as to humans, the idea of welfare remains an important element in addition to traditional health concerns. More generally, this linkage fuels the ethical debate about the ways in which people use animals, prompting society to change its stance on some aspects of the issue.

  1. What Use Is Science to Animal Welfare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, A. J. F.

    1998-06-01

    My concern is to question the quality and utility of science in general and ethology in particular as applied to animal welfare. This topic has in the past provoked me to some severe criticism, for example, 'A lot of well-intended welfare research is neither very good science nor very helpful to the animals.... Too much welfare research is (in my opinion) flawed either because it is oversimplistic, or because it is not so much designed to test preconceptions but to reinforce prejudice' (Webster 1994). Dawkins (1997) has recently responded to this challenge, addressing the question 'Why has there not been more progress in welfare research?' Her response is concerned largely with applied ethology. My own criticism was not directed at ethologists in particular. I was more concerned by the misuse of scientific method by those who seek to obtain a so-called 'objective' measurement of something which they preconceive to be a stress (e.g. measurement of plasma concentrations of cortisol or endorphins in animals following transportation). Here the 'objective' measure frequently becomes the test that gives the answer that they want, and if it fails, then they seek other 'objective' markers until they achieve a set of measurements that supports the subjective impression which they had at the outset. My second main concern is that the welfare state of a sentient animal is a very complex affair and cannot be embraced by any single scientific discipline, be it ethology, physiology, molecular or neurobiology. Unfortunately it is also too complex to be embraced by a single-sentence definition. The best I can do is to suggest that it is determined by the capacity of an animal to sustain physical fitness and avoid mental suffering. The assessment of this is necessarily multidisciplinary.

  2. Scientist' assessment of the impact of housing and management on animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.

    2001-01-01

    A total of 22 scientists contributed to a consensus-oriented conceptual framework for assessment of farm animal welfare, addressing priority issues in cattle, pigs, and chickens. They used the Delphi method, in which participants contributed anonymously through e-mail. The framework puts welfare in

  3. A new animal welfare concept based on allostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Korte, S.M.; Olivier, B.; Koolhaas, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Animal welfare is an increasing issue of public concern and debate. As a result, many countries are reconsidering the way animal welfare is embedded in the legislation and rules for housing and care of animals. This requires general agreement of what animal welfare is. Unfortunately, the current science of animal welfare is less scientific than what has been claimed. In our view, it is overly guided by anthropocentric thinking about how animals ought to be handled and neglects the latest conc...

  4. Good animal welfare makes economic sense: potential of pig abattoir meat inspection as a welfare surveillance tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harley Sarah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During abattoir meat inspection pig carcasses are partially or fully condemned upon detection of disease that poses a risk to public health or welfare conditions that cause animal suffering e.g. fractures. This incurs direct financial losses to producers and processors. Other health and welfare-related conditions may not result in condemnation but can necessitate ‘trimming’ of the carcass e.g. bruising, and result in financial losses to the processor. Since animal health is a component of animal welfare these represent a clear link between suboptimal pig welfare and financial losses to the pig industry. Meat inspection data can be used to inform herd health programmes, thereby reducing the risk of injury and disease and improving production efficiency. Furthermore, meat inspection has the potential to contribute to surveillance of animal welfare. Such data could contribute to reduced losses to producers and processors through lower rates of carcass condemnations, trimming and downgrading in conjunction with higher pig welfare standards on farm. Currently meat inspection data are under-utilised in the EU, even as a means of informing herd health programmes. This includes the island of Ireland but particularly the Republic. This review describes the current situation with regard to meat inspection regulation, method, data capture and utilisation across the EU, with special reference to the island of Ireland. It also describes the financial losses arising from poor animal welfare (and health on farms. This review seeks to contribute to efforts to evaluate the role of meat inspection as a surveillance tool for animal welfare on-farm, using pigs as a case example.

  5. Literary Fiction Influences Attitudes Toward Animal Welfare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Małecki

    Full Text Available Literary fiction has been credited with considerable power to improve attitudes toward outgroups. It was even argued that it has been an important factor behind the global decline of violence against various minorities in the last centuries. Could it also help to reduce the human-inflicted suffering of animals? To test this, we studied the attitude toward animal welfare of n = 921 (experimental group people of both sexes who read a short fragment of an unpublished novel with a motif of the physical abuse of an animal. The control group (n = 912 read a fragment of a similar length but not related to animals. After reading the text all subjects filled out an on-line questionnaire with seven items (camouflaged among many others items measuring attitudes toward animal welfare. The questionnaire included also demographical questions, such as whether the subject keeps pets. We found that in comparison with the control group, the experimental group was significantly more concerned about animal welfare. This result indicates that literary fiction can influence attitudes toward other species. It is also worth noting that our study is characterized by a high level of ecological validity, i.e. a relatively high extent to which its results can be generalized (or extended to real-world settings. Due to its specific design, which involved the cooperation of a bestselling author and his publisher, the study approximated the typical conditions in which people read fiction in a remarkably accurate way. Finally, our research has potential practical implications for promoting animal welfare.

  6. The Roots of "Animal Farm".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Barbara E.

    The presentation of the book "Animal Farm" by George Orwell to sophomores at East Orange Catholic High School, New Jersey, as a "political document" is discussed. Through research, panel discussions and voluntary comments, the students studied the book in depth comparing it to the power struggle between Stalin and Trotsky in…

  7. Animal transport and welfare with special emphasis on transport time and vibration

    OpenAIRE

    Aradom, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Farm animals are transported several times during their lifetime and often long distances, and most of them are to slaughter. During transport they are exposed to a number of stress inducing factors. The main objective of the thesis work was to study the welfare of pigs, cows and bulls during transport from farm to abattoir. Parameters such as cortisol, glucose, lactate, creatine kinease, behaviour, carcass pH, temperature, relative humidity, THI and vibration were used to evaluate welfare of...

  8. A new animal welfare concept based on allostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, S.M.; Olivier, B.; Koolhaas, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Animal welfare is an increasing issue of public concern and debate. As a result, many countries are reconsidering the way animal welfare is embedded in the legislation and rules for housing and care of animals. This requires general agreement of what animal welfare is. Unfortunately, the current

  9. 48 CFR 252.235-7002 - Animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Animal welfare. 252.235... Clauses 252.235-7002 Animal welfare. As prescribed in 235.072(a), use the following clause: Animal Welfare... animals only from dealers licensed by the Secretary of Agriculture under 7 U.S.C. 2133 and 9 CFR subpart A...

  10. Ethical concerns beyond the border: how European animal welfare policies reach Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maciel, C.; Bock, B.B.

    2013-01-01

    To accommodate the growing ethical concern regarding the way farm animals are treated, a comprehensive body of legislation has been developed to ensure the welfare of animals from birth to slaughter. Alongside governmental measures, the last decades have witnessed a proliferation of voluntary animal

  11. Changes in the Welfare of an Injured Working Farm Dog Assessed Using the Five Domains Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Littlewood

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present structured, systematic and comprehensive welfare evaluation of an injured working farm dog using the Five Domains Model is of interest in its own right. It is also an example for others wanting to apply the Model to welfare evaluations in different species and contexts. Six stages of a fictitious scenario involving the dog are considered: (1 its on-farm circumstances before one hind leg is injured; (2 its entanglement in barbed wire, cutting it free and transporting it to a veterinary clinic; (3 the initial veterinary examination and overnight stay; (4 amputation of the limb and immediate post-operative recovery; (5 its first four weeks after rehoming to a lifestyle block; and (6 its subsequent life as an amputee and pet. Not all features of the scenario represent average-to-good practice; indeed, some have been selected to indicate poor practice. It is shown how the Model can draw attention to areas of animal welfare concern and, importantly, to how welfare enhancement may be impeded or facilitated. Also illustrated is how the welfare implications of a sequence of events can be traced and evaluated, and, in relation to specific situations, how the degrees of welfare compromise and enhancement may be graded. In addition, the choice of a companion animal, contrasting its welfare status as a working dog and pet, and considering its treatment in a veterinary clinical setting, help to highlight various welfare impacts of some practices. By focussing attention on welfare problems, the Model can guide the implementation of remedies, including ways of promoting positive welfare states. Finally, wider applications of the Five Domains Model are noted: by enabling both negative and positive welfare-relevant experiences to be graded, the Model can be applied to quality of life assessments and end-of-life decisions and, with particular regard to negative experiences, the Model can also help to strengthen expert witness testimony during

  12. Animal Images and Metaphors in Animal Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Sun

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In literary works animal images are frequently used as the “source domain” of a metaphor to disclose the natures of the “target domain”, human beings. This is called “cross-domain mapping” or “conceptual metaphor” in cognitive linguistics, which is based on the similar qualities between animals and human beings. Thus the apparent descriptions of the animals are really the deep revelations of the human beings. Animal Farm is one exemplary product of this special expressing way. Diversified animal images are intelligently used by George Orwell to represent the people, so all the characters are animals in appearance, but humans in nature. Starting from the animal images and then the conceptual metaphors, readers can perceive a fresh understanding of this classical book. In this novel, three conceptual metaphors are identified and the special findings can be illustrated as the following: Firstly, the whole story of the animals represents the history and politics of the Soviet Union. Secondly, the pigs symbolize the authorities of the society. Thirdly, the names of the characters in the novel reveal their identities.

  13. On-Farm Welfare Assessment Protocol for Adult Dairy Goats in Intensive Production Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battini, Monica; Stilwell, George; Vieira, Ana; Barbieri, Sara; Canali, Elisabetta; Mattiello, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary The Animal Welfare Indicators (AWIN) project developed a practical welfare assessment protocol for lactating dairy goats in intensive husbandry systems, using animal-based indicators that cover the whole multidimensional concept of animal welfare. The strict collaboration between scientists and stakeholders resulted in an easy-to-use protocol that provides farmers or veterinarians with comprehensive but clear feedback on the welfare status of the herd in less than three hours. The protocol, which highlights key points and motivates farmers to achieve improvements, has received much attention from interested parties. Abstract Within the European AWIN project, a protocol for assessing dairy goats’ welfare on the farm was developed. Starting from a literature review, a prototype including animal-based indicators covering four welfare principles and 12 welfare criteria was set up. The prototype was tested in 60 farms for validity, reliability, and feasibility. After testing the prototype, a two-level assessment protocol was proposed in order to increase acceptability among stakeholders. The first level offers a more general overview of the welfare status, based on group assessment of a few indicators (e.g., hair coat condition, latency to the first contact test, severe lameness, Qualitative Behavior Assessment), with no or minimal handling of goats and short assessment time required. The second level starts if welfare problems are encountered in the first level and adds a comprehensive and detailed individual evaluation (e.g., Body Condition Score, udder asymmetry, overgrown claws), supported by an effective sampling strategy. The assessment can be carried out using the AWIN Goat app. The app results in a clear visual output, which provides positive feedback on welfare conditions in comparison with a benchmark of a reference population. The protocol may be a valuable tool for both veterinarians and technicians and a self-assessment instrument for

  14. Development of an Index for the Assessment of Welfare of Finishing Pigs from Farm to Slaughter based on Expert Opinion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Pia; Rousing, Tine; Herskin, Mette S

    2017-01-01

    For pigs, the day of slaughter involves potential animal welfare threatening elements at different stages such as pick-up pens, loading, transport, unloading, lairage and race. At present no tool for assessing the welfare of finishing pigs from farm exit to stunning is available. The present study...... builds on a protocol for assessment of animal welfare of finishing pigs on the day of slaughter, a protocol which was based on the structure of the Welfare Quality® protocol for finishing pigs at an abattoir. The present study aimed to develop an animal welfare index (AWI) for the day of slaughter......, lairage and race (AWIStage) and across the stages (AWIOverall). The AWIs were tested in 5 farms including a total of 45 fattening pigs delivered to two Danish abattoirs. Possible inter-relations between the AWI and heart rate measurements were examined. For each welfare measurement within stage...

  15. Development of pig welfare assessment protocol integrating animal-, environment-, and management-based measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renggaman, Anriansyah; Choi, Hong L; Sudiarto, Sartika Ia; Alasaarela, Laura; Nam, Ok S

    2015-01-01

    Due to increased interest in animal welfare, there is now a need for a comprehensive assessment protocol to be used in intensive pig farming systems. There are two current welfare assessment protocols for pigs: Welfare Quality® Assessment Protocols (applicable in the Europe Union), that mostly focuses on animal-based measures, and the Swine Welfare Assurance Program (applicable in the United States), that mostly focuses on management- and environment-based measures. In certain cases, however, animal-based measures might not be adequate for properly assessing pig welfare status. Similarly, welfare assessment that relies only on environment- and management-based measures might not represent the actual welfare status of pigs. Therefore, the objective of this paper was to develop a new welfare protocol by integrating animal-, environment-, and management-based measures. The background for selection of certain welfare criteria and modification of the scoring systems from existing welfare assessment protocols are described. The developed pig welfare assessment protocol consists of 17 criteria that are related to four main principles of welfare (good feeding, good housing, good health, and appropriate behavior). Good feeding, good housing, and good health were assessed using a 3-point scale: 0 (good welfare), 1 (moderate welfare), and 2 (poor welfare). In certain cases, only a 2-point scale was used: 0 (certain condition is present) or 2 (certain condition is absent). Appropriate behavior was assessed by scan sampling of positive and negative social behaviors based on qualitative behavior assessment and human-animal relationship tests. Modification of the body condition score into a 3-point scale revealed pigs with a moderate body condition (score 1). Moreover, additional criteria such as feed quality confirmed that farms had moderate (score 1) or poor feed quality (score 2), especially those farms located in a high relative humidity region. The developed protocol can be

  16. Animal welfare in Danish pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forkman, Björn; Otten, Nina Dam; Reiten, Mari

    2017-01-01

    -clover pastures poses animal welfare challenges during the hot season as indicated by a recent pilot study we did where 85% of sows were severely sunburned on ears. In the pasture-based system, the farrowing huts are the only possibility for sows to seek protection from the sun. Studies indicate that during hot......On a global scale, the demand for organic pork is increasing. Organic pig production is associated with positive aspects such as animals being able to perform species-specific behavior, and a low use of antimicrobics. However, the current Danish organic production system with sows on grass...

  17. From "Animal Machines" to "Happy Meat"? Foucault's Ideas of Disciplinary and Pastoral Power Applied to 'Animal-Centred' Welfare Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Matthew

    2011-01-11

    Michel Foucault's work traces shifting techniques in the governance of humans, from the production of 'docile bodies' subjected to the knowledge formations of the human sciences (disciplinary power), to the facilitation of self-governing agents directed towards specified forms of self-knowledge by quasi-therapeutic authorities (pastoral power). While mindful of the important differences between the governance of human subjects and the oppression of nonhuman animals, exemplified in nonhuman animals' legal status as property, this paper explores parallel shifts from disciplinary to pastoral regimes of human-'farmed' animal relations. Recent innovations in 'animal-centred' welfare science represent a trend away from the 'disciplinary' techniques of confinement and torture associated with 'factory farms' and towards quasi-therapeutic ways of claiming to know 'farmed' animals, in which the animals themselves are co-opted into the processes by which knowledge about them is generated. The new pastoral turn in 'animal-centred' welfare finds popular expression in 'happy meat' discourses that invite 'consumers' to adopt a position of vicarious carer for the 'farmed' animals who they eat. The paper concludes that while 'animal-centred' welfare reform and 'happy meat' discourses promise a possibility of a somewhat less degraded life for some 'farmed' animals, they do so by perpetuating exploitation and oppression and entrenching speciesist privilege by making it less vulnerable to critical scrutiny.

  18. Intimate partner violence and companion animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiplady, C M; Walsh, D B; Phillips, C J C

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effect of intimate partner violence (IPV) on companion animal welfare. Self-selected telephone survey of people meeting the criteria. Members of the Australian public with experience of IPV and concurrent companion animal ownership were invited to telephone a researcher for a semi-structured interview. In total, 26 Australian women reported one or more companion animals in the household being verbally and/or physically abused by their male partner, usually with prolonged effects on animal behaviour; 92% indicated that they had been unwilling to discuss the animal abuse with a veterinarian. Many were unaware of animal accommodation services for people fleeing violence and those who did know about these were unwilling to use them, citing their bond with the animals as the main reason. Animals targeted for abuse were most likely to be dogs and owned by women rather than men, children or both partners. Animals can be severely affected by domestic violence situations and many people experiencing violence are unwilling to confide in veterinarians or seek help from animal shelters. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2012 Australian Veterinary Association.

  19. The Development of Animal Welfare in Finland and How People Perceive Animal Welfare : Case Study: Animals in Tourism: Zoos

    OpenAIRE

    Laatu, Suvi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to study how Finnish people perceive animal welfare in general and how they feel about animals in tourism purposes, more specifically in zoos. The thesis also contains information about Finnish animal legislation and how animal welfare has developed over time. The target group for the research was people who have visited zoos recently. The interviewed people were from different age groups. The theoretical framework consists of the following topics: people’s relations...

  20. The importance of reward-evaluating mechanisms for animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harst, Johanneke van der; Spruijt, Berry

    An increasing need exists for tools to assess and improve animal welfare in an objective and scientifically based manner. This review presents an overview of knowledge and factors related to animal welfare, and explains a new concept to approach animal welfare research. This concept is based on

  1. Basic principles of experimental animals welfare protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethical considerations of animal protection and welfare require that the use of experimental animals is limited as much as possible. Animal experiments should only be performed when no alternative is available and when the benefit of the experiment outweighs the suffering of the animal. This review paper describes the basic principles for the ethical use of experimental animals. These are: "Three Rs rule" (replacement, reduction and refinement, "five freedoms" for animals and "Solna principles". "Replacement" means the substitution for conscious living higher animals of insentient material. "Reduction" means reduction in the numbers of animals used to obtain information of a given amount and precision. "Refinement" means any decrease in the incidence or severity of inhumane procedures applied to those animals which still have to be used. The "five freedoms" are: freedom from hunger and thirst, freedom from adverse environmental impacts, freedom from disease and injury, freedom to exhibit normal behavior and freedom from adverse mental states. "Solna principles" state that tests for regulatory purposes need to reflect the following: biological Relevance (meaningfulness and usefulness of a test for a particular purpose, Reliability (reproducibility of results within and between laboratories, and Regulatory acceptability (suitability of a test for risk assessment purposes (human health /environment.

  2. Selection of Meat Inspection Data for an Animal Welfare Index in Cattle and Pigs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Denwood, Matt; Forkman, Björn

    2017-01-01

    inspection codes were pre-selected based on expert judgement of having potential animal welfare relevance. Random effects logistic regression was then used to determine the magnitude of variation derived at the level of the farm or abattoir, of which farm variation might be associated with welfare, whereas......National welfare indices of cattle and pigs are constructed in Denmark, and meat inspection data may be used to contribute to these. We select potentially welfare-relevant abattoir recordings and assess the sources of variation within these with a view towards inclusion in the indices. Meat...... forward to the welfare index. A few were found to be potentially useful for a welfare index: Eight for slaughter pigs, 15 for sows, five for cattle

  3. Expansion of Farmers' Economic Welfare Through Contract Farming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper draws from the law and economics discipline theories of economic organization, agency, property rights, transaction costs and new institutional economics to analyse the state of smallholder farmers' welfare wrought by contract farming. These theories explain how the legal system (formal) and informal rules ...

  4. On-farm welfare assessment systems: what are the recording costs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jan Tind; Nielsen, Tine Rousing; Møller, Steen Henrik

    2007-01-01

    To illustrate that different approaches lead to different costs a cost calculation on four different welfare assessment systems for four different animal species has been carried out; an integrated pig herd (450 sows), a dairy cattle herd with automatic milking (90 cows), an organic egg production...... system (3000 layers) and a mink farm (1000 mink). We calculated the cost to be: E 375 per annum for the mink farm and E 2205, E 2430 and E 2435 for the egg production system, the AMS dairy herd and the integrated pig farm, respectively. The costs can be reduced by: reducing the number of indicators and...

  5. Animal Welfare at the Group Level: More Than the Sum of Individual Welfare?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohl, F.; Putman, R.J.

    Currently assessment and management of animal welfare are based on the supposition that welfare status is something experienced identically by each individual animal when exposed to the same conditions. However, many authors argue that individual welfare cannot be seen as an 'objective' state, but

  6. Overall animal welfare assessment reviewed. Welfare assessment based on needs and supported by expert opinion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Spruijt, B.M.; Metz, J.H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Welfare concerns that matter to animals is their state of need. Satisfaction and frustration of needs are associated with emotional states, the subjective experience of which directly determines the welfare status of an animal. Because emotional states are difficult to assess, overall welfare

  7. Improved animal welfare, the right technology and increased business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støier, S; Larsen, H D; Aaslyng, M D; Lykke, L

    2016-10-01

    Animal welfare is receiving increasing attention from the authorities, the public and NGOs. For this reason, the improvement of animal welfare and animal handling systems is of the utmost importance for the meat industry. Technological developments have led to more animal friendly systems that handle animals on the day of slaughter, and these developments will be even more important as consideration for animal welfare and sustainability is no longer just a trend but a licence to operate. Improvement of animal welfare also leads to a higher value of the carcasses due to higher product quality, less cut-off caused by fewer injuries, and reduced working load, which leads to increased business opportunities. Therefore, good animal welfare is good business, and the development and implementation of new technology is the way to obtain improved animal welfare. These subjects will be addressed using examples and cases from the pork and broiler production industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Farmed fish welfare-suffering assessment and impact on product quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Maria Poli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish welfare, suffering and the perception of pain were debated, together with several factors reducing infra vitam welfare of farmed fish (genetic, environment, density, malnutrition, starvation, cataracts, deformities, vaccination side effects, transport, handling, confinement, crowding, harvesting, killing method. Behavioural and physiological stress responses were considered as indicators of welfare reduction. The effects of pre-slaughter management practices, and the most commonly used stunning/slaughtering methods on welfare and quality reduction of farmed fish were discussed. A number of indicators can be used to assess fish welfare-suffering, both in a scientific and practical context, such as behavioural, haematic, cellular, tissue post mortem fish stress and quality indicators, but none of them are optimal. The best strategy for a reliable assessment of fish welfare/suffering and their impact on product quality is a multidisciplinary approach that takes into account animal behaviour and the different biochemical and physiological ante mortem and post mortem processes involved: several components, all influenced in a similar way by the same condition, suggest real welfare and quality reduction.

  9. EFFECTS OF MIGRANT REMITTANCES ON FARM HOUSEHOLD WELFARE IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egbe BASSEY ETOWA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available International remittances are now a mechanism in development financing and a welfare strategy. Growing trends of these money transfers by migrants to their families back home in developing nations have been proven by evidences in literature and many empirical findings. This research analysed the effects of migrant remittances on the welfare of farm households in Nigeria. Welfare was measurable in terms of the households’ real per capita consumption. Cross sectional data were pooled from two sources. The data sources were Nigerian General Household Survey conducted in 2010/2011 and the Nigerian Living Standard Survey carried out in 2003/2004. The analytical technique adopted was the poverty profile function within the framework of multiple regression analysis. Results showed that four exogenous variables, including household real per capita remittances were significant determinants of household real per capita consumption (welfare.

  10. The experience of animal welfare inspections as perceived by Danish livestock farmers:A qualitative research approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anneberg, Inger; Vaarst, Mette; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2012-01-01

    Animal welfare control carriedout by the authorities by using unannounced on-farm nspection has been expanding in Denmark during the past 10 years.In the EU among others,third-party audit and inspection of animal welfare connected to private labels or as a requirement from the food industry is a ...

  11. Effects of demographic factors and information sources on United States consumer perceptions of animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendree, M G S; Croney, C C; Widmar, N J O

    2014-07-01

    understanding of the factors that contribute to consumers' evolving perceptions of the care and welfare of farm animals is an essential step toward enhanced sustainability and social responsibility in contemporary food production systems.

  12. Animal Welfare in Different Human Cultures, Traditions and Religious Faiths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Szűcs

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Animal welfare has become a growing concern affecting acceptability of agricultural systems in many countries around the world. An earlier Judeo-Christian interpretation of the Bible (1982 that dominion over animals meant that any degree of exploitation was acceptable has changed for most people to mean that each person has responsibility for animal welfare. This view was evident in some ancient Greek writings and has parallels in Islamic teaching. A minority view of Christians, which is a widespread view of Jains, Buddhists and many Hindus, is that animals should not be used by humans as food or for other purposes. The commonest philosophical positions now, concerning how animals should be treated, are a blend of deontological and utilitarian approaches. Most people think that extremes of poor welfare in animals are unacceptable and that those who keep animals should strive for good welfare. Hence animal welfare science, which allows the evaluation of welfare, has developed rapidly.

  13. Review A balanced perspective on animal welfare for improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chulayo, Amanda

    2015-12-01

    Dec 1, 2015 ... Increased public concern for animal welfare in the logistics chain has led to a rise in the scrutiny of the ... There is increased public concern about animal welfare in the production logistic chain. ... still complain about poor management of animals and state that animal environments must be improved and.

  14. Current status of animal welfare and animal rights in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiaqi; Bayne, Kathryn; Wang, Jianfei

    2013-11-01

    In the past few years, new social passions have sparked on the Chinese mainland. At the centre of these burgeoning passions is a focus on animal welfare, animal treatment, and even animal rights, by the public and academic sectors. With China's rapid economic changes and greater access to information from around the world, societal awareness of animal issues is rising very fast. Hastening this paradigm shift were several highly public incidents involving animal cruelty, including exposés on bear bile harvesting for traditional Chinese medicine, the thousands of dogs rescued from China's meat trade, and the call to boycott shark fin soup and bird nest soup. This article outlines the current status of campaigning by animal advocates in China (specifically the animal rights movement) from three interlinked perspectives: wildlife conservation, companion animal protection, and laboratory animal protection. By reviewing this campaigning, we attempt to present not only the political and social impact of the concept of animal rights, but also the perceptions of, and challenges to, animal rights activities in China. 2013 FRAME.

  15. The Animal Welfare Act: From Enactment to Enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Cardon, Andrew D; Bailey, Matthew R; Bennett, B Taylor

    2012-01-01

    Originally enacted in 1966, the Laboratory Animal Welfare Act has been amended several times and renamed the Animal Welfare Act. Responsibility for administering the Animal Welfare Act was delegated within the United States Department of Agriculture to the Administrator of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, and regulations and standards have been developed to implement the intent of Congress conveyed in the language of the Act. In our opinion, the key to compliance with the Anima...

  16. ANIMAL WELFARE AS AN ELEMENT OF RETARDATION REVERSING THE TRANSFORMATION OF RESOURCES IN LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz R. Mroczek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Animals well-being today is a sign of the progressing civilization of humanity. This ethical and philosophical concept is strongly linked with and makes reference to empathy for animals used by human beings. Situating the welfare in the area of connected action is a purpose of the work from retardation. The welfare is determined as the medical condition of the physical and psychological animal achieved in optimal conditions of the farm environment. This system meets the basic needs of breeding animals, especially in the field: nutrition, access to water, ensuring the company of other animals and living space, and treatment. Animal welfare is a significant part of the process of retardation the transformation of resources natural and the most significant element contributing to its growth is the individual person directly involved in taking care of animals. Their duty resulting from ethical standards is to provide protection for animals.

  17. Discovery based and targeted Mass Spectrometry in farm animal proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Emøke

    2013-01-01

    for investigating farm animal biology. SRM is particularly important for validation biomarker candidates This talk will introduce the use of different mass spectrometry approaches through examples related to food quality and animal welfare, including studies of gut health in pigs, host pathogen interactions......Technological advances in mass spectrometry have greatly improved accuracy and speed of analyses of proteins and biochemical pathways. These proteome technologies have transformed research and diagnostic methods in the biomedical fields, and in food and farm animal sciences proteomics can be used...... be monitored to improve welfare in large industrial settings of current livestock industry. The combination of discovery based LC-MS/MS methods and the more hypothesis-based targeted mass spectrometry method commonly referred to as selected reaction monitoring or SRM, provide a powerful approach...

  18. Indicatoren voor dierenwelzijn en diergezondheid = Indicators for animal welfare and animal health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenstra, F.R.; Neijenhuis, F.

    2009-01-01

    The Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality requires a monitor for animal welfare and animal health to evaluate progress in this field. This report describes which indicators for animal welfare and health can be used for the monitor

  19. Animal welfare at the group level: more than the sum of individual welfare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, F; Putman, R J

    2014-03-01

    Currently assessment and management of animal welfare are based on the supposition that welfare status is something experienced identically by each individual animal when exposed to the same conditions. However, many authors argue that individual welfare cannot be seen as an 'objective' state, but is based on the animal's own self-perception; such perception might vary significantly between individuals which appear to be exposed to exactly the same challenges. We argue that this has two implications: (1) actual perceived welfare status of individuals in a population may vary over a wide range even under identical environmental conditions; (2) animals that appear to an external observer to be in better or poorer welfare condition may all in fact perceive their own individual status as the same. This would imply that optimum welfare of a social group might be achieved in situations where individual group members differ markedly in apparent welfare status and perceive their own welfare as being optimal under differing circumstances. Welfare phenotypes may also vary along a continuum between self-regarding and other-regarding behaviour; a variety of situations exist where (social) individuals appear to invest in the welfare of other individuals instead of maximising their own welfare; in such a case it is necessary to re-evaluate individual welfare within the context of a social group and recognise that there may be consequences for the welfare of individuals, of decisions made at the group level or by other group members.

  20. Animal welfare in multipurpose cattle production Systems and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal welfare and its influence on beef production are major considerations in many developed countries. In the developing world, where food insecurity and poverty are prevalent, the welfare of animals receives low priority due to factors such as traditional customs and beliefs, lack of knowledge in animal handling and ...

  1. Attitudes of South Brazilian sheep farmers to animal welfare and sentience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Regina Tamioso

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: We investigated self-reported attitudes of 148 South Brazilian sheep farmers to animal welfare and sentience. Many farmers (73.0% knew animal welfare superficially. Farmers that worked for longer in the sheep industry and that raised sheep for commercial purposes mentioned more commonly that they had knowledge about animal welfare (P<0.05. Terms related to freedom from hunger, thirst and malnutrition were the most used to define animal welfare, cited 24.9% of the times. The majority claimed that their animals experience good levels of welfare (93.2%, especially farmers that kept bigger flocks (P<0.05. However, many respondents believed that sheep welfare could be improved on their farms (71.6%, mainly farmers with less experience in the sheep industry (P<0.01. High scores of sentience were attributed to sheep by farmers with frequent contact with their animals (P<0.05. According to the farmers, castration causes the highest levels of suffering to sheep (32.4% and shearing, the lowest (50.0%. South Brazilian farmer knowledge about animal welfare, attitudes to sentience and recognition of suffering need improvement.

  2. Consumer perception of animal welfare and the effect of information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Nordström, Jonas

    The motivation for the present study is to understand food choice in relation to animal welfare, and how choices and preferences are influenced by expert information. The focus is on the attribute "animal welfare", which is represented by the method of producing chicken (indoor and outdoor......, the results suggest that once the respondents/consumers are given information about the production method, the higher income people have the more do they care about animal welfare in terms of WTP. Thus, economic progress is likely to have a positive effect on animal welfare, if the consumers are given...

  3. Exploration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function as a tool to evaluate animal welfare.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mormede, P.; Andanson, S.; Auperin, B.; Beerda, B.; Guemene, D.; Malmkvist, J.; Manteca, X.; Manteuffel, G.; Prunet, P.; Reenen, van C.G.; Richard, S.; Veissier, I.

    2007-01-01

    Measuring HPA axis activity is the standard approach to the study of stress and welfare in farm animals. Although the reference technique is the use of blood plasma to measure glucocorticoid hormones (cortisol or corticosterone), several alternative methods such as the measurement of corticosteroids

  4. Assessing Effectiveness of a Nonhuman Animal Welfare Education Program for Primary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Roxanne D; Williams, Joanne M

    2017-01-01

    Nonhuman animal welfare education aims to promote positive relationships between children and animals and thus improve animal welfare, yet few scientific evaluations of these programs exist. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an education program developed by the Scottish Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA) that included 4 interventions focusing on pets (companion animals), wild animals, farm animals, and general animal rescues. Knowledge, attachment to pets, and attitudes and beliefs about animal minds were assessed at pretest, posttest, and delayed posttest using a questionnaire administered to 1,217 Scottish children aged 7 to 13 years old. Results showed a significant positive impact of the program on knowledge about animals and the Scottish SPCA for all interventions. The pet and farming interventions significantly impacted children's beliefs about animal minds. There were trends toward improvements in a range of other measures. This study highlights the importance of teaching animal welfare education to children for early prevention of animal cruelty, discusses the need to base this education on theory and research to find effective change, and demonstrates how evidence-based practice can inform future education programs.

  5. 42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section 86.33 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND... Occupational Safety and Health Direct Traineeships § 86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where the...

  6. Assessing the importance of natural behavior for animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Hopster, H.

    2006-01-01

    The concept of natural behavior is a key element in current Dutch policy-making on animal welfare. It emphasizes that animals need positive experiences, in addition to minimized suffering. This paper interprets the concept of natural behavior in the context of the scientific framework for welfare

  7. The Prospect of Market-Driven Improvements in Animal Welfare: Lessons from the Case of Grass Milk in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Sandøe

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Citizens in many European countries urge that the welfare of farm animals should be improved. Policy-makers propose that this could, at least to some extent, be achieved through increased consumption of animal products produced under labeling schemes guaranteeing higher standards of animal welfare. Yet considerable uncertainties exist about the ability of the market to promote animal welfare. So far the consumption of most welfare-friendly products has been limited, and the impact of driving and limiting factors is poorly understood. Reviewing market studies, we identify the factors that have shaped the relatively successful market for grass milk in Denmark. We conclude that the positive drivers such as an appealing animal welfare attribute and animal welfare being bundled with other qualities are essentially the same as those operating in connection with less successful animal welfare-friendly products. It is therefore to be expected that other animal welfare-friendly food products marketed via “natural behaviors” in the farm animals will catch the interest of consumers. However, grass milk consumption has been supported by proper labeling, ready availability and low price premiums as well as multifaceted public support. This suggests that successful cases require the joint presence of a number of positive drivers as well as low consumption barriers.

  8. The Adipose Tissue in Farm Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauerwein, Helga; Bendixen, Emoke; Restelli, Laura

    2014-01-01

    and metabolic disorders. We herein provide a general overview of adipose tissue functions and its importance in farm animals. This review will summarize recent achievements in farm animal adipose tissue proteomics, mainly in cattle and pigs, but also in poultry, i.e. chicken and in farmed fish. Proteomics...... and immune cells. The scientific interest in adipose tissue is largely based on the worldwide increasing prevalence of obesity in humans; in contrast, obesity is hardly an issue for farmed animals that are fed according to their well-defined needs. Adipose tissue is nevertheless of major importance...... in these animals, as the adipose percentage of the bodyweight is a major determinant for the efficiency of transferring nutrients from feed into food products and thus for the economic value from meat producing animals. In dairy animals, the importance of adipose tissue is based on its function as stromal...

  9. The Impacts of Climate Change Mitigation Strategies on Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Sara; Orme-Evans, Geoffrey

    2015-05-21

    The objective of this review is to point out that the global dialog on reducing greenhouse gas emissions in animal agriculture has, thus far, not adequately considered animal welfare in proposed climate change mitigation strategies. Many suggested approaches for reducing emissions, most of which could generally be described as calls for the intensification of production, can have substantial effects on the animals. Given the growing world-wide awareness and concern for animal welfare, many of these approaches are not socially sustainable. This review identifies the main emission abatement strategies in the climate change literature that would negatively affect animal welfare and details the associated problems. Alternative strategies are also identified as possible solutions for animal welfare and climate change, and it is suggested that more attention be focused on these types of options when allocating resources, researching mitigation strategies, and making policy decisions on reducing emissions from animal agriculture.

