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Sample records for far-ultraviolet h2 emission

  1. A Far-ultraviolet Fluorescent Molecular Hydrogen Emission Map of the Milky Way Galaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Young-Soo; Min, Kyoung-Wook [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Seon, Kwang-Il; Han, Wonyong [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Edelstein, Jerry, E-mail: stspeak@gmail.com [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 94720 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    We present the far-ultraviolet (FUV) fluorescent molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) emission map of the Milky Way Galaxy obtained with FIMS/SPEAR covering ∼76% of the sky. The extinction-corrected intensity of the fluorescent H{sub 2} emission has a strong linear correlation with the well-known tracers of the cold interstellar medium (ISM), including color excess E(B–V) , neutral hydrogen column density N (H i), and H α emission. The all-sky H{sub 2} column density map was also obtained using a simple photodissociation region model and interstellar radiation fields derived from UV star catalogs. We estimated the fraction of H{sub 2} ( f {sub H2}) and the gas-to-dust ratio (GDR) of the diffuse ISM. The f {sub H2} gradually increases from <1% at optically thin regions where E(B–V) < 0.1 to ∼50% for E(B–V)  = 3. The estimated GDR is ∼5.1 × 10{sup 21} atoms cm{sup −2} mag{sup −1}, in agreement with the standard value of 5.8 × 10{sup 21} atoms cm{sup −2} mag{sup −1}.

  2. ORIGIN OF THE DIFFUSE, FAR ULTRAVIOLET EMISSION IN THE INTERARM REGIONS OF M101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crocker, Alison F.; Chandar, Rupali; Calzetti, Daniela; Holwerda, Benne Willem; Leitherer, Claus; Popescu, Cristina; Tuffs, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    We present images from the Solar Blind Channel on the Hubble Space Telescope that resolve hundreds of far-ultraviolet (FUV) emitting stars in two ∼1 kpc 2 interarm regions of the grand-design spiral M101. The luminosity functions of these stars are compared with predicted distributions from simple star formation histories, and are best reproduced when the star formation rate has recently declined (past 10–50 Myr). This pattern is consistent with stars forming within spiral arms and then streaming into the interarm regions. We measure the diffuse FUV surface brightness after subtracting all of the detected stars, clusters, and background galaxies. A residual flux is found for both regions, which can be explained by a mix of stars below our detection limit and scattered FUV light. The amount of scattered light required is much larger for the region immediately adjacent to a spiral arm, a bright source of FUV photons

  3. High-Resolution Electron-Impact Study of the Far-Ultraviolet Emission Spectrum of Molecular Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xian-Ming; Ahmed, Syed M.; Multari, Rosalie A.; James, Geoffrey K.; Ajello, Joseph M.

    1995-01-01

    The emission spectrum of molecular hydrogen produced by electron-impact excitation at 100 eV has been measured in the wavelength range 1140-1690 A. High-resolution, optically thin spectra (delta(lambda) = 0.136 A) of the far-ultraviolet (FUV) Lyman and Werner band systems have been obtained with a newly constructed 3 m spectrometer. Synthetic spectral intensities based on the transition probabilities calculated by Abgrall et al. are in very good agreement with experimentally observed intensities. Previous modeling that utilized Allison & Daigarno band transition probabilities with Hoenl-London factors breaks down when the transition moment has significant J dependence or when ro-vibrational coupling is significant. Ro-vibrational perturbation between upsilon = 14 of the B(sup 1)Sigma(sup +, sub u) state and upsilon = 3 of the C(sup 1)Pi(sub u) state and the rotational dependence of the transition moment in the bands of the Lyman system are examined. Complete high-resolution experimental reference FUV spectra, together with the model synthetic spectra based on the Abgrall transition probabilities, are presented. An improved calibration standard is obtained, and an accurate calibration of the 3 m spectrometer has been achieved.

  4. THE EMISSION, LIFETIMES, AND FORMATION THRESHOLD OF THE VEGARD–KAPLAN TRANSITION OF SOLID NITROGEN EXPOSED TO FAR-ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Hsiao-Chi; Lo, Jen-Iu; Peng, Yu-Chain; Chou, Sheng-Lung; Lin, Meng-Yeh; Cheng, Bing-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Irradiation of solid nitrogen at 4 K with far-ultraviolet light from a synchrotron caused excitation to the upper state of the Vegard–Kaplan (VK) system; the emission in that system was simultaneously recorded in wavelength region 200–440 nm. The lifetimes of emission lines for VK (0, 1) to (0, 12) transitions were measured in the range of 2.12 ∼ 2.65 s. The threshold wavelength to observe the VK emission was 175.0 ± 3.5 nm, corresponding to energy 7.08 ± 0.14 eV. This investigation of the generation of icy VK nitrogen enhances our understanding of its photochemistry in space.

  5. THE EMISSION, LIFETIMES, AND FORMATION THRESHOLD OF THE VEGARD–KAPLAN TRANSITION OF SOLID NITROGEN EXPOSED TO FAR-ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Hsiao-Chi; Lo, Jen-Iu; Peng, Yu-Chain; Chou, Sheng-Lung; Lin, Meng-Yeh; Cheng, Bing-Ming, E-mail: bmcheng@nsrrc.org.tw [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, No. 101, Hsin-Ann Road, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China)

    2016-11-20

    Irradiation of solid nitrogen at 4 K with far-ultraviolet light from a synchrotron caused excitation to the upper state of the Vegard–Kaplan (VK) system; the emission in that system was simultaneously recorded in wavelength region 200–440 nm. The lifetimes of emission lines for VK (0, 1) to (0, 12) transitions were measured in the range of 2.12 ∼ 2.65 s. The threshold wavelength to observe the VK emission was 175.0 ± 3.5 nm, corresponding to energy 7.08 ± 0.14 eV. This investigation of the generation of icy VK nitrogen enhances our understanding of its photochemistry in space.

  6. The Emission, Lifetimes, and Formation Threshold of the Vegard-Kaplan Transition of Solid Nitrogen Exposed to Far-ultraviolet Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hsiao-Chi; Lo, Jen-Iu; Peng, Yu-Chain; Chou, Sheng-Lung; Lin, Meng-Yeh; Cheng, Bing-Ming

    2016-11-01

    Irradiation of solid nitrogen at 4 K with far-ultraviolet light from a synchrotron caused excitation to the upper state of the Vegard-Kaplan (VK) system; the emission in that system was simultaneously recorded in wavelength region 200-440 nm. The lifetimes of emission lines for VK (0, 1) to (0, 12) transitions were measured in the range of 2.12 ˜ 2.65 s. The threshold wavelength to observe the VK emission was 175.0 ± 3.5 nm, corresponding to energy 7.08 ± 0.14 eV. This investigation of the generation of icy VK nitrogen enhances our understanding of its photochemistry in space.

  7. Stellar Abundances and Molecular Hydrogen in High-Redshift Galaxies: The Far-Ultraviolet View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, William C.

    2006-06-01

    FUSE spectra of star-forming regions in nearby galaxies are compared to composite spectra of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs), binned by strength of Lyα emission and by mid-UV luminosity. Several far-UV spectral features, including lines dominated by stellar wind and by photospheric components, are very sensitive to stellar abundances. Their measurement in LBGs is compromised by the strong interstellar absorption features, allowing in some cases only upper limits to be determined. The derived C and N abundances in the LBGs are no higher than half solar (scaled to oxygen abundance for comparison with emission-line analyses), independent of the strength of Lyα emission. P V absorption indicates abundances as low as 0.1 solar, with an upper limit near 0.4 solar in the reddest and weakest emission galaxies. Unresolved interstellar absorption components would further lower the derived abundances. Trends of line strength and derived abundances are stronger with mid-UV luminosity than with Lyα strength. H2 absorption in the Lyman and Werner bands is very weak in the LBGs. Template H2 absorption spectra convolved to the appropriate resolution show that strict upper limits N(H2)values appropriate for the stronger emission composites and for mixes of H2 level populations like those on Milky Way sight lines. Since the UV-bright regions are likely to be widespread in these galaxies, these results rule out massive diffuse reservoirs of primordial H2 and suggest that the dust-to-gas ratio is already fairly large at z~3. Based on observations made with the NASA-CNES-CSA Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE). FUSE is operated for NASA by The Johns Hopkins University under NASA contract NAS5-32985.