  10. The Impacts of Climate Change Mitigation Strategies on Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Shields

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to point out that the global dialog on reducing greenhouse gas emissions in animal agriculture has, thus far, not adequately considered animal welfare in proposed climate change mitigation strategies. Many suggested approaches for reducing emissions, most of which could generally be described as calls for the intensification of production, can have substantial effects on the animals. Given the growing world-wide awareness and concern for animal welfare, many of these approaches are not socially sustainable. This review identifies the main emission abatement strategies in the climate change literature that would negatively affect animal welfare and details the associated problems. Alternative strategies are also identified as possible solutions for animal welfare and climate change, and it is suggested that more attention be focused on these types of options when allocating resources, researching mitigation strategies, and making policy decisions on reducing emissions from animal agriculture.

  11. Telos and the Ethics of Animal Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harfeld, Jes Lynning

    2012-01-01

    The concept of animal welfare in confinement agriculture—and an ethical theory based upon this concept—necessitates an idea ofwhat kind of being it is that fares well and what ‘‘well’’ is for this being. This double-question is at the heart of understanding and adequately defining welfare...... as qualitatively embedded in the experiencing subject. The notion of telos derives (philosophically) from Aristotle and is a way of accounting for the good life of an animal from the unique speciesness of the animal in question. The first part of the article will address the contemporary philosophical and ethical...... analysis of animals based upon this Aristotelian idea (Rollin in Animal rights and human morality (1st ed. 1981). Prometheus Books, New York, 2006b). Telos is here employed to illustrate the dimensions of what matters in welfare assessment and ethical evaluation. The second half of the article addresses...

  12. Social Networks and Welfare in Future Animal Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, P.; Ipema, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    It may become advantageous to keep human-managed animals in the social network groups to which they have adapted. Data concerning the social networks of farm animal species and their ancestors are scarce but essential to establishing the importance of a natural social network for farmed animal

  13. Oral gavage in rats: animal welfare evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Patricia V; Vaughn, Elizabeth; Sunohara-Neilson, Janet; Ovari, Jelena; Leri, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    The effect of chronic daily orogastric gavage with water (5 mL/kg) on behavior and physiology was evaluated in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Treatment groups included: unmanipulated control, restraint control, dry gavage, and gavage, with all rats singly housed (n = 9 or 10 per group). In addition, a group of pair-housed rats (n = 18) was included to determine whether social housing affected response to gavage. Weekly body weights and food consumption were recorded as well as use of a nylon chew toy for enrichment. Feces were collected biweekly at the end of the light and dark phases for fecal corticoid metabolite determinations. After 28 d of treatment, animals underwent conditioned place preference testing to evaluate sensitivity to motivational properties of the anxiolytic drug chlordiazepoxide (5.6 mg/kg SC). Brain and paired adrenal gland weights were collected at necropsy. Week 2 total fecal corticosterone levels were elevated in all groups and attributed to a fire alarm accidentally tripped during building renovations. No differences occurred in body weight or food consumption between any groups. All groups used a nylon chew toy given for enrichment and demonstrated mild preference for the drug-associated chamber. Fecal weights and corticoid metabolite levels were similar between all groups at week 4 and showed normal diurnal variation. No biologically significant variations were noted in brain or paired adrenal gland to body weight ratios. We conclude that orogastric gavage of aqueous solutions at 5 mL/kg does not negatively affect the welfare of laboratory rats acclimated to handling.

  14. Preface to "Should animal welfare be law or market driven?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Bioethics Symposium, entitled “Should animal welfare be law or market driven?” was held at the joint annual meeting of the American Dairy Science Association, American Society of Animal Science, Poultry Science Association, Asociación Mexicana de Producción Animal, and Canadian Society of Animal...

  15. Farming: Animals or machines? | Mitchell | Southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intensive farming industry, where nonhuman animals are treated as machines in a production process, is abhorrent to many people, and more traditional farming may seem more acceptable ethically. Nowadays, one finds products on the market with labels such as organic and green, which suggest more humane ...

  16. Concepts of animal welfare in relation to positions in animal ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kirsten

    2011-06-01

    When animal ethicists deal with welfare they seem to face a dilemma: On the one hand, they recognize the necessity of welfare concepts for their ethical approaches. On the other hand, many animal ethicists do not want to be considered reformist welfarists. Moreover, animal welfare scientists may feel pressed by moral demands for a fundamental change in our attitude towards animals. The analysis of this conflict from the perspective of animal ethics shows that animal welfare science and animal ethics highly depend on each other. Welfare concepts are indispensable in the whole field of animal ethics. Evidence for this can be found by analyzing the structure of theories of animal ethics and the different ways in which these theories employ welfare concepts. Furthermore, the background of values underneath every welfare theory is essential to pursue animal welfare science. Animal ethics can make important contributions to the clarification of underlying normative assumptions with regard to the value of the animal, with regard to ideas about what is valuable for the animal, and with regard to the actions that should follow from the results of animal welfare science.

  17. On-FarmWelfare Assessment Protocol for Adult Dairy Goats in Intensive Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Battini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the European AWIN project, a protocol for assessing dairy goats’ welfareon the farm was developed. Starting from a literature review, a prototype includinganimal-based indicators covering four welfare principles and 12 welfare criteria was set up.The prototype was tested in 60 farms for validity, reliability, and feasibility. After testing theprototype, a two-level assessment protocol was proposed in order to increase acceptabilityamong stakeholders. The first level offers a more general overview of the welfare status,based on group assessment of a few indicators (e.g., hair coat condition, latency to thefirst contact test, severe lameness, Qualitative Behavior Assessment, with no or minimalhandling of goats and short assessment time required. The second level starts if welfareAnimals 2015, 5 935problems are encountered in the first level and adds a comprehensive and detailed individualevaluation (e.g., Body Condition Score, udder asymmetry, overgrown claws, supported byan effective sampling strategy. The assessment can be carried out using the AWIN Goatapp. The app results in a clear visual output, which provides positive feedback on welfareconditions in comparison with a benchmark of a reference population. The protocol maybe a valuable tool for both veterinarians and technicians and a self-assessment instrumentfor farmers.

  18. Genetic Selection to Enhance Animal Welfare Using Meat Inspection Data from Slaughter Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Pramod K; Vogelzang, Roos; Mulder, Herman A; Knol, Egbert F

    2018-01-24

    Animal health and welfare are monitored during meat inspection in many slaughter plants around the world. Carcasses are examined by meat inspectors and remarks are made with respect to different diseases, injuries, and other abnormalities. This is a valuable data resource for disease prevention and enhancing animal welfare, but it is rarely used for this purpose. Records on carcass remarks on 140,375 finisher pigs were analyzed to investigate the possibility of genetic selection to reduce the risk of the most prevalent diseases and indicators of suboptimal animal welfare. As part of this, effects of some non-genetic factors such as differences between farms, sexes, and growth rates were also examined. The most frequent remarks were pneumonia (15.4%), joint disorders (9.8%), pleuritis (4.7%), pericarditis (2.3%), and liver lesions (2.2%). Joint disorders were more frequent in boars than in gilts. There were also significant differences between farms. Pedigree records were available for 142,324 pigs from 14 farms and were used for genetic analysis. Heritability estimates for pneumonia, pleuritis, pericarditis, liver lesions, and joint disorders were 0.10, 0.09, 0.14, 0.24, and 0.17 on the liability scale, respectively, suggesting the existence of substantial genetic variation. This was further confirmed though genome wide associations using deregressed breeding values as phenotypes. The genetic correlations between these remarks and finishing traits were small but mostly negative, suggesting the possibility of enhancing pig health and welfare simultaneously with genetic improvement in finishing traits. A selection index based on the breeding values for these traits and their economic values was developed. This index is used to enhance animal welfare in pig farms.

  19. Role of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA in providing scientific advice on the welfare of food producing animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Serratosa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The survey describes the work of the Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW Panel of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA in the provision of scientific advice on the welfare of food producing animals including animal health and food safety aspects, where relevant, and on the impact of these scientific assessments on the EU regulatory framework. EFSA was created in 2002 with the mission to provide advice and scientific and technical support for the Community legislation and policies in all fields which have a direct or indirect impact on food and feed safety, plant health, environment and animal health and animal welfare. When providing objective and independent science-based advice, the risk assessment approach should be followed, whenever possible. The AHAW Panel of EFSA provides specific advices on risk factors related to animal diseases and welfare, mainly of food producing animals, including fish. According to EFSA’s remit, ethical, socio-economic, cultural and religious aspects are outside the scope of the EFSA’s assessments. Since 2004, the Animal Health and Welfare Panel of EFSA adopted a total of 21 scientific opinions on animal welfare. Animal diseases and food safety aspects have also been taken into account, where relevant. Animal welfare aspects have been considered in some scientific opinions on animal diseases (e.g. AI, FMD. The AHAW Panel is currently working on five scientific opinions on the welfare of dairy cows and on the welfare aspects of the stunning and killing of farmed fish for eight fish species (salmon, trout, carp, eel, tuna, sea bass, sea bream and turbot. The possible interactions and implications for food safety and animal disease have been considered, when relevant, in most of the AW scientific opinions, involving other areas of expertise in EFSA, like Biohazards, Contaminants and Plant Health. The final aim of EFSA’s scientific assessments on animal welfare is to support animal welfare EU legislation on the

  20. Welfare and biosecurity standards for dairy cow and pig farms: Cattle and swine rearing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Slavča

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the essential elements concerning cattle and swine rearing and growing conditions were given in order to establish welfare and biosecurity standards. These elements were formed according to detailed annual investigations on 11 cattle and 5 swine farms and include relevant spatial, microclimate and hygienic conditions. In order to establish welfare standards, certain spatial conditions have higher importance, such as correct construction and maintenance of beds, pens and yards, and type and quality of materials used to build beds and walls. It is necessary to enable movement of animals in stables and yards as basic physiological and ethologic needs, according to latest scientific data. Also, optimal temperature, relative humidity and air velocity insuring have to be considered, as well as quality ventilation in order to establish and preserve optimal microclimate conditions. Also, it must be pointed out that hygiene maintenance of stable surfaces and animal bodies on a regular bases is essential. Basic principles and criteria for welfare level assessment are given in this paper. According to results obtained in previous investigations, special attention is given to possibilities to correct rearing and growing conditions in cattle and swine farms in our country. .

  1. The use of animal welfare indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    At any given time, an animal’s welfare ranges on a scale of very good to very poor. It contains both physical elements and mental elements. The physical elements, such as behaviour, physiology, health, productivity and pathology, can be measured relatively easily, in an experimental setting, but the...

  2. Applying ethological and health indicators to practical animal welfare assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemelsfelder, F; Mullan, S

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing effort worldwide to develop objective indicators for animal welfare assessment, which provide information on an animal's quality of life, are scientifically trustworthy, and can readily be used in practice by professionals. Animals are sentient beings capable of positive and negative emotion, and so these indicators should be sensitive not only to their physical health, but also to their experience of the conditions in which they live. This paper provides an outline of ethological research aimed at developing practical welfare assessment protocols. The first section focuses on the development and validation of welfare indicators generally, in terms of their relevance to animal well-being, their interobserver reliability, and the confidence with which the prevalence of described features can be estimated. Challenges in this work include accounting for the ways in which welfare measures may fluctuate over time, and identifying measures suited to monitoring positive welfare states. The second section focuses more specifically on qualitative welfare indicators, which assess the 'whole animal' and describe the expressive qualities of its demeanour (e.g. anxious, content). Such indicators must be validated in the same way as other health and behaviour indicators, with the added challenge of finding appropriate methods of measurement. The potential contribution of qualitative indicators, however, is to disclose an emotional richness in animals that helps to interpret information provided by other indicators, thus enhancing the validity of welfare assessment protocols. In conclusion, the paper emphasises the importance of integrating such different perspectives, showing that new knowledge of animals and new ways of relating to animals are both needed for the successful development of practical welfare assessment tools.

  3. Animal welfare at depopulation strategies during disease control actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritzen, M.A.; Gibson, Troy

    2016-01-01

    The welfare of production animals at slaughter is a major veterinary concern with debate on questions such as the degree of stunning required, how sentient animals are of their surroundings, slaughterhouse conditions and how quickly animals lose consciousness after having their throats cut in

  4. An Overview of Animal Welfare Issues in Kenya | Mogoa | Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An animal\\'s welfare is compromised if it does not enjoy the five fundamental freedoms, namely: freedom from hunger or thirst; freedom from thermal or physical discomfort; freedom from pain, injury and disease; freedom from fear and distress and; freedom to indulge in normal behavior patterns. In recent times, animal ...

  5. Drivers of animal welfare policy in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, S M; Gallo, C; Galindo, F

    2014-04-01

    Owing to its large size and ethnic, social, cultural and economic diversity, the Americas' production volume is set to make the region one of the world's leading providers of animal foodstuffs. Animal husbandry, transport and slaughter conditions vary from country to country in response to their differing climatic and geographic characteristics. This article examines the main drivers of animal welfare in the Americas, including the standards of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), legislation, codes of practice and advances in education, training, research and development. It recognises the important roles played by all the various stakeholders in changing perceptions of animal welfare by raising public awareness and promoting communication and cooperation as drivers of overall change in the Americas. Regional and international organisations, public and private-sector bodies, academia and non-governmental organisations have launched a number of initiatives with encouraging results. In 2009, the OIE established the Chile-Uruguay Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare Research, which is now the OIE Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare and Livestock Production Systems and has recently incorporated Mexico. The Collaborating Centre works closely with official OIE Delegates and the Focal Points for Animal Welfare of national Veterinary Services. The OIE Regional Animal Welfare Strategy for the Americas was adopted in 2012, under the coordination of the OIE Regional Representation for the Americas, as a guide for developing future policies based on a regional approach. The way to achieve cultural change for improving animal welfare, operator safety and the sector's profitability is through training and knowledge transfer. The results demonstrate that the joint efforts of all institutions and the active role of the Collaborating Centre have been most effective, as have the continuing education programmes implemented by universities.

  6. Perceptions of Social Responsibility of Prominent Animal Welfare Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmar, Nicole J Olynk; Morgan, Carissa J; Croney, Candace C

    2018-01-01

    Nonhuman animal welfare is an increasingly important component of consumer expectations of corporate social responsibility (CSR). The extent to which prominent animal welfare or protection organizations may influence people's perceptions of food industry CSR may be related to an organization's perceived social responsibility. Data from an online survey of 300 U.S. residents were used to explore relationships between demographics/lifestyle choices and perceptions of prominent animal welfare organizations (using best-worst scaling methodology). Overall, the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals was perceived to be the most socially responsible organization analyzed, followed by the Humane Society of the United States and the American Humane Association (AHA). Results suggest that the perceived social responsibility of animal protection organizations in this study was not strongly linked to personally (financially) supporting them, with 2 exceptions: the perceptions of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals and AHA. Improved understanding of the perception of animal welfare or protection organizations can inform decision making by organizations interested in furthering animal welfare causes.

  7. The Animal Welfare Act: from enactment to enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardon, Andrew D; Bailey, Matthew R; Bennett, B Taylor

    2012-05-01

    Originally enacted in 1966, the Laboratory Animal Welfare Act has been amended several times and renamed the Animal Welfare Act. Responsibility for administering the Animal Welfare Act was delegated within the United States Department of Agriculture to the Administrator of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, and regulations and standards have been developed to implement the intent of Congress conveyed in the language of the Act. In our opinion, the key to compliance with the Animal Welfare Act and its regulations and standards is to have in place a proactive, progressive Animal Care and Use Program that uses the semiannual inspection and programmatic review process to improve the day-to-day management of the program. Successfully managing the inspection process has taken on new meaning in what has recently become known as the 'Age of Enforcement.' As part of this approach, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service made changes to the inspection process and issued an Enhanced Animal Welfare Enforcement Plan, which included the development of an Inspection Requirements Handbook. The Inspection Requirements Handbook provides inspectors with information on conducting inspections and includes as an attachment a flow chart for Enforcement Action Guidance. The chart describes 4 types of actions that may occur as part of the enforcement process and the steps that will be followed if noncompliant items are documented during an inspection.

  8. Animal health and welfare planning improves udder health and cleanliness but not leg health in Austrian dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremetsberger, Lukas; Leeb, Christine; Winckler, Christoph

    2015-10-01

    Animal health and welfare planning is considered an important tool for herd management; however, its effectiveness is less well known. The aim of this study was to conduct animal health and welfare planning on 34 Austrian dairy farms and to evaluate changes in health and welfare after 1 yr. After an initial assessment using the Welfare Quality protocol (Welfare Quality Consortium, Lelystad, the Netherlands), results were reported back to the farmers. Health and welfare area(s) in which both the farmer and the researcher regarded improvement as important were discussed. Management practices and husbandry measures were chosen according to the respective farm situation. One year after interventions had been initiated, farms were reassessed, and the degree of implementation of improvement measures was recorded. The average implementation rate was 57% and thus relatively high when compared with other studies. High degrees of implementation were achieved related to cleanliness and udder health, at 77 and 63%, respectively. Intervention measures addressing udder health were mostly easy to incorporate in the daily routine and led to a reduced somatic cell score, whereas this score increased in herds without implementation of measures. The decrease in cows with dirty teats was more pronounced when measures were implemented compared with control farms. The implementation rate regarding leg health (46%) was comparably low in the present study, and leg health did not improve even when measures were implemented. Lying comfort, social behavior, and human-animal relationship did not require interventions and were therefore seldom chosen by farmers as part of health and welfare plans. In conclusion, the structured, participatory process of animal health and welfare planning appears to be a promising way to improve at least some animal health and welfare issues. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The well-being of farm animals: challenges and solutions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benson, G. John; Rollin, Bernard E

    2004-01-01

    .... The Well-Being of Farm Animals: Challenges and Solutions offers veterinarians, veterinary and agriculture students, animal scientists, and food animal producers both practical methods to enhance farm animal well-being, and greater...

  10. Improved nonhuman animal welfare is related more to income equality than it is to income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael C

    2013-01-01

    The link between nonhuman animal welfare, income, and income inequality (Gini coefficient) was tested using consumption of animal products, laws protecting animals on the farm from the worst abuses, and animals used in experimentation as indicators. Experimentation on all animals and on rodents significantly increased in high-income European countries, although there was some evidence that the increase in experimentation on cats and dogs started to flatten out for the highest income countries. Consumption of all flesh products in high-income countries declined in more equal societies. More equal high-income countries also had stricter regulations protecting animals, although the same correlation was not seen between U.S. states. In New Zealand, there was some evidence that testing on cats and dogs declined during years when equality was improving. The results provide little evidence for a Kuznets effect of income on animal welfare, with the possible exception of companion animal treatment. They do, however, suggest that greater equality can be a predictor for better treatment of animals. Previous research has strongly suggested that social conditions for humans improve with greater equality. The same may be true for nonhuman animals. Alternatively, conditions conducive to improving human income equality may also lead to better animal welfare outcomes.

  11. On-farm welfare and estimated daily carcass gain of slaughtered bulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herva, T.; Virtala, A.M.; Huuskonen, A.; Saatkamp, H.W.; Peltoniemi, O.

    2009-01-01

    Welfare of growing bulls was evaluated using on-farm scoring modified by well-described test theory methods. Production parameters of the bulls were collected at slaughter. A positive relationship was observed between on-farm welfare, using the full A-Index score, and daily carcass gain of bulls.

  12. Animal-Based Measures to Assess the Welfare of Extensively Managed Ewes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsworth, Paul; Doyle, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and practicality of 10 animal-based welfare measures for extensively managed ewes, which were derived from the scientific literature, previous welfare protocols and through consultation with veterinarians and animal welfare scientists. Measures were examined on 100 Merino ewes, which were individually identified and repeatedly examined at mid-pregnancy, mid-lactation and weaning. Body condition score, fleece condition, skin lesions, tail length, dag score and lameness are proposed for on-farm use in welfare assessments of extensive sheep production systems. These six welfare measures, which address the main welfare concerns for extensively managed ewes, can be reliably and feasibly measured in the field. Abstract The reliability and feasibility of 10 animal-based measures of ewe welfare were examined for use in extensive sheep production systems. Measures were: Body condition score (BCS), rumen fill, fleece cleanliness, fleece condition, skin lesions, tail length, dag score, foot-wall integrity, hoof overgrowth and lameness, and all were examined on 100 Merino ewes (aged 2–4 years) during mid-pregnancy, mid-lactation and weaning by a pool of nine trained observers. The measures of BCS, fleece condition, skin lesions, tail length, dag score and lameness were deemed to be reliable and feasible. All had good observer agreement, as determined by the percentage of agreement, Kendall’s coefficient of concordance (W) and Kappa (k) values. When combined, these nutritional and health measures provide a snapshot of the current welfare status of ewes, as well as evidencing previous or potential welfare issues. PMID:29295551

  13. The science and technology of farm animal cloning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Vajta, Gábor

    Details of the first mammal born after nuclear transfer cloning were published by Steen Malte Willadsen in 1986. In spite of its enormous scientific significance, this discovery failed to trigger much public concern, possibly because the donor cells were derived from pre-implantation stage embryos......, goats, horses, cats, etc. have been cloned with the somatic cell nuclear transfer technique. Although the technology still has relatively low success rates and there seems to be substantial problems with the welfare of some of the cloned animals, cloning is used both within basic research...... and the biomedical sector. The next step seems to be to implement cloning in the agricultural production system and several animals have been developed in this direction. This article reviews the current state of the art of farm animal cloning from a scientific and technological perspective, describes the animal...

  14. Assessing the human-animal relationship in farmed species: a critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waiblinger, S.; Boivin, X.; Pedersen, V.; Tosi, M.; Janczak, A.M.; Visser, E.K.; Jones, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    The present paper focuses on six main issues. First, we briefly explain why an increased understanding of the human¿animal relationship (HAR) is an essential component of any strategy intended to improve the welfare of farmed animals and their stockpersons. Second, we list the main internal and

  15. Welfare Risks of Repeated Application of On-Farm Killing Methods for Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E. Martin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Council Regulation (EC no. 1099/2009 on the protection of animals at the time of killing restricts the use of manual cervical dislocation in poultry on farms in the European Union (EU to birds weighing up to 3 kg and 70 birds per person per day. However, few studies have examined whether repeated application of manual cervical dislocation has welfare implications and whether these are dependent on individual operator skill or susceptibility to fatigue. We investigated the effects of repeated application (100 birds at a fixed killing rate of 1 bird per 2 min and multiple operators on two methods of killing of broilers, laying hens, and turkeys in commercial settings. We compared the efficacy and welfare impact of repeated application of cervical dislocation and a percussive killer (Cash Poultry Killer, CPK, using 12 male stockworkers on three farms (one farm per bird type. Both methods achieved over 96% kill success at the first attempt. The killing methods were equally effective for each bird type and there was no evidence of reduced performance with time and/or bird number. Both methods of killing caused a rapid loss of reflexes, indicating loss of brain function. There was more variation in reflex durations and post-mortem damage in birds killed by cervical dislocation than that found using CPK. High neck dislocation was associated with improved kill success and more rapid loss of reflexes. The CPK caused damage to multiple brain areas with little variation. Overall, the CPK was associated with faster abolition of reflexes, with fewer birds exhibiting them at all, suggestive of better welfare outcomes. However, technical difficulties with the CPK highlighted the advantages of cervical dislocation, which can be performed immediately with no equipment. At the killing rates tested, we did not find evidence to justify the current EU limit on the number of birds that one operator can kill on–farm by manual cervical dislocation.

  16. Benchmarking welfare indicators in 73 free-stall dairy farms in north-western Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trillo, Yolanda; Quintela, Luis Angel; Barrio, Mónica; Becerra, Juan José; Peña, Ana Isabel; Vigo, Marcos; Garcia Herradon, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the status of body condition score (BCS), hock injuries prevalence, locomotion and body hygiene score as animal welfare measures in 73 free-stall dairy cattle farms in Lugo (Spain). A benchmarking process was established across farms: (1) the animal-based indicators were ordered from low to high values; (2) The farms were classified into three categories based on the number of indicators within less than the 25th percentile, 25th to 75th percentile and above the 75th percentile. The median prevalence of unsuitable BCS, hock injuries and clinical lameness was (median (range)) 51.7 per cent (13.3 to 89.5 per cent), 40.0 per cent (7.0per cent to 100 per cent) and 9.0 per cent (0per cent to 60.0 per cent) respectively. The dirtiness of the cow’s coat had a high prevalence (73.0 per cent (37.5per cent to 100 per cent)). Most farms did not display consistently good or poor animal-based indicators and each farm had its own set of strong and weak points. Moreover, facilities design and management practices were described to understand source of the observations made of the cows. The incidence of overstocking was 31.5 per cent for stalls and 26.0 per cent for headlocks. The front lunge space was reduced (farms and they could benefit from others by changing management practices related to facilities and herds. PMID:29018530

  17. Route optimization as an instrument to improve animal welfare and economics in pre-slaughter logistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisk, Mikael; Jonsson, Annie; Sellman, Stefan; Flisberg, Patrik; Rönnqvist, Mikael; Wennergren, Uno

    2018-01-01

    Each year, more than three million animals are transported from farms to abattoirs in Sweden. Animal transport is related to economic and environmental costs and a negative impact on animal welfare. Time and the number of pick-up stops between farms and abattoirs are two key parameters for animal welfare. Both are highly dependent on efficient and qualitative transportation planning, which may be difficult if done manually. We have examined the benefits of using route optimization in cattle transportation planning. To simulate the effects of various planning time windows and transportation time regulations and number of pick-up stops along each route, we have used data that represent one year of cattle transport. Our optimization model is a development of a model used in forestry transport that solves a general pick-up and delivery vehicle routing problem. The objective is to minimize transportation costs. We have shown that the length of the planning time window has a significant impact on the animal transport time, the total driving time and the total distance driven; these parameters that will not only affect animal welfare but also affect the economy and environment in the pre-slaughter logistic chain. In addition, we have shown that changes in animal transportation regulations, such as minimizing the number of allowed pick-up stops on each route or minimizing animal transportation time, will have positive effects on animal welfare measured in transportation hours and number of pick-up stops. However, this leads to an increase in working time and driven distances, leading to higher transportation costs for the transport and negative environmental impact.

  18. Route optimization as an instrument to improve animal welfare and economics in pre-slaughter logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Each year, more than three million animals are transported from farms to abattoirs in Sweden. Animal transport is related to economic and environmental costs and a negative impact on animal welfare. Time and the number of pick-up stops between farms and abattoirs are two key parameters for animal welfare. Both are highly dependent on efficient and qualitative transportation planning, which may be difficult if done manually. We have examined the benefits of using route optimization in cattle transportation planning. To simulate the effects of various planning time windows and transportation time regulations and number of pick-up stops along each route, we have used data that represent one year of cattle transport. Our optimization model is a development of a model used in forestry transport that solves a general pick-up and delivery vehicle routing problem. The objective is to minimize transportation costs. We have shown that the length of the planning time window has a significant impact on the animal transport time, the total driving time and the total distance driven; these parameters that will not only affect animal welfare but also affect the economy and environment in the pre-slaughter logistic chain. In addition, we have shown that changes in animal transportation regulations, such as minimizing the number of allowed pick-up stops on each route or minimizing animal transportation time, will have positive effects on animal welfare measured in transportation hours and number of pick-up stops. However, this leads to an increase in working time and driven distances, leading to higher transportation costs for the transport and negative environmental impact. PMID:29513704

  19. Religious slaughter and animal welfare: data from an online consultation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Baldinelli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Two are the main results of the online survey, which was conducted with the purpose to examine the purchase behavior of a group of consumers and their views on animal welfare and religious slaughter. First result is the respondents’ great interest about the question on animal welfare, which is in accordance with the growing interest of European citizens about this issue. Second is the demand for a more transparent labeling of animal products, which would be also concerning animal welfare and slaughter method used. These results are in conflict with marketing analysis, which find that consumers want to receive only positive information. Paradoxically, the more information is transmitted to reassure consumers the higher risk to alarm them.

  20. Animal rights and welfare advocacy for enhanced food security in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tropical conditions of the Nigerian environment favours domestic and wild animal production. It, therefore, not only offers ample investment opportunities in the livestock sub-sector of the economy, but also guarantees food security for the nation. This study examined basic animal welfare rights, and ascertained selected ...

  1. Beta-agonists and animal welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of beta-agonists in animal feed is a high profile topic within the U.S. as consumers and activist groups continue to question its safety. The only beta-agonist currently available for use in swine is ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC). This is available as Paylean™ (Elanco Animal Health – FDA a...

  2. The effects of music on animal physiology, behavior and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alworth, Leanne C; Buerkle, Shawna C

    2013-02-01

    Physiological and psychological effects of listening to music have been documented in humans. The changes in physiology, cognition and brain chemistry and morphology induced by music have been studied in animal models, providing evidence that music may affect animals similarly to humans. Information about the potential benefits of music to animals suggests that providing music may be used as a means of improving the welfare of laboratory animals, such as through environmental enrichment, stress relief and behavioral modification. The authors review the current research on music's effect on animals' physiology and behavior and discuss its potential for improving animal welfare. They conclude that the benefits of providing music to laboratory animals depend on the species and the type of music.

  3. Animal emotions, behaviour and the promotion of positive welfare states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, D J

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a rationale that may significantly boost the drive to promote positive welfare states in animals. The rationale is based largely, but not exclusively, on an experimentally supported neuropsychological understanding of relationships between emotions and behaviour, an understanding that has not yet been incorporated into animal welfare science thinking. Reference is made to major elements of the neural/cognitive foundations of motivational drives that energise and direct particular behaviours and their related subjective or emotional experiences. These experiences are generated in part by sensory inputs that reflect the animal's internal functional state and by neural processing linked to the animal's perception of its external circumstances. The integrated subjective or emotional outcome of these inputs corresponds to the animal's welfare status. The internally generated subjective experiences represent motivational urges or drives that are predominantly negative and include breathlessness, thirst, hunger and pain. They are generated by, and elicit specific behaviours designed to correct, imbalances in the animal's internal functional state. Externally generated subjective experiences are said to be integral to the operation of interacting 'action-orientated systems' that give rise to particular behaviours and their negative or positive emotional contents. These action-orientated systems, described in neuropsychological terms, give rise to negative emotions that include fear, anger and panic, and positive emotions that include comfort, vitality, euphoria and playfulness. It is argued that early thinking about animal welfare management focused mainly on minimising disturbances to the internal functional states that generate associated unpleasant motivational urges or drives. This strategy produced animal welfare benefits, but at best it could only lift a poor net welfare status to a neutral one. In contrast, strategies designed to manipulate the

  4. Animal-based welfare monitoring: using keeper ratings as an assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitham, Jessica C; Wielebnowski, Nadja

    2009-11-01

    Zoological institutions are in urgent need of identifying and implementing welfare assessment tools that allow for ongoing, quantitative monitoring of individual animal well-being. Although the American Zoological Association's (AZA) Animal Welfare Committee (AWC) promotes the use of such tools in internal review processes, current approaches to institutional welfare assessment are resource-based and outline the resources, environmental parameters and "best practices" recommended for promoting good welfare in a species in general. We highlight the value of incorporating animal-based monitoring tools that capture the individual animal's perspective and subjective experiences, including positive events and feelings, by validating zookeepers' qualitative assessments. We present evidence that, across a variety of species, caretakers' assessments of traits related to the well-being of individual animals can be both reliable and valid. Furthermore, we demonstrate that among researchers investigating the welfare of farm, laboratory, companion and even zoo animals, support already exists for developing and validating instruments that objectively evaluate the qualitative assessments of caretakers. Finally, we outline a process currently being evaluated at Brookfield Zoo for developing, validating and testing a cost-effective, user-friendly monitoring tool that will help to quantify keepers' qualitative assessments of individual well-being and can be integrated into daily operations. This tool (i.e. species-specific Welfare Score Sheets designed through consultation with animal experts) will result in weekly scores of individual well-being that are expected to provide a first indicator of welfare issues in the collection. Specifically, scores can be reviewed during regular workgroup meetings to identify welfare issues proactively, to assess whether particular conditions, practices or events impact individual well-being, and finally, to evaluate the effectiveness of efforts

  5. Conducting On-Farm Animal Research: Procedures & Economic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Pervaiz; Knipscheer, Hendrik C.

    This book is intended to give animal scientists elementary tools to perform on-farm livestock analysis and to provide crop-oriented farming systems researchers with methods for conducting animal research. Chapter 1 describes farming systems research as a systems approach to on-farm animal research. Chapter 2 outlines some important…

  6. Gaps in US Animal Welfare Law for Laboratory Animals: Perspectives From an Animal Law Attorney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasch, Pamela D

    2016-05-01

    The use of animals in biomedical, toxicological, and basic research has been common practice, and a tool for scientists and researchers, for many years. And yet, serious conflict continues to exist between those who believe that the use of animals in research will yield scientific results that benefit humans and those who believe such practices are unethical regardless of use or outcome. High-profile undercover cases have further raised public awareness and have put the entire industry under pressure to be transparent, accountable, and aggressive in its adoption of reduction, refinement, and replacement (3R) principles. Many animal law attorneys are deeply frustrated by what they see as weak US laws that are unevenly enforced, especially when compared with legal advances in other countries and regions. This article (1) explores those gaps in US animal welfare laws with an emphasis on the Animal Welfare Act, (2) argues in favor of stronger laws and rigorous enforcement, and (3) suggests steps to advance these goals. These steps include (1) expanding the definition of "animal" in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA), (2) improving and expanding minimum care requirements in USDA regulations, (3) instituting mandatory reporting requirements, improving Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees, and allowing easier accessibility to laboratory reports and plans, (4) adding a citizen suit provision to the AWA, and (5) continuing education about the emotional and social capacities of animals and a stronger commitment to 3R principles. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Animal Farm--A Lesson Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Susan

    1987-01-01

    Offers several suggestions for teaching George Orwell's "Animal Farm" to high school students. Included are strategies for (1) teaching themes of the story, (2) interpreting the story on several levels, (3) seeing the connections between language and politics, (4) using group activities, and (5) using visual aids. (JC)

  8. A survey of animal welfare needs in Soweto : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.E. McCrindle

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The diagnostic phase of an interactive research evaluation model was used in the investigation of the animal welfare needs of a low-income urban community in South Africa. Data were gathered by means of a structured interview and direct observations by animal welfare officers. During the survey of 871 animal owners in Soweto, it was found that dogs were owned by 778 households and cats by 88 households. The dog to human ratio was estimated at 1:12.4. Respondents were asked whether they enjoyed owning animals and 96.1 % said that they did. Only 26.3 % mentioned that they had problems with their own animals and 16.6 % had problems with other people's animals. Treatment of sick animals (29.7 % was seen as a priority. However, less than 1 % (n = 6 used the services of private veterinarians. Others took their animals to welfare organisations or did not have them treated. Perceptions of affordable costs of veterinary treatments were also recorded. In addition to treatment, respondents indicated a need for vaccination (22.5 %, sterilisation (16.5 %, control of internal (3.7 % and external (8.8 % parasites, education and extension (6.6 %, prevention of cruelty to animals (3.2 % and expansion of veterinary clinics to other parts of Soweto (1.3 %.

  9. Animal welfare and the human-animal bond: considerations for veterinary faculty, students, and practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensley, Sean P

    2008-01-01

    Consideration of the human-animal bond typically focuses on the benefits of companion animals to human health and well-being, but it is essential that in realizing these benefits the welfare needs of the animals, both physical and mental, are also met. Positive emotional relationships with animals are likely to increase recognition of animal sentience and so help create positive attitudes toward animals at the societal level, but, at the individual level, the animals to which humans are bonded should also benefit from the human-animal relationship. A strong human-animal bond may benefit animal welfare (e.g., by motivating an owner to commit time and funds to necessary veterinary medical treatment), but may also be the source of compromised welfare. Highly bonded owners may, for example, be reluctant to permit euthanasia on humane grounds, and the anthropomorphic nature of many human-companion animal bonds can contribute to the development of problem behaviors and obesity. The challenge for the veterinary profession is to ensure that widespread positive sentiment toward animals, which the human-animal bond generates, is translated in to human behavior and actions that are conducive to good animal welfare. This, it is suggested, can be achieved through adequate veterinary education in veterinary and animal welfare science, ethics, and communication.