  8. Planetary Nebulae with H2 Emission

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita Rosado; Lorena Arias

    2003-01-01

    Hacemos una revisión de la emisión en hidrogeno molecular (H2) de las nebulosas planetarias (NPs). Vemos como esta emisión se encuentra asociada a objetos de forma bipolar. Describimos los niveles de energía de la molécula de hidrogeno, los principales mecanismos para poblarlos (choques y fluorescencia) y las formas en que se puede discriminar que mecanismo opera. Proponemos que la cinemática del H2 también puede ser usada para discriminar el mecanismo de excitación de sus líneas de emisión. ...

  9. Optical Design of the far Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Ryu

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the design specifications and the performance estimation of the FUVS (Far Ultraviolet Spectrograph proposed for the observations of aurora, day/night airglow and astronomical objects on small satelltes in the spectral range of . The design of FUVS is carried out with the full consideration of optical characteristics of the grating and the aspheric substrate. Two independent methods, ray-tracing and the wave front aberration theory, are employed to estimate the performance of the optical design and it is verified that both procedures yield the resolution of in the entire spectral range. MDF (Minimum Detectable Flux is also estimated using the known characteristics of the reflecting material and MCP, to study the feasibility of detection for faint emission lines from the hot interstellar plasmas. The results give that the observations from 1 day to 1 week, depending on the line intensity, can detect such faint emission lines from diffuse interstellar plasmas.

  10. Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer Observations of the Supernova Remnant N49 in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Blair, W P; Shelton, R; Sembach, K R; Moos, H W; Raymond, J C; York, D G; Feldman, P D; Chayer, P; Murphy, E M; Sahnow, D J; Wilkinson, E; Blair, William P.; Sankrit, Ravi; Shelton, Robin; Sembach, Kenneth R.; Raymond, John C.; York, Donald G.; Feldman, Paul D.; Chayer, Pierre; Murphy, Edward M.; Sahnow, David J.; Wilkinson, Erik

    2001-01-01

    We report a Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer satellite observation of the supernova remnant N49 in the Large Magellanic Cloud, covering the 905 -- 1187 A spectral region. A 30'' square aperture was used, resulting in a velocity resolution of ~100 km/s. The purpose of the observation was to examine several bright emission lines expected from earlier work and to demonstrate diffuse source sensitivity by searching for faint lines never seen previously in extragalactic supernova remnant UV spectra. Both goals were accomplished. Strong emission lines of O VI 1031.9 A, 1037.6 A and C III 977.0 A were seen, Doppler broadened to +/- 225 km/s and with centroids red-shifted to 350 km/s, consistent with the LMC. Superimposed on the emission lines are absorptions by C III and O VI 1031.9 at +260 km/s, which are attributed to warm and hot gas (respectively) in the LMC. The O VI 1037.6 A line is more severely affected by overlying interstellar and H2 absorption from both the LMC and our galaxy. N III 989.8 A is not s...

  11. Emission of Lyman α radiation in H2 + H*(2s) collisions at thermal energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, B.

    1991-01-01

    A previously-published study of the thermal-energy collision between H 2 and metastable H*(2s), which could lead to the emission of Lyman α radiation, is reconsidered to take into account possible polarization effects. The total was function of the system is expanded in terms of the molecular states of the intermediate complex H 2 * , which constitute the minimal basis of the four adiabatic states dissociating into H 2 + H*(n=2) where they are normally degenerate in energy. The results of the calculation show the existence, between three of those states, of average values of the separation distance R (R ≅ 10 atomic units) of long range (ΔR ≅ 2 au) electronic interactions which depend on the geometric form of the H 2 * molecule. From the molecular data the hypothesis of no longer considering H 2 with H*(2s) as a rigid rotator is postulated and justified, after a purely quantum mechanical treatment of the radial equations. The mean ratio of the (oscillating) polarization angular differential cross sections tot he elastic ones is found important (> ∼ 1/10). The inelastic phenomena are anticipated to be more marked in the ortho than in the para hydrogen at a low collision energy (75 meV). (15 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.)

  12. H2 emission from Herbig-Haro objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Molecular hydrogen emission lines have been detected in six Herbig-Haro objects. The line intensities suggest tha the H 2 emission arises in a moderate-density, shock-heated gas, consistent with evidence for a similar origin of the visible emission-line spectra in Herbig-Haro objects. Indirect arguments indicate that the typical H 2 line widths are less than 70 km s -1 and that typical helicentric radial velocities are no more than 30 km s -1 in magnitude

  13. Extended Structures of Planetary Nebulae Detected in H2 Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xuan; Zhang, Yong; Kwok, Sun; Hsia, Chih-Hao; Chau, Wayne; Ramos-Larios, Gerardo; Guerrero, Martín A.

    2018-06-01

    We present narrowband near-infrared images of a sample of 11 Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) obtained in the H2 2.122 μm and Brγ 2.166 μm emission lines and the K c 2.218 μm continuum. These images were collected with the Wide-field Infrared Camera on the 3.6 m Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope (CFHT); their unprecedented depth and wide field of view allow us to find extended nebular structures in H2 emission in several PNe, some of these being the first detection. The nebular morphologies in H2 emission are studied in analogy with the optical images, and indication of stellar wind interactions is discussed. In particular, the complete structure of the highly asymmetric halo in NGC 6772 is witnessed in H2, which strongly suggests interaction with the interstellar medium. Our sample confirms the general correlation between H2 emission and the bipolarity of PNe. The knotty or filamentary fine structures of the H2 gas are resolved in the inner regions of several ring-like PNe, also confirming the previous argument that H2 emission mostly comes from knots or clumps embedded within fully ionized material at the equatorial regions. Moreover, the H2 image of the butterfly-shaped Sh 1-89, after removal of field stars, clearly reveals a tilted ring structure at the waist. These high-quality CFHT images justify follow-up detailed morphokinematic studies that are desired in order to deduce the true physical structures of a few PNe in the sample. Based on observations obtained with WIRCam, a joint project of CFHT, Taiwan, Korea, Canada, and France, at the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l’Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  14. Observations of interstellar H2O emission at 183 Gigahertz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, J.W.; Gustincic, J.J.; Kakar, R.K.; Kuiper, T.B.H.; Roscoe, H.K.; Swanson, P.N.; Rodriguez Kuiper, E.N.; Kerr, A.R.; Thaddeus, P.

    1980-01-01

    Line emission at 183 GHz by the 3 13 --2 20 rotational transition of water vapor has been detected from the Orion Nebula with the NASA Kuiper Airborne Observatory 91 cm telescope. The peak antenna temperature of the line is 15 K, its LSR velocity is 8 km s -1 , and its width is 15 km s -1 . The velocity profile has characteristics similar to those for CO:a narrow (approx.4 km s -1 ) ''spike'' centered at 9.5 km s -1 and a broad ''plateau'' with flaring wings centered at approx.8 km s -1 . Our 7'.5 antenna beam did not resolve the source. The 183 GHz H 2 O plateau emission appears enhanced above that expected for thermal excitation if it originates from the no greater than 1' region characteristic of plateau emission from all other observed molecules. The spike emission is consistent with an optically thick source of the approximated size of the well-known molecular ridge in Orion having the H 2 O in thermal equilibrium at Tapprox. =50 K. If this is the case, then the H 2 O column density giving rise to the spike is N/sub H/2/sub O/> or =3 x 10 17 cm -2 . An excitation calculation implies N/sub H/2/sub O/approx. =10 18 cm -2 for a source the size of the molecular ridge. These results imply that H 2 O is one of the more abundant species in the Orion Molecualr Cloud.H 2 O emission at 183 GHz was not detected in Sgr A, Sgr B2, W3, W43, W49, W51, DR 21, NGC 1333, NGC 7027, GL 2591, or the rho Oph cloud; it may have been detected in M17