  10. Development of animal welfare understanding drives change in minimum welfare standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, D J; Webster, J R

    2014-04-01

    The process by which societies adapt to increasing knowledge about the mental and physical capacities of animals and the ways in which they are affected by human activities has been described as a journey. Different countries and regions are at various stages of this journey, and will take a unique path, depending on their specific social and cultural dynamics. However, all participants are unified by an increasing awareness of, and concern for, animal welfare. This journey has been characterised by a number of landmark events, one of which was the release of the Five Freedoms concept. Although aspirational and abstract, as it did not outline specific practical goals, nonetheless this concept became a catalyst for moving animal welfare thinking in a new direction, and set up a number of important targets for research. This eventually led to a key shift in thinking from a focus on biological functioning and resources, to ways of assessing welfare outcomes in terms of animals' experiences, i.e. their affective states. Behaviour science played an important role in the interpretation of animals' affective experiences, receiving compelling support from parallel studies in affective neuroscience. An important aspect of our understanding of animal welfare is that affective states can be negative or positive. Enabling animals to perform specific behaviours at key times when they are needed is central to the achievement of positive affective states. Another important event has been the development of practical ways to shift the spectrum of affective states towards a positive balance and their incorporation into welfare codes and regulations. The recent focus on positive affective states does not mean that negative experiences should be given less attention. In fact, in those countries that are at the early stages of the journey, improving function and productivity may be the most effective way to promote some important aspects of animal welfare. For example, alleviating

  11. Connecting Different Data Sources to Assess the Interconnections between Biosecurity, Health, Welfare, and Performance in Commercial Pig Farms in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, Fanny; Edwards, Sandra A.; Maes, Dominiek; Kyriazakis, Ilias

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to provide an overview of the interconnections between biosecurity, health, welfare, and performance in commercial pig farms in Great Britain. We collected on-farm data about the level of biosecurity and animal performance in 40 fattening pig farms and 28 breeding pig farms between 2015 and 2016. We identified interconnections between these data, slaughterhouse health indicators, and welfare indicator records in fattening pig farms. After achieving the connections between databases, a secondary data analysis was performed to assess the interconnections between biosecurity, health, welfare, and performance using correlation analysis, principal component analysis, and hierarchical clustering. Although we could connect the different data sources the final sample size was limited, suggesting room for improvement in database connection to conduct secondary data analyses. The farm biosecurity scores ranged from 40 to 90 out of 100, with internal biosecurity scores being lower than external biosecurity scores. Our analysis suggested several interconnections between health, welfare, and performance. The initial correlation analysis showed that the prevalence of lameness and severe tail lesions was associated with the prevalence of enzootic pneumonia-like lesions and pyaemia, and the prevalence of severe body marks was associated with several disease indicators, including peritonitis and milk spots (r > 0.3; P  0.3; P Farms from cluster 1 had lower biosecurity scores, lower ADG, and higher prevalence of several disease and welfare indicators. Farms from cluster 2 had higher biosecurity scores than cluster 1, but a higher prevalence of pigs requiring hospitalization and lameness which confirmed the correlation between biosecurity and the prevalence of pigs requiring hospitalization (r > 0.3; P Farms from cluster 3 had higher biosecurity, higher ADG, and lower prevalence for some disease and welfare indicators. The study suggests a smaller

  12. Development and Validation of a Scale to Assess Students' Attitude towards Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazas, Beatriz; Rosario Fernández Manzanal, Mª; Zarza, Francisco Javier; Adolfo María, Gustavo

    2013-07-01

    This work presents the development of a scale of attitudes of secondary-school and university students towards animal welfare. A questionnaire was drawn up following a Likert-type scale attitude assessment model. Four components or factors, which globally measure animal welfare, are proposed to define the object of the attitude. The components are animal abuse for pleasure or due to ignorance (C1), leisure with animals (C2), farm animals (C3) and animal abandonment (C4). The final version of the questionnaire contains 29 items that are evenly distributed among the four components indicated, guaranteeing that each component is one-dimensional. A sample of 329 students was used to validate the scale. These students were aged between 11 and 25, and were from secondary schools in Aragon and the University in Zaragoza (Aragon's main and largest city, located in NE Spain). The scale shows good internal reliability, with a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.74. The questionnaire was later given to 1,007 students of similar levels and ages to the sample used in the validation, the results of which are presented in this study. The most relevant results show significant differences in gender and level of education in some of the components of the scale, observing that women and university students rate animal welfare more highly.

  13. Evaluation of Animal-Based Indicators to Be Used in a Welfare Assessment Protocol for Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Susan E; Wemelsfelder, Francoise; de Heredia, Ina Beltran; Ruiz, Roberto; Canali, Elisabetta; Dwyer, Cathy M

    2017-01-01

    Sheep are managed under a variety of different environments (continually outdoors, partially outdoors with seasonal or diurnal variation, continuously indoors) and for different purposes, which makes assessing welfare challenging. This diversity means that resource-based indicators are not particularly useful and, thus, a welfare assessment scheme for sheep, focusing on animal-based indicators, was developed. We focus specifically on ewes, as the most numerous group of sheep present on farm, although many of the indicators may also have relevance to adult male sheep. Using the Welfare Quality ® framework of four Principles and 12 Criteria, we considered the validity, reliability, and feasibility of 46 putative animal-based indicators derived from the literature for these criteria. Where animal-based indicators were potentially unreliably or were not considered feasible, we also considered the resource-based indicators of access to water, stocking density, and floor slipperiness. With the exception of the criteria "Absence of prolonged thirst," we suggest at least one animal-based indicator for each welfare criterion. As a minimum, face validity was available for all indicators; however, for many, we found evidence of convergent validity and discriminant validity (e.g., lameness as measured by gait score, body condition score). The reliability of most of the physical and health measures has been tested in the field and found to be appropriate for use in welfare assessment. However, for the majority of the proposed behavioral indicators (lying synchrony, social withdrawal, postures associated with pain, vocalizations, stereotypy, vigilance, response to surprise, and human approach test), this still needs to be tested. In conclusion, the comprehensive assessment of sheep welfare through largely animal-based measures is supported by the literature through the use of indicators focusing on specific aspects of sheep biology. Further work is required for some indicators

  14. Evaluation of Animal-Based Indicators to Be Used in a Welfare Assessment Protocol for Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Susan E.; Wemelsfelder, Francoise; de Heredia, Ina Beltran; Ruiz, Roberto; Canali, Elisabetta; Dwyer, Cathy M.

    2017-01-01

    Sheep are managed under a variety of different environments (continually outdoors, partially outdoors with seasonal or diurnal variation, continuously indoors) and for different purposes, which makes assessing welfare challenging. This diversity means that resource-based indicators are not particularly useful and, thus, a welfare assessment scheme for sheep, focusing on animal-based indicators, was developed. We focus specifically on ewes, as the most numerous group of sheep present on farm, although many of the indicators may also have relevance to adult male sheep. Using the Welfare Quality® framework of four Principles and 12 Criteria, we considered the validity, reliability, and feasibility of 46 putative animal-based indicators derived from the literature for these criteria. Where animal-based indicators were potentially unreliably or were not considered feasible, we also considered the resource-based indicators of access to water, stocking density, and floor slipperiness. With the exception of the criteria “Absence of prolonged thirst,” we suggest at least one animal-based indicator for each welfare criterion. As a minimum, face validity was available for all indicators; however, for many, we found evidence of convergent validity and discriminant validity (e.g., lameness as measured by gait score, body condition score). The reliability of most of the physical and health measures has been tested in the field and found to be appropriate for use in welfare assessment. However, for the majority of the proposed behavioral indicators (lying synchrony, social withdrawal, postures associated with pain, vocalizations, stereotypy, vigilance, response to surprise, and human approach test), this still needs to be tested. In conclusion, the comprehensive assessment of sheep welfare through largely animal-based measures is supported by the literature through the use of indicators focusing on specific aspects of sheep biology. Further work is required for some

  15. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Practical developments in managing animal welfare in beef cattle: what does the future hold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, J L; Calvo-Lorenzo, M S

    2014-12-01

    Interest in the welfare of cattle in the beef industry has intensified over time because of ethical concerns and varying societal perceptions that exist about the treatment and living conditions of farm animals. The definition of welfare will vary according to an individual's philosophies (how one defines and prioritizes what is "good"), experiences (societal and cultural influences of animal roles and relationships), and involvement in the livestock industry (knowledge of how livestock operations work and why). Many welfare concerns in the beef industry could be mitigated by enhancing traditional husbandry practices that utilize practical improvements to alleviate or eliminate heat stress, pain from routine husbandry procedures, negative cattle handling, and the transitional effects of weaning, dry feeding, transportation, and comingling of calves. Recent concerns about the potential welfare effects of feeding technologies such as β-adrenergic agonists (BAA) have emerged and led to industry-wide effects, including the removal of a single BAA product from the market and the development of BAA-specific welfare audits. Altogether, the beef industry continues to be challenged by welfare issues that question a large range of practices, from traditional husbandry to newer technological advancements. As welfare awareness increases, efforts to improve livestock care and management must focus on scientific investigations, practical solutions, consumer perceptions, and educational tools that advance knowledge and training in livestock welfare. Furthermore, the future of beef cattle welfare must align welfare concerns with other aspects of sustainable beef production such as environmental quality, profitability, food safety, and nutritional quality.

  16. Validation of carcass lesions as indicators for on-farm health and welfare of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Staaveren, N; Doyle, B; Manzanilla, E G; Calderón Díaz, J A; Hanlon, A; Boyle, L A

    2017-04-01

    Incorporating indicators for pig health and welfare at meat inspection could reduce the need for on-farm assessments. Skin and tail lesions are important welfare indicators in pigs with good potential to record during meat inspection and could possibly function as iceberg indicators of on farm welfare. The aim of this study was to validate the use of these carcass lesions at meat inspection for the assessment of pig health and welfare on farm. Thirty-one farrow-to-finish pig farms (∼12% of Irish herds) were assessed using an adapted version of the Welfare Quality protocol by inspecting 6 randomly selected pens of pigs in the first weaner (4 to 8 wk), second weaner (8 to 13 wk) and finisher stage (13 to 23 wk). The average prevalence of welfare outcomes for each stage was calculated. One batch of pigs was observed at slaughter and skin and tail lesions were scored according to severity for each carcass. The average prevalence of carcass lesion outcomes was calculated for each farm. Linear regression models were developed to predict the prevalence of each welfare outcome in each stage based on the prevalence of the different carcass lesions. The welfare outcomes of different welfare aspects that were best predicted by abattoir information (highest ) were poor body condition (first weaner stage), bursitis (second weaner stage), huddling (first weaner stage), severe tail lesions (finisher stage) and coughing (second weaner stage). Regression trees and receiver-operating curves (ROC) were used to evaluate the usefulness of carcass lesions as monitoring tools. Receiver-operating curves were created using the 75th percentile to classify farms as a problem farm for these welfare outcomes. Cut-off values of predictive carcass lesion prevalence were similar using both techniques. Models for predicting problem farms with poor body condition, bursitis and severe tail lesions were moderately accurate. Sensitivity and specificity ranged from 75 to 100% and 70 to 87

  17. A new educational resource to improve veterinary students' animal welfare learning experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Annie J; Mullan, Siobhan M; Main, David C J

    2013-01-01

    A computer-aided learning (CAL) educational resource based on experiential learning principles has been developed. Its aim is to improve veterinary students' ability to critically review the effect on welfare of husbandry systems observed during their work placement on sheep farms. The CAL consisted of lectures, multiple-choice questions, video recordings of animals in various husbandry conditions, open questions, and concept maps. An intervention group of first-year veterinary students (N=31) was selected randomly to access the CAL before their sheep farm placement, and a control group (N=50) received CAL training after placement. Assessment criteria for the categories remember, understand, apply, analyze, evaluate, and create, based on Bloom's revised taxonomy, were used to evaluate farm reports submitted by all students after their 2-week placement. Students in the intervention group were more likely than their untrained colleagues (pbased measurements relating to the freedom from hunger and thirst; the freedom from discomfort; and the freedom from pain, injury, or disease. Intervention group students were also more likely to analyze the freedom from pain, injury, or disease and the freedom to exhibit normal behavior and to evaluate the freedom from fear and distress. Relatively few students in each group exhibited creativity in their reports. These findings indicate that use of CAL before farm placement improved students' ability to assess and report animal welfare as part of their extramural work experience.

  18. Introducing breathlessness as a significant animal welfare issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beausoleil, N J; Mellor, D J

    2015-01-01

    Breathlessness is a negative affective experience relating to respiration, the animal welfare significance of which has largely been underestimated in the veterinary and animal welfare sciences. In this review, we draw attention to the negative impact that breathlessness can have on the welfare of individual animals and to the wide range of situations in which mammals may experience breathlessness. At least three qualitatively distinct sensations of breathlessness are recognised in human medicine--respiratory effort, air hunger and chest tightness--and each of these reflects comparison by cerebral cortical processing of some combination of heightened ventilatory drive and/or impaired respiratory function. Each one occurs in a variety of pathological conditions and other situations, and more than one may be experienced simultaneously or in succession. However, the three qualities vary in terms of their unpleasantness, with air hunger reported to be the most unpleasant. We emphasise the important interplay among various primary stimuli to breathlessness and other physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as animal management practices. For example, asphyxia/drowning of healthy mammals or killing those with respiratory disease using gases containing high carbon dioxide tensions is likely to lead to severe air hunger, while brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome in modern dog and cat breeds increases respiratory effort at rest and likely leads to air hunger during exertion. Using this information as a guide, we encourage animal welfare scientists, veterinarians, laboratory scientists, regulatory bodies and others involved in evaluations of animal welfare to consider whether or not breathlessness contributes to any compromise they may observe or wish to avoid or mitigate.

  19. 42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... protection of human subjects; and (b) Chapter 1-43 of the Department Grants Administration Manual 2... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19 Section 86.19 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND...

  20. Overall animal welfare assessment reviewed. Is it possible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Spruijt, B.M.; Metz, J.H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Several authors have concluded that scientists should not attempt to perform overall animal welfare assessment (OWA). They argue that scientists have continued to fail to make progress in this area and that value judgements are inherently involved in OWA for which science cannot provide answers. We

  1. Facilitating Attitudinal Learning in an Animal Behaviour and Welfare MOOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sunnie Lee

    2017-01-01

    This case study examines the design and facilitation of a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) that focused on attitudinal learning about the topic of animal behaviour and welfare. Findings showed that a team of instructors worked together collaboratively towards realising learning goals and found the experience rewarding. While learners had mixed…

  2. Chilean consumers' perception about animal welfare in dairy production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Einar; Riveros, José Luis; Köbrich, Claus

    2017-01-01

    production systems and animal welfare, and the main aspects they considered when buying dairy products. A face-to-face interview was conducted on a sample of 501 persons from the Province of Santiago, Chile. The survey was conducted in major supermarkets from 15 different municipalities of Santiago...

  3. Research Article: Animal Welfare The Impact of Customized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was designed to investigate the knowledge and perceptions of animal welfare and related legislations among graduating Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine students from the University of Nairobi, Kenya. A questionnaire was designed and administered to assess understanding, poor attributes, good provisions, ...

  4. Behavioral ecology of captive species: using behavioral adaptations to assess and enhance welfare of nonhuman zoo animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koene, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This project aimed to estimate a species' adaptations in nature and in captivity, assess welfare, suggest environmental changes, and find species characteristics that underlie welfare problems in nonhuman animals in the zoo. First, the current status of zoo animal welfare assessment was reviewed, and the behavioral ecology approach was outlined. In this approach, databases of species characteristics were developed using (a) literature of natural behavior and (b) captive behavior. Species characteristics were grouped in 8 functional behavioral ecological fitness-related categories: space, time, metabolic, safety, reproductive, comfort, social, and information adaptations. Assessments of the strength of behavioral adaptations in relation to environmental demands were made based on the results available from the literature. The databases with literature at the species level were coupled with databases of (c) behavioral observations and (d) welfare assessments under captive conditions. Observation and welfare assessment methods were adapted from the animal on the farm realm and applied to zoo species. It was expected that the comparison of the repertoire of behaviors in natural and captive environments would highlight welfare problems, provide solutions to welfare problems by environmental changes, and identify species characteristics underlying zoo animal welfare problems.

  5. On-farm welfare assessment for regulatory purposes: Issues and possible solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jan Tind; Fraser, David

    2010-01-01

    On-farm welfare assessment has been used mainly for non-regulatory purposes such as producer education or to qualify for voluntary welfare-assurance programs. The application of on-farm assessments in regulatory programs would require four issues to be addressed: (1) selecting criteria that are w......On-farm welfare assessment has been used mainly for non-regulatory purposes such as producer education or to qualify for voluntary welfare-assurance programs. The application of on-farm assessments in regulatory programs would require four issues to be addressed: (1) selecting criteria...... solution. Issues 3 and 4 (fairness and efficiency) require scientific data on the precision, repeatability, independence, and cost-of-scoring for the various candidate criteria. A process is also needed to bring the scientific information into the deliberative process, either as formal recommendations and...

  6. Reliability of sampling strategies for measuring dairy cattle welfare on commercial farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Os, Jennifer M C; Winckler, Christoph; Trieb, Julia; Matarazzo, Soraia V; Lehenbauer, Terry W; Champagne, John D; Tucker, Cassandra B

    2018-02-01

    Our objective was to evaluate how the proportion of high-producing lactating cows sampled on each farm and the selection method affect prevalence estimates for animal-based measures. We assessed the entire high-producing pen (days in milk size calculations from the Welfare Quality Protocol; and (4) selecting the first, middle, or final third of cows exiting the milking parlor. Estimates were compared with true values using regression analysis and were considered accurate if they met 3 criteria: the coefficient of determination was ≥0.9 and the slope and intercept did not differ significantly from 1 and 0, respectively. All estimates met the slope and intercept criteria, whereas the coefficient of determination increased when more cows were sampled. All estimates were accurate for neck alterations, ocular discharge (22.2 ± 27.4%), and carpal joint hair loss (14.1 ± 17.4%). Selecting a third of the milking order or using the Welfare Quality sample size calculations failed to accurately estimate all measures simultaneously. However, all estimates were accurate when selecting at least 2 of every 3 cows locked at the feed bunk. Using restraint position at the feed bunk did not differ systematically from computer-selecting the same proportion of cows randomly, and the former may be a simpler approach for welfare assessments. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Slipping into and out of welfare: the case of cocoa farming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dynamics of falling into and out of welfare between cocoa seasons was examined using panel data sets collected in two waves from 366 cocoa farming households in Southwestern, Nigeria. The data was subjected to descriptive statistics and the Markovian Model Analysis. The welfare status were decomposed into ...

  8. An animal welfare perspective on animal testing of GMO crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Roman; Rusche, Brigitte

    2008-01-01

    The public discussion on the introduction of agro-genetic engineering focuses mainly on economical, ecological and human health aspects. The fact is neglected that laboratory animals must suffer before either humans or the environment are affected. However, numerous animal experiments are conducted for toxicity testing and authorisation of genetically modified plants in the European Union. These are ethically questionable, because death and suffering of the animals for purely commercial purposes are accepted. Therefore, recent political initiatives to further increase animal testing for GMO crops must be regarded highly critically. Based on concrete examples this article demonstrates that animal experiments, on principle, cannot provide the expected protection of users and consumers despite all efforts to standardise, optimise or extend them.

  9. Study on Romanian Consumers’ Opinion Regarding the Animal Welfare Labelling of Animal Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Toma Cziszter

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to investigate the influence some factors on the consumers’ opinion regarding the animal welfare labelling of animal products. The analysed question was: “When purchasing eggs, meat or milk can you easily identify from the label those products sourced from animal welfare friendly production systems?” Respondents chosen only one answer out of the five offered: yes, most of the time; yes, some of the time; no, very rarely; no, never; and don’t know. Thirty three percent of females considered they could find sometime information regarding the animal welfare on the labels, while males considered that this information could be found very rarely. Up to 55 years of age, 50% of the consumers consider that the labels do not contain the information about animal welfare, while after this age most of consumers consider they found this information on the labels. Over 50% of Orthodox and Roman Catholic responders considered that the information on animal welfare on the labels was found some of the time or very rarely. Respondents, irrespective of their living area or monthly income, considered that there is scarce information regarding animal welfare on the labels. Internet access significantly influenced the consumers regarding the availability of the information on the labels.

  10. The state of animal welfare in the context of refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurlo, Joanne; Hutchinson, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The ultimate goal of the Three Rs is the full replacement of animals used in biomedical research and testing. However, replacement is unlikely to occur in the near future; therefore the scientific community as a whole must continue to devote considerable effort to ensure optimal animal welfare for the benefit of the science and the animals, i.e., the R of refinement. Laws governing the care and use of laboratory animals have recently been revised in Europe and the US and these place greater emphasis on promoting the well-being of the animals in addition to minimizing pain and distress. Social housing for social species is now the default condition, which can present a challenge in certain experimental settings and for certain species. The practice of positive reinforcement training of laboratory animals, particularly non-human primates, is gathering momentum but is not yet universally employed. Enhanced consideration of refinement extends to rodents, particularly mice, whose use is still increasing as more genetically modified models are generated. The wastage of extraneous mice and the method of their euthanasia are refinement issues that still need to be addressed. An international, concerted effort into defining the needs of laboratory animals is still necessary to improve the quality of the animal models used as well as their welfare.

  11. The Animal Welfare Act and the zoo: A positive approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Glenn H.

    1989-01-01

    Interpretations of the Animal Welfare Act and other regulations governing use of research animals in the United States are changing. Recent amendments to the Act have resulted in the inclusion of more species under the umbrella of regulation. The role of the zoo and wildlife veterinarian should be that of leading his or her institution into a positive endorsement of these regulations and their application. Recent additions to the Code of Federal Regulations spell out the roles of the veterinarian and the Animal Care and Use Committee at an institution.

  12. 76 FR 34031 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... Collection; Animal Welfare AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Extension of... request extension of approval of an information collection associated with Animal Welfare Act regulations... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on the Animal Welfare Act regulations, contact Dr. Barbara...

  13. The international transportation of zoo animals: conserving biological diversity and protecting animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, Peter; Adams, David B; Voracek, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Issues pertaining to the long distance transportation of animals are examined according to the aspirations of the world's zoo community. Guidance comes from the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA), the civil society organisation that provides 'leadership and support for zoos, aquariums and partner organisations of the world in animal care and welfare, conservation of biodiversity, environmental education and global sustainability'. The authors describe why it is necessary to transport zoo animals over long distances and how animal welfare can be protected during the process. Transportation of animals among zoos is essential for the cooperative breeding programmes undertaken for the ex situ conservation of wildlife with the help of WAZA studbooks. The challenge is to satisfy the entwined ethical imperatives of safeguarding animal welfare and protecting biodiversity.

  14. Mid-term financial impact of animal welfare improvements in Dutch broiler production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gocsik, E; Lansink, A G J M Oude; Saatkamp, H W

    2013-12-01

    This study used a stochastic bioeconomic simulation model to simulate the business and financial risk of different broiler production systems over a 5-yr period. Simulation analysis was conducted using the @Risk add-in in MS Excel. To compare the impact of different production systems on economic feasibility, 2 cases were considered. The first case focused on the economic feasibility of a completely new system, whereas the second examined economic feasibilities when a farm switches from a conventional to an animal welfare-improving production system. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the key drivers of economic feasibility and to reveal systematic differences across production systems. The study shows that economic feasibility of systems with improved animal welfare predominantly depends on the price that farmers receive. Moreover, the study demonstrates the importance of the level and variation of the price premium for improved welfare, particularly in the first 5 yr after conversion. The economic feasibility of the production system increases with the level of welfare improvements for a sufficiently high price level for broiler meat and low volatility in producer prices. If this is not the case, however, risk attitudes of farmers become important as well as the use of potential risk management instruments.

  15. Exploration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function as a tool to evaluate animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mormède, Pierre; Andanson, Stéphane; Aupérin, Benoit; Beerda, Bonne; Guémené, Daniel; Malmkvist, Jens; Manteca, Xavier; Manteuffel, Gerhard; Prunet, Patrick; van Reenen, Cornelis G; Richard, Sabine; Veissier, Isabelle

    2007-10-22

    Measuring HPA axis activity is the standard approach to the study of stress and welfare in farm animals. Although the reference technique is the use of blood plasma to measure glucocorticoid hormones (cortisol or corticosterone), several alternative methods such as the measurement of corticosteroids in saliva, urine or faeces have been developed to overcome the stress induced by blood sampling itself. In chronic stress situations, as is frequently the case in studies about farm animal welfare, hormonal secretions are usually unchanged but dynamic testing allows the demonstration of functional changes at several levels of the system, including the sensitization of the adrenal cortex to ACTH and the resistance of the axis to feedback inhibition by corticosteroids (dexamethasone suppression test). Beyond these procedural aspects, the main pitfall in the use of HPA axis activity is in the interpretation of experimental data. The large variability of the system has to be taken into consideration, since corticosteroid hormone secretion is usually pulsatile, follows diurnal and seasonal rhythms, is influenced by feed intake and environmental factors such as temperature and humidity, age and physiological state, just to cite the main sources of variation. The corresponding changes reflect the important role of glucocorticoid hormones in a number of basic physiological processes such as energy metabolism and central nervous system functioning. Furthermore, large differences have been found across species, breeds and individuals, which reflect the contribution of genetic factors and environmental influences, especially during development, in HPA axis functioning. Usually, these results will be integrated with data from behavioral observation, production and pathology records in a comprehensive approach of farm animal welfare.

  16. Main animal welfare problems in ruminant livestock during preslaughter operations: a South American view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, C B; Huertas, S M

    2016-02-01

    Animals destined for meat production are usually exposed to many stressful conditions during production and particularly during preslaughter operations. Handling animals on farm, loading into and unloading from vehicles, transportation, passing through livestock markets, fasting, lairage and stunning can all affect their welfare. How badly welfare can be affected will depend on both the intrinsic factors of the specific type of animal involved and the extrinsic factors of the environment where those animals live or are being handled, including the animal handlers. In South America (SA), it has been part of a strategy for improving animal welfare (AW) to address not only ethical aspects, but to emphasize the close relationship existing between handling ruminants preslaughter and the quantity and quality of the meat they produce. This has resulted not only in improvements in AW, but has also brought economic rewards to producers which in turn can lead to higher incomes for them and hence better human welfare. For producers with a high number of animals, considering AW during production and preslaughter operations can determine the possibility of exporting and/or getting better prices for their products. At smallfarmer level, particularly in some less developed countries, where human welfare is impaired, using this strategy together with education has also been relevant. It is important that education and training in AW are done not only considering global knowledge, but also including specific geographical and climatic characteristics of each country and the cultural, religious and socio-economical characteristics of its people; therefore, research within the context of each country or region becomes relevant. The aim of this review was to show the results of research dealing with AW of ruminant livestock in Chile and some other SA countries. Some of the main problems encountered are related to lack of proper infrastructure to handle animals; long distance transport

  17. Public perceptions of farm animal cloning in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jesper

    This report presents a picture of European opinion on farm animal cloning. In the report, both agricultural and biomedical applications of farm animal cloning are considered. With the arrival of Dolly, animal cloning became an integral part of the biotech debate, but this debate did not isolate...... animal cloning as a single issue....

  18. Symposium: Animal welfare challenges for today and tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizzier Thaxton, Yvonne; Christensen, Karen D; Mench, Joy A; Rumley, Elizabeth R; Daugherty, Christine; Feinberg, Bruce; Parker, Molly; Siegel, Paul; Scanes, Colin G

    2016-09-01

    The increasing separation of the public from production agriculture means there is often a lack of knowledge among consumers about current production practices and a perception that increased productivity and economic efficiency are necessarily associated with a decline in animal welfare. A symposium was organized to present information about animal welfare issues and the challenges they pose for both scientists and the poultry and allied industries. Companion papers provide information about understanding public attitudes and physiological/immunological approaches to welfare assessment, while this paper outlines current and future challenges to egg and meat production and industry responses to those challenges. For broiler chickens, increases in growth rate result in corollary increases in metabolic heat generation and water consumption, leading to the need for continuing improvements in housing, ventilation, and litter management. Stocking densities, lighting programs, muscle myopathies, and use of antibiotics are also areas that require research attention. In the layer industry, the key challenge is housing, with the industry undergoing a shift from conventional cage housing to alternatives like enriched colonies or cage-free. While these alternative systems have hen welfare advantages, there are also welfare disadvantages that require the development of mitigation strategies, and it is also essential to address associated issues including economic, environmental, egg safety, and worker health impacts. Concerns on the horizon include euthanasia of surplus male chicks and spent hens as well as beak-trimming. The humaneness of slaughter methods is an important welfare and consumer confidence issue, and the current regulations for poultry slaughter in the USA are discussed and compared to those for livestock. The poultry and allied industries, including retailers, are responding to these concerns by consulting with experts, developing science-based animal care

  19. Welfare of farmed fish - nutrition, breeding and diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, Kurt

    Proceeding on the workshop on Welfare of fish which was organised by the research school SCOFDA at KU-LIFE on April 11 and 12, 2007. Prooceedings comprise a total of 18 abstracts which were edited by Kurt Buchmann.......Proceeding on the workshop on Welfare of fish which was organised by the research school SCOFDA at KU-LIFE on April 11 and 12, 2007. Prooceedings comprise a total of 18 abstracts which were edited by Kurt Buchmann....

  20. Animal Welfare: Could Adult Play be a False Friend?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Blois-Heulin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There is no consensus regarding the functions of play. As play behavior is a characteristic of young stages of development, it has been suggested that the higher prevalence of adult play observed in domestic animals could be the result of their “neotenic retardation.” Functional hypotheses have dealt with the long term benefits, such as “rehearsal,” “motor training” for future adult competencies or “training for the unexpected.” However, there is little consistent experimental evidence favoring a particular hypothesis. The present study aimed to test the functional significance of adult play as a potential reliable indicator of good welfare, a by-product of domestication or a tool for social cohesion. Observations of both a domestic species (the horse and wild/captive animals (cercopithecids confirm the literature data that show the greater prevalence of adult play in the domestic/captive situations. This convergence between a domestic and a wild species argue against the idea that adult play may be a mere product of domestication. Moreover, animals living in naturalistic situations had the same low level of adult play as observed in wild animals suggesting that captive/domestic animals do not play only because they are stress free or well fed. Play is not a reliable indicator of welfare: Horses and adult macaques that played the most were also those that exhibited the greatest signals of poor welfare as stereotypic behaviors. Furthermore, adult play was more frequent at times of social disturbances and instability. Adult play is a sign showing that the adult organism needs to evacuate stress.

  1. Attitudes of South Brazilian sheep farmers to animal welfare and sentience

    OpenAIRE

    Priscilla Regina Tamioso; Paulo Ricardo Bittencourt Guimarães; Carla Forte Maiolino Molento

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: We investigated self-reported attitudes of 148 South Brazilian sheep farmers to animal welfare and sentience. Many farmers (73.0%) knew animal welfare superficially. Farmers that worked for longer in the sheep industry and that raised sheep for commercial purposes mentioned more commonly that they had knowledge about animal welfare (P

  2. Welfare aspects of stocking density in farmed rainbow trout, assessed by behavioural and physiological methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Danielle Caroline

    both an ethical and practical point of view. A quantity of research has been conducted on the relationship between stocking density and indicators of welfare in farmed rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. The studies to date have revealed that both low and high densities have the potential......There is an increasing amount of interest in the welfare of fish from aquaculture. There are several aquaculture practices that may act as chronic stressors and therefore have the potential to negatively impact welfare. Stocking density has been highlighted as a particular welfare concern, from...... to detrimentally affect welfare in rainbow trout. Several studies have endeavoured to make specific recommendations for maximum stocking density limits for rainbow trout. However, wide discrepancies exist, highlighting the fact that it has been a challenge to identify density limits that promote optimal welfare...

  3. Veterinary education and students' attitudes towards animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, E S; Podberscek, A L

    2000-03-04

    Veterinary students at two British universities in their first preclinical, first clinical and final years of study, completed questionnaires designed to assess their attitudes towards the welfare of animals. These attitudes were divided into their two constituent components: emotional (emotional empathy with animals) and cognitive (belief in the sentience of animals). Analyses of variance revealed that the year of study was significantly related to the perceived sentience of dogs, cats and cows, with students in their later years of study rating them as having lower levels of sentience. The female students rated themselves as having significantly higher levels of emotional empathy with animals than did the male students. There was also a significant interaction between sex and year of study, the female students maintaining relatively high levels of empathy throughout the three years, whereas the male students showed lower levels of empathy in their later years.

  4. Physiology, propaganda, and pound animals: medical research and animal welfare in mid-twentieth century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parascandola, John

    2007-07-01

    In 1952, the University of Michigan physiologist Robert Gesell shocked his colleagues at the business meeting of the American Physiological Society by reading a prepared statement in which he claimed that some of the animal experimentation being carried out by scientists was inhumane. He especially attacked the National Society for Medical Research (NSMR), an organization that had been founded to defend animal experimentation. This incident was part of a broader struggle taking place at the time between scientists and animal welfare advocates with respect to what restrictions, if any, should be placed on animal research. A particularly controversial issue was whether or not pound animals should be made available to laboratories for research. Two of the prominent players in this controversy were the NSMR and the Animal Welfare Institute, founded and run by Gesell's daughter, Christine Stevens. This article focuses on the interaction between these two organizations within the broader context of the debate over animal experimentation in the mid-twentieth century.

  5. Animal Welfare: Freedoms, Dominions and "A Life Worth Living".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, John

    2016-05-24

    This opinion paper considers the relative validity and utility of three concepts: the Five Freedoms (FF), Five Domains (FD) and Quality of Life (QoL) as tools for the analysis of animal welfare. The aims of FF and FD are different but complementary. FD seeks to assess the impact of the physical and social environment on the mental (affective) state of a sentient animal, FF is an outcome-based approach to identify and evaluate the efficacy of specific actions necessary to promote well-being. Both have utility. The concept of QoL is presented mainly as a motivational framework. The FD approach provides an effective foundation for research and evidence-based conclusions as to the impact of the things we do on the mental state of the animals in our care. Moreover, it is one that can evolve with time. The FF are much simpler. They do not attempt to achieve an overall picture of mental state and welfare status, but the principles upon which they are based are timeless. Their aim is to be no more than a memorable set of signposts to right action. Since, so far as the animals are concerned, it is not what we think but what we do that counts, I suggest that they are likely to have a more general impact.

  6. Risk of reduced animal welfare by permanent outdoor keeping of dogs and by use of dogs in long-distance sled dog racing

    OpenAIRE

    Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety

    2016-01-01

    The Norwegian Food Safety Authority (NFSA) asks the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (VKM) to assess the risk of reduced animal welfare in dogs kept permanently outdoors and dogs used for long-distance sled dog racing In Norway, sled dogs are often kept outdoors. This is also true for several farm- or hunting dogs. The NFSA asks VKM to assess the risk of reduced animal welfare when dogs are kept permanently outdoors. The NFSA will use the risk assessment as sci...

  7. The role of quality labels in market-driven animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, Lennart Ravn; Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Denver, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    ask whether special quality labels that involve medium levels of animal welfare, as compared with labels promoting premium levels of animal welfare, have a role to play in promoting improvements in animal welfare. The Danish pork market is our reference case, but we also widen the context by comparing......In policy-making the consumption of specially labelled products, and its role in improving the welfare of livestock, has attracted considerable attention. There is in many countries a diverse market for animal welfare-friendly products which is potentially confusing and may lack transparency. We...... the markets for pork in three other European countries. Our findings suggest that in order to improve animal welfare through demand for welfare-friendly products it is important to maintain separate the market for products with strong animal welfare profiles from markets for products with medium levels...