  15. Far-ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Recent Comets with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Paul D.; Weaver, Harold A.; A’Hearn, Michael F.; Combi, Michael R.; Dello Russo, Neil

    2018-05-01

    Since its launch in 1990, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has served as a platform with unique capabilities for remote observations of comets in the far-ultraviolet region of the spectrum. Successive generations of imagers and spectrographs have seen large advances in sensitivity and spectral resolution enabling observations of the diverse properties of a representative number of comets during the past 25 years. To date, four comets have been observed in the far-ultraviolet by the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS), the last spectrograph to be installed in HST, in 2009: 103P/Hartley 2, C/2009 P1 (Garradd), C/2012 S1 (ISON), and C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy). COS has unprecedented sensitivity, but limited spatial information in its 2.″5 diameter circular aperture, and our objective was to determine the CO production rates from measurements of the CO Fourth Positive system in the spectral range of 1400–1700 Å. In the two brightest comets, 19 bands of this system were clearly identified. The water production rates were derived from nearly concurrent observations of the OH (0,0) band at 3085 Å by the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. The derived CO/{{{H}}}2{{O}} production rate ratio ranged from ∼0.3% for Hartley 2 to ∼22% for Garradd. In addition, strong partially resolved emission features due to multiplets of S I, centered at 1429 Å and 1479 Å, and of C I at 1561 Å and 1657 Å, were observed in all four comets. Weak emission from several lines of the {{{H}}}2 Lyman band system, excited by solar Lyα and Lyβ pumped fluorescence, were detected in comet Lovejoy.

  16. H2 emission from non-stationary magnetized bow shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tram, L. N.; Lesaffre, P.; Cabrit, S.; Gusdorf, A.; Nhung, P. T.

    2018-01-01

    When a fast moving star or a protostellar jet hits an interstellar cloud, the surrounding gas gets heated and illuminated: a bow shock is born that delineates the wake of the impact. In such a process, the new molecules that are formed and excited in the gas phase become accessible to observations. In this paper, we revisit models of H2 emission in these bow shocks. We approximate the bow shock by a statistical distribution of planar shocks computed with a magnetized shock model. We improve on previous works by considering arbitrary bow shapes, a finite irradiation field and by including the age effect of non-stationary C-type shocks on the excitation diagram and line profiles of H2. We also examine the dependence of the line profiles on the shock velocity and on the viewing angle: we suggest that spectrally resolved observations may greatly help to probe the dynamics inside the bow shock. For reasonable bow shapes, our analysis shows that low-velocity shocks largely contribute to H2 excitation diagram. This can result in an observational bias towards low velocities when planar shocks are used to interpret H2 emission from an unresolved bow. We also report a large magnetization bias when the velocity of the planar model is set independently. Our 3D models reproduce excitation diagrams in BHR 71 and Orion bow shocks better than previous 1D models. Our 3D model is also able to reproduce the shape and width of the broad H2 1-0S(1) line profile in an Orion bow shock (Brand et al. 1989).

  17. High resolution emission spectra of H2 and D2 near 80 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larzilliere, M.; Roncin, J.-Y.; Launay, F.

    1980-01-01

    A few lines have been observed in the far ultraviolet emission spectrum of molecular hydrogen and deuterium. They are assigned to transitions from levels of the 3pπD 1 PIsub(u)sup(-) state, lying above the dissociation limit into H(ls) + H(n=2), near 84.5 nm, and, for some of them, above the first ionization limit near 80.4 nm, the lower state being X 1 Σsub(g)sup(+) (v''=1). This is in fair agreement with measured predissociation and preionization yields. Accurate line position measurements lead to molecular constants in very good agreement with theoretical calculations

  18. Performance of The Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer Mirror Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohi, Raymond G.; Barkhouser, Robert H.; Conard, Steven J.; Friedman, Scott D.; Hampton, Jeffery; Moos, H. Warren; Nikulla, Paul; Oliveira, Cristina M.; Saha, Timo T.; Obenschain, Arthur (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer is a NASA astrophysics satellite which produces high-resolution spectra in the far-ultraviolet (90.5-118.7 nm bandpass) using a high effective area and low background detectors. The observatory was launched on its three-year mission from Cape Canaveral Air Station on 24 June 1999. The instrument contains four coaligned, normal incidence, off-axis parabolic mirrors which illuminate separate Rowland circle spectrograph channels equipped with holographically ruled diffraction gratings and delay line microchannel plate detectors. The telescope mirrors have a 352 x 387 mm aperture and 2245 mm focal length and are attached to actuator assemblies, which provide on-orbit, tip, tilt, and focus control. Two mirrors are coated with silicon carbide (SiC) and two are coated with lithium fluoride over aluminum (Al:LiF). We describe mirror assembly in-flight optical and mechanical performance. On-orbit measurements of the far-ultraviolet point spread function associated with each mirror are compared to expectations based on pre-flight laboratory measurements and modeling using the Optical Surface Analysis Code and surface metrology data. On-orbit imaging data indicate that the mirrors meet their instrument-level requirement of 50 percent and 95 percent slit transmission for the high- and mid-resolution spectrograph entrance slits, respectively. The degradation of mirror reflectivity during satellite integration and test is also discussed. The far-ultraviolet reflectivity of the SiC- and AlLiF-coated mirrors decreased about six percent and three percent, respectively, between coating and launch. Each mirror is equipped with three actuators, which consist of a stepper motor driving a ball screw via a two-stage planetary gear train. We also discuss the mechanical performance of the mirror assemblies, including actuator performance and thermal effects.

  19. Sensitivity Calibration of Far-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. -J. Kim

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe the in-flight sensitivity calibration of the Far ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (FIMS, also known as SPEAR onboard the first Korean science satellite, STSAT-1, which was launched in September 2003. The sensitivity calibration is based on a comparison of the FIMS observations of the hot white dwarf G191B2B, and two O-type stars Alpha-Cam, HD93521 with the HUT (Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope observations. The FIMS observations for the calibration targets have been conducted from November 2003 through May 2004. The effective areas calculated from the targets are compared with each other.

  20. S201 catalog of far-ultraviolet objects. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, T.; Carruthers, G.K.; Hill, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    A catalog of star images was compiled from images obtained by an NRL Far-Ultraviolet Camera/Spectrograph operated from 21 to 23 April 1972 on the lunar surface during the Apollo-16 mission. These images were scanned on a microdensitometer, and the output recorded on magnetic tapes. The catalog is divided into 11 parts, covering ten fields in the sky (the Sagittarius field being covered by two parts), and each part is headed by a constellation name and the field center coordinates. The errors in position of the detected images are less than about 3 arc-min. Correlations are given with star numbers in the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory catalog. Values are given of the peak density and the density volume. The text includes a discussion of the photometry, corrections thereto due to threshold and saturation effects, and its comparison with theoretical expectation, stellar model atmospheres, and a generalized far-ultraviolet interstellar extinction law. The S201 catalog is also available on a single reel of seven-track magnetic tape

  1. Factors affecting temporal H2S emission at construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiyong; Townsend, Timothy