  8. WelFur - mink: development of on-farm welfare assessment protocols for mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Steffen W; Rousing, Tine

    2012-01-01

    European Fur Breeder's Association initiated the "WelFur" project in 2009 in order to develop a welfare assessment protocol for mink and fox farms after the Welfare Quality® standards. The assessment is based on four welfare principles (Good feeding, good housing, good health and appropriate...... behaviour) and 12 underlying criteria, to be measured on-farm. The major steps in the development of the WelFur mink protocols are described: (1) Writing leterature reviews and listing potential measures. (2) Identifying valid, reliable and feasable welfare measures. (3) Developing registration protocols......, descriptions, and schemes. (4) Testing preliminary protocols in relevant seasons of the annual production. This paper focus on the evaluation of validity, reliability anf feasibility of the 22 measures that have been selected for the WelFur assessment protocols. These protocols haev been tested in the three...

  9. The Dawn Hancock Animal Farm. Farming Experiences for Children with Mental Handicaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ronald A.

    The Dawn Hancock Animal Farm, which was developed in 1974 with volunteer labor and over $100,000 in donations, provides farm experiences for the mentally handicapped students of the Helen J. Stewart School in Las Vegas, Nevada. The farm and animals are part of the school's emphasis on vocational training, and every effort is made to help prepare…

  10. Toward a harmonized approach to animal welfare law in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, David; Koralesky, Katherine E; Urton, Geoff

    2018-03-01

    Animal protection law in Canada varies across the country. Federal animal protection law exists in the Criminal Code, in regulations for the transport of animals, and in regulations for humane handling and slaughter at abattoirs that are inspected by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency. Provincial animal protection laws often include provisions that i) describe a duty of care toward animals; ii) prohibit causing or permitting animal "distress;" iii) specify exemptions from prosecution; and iv) reference various national and other standards. Inconsistencies lead to duplication of effort, create difficulty in working across jurisdictions, and may erode public trust. A more consistent approach might be achieved by i) referencing a common suite of standards in provincial statutes; ii) citing the federal transport and humane slaughter regulations in provincial regulations; iii) establishing agreements so provincial authorities may enforce federal regulations; iv) wider and more uniform adoption of enforcement tools that require people to take immediate action to protect animal welfare; v) developing new standards; and vi) national consultation to define frequently used terms.

  11. Benefits of a ball and chain: simple environmental enrichments improve welfare and reproductive success in farmed American mink (Neovison vison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca K Meagher

    Full Text Available Can simple enrichments enhance caged mink welfare? Pilot data from 756 sub-adults spanning three colour-types (strains identified potentially practical enrichments, and suggested beneficial effects on temperament and fur-chewing. Our main experiment started with 2032 Black mink on three farms: from each of 508 families, one juvenile male-female pair was enriched (E with two balls and a hanging plastic chain or length of hose, while a second pair was left as a non-enriched (NE control. At 8 months, more than half the subjects were killed for pelts, and 302 new females were recruited (half enriched: 'late E'. Several signs of improved welfare or productivity emerged. Access to enrichment increased play in juveniles. E mink were calmer (less aggressive in temperament tests; quieter when handled; less fearful, if male, and less likely to fur-chew, although other stereotypic behaviours were not reduced. On one farm, E females had lower cortisol (inferred from faecal metabolites. E males tended to copulate for longer. E females also weaned more offspring: about 10% more juveniles per E female, primarily caused by reduced rates of barrenness ('late E' females also giving birth to bigger litters on one farm, effects that our data cautiously suggest were partly mediated by reduced inactivity and changes in temperament. Pelt quality seemed unaffected, but E animals had cleaner cages. In a subsidiary side-study using 368 mink of a second colour-type ('Demis', similar temperament effects emerged, and while E did not reduce fur-chewing or improve reproductive success in this colour-type, E animals were judged to have better pelts. Overall, simple enrichments were thus beneficial. These findings should encourage welfare improvements on fur farms (which house 60-70 million mink p.a. and in breeding centres where endangered mustelids (e.g. black-footed ferrets often reproduce poorly. They should also stimulate future research into more effective practical

  12. Benefits of a ball and chain: simple environmental enrichments improve welfare and reproductive success in farmed American mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Rebecca K; Ahloy Dallaire, Jamie; Campbell, Dana L M; Ross, Misha; Møller, Steen H; Hansen, Steffen W; Díez-León, María; Palme, Rupert; Mason, Georgia J

    2014-01-01

    Can simple enrichments enhance caged mink welfare? Pilot data from 756 sub-adults spanning three colour-types (strains) identified potentially practical enrichments, and suggested beneficial effects on temperament and fur-chewing. Our main experiment started with 2032 Black mink on three farms: from each of 508 families, one juvenile male-female pair was enriched (E) with two balls and a hanging plastic chain or length of hose, while a second pair was left as a non-enriched (NE) control. At 8 months, more than half the subjects were killed for pelts, and 302 new females were recruited (half enriched: 'late E'). Several signs of improved welfare or productivity emerged. Access to enrichment increased play in juveniles. E mink were calmer (less aggressive in temperament tests; quieter when handled; less fearful, if male), and less likely to fur-chew, although other stereotypic behaviours were not reduced. On one farm, E females had lower cortisol (inferred from faecal metabolites). E males tended to copulate for longer. E females also weaned more offspring: about 10% more juveniles per E female, primarily caused by reduced rates of barrenness ('late E' females also giving birth to bigger litters on one farm), effects that our data cautiously suggest were partly mediated by reduced inactivity and changes in temperament. Pelt quality seemed unaffected, but E animals had cleaner cages. In a subsidiary side-study using 368 mink of a second colour-type ('Demis'), similar temperament effects emerged, and while E did not reduce fur-chewing or improve reproductive success in this colour-type, E animals were judged to have better pelts. Overall, simple enrichments were thus beneficial. These findings should encourage welfare improvements on fur farms (which house 60-70 million mink p.a.) and in breeding centres where endangered mustelids (e.g. black-footed ferrets) often reproduce poorly. They should also stimulate future research into more effective practical enrichments.

  13. Proteomics and the search for welfare and stress biomarkers in animal production in the one-health context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Ramell, A; de Almeida, A M; Cristobal, S; Rodrigues, P; Roncada, P; Bassols, A

    2016-06-21

    Stress and welfare are important factors in animal production in the context of growing production optimization and scrutiny by the general public. In a context in which animal and human health are intertwined aspects of the one-health concept it is of utmost importance to define the markers of stress and welfare. These are important tools for producers, retailers, regulatory agents and ultimately consumers to effectively monitor and assess the welfare state of production animals. Proteomics is the science that studies the proteins existing in a given tissue or fluid. In this review we address this topic by showing clear examples where proteomics has been used to study stress-induced changes at various levels. We adopt a multi-species (cattle, swine, small ruminants, poultry, fish and shellfish) approach under the effect of various stress inducers (handling, transport, management, nutritional, thermal and exposure to pollutants) clearly demonstrating how proteomics and systems biology are key elements to the study of stress and welfare in farm animals and powerful tools for animal welfare, health and productivity.

  14. The role of cognitive styles and sociodemographic characteristics in consumer perceptions and attitudes toward nonhuman animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musto, Mauro; Faraone, Daniela; Cellini, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Given the increasing importance of exploring consumers' concerns about the welfare of farmed animals, a survey questionnaire was designed to investigate the role of cognitive styles along with sociodemographic characteristics in consumers' perceptions about nonhuman animal welfare (AW) and their willingness to pay for animal-friendly products. The results revealed that the survey respondents were concerned about AW and had negative perceptions of the way animals were treated. They showed positive attitudes toward some actions to be taken for improving AW and strongly agreed to pay more for animal-friendly products. Consistent with previous studies, results revealed significant associations between sociodemographics and concern toward AW. However, some observed differences were highlighted by cognitive styles rather than by sociodemographic characteristics. These results indicate a significant link between cognitive styles and perceptions and attitudes toward AW, which may outweigh previously found sociodemographic differences and fuel the contemporary debate on AW.

  15. Religion and Animal Welfare-An Islamic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Sira Abdul

    2017-02-17

    Islam is a comprehensive religion guiding the lives of its followers through sets of rules governing the personal, social, and public aspects through the verses of the Holy Qur'an and Hadiths, the compilation of the traditions of Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), the two main documents that serve as guidelines. Islam is explicit with regard to using animals for human purposes and there is a rich tradition of the Prophet Mohammad's (pbuh) concern for animals to be found in the Hadith and Sunna. Islam has also laid down rules for humane slaughter. In many countries animals are killed without pre-stunning. Regardless of pre-stunning, such meat should not be treated as halāl or at least be considered as Makrooh (detestable or abominable), because the animals have been beaten or treated without compassion during production, handling, transport, and slaughter. Many Muslims and Islamic religious leaders are not aware of the cruelty that is routinely inflicted on animals during transport, pre-slaughter, and slaughter in many Islamic countries. There is an urgent need to sensitize all Muslims to the teachings of animal welfare in the Qur'an and the Hadiths. A campaign is needed to apprise religious leaders of the current cruelty that occurs during transport and slaughter.

  16. Fish welfare in capture fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, L.J.L.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Vis, van de J.W.; Bokkers, E.A.M.

    2018-01-01

    Concerns about the welfare of production animals have extended from farm animals to fish, but an overview of the impact of especially capture fisheries on fish welfare is lacking. This review provides a synthesis of 85 articles, which demonstrates that research interest in fish welfare in capture

  17. The development of on-farm welfare assessment protocols for foxes and mink: the WelFur project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mononen, J; Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Steffen W

    2012-01-01

    The WelFur project aims at the development of on-farm welfare assessment protocols for farmed foxes (the blue fox [Vulpes lagopus], the silver fox [Vulpes vulpes]) and mink (Neovison vison). The WelFur protocols are based on Welfare Quality® (WQ) principles and criteria. Here, we describe the Wel...

  18. Telos, conservation of welfare, and ethical issues in genetic engineering of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, Bernard E

    2015-01-01

    The most long-lived metaphysics or view of reality in the history of Western thought is Aristotle's teleology, which reigned for almost 2,000 years. Biology was expressed in terms of function or telos, and accorded perfectly with common sense. The rise of mechanistic, Newtonian science vanquished teleological explanations. Understanding and accommodating animal telos was essential to success in animal husbandry, which involved respect for telos, and was presuppositional to our "ancient contract" with domestic animals. Telos was further abandoned with the rise of industrial agriculture, which utilized "technological fixes" to force animal into environments they were unsuited for, while continuing to be productive. Loss of husbandry and respect for telos created major issues for farm animal welfare, and forced the creation of a new ethic demanding respect for telos. As genetic engineering developed, the notion arose of modifying animals to fit their environment in order to avoid animal suffering, rather than fitting them into congenial environments. Most people do not favor changing the animals, rather than changing the conditions under which they are reared. Aesthetic appreciation of husbandry and virtue ethics militate in favor of restoring husbandry, rather than radically changing animal teloi. One, however, does not morally wrong teloi by changing them-one can only wrong individuals. In biomedical research, we do indeed inflict major pain, suffering and disease on animals. And genetic engineering seems to augment our ability to create animals to model diseases, particularly more than 3,000 known human genetic diseases. The disease, known as Lesch-Nyhan's syndrome or HPRT deficiency, which causes self-mutilation and mental retardation, provides us with a real possibility for genetically creating "animal models" of this disease, animals doomed to a life of great and unalleviable suffering. This of course creates a major moral dilemma. Perhaps one can use the very

  19. Opinion of the scientific panel on animal health and welfare on a request from the commission related to welfare aspects of the castration of piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunn, Michael; Allen, Paul; Bonneau, Michel

    2004-01-01

    Report - Annex to the Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Animal Health and Welfare on a request from the Commission related to welfare aspects of the castration of piglets......Report - Annex to the Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Animal Health and Welfare on a request from the Commission related to welfare aspects of the castration of piglets...

  20. Radiation sterilization of animal farm sewage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosiak, J.; Perkowski, J.; Pekala, W.

    1984-01-01

    Influence of irradiation on organisms appearing in farm sewage has been discussed. Practical examples of employing the radiation to sterilization of municipal wastes and liquid sewage from the industrial swine farms have been presented. (author)

  1. HOW SHOULD THE WELFARE OF FETAL AND NEUROLOGICALLY IMMATURE POSTNATAL ANIMALS BE PROTECTED?

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Madeleine L.H.; Mellor, David J.; Sand?e, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Legal protection of the welfare of prenatal animals has not previously been addressed as a discrete subject within the academic literature on animal welfare, ethics and law. This paper aims to rectify this by reviewing the protections (or absence of protections) provided for fetuses by existing legislation in various jurisdictions, and considering the extent to which legal protection of animal fetuses can be justified on animal welfare grounds. Questions related to the need to protect the wel...

  2. Commoditizing Nonhuman Animals and Their Consumers: Industrial Livestock Production, Animal Welfare, and Ecological Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod-Kilmurray, Heather

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing research on the effects of industrial livestock production on the environment and human health, but less on the effects this has on animal welfare and ecological justice. The concept of ecological justice as a tool for achieving sustainability is gaining traction in the legal world. Klaus Bosselman defines ecological justice as…

  3. On-farm evaluation of the Salmon Welfare Index Model (SWIM 1.0)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folkedal, O.; Pettersen, J.M.; Bracke, M.B.; Stien, L.H.; Nilsson, J.; Martins, C.; Breck, O.; Midtlyng, P.J.; Kristiansen, T.

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the operational feasibility of the recently developed Salmon Welfare Index Model (SWIM 1.0) designed for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L) in production cages. Ten salmon farms containing spring smolts were visited twice, first between May and June the first year in

  4. Identifying and monitoring pain in farm animals: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunier, A; Mounier, L; Le Neindre, P; Leterrier, C; Mormède, P; Paulmier, V; Prunet, P; Terlouw, C; Guatteo, R

    2013-06-01

    One important objective for animal welfare is to maintain animals free from pain, injury or disease. Therefore, detecting and evaluating the intensity of animal pain is crucial. As animals cannot directly communicate their feelings, it is necessary to identify sensitive and specific indicators that can be easily used. The aim of the present paper is to review relevant indicators to assess pain in several farm species. The term pain is used for mammals, birds and fish, even though the abilities of the various species to experience the emotional component of pain may be different. Numerous behavioural changes are associated with pain and many of them could be used on farms to assess the degree of pain being experienced by an animal. Pain, as a stressor, is associated with variations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis as well as in the sympathetic and immune systems that can be used to identify the presence of pain rapidly after it started. However, most of these measures need sophisticated equipment for their assessment. Therefore, they are mainly adapted to experimental situations. Injuries and other lesional indicators give information on the sources of pain and are convenient to use in all types of situations. Histopathological analyses can identify sources of pain in experimental studies. When pronounced and/or long lasting, the pain-induced behavioural and physiological changes can decrease production performance. Some indicators are very specific and sensitive to pain, whereas others are more generally related to stressful situations. The latter can be used to indicate that animals are suffering from something, which may be pain. Overall, this literature review shows that several indicators exist to assess pain in mammals, a few in birds and very few in fish. Even if in some cases, a single indicator, usually a behavioural indicator, may be sufficient to detect pain, combining various types of indicators increases sensitivity and specificity of pain

  5. A Decade of Progress toward Ending the Intensive Confinement of Farm Animals in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Sara; Shapiro, Paul; Rowan, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Over the past ten years, unprecedented changes in the way farm animals are kept on intensive production facilities have begun to take hold in the U.S. veal, egg and pork industries. Propelled by growing public support for animal welfare, the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) has successfully led the effort to transition farms from using restrictive cages and crates to more open aviary and group housing systems that offer the animals far more freedom to express natural behavior. This paper describes the background history of the movement, the strategy and approach of the campaign and the challenges that were overcome to enable this major shift in farming practices. The events chronicled are set within the context of the larger societal concern for animals and the important contributions of other animal protection organizations. Abstract In this paper, the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) farm animal protection work over the preceding decade is described from the perspective of the organization. Prior to 2002, there were few legal protections for animals on the farm, and in 2005, a new campaign at the HSUS began to advance state ballot initiatives throughout the country, with a decisive advancement in California (Proposition 2) that paved the way for further progress. Combining legislative work with undercover farm and slaughterhouse investigations, litigation and corporate engagement, the HSUS and fellow animal protection organizations have made substantial progress in transitioning the veal, pork and egg industries away from intensive confinement systems that keep the animals in cages and crates. Investigations have become an important tool for demonstrating widespread inhumane practices, building public support and convincing the retail sector to publish meaningful animal welfare policies. While federal legislation protecting animals on the farm stalled, there has been steady state-by-state progress, and this is complemented by

  6. Multidisciplinary approaches and assessment techniques to better understand and enhance zoo nonhuman animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegford, Janice M

    2013-01-01

    Nonhuman animal welfare is a complex concept that encompasses an animal's biological functioning, emotional states, and opportunities to experience a natural life, including the performance of natural behaviors. Further, animal welfare can be viewed as quality of life from the perspective of the animal and thus must consider the animal's subjective experiences. Therefore, assessing and enhancing animal welfare should include multidisciplinary, scientific ventures that strive to create a complete picture of how animals' bodies and minds respond to both aversive and pleasant situations. Practical assessment of animal welfare should include outcome-based measures from the animal that provide information about the individual's welfare as well as resource-based measures that can help identify causes of or risk factors for poor welfare. Increasingly, scientists are examining the emotional states of animals as well as the impact of pain, pleasure, and consciousness on animal welfare. This article discusses approaches such as preference testing, instrumental learning, examination of space and resource use, and qualitative assessments of animal welfare that might be useful and practical for assessing and enhancing welfare in zoo settings.

  7. Techniques for evaluating nutrient status in farm animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, A.J.M.; Pas, te M.F.W.

    2015-01-01

    It is the aim of the study to present a literature review on methods and techniques for determining nutrient status of different farm animal species (ruminants, pigs and poultry). The study focusses especially on the options to determine nutrient status in farm animals from a research perspective

  8. Exploring the role of farm animals in providing care at care farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassink, Jan; Bruin, de Simone R.; Berget, Bente; Elings, Marjolein

    2017-01-01

    We explore the role of farm animals in providing care to different types of participants at care farms (e.g., youngsters with behavioural problems, people with severe mental problems and people with dementia). Care farms provide alternative and promising settings where people can interact with

  9. Exploring the Role of Farm Animals in Providing Care at Care Farms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassink, Jan; De Bruin, Simone R; Berget, Bente; Elings, Marjolein

    2017-01-01

    We explore the role of farm animals in providing care to different types of participants at care farms (e.g., youngsters with behavioural problems, people with severe mental problems and people with dementia). Care farms provide alternative and promising settings where people can interact with

  10. Pain and Laboratory Animals: Publication Practices for Better Data Reproducibility and Better Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Larry; Austin, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Scientists who perform major survival surgery on laboratory animals face a dual welfare and methodological challenge: how to choose surgical anesthetics and post-operative analgesics that will best control animal suffering, knowing that both pain and the drugs that manage pain can all affect research outcomes. Scientists who publish full descriptions of animal procedures allow critical and systematic reviews of data, demonstrate their adherence to animal welfare norms, and guide other scientists on how to conduct their own studies in the field. We investigated what information on animal pain management a reasonably diligent scientist might find in planning for a successful experiment. To explore how scientists in a range of fields describe their management of this ethical and methodological concern, we scored 400 scientific articles that included major animal survival surgeries as part of their experimental methods, for the completeness of information on anesthesia and analgesia. The 400 articles (250 accepted for publication pre-2011, and 150 in 2014-15, along with 174 articles they reference) included thoracotomies, craniotomies, gonadectomies, organ transplants, peripheral nerve injuries, spinal laminectomies and orthopedic procedures in dogs, primates, swine, mice, rats and other rodents. We scored articles for Publication Completeness (PC), which was any mention of use of anesthetics or analgesics; Analgesia Use (AU) which was any use of post-surgical analgesics, and Analgesia Completeness (a composite score comprising intra-operative analgesia, extended post-surgical analgesia, and use of multimodal analgesia). 338 of 400 articles were PC. 98 of these 338 were AU, with some mention of analgesia, while 240 of 338 mentioned anesthesia only but not post-surgical analgesia. Journals' caliber, as measured by their 2013 Impact Factor, had no effect on PC or AU. We found no effect of whether a journal instructs authors to consult the ARRIVE publishing guidelines

  11. New EU Policies Towards Animal Welfare: The Relative Importance of Pig Castration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallas, Z.; Gil, J.M.; Panella-Riera, N.; Blanch, M.; Tacken, G.M.L.; Chevillon, P.; Roest, de K.; Oliver, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Animal welfare is becoming one of the most contentious issues in animal husbandry and meat production industries. We assess the relative importance of animal welfare, with respect to pig castration and the avoidance of boar taint, alongside different attributes of pork meat, amongst consumers in six

  12. A new direction for farm animal genetic resources

    OpenAIRE

    Kantanen, Juha

    2009-01-01

    In September 2007, the International Technical Conference on Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture was held in Interlaken, Switzerland. Two important documents aiming at preventing the genetic erosion of farm animal biodiversity and promoting the sustainable use of genetic resources were adopted: The Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources and the Interlaken Declaration of Animal Genetic Resources.

  13. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; D'eath, RB; Lawrence, AB

    2009-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits...

  14. Sustainable, efficient livestock production with high biodiversity and good welfare for animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, D M; Galindo, F A; Murgueitio, E

    2013-11-22

    What is the future for livestock agriculture in the world? Consumers have concerns about sustainability but many widely used livestock production methods do not satisfy consumers' requirements for a sustainable system. However, production can be sustainable, occurring in environments that: supply the needs of the animals resulting in good welfare, allow coexistence with a wide diversity of organisms native to the area, minimize carbon footprint and provide a fair lifestyle for the people working there. Conservation need not just involve tiny islands of natural vegetation in a barren world of agriculture, as there can be great increases in biodiversity in farmed areas. Herbivores, especially ruminants that consume materials inedible by humans, are important for human food in the future. However, their diet should not be just ground-level plants. Silvopastoral systems, pastures with shrubs and trees as well as herbage, are described which are normally more productive than pasture alone. When compared with widely used livestock production systems, silvopastoral systems can provide efficient feed conversion, higher biodiversity, enhanced connectivity between habitat patches and better animal welfare, so they can replace existing systems in many parts of the world and should be further developed.

  15. Interobserver reliability of the 'Welfare Quality(®) Animal Welfare Assessment Protocol for Growing Pigs'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czycholl, I; Kniese, C; Büttner, K; Beilage, E Grosse; Schrader, L; Krieter, J

    2016-01-01

    The present paper focuses on evaluating the interobserver reliability of the 'Welfare Quality(®) Animal Welfare Assessment Protocol for Growing Pigs'. The protocol for growing pigs mainly consists of a Qualitative Behaviour Assessment (QBA), direct behaviour observations (BO) carried out by instantaneous scan sampling and checks for different individual parameters (IP), e.g. presence of tail biting, wounds and bursitis. Three trained observers collected the data by performing 29 combined assessments, which were done at the same time and on the same animals; but they were carried out completely independent of each other. The findings were compared by the calculation of Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficients (RS), Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC), Smallest Detectable Changes (SDC) and Limits of Agreements (LoA). There was no agreement found concerning the adjectives belonging to the QBA (e.g. active: RS: 0.50, ICC: 0.30, SDC: 0.38, LoA: -0.05 to 0.45; fearful: RS: 0.06, ICC: 0.0, SDC: 0.26, LoA: -0.20 to 0.30). In contrast, the BO showed good agreement (e.g. social behaviour: RS: 0.45, ICC: 0.50, SDC: 0.09, LoA: -0.09 to 0.03 use of enrichment material: RS: 0.75, ICC: 0.68, SDC: 0.06, LoA: -0.03 to 0.03). Overall, observers agreed well in the IP, e.g. tail biting (RS: 0.52, ICC: 0.88; SDC: 0.05, LoA: -0.01 to 0.02) and wounds (RS: 0.43, ICC: 0.59, SDC: 0.10, LoA: -0.09 to 0.10). The parameter bursitis showed great differences (RS: 0.10, ICC: 0.0, SDC: 0.35, LoA: -0.37 to 0.40), which can be explained by difficulties in the assessment when the animals moved around quickly or their legs were soiled. In conclusion, the interobserver reliability was good in the BO and most IP, but not for the parameter bursitis and the QBA.

  16. A 100-Year Review: Animal welfare in the Journal of Dairy Science-The first 100 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Keyserlingk, Marina A G; Weary, Daniel M

    2017-12-01

    This paper outlines the history and development of research in the area of animal welfare as reflected in the 100 yr that the Journal of Dairy Science has been published. The first paper using the term "animal welfare" was published in 1983; since then (to May 2017), 244 papers that reflect growing interest regarding how farm animals are cared for have been published. Much of the scientific work to date has focused on issues related to cow health, such as lameness, and methodologically many papers use behavioral measures. In addition to this science-based research, the journal has taken on the role of publishing work of social scientists that addresses the role of the human factors relating to animal welfare, including research on citizen, consumer, and farmer attitudes toward welfare issues. We call for further research focused on societal perspectives and for new biological research focused on developing issues, such as cow-calf separation and pasture access. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Nociceptive behavior and physiology of molluscs: animal welfare implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Robyn J; Walters, Edgar T

    2011-01-01

    Molluscs have proven to be invaluable models for basic neuroscience research, yielding fundamental insights into a range of biological processes involved in action potential generation, synaptic transmission, learning, memory, and, more recently, nociceptive biology. Evidence suggests that nociceptive processes in primary nociceptors are highly conserved across diverse taxa, making molluscs attractive models for biomedical studies of mechanisms that may contribute to pain in humans but also exposing them to procedures that might produce painlike sensations. We review the physiology of nociceptors and behavioral responses to noxious stimulation in several molluscan taxa, and discuss the possibility that nociception may result in painlike states in at least some molluscs that possess more complex nervous systems. Few studies have directly addressed possible emotionlike concomitants of nociceptive responses in molluscs. Because the definition of pain includes a subjective component that may be impossible to gauge in animals quite different from humans, firm conclusions about the possible existence of pain in molluscs may be unattainable. Evolutionary divergence and differences in lifestyle, physiology, and neuroanatomy suggest that painlike experiences in molluscs, if they exist, should differ from those in mammals. But reports indicate that some molluscs exhibit motivational states and cognitive capabilities that may be consistent with a capacity for states with functional parallels to pain. We therefore recommend that investigators attempt to minimize the potential for nociceptor activation and painlike sensations in experimental invertebrates by reducing the number of animals subjected to stressful manipulations and by administering appropriate anesthetic agents whenever practicable, welfare practices similar to those for vertebrate subjects.

  18. Animal welfare: an aspect of care, sustainability, and food quality required by the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Donald M

    2010-01-01

    People feel that they have obligations to the animals that they use and show some degree of care behavior toward them. In addition, animal welfare is an aspect of our decisions about whether animal-usage systems are sustainable. A system that results in poor welfare is unsustainable because it is unacceptable to many people. The quality of animal products is now judged in relation to the ethics of production, including impact on the animal's welfare on immediate features and on consequences for consumers. Because genetic selection and management for high productivity may lead to more disease and other aspects of poor welfare, consumers demand some major changes in animal-production systems. In teaching animal welfare, a clear definition that can be related to other concepts such as needs, health, and stress is needed. The methodology for the scientific assessment of animal welfare has developed rapidly in recent years and has become a major scientific discipline. No veterinary degree course should be approved unless a full course on the science of animal welfare and relevant aspects of ethics and law have been taught. Each country should have a national advisory committee on animal-welfare science, made up of independent scientists, including veterinarians, who can write impartial reviews of the state of scientific knowledge.

  19. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LIVESTOCK DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS AND ANIMAL WELFARE

    OpenAIRE

    MURRAY, KAREN CHRISTINA

    2001-01-01

    Major changes are taking place in all sectors of the livestock and meat producing industries from farm to consumer which impinge on the processes and patterns of livestock distribution from farm to slaughter. These changes are identified and described. A survey of the complete journeys from farm to abattoir of 18,393 slaughterweight lambs sold direct from farm to abattoir, via livestock auction markets and via electronic auctions was conducted. Lambs sold direct from farm to ab...

  20. Positioning Animal Welfare in the One Health Concept through Evaluation of an Animal Welfare Center in Skopje, Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Radeski

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Animal Welfare Center (AWC in Macedonia was established in 2009. The objectives of the center are animal welfare (AW education, research, raising public awareness of AW, and increasing cooperation between the stakeholders. One Health (OH was not the major focus of the AWC work initially, but, rather, a focus that evolved recently. The objective of this study was to evaluate the AWC from the OH perspective as an example case for positioning the AW within the overall OH concept. Three types of evaluation were performed: (1 assessment of OH-ness, by quantitative measurement of the operational and infrastructural aspects of the AWC; (2 impact evaluation, by conducting quantitative surveys on stakeholders and students; and (3 transdisciplinary evaluation, using semi-quantitative evaluation of the links of cooperation between the AWC and the stakeholders in society by the custom designed CACA (Cooperation, Activities, Communication, and Agreement scoring system. Results for the OH-ness of the AWC showed relatively high scores for OH thinking, planning and working and middle scores for OH learning and sharing dimensions, i.e., dominance of the operational over infrastructural aspects of the AWC. The impact evaluation of the AWC shows that familiarity with the OH concept among stakeholders was low (44% of the respondents. However, there was a commonality among stakeholder’s interest about AW and OH. According to the stakeholders’ and students’ opinions, the influence of AW on Animal, Environmental, and Human Health is relatively high (in the upper third of the 1–10 scale. The transdisciplinary evaluation of the AWC indicated the presence of transdisciplinarity work by the AWC, with a higher focus on the Universities and Research Institutions and some governmental institutions, and less linked with the Non-Governmental Organizations and Professional Associations (Chambers, e.g., the Veterinary Chamber in Macedonia. The evaluations conducted

  1. A survey of selected animal-based measures of dairy cattle welfare in the Eastern Alps: Toward context-based thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuliani, A; Mair, M; Kraševec, M; Lora, I; Brscic, M; Cozzi, G; Leeb, C; Zupan, M; Winckler, C; Bovolenta, S

    2018-02-01

    In the Alps, traditional dairy farms are small-scale operations where vertical transhumance from valley indoor housing systems to highland pasture-based systems is still practiced in summer. Vertical transhumance implies a substantial change of environment, available resources, and management practices from one season to another. In such systems, animal-based welfare measures need to be monitored throughout the year to capture the variation of welfare outcomes, based on which targeted welfare management plans can be implemented. Because the Welfare Quality assessment approach has been tailored to indoor housing and intensive farming systems, the European Food Safety Authority recently developed a welfare assessment protocol for small-scale dairy cattle farms adapted after the Welfare Quality framework. The aim of this study was to assess nonbehavioral animal-based measures as defined by this protocol at different time points for transhumant systems in the Alps. In total, 18 animal-based measures were assessed before, during, and after the mountain pasture period in a sample of 67 small-scale dairy cattle farms practicing vertical transhumance in neighboring provinces of Austria, Italy, and Slovenia. Significant differences between assessments were identified for dirtiness of legs and teats, hairless patches, lesions and swellings, claw condition, ocular discharge, and diarrhea whereas BCS, lameness/severe lameness, vulvar discharge, nasal discharge, and hampered respiration were unchanged between seasons. In addition, a benchmarking exercise was carried out to identify relative boundaries (worst quartile thresholds) for each animal-based measure and to contribute to the discussion about achievable welfare outcomes for the 2 husbandry conditions that characterize a transhumant system. Worst quartile thresholds indicated a high prevalence of dirtiness (>80%) when cows were kept indoors, high prevalence of hairless patches (65%) before pasture turnout, and high

  2. Exploring the Role of Farm Animals in Providing Care at Care Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassink, Jan; De Bruin, Simone R.; Berget, Bente; Elings, Marjolein

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary This paper provides insight into the role of farm animals in farm-based programs and their importance to different types of participants. Farm animals provide real work, close relationships, challenging tasks and opportunities for reflection. They also contribute to a welcoming atmosphere for various types of participants. Abstract We explore the role of farm animals in providing care to different types of participants at care farms (e.g., youngsters with behavioural problems, people with severe mental problems and people with dementia). Care farms provide alternative and promising settings where people can interact with animals compared to a therapeutic healthcare setting. We performed a literature review, conducted focus group meetings and carried out secondary data-analysis of qualitative studies involving care farmers and different types of participants. We found that farm animals are important to many participants and have a large number of potential benefits. They can (i) provide meaningful day occupation; (ii) generate valued relationships; (iii) help people master tasks; (iv) provide opportunities for reciprocity; (v) can distract people from them problems; (vi) provide relaxation; (vii) facilitate customized care; (viii) facilitate relationships with other people; (ix) stimulate healthy behavior; (x) contribute to a welcoming environment; (xi) make it possible to experience basic elements of life; and (xii) provide opportunities for reflection and feedback. This shows the multi-facetted importance of interacting with animals on care farms. In this study the types of activities with animals and their value to different types of participants varied. Farm animals are an important element of the care farm environment that can address the care needs of different types of participants. PMID:28574435

  3. Cost-effectiveness analysis of chemical testing for decision-support: How to include animal welfare?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gabbert, S.G.M.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2010-01-01

    Toxicity testing for regulatory purposes raises the question of test selection for a particular endpoint. Given the public's concern for animal welfare, test selection is a multi-objective decision problem that requires balancing information outcome, animal welfare loss, and monetary testing costs.

  4. Features and News: The Importance of Discoveries in Animal Science to Human Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    BioScience, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Five short notes describe the contributions to human welfare of animal research in reproductive physiology; ruminant nutrition; meat science research; genetics and animal breeding; and recycling food by-products. (AL)

  5. The science of animal behavior and welfare: challenges, opportunities and global perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal welfare science is a relatively new scientific discipline. Originally heavily focused on animal behavior, it has emerged into a truly multi- and inter-disciplinary science, encompassing such sciences as behavior, physiology, pathology, immunology, endocrinology and neuroscience, and influence...

  6. Behaviour of Dairy Cows, Useful Indicator in Assessing Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Cristina Andronie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to establish the manner in which the flooring type may influence the welfare levelsin dairy cows by assessment of laminitis incidence and animals’ behaviour. 42 dairy cows were grouped based on theshelter floor surface: concrete with straw bedding, asphalted concrete with straw bedding and concrete plus shavings.The behaviour was assessed through direct observation and laminitis incidence was established by numericalassessment of locomotion prior or following milking.The results have indicated an increase of laminitis incidence by 15-25 % in B and C lot and was absent in A lot. Thelarge number of diseases was recorded on concrete floors with shavings bedding (53%. The behavioural displays ofthe cows suffering from laminitis were different from the healthy ones, as their resting behaviour outside the stallswas more prevalent (17.6% compared to 8.8% while the feeding behaviour was less present (10.1% compared to14.7%. Likewise, the socializing behaviour was more active in these animals, compared to the healthycows.

  7. Does the Animal Welfare Act apply to free-ranging animals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, Daniel M.

    2003-01-01

    Despite the long-standing role that institutional animal care and use committees (IACUCs) have played in reviewing and approving studies at academic institutions, compliance with the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) is not always complete for government natural resource agencies that use free-ranging animals in research and management studies. Even at universities, IACUCs face uncertainties about what activities are covered and about how to judge proposed research on free-ranging animals. One reason for much of the confusion is the AWA vaguely worded exemption for "field studies." In particular, fish are problematic because of the AWA exclusion of poikilothermic animals. However, most university IACUCs review studies on all animals, and the Interagency Research Animal Committee (IRAC) has published the "IRAC Principles," which extend coverage to all vertebrates used by federal researchers. Despite this extended coverage, many scientists working on wild animals continue to view compliance with the AWA with little enthusiasm. IACUCs, IACUC veterinarians, wildlife veterinarians, and fish and wildlife biologists must learn to work together to comply with the law and to protect the privilege of using free-ranging animals in research.