    2014-02-01

    Odor problems associated with H2S emissions often result in odor complaints from nearby residents of C&D debris landfills, especially in the early morning. As part of a field study conducted on H2S removal ability using different cover materials, daily and seasonal H2S emissions through a soil cover layer were monitored at a C&D debris landfill to investigate factors affecting H2S emissions. H2S emission rates were not a constant, but varied seasonally, with an average emission rate of 4.67×10(-6)mgm(-2)s(-1). During a the 10-month field study, as the H2S concentration increased from 140ppm to about 3500ppm underneath the cover soil in the testing cell, H2S emissions ranged from zero to a maximum emission rate of 1.24×10(-5)mgm(-2)s(-1). Continuous emission monitoring indicated that H2S emissions even changed over time throughout the day, generally increasing from morning to afternoon, and were affected by soil moisture and temperature. Laboratory experiments were also conducted to investigate the effects of H2S concentration and cover soil moisture content on H2S emissions. The results showed that increased soil moisture reduced H2S emissions by retarding H2S migration through cover soil and dissolving H2S into soil water. The field study also indicated that due to atmospheric dispersion, high H2S emissions may not cause odor problems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Far-ultraviolet and optical spectrophotometry of X-ray selected Seyfert galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.T.; Bowyer, S.; Grewing, M.; California Univ., Berkeley; Tuebingen Universitaet, West Germany)

    1986-01-01

    Five X-ray selected Seyfert galaxies were examined via near-simultaneous far-ultraviolet and optical spectrophotometry in an effort to test models for excitation of emission lines by X-ray and ultraviolet continuum photoionization. The observed Ly-alpha/H-beta ratio in the present sample averages 22, with an increase found toward the high-velocity wings of the H lines in the spectrum of at least one of the Seyfert I nuclei. It is suggested that Seyfert galaxies with the most high-velocity gas exhibit the highest Ly-alpha/H-beta ratios at all velocities in the line profiles, and that sometimes this ratio may be highest for the highest velocity material in the broad-line clouds. Since broad-lined objects are least affected by Ly-alpha trapping effects, they have Ly-alpha/H-beta ratios much closer to those predicted by early photoionization calculations. 21 references

  3. Conversion of far ultraviolet to visible radiation: absolute measurements of the conversion efficiency of tetraphenyl butadiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Robert E.; Coplan, Michael A.; Clark, Charles W.

    Far ultraviolet (FUV) scintillation of noble gases is used in dark matter and neutrino research and in neutron detection. Upon collisional excitation, noble gas atoms recombine into excimer molecules that decay by FUV emission. Direct detection of FUV is difficult. Another approach is to convert it to visible light using a wavelength-shifting medium. One such medium, tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) can be vapor-deposited on substrates. Thus the quality of thin TPB films can be tightly controlled. We have measured the absolute efficiency of FUV-to-visible conversion by 1 μm-thick TPB films vs. FUV wavelengths between 130 and 300 nm, with 1 nm resolution. The energy efficiency of FUV to visible conversion varies between 1% and 5%. We make comparisons with other recent results. Work performed at the NIST SURF III Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility,.

  4. Far-ultraviolet fluorescence of carbon monoxide in the red giant Arcturus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, T.R.; Moos, H.W.; Linsky, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    We present evidence that many of the weak features observed with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) in the far-ultraviolet (1150--2000 A) spectrum of the archetype red giant Arcturus (K2 III) are A--X fourth positive bands of carbon monoxide excited by chromospheric emissions of O I, C I, and H I. The appearance of fluorescent CO bands near the wavelengths of commonly used indicators of high-temperature (T>2 x 10 4 K) plasma, such as C II lambda1335 and C IV lambda1548, introduces a serious ambiguity in diagnosing the presence of hot material in the outer atmospheres of the cool giants by means of low-dispersion IUE spectra

  5. Emission of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) at a waterfall in a sewer: study of main factors affecting H2S emission and modeling approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Daniel; Hatrait, Laetitia; Gouello, Julien; Ponthieux, Arnaud; Parez, Vincent; Renner, Christophe

    2017-11-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) represents one of the main odorant gases emitted from sewer networks. A mathematical model can be a fast and low-cost tool for estimating its emission. This study investigates two approaches to modeling H 2 S gas transfer at a waterfall in a discharge manhole. The first approach is based on an adaptation of oxygen models for H 2 S emission at a waterfall and the second consists of a new model. An experimental set-up and a statistical data analysis allowed the main factors affecting H 2 S emission to be studied. A new model of the emission kinetics was developed using linear regression and taking into account H 2 S liquid concentration, waterfall height and fluid velocity at the outlet pipe of a rising main. Its prediction interval was estimated by the residual standard deviation (15.6%) up to a rate of 2.3 g H 2 S·h -1 . Finally, data coming from four sampling campaigns on sewer networks were used to perform simulations and compare predictions of all developed models.