  8. Science and technology of farm animal cloning: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajta, Gábor; Gjerris, Mickey

    2006-05-01

    Details of the first mammal born after nuclear transfer cloning were published by Steen Malte Willadsen in 1986. In spite of its enormous scientific significance, this discovery failed to trigger much public concern, possibly because the donor cells were derived from pre-implantation stage embryos. The major breakthrough in terms of public recognition has happened when Ian Wilmut et al. [Wilmut, I., Schnieke, A.E., McWhir, J., Kind, A.J., Campbell, K.H., 1997. Viable offspring derived from fetal és adult mammalian cells. Nature 385, 810-813] described the successful application of almost exactly the same method, but using the nuclei of somatic cells from an adult mammal, to create Dolly the sheep. It has become theoretically possible to produce an unlimited number of genetic replicates from an adult animal or a post-implantation foetus. Since 1997 a number of different species including pigs, goats, horses, cats, etc. have been cloned with the somatic cell nuclear transfer technique. Although the technology still has relatively low success rates and there seems to be substantial problems with the welfare of some of the cloned animals, cloning is used both within basic research and the biomedical sector. The next step seems to be to implement cloning in the agricultural production system and several animals have been developed in this direction. This article reviews the current state of the art of farm animal cloning from a scientific and technological perspective, describes the animal welfare problems and critically assess different applications of farm animal cloning. The scope is confined to animal biotechnologies in which the use of cell nuclear transfer is an essential part and extends to both biomedical and agricultural applications of farm animal cloning. These applications include the production of genetically identical animals for research purposes, and also the creation of genetically modified animals. In the agricultural sector, cloning can be used as a

  9. Benefits of a Ball and Chain: Simple Environmental Enrichments Improve Welfare and Reproductive Success in Farmed American Mink (Neovison vison)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Rebecca K.; Ahloy Dallaire, Jamie; Campbell, Dana L. M.; Ross, Misha; Møller, Steen H.; Hansen, Steffen W.; Díez-León, María; Palme, Rupert; Mason, Georgia J.

    2014-01-01

    Can simple enrichments enhance caged mink welfare? Pilot data from 756 sub-adults spanning three colour-types (strains) identified potentially practical enrichments, and suggested beneficial effects on temperament and fur-chewing. Our main experiment started with 2032 Black mink on three farms: from each of 508 families, one juvenile male-female pair was enriched (E) with two balls and a hanging plastic chain or length of hose, while a second pair was left as a non-enriched (NE) control. At 8 months, more than half the subjects were killed for pelts, and 302 new females were recruited (half enriched: ‘late E’). Several signs of improved welfare or productivity emerged. Access to enrichment increased play in juveniles. E mink were calmer (less aggressive in temperament tests; quieter when handled; less fearful, if male), and less likely to fur-chew, although other stereotypic behaviours were not reduced. On one farm, E females had lower cortisol (inferred from faecal metabolites). E males tended to copulate for longer. E females also weaned more offspring: about 10% more juveniles per E female, primarily caused by reduced rates of barrenness (‘late E’ females also giving birth to bigger litters on one farm), effects that our data cautiously suggest were partly mediated by reduced inactivity and changes in temperament. Pelt quality seemed unaffected, but E animals had cleaner cages. In a subsidiary side-study using 368 mink of a second colour-type (‘Demis’), similar temperament effects emerged, and while E did not reduce fur-chewing or improve reproductive success in this colour-type, E animals were judged to have better pelts. Overall, simple enrichments were thus beneficial. These findings should encourage welfare improvements on fur farms (which house 60-70 million mink p.a.) and in breeding centres where endangered mustelids (e.g. black-footed ferrets) often reproduce poorly. They should also stimulate future research into more effective practical

  10. New Opportunities of Valorising Animal Produce: Turning Animal Farms into Educational Agrotouristic Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Samfira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Being a relatively new domain, educational agri-tourism activity involves a number of factors influencing its development: knowledge of the economic, social and cultural domain limits but in the same time accurate information about farm availability to receive children and/or people with special needs. For this paper was created a questionnaire (with 19 items for farmers in order to find if there is availability to develop and to change their farm in a certain way - to educate new generation through the relation with animals life and care, eating natural food and being creative in the nature. This questionnaire was applied to 60 farmers from the Timiş County and the answers have shown that many of them (95% are willing to receive person with special needs and there are farmers which think they don’t have anything to offer to develop and strengthen some certain traits in children personality and about the advantages for parents, teachers and local community.

  11. The involvement of the hypothalamopituitary-adrenocortical axis in stress physiology and its significance in the assessment of animal welfare in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Emma J; Vosloo, Andre

    2017-04-28

    The intensification of cattle production has raised concern for animal welfare due to the stress that is associated with farming practices. The welfare of an animal is determined by the animal's ability to cope with or adapt to its continuously changing environment and the biological cost that is associated with this adaptation and maintenance. Stressors arise from various psychological, physiological and physical aspects of farming practices due to management and human-cattle interactions. Measuring the activity of the hypothalamopituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis with plasma cortisol levels is a useful method for determining the effects of stress on animals as it is stimulated at the onset of a perceived stress. The activation of the HPA axis affects various target tissues or systems and can result in suppression of the immune system, increased susceptibility to disease and adverse effects on reproductive success in prenatal and neonatal calves. Although some levels of stress associated with farming practices are unavoidable, improvements in farming methods need to be implemented in order to maintain or increase the efficiency of cattle production in a way that does not compromise the welfare of the animal.

  12. Proteomics in farm animals models of human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceciliani, Fabrizio; Restelli, Laura; Lecchi, Cristina

    2014-10-01

    The need to provide in vivo complex environments to understand human diseases strongly relies on the use of animal models, which traditionally include small rodents and rabbits. It is becoming increasingly evident that the few species utilised to date cannot be regarded as universal. There is a great need for new animal species that are naturally endowed with specific features relevant to human diseases. Farm animals, including pigs, cows, sheep and horses, represent a valid alternative to commonly utilised rodent models. There is an ample scope for the application of proteomic techniques in farm animals, and the establishment of several proteomic maps of plasma and tissue has clearly demonstrated that farm animals provide a disease environment that closely resembles that of human diseases. The present review offers a snapshot of how proteomic techniques have been applied to farm animals to improve their use as biomedical models. Focus will be on specific topics of biomedical research in which farm animal models have been characterised through the application of proteomic techniques. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Opportunities for learning about animal welfare from online courses to graduate degrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegford, Janice M; Cottee, Stephanie Yue; Widowski, Tina M

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of animal welfare has become essential for veterinarians. However, there is no clear consensus about how to provide veterinarians and students with this critical information. The challenges associated with finding qualified instructors and fitting additional courses into an already full curriculum mean that options for learning about animal welfare beyond the veterinary school classroom must be explored. Online courses can be excellent ways for veterinary students and graduate veterinarians to become familiar with current animal-welfare science, assessment schemes, and regulations while removing geographical barriers and scheduling difficulties. Faculty at Michigan State University have created an online animal-welfare course with lecture material from experts in welfare-related social and scientific fields that provides an overview of the underlying concepts as well as opportunities to practice assessing welfare. However, to develop expertise in animal welfare, veterinarians need more than a single course. Graduate degrees can be a way of obtaining additional knowledge and scientific expertise. Traditional thesis-based graduate programs in animal-welfare science are available in animal-science departments and veterinary colleges throughout North America and offer students in-depth research experience in specific areas or species of interest. Alternatively, the University of Guelph offers a year-long Master of Science degree in which students complete a series of courses with a specialization in animal behavior and welfare along with a focused research project and paper. In summary, a range of options exist that can be tailored to provide graduate veterinarians and veterinary students with credible education regarding animal welfare beyond the veterinary curriculum.

  14. Assessment of antibiotic use in farm animals in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manishimwe, Rosine; Nishimwe, Kizito; Ojok, Lonzy

    2017-08-01

    The irrational use of antibiotics in humans and animals is highly related to the emergence and increase of antibiotic-resistant bacteria worldwide. A cross-sectional survey aimed at evaluating the current level of practices regarding antibiotic use in farm animals in Rwanda was carried out countrywide. Interviews were conducted on 229 farmers rearing different types of animals. The study has revealed that almost all respondent farmers could name at least one antibiotic used in farm animals and peni-streptomycin was named by most of them (95.6%). The use of antibiotics in farm animals was observed in the majority of respondents (97.4%). It was found that 44.4 and 26.5% of respondents reported that they used antibiotics for disease prevention and growth promotion, respectively. The use of non-prescribed antibiotics in animals was also reported by more than the half of respondent farmers (55.6%). The majority of farmers had a moderate level of practices regarding antibiotic use in farm animals (73.5%), very few had a high level (26%) and only one respondent had a low level. The high level of practices in regard to antibiotic use in animals was associated with the location of the farm, the type of reared animals, and the rearing system. The results of this study give an insight into antibiotics usage practices in farm animals in Rwanda. The generated information can guide sensitizations and promotions of the prudent use of antibiotics among farmers in order to limit the increase of antibiotic resistance in the country.

  15. Management Systems for Organic EggProduction - Aiming to Improve AnimalHealth and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegelund, Lene

    animal health and welfare. The aim of the project is to develop management tools for the organic egg production, aimed to secure animal health and welfare in the flocks. In the first part of the project a welfare assessment system for organic egg production was developed and tested on 10 fl ocks during......Animal health and welfare is an important part of organic husbandry, both in terms of the organic principles and owing to the consumer interest. But problems in the organic egg production resulting in high mortality and feather pecking, have led to the need for management tools in order to secure...... one production period. In the second part of the project a generic HACCP system was developed, using an expert panel analysis. The two management tools have very different approaches to improving animal health and welfare, and subsequently different methods, cost and advantages. This makes them...

  16. The role of renewable energy on animal farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csatári, Nándor; Vántus, András

    2015-04-01

    The recent measures in the European Union promote the usage of renewable energies and enhancing the energy efficiency. These measures also effect agriculture, on the one hand by using biofuels mixed into fuel for machinery. Besides biofuels animal farms have opportunities in using renewable energy in several other ways. There are sectors in animal farming, where the energy demand is continuously high in electricity (e.g. forage grinders, mixers, milk coolers, air ventilation systems) or in heating (e.g. stables for poultry or piglets). Beside the energy demand in agricultural sector there are several products and side products suitable for energy production. For example different kinds of organic manures and corn silage could be raw materials for biogas production; plant residues like cereal straw and corn stalk bales could be combusted in boilers. Furthermore solar cells or solar collectors can be mounted on the big roof surfaces of animal farm buildings. Among animal farming sectors, dairy farming in the most energy intensive, and uses the widest variety of energy forms. It is often mentioned as the "heavy industry" of animal farming. In this research 14 dairy farms were examined in Hajdú-Bihar County in the topic of energy demand, renewable energy usage. The questioned farms covers 35% of the dairy cow population in Hajdú-Bihar County. The questions covered the general attributes of the farms and the details of the (existing or planned) renewable energy application. In terms of economic analysis saving, the investment return time and the employment effect was examined. The results show wide variety of applied renewable energy application. Fifty percent of farms uses at least one kind of renewable energy. Two biogas plants, 6 boilers for solid biomass, 2 solar cells. Regarding employment effect biogas plants created some full time workplaces, biomass boilers also needs some work hours to maintain, but none of the farms applied more labour. Besides renewable

  17. Genetics and Genomics of Animal Behaviour and Welfare - Challanges and possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per; Buitenhuis, Bart; Kjaer, Joergen

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, the contribution of applied ethology to animal welfare science has concentrated on understanding the reactions of animals to their housing conditions. Domestication has had small effects on fundamental aspects of animal behaviour, and therefore, the needs of present day domesticated...... animals are closely related to the evolutionary history of the ancestors. However, the last decades have seen an unprecedented intensification of selection for increased production, which has significant side-effects on behaviour and welfare. Understanding the nature of such side-effects have therefore...... emerged as a central problem to animal welfare science. Modern genetics and genomics offer tools for such research, and this review outlines some of the available methods and how these have been, and could be, used to enrich animal welfare science. An outline is given on traditional genetic selection...

  18. The Animal Welfare Act and the Conduct and Publishing of Wildlife Research in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, Daniel M

    2017-08-10

    In the US, the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and its enabling regulations (AWAR) cover all warm-blooded animals used for research, testing, experimentation, or exhibition. The only exceptions, made in the enabling regulations, are for two genera of rodents and for birds, bred specifically for research (meaning even those exceptions do not apply to wild birds and wild rodents of those genera) and for farm and agricultural animals. Research using animals covered by the AWA and AWAR must be reviewed and approved by an Animal Care and Use Committee (ACUC) properly constituted according to AWA and AWAR. A review of Instructions to Authors and policy statements offered by 106 journals classified by their content as containing articles that were oriented largely toward disease, ecology, or general, showed that disease-oriented journals originating in the United States and those produced by professional societies and government agencies have a higher explicit requirement for ACUC review than do disease-oriented journals produced outside the United States or those produced commercially. Journals with a general orientation that are produced outside the United States or commercially had much higher rates of requiring explicit statements for ACUC review than generally-oriented journals produced in the United States or those produced by professional societies and government agencies. Ecology journals had low rates of explicit statements for ACUC review regardless of geographic origins or sources. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Economic Decisions in Farm Animal Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettema, Jehan Frans; Kudahl, Anne Braad; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    Animal health economics deals with quantifying the economic effects of animal disease, decision support tools in animal health management and further analysis of the management's impact at animal, herd or national level. Scientists from The Netherlands, France and Sweden have since 1988 organised...... informal workshops to exchange their knowledge and expertise in this field of science. This report contains the summary of the presentations given by 12 PhD students and 2 senior scientists of the Animal Health Economics workshops which was held on the 9th and 10th of November, 2006 at the Research Centre...... Foulum in Denmark. Different disciplines and approaches within Animal Health Economics are dealt with by the different scientists and the report contains a variety of novel results and projects. The resulting discussion is summarized in the report....

  20. THE ROLES OF INDUSTRY AND SCIENCE, INCLUDING GENETIC SELECTION, IN IMPROVING ANIMAL WELFARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. BROOM

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal producers have to predict future situations and be aware of changing public views. At present, those in the animal industry are often trying to fight off change rather than preparing for and pre-empting it. As a consequence, many animal producers have bad public images. It is better to be proactive than reactive. Producer groups should be aware of new developments in knowledge and in public attitudes to animal-related activities. They should inform their members about how to manage animals in such a way that the welfare of the animals is good and the people involved in animal care are well-respected in society. This is especially important also for those who design and manufacture housing and equipment and those who breed animals for they can have substantial effects on animal welfare. It is important for animal welfare scientists to provide objective information about the welfare of animals, so that decisions can be taken about how animals should be bred, housed and treated. Animals use a wide range of coping mechanisms and these involve high-level brain function, with associated good and bad feelings. Where welfare is poor, the best overall assessment of welfare is a function of how bad is the effect on the individual and the duration of that effect. Conventional breeding, cloning and transgenesis can all have effects on the welfare of the animals produced. Selection for fast growth and high feed conversion efficiency in broiler chickens and other meat producing animals leads to too high an incidence of leg and other disorders. Selection for high milk yield in dairy cows leads to poor welfare associated with leg disorders, mastitis and reproductive disorders. These effects should be evaluated using a range of animal welfare measures and if there are adverse effects of genetic engineering, the usage of the animals should not be permitted except for research. In the case of genetically modified or cloned animals, any effects on function

  1. Muscle Distribution in Farm Animals: Comparison Between Goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    animals~ However, there has been limited study,. 01lmJscl~/4istribution of g~ats and comparison. *CoITcsponding anthor. , data with otller species:'is even more scanty. The aIm of the,ph:sent stitdy was to compare muscle distribution of goats with that of other. , species of farm animals. ''''",'. Materials and Method. • ._ ' _ ,.

  2. Constraints to utilization of draft animal power technology at farm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Constraints to utilization of draft animal power technology at farm level in. Uganda. S.Okurut, W.R.Odogola ., A. Candia . and A.R. Saasa . Agricultural Engineering and Appropriate Technology Research Institute, AEATRI. P. O. Box 7144, Kampala, Uganda. Abstract. Animal traction utilisation in Uganda dates back to 1909 ...

  3. Dissemination of parasites by animal movements in small ruminant farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileiou, N G C; Fthenakis, G C; Papadopoulos, E

    2015-09-30

    The present paper discusses the spread of parasites by animal movements in small ruminant farms; it focuses in dissemination of parasitic forms that would lead to subsequent infection of sheep or goats. Systems of small ruminant production involve a component of animal movement (e.g., grazing) as part of routine husbandry, which favors spread of parasitic forms; that refers mainly to parasites of the digestive system (nematodes, trematodes, cestodes, protozoa), as well as helminthes of the respiratory system, although dissemination of the various parasitic forms in the environment would not always result to subsequent infection; external parasites may also be disseminated during movements, e.g., to inhabit wooden poles used in fencing. New livestock into a farm constitutes a biosecurity hazard and the most common means to introducing new parasitic pathogens into a farm; in contemporary small ruminant health management, this contributes in dissemination of anthelmintic resistant parasitic strains; other parasitic disease agents (e.g., mange mites, ticks) may also be spread into a farm that way. Often, especially in small scale farming, visits of rams or bucks take place from one farm to another during the mating season; in such cases, ectoparasites (e.g., mange mites) can be disseminated through direct contact of animals, as well other pathogens (e.g., Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum) via the semen. During transportation of sheep/goats, parasitic forms can also spread, as well as during movement of sheep or goats to slaughterhouses, in which case dogs present in these places would contribute to their dissemination. Spread of life forms of various parasites can also occur from animal species present in the environment of sheep or goats; these include animals present within a farm, stray dogs roaming around a farm (e.g., for spread of Multiceps multiceps, Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia hydatigena, N. caninum), cats commanding the environment of a farm (e.g., for

  4. The involvement of the hypothalamopituitary-adrenocortical axis in stress physiology and its significance in the assessment of animal welfare in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma J. Brown

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The intensification of cattle production has raised concern for animal welfare due to the stress that is associated with farming practices. The welfare of an animal is determined by the animal’s ability to cope with or adapt to its continuously changing environment and the biological cost that is associated with this adaptation and maintenance. Stressors arise from various psychological, physiological and physical aspects of farming practices due to management and human–cattle interactions. Measuring the activity of the hypothalamopituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis with plasma cortisol levels is a useful method for determining the effects of stress on animals as it is stimulated at the onset of a perceived stress. The activation of the HPA axis affects various target tissues or systems and can result in suppression of the immune system, increased susceptibility to disease and adverse effects on reproductive success in prenatal and neonatal calves. Although some levels of stress associated with farming practices are unavoidable, improvements in farming methods need to be implemented in order to maintain or increase the efficiency of cattle production in a way that does not compromise the welfare of the animal.

  5. Animal Protection in the Lands of Pacha Mama: The Insufficiency of the Proposed Law Organic Animal Welfare in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Machado Júnior

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering that the Pacha Mama is subject of right in the Ecuadorian Constitution, this project analyzes the rights of animals in Ecuador according to its Civil Code and its proposal for the Animal Welfare Act. For comparison purposes the laws of other countries that recognize the sentience of animals are quoted. The conclusion is that despite the paradigm of the Andean constitutionalism, Equatorian animals are legally considered things, a reality that will not change if approved the Law of Animal Welfare. The deductive method is used with bibliographic research and analysis of foreign law.

  6. Animal welfare and eggs - cheap talk or money on the counter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    2011-01-01

    Our estimate revealed willingness to pay for animal welfare using a panel mixed logit model. We utilise a unique household level panel, combining real purchases with survey data on perceived public and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We estimate willingness to pay for organic...... eggs controlling for trust in a positive connection between the public good animal welfare and the organic label and the private good food safety also connected to the label. Our results suggest that in the real world, animal welfare plays a minor role in the demand for agricultural products....

  7. How should the welfare of fetal and neurologically immature postnatal animals be protected?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Mellor, D.J.; Sandøe, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Legal protection of the welfare of prenatal animals has not previously been addressed as a discrete subject within the academic literature on animal welfare, ethics and law. This paper aims to rectify this by reviewing the protections (or absence of protections) provided for fetuses by existing...... to protect animal fetuses, both in order to protect fetuses themselves against possible suffering, and in order to protect the animals which fetuses will become against negative welfare impacts that originate prenatally. We review the science on whether fetuses can suffer, and argue that extant regulations...... undifferentiated experiences of discomfort suggested to be generated by neural processing at levels below the cerebral cortex). Furthermore, we show that there are reasons for affording fetuses protection in order to safeguard the long-term welfare of future animals. However, it may be possible to provide...

  8. Animal welfare aspects in respect of the slaughter or killing of pregnant livestock animals (cattle, pigs, sheep, goats,horses)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    More, Simon J.; Bicout, Dominique; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    This scientific opinion addresses animal welfare aspects of slaughtering of livestock pregnant animals.Term of Reference (ToR) 1 requested assessment of the prevalence of animals slaughtered in a criticaldevelopmental stage of gestation when the livestock fetuses might experience negative affect. ...

  9. Ethical and Animal Welfare Considerations in Relation to Species Selection for Animal Experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, John

    2014-12-03

    Ethical principles governing the conduct of experiments with animals are reviewed, especially those relating to the choice of species. Legislation requires that the potential harm to animals arising from any procedure should be assessed in advance and justified in terms of its possible benefit to society. Potential harms may arise both from the procedures and the quality of the animals' lifetime experience. The conventional approach to species selection is to use animals with the "lowest degree of neurophysiological sensitivity". However; this concept should be applied with extreme caution in the light of new knowledge. The capacity to experience pain may be similar in mammals, birds and fish. The capacity to suffer from fear is governed more by sentience than cognitive ability, so it cannot be assumed that rodents or farm animals suffer less than dogs or primates. I suggest that it is unethical to base the choice of species for animal experimentation simply on the basis that it will cause less distress within society. A set of responsibilities is outlined for each category of moral agent. These include regulators, operators directly concerned with the conduct of scientific experiments and toxicology trials, veterinarians and animal care staff; and society at large.

  10. A survey of Australian dairy farmers to investigate animal welfare risks associated with increasing scale of production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggs, D S; Fisher, A D; Jongman, E C; Hemsworth, P E

    2015-08-01

    Although large herds (more than 500 cows) only represent 13% of Australian dairy farms, they represent more than 35% of the cows milked. A survey of Australian dairy farmers was conducted to assess relationships between herd size and known or proposed risk factors for adverse animal welfare outcomes in Australian dairy herds in relation to increasing scale of production. Responses from 863 Australian dairy farms (13% of Australian dairy farms) were received. Increasing herd size was associated with increases in stocking density, stock per labor unit, and grain fed per day-all of which could reasonably be hypothesized to increase the risk of adverse welfare outcomes unless carefully managed. However, increasing herd size was also associated with an increased likelihood of staff with formal and industry-based training qualifications. Herd size was not associated with reported increases in mastitis or lameness treatments. Some disease conditions, such as milk fever, gut problems, and down cows, were reported less in larger herds. Larger herds were more likely to have routine veterinary herd health visits, separate milking of the main herd and the sick herd, transition diets before calving, and written protocols for disease treatment. They were more likely to use monitoring systems such as electronic identification in the dairy, computerized records, daily milk yield or cell count monitoring, and pedometers or activity meters. Euthanasia methods were consistent between herds of varying sizes, and it was noted that less than 3% of farms make use of captive-bolt devices despite their effectiveness and ready availability. Increasing herd size was related to increased herd milking time, increased time away from the paddock, and increased distance walked. If the milking order of cows is consistent, this may result in reduced feed access for late-milking-order cows because of a difference in time away from the paddock. More than 95% of farmers believed that their cows were

  11. Aggregation of measures to produce an overall assessment of animal welfare. Part 2: analysis of constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botreau, R.; Bracke, M.B.M.; Perny, P.; Buttherworth, A.; Capdeville, J.; Reenen, van C.G.; Veissier, I.

    2007-01-01

    The overall assessment of animal welfare is a multicriterion evaluation problem that needs a constructive strategy to compound information produced by many measures. The construction depends on specific features such as the concept of welfare, the measures used and the way data are collected.

  12. Animal welfare assessment at slaughter in Europe: moving from inputs to outputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velarde, Antonio; Dalmau, Antoni

    2012-11-01

    Producers, retailers and other food chain actors increasingly recognize that consumer concerns for good animal welfare represent a business opportunity that could be profitably incorporated into their commercial strategies. Therefore, during the last decade, numerous trade groups (producers, processors, retailers and restaurant chains) have developed certification systems with their suppliers which include elements of animal welfare. The Welfare Quality® project has developed an integrated and standardised welfare assessment system based on twelve welfare criteria grouped into four main principles (good feeding, good housing, good health and appropriate behaviour) according to how they are experienced by animals. One of the innovations of the Welfare Quality® assessment system is that it focuses more on outcome measures (e.g. directly related to animal body condition, health aspects, injuries, behaviour, etc.). This paper has the objective to discuss the rationale behind the welfare assessment and to describe the Welfare Quality® assessment of pigs and cattle at the slaughterhouse. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Uptake of Colostral Immunoglobulins by the Compromised Newborn Farm Animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangild PT

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal mortality is very high in farm animals (~10% and disease resistance is greatly influenced by an adequate passive immunisation just after birth. In piglets, foals, calves and lambs, the intestinal absorption of immunoglobulins from their mother's colostrum occurs mainly by a non-specific endocytosis of macromolecules, but the details of the absorption process, and the mechanisms regulating its cessation after 1–2 days of colostrum exposure, remain poorly understood. In both normal and 'compromised' (premature, growth-retarded, hypoxic, lethargic newborn farm animals, the intestinal capacity to absorb macromolecules is influenced by both diet- and animal-related factors. Thus, macromolecule uptake is severely reduced in response to premature birth and when macromolecules are to be absorbed from diets other than species-specific colostrum. On the other hand, fetal growth retardation, in vitro embryo production, or a stressful birth process are unlikely to reduce the ability of the intestine to absorb immunoglobulins from colostrum. More knowledge about the diet- and animal-related factors affecting intestinal immunoglobulin uptake will improve the clinical care of 'compromised' newborn farm animals. The present text gives a brief introduction to the process of intestinal immunoglobulin absorption in large farm animals and describe some recent results from the author's own studies in pigs, calves and lambs.

  14. Why Do So Many Calves Die on Modern Dairy Farms and What Can We Do about Calf Welfare in the Future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Mee

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Poor bovine neonatal survival rates are an international animal welfare issue. The key modifiable risk factors associated with such loss are age at first calving in primiparae, calf breed, gender and gestation length and calving management. The primary causes of mortality in the perinatal period are calving problems, in particular dystocia, defined as both difficult and abnormal calvings. Calf loss rates are rising on modern dairy farms in many countries internationally. High calf loss rates are often not recognised at national or at farm-level; recording needs to be improved. Improving bovine neonatal survival requires re-prioritization of this issue. Stakeholders need to be made cognisant of this prioritization. Actions to effect change need to occur at both national and farm-levels. National-level actions need firstly to address raising awareness of the issue. Farm-level actions need to focus on identifiable problem farms through targeted surveillance. Application of existing knowledge to alter modifiable risk factors is the key to improving calf welfare in the future. Research also has a role to play in filling knowledge gaps in particular about the ‘unexplained stillbirth’.

  15. Ethical and Animal Welfare Considerations in Relation to Species Selection for Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Webster

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethical principles governing the conduct of experiments with animals are reviewed, especially those relating to the choice of species. Legislation requires that the potential harm to animals arising from any procedure should be assessed in advance and justified in terms of its possible benefit to society. Potential harms may arise both from the procedures and the quality of the animals’ lifetime experience. The conventional approach to species selection is to use animals with the “lowest degree of neurophysiological sensitivity”. However; this concept should be applied with extreme caution in the light of new knowledge. The capacity to experience pain may be similar in mammals, birds and fish. The capacity to suffer from fear is governed more by sentience than cognitive ability, so it cannot be assumed that rodents or farm animals suffer less than dogs or primates. I suggest that it is unethical to base the choice of species for animal experimentation simply on the basis that it will cause less distress within society. A set of responsibilities is outlined for each category of moral agent. These include regulators, operators directly concerned with the conduct of scientific experiments and toxicology trials, veterinarians and animal care staff; and society at large.

  16. ‘More than a feeling’: An empirical investigation of hedonistic accounts of animal welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Becca; von Keyserlingk, Marina A. G.

    2018-01-01

    Many scientists studying animal welfare appear to hold a hedonistic concept of welfare -whereby welfare is ultimately reducible to an animal’s subjective experience. The substantial advances in assessing animal’s subjective experience have enabled us to take a step back to consider whether such indicators are all one needs to know if one is interested in the welfare of an individual. To investigate this claim, we randomly assigned participants (n = 502) to read one of four vignettes describing a hypothetical chimpanzee and asked them to make judgments about the animal’s welfare. Vignettes were designed to systematically manipulate the descriptive mental states the chimpanzee was described as experiencing: feels good (FG) vs. feels bad (FB); as well as non-subjective features of the animal’s life: natural living and physical healthy (NH) vs. unnatural life and physically unhealthy (UU); creating a fully-crossed 2 (subjective experience) X 2 (objective life value) experimental design. Multiple regression analysis showed welfare judgments depended on the objective features of the animal’s life more than they did on how the animal was feeling: a chimpanzee living a natural life with negative emotions was rated as having better welfare than a chimpanzee living an unnatural life with positive emotions. We also found that the supposedly more purely psychological concept of happiness was also influenced by normative judgments about the animal’s life. For chimpanzees with positive emotions, those living a more natural life were rated as happier than those living an unnatural life. Insofar as analyses of animal welfare are assumed to be reflective of folk intuitions, these findings raise questions about a strict hedonistic account of animal welfare. More generally, this research demonstrates the potential utility of using empirical methods to address conceptual problems in animal welfare and ethics. PMID:29529090

  17. General Principles for the welfare of animals in production systems: the underlying science and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, David; Duncan, Ian J H; Edwards, Sandra A; Grandin, Temple; Gregory, Neville G; Guyonnet, Vincent; Hemsworth, Paul H; Huertas, Stella M; Huzzey, Juliana M; Mellor, David J; Mench, Joy A; Spinka, Marek; Whay, H Rebecca

    2013-10-01

    In 2012, the World Organisation for Animal Health adopted 10 'General Principles for the Welfare of Animals in Livestock Production Systems' to guide the development of animal welfare standards. The General Principles draw on half a century of scientific research relevant to animal welfare: (1) how genetic selection affects animal health, behaviour and temperament; (2) how the environment influences injuries and the transmission of diseases and parasites; (3) how the environment affects resting, movement and the performance of natural behaviour; (4) the management of groups to minimize conflict and allow positive social contact; (5) the effects of air quality, temperature and humidity on animal health and comfort; (6) ensuring access to feed and water suited to the animals' needs and adaptations; (7) prevention and control of diseases and parasites, with humane euthanasia if treatment is not feasible or recovery is unlikely; (8) prevention and management of pain; (9) creation of positive human-animal relationships; and (10) ensuring adequate skill and knowledge among animal handlers. Research directed at animal welfare, drawing on animal behaviour, stress physiology, veterinary epidemiology and other fields, complements more established fields of animal and veterinary science and helps to create a more comprehensive scientific basis for animal care and management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Animal welfare and corporate welfare in pharmaceutical R&D - the future of third-party assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Makoto

    2018-01-01

    For research and development (R&D) of new drugs, animal experimentation is indispensable, and research institutes, pharmaceutical companies, or contract research organizations routinely conduct preclinical studies of efficacy, safety, or metabolism using laboratory animals. However, animal experimentation entails some organizational risks. One is the suspension of R&D of a new drug, because in the course of clinical studies it becomes apparent that the drug has limited efficacy, unexpected side effects, and/or unexpected metabolites. Another risk is damage to the company image by development of an unfavorable reputation. Society has accepted animal experimentation as a necessary evil, but if such experimentation is not conducted with adequate concern for animal welfare, social sanctions will against that institute, company or organization will result. Once this happens, it is difficult to recover a good public image. Therefore, pharmaceutical companies must conduct animal experiments so as to obtain highly useful data without sacrificing public favor. One way to maintain a good reputation is through third-party accreditation, which verifies that the institute, company or organization and its researchers value animal welfare appropriately.

  19. Future of keeping pet reptiles and amphibians: animal welfare and public health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, C; Jessop, M; Arena, P; Pliny, A; Nicholas, E; Lambiris, A

    2017-10-28

    In a review summary on page 450, Pasmans and others discuss the future of keeping reptiles and amphibians as pets. Here, Clifford Warwick and others discuss the animal welfare and public health implications of exotic pet business. British Veterinary Association.

  20. Assessment of pack animal welfare in and around Bareilly city of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Probhakar Biswas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the welfare of pack animal: Pony, Horse, Mule and Donkey in and around Bareilly city. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out in Bareilly city and Izatnagar area of Bareilly district of Uttar Pradesh in the year 2009. Representative sample of 100 pack animal owners were selected to get the information regarding various social, personal and economic attributes of the pack animal. Further during interviewing different health and behavior pattern of animals was keenly examined. Analysis has been done as per standard procedures. Results: Most of the pack animal owners (98% were aware of the freedom from hunger and thirst. Majority of respondents (96, 93, 81 & 85 percent were aware of freedom from injury and disease, pain and discomfort, to express normal behavior and adequate space and freedom from fear and distress. Respondents (85% believed that they themselves were responsible for the welfare of the animals. Most of the owners (48.8% employed their animals for work for 9-10 hrs with rest (96.5% in between work and most (88.3% indulged into beating to compel the animals to work. All pregnant animals were put to work in the first two trimesters of pregnancy. Upon physical examination, pack animals showed abnormality in eyes (49%, abnormality in gait (40% and limb deformity (39%. Most animals (75% had tether lesions and 34 percent animals avoided or were aggressive to observer. Majority (74.1% of the owners housed their animals in a part of their own residence with improper drainage and cleaning. Most of the owners (82% consulted Veterinary doctors for treatment and believed in allopathic medicine (57%. Vaccination was not carried out on most (96% of the animals. All the animals were feed green fodder but practice of supplementation of minerals to animals was only among 11 percent owners. Conclusions: Present findings provide baseline information on welfare activities followed by pack animal owners and status of pack

  1. 77 FR 38073 - Laboratory Animal Welfare: Clarification of Position Statements on Implementation of the Eighth...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... their implementation of the 8th Edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (Guide.... Background Since 1985, the Public Health Service (PHS) Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Laboratory Animal Welfare...

  2. 76 FR 10379 - Laboratory Animal Welfare: Proposed Adoption and Implementation of the Eighth Edition of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (Guide) as a basis for evaluation of institutional programs... PHS Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, authorized by Public Law 99-158, 42 U.S.C... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Laboratory Animal Welfare...

  3. Vancomycin resistant enterococci in farm animals – occurrence and importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskar Nilsson

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The view on enterococci has over the years shifted from harmless commensals to opportunistic but important pathogens mainly causing nosocomial infections. One important part of this development is the emergence of vancomycin resistance enterococci (VRE. The term VRE includes several combinations of bacterial species and resistance genes of which the most clinically important is Enterococcus faecium with vanA type vancomycin resistance. This variant is also the most common VRE among farm animals. The reason for VRE being present among farm animals is selection by extensive use of the vancomycin analog avoparcin for growth promotion. Once the use of avoparcin was discontinued, the prevalence of VRE among farm animals decreased. However, VRE are still present among farm animals and by spread via food products they could potentially have a negative impact on public health. This review is based on the PhD thesis Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci in Swedish Broilers – Emergence, Epidemiology and Elimination and makes a short summary of VRE in humans and food producing animals. The specific situation regarding VRE in Swedish broiler production is also mentioned.

  4. HOW SHOULD THE WELFARE OF FETAL AND NEUROLOGICALLY IMMATURE POSTNATAL ANIMALS BE PROTECTED?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Madeleine L H; Mellor, David J; Sandøe, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Legal protection of the welfare of prenatal animals has not previously been addressed as a discrete subject within the academic literature on animal welfare, ethics and law. This paper aims to rectify this by reviewing the protections (or absence of protections) provided for fetuses by existing legislation in various jurisdictions, and considering the extent to which legal protection of animal fetuses can be justified on animal welfare grounds. Questions related to the need to protect the welfare of neurologically immature postnatal animals are also considered. We argue that there are reasons to protect animal fetuses, both in order to protect fetuses themselves against possible suffering, and in order to protect the animals which fetuses will become against negative welfare impacts that originate prenatally. We review the science on whether fetuses can suffer, and argue that extant regulations do not fully reflect current scientific understanding. Following the precautionary principle, we further argue that regulators should consider the possibility that foetuses and neurologically immature postnatal animals may suffer due to subcortically based 'raw basic affects' (i.e. relatively undifferentiated experiences of discomfort suggested to be generated by neural processing at levels below the cerebral cortex). Furthermore we show that there are reasons for affording fetuses protection in order to safeguard the long-term welfare of future animals. However, it may be possible to provide such protection via rules or laws relating to the use of certain techniques and the management of pregnant animals, rather than via direct legal protection of fetuses themselves. In order to provide such protection effectively we need to know more about the relationship between maternal nutrition, stress, exercise, management and fetal health, and about the impact of the timing of a fetal insult on long-term postnatal welfare.

  5. HOW SHOULD THE WELFARE OF FETAL AND NEUROLOGICALLY IMMATURE POSTNATAL ANIMALS BE PROTECTED?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Madeleine L.H.; Mellor, David J.; Sandøe, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Legal protection of the welfare of prenatal animals has not previously been addressed as a discrete subject within the academic literature on animal welfare, ethics and law. This paper aims to rectify this by reviewing the protections (or absence of protections) provided for fetuses by existing legislation in various jurisdictions, and considering the extent to which legal protection of animal fetuses can be justified on animal welfare grounds. Questions related to the need to protect the welfare of neurologically immature postnatal animals are also considered. We argue that there are reasons to protect animal fetuses, both in order to protect fetuses themselves against possible suffering, and in order to protect the animals which fetuses will become against negative welfare impacts that originate prenatally. We review the science on whether fetuses can suffer, and argue that extant regulations do not fully reflect current scientific understanding. Following the precautionary principle, we further argue that regulators should consider the possibility that foetuses and neurologically immature postnatal animals may suffer due to subcortically based ‘raw basic affects’ (i.e. relatively undifferentiated experiences of discomfort suggested to be generated by neural processing at levels below the cerebral cortex). Furthermore we show that there are reasons for affording fetuses protection in order to safeguard the long-term welfare of future animals. However, it may be possible to provide such protection via rules or laws relating to the use of certain techniques and the management of pregnant animals, rather than via direct legal protection of fetuses themselves. In order to provide such protection effectively we need to know more about the relationship between maternal nutrition, stress, exercise, management and fetal health, and about the impact of the timing of a fetal insult on long-term postnatal welfare. PMID:26973382

  6. Attitudes to animal-assisted therapy with farm animals among health staff and farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berget, B; Ekeberg, Ø; Braastad, B O

    2008-09-01

    Green care is a concept that involves the use of farm animals, plants, gardens or the landscape in cooperation with health institutions for different target groups of clients. The present study aimed at examining psychiatric therapists' (n = 60) and farmers' (n = 15) knowledge, experience and attitudes to Green care and animal-assisted therapy (AAT) with farm animals for people with psychiatric disorders. Most respondents had some or large knowledge about Green care, but experience with Green care was generally low in both groups. Both farmers and therapists believed that AAT with farm animals could contribute positively to therapy to a large or very large extent, with farmers being significantly more positive. Most of the therapists thought that AAT with farm animals contributes to increased skills in interactions with other humans, with female therapists being more positive than males. Two-thirds of the therapists believed that AAT with farm animals to a large extent could contribute better to mental health than other types of occupational therapy. There were no differences in attitudes to AAT between psychiatrists/psychologists and psychiatric nurses. This study confirms the marked potential of offering AAT services with farm animals for psychiatric patients by documenting positive attitudes to it among psychiatric therapists.

  7. Speaking Up: Veterinary Ethical Responsibilities and Animal Welfare Issues in Everyday Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Elein; Fawcett, Anne; Brouwer, Emily; Rau, Jeff

    2018-01-01

    Simple Summary Veterinarians have an ethical obligation to provide good care for the animals that they see in practice. However, at times, there may be conflicts between the interests of animal caregivers or owners, the interests of veterinarians and the interests of animals. We provide an overview of why and how veterinary ethics is taught to veterinary students, as well as providing a context for thinking about veterinary ethical challenges and animal welfare issues. We argue that veterinarians are ethically obliged to speak up and ask questions when problems arise or are seen and provide a series of clinical case examples in which there is scope for veterinarians to improve animal welfare by ‘speaking up’. Abstract Although expectations for appropriate animal care are present in most developed countries, significant animal welfare challenges continue to be seen on a regular basis in all areas of veterinary practice. Veterinary ethics is a relatively new area of educational focus but is thought to be critically important in helping veterinarians formulate their approach to clinical case management and in determining the overall acceptability of practices towards animals. An overview is provided of how veterinary ethics are taught and how common ethical frameworks and approaches are employed—along with legislation, guidelines and codes of professional conduct—to address animal welfare issues. Insufficiently mature ethical reasoning or a lack of veterinary ethical sensitivity can lead to an inability or difficulty in speaking up about concerns with clients and ultimately, failure in their duty of care to animals, leading to poor animal welfare outcomes. A number of examples are provided to illustrate this point. Ensuring that robust ethical frameworks are employed will ultimately help veterinarians to “speak up” to address animal welfare concerns and prevent future harms. PMID:29361786

  8. Selection against stereotyped behaviour may have contradictory consequences for the welfare of farm mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Pernille Maj; Jeppesen, Leif Lau; Malmkvist, Jens

    2007-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine if divergent selection for stereotypic behaviour in mink influences the welfare of the animals. Two breeding lines were used, a high stereotyping line (HSL, N = 139) and a low stereotyping line (LSL, N = 132). Their welfare was assessed on the basis...... of adrenocortical activity (faecal cortisol metabolites, FCM), confident versus fearful temperament, growth and reproduction. The results showed that the LSL performed less stereotypic behaviour and were less active than the HSL. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that: (1) the LSL had lower concentrations......) there was no failure to grow in any line, but on average the body weight in the LSL was higher than that in the HSL. The correlation between stereotypy and confidence in the present study supports earlier findings showing a higher proportion of fearful animals in groups of low stereotyping mink. So, although...

  9. Future development of animal welfare science and use of new technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The expected human population growth to 9 billion people by 2050 will impact all animals with which we share this planet. We will see more farm animals, greater companion animal ownership, increasing feral populations, increased use of laboratory animals and threatened wildlife species diversity, im...

  10. "The Giver" as a Bridge to "Animal Farm": Controlling Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibbetson, Kirsten

    Both the adolescent novel "The Giver" (Lois Lowry) and the classic work "Animal Farm" (George Orwell) deal with the idea of a controlling society. "The Giver" gives the reader an understanding of what it is like to live in a society where every move and every decision is basically made for you, but the people living…

  11. Exploring the framing of animal farming and meat consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, Hanneke J.; Aarts, Noelle; Woerkum, Van Cees M.J.

    2018-01-01

    In various contexts, people talk about animal farming andmeat consumption using different arguments to construct and justify their (non-)acceptability. This article presents the results of an in-depth qualitative inquiry into the content of and contextual patterns in the everyday-life framing

  12. Plea Bargaining: A Recreation of George Orwell's Animal Farm in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Farm is an allegorical novel by George Orwell in which he depicted social injustice precipitated by the insincerity of leadership and the betrayal of the people by their leaders which has made the novel relevant as the experience depicted therein “seamlessly steps into the realities of everyday life” (Achebe 2012) in ...

  13. A radioimmunoassay for anti-virus antibodies in farm animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodak, L.; Smid, B.; Sedlacek, M.

    1978-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for determination of antibodies to Aujeszky's disease virus in piq serum is described. The results show a number of advantaqes of this method over the routinely employed virus-neutralization test. The possibility of using the RIA method in diagnosing other viral diseases of farm animals is suggested. (authors)

  14. Genetics of ovulation rate in farm animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rate of ovulation (i.e. fecundity is largely influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. The ovarian growth factorsincluding members of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs play a central role in determining ovulation quota and litter size.Naturally occurring mutation in sheep and knock-out and knock–down studies in murine indicated the importance of bonemorphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15, growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9 and bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1B(BMPR1B genes in mammals. These factors have major regulatory roles during the gonadotrophin-independent and -dependent stages of follicle development. Understanding of BMPs in reproduction assists in the treatment of infertility/sterility in animals.

  15. Career Preferences and Opinions on Animal Welfare and Ethics: A Survey of Veterinary Students in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Amelia R; Caspar, Georgina L; Collins, Teresa; Degeling, Christopher; Fawcett, Anne; Fisher, Andrew D; Freire, Rafael; Hazel, Susan J; Hood, Jennifer; Johnson, A Jane; Lloyd, Janice; Phillips, Clive J C; Stafford, Kevin; Tzioumis, Vicky; McGreevy, Paul D

    Historically, the veterinary profession has understood animal welfare primarily in terms of animal health and productivity, with less recognition of animals' feelings and mental state. Veterinary students' career preferences and attitudes to animal welfare have been the focus of several international studies. As part of a survey in Australia and New Zealand, this study reports on whether veterinary students prioritize animal welfare topics or professional conduct on the first day of practice and examines links between students' career preferences and their institution, gender, and year of study. The questionnaire was designed to explore the importance that students assign to topics in animal welfare and ethics. Of the 3,320 students invited to participate in the online survey, a total of 851 students participated, representing a response rate of 25.5%. Students' preferences increased for companion-animal practice and decreased for production-animal practice as they progressed through their studies. Females ranked the importance of animal welfare topics higher than males, but the perceived importance declined for both genders in their senior years. In line with previous studies, this report highlighted two concerns: (1) the importance assigned to animal welfare declined as students progressed through their studies, and (2) males placed less importance overall on animal welfare than females. Given that veterinarians have a strong social influence on animal issues, there is an opportunity, through enhanced education in animal welfare, to improve student concern for animal welfare and in turn improve animal care and policy making by future veterinarians.

  16. Risk and profitability of animal and crop production in Slovak farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Tóth

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on profitability and risk of crop and animal production based on an analysis of farms operating in Slovak Republic. The individual farm data used for the analysis are from the database of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of the Slovak Republic. For our analysis, data were selected according to the farm production orientation to the subset of crop farms and animal farms. The selecting criterion for production orientation was the percentage share of revenues from crop production, or revenues from animal production from the overall revenues from own products and services. We analyse profitability of farms divided into groups based on the type of production into crop and animal farms (according to the share in sales from crop or animal production. Using descriptive statistics and portfolio theory we simulate the total farm profitability and volatility of animal and crop production in Slovakia. The modified Markowitz portfolio theory approach was used to estimate the total risk of portfolios of crop and animal farms. Based on the results we conclude that in the long run crop farms are profitable and profit from crop production is used to cover the losses from animal production in mixed farms. Farms focused on animal production only are efficient and profitable, but the profitability is lower in comparison with crop farms. Animal farms results are less volatile than crop farms. Large farms tend to production with lower value added and can generate enough profit for the owner.

  17. Is experience on a farm an effective approach to understanding animal products and the management of dairy farming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Mariko; Osada, Masahiro; Ishioka, Katsumi; Matsubara, Takako; Momota, Yutaka; Yumoto, Norio; Sako, Toshinori; Kamiya, Shinji; Yoshimura, Itaru

    2014-03-01

    The understanding of animal products and dairy farming is important for the promotion of dairy farming. Thus, to examine the effects of farm experience on the understanding of animal products and the management of dairy farming, the interaction between students and dairy cows was investigated in groups of first-year veterinary nursing students in 2011 and 2012 (n = 201). These students included 181 women and 20 men. Nine items about dairy cows were presented in a questionnaire. The survey was performed before and after praxis on the educational farm attached to the authors' university. After praxis on the farm, increases occurred in the number of positive responses to the items involving the price of milk, dairy farming and the taste of milk. For these items, a significant difference (P animal products and dairy farming. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. Brazilian Citizens’ Opinions and Attitudes about Farm Animal Production Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunes, Maria C.; von Keyserlingk, Marina A. G.; Hötzel, Maria J.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary The inclusion of societal input is needed for food animal production industries to retain their “social license to operate”. Little is known about the knowledge and attitudes of Brazilian citizens regarding food animal production systems. The aim of this study was to explore the beliefs and attitudes of Brazilians not associated with livestock production towards farm animal production systems. Overall, our participants expressed a preference for free-range, cage-free, and more “natural” production systems. They also expressed concerns with livestock production systems that limited the movement or expression of natural behaviours, particularly those that they associated with animal suffering or distress. They recognized farm animals as deserving respect and dignity beyond the provision of basic needs. Our findings indicate that Brazil’s current farm animal housing practices that are associated with restriction of movement may not align with societal expectations. Abstract The inclusion of societal input is needed for food animal production industries to retain their “social license to operate”; failure to engage with the public on this topic risks the long-term sustainability of these industries. The primary aim of this study was to explore the beliefs and attitudes of Brazilians citizens not associated with livestock production towards farm animal production. A related secondary aim was to identify the specific beliefs and attitudes towards systems that are associated with restriction of movement. Each participant was shown pictures representing two of five possible major food animal industries (laying hens, beef cattle, pregnant sows, lactating sows, and poultry meat). Participants were presented a six pages survey that included demographic questions plus two sets of two pictures and a series of questions pertaining to the pictures. Each set of pictures represented a particular industry where one picture represented a housing type that

  19. Challenges to the Development and Implementation of Public Policies to Achieve Animal Welfare Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Margaret

    2010-12-31

    Although there is a long-established tradition of concern for the welfare of animals, it was not until the mid 1800's that governments sought to enact legislation to protect animals from cruelty. In the 1950's, questions concerning animal welfare re-emerged and in the ensuing years have been an on-going focus of government activities. These developments occurred against a backdrop of significant social change but there are important differences in what now underpins and informs these considerations. In the formulation and implementation of public policies, governments look for a course of action that represents and protects the interests of the community; the process may be challenging with competing interests but the final determination seeks a middle ground that best meets the needs and interests of the community as a whole. When policy development concerns our relationship with other animals, the complexity of this relationship presents particular challenges not only to the formulation of policies but also to the evaluation of outcomes. Notably, the depth of feelings and diversity of views in our community reflect the complex social, cultural and personal dimensions of this relationship. The use of animals for scientific purposes remains one of the most contentious animal welfare issues primarily because when animals are used for these purposes, accepted animal welfare benchmarks cannot always be met. Based on the Australian experience, this paper will discuss the influences in and on-going challenges to the development and implementation of public policy when animals are used for these purposes.

  20. A multifunctional social economy offer to the Danish welfare state? The case of Farming for Health in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Pia Heike

    2010-01-01

    agriculture nor inside the fourth sector meet the practices of Farming for Health in Denmark. In addition it concludes that if Farming for Health should be an offer for the Danish welfare state then cooperation between for example bottom-up initiatives supported by the LEADER program and actors from......Social Farming and Farming for Health are both internationally accepted names for farms that in addition to their agricultural production offer social, medical care or educational services. Such services could for example be related to rehabilitation / reintegration of socially disadvantaged people...... to promote integration of minorities, to special education of maladjusted school pupils and to physical or mental therapeutic rehabilitation. In Europe there has in recent years been an increasing focus on this linkage between farming and social / health activities as an initiative that encourages relations...

  1. 76 FR 17423 - Laboratory Animal Welfare: Proposed Adoption and Implementation of the Eighth Edition of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... adoption of the eighth edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (Guide) as a basis... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Laboratory Animal Welfare: Proposed Adoption and Implementation of the Eighth Edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory...

  2. 76 FR 27335 - Laboratory Animal Welfare: Proposed Adoption and Implementation of the Eighth Edition of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... eighth edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (Guide) as a basis for evaluation... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Laboratory Animal Welfare: Proposed Adoption and Implementation of the Eighth Edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory...

  3. The utility of fecal corticosterone metabolites and animal welfare assessment protocols as predictive parameters of tumor development and animal welfare in a murine xenograft model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kirsten Rosenmaj; Jørgensen, Pernille Schønning; Pipper, Christian Bressen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the utility of various non-invasive parameters for the prediction of tumor development and animal welfare in a murine xenograft model in male C.B-17 SCID (C.B-Igh-1(b)/IcrTac-Prkdc(scid)) mice. The study showed that body weight, food and water consumpt......The aim of the present study was to evaluate the utility of various non-invasive parameters for the prediction of tumor development and animal welfare in a murine xenograft model in male C.B-17 SCID (C.B-Igh-1(b)/IcrTac-Prkdc(scid)) mice. The study showed that body weight, food and water...... consumption, and an animal welfare assessment (AWA) protocol revealed marked differences between control and cancer lines as the size of the tumor increased. However, only the AWA protocol was effective in predicting the tumor size and the level of fecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM). FCM levels were......, however, negatively-correlated to the AWA score, and the tumor size, both when evaluated on a given day and when accumulated over the entire period. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that body weight and food and water consumption were negatively-affected as tumor developed but only the animal...

  4. Animal-assisted therapy with farm animals for persons with psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berget, Bente; Braastad, Bjarne O

    2011-01-01

    Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) with farm animals for humans with psychiatric disorders may reduce depression and state anxiety, and increase self-efficacy, in many participants. Social support by the farmer appears to be important. Positive effects are best documented for persons with affective disorders or clinical depression. Effects may sometimes take a long time to be detectable, but may occur earlier if the participants are encouraged to perform more complex working skills. Progress must however be individually adapted allowing for flexibility, also between days. Therapists involved with mental health show a pronounced belief in the effects of AAT with farm animals, variation being related to type of disorder, therapist's sex and his/her experience with AAT. Research is still scarce and further research is required to optimize and individually adapt the design of farm animal-assisted interventions.

  5. Animal-assisted therapy with farm animals for persons with psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Berget

    Full Text Available Animal-assisted therapy (AAT with farm animals for humans with psychiatric disorders may reduce depression and state anxiety, and increase self-efficacy, in many participants. Social support by the farmer appears to be important. Positive effects are best documented for persons with affective disorders or clinical depression. Effects may sometimes take a long time to be detectable, but may occur earlier if the participants are encouraged to perform more complex working skills. Progress must however be individually adapted allowing for flexibility, also between days. Therapists involved with mental health show a pronounced belief in the effects of AAT with farm animals, variation being related to type of disorder, therapist's sex and his/her experience with AAT. Research is still scarce and further research is required to optimize and individually adapt the design of farm animal-assisted interventions.

  6. Brazilian Citizens' Opinions and Attitudes about Farm Animal Production Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunes, Maria C; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G; Hötzel, Maria J

    2017-09-28

    The inclusion of societal input is needed for food animal production industries to retain their "social license to operate"; failure to engage with the public on this topic risks the long-term sustainability of these industries. The primary aim of this study was to explore the beliefs and attitudes of Brazilians citizens not associated with livestock production towards farm animal production. A related secondary aim was to identify the specific beliefs and attitudes towards systems that are associated with restriction of movement. Each participant was shown pictures representing two of five possible major food animal industries (laying hens, beef cattle, pregnant sows, lactating sows, and poultry meat). Participants were presented a six pages survey that included demographic questions plus two sets of two pictures and a series of questions pertaining to the pictures. Each set of pictures represented a particular industry where one picture represented a housing type that is associated with behavioural restrictions and the other picture represented a system that allowed for a greater degree of movement. Participants were asked their perceptions on the prevalence of each system in Brazil, then their preference of one picture vs. the other, and the reasons justifying their preference. Immediately following, the participant repeated the same exercise with the second set of two pictures representing another industry followed by the same series of questions as described above. Quantitative data were analysed with mixed effects logistic regression, and qualitative responses were coded into themes. The proportion of participants that believed animals are reared in confinement varied by animal production type: 23% (beef cattle), 82% (poultry), 81% (laying hens), and 60% (swine). A large majority (79%) stated that farm animals are not well-treated in Brazil. Overall, participants preferred systems that were not associated with behavioural restriction. The preference for free

  7. Animal Welfare Groups Press for Limits on High School Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BioScience, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Discussions from the conference on "The Use of Animals in High School Biology Classes" are highlighted in this article. The list of science fair rules, which resulted from the conference, is included. (SA)

  8. Adult protective services and animal welfare: should animal abuse and neglect be assessed during adult protective services screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peak, Terry; Ascione, Frank; Doney, Jylisa

    2012-01-01

    Past research has examined links among animal abuse, child maltreatment, and intimate partner violence and demonstrated the importance of addressing the needs of both human and animal victims. We hypothesized that there might be a similar link between animal abuse and older adult welfare issues. As a first step in the earlier research was the development of a screening protocol that shed light on the link between domestic violence and animal abuse, we decided to follow a similar route to explore this new topic by asking state government representatives about their experiences, if any, with this topic. Here we report the results of a national survey of state Adult Protective Services agencies regarding their protocols for assessing animal welfare issues in the context of older adult maltreatment. We also describe a model assessment protocol we developed in collaboration with the Utah Division of Aging and Adult Services.

  9. PhenoWorld: addressing animal welfare in a new paradigm to house and assess rat behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelhano-Carlos, Magda J; Baumans, Vera; Sousa, Nuno

    2017-02-01

    The use of animals is essential in biomedical research. The laboratory environment where the animals are housed has a major impact on them throughout their lives and influences the outcome of animal experiments. Therefore, there has been an increased effort in the refinement of laboratory housing conditions which is explicitly reflected in international regulations and recommendations. Since housing conditions affect behaviour and brain function as well as well-being, the validation of an animal model or paradigm to study the brain and central nervous system disorders is not complete without an evaluation of its implication on animal welfare. Here we discuss several aspects of animal welfare, comparing groups of six rats living in the PhenoWorld (PhW), a recently developed and validated paradigm for studying rodent behaviour, with standard-housed animals (in cages of six rats or pair-housed). In this study we present new data on home-cage behaviour showing that PhW animals have a clearer circadian pattern of sleep and social interaction. We conclude that, by promoting good basic health and functioning, together with the performance of natural behaviours, and maintaining animals' control over some of their environment but still keeping some physical and social challenges, the PhW stimulates positive affective states and higher motivation in rats, which might contribute to an increased welfare for animals living in the PhW.

  10. Evaluation of a welfare indicator protocol for assessing animal welfare in AMS herds: researcher, production advisor and veterinary practitioner opinion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rousing, Tine; Jakobsen, Iben Alber; Hindhede, Jens

    2007-01-01

    important welfare indicators. In summary, researchers as well as production advisors and veterinarians supported the suggested measures for inclusion in a welfare assessment system. This has demonstrated that integration of different information is considered decisive for operational welfare assessment...

  11. Exogenous enzymes upgrade transgenesis and genetic engineering of farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Pablo; Forcato, Diego O; Alustiza, Fabrisio E; Alessio, Ana P; Fili, Alejandro E; Olmos Nicotra, María F; Liaudat, Ana C; Rodríguez, Nancy; Talluri, Thirumala R; Kues, Wilfried A

    2015-05-01

    Transgenic farm animals are attractive alternative mammalian models to rodents for the study of developmental, genetic, reproductive and disease-related biological questions, as well for the production of recombinant proteins, or the assessment of xenotransplants for human patients. Until recently, the ability to generate transgenic farm animals relied on methods of passive transgenesis. In recent years, significant improvements have been made to introduce and apply active techniques of transgenesis and genetic engineering in these species. These new approaches dramatically enhance the ease and speed with which livestock species can be genetically modified, and allow to performing precise genetic modifications. This paper provides a synopsis of enzyme-mediated genetic engineering in livestock species covering the early attempts employing naturally occurring DNA-modifying proteins to recent approaches working with tailored enzymatic systems.

  12. Brazilian Citizens’ Opinions and Attitudes about Farm Animal Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Yunes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of societal input is needed for food animal production industries to retain their “social license to operate”; failure to engage with the public on this topic risks the long-term sustainability of these industries. The primary aim of this study was to explore the beliefs and attitudes of Brazilians citizens not associated with livestock production towards farm animal production. A related secondary aim was to identify the specific beliefs and attitudes towards systems that are associated with restriction of movement. Each participant was shown pictures representing two of five possible major food animal industries (laying hens, beef cattle, pregnant sows, lactating sows, and poultry meat. Participants were presented a six pages survey that included demographic questions plus two sets of two pictures and a series of questions pertaining to the pictures. Each set of pictures represented a particular industry where one picture represented a housing type that is associated with behavioural restrictions and the other picture represented a system that allowed for a greater degree of movement. Participants were asked their perceptions on the prevalence of each system in Brazil, then their preference of one picture vs. the other, and the reasons justifying their preference. Immediately following, the participant repeated the same exercise with the second set of two pictures representing another industry followed by the same series of questions as described above. Quantitative data were analysed with mixed effects logistic regression, and qualitative responses were coded into themes. The proportion of participants that believed animals are reared in confinement varied by animal production type: 23% (beef cattle, 82% (poultry, 81% (laying hens, and 60% (swine. A large majority (79% stated that farm animals are not well-treated in Brazil. Overall, participants preferred systems that were not associated with behavioural restriction. The

  13. WelFur-mink: inter-observer reliability of on-farm welfare assessment in the growth season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Steen Henrik; Rousing, Tine; Hansen, Steffen W

    2012-01-01

    A welfare assessment system should be "high" in validity, robustness and feasibility - the latter both as regards time and costs. Therefore, observers must be able to perform the on-farm assessment with acceptable validity after some training. Based on empiric data this paper evaluates...

  14. Collaboration, Knowledge and Innovation toward a Welfare Society: The Case of the Board of Social Farming in Valdera (Tuscany), Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iacovo, Francesco; Moruzzo, Roberta; Rossignoli, Cristiano M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Through an analysis of a social farming (SF) case study, this article investigates how collaboration and knowledge co-creation between different actors can support the process of rural transition in order to stimulate innovation in the welfare system using agricultural resources. Methodology: We used the "Antecedent-Process-Outcome…

  15. Aggregation of measures to produce an overall assessment of animal welfare. Part 1: a review of existing methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boteau, R.; Bonde, Marianne; Butterworth, A.

    2007-01-01

    the information. Here we discuss the different methods used to aggregate welfare measures and their applicability to certification schemes involving welfare. Data obtained on a farm can be (i) analysed by an expert who draws an overall conclusion; (ii) compared with minimal requirements set for each measure; (iii...

  16. Does the current regulation of assisted reproductive techniques in the UK safeguard animal welfare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Madeleine L H

    2014-02-01

    Reproductive medicine is one of the fastest-developing fields of veterinary medicine, Regulation of veterinary assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) is currently divided between the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act (1986); the Veterinary Surgeons Act 1966, and the Animal Welfare Act (2006). None of those pieces of legislation was purpose designed to protect the welfare of animals undergoing ARTs, either directly or by determining which veterinary ART procedures may or may not be performed. Consequently, due to the lack of reference to such procedures, the welfare protection aims of the legislation are sometimes ambiguous. It is therefore difficult to ascertain whether the aims of the legislation are being fulfilled, but, in the opinion of this author, the legislation is anyway inadequate in scope, most particularly because it fails to provide a reporting function. It is unclear whether all or any veterinary ART procedures being undertaken on post-natal animals are associated with suffering. Some ARTs may cause discomfort, stress or pain: study or review of the welfare effects of these would be valuable. Any future review of the legislation regulating veterinary ARTs, be that an overall review or a review of one of the relevant statutes (for example the VSA), should take into account the interface between research and clinical medicine; the potentially welfare-compromising gaps between the Acts; the need to introduce reporting functions in order to build an evidence base, and the issue of veterinary specialisation and whether specialised techniques should be carried out only by those with specialist post-graduate qualifications.

  17. Scope for animal welfare education in open and distance learning: findings from a needs assessment study in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidhar, P V K; Jayasimha, N G

    2015-12-01

    The objectives of this study were twofold: to assess the demand for animal welfare education by open and distance learning (ODL) and to identify content to be covered in an ODL animal welfare programme. Through email, personal interviews and online surveys, data were collected from 161 respondents. The key survey questions were on: the need and reasons for providing animal welfare education through ODL; entry-level qualifications; job/career prospects; duration of the programme, and suggestions on course content. The majority of respondents felt that there was a need for a one-year ODL academic programme on animal welfare. In the light of the findings of this study and related discussions, the authors recommend that online and ODL programmes in animal welfare be developed to meet the continuing educational needs of veterinary students, working veterinarians, para-veterinarians and other stakeholders closely related to animal welfare.

  18. George Orwell's Animal Farm: A metonym for a dictatorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sewlall

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available George Orwell’s Animal Farm is traditionally read as a satire on dictatorships in general, and the Bolshevik Revolution in particular. This article postulates the notion that the schema of the book has attained the force of metonymy to such an extent that whenever one alludes to the title of the book or some lines from it, one conjures up images associated with a dictatorship. The title of the book has become a part of the conceptual political lexicon of the English language to refer to the corruption of a utopian ideology. As an ideological state, Animal Farm has its vision, which is embedded in its constitution; it has the vote, a national anthem and a flag. It even has its patriots, double-dealers, social engineers and lechers. In this way the title Animal Farm, like Joseph Heller’s Catch-22, or Thomas More’s Utopia, functions metonymically to map a conceptual framework which matches the coordinates of the book. The article concludes with a look at contemporary society to show how Orwell’s satire endorses the words of Lord Acton, namely, that power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely.

  19. The Evolution of Animal Welfare and the 3Rs in Brazil, China, and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, Kathryn; Ramachandra, Gudde S; Rivera, Ekaterina A; Wang, Jianfei

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, scientific collaborations and contracts cross country borders. The need for assurance that the quality of animal welfare and the caliber of animal research conducted are equivalent among research partners around the globe is of concern to the scientific and laboratory animal medicine communities, the general public, and other key stakeholders. Therefore, global harmonization of animal care and use standards and practices, with the welfare of the animals as a cornerstone, is essential. In the evolving global landscape of enhanced attention to animal welfare, a widely accepted path to achieving this goal is the successful integration of the 3Rs in animal care and use programs. Currently, awareness of the 3Rs, their implementation, and the resulting animal care and use standards and practices vary across countries. This variability has direct effects on the animals used in research and potentially the data generated and may also have secondary effects on the country's ability to be viewed as a global research partner. Here we review the status of implementation of the 3Rs worldwide and focus on 3 countries–Brazil, China and India–with increasing economic influence and an increasing footprint in the biomedical research enterprise. PMID:25836965

  20. 76 FR 54392 - Animal Welfare; Importation of Live Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... Live Dogs AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: We... Hawaii for purposes of resale, research, or veterinary treatment, unless the dogs are in good health... Health and Human Services (HHS), Commerce, and Homeland Security to promulgate such regulations as are...

  1. The anxious mouse: implications for preclinical research and animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety is an essential emotion that is highly conserved during evolution and is present in animals and humans. Although anxiety is a biological adaptive response, anxiety disorders in humans are common and affect about 10-17% of the world population. To gain more insight in the underlying

  2. Evaluation of single cell protein for nutrition of farm animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oslage, H.J.; Schulz, E.

    1981-08-01

    For the production of microorganisms with high content of protein technologies on the basis of carbon rich substrates have been developed during the past years. Thus, signification of Single Cell Protein (SCP) for nutrition of farm animals has changed. While, in former times, yeasts were added only in small portions (1-2%) as vitamin supplementation today it is the aim to use microbial biomass as a protein component. The use of SCP as a feedstuff requires a careful physiological and toxicological evaluation as well as extensive investigations of possible use and frontiers of those products for farm animals. Topic of this work were bacteria, bred on methanol as well as yeasts, grown on alcanes and on whey/lactic acid respectively. SCP is preferently used as a feedstuff for poultry, pigs, calves and fishes. Digestibility and utilisation of protein is good till very good, for the a.m. animals, digestibility being between 75-93% and net protein utilisation (NPU) being between 60-76%. In rations of young animals (chicken, piglets and calves) contents of 5-10% SCP have been proved to be without any negative effect on acceptance, body gain, feed utilisation and mortality. For older animals SCP can be used as the only protein source beside the basic feedstuffs.

  3. Animal Welfare: Focusing on the Future. By David J. Mellor and A.C. David Bayvel. OIE: Paris, France, 2014; 358 pp; €65.00; ISBN: 978-92-9044-929-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald M. Broom

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This book, which is a volume in an OIE series, describes much that is relevant to animal welfare, the chapters being in English with summaries or full text in French and Spanish. As with many reviews of our state of knowledge, many contributions to this volume draw on previous publications. For example, David Fraser’s excellent discussion of the globalization of farm animal welfare is explained at greater length in his 2008 paper [1] and book [2]. However, chapters on drivers of animal welfare policy in Africa, the Americas, the Far East and Australasia and the Middle East are amongst those that are novel. The description by Aidaros of Islamic teachings in relation to animal welfare is particularly welcome.[...

  4. Improving animal welfare and reducing animal use for veterinary vaccine potency testing: state of the science and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    STOKES William; BROWN Karen; KULPA-EDDY Jodie; SRINIVAS Geetha; HALDER Maria; DRAAYER Hans; GALVIN Jeffrey; CLAASEN Ivo; GIFFORD Glen; WOODLAND Ralph; DOELLING Vivian; JONES Brett

    2011-01-01

    Veterinary vaccines contribute to improved human and animal health and welfare by preventing diseases and deaths caused by a wide range of infectious agents. However, testing necessary to ensure vaccine effectiveness and safety can involve large numbers of animals and significant pain and distress. NICEATM and ICCVAM convened an international workshop to review the state of the science of human and veterinary vaccine potency and safety testing methods and to identify opportunities to advance ...

  5. Cost-effectiveness analysis: adding value to assessment of animal health welfare and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babo Martins, S; Rushton, J

    2014-12-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) has been extensively used in economic assessments in fields related to animal health, namely in human health where it provides a decision-making framework for choices about the allocation of healthcare resources. Conversely, in animal health, cost-benefit analysis has been the preferred tool for economic analysis. In this paper, the use of CEA in related areas and the role of this technique in assessments of animal health, welfare and production are reviewed. Cost-effectiveness analysis can add further value to these assessments, particularly in programmes targeting animal welfare or animal diseases with an impact on human health, where outcomes are best valued in natural effects rather than in monetary units. Importantly, CEA can be performed during programme implementation stages to assess alternative courses of action in real time.

  6. Companion animal welfare and possible implications on the human-pet relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Verga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of pets (dogs and cats in particular in human society has changed in recent years. Nowadays pets are an integral part of the human family and this aspect has many social and emotional implications. For their positive effects on human health, pets are also employed in some special and therapeutic activities known by the generic term of “Pet Therapy”. In these programmes the animal becomes an integral part of the therapeutic plan in order to induce some physical, social, emotional, and cognitive improvements in human patients. However, the close bond between companion animals and man is not always the herald of beneficial effects. Sometimes the welfare of pets may be compromised by distress due to many factors, mostly related to the environment and to management by humans. Both behavioural and physiological variables may be analysed in order to evaluate welfare level in pets. Reduced welfare may be indicated by the onset of some behavioural problems, which have usually a multifactorial aetiology, related both to the genetic individual basis and environmental factors. Physiological variables which may be analysed in order to evaluate pet welfare include hormone levels, mainly related to the HPA (hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal- axis and to the immune systems activations. Behavioural problems may also lead to the relinquishment of pets to shelters. Animals housed in rescue shelters cannot display their ethogram and show behavioural and physiological signs of distress. Thus it is very important to improve the human-pet relationship both by educating owners and reducing the number of stray animals, in accordance with the indications of the European Convention for the Protection of Pet Animals stated at Strasbourg in 1987, mainly as regards pet breeding and welfare. Humans have to realise that adopting pets implies the responsibility to care for their health and welfare, avoiding undue stress in the living environment and improving the

  7. Drivers for animal welfare policies in Asia, the Far East and Oceania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, G; Ashley, K; Kolesar, R

    2014-04-01

    The complex and diverse nature of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) region for Asia, the Far East and Oceania presents both challenges and opportunities in implementing improved approaches to animal welfare. Drivers for improvements include social values, culture, religion, political interest, trade, an increasing global awareness of animal welfare issues, an increasing demand for meat and dairy products, the interest of non-governmental organisations, and the mandate given to the OIE to develop science-based standards for animal welfare. The outcomes-based OIE standards can be amended in the light of new scientific knowledge and implemented by countries in a manner best suited to meet their needs. A number of regional initiatives are described, including a regional strategy, examples of national activities, projects run by the OIE Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare Science and Bioethical Analysis, and trade measures. Although the overall outlook for improvements in the region looks promising, implementation of standards over the longer-term will require ongoing political commitment, resources and cultural change to ensure sustained improvements.

  8. Opportunities for improving animal welfare in rodent models of epilepsy and seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidster, Katie; Jefferys, John G; Blümcke, Ingmar; Crunelli, Vincenzo; Flecknell, Paul; Frenguelli, Bruno G; Gray, William P; Kaminski, Rafal; Pitkänen, Asla; Ragan, Ian; Shah, Mala; Simonato, Michele; Trevelyan, Andrew; Volk, Holger; Walker, Matthew; Yates, Neil; Prescott, Mark J

    2016-02-15

    Animal models of epilepsy and seizures, mostly involving mice and rats, are used to understand the pathophysiology of the different forms of epilepsy and their comorbidities, to identify biomarkers, and to discover new antiepileptic drugs and treatments for comorbidities. Such models represent an important area for application of the 3Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement of animal use). This report provides background information and recommendations aimed at minimising pain, suffering and distress in rodent models of epilepsy and seizures in order to improve animal welfare and optimise the quality of studies in this area. The report includes practical guidance on principles of choosing a model, induction procedures, in vivo recordings, perioperative care, welfare assessment, humane endpoints, social housing, environmental enrichment, reporting of studies and data sharing. In addition, some model-specific welfare considerations are discussed, and data gaps and areas for further research are identified. The guidance is based upon a systematic review of the scientific literature, survey of the international epilepsy research community, consultation with veterinarians and animal care and welfare officers, and the expert opinion and practical experience of the members of a Working Group convened by the United Kingdom's National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs). Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Flea Infestation in Farm Animals and Its Health Implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Ebrahimzadeh

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most fleas infest their host temporarily then pass to another of the same kind, while others move from one to a different host species. Although the comprehensive list of fleas reported from Iran, but there still exists considerable gap in our knowledge of zoonotic aspect of flea infestation. The present study was undertaken to determine correlation between domestic animals and man as host of fleas. Methods: The questionnaires on the base of flea infestation of animals flock and animal care- man were prepared and distributed to veterinary stations of all provinces. A total of 553 questionnaires sheets and 168 flea samples were collected from sixteen provinces. Results: One hundred fifty six specimens of Pulex irritans were collected from sheep, goats, cattle, chicken and human, which consisted of 92.8% of all recovered fleas. Chickens infested by three species of fleas including Pulex irritans (84.6%, Ctenocephalides canis (12.9% and Ceratophilus gallinae (2.5%. Two hundred and eighty nine cases of animal and 244 cases of human infestation were recorded among the suspicious populations, the most prevalence of infestation was found in sheep and goat herds whilst chicken flocks infested with the"nlowest rate and cattle were infested moderately. The major health problem was occurred in farmers, animal care-men and their relatives. The observations showed they had different skin reactions to flea's bites. Conclusion: The results showed that fleas are approximately a widespread parasite of farm animals and it seems that they may play an important role in occurring of zoonotic infestation in Iran. Keywords: Flea, Farm animal, Human, Iran.

  10. Progress in assessing animal welfare in relation to new legislation: opportunities for behavioural researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Penny

    2014-08-30

    Recent revisions to international legislation and guidelines on the care and use of animals in research and testing emphasise the importance of minimising suffering and improving welfare. Achieving this requires effective systems for recognising, recording, analysing and assessing animal behaviour, in order to identify relevant indicators of pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm so that any suffering can be rapidly recognised and ameliorated. Behavioural researchers can assist by disseminating information on developments in techniques and approaches for recognising, observing, monitoring, analysing and interpreting behaviour, both within their own facilities and more widely. They can also help to facilitate better welfare assessment by continuing to develop systems for measuring behaviours - including indicators of positive welfare - while also ensuring that harms within behavioural research are minimised. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Zoo agent's measure in applying the five freedoms principles for animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demartoto, Argyo; Soemanto, Robertus Bellarminus; Zunariyah, Siti

    2017-09-01

    Animal welfare should be prioritized not only for the animal's life sustainability but also for supporting the sustainability of living organism's life on the earth. However, Indonesian people have not understood it yet, thereby still treating animals arbitrarily and not appreciating either domesticated or wild animals. This research aimed to analyze the zoo agent's action in applying the five freedoms principle for animal welfare in Taman Satwa Taru Jurug (thereafter called TSTJ) or Surakarta Zoo and Gembira Loka Zoo (GLZ) of Yogyakarta Indonesia using Giddens structuration theory. The informants in this comparative study with explorative were organizers, visitors, and stakeholders of zoos selected using purposive sampling technique. The informants consisted of 19 persons: 8 from TSTJ (Code T) and 10 from GLZ (Code G) and representatives from Natural Resource Conservation Center of Central Java (Code B). Data were collected through observation, in-depth interview, and Focus Group Discussion and Documentation. Data were analyzed using an interactive model of analysis consisting of three components: Data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing. Data validation was carried out using method and data source triangulations. Food, nutrition, and nutrition level have been given consistent with the animals' habit and natural behavior. Animal keepers always maintain their self-cleanliness. GLZ has provided cages according to the technical instruction of constructing ideal cages, but the cages in TSTJ are worrying as they are not consistent with standard, rusty, and damaged, and animals have no partner. Some animals in GLZ are often sick, whereas some animals in TSTJ are dead due to poor maintenance. The iron pillars of cages restrict animal behavior in TSTJ so that they have not had freedom to behave normally yet, whereas, in GLZ, they can move freely in original habitat. The animals in the two zoos have not been free from disruption, stress, and pressure due to the

  12. Challenges to the Development and Implementation of Public Policies to Achieve Animal Welfare Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Rose

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Although there is a long-established tradition of concern for the welfare of animals, it was not until the mid 1800’s that governments sought to enact legislation to protect animals from cruelty. In the 1950’s, questions concerning animal welfare re-emerged and in the ensuing years have been an on-going focus of government activities. These developments occurred against a backdrop of significant social change but there are important differences in what now underpins and informs these considerations. In the formulation and implementation of public policies, governments look for a course of action that represents and protects the interests of the community; the process may be challenging with competing interests but the final determination seeks a middle ground that best meets the needs and interests of the community as a whole. When policy development concerns our relationship with other animals, the complexity of this relationship presents particular challenges not only to the formulation of policies but also to the evaluation of outcomes. Notably, the depth of feelings and diversity of views in our community reflect the complex social, cultural and personal dimensions of this relationship. The use of animals for scientific purposes remains one of the most contentious animal welfare issues primarily because when animals are used for these purposes, accepted animal welfare benchmarks cannot always be met. Based on the Australian experience, this paper will discuss the influences in and on-going challenges to the development and implementation of public policy when animals are used for these purposes.

  13. Foreword—welfare aspects of the long distance transportation of animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardner Murray

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The long distance transport of animals within countries, between countries, across regions and across continents is increasing significantly and is also changing in nature. Statistics from the International Trade Centre of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development and the World Trade Organization show that the value of world trade in live animals soared from US$8.7 billion in 2000 to US$12.1 billion in 2005. This enormous figure would be even greater if zoo animals, wildlife and illicit traffic were included.The history of animal transportation goes back thousands of years. It remains a legitimate practice to this day provided proper measures are taken to protect animal well-being and health. What has made circumstances different in the 21st century is the nature of transport (land, sea and air, the volume of traffic and a public awareness of welfare issues with demands that animals be treated humanely and in accordance with best contemporary practices. This increased volume of transport creates an unprecedented risk for disseminating infectious diseases, including those that may affect people.Key public concerns about animal welfare relate to factors such as a lack of infrastructure and investment in training, research and standards development, as well as indifference and neglect. The live animal transportation industries are threatened when these deficiencies are not corrected.Fortunately, a number of countries foresaw these problems and introduced a series of activities to support good animal welfare practices. Many recognised the clear connection between animal welfare, health and husbandry practice, and established policy settings to include these activities under a veterinary public and animal health umbrella. Recognising its critical importance, the World Organisation for Animal Health (Office International des Epizooties: OIE in its IVth Strategic plan (points a to b, identified animal welfare as a key issue and launched a

  14. Determinants associated with veterinary antimicrobial prescribing in farm animals in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Speksnijder, D.C.; Jaarsma, A.D.C.; Gugten, van der, A.C.; Verheij, T.J.M.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial use in farm animals might contribute to the development of antimicrobial resistance in humans and animals, and there is an urgent need to reduce antimicrobial use in farm animals. Veterinarians are typically responsible for prescribing and overseeing antimicrobial use in animals. A thorough understanding of veterinarians' current prescribing practices and their reasons to prescribe antimicrobials might offer leads for interventions to reduce antimicrobial use in farm animals. Th...

  15. Philosophy, policy and procedures of the World Organisation for Animal Health for the development of standards in animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, A; Wilson, D

    2005-08-01

    Animal welfare was identified as a priority for the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in the 2001-2005 OIE Strategic Plan. Member Countries recognised that, as animal protection is a complex, multi-faceted public policy issue which includes important scientific, ethical, economic and political dimensions, the OIE needed to develop a detailed vision and strategy incorporating and balancing these dimensions. A permanent working group on animal welfare was established in order to provide guidance to the OIE in its work on the development of science-based standards and guidelines. The Working Group decided to give priority to the welfare of animals used in agriculture and aquaculture, and that, within those groups, the topics of transportation, slaughter for human consumption and killing for disease control purposes would be addressed first. Some guiding principles were approved by the International Committee of OIE Member Countries during the 72nd General Session in May 2004, and these have been followed by four specific guidelines on the priority topics listed above.

  16. For the sake of production. How agricultural colleges shape students' view on animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jesper; Sandøe, Peter; Anneberg, Inger

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to document and discuss the way future farmers’ views on animal welfare are formed and shaped during their studies at agricultural colleges. The paper is based on qualitative interviews with first year students and more advanced students in Denmark. It is shown that there...

  17. Assessing Student Attitudes toward Animal Welfare, Resource Use, and Food Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, Patricia A.; Richards, Martha J.; Wilson, Lowell L.; Coe, Brenda L.; Fivek, Marianne L.; Brown, Michele B.

    2000-01-01

    Students participating in the Pennsylvania Governor's School for Agricultural Sciences (n=192) studied animal welfare, resource use, and food safety. They ranked food safety as a primary concern. Students with and without agricultural backgrounds showed positive changes in knowledge and perception of issues after the course. (SK)

  18. Animal Welfare Practices along the Food Chain: How Does Negative and Positive Information Affect Consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dentoni, D.; Calantone, R.; Tonsor, G.; Peterson, H.C.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the mitigating effect of positive brand information on animal welfare on consumers' perceptions, attitudes, and buying intentions for meat products when provided before a negative information shock related to the same issue. By tackling this question, this study integrates with

  19. Galloping colts, fetal feelings, and reassuring regulations: putting animal-welfare science into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, David J

    2010-01-01

    About a decade ago, concern was expressed that fetuses might suffer while dying in utero after the death of their dams. However, reference to already published literature provided compelling evidence that fetuses cannot consciously experience negative sensations or feelings, such as breathlessness and pain, and showed that, provided certain precautions are taken, they cannot suffer--their welfare is assured. In this article, I outline the major features of fetal and neonatal physiology that underlie this conclusion as it relates to fetuses that are neurologically exceptionally immature, moderately immature, or mature at birth. As an example of the practical application of this knowledge, I also show how the results of detailed studies reported in the biomedical literature, together with evolving understanding of the capacity of animals to experience negative sensations reported in the animal-welfare science literature, led to the development of international guidelines for the humane management of livestock fetuses when their dams are slaughtered commercially. I also highlight the notion that significant progress in the scientific understanding of animal welfare, and its applications, can be made by remaining open to knowledge developed in disciplines at the margins of or beyond those in the animal-welfare science, ethology, and veterinary sciences arenas.

  20. Data warehouse for assessing animal health, welfare, risk management and -communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Annette Cleveland

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to give an overview of existing databases in Denmark and describe some of the most important of these in relation to establishment of the Danish Veterinary and Food Administrations' veterinary data warehouse. The purpose of the data warehouse and possible use of the data are described. Finally, sharing of data and validity of data is discussed. There are databases in other countries describing animal husbandry and veterinary antimicrobial consumption, but Denmark will be the first country relating all data concerning animal husbandry, -health and -welfare in Danish production animals to each other in a data warehouse. Moreover, creating access to these data for researchers and authorities will hopefully result in easier and more substantial risk based control, risk management and risk communication by the authorities and access to data for researchers for epidemiological studies in animal health and welfare.

  1. Guidelines for the welfare and use of animals in cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, P; Aboagye, E O; Balkwill, F; Balmain, A; Bruder, G; Chaplin, D J; Double, J A; Everitt, J; Farningham, D A H; Glennie, M J; Kelland, L R; Robinson, V; Stratford, I J; Tozer, G M; Watson, S; Wedge, S R; Eccles, S A

    2010-01-01

    Animal experiments remain essential to understand the fundamental mechanisms underpinning malignancy and to discover improved methods to prevent, diagnose and treat cancer. Excellent standards of animal care are fully consistent with the conduct of high quality cancer research. Here we provide updated guidelines on the welfare and use of animals in cancer research. All experiments should incorporate the 3Rs: replacement, reduction and refinement. Focusing on animal welfare, we present recommendations on all aspects of cancer research, including: study design, statistics and pilot studies; choice of tumour models (e.g., genetically engineered, orthotopic and metastatic); therapy (including drugs and radiation); imaging (covering techniques, anaesthesia and restraint); humane endpoints (including tumour burden and site); and publication of best practice. PMID:20502460

  2. Visiting a Farm: An Exploratory Study of the Social Construction of Animal Farming in Norway and the Netherlands based on Sensory Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, B.K.; Bock, B.B.; Oosting, S.J.; Krogh, E.

    2010-01-01

    Most citizens in modern societies have little personal knowledge or experience of animal farming. This study explores the social construction of animal farming by studying how citizens perceive and evaluate modern farming after visiting a farm in real life. We wanted to understand how (non-farming)

  3. Animal welfare evaluation at a slaughterhouse for heavy pigs intended for processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Stocchi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Council Regulation (EC No. 1099/2009 requires slaughterhouse managers to implement specific standard operating procedures for all pre-slaughter stages considered at risk, aimed at achieving adequate levels of animal welfare. This survey was aimed at testing the applicability to an abattoir for heavy pigs of an assessment system of animal welfare through animal-based measures. In the monitoring of handling operations, the number of animals fallen/slipped and prodded, and that of vocalising pigs were recorded. In the monitoring of the immobilisation stage, carried out on the same pigs, vocalisations were recorded at the entrance to the box and falls/slips occurring inside it. Animal welfare assessment during the stunning-sticking-bleeding steps, was carried out by recording the head-only electrical stunning basic parameters set by legislation, vocalisations resulting from hot wanding, and clinical signs of consciousness, sensibility and certain death. Except for immobilisation, the percentage of occurrence of these events above acceptability limits was detected in all other preslaughter steps. The most critical stages were: handling in the unloading area and along the single-file chute, stunning and especially bleeding, where 84.13% of animals showed one or more signs of consciousness and/or sensibility recovery. Wrong placement of electrodes observed in 53.98% of the animals, insufficient voltage and low amperage may explain why a high percentage of pigs recovered consciousness and/or sensibility before death. Some simple restructuring of unloading area, slowdown of slaughter line speed, increase of personnel involved in pre-slaughter management and regular calibration of the electrical stunning device could be effectively corrective measures aimed at raising the animal welfare level at the slaughterhouse under study.

  4. Animal Welfare Evaluation at a Slaughterhouse for Heavy Pigs Intended for Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocchi, Roberta; Mandolini, Nicholas Aconiti; Marinsalti, Maria; Cammertoni, Natalina; Loschi, Anna Rita; Rea, Stefano

    2014-01-21

    The Council Regulation (EC) No. 1099/2009 requires slaughterhouse managers to implement specific standard operating procedures for all pre-slaughter stages considered at risk, aimed at achieving adequate levels of animal welfare. This survey was aimed at testing the applicability to an abattoir for heavy pigs of an assessment system of animal welfare through animal-based measures. In the monitoring of handling operations, the number of animals fallen/slipped and prodded, and that of vocalising pigs were recorded. In the monitoring of the immobilisation stage, carried out on the same pigs, vocalisations were recorded at the entrance to the box and falls/slips occurring inside it. Animal welfare assessment during the stunning-sticking-bleeding steps, was carried out by recording the head-only electrical stunning basic parameters set by legislation, vocalisations resulting from hot wanding, and clinical signs of consciousness, sensibility and certain death. Except for immobilisation, the percentage of occurrence of these events above acceptability limits was detected in all other pre-slaughter steps. The most critical stages were: handling in the unloading area and along the single-file chute, stunning and especially bleeding, where 84.13% of animals showed one or more signs of consciousness and/or sensibility recovery. Wrong placement of electrodes observed in 53.98% of the animals, insufficient voltage and low amperage may explain why a high percentage of pigs recovered consciousness and/or sensibility before death. Some simple restructuring of unloading area, slowdown of slaughter line speed, increase of personnel involved in pre-slaughter management and regular calibration of the electrical stunning device could be effectively corrective measures aimed at raising the animal welfare level at the slaughterhouse under study.

  5. Visiting a Farm: An Exploratory Study of the Social Construction of Animal Farming in Norway and the Netherlands based on Sensory Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Boogaard, B.K.; Bock, B.B.; Oosting, S.J.; Krogh, E.

    2010-01-01

    Most citizens in modern societies have little personal knowledge or experience of animal farming. This study explores the social construction of animal farming by studying how citizens perceive and evaluate modern farming after visiting a farm in real life. We wanted to understand how (non-farming) citizens develop an opinion of modern dairy farming when experiencing dairy farming in real life and practice, and how they translate what they see, smell and feel into an evaluative perception and...

  6. Character Metaphors in George Orwell’s Animal Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Fajrina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Animal Farm was written by George Orwell in 1944 to criticize the Soviet Union leaders and their administration represented by animal characters. The objective of this study was to find out the resemblances between the character of Soviet Union leaders at the time the novel was written and those depicted in the novel. In analysing the objective of this study, content analysis was used. The data are the dialogues and other information in the novel concerning the metaphors of characters between the Soviet Union leaders of the 20th century and those in Animal Farm. The writer finds out that Jones metaphors Nicholas II, the last Tsar of Russian Monarchy, Old Major with his speech metaphors Karl Marx with his Communist Manifesto, Napoleon as Stalin, Snowball as Trotsky, Squealer as Pravda, the Russian Newspaper at that time, Frederick as German and Boxer as the type of gullibility proletariat. Indeed, George Orwell’s timeless work reminds us that totalitarianism could be harmful to one society.

  7. Massive Open Online Courses as a Tool for Global Animal Welfare Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Jill R D; Langford, Fritha; Waran, Natalie

    Animal Behaviour and Welfare was a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) hosted on Coursera as a free introductory animal welfare course. Through interrogating Coursera data and pre-/post-course student experience surveys, we investigated student retention, student experience, changes in attitudes, and changes in knowledge. The course ran for 5 weeks, and 33,501 students signed up, of which 16.4% (n=5,501) received a Certificate of Achievement, indicating they had completed all assessments within the course. This retention rate is above the industry standard of 10%; however, the value of retention rate as a metric to judge MOOC success is questionable. Instead, we focus on demographics, with Coursera data estimating that 41% of learners came from Europe, 35% from North America, 11% from Asia, 6% from Oceania, 5% from South America, and 2% from Africa. Most learners had completed an undergraduate degree. Despite this wide range of backgrounds, 57.2% of post-course respondents (n=2,399) strongly agreed that the information presented was at the right level and 64.9% strongly agreed that the course was interesting. After completion, more students (χ(2)[4]=132.40, p<.001) understood that animal welfare was based on the results of scientific study, and significantly fewer students (χ(2)[4]=361.32, p<.001) felt health was the most important part of animal welfare. Overall, learners agreed the course was enjoyable and informative, and 97.9% felt the course was a valuable use of their time. We conclude that MOOCs are an appropriate vehicle for providing animal welfare learning to a wide audience, but require a significant level of investment.

  8. Current Perspectives on Therapy Dog Welfare in Animal-Assisted Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenk, Lisa Maria

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary In animal-assisted interventions (AAIs) animals are used as adjuncts to therapy to positively affect human health. The practice of implementing dogs into therapeutic environments is emerging and as a result, there has been a growing scientific interest on human health outcomes over the past decades. Research efforts into the canine perspective of AAIs have been scarce. Accordingly, there is little consensus on the impact of such interventions on the animals involved. This paper aimed to contribute to the limited body of knowledge by reviewing available studies on therapy dogs’ welfare during AAIs. Moreover, discussion of theoretical and methodological issues, implications for practice and suggestions for future research are provided. Abstract Research into the effects of animal-assisted interventions (AAIs) has primarily addressed human health outcomes. In contrast, only few publications deal with the therapy dog experience of AAIs. This paper provides an overview on potential welfare threats that therapy dogs may encounter and presents the results of a review of available studies on welfare indicators for therapy dogs during AAIs. Previous investigations used physiological and behavioral welfare indicators and dog handler surveys to identify work-related stress. Research outcomes are discussed in the light of strengths and weaknesses of the methods used. Study results suggest that frequency and duration of AAI sessions, novelty of the environment, controllability, age and familiarity of recipients modulate animal welfare indicators. However, this review reveals that currently, clear conclusions on how the well-being of dogs is influenced by the performance in AAIs are lacking due to the heterogeneity of programs, recipient and session characteristics, small dog sample sizes and methodological limitations. This paper further aimed to identify unresolved difficulties in previous research to pave the way for future investigations supporting the

  9. Updating Animal Welfare Thinking: Moving beyond the "Five Freedoms" towards "A Life Worth Living".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, David J

    2016-03-14

    The Five Freedoms have had major impact on animal welfare thinking internationally. However, despite clear initial statements that the words 'freedom from' should indicate 'as free as possible from', the Freedoms have come to be represented as absolute or fundamental freedoms, even rights, by some animal advocate and other groups. Moreover, a marked increase in scientific understanding over the last two decades shows that the Freedoms do not capture the more nuanced knowledge of the biological processes that is germane to understanding animal welfare and which is now available to guide its management. For example, the named negative experiences of thirst, hunger, discomfort and pain, and others identified subsequently, including breathlessness, nausea, dizziness, debility, weakness and sickness, can never be eliminated, merely temporarily neutralised. Each one is a genetically embedded element that motivates animals to behave in particular ways to obtain specific life-sustaining resources, avoid or reduce physical harm or facilitate recovery from infection or injury. Their undoubted negativity creates a necessary sense of urgency to respond, without which animals would not survive. Also, the temporary neutralisation of these survival-critical affects does not in and of itself generate positive experience. This questions the commonly held assumption that good animal welfare will result when these internally generated negative affects are minimised. Animals may also experience other negative affects that include anxiety, fear, panic, frustration, anger, helplessness, loneliness, boredom and depression. These situation-related affects reflect animals' perceptions of their external circumstances. Although they are elicited by threatening, cramped, barren and/or isolated conditions, they can often be replaced by positive affects when animals are kept with congenial others in spacious, stimulus-rich and safe environments which provide opportunities for them to engage in

  10. Determinants associated with veterinary antimicrobial prescribing in farm animals in the Netherlands : A qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, D. C.; Jaarsma, A. D C; van der Gugten, A. C.; Verheij, T. J M; Wagenaar, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial use in farm animals might contribute to the development of antimicrobial resistance in humans and animals, and there is an urgent need to reduce antimicrobial use in farm animals. Veterinarians are typically responsible for prescribing and overseeing antimicrobial use in animals. A

  11. Determinants associated with veterinary antimicrobial prescribing in farm animals in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, D.C.; Jaarsma, A.D.C.; Gugten, van der A.C.; Verheij, T.J.M.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial use in farm animals might contribute to the development of antimicrobial resistance in humans and animals, and there is an urgent need to reduce antimicrobial use in farm animals. Veterinarians are typically responsible for prescribing and overseeing antimicrobial use in animals. A

  12. Determinants Associated with Veterinary Antimicrobial Prescribing in Farm Animals in the Netherlands : A Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, D. C.; Jaarsma, A. D. C.; van der Gugten, A. C.; Verheij, T. J. M.; Wagenaar, J. A.

    Antimicrobial use in farm animals might contribute to the development of antimicrobial resistance in humans and animals, and there is an urgent need to reduce antimicrobial use in farm animals. Veterinarians are typically responsible for prescribing and overseeing antimicrobial use in animals. A

  13. Opinions of veterinarians on antimicrobial use in farm animals in Flanders and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, D. C.; Jaarsma, A. D. C.; Verheij, T. J. M.; Wagenaar, J. A.; Dewulf, J.

    2016-01-01

    Veterinarians play an important role in the reduction of antimicrobial use in farm animals. This study aims to quantify opinions of veterinarians from the Netherlands and Flanders regarding antimicrobial use and resistance issues in farm animals. An online survey was sent out to 678 and 1100 farm

  14. German animal welfare act in breach with Directive 2010/63/EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhdel, Irmela; Maisack, Christoph; Wagner, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    The German Federal Administrative Court recently announced an order (finalized on January 20, 2014) on the neurobiological experiments on primate brains of Prof. Kreiter at the University of Bremen. With this order, a preceding court decision by the Higher Administrative Court of Bremen was established as final and absolute and the last glimmer of hope to end the suffering of the primates in Bremen was extinguished. The court decision had claimed the experiments to be ethically justified. The Federal Administrative Court upheld the court decision and issued the order on the grounds that due to the phrasing of both the former and the current German Animal Welfare Act, authorities had no entitlement to assess the ethical justification of an experiment, but were obliged to approve an application if all formalities were complied with. The impact the order will have on the authorization of animal experiments and testing in Germany caused an outrage in the animal welfare community.

  15. A review of the importance of cryptosporidiosis in farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, D C; Vanopdenbosch, E; Ortega-Mora, L M; Abbassi, H; Peeters, J E

    1999-08-01

    Cryptosporidium species are coccidian parasites with a large capacity to reproduce and to disseminate. Several species are known to infect farm animals, although the economic importance of cryptosporidiosis is highly host species dependent. This paper reviews the impact of cryptosporidial infections in livestock and poultry. For different farm animals, the Cryptosporidium spp. that occur, as well as their clinical and pathological features, and their interactions with other pathogens, are described. In addition, data concerning the prevalence, the transmission and the epidemiology of the disease are mentioned and a description of the economic losses associated with cryptosporidiosis in each of the hosts is given. Cryptosporidiosis seems to be mainly a problem in neonatal ruminants. Cryptosporidium parvum is considered to be an important agent in the aetiology of the neonatal diarrhoea syndrome of calves, lambs and goat kids, causing considerable direct and indirect economic losses. Avian cryptosporidiosis is an emerging health problem in poultry, associated with respiratory disease in chickens and other Galliformes, and with intestinal disease in turkeys and quails. Because of limited availability of effective drugs, the control of cryptosporidiosis relies mainly on hygienic measures and good management.

  16. "Quality Handling" a training program to reduce fear and stress in farm animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boivin, X.; Ruis, M.A.W.

    2011-01-01

    Research programs such as the European Welfare Quality® program, have attempted to improve animal welfare by developing training programs for improving stockperson behaviour towards the animals. The authors will illustrate different approches in this paper, with a special focus on the Quality

  17. CERCLA and EPCRA Reporting Requirements for Air Releases of Hazardous Substances from Animal Waste at Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides an update on a CERCLA/EPCRA final rule that exempted all farms from reporting air releases of hazardous substances from animal waste. Following a court decision, farms must begin reporting these releases to November 15, 2017.

  18. Ensuring due process in the IACUC and animal welfare setting: considerations in developing noncompliance policies and procedures for institutional animal care and use committees and institutional officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Barbara C; Gografe, Sylvia; Pritt, Stacy; Jen, Kai-Lin Catherine; McWhirter, Camille A; Barman, Susan M; Comuzzie, Anthony; Greene, Molly; McNulty, Justin A; Michele, Daniel Eugene; Moaddab, Naz; Nelson, Randall J; Norris, Karen; Uray, Karen D; Banks, Ron; Westlund, Karin N; Yates, Bill J; Silverman, Jerald; Hansen, Kenneth D; Redman, Barbara

    2017-10-01

    Every institution that is involved in research with animals is expected to have in place policies and procedures for the management of allegations of noncompliance with the Animal Welfare Act and the U.S. Public Health Service Policy on the Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. We present here a model set of recommendations for institutional animal care and use committees and institutional officials to ensure appropriate consideration of allegations of noncompliance with federal Animal Welfare Act regulations that carry a significant risk or specific threat to animal welfare. This guidance has 3 overarching aims: 1 ) protecting the welfare of research animals; 2 ) according fair treatment and due process to an individual accused of noncompliance; and 3 ) ensuring compliance with federal regulations. Through this guidance, the present work seeks to advance the cause of scientific integrity, animal welfare, and the public trust while recognizing and supporting the critical importance of animal research for the betterment of the health of both humans and animals.-Hansen, B. C., Gografe, S., Pritt, S., Jen, K.-L. C., McWhirter, C. A., Barman, S. M., Comuzzie, A., Greene, M., McNulty, J. A., Michele, D. E., Moaddab, N., Nelson, R. J., Norris, K., Uray, K. D., Banks, R., Westlund, K. N., Yates, B. J., Silverman, J., Hansen, K. D., Redman, B. Ensuring due process in the IACUC and animal welfare setting: considerations in developing noncompliance policies and procedures for institutional animal care and use committees and institutional officials. © FASEB.

  19. The ‘Dangerous’ Women of Animal Welfare: How British Veterinary Medicine Went to the Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the turn toward the small companion animal that occurred in British veterinary medicine in the twentieth century. The change in species emphasis is usually attributed to post-war socioeconomic factors, however this explanation ignores the extensive small animal treatment that was occurring outwith the veterinary profession in the interwar period. The success of this unqualified practice caused the veterinary profession to rethink attitudes to small animals (dogs initially, later cats) upon the decline of horse practice. This paper argues that a shift toward seeing the small animal as a legitimate veterinary patient was necessary before the specialty could become mainstream in the post-war years, and that this occurred between the wars as a result of the activities of British animal welfare charities, especially the People's Dispensary for Sick Animals of the Poor. PMID:25067889

  20. Current Perspectives on Therapy Dog Welfare in Animal-Assisted Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Maria Glenk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Research into the effects of animal-assisted interventions (AAIs has primarily addressed human health outcomes. In contrast, only few publications deal with the therapy dog experience of AAIs. This paper provides an overview on potential welfare threats that therapy dogs may encounter and presents the results of a review of available studies on welfare indicators for therapy dogs during AAIs. Previous investigations used physiological and behavioral welfare indicators and dog handler surveys to identify work-related stress. Research outcomes are discussed in the light of strengths and weaknesses of the methods used. Study results suggest that frequency and duration of AAI sessions, novelty of the environment, controllability, age and familiarity of recipients modulate animal welfare indicators. However, this review reveals that currently, clear conclusions on how the well-being of dogs is influenced by the performance in AAIs are lacking due to the heterogeneity of programs, recipient and session characteristics, small dog sample sizes and methodological limitations. This paper further aimed to identify unresolved difficulties in previous research to pave the way for future investigations supporting the applicability of scientific findings in practice.

  1. Current Perspectives on Therapy Dog Welfare in Animal-Assisted Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenk, Lisa Maria

    2017-02-01

    Research into the effects of animal-assisted interventions (AAIs) has primarily addressed human health outcomes. In contrast, only few publications deal with the therapy dog experience of AAIs. This paper provides an overview on potential welfare threats that therapy dogs may encounter and presents the results of a review of available studies on welfare indicators for therapy dogs during AAIs. Previous investigations used physiological and behavioral welfare indicators and dog handler surveys to identify work-related stress. Research outcomes are discussed in the light of strengths and weaknesses of the methods used. Study results suggest that frequency and duration of AAI sessions, novelty of the environment, controllability, age and familiarity of recipients modulate animal welfare indicators. However, this review reveals that currently, clear conclusions on how the well-being of dogs is influenced by the performance in AAIs are lacking due to the heterogeneity of programs, recipient and session characteristics, small dog sample sizes and methodological limitations. This paper further aimed to identify unresolved difficulties in previous research to pave the way for future investigations supporting the applicability of scientific findings in practice.

  2. The ICLAS/CCAC International Symposium on Regulatory Testing and Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Gilly; Stokes, William S; Pakes, Steven P; Gauthier, Célement

    2004-06-01

    The first International Symposium on Regulatory Testing and Animal Welfare (ISRTAW), held 21-23 June 2001, in Quebec City, Canada, brought together 160 experts from 22 countries from North and South America, Europe and Asia. The experts included representatives from national research and regulatory agencies, universities, and industry involved in chemicals, pesticides and drug safety testing. Representatives from European, Canadian and US animal welfare groups also participated in the discussions. The Symposium was organised by the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS) and the Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC), with the support and assistance of many sponsors and advisors. ICLAS is a worldwide organisation whose purpose is to foster the international harmonisation of animal care and use practices. CCAC is the national agency responsible for overseeing the ethical use of animals in Canadian science. Both organisations are committed to fostering an environment in which global efforts to harmonise testing procedures using animals in a more-humane manner can be realised.

  3. Breeding against infectious diseases in animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rashidi, H.

    2016-01-01

    Infectious diseases in farm animals are of major concern because of animal welfare, production costs, and public health. Farms undergo huge economic losses due to infectious disease. The costs of infections in farm animals are mainly due to production losses, treatment of infected animals, and

  4. Dealing with Ambivalence : Farmers' and Consumers' Perceptions of Animal Welfare in Livestock Breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, te H.; Aarts, N.; Woerkum, van C.

    2002-01-01

    The results of an empirical study into perceptions of the treatment of farm animals in the Netherlands are presented. A qualitative approach, based on in-depth interviews with meat livestock farmers and consumers was chosen in order to assess motivations behind perceptions and to gain insight into

  5. Organic Sheep and Goat Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmann, Gerold

    2007-01-01

    Organic sheep and goat farming is on the rise in Germany and the EU. Many consumers see organic farms as an example of the "intact world" of farming and rural living. Agrienvironmental schemes support conversion from conventional towards organic farming. Only few know how difficult organic sheep and goat farming is from animal welfare, ecological and economic perspective. Newcomers particularly overestimate the production and marketing potential of the field, and underestimate the associated ...

  6. A Review of Different Stunning Methods for Poultry—Animal Welfare Aspects (Stunning Methods for Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Berg

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Electrical water bath stunning is the most commonly used method for poultry stunning prior to slaughter, but has been questioned on animal welfare and product quality grounds. Controlled atmosphere stunning (CAS methods, involving a variety of gas mixtures, have become increasingly common, at least in Europe. CAS methods have been perceived as an improvement from an animal welfare perspective, partly because birds can be stunned without prior shackling, and are generally considered to result in improved product quality compared to water bath stunning. However, there would still be an interest in alternative stunning methods especially for small to medium size poultry slaughterhouses. This review presents an overview of the modes of action and the technical aspects of poultry stunning methods, including novel and emerging stunning technologies.

  7. Background of the development of animal welfare and its organisation. Exemplary analysis of the husbandry conditions of the species cattle and pigs and their evaluation with regard to animal welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Stock, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    The topic of the present study is to depict the role of animal welfare in the former German Democratic Republic (GDR). In addition to the study of the influencing ideological and political factors, the analysis of the then existing legal basis and an explanation of the importance of animal welfare in veterinary education are performed. Furthermore, the organisation of animal welfare in the GDR is picked out as a central theme. A major issue is the husbandry of the bovine and porcine species a...

  8. Global farm animal production and global warming: impacting and mitigating climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneswaran, Gowri; Nierenberg, Danielle

    2008-05-01

    The farm animal sector is the single largest anthropogenic user of land, contributing to many environmental problems, including global warming and climate change. The aim of this study was to synthesize and expand upon existing data on the contribution of farm animal production to climate change. We analyzed the scientific literature on farm animal production and documented greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, as well as various mitigation strategies. An analysis of meat, egg, and milk production encompasses not only the direct rearing and slaughtering of animals, but also grain and fertilizer production for animal feed, waste storage and disposal, water use, and energy expenditures on farms and in transporting feed and finished animal products, among other key impacts of the production process as a whole. Immediate and far-reaching changes in current animal agriculture practices and consumption patterns are both critical and timely if GHGs from the farm animal sector are to be mitigated.

  9. Zoo agent's measure in applying the five freedoms principles for animal welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argyo Demartoto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Animal welfare should be prioritized not only for the animal's life sustainability but also for supporting the sustainability of living organism's life on the earth. However, Indonesian people have not understood it yet, thereby still treating animals arbitrarily and not appreciating either domesticated or wild animals. Aim: This research aimed to analyze the zoo agent's action in applying the five freedoms principle for animal welfare in Taman Satwa Taru Jurug (thereafter called TSTJ or Surakarta Zoo and Gembira Loka Zoo (GLZ of Yogyakarta Indonesia using Giddens structuration theory. Materials and Methods: The informants in this comparative study with explorative were organizers, visitors, and stakeholders of zoos selected using purposive sampling technique. The informants consisted of 19 persons: 8 from TSTJ (Code T and 10 from GLZ (Code G and representatives from Natural Resource Conservation Center of Central Java (Code B. Data were collected through observation, in-depth interview, and Focus Group Discussion and Documentation. Data were analyzed using an interactive model of analysis consisting of three components: Data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing. Data validation was carried out using method and data source triangulations. Results: Food, nutrition, and nutrition level have been given consistent with the animals' habit and natural behavior. Animal keepers always maintain their self-cleanliness. GLZ has provided cages according to the technical instruction of constructing ideal cages, but the cages in TSTJ are worrying as they are not consistent with standard, rusty, and damaged, and animals have no partner. Some animals in GLZ are often sick, whereas some animals in TSTJ are dead due to poor maintenance. The iron pillars of cages restrict animal behavior in TSTJ so that they have not had freedom to behave normally yet, whereas, in GLZ, they can move freely in original habitat. The animals in the two zoos

  10. [Assessment of hereditary defects and dispositions of the horse under animal welfare aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mählmann, Ch; Steiger, A

    2009-04-01

    Persons involved in equine breeding, namely veterinarians, horse breeders and breeding association judges, often lack of an apropriate consciousness about the relevance of heritability or supposed heritability of common horses diseases, which might play a distinctive role in the aetiology of numerous of these diseases. Executing animal welfare rights in equine breeding, the major concern should focus on an objective evaluation of pain, suffering and damages caused by different hereditary diseases. The basis of assessment for hygienic breeding has to be defi ned according to the actual animal welfare rights throughout guidelines, established by the state and by breeding associations. Hereditary diseases scientifi cally proven as relevant for animal welfare matters or including a potential risk of pain, suffering or damage, should be regarded as essential criterion in horse breeding. In this context following diseases have to be mentioned in particular: Osteochondritis dissecans, deep fl exor tendon contracture in the foal, navicular disease, tarsal osteoarthritis, hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, Overo-lethal-white- foal-syndrome.

  11. Animal Farm: Considerations in Animal Gastrointestinal Physiology and Relevance to Drug Delivery in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Grace B; Yadav, Vipul; Basit, Abdul W; Merchant, Hamid A

    2015-09-01

    "All animals are equal, but some are more equal than others" was the illustrious quote derived from British writer George Orwell's famed work, Animal Farm. Extending beyond the remit of political allegory, however, this statement would appear to hold true for the selection of appropriate animal models to simulate human physiology in preclinical studies. There remain definite gaps in our current knowledge with respect to animal physiology, notably those of intra- and inter-species differences in gastrointestinal (GI) function, which may affect oral drug delivery and absorption. Factors such as cost and availability have often influenced the choice of animal species without clear justification for their similarity to humans, and lack of standardization in techniques employed in past studies using various animals may also have contributed to the generation of contradictory results. As it stands, attempts to identify a single animal species as appropriately representative of human physiology and which may able to adequately simulate human in vivo conditions are limited. In this review, we have compiled and critically reviewed data from numerous studies of GI anatomy and physiology of various animal species commonly used in drug delivery modeling, commenting on the appropriateness of these animals for in vivo comparison and extrapolation to humans. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  12. Operational Details of the Five Domains Model and Its Key Applications to the Assessment and Management of Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary The Five Domains Model is a focusing device to facilitate systematic, structured, comprehensive and coherent assessment of animal welfare; it is not a definition of animal welfare, nor is it intended to be an accurate representation of body structure and function. The purpose of each of the five domains is to draw attention to areas that are relevant to both animal welfare assessment and management. This paper begins by briefly describing the major features of the Model and the operational interactions between the five domains, and then it details seven interacting applications of the Model. These underlie its utility and increasing application to welfare assessment and management in diverse animal use sectors. Abstract In accord with contemporary animal welfare science understanding, the Five Domains Model has a significant focus on subjective experiences, known as affects, which collectively contribute to an animal’s overall welfare state. Operationally, the focus of the Model is on the presence or absence of various internal physical/functional states and external circumstances that give rise to welfare-relevant negative and/or positive mental experiences, i.e., affects. The internal states and external circumstances of animals are evaluated systematically by referring to each of the first four domains of the Model, designated “Nutrition”, “Environment”, “Health” and “Behaviour”. Then affects, considered carefully and cautiously to be generated by factors in these domains, are accumulated into the fifth domain, designated “Mental State”. The scientific foundations of this operational procedure, published in detail elsewhere, are described briefly here, and then seven key ways the Model may be applied to the assessment and management of animal welfare are considered. These applications have the following beneficial objectives—they (1) specify key general foci for animal welfare management; (2) highlight the foundations of

  13. Farm to abattoir conditions, animal factors and their subsequent effects on cattle behavioural responses and beef quality - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njisane, Yonela Zifikile; Muchenje, Voster

    2017-06-01

    The current review seeks to highlight the concerns that have been raised on pre-slaughter stress, contributing factors and its consequent effects on cattle behavioural responses and the quality of beef; inter-linking the activities involved from birth to slaughter. Such information is crucial in light of the consumer concerns on overall animal welfare, quality of meat and food security. Slaughter animals are exposed to different conditions during production and transportation to abattoirs on a daily basis. However; the majority of studies that have been done previously singled out different environments in the meat production chain, while conclusions have been made that the welfare of slaughter animals and the quality of meat harvested from them is dependent on the whole chain. Behaviour is a critical component used to evaluate the animals' wellbeing and it has been reported to have an effect on product quality. Apart from the influence of on-farm, transportation and abattoir conditions, the genetic background of the animal also affects how it perceives and responds to certain encounters. Stress activates the animals' hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity, triggering release of various stress hormones such as catecholamines and cortisol, thus glycogen depletion prior slaughter, elevated ultimate pH and poor muscle-meat conversion. Pre-slaughter stress sometimes results to cattle attaining bruises, resulting to the affected parts of the carcass being trimmed and condemned for human consumption, downgrading of the carcass and thus profit losses.

  14. Antibiotic resistance--consequences for animal health, welfare, and food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Björn; Greko, Christina

    2014-05-01

    Most of the literature on the consequences of emergence and spread of bacteria resistant to antibiotics among animals relate to the potential impact on public health. But antibiotics are used to treat sick animals, and resistance in animal pathogens may lead to therapy failure. This has received little scientific attention, and therefore, in this article, we discuss examples that illustrate the possible impact of resistance on animal health and consequences thereof. For all animals, there may be a negative effect on health and welfare when diseases cannot be treated. Other consequences will vary depending on why and how different animal species are kept. Animals kept as companions or for sports often receive advanced care, and antibiotic resistance can lead to negative social and economic consequences for the owners. Further, spread of hospital-acquired infections can have an economic impact on the affected premises. As to animals kept for food production, antibiotics are not needed to promote growth, but, if infectious diseases cannot be treated when they occur, this can have a negative effect on the productivity and economy of affected businesses. Antibiotic resistance in animal bacteria can also have positive consequences by creating incentives for adoption of alternative regimes for treatment and prevention. It is probable that new antibiotic classes placed on the market in the future will not reach veterinary medicine, which further emphasizes the need to preserve the efficacy of currently available antibiotics through antibiotic stewardship. A cornerstone in this work is prevention, as healthy animals do not need antibiotics.

  15. The role of the International Society for Applied Ethology (ISAE) in the global development of animal welfare science and its relationship with the OIE; strength through partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this presentation is to introduce the ISAE and to highlight members’ roles in the development and implementation of OIE’s animal welfare standards. Animal welfare science is a young discipline. Originally, welfare science was heavily focused on animal behavior (ethology), but it is ...

  16. Role of leptin in farm animals: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mácajová, M; Lamosová, D; Zeman, M

    2004-05-01

    The discovery of hormone leptin has led to better understanding of the energy balance control. In addition to its effects on food intake and energy expenditure, leptin has now been implicated as a mediator of diverse physiological functions. Recently, leptin has been cloned in several domestic species. The sequence similarity suggests a common function or mechanism of this peptide hormone across species. Leptin receptors are expressed in most of tissues, which is consistent with the multiplicity of leptin functions. The main goal of this review was to summarize knowledge about effect of leptin on physiology of farm animals. Experiments point to a stimulatory action of leptin on growth hormone (GH) secretion, normal growth and development of the brain. Surprisingly, leptin is synthesized at a high rate in placenta and may function as a growth factor for fetus, signalling the nutritional status from the mother to her offspring. Maturation of reproductive system can be stimulated by leptin administration. Morphological and hormonal changes, consistent with a major role of leptin in the reproductive system, have also been described, including the stimulation of the release of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin. Leptin has a substantial effect on food intake and feeding behaviour in animals. Administration of leptin reduces food intake. Its level decrease within hours after initiation of fasting. Leptin also serves as a mediator of the adaptation to fasting, and this role may be the primary function for which was the molecule evolved.

  17. Perspectives on animal welfare legislation and study considerations for field-oriented studies of raptors in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boal, C.W.; Wallace, M.C.; Strobel, B.

    2010-01-01

    Concern for the welfare of animals used in research and teaching has increased over the last 50 yr. Animal welfare legislation has resulted in guidelines for the use of animals in research, but the guidelines can be problematic because they focus on animals used in laboratory and agriculture research. Raptor biologists can be constrained by guidelines, restrictions, and oversight that were not intended for field research methods or wild animals in the wild or captivity. Field researchers can be further hampered by not understanding animal welfare legislation, who is subject to oversight, or that oversight is often provided by a committee consisting primarily of scientists who work with laboratory animals. Raptor researchers in particular may experience difficulty obtaining approval due to use of various species-specific trapping and handling methods. We provide a brief review of animal welfare legislation and describe the basic components and responsibilities of an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) in the United States. We identify topics in raptor research that are especially problematic to obtaining IACUC approval, and we provide insight on how to address these issues. Finally, we suggest that all raptor researchers, regardless of legal requirements, abide by the spirit of the animal welfare principles. Failure to do so may bring about further regulatory and permitting restrictions. ?? 2010 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  18. Welfare aspects of the long distance transportation of animals — the Animal Transportation Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Harris

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The international and long distance movement of animals is a far larger business than most people imagine. Some reasons are outlined in this paper, along with the history of the AATA (Animal [Air] Transportation Association. This trade association has been involved for over 30 years in developing standards and procedures for the movement of all types of animals. The competence of animal handlers is of paramount importance. Competence of flying grooms is assessed by the AATA. This paper is written from the viewpoint of someone who has been a member since the Association's inception. The subject will be of interest to airlines, transporters, veterinarians, farmers, animal relocators, zoological establishments and legislators.

  19. Balancing animal welfare and assisted reproduction: ethics of preclinical animal research for testing new reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Verna; Dondorp, Wybo; Goossens, Ellen; Mertes, Heidi; Pennings, Guido; de Wert, Guido

    2018-02-07

    In the field of medically assisted reproduction (MAR), there is a growing emphasis on the importance of introducing new assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) only after thorough preclinical safety research, including the use of animal models. At the same time, there is international support for the three R's (replace, reduce, refine), and the European Union even aims at the full replacement of animals for research. The apparent tension between these two trends underlines the urgency of an explicit justification of the use of animals for the development and preclinical testing of new ARTs. Considering that the use of animals remains necessary for specific forms of ART research and taking account of different views on the moral importance of helping people to have a genetically related child, we argue that, in principle, the importance of safety research as part of responsible innovation outweighs the limited infringement of animal wellbeing involved in ART research.

  20. Animal Welfare: Freedoms, Dominions and “A Life Worth Living”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Webster

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This opinion paper considers the relative validity and utility of three concepts: the Five Freedoms (FF, Five Domains (FD and Quality of Life (QoL as tools for the analysis of animal welfare. The aims of FF and FD are different but complementary. FD seeks to assess the impact of the physical and social environment on the mental (affective state of a sentient animal, FF is an outcome-based approach to identify and evaluate the efficacy of specific actions necessary to promote well-being. Both have utility. The concept of QoL is presented mainly as a motivational framework. The FD approach provides an effective foundation for research and evidence-based conclusions as to the impact of the things we do on the mental state of the animals in our care. Moreover, it is one that can evolve with time. The FF are much simpler. They do not attempt to achieve an overall picture of mental state and welfare status, but the principles upon which they are based are timeless. Their aim is to be no more than a memorable set of signposts to right action. Since, so far as the animals are concerned, it is not what we think but what we do that counts, I suggest that they are likely to have a more general impact.

  1. Meat morals: relationship between meat consumption consumer attitudes towards human and animal welfare and moral behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Charlotte J S; Hudders, Liselot

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to explore the relation between morality and diet choice by investigating how animal and human welfare attitudes and donation behaviors can predict a meat eating versus flexitarian versus vegetarian diet. The results of a survey study (N=299) show that animal health concerns (measured by the Animal Attitude Scale) can predict diet choice. Vegetarians are most concerned, while full-time meat eaters are least concerned, and the contrast between flexitarians and vegetarians is greater than the contrast between flexitarians and full-time meat eaters. With regards to human welfare (measured by the Moral Foundations Questionnaire), results show that attitudes towards human suffering set flexitarians apart from vegetarians and attitudes towards authority and respect distinguish between flexitarians and meat eaters. To conclude, results show that vegetarians donate more often to animal oriented charities than flexitarians and meat eaters, while no differences between the three diet groups occur for donations to human oriented charities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Beef animal welfare, attitudes and Willingness to Pay: A regional comparison across the Pyrenees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sans, P.; Sanjuán-López, A.I.

    2015-07-01

    Attitudes towards beef animal welfare (AW) and Willingness to Pay (WTP) for AW certification are investigated among consumers in two Spanish and two French regions located on both sides of the Pyrenees (n=1213). Attitudes were measured through a scale of 11 animal practices, on which, consumers report their degree of concern and trust on the supply chain compliance. Attitudes significantly differed across regions, especially with respect to those AW practices carried out by farmers, while trust lies behind concerns. Three segments based on individual consumer attitudes are defined by opposing those consumers who are more concerned and who trust more on the compliance with AW standards (n=264, 22%) to those less concerned and who are more uncertain about stakeholders´ compliance with AW rules (n=356, 29%). Consumer location, gender, age and education significantly differed across attitudinal clusters. Results from a contingent valuation survey show that WTP for certified animal friendly beef ranged between 20.6% and 22.6% over the average market price of standard beef, in Spain and France, respectively. Both, consumers’ socio-demographic characteristics and habits regarding beef meat purchasing and attitudes towards farmers influenced this WTP (the more consumers trust in farmers’ involvement in animal welfare, the highest is their WTP), while a negative overall attitude significantly reduced WTP. (Author)

  3. Beef animal welfare, attitudes and Willingness to Pay: A regional comparison across the Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Sans

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Attitudes towards beef animal welfare (AW and Willingness to Pay (WTP for AW certification are investigated among consumers in two Spanish and two French regions located on both sides of the Pyrenees (n=1213. Attitudes were measured through a scale of 11 animal practices, on which, consumers report their degree of concern and trust on the supply chain compliance. Attitudes significantly differed across regions, especially with respect to those AW practices carried out by farmers, while trust lies behind concerns. Three segments based on individual consumer attitudes are defined by opposing those consumers who are more concerned and who trust more on the compliance with AW standards (n=264, 22% to those less concerned and who are more uncertain about stakeholders´ compliance with AW rules (n=356, 29%. Consumer location, gender, age and education significantly differed across attitudinal clusters. Results from a contingent valuation survey show that WTP for certified animal friendly beef ranged between 20.6% and 22.6% over the average market price of standard beef, in Spain and France, respectively. Both, consumers’ socio-demographic characteristics and habits regarding beef meat purchasing and attitudes towards farmers influenced this WTP (the more consumers trust in farmers’ involvement in animal welfare, the highest is their WTP, while a negative overall attitude significantly reduced WTP.

  4. Optimization of stunning electrical parameters to improve animal welfare in a poultry slaughterhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariagrazia Girasole

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Animal killing for food production and the related operations are events that may induce pain, stress, fear and other forms of suffering to the animals. To face this problem and guarantee the animal welfare, the EU has adopted the Regulation (EC N. 1099/2009 on the protection of animals at the time of killing. Electrical water bath stunning is one of the methods used in commercial slaughterhouses to protect poultry welfare. In particular, this method induces unconsciousness into the birds due to run of electrical current through the head and body. The aim of the present work was to find an optimal setting of electrical parameters to obtain an effective water bath stunning in a commercial poultry slaughterhouse. Moreover, the influence of the tested electrical parameters on meat quality was evaluated. All the experiments confirmed that high stunning frequencies induce a lower occurrence of lesions on carcasses but, on the other hand, require greater current intensities to be effective. A frequency of 750 Hz and an average current intensity of 200 mA for each bird in the water bath resulted as the best combination of electrical parameters to obtain a proper stunning without any consequence on the meat quality.

  5. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Animal welfare concerns for cattle exposed to adverse environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, T L

    2014-12-01

    Increasing awareness of animal welfare has become a priority in food production systems involving animals. Under normal working environments, production practices are constantly evaluated to maintain optimum levels of animal well-being. However, during periods of adverse weather, optimum conditions for animal comfort, as well as animal performance, are often compromised. In the Midwest and Great Plains states, the heat waves of 1995, 1999, 2006, 2009, 2010, and 2013 were particularly difficult on animals reared in confinement, with documented cattle losses approaching 5,000 head each year. Additionally, during the summer of 2011, nearly 15,000 head of cattle across 5 states were lost as a result of heat stress. During prolonged periods of heat stress, lower conceptions rates are observed in livestock. In addition, animals reared in confinement buildings are often compromised because of limitations in ventilation systems. Under the opposite environmental spectrum, the winters of 1992 to 1993, 1996 to 1997, 1997 to 1998, 2006 to 2007, and 2008 to 2009 caused hardship for livestock producers, particularly for those rearing animals in an outdoor environment. During the winters of 1996 to 1997 and 2008 to 2009 up to 50% of the newborn calves were lost in many areas, with over 75,000 head of cattle lost in the northern plains states. Late fall and early winter snowstorms in 1992, 1997, 2006, and 2013 resulted in the loss of over 25,000 head of cattle each year in the Great Plains region of the United States. Economic losses from reduced performance of cattle experiencing severe environmental stress likely exceed losses associated with livestock death by 5- to 10-fold. Use of alternative supplementation programs may need to be considered for livestock challenged by adverse environmental conditions. Use of additional water for consumption and cooling, shade, and/or alternative management strategies need to be considered to help livestock cope with heat stress. For animals

  6. Refining animal models in fracture research: seeking consensus in optimising both animal welfare and scientific validity for appropriate biomedical use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Jorg A; Goodship, Allen; Arnoczky, Steven; Pearce, Simon; Price, Jill; Claes, Lutz; von Rechenberg, Brigitte; Hofmann-Amtenbrinck, Margarethe; Schneider, Erich; Müller-Terpitz, R; Thiele, F; Rippe, Klaus-Peter; Grainger, David W

    2007-01-01

    Background In an attempt to establish some consensus on the proper use and design of experimental animal models in musculoskeletal research, AOVET (the veterinary specialty group of the AO Foundation) in concert with the AO Research Institute (ARI), and the European Academy for the Study of Scientific and Technological Advance, convened a group of musculoskeletal researchers, veterinarians, legal experts, and ethicists to discuss, in a frank and open forum, the use of animals in musculoskeletal research. Methods The group narrowed the field to fracture research. The consensus opinion resulting from this workshop can be summarized as follows: Results & Conclusion Anaesthesia and pain management protocols for research animals should follow standard protocols applied in clinical work for the species involved. This will improve morbidity and mortality outcomes. A database should be established to facilitate selection of anaesthesia and pain management protocols for specific experimental surgical procedures and adopted as an International Standard (IS) according to animal species selected. A list of 10 golden rules and requirements for conduction of animal experiments in musculoskeletal research was drawn up comprising 1) Intelligent study designs to receive appropriate answers; 2) Minimal complication rates (5 to max. 10%); 3) Defined end-points for both welfare and scientific outputs analogous to quality assessment (QA) audit of protocols in GLP studies; 4) Sufficient details for materials and methods applied; 5) Potentially confounding variables (genetic background, seasonal, hormonal, size, histological, and biomechanical differences); 6) Post-operative management with emphasis on analgesia and follow-up examinations; 7) Study protocols to satisfy criteria established for a "justified animal study"; 8) Surgical expertise to conduct surgery on animals; 9) Pilot studies as a critical part of model validation and powering of the definitive study design; 10) Criteria

  7. Is welfare all that matters? A discussion of what should be included in policy-making regarding animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeates, J.W.; Röcklinsberg, H.; Gjerris, Mickey

    2011-01-01

    Policy-making concerned with animals often includes human interests, such as economy, trade, environmental protection, disease control, species conservation etc. When it comes to the interests of the animals, such policy-making often makes use of the results of animal welfare science to provide...... assessments of ethically relevant concerns for animals. This has provided a scientific rigour that has helped to overcome controversies and allowed debates to move forward according to generally agreed methodologies. However, this focus can lead to policies leaving out other important issues relevant...... to animals. This can be considered as a problem of what is included in welfare science, or of what is included in policy. This suggests two possible solutions: expanding animal welfare science to address all ethical concerns about animals’ interests or widening the perspective considered in policy...

  8. Limits to using HPA axis activity as an indication of animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otovic, Pete; Hutchinson, Eric

    2015-01-01

    HPA axis activity is often measured by corticosteroid release as a means to evaluate stress and well-being in animals. While the analysis of corticosteroid levels can provide useful information in some circumstances, a variety of methodological and technical problems make them difficult to accurately interpret. Furthermore, there is considerable evidence that is inconsistent with the widespread notion that high levels of stress result in a large amount of corticosteroid release, and in some cases the converse is true. This review highlights the strengths and weaknesses of the techniques used to measure corticosteroids, describes a number of studies that failed to find a positive correlation between stress and corticosteroid levels, and delineates ancillary behavioral and cognitive tests that provide insight into an animal's well-being. We conclude by emphasizing that the most holistic account of animal welfare is provided by utilizing a combination of physiological and psychological methods.

  9. EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW); Scientific Opinion on bluetongue monitoring and surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegeman, Arjan; Bøtner, Anette; Savini, Giovanni

    been infected for several years were slightly lower than the design prevalence of 2 % currently used for monthly testing of sentinel animals, but much lower than the design prevalences of 20 % and 10 % for annual surveys in populations of unvaccinated and vaccinated ruminants, respectively. Currently......Following a request from the Commission, the Panel on Animal Health and Welfare was asked to deliver a Scientific Opinion on: 1) the expected prevalence (design prevalence) under different circumstances, and, 2) an updated scientific assessment of the size of the relevant geographical area...... unit but, when based on active surveillance, it is best targeted at regions considered at risk for introduction, using small geographical units, a high sampling frequency and sample size. For estimating the impact of interventions on the prevalence of infected animals, smaller areas result in more...

  10. Determinants associated with veterinary antimicrobial prescribing in farm animals in the Netherlands: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speksnijder, D C; Jaarsma, A D C; van der Gugten, A C; Verheij, T J M; Wagenaar, J A

    2015-04-01

    Antimicrobial use in farm animals might contribute to the development of antimicrobial resistance in humans and animals, and there is an urgent need to reduce antimicrobial use in farm animals. Veterinarians are typically responsible for prescribing and overseeing antimicrobial use in animals. A thorough understanding of veterinarians' current prescribing practices and their reasons to prescribe antimicrobials might offer leads for interventions to reduce antimicrobial use in farm animals. This paper presents the results of a qualitative study of factors that influence prescribing behaviour of farm animal veterinarians. Semi-structured interviews with eleven farm animal veterinarians were conducted, which were taped, transcribed and iteratively analysed. This preliminary analysis was further discussed and refined in an expert meeting. A final conceptual model was derived from the analysis and sent to all the respondents for validation. Many conflicting interests are identifiable when it comes to antimicrobial prescribing by farm animal veterinarians. Belief in the professional obligation to alleviate animal suffering, financial dependency on clients, risk avoidance, shortcomings in advisory skills, financial barriers for structural veterinary herd health advisory services, lack of farmers' compliance to veterinary recommendations, public health interests, personal beliefs regarding the veterinary contribution to antimicrobial resistance and major economic powers are all influential determinants in antimicrobial prescribing behaviour of farm animal veterinarians. Interventions to change prescribing behaviour of farm animal veterinarians could address attitudes and advisory skills of veterinarians, as well as provide tools to deal with (perceived) pressure from farmers and advisors to prescribe antimicrobials. Additional (policy) measures could probably support farm animal veterinarians in acting as a more independent animal health consultant. © 2014 Blackwell

  11. Farm to abattoir conditions, animal factors and their subsequent effects on cattle behavioural responses and beef quality — A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njisane, Yonela Zifikile; Muchenje, Voster

    2017-01-01

    The current review seeks to highlight the concerns that have been raised on pre-slaughter stress, contributing factors and its consequent effects on cattle behavioural responses and the quality of beef; inter-linking the activities involved from birth to slaughter. Such information is crucial in light of the consumer concerns on overall animal welfare, quality of meat and food security. Slaughter animals are exposed to different conditions during production and transportation to abattoirs on a daily basis. However; the majority of studies that have been done previously singled out different environments in the meat production chain, while conclusions have been made that the welfare of slaughter animals and the quality of meat harvested from them is dependent on the whole chain. Behaviour is a critical component used to evaluate the animals’ wellbeing and it has been reported to have an effect on product quality. Apart from the influence of on-farm, transportation and abattoir conditions, the genetic background of the animal also affects how it perceives and responds to certain encounters. Stress activates the animals’ hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity, triggering release of various stress hormones such as catecholamines and cortisol, thus glycogen depletion prior slaughter, elevated ultimate pH and poor muscle-meat conversion. Pre-slaughter stress sometimes results to cattle attaining bruises, resulting to the affected parts of the carcass being trimmed and condemned for human consumption, downgrading of the carcass and thus profit losses. PMID:27608639

  12. Farm to abattoir conditions, animal factors and their subsequent effects on cattle behavioural responses and beef quality — A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonela Zifikile Njisane

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The current review seeks to highlight the concerns that have been raised on pre-slaughter stress, contributing factors and its consequent effects on cattle behavioural responses and the quality of beef; inter-linking the activities involved from birth to slaughter. Such information is crucial in light of the consumer concerns on overall animal welfare, quality of meat and food security. Slaughter animals are exposed to different conditions during production and transportation to abattoirs on a daily basis. However; the majority of studies that have been done previously singled out different environments in the meat production chain, while conclusions have been made that the welfare of slaughter animals and the quality of meat harvested from them is dependent on the whole chain. Behaviour is a critical component used to evaluate the animals’ wellbeing and it has been reported to have an effect on product quality. Apart from the influence of on-farm, transportation and abattoir conditions, the genetic background of the animal also affects how it perceives and responds to certain encounters. Stress activates the animals’ hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity, triggering release of various stress hormones such as catecholamines and cortisol, thus glycogen depletion prior slaughter, elevated ultimate pH and poor muscle-meat conversion. Pre-slaughter stress sometimes results to cattle attaining bruises, resulting to the affected parts of the carcass being trimmed and condemned for human consumption, downgrading of the carcass and thus profit losses.

  13. EU sales ban on new cosmetics tested on animals: impact on alternative methods, WTO implications and animal welfare aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhdel, Irmela W

    2004-06-01

    In 1993, the European Union (EU) adopted Directive 93/35/EEC, calling for a sales ban on new cosmetic products containing ingredients tested on animals after 1 January, 1998, provided that alternative methods had been developed by then. In May 2000, for the second time, the European Commission postponed that ban. The Commission justified the repeated postponement of the sales ban by saying that no animal-free methods were available, although three in vitro methods were scientifically approved in 1997. With three years delay, these methods have been published and therefore "made available" in the EU. OECD acceptance is still awaited. Another reason for the postponement was the fear of possible World Trade Organisation (WTO) conflicts. However, according to WTO rules, the protection of public morality or animal health could justify a restriction of the free trade principle. From the animal welfare point of view, an unqualified EU sales ban, combined with an animal testing ban, would provide the incentive to further promote the development and acceptance of alternative methods and to prove that ethical standards are legitimate concerns under WTO rules.

  14. Animal models of substance abuse and addiction: implications for science, animal welfare, and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Wendy J; Nicholson, Katherine L; Dance, Mario E; Morgan, Richard W; Foley, Patricia L

    2010-06-01

    Substance abuse and addiction are well recognized public health concerns, with 2 NIH institutes (the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism) specifically targeting this societal problem. As such, this is an important area of research for which animal experiments play a critical role. This overview presents the importance of substance abuse and addiction in society; reviews the development and refinement of animal models that address crucial areas of biology, pathophysiology, clinical treatments, and drug screening for abuse liability; and discusses some of the unique veterinary, husbandry, and IACUC challenges associated with these models.

  15. Developing a Collaborative Agenda for Humanities and Social Scientific Research on Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Gail F; Greenhough, Beth J; Hobson-West, Pru; Kirk, Robert G W; Applebee, Ken; Bellingan, Laura C; Berdoy, Manuel; Buller, Henry; Cassaday, Helen J; Davies, Keith; Diefenbacher, Daniela; Druglitrø, Tone; Escobar, Maria Paula; Friese, Carrie; Herrmann, Kathrin; Hinterberger, Amy; Jarrett, Wendy J; Jayne, Kimberley; Johnson, Adam M; Johnson, Elizabeth R; Konold, Timm; Leach, Matthew C; Leonelli, Sabina; Lewis, David I; Lilley, Elliot J; Longridge, Emma R; McLeod, Carmen M; Miele, Mara; Nelson, Nicole C; Ormandy, Elisabeth H; Pallett, Helen; Poort, Lonneke; Pound, Pandora; Ramsden, Edmund; Roe, Emma; Scalway, Helen; Schrader, Astrid; Scotton, Chris J; Scudamore, Cheryl L; Smith, Jane A; Whitfield, Lucy; Wolfensohn, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Improving laboratory animal science and welfare requires both new scientific research and insights from research in the humanities and social sciences. Whilst scientific research provides evidence to replace, reduce and refine procedures involving laboratory animals (the '3Rs'), work in the humanities and social sciences can help understand the social, economic and cultural processes that enhance or impede humane ways of knowing and working with laboratory animals. However, communication across these disciplinary perspectives is currently limited, and they design research programmes, generate results, engage users, and seek to influence policy in different ways. To facilitate dialogue and future research at this interface, we convened an interdisciplinary group of 45 life scientists, social scientists, humanities scholars, non-governmental organisations and policy-makers to generate a collaborative research agenda. This drew on methods employed by other agenda-setting exercises in science policy, using a collaborative and deliberative approach for the identification of research priorities. Participants were recruited from across the community, invited to submit research questions and vote on their priorities. They then met at an interactive workshop in the UK, discussed all 136 questions submitted, and collectively defined the 30 most important issues for the group. The output is a collaborative future agenda for research in the humanities and social sciences on laboratory animal science and welfare. The questions indicate a demand for new research in the humanities and social sciences to inform emerging discussions and priorities on the governance and practice of laboratory animal research, including on issues around: international harmonisation, openness and public engagement, 'cultures of care', harm-benefit analysis and the future of the 3Rs. The process outlined below underlines the value of interdisciplinary exchange for improving communication across

  16. Developing a Collaborative Agenda for Humanities and Social Scientific Research on Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Gail F.; Greenhough, Beth J; Hobson-West, Pru; Kirk, Robert G. W.; Applebee, Ken; Bellingan, Laura C.; Berdoy, Manuel; Buller, Henry; Cassaday, Helen J.; Davies, Keith; Diefenbacher, Daniela; Druglitrø, Tone; Escobar, Maria Paula; Friese, Carrie; Herrmann, Kathrin; Hinterberger, Amy; Jarrett, Wendy J.; Jayne, Kimberley; Johnson, Adam M.; Johnson, Elizabeth R.; Konold, Timm; Leach, Matthew C.; Leonelli, Sabina; Lewis, David I.; Lilley, Elliot J.; Longridge, Emma R.; McLeod, Carmen M.; Miele, Mara; Nelson, Nicole C.; Ormandy, Elisabeth H.; Pallett, Helen; Poort, Lonneke; Pound, Pandora; Ramsden, Edmund; Roe, Emma; Scalway, Helen; Schrader, Astrid; Scotton, Chris J.; Scudamore, Cheryl L.; Smith, Jane A.; Whitfield, Lucy; Wolfensohn, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Improving laboratory animal science and welfare requires both new scientific research and insights from research in the humanities and social sciences. Whilst scientific research provides evidence to replace, reduce and refine procedures involving laboratory animals (the ‘3Rs’), work in the humanities and social sciences can help understand the social, economic and cultural processes that enhance or impede humane ways of knowing and working with laboratory animals. However, communication across these disciplinary perspectives is currently limited, and they design research programmes, generate results, engage users, and seek to influence policy in different ways. To facilitate dialogue and future research at this interface, we convened an interdisciplinary group of 45 life scientists, social scientists, humanities scholars, non-governmental organisations and policy-makers to generate a collaborative research agenda. This drew on methods employed by other agenda-setting exercises in science policy, using a collaborative and deliberative approach for the identification of research priorities. Participants were recruited from across the community, invited to submit research questions and vote on their priorities. They then met at an interactive workshop in the UK, discussed all 136 questions submitted, and collectively defined the 30 most important issues for the group. The output is a collaborative future agenda for research in the humanities and social sciences on laboratory animal science and welfare. The questions indicate a demand for new research in the humanities and social sciences to inform emerging discussions and priorities on the governance and practice of laboratory animal research, including on issues around: international harmonisation, openness and public engagement, ‘cultures of care’, harm-benefit analysis and the future of the 3Rs. The process outlined below underlines the value of interdisciplinary exchange for improving communication across

  17. Evaluation of on-farm veal calves' responses to unfamiliar humans and potential influencing factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leruste, H.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Heutinck, L.F.M.; Wolthuis-Fillerup, M.; Werf, van der J.T.N.; Brscic, M.; Cozzi, G.; Engel, B.; Reenen, van C.G.; Lensink, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    The human–animal relationship is an important component of the welfare of farm animals and for this reason animal responsiveness tests to humans are included in on-farm welfare assessment schemes that provide indicators for this. However, apart from the behaviour of stockpersons towards their

  18. Animal Science Basic Core Curriculum. Kansas Postsecondary Farm and Ranch Management Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albracht, James, Ed.

    Thirty-six units of instruction are included in this core curriculum in animal science for postsecondary farm and ranch management programs. Uni