  6. Pushing the limits: detecting H2 emission from faint bipolar planetary nebulae in the IPHAS sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Larios, G.; Guerrero, M. A.; Sabin, L.; Santamaría, E.

    2017-09-01

    We have obtained deep narrowband images in the near-infrared H2 λ2.122 μm emission line for a sample of 15 faint Isaac Newton Telescope Photometric H α Survey (IPHAS) bipolar planetary nebulae (PNe) to search for molecular material. H2 emission is found in most of them (14 out of 15), mostly associated with rings at their equatorial regions and with their bipolar lobes. These detections add to the high occurrence of H2 emission among bipolar PNe reported in previous works, resulting from the large reservoir of molecular material in these sources and the suitable excitation conditions for H2 emission. The correlation between detailed bipolar morphology and H2 luminosity is also confirmed: bipolar PNe with broad equatorial rings (R-BPNe) have almost no continuum emission, are H2 brighter and have larger H2/Br γ line ratio than bipolar PNe with pinched equatorial waists (W-BPNe). The origin of this dichotomy is unclear. The larger size and age of R-BPNe are consistent with shock excitation of H2, whereas ultraviolet pumping is most likely the excitation mechanism in the smaller and younger W-BPNe, which would explain their lower H2 luminosity. Although both types of bipolar PNe seem to proceed from the same progenitor population, this does not imply that R-BPNe descend from W-BPNe. Otherwise, we note that some of the H2-weak bipolar PNe harbor post-common envelope binary systems and symbiotic stars. Finally, we suggest that the long-living H2 emission from R-BPNe arises from a discrete distribution of compact knots embedded within the ionized gas at the equatorial region.

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF FAR-ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION ON THE PROPERTIES OF MOLECULAR CLOUDS IN THE 30 DOR REGION OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineda, Jorge L.; Klein, Ulrich; Ott, Juergen; Wong, Tony; Muller, Erik; Hughes, Annie

    2009-01-01

    We present a complete 12 CO J = 1 → 0 map of the prominent molecular ridge in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) obtained with the 22 m ATNF Mopra Telescope. The region stretches southward by ∼2 deg. (or 1.7 kpc) from 30 Doradus, the most vigorous star-forming region in the Local Group. The location of this molecular ridge is unique insofar as it allows us to study the properties of molecular gas as a function of the ambient radiation field in a low-metallicity environment. We find that the physical properties of CO-emitting clumps within the molecular ridge do not vary with the strength of the far-ultraviolet radiation field. Since the peak CO brightness of the clumps shows no correlation with the radiation field strength, the observed constant value for CO-to-H 2 conversion factor along the ridge seems to require an increase in the kinetic temperature of the molecular gas that is offset by a decrease in the angular filling factor of the CO emission. We find that the difference between the CO-to-H 2 conversion factor in the molecular ridge and the outer Milky Way is smaller than has been reported by previous studies of the CO emission: applying the same cloud identification and analysis methods to our CO observations of the LMC molecular ridge and CO data from the outer Galaxy survey by Dame et al., we find that the average CO-to-H 2 conversion factor in the molecular ridge is X CO ≅ (3.9 ± 2.5) x 10 20 cm -2 (K km s -1 ) -1 , approximately twice the value that we determine for the outer Galaxy clouds. The mass spectrum and the scaling relations between the properties of the CO clumps in the molecular ridge are similar, but not identical, to those that have been established for Galactic molecular clouds.

  8. The extinction to the H2 line emission in the DR 21 outflow source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeau, D.; Riopel, M.; Geballe, T.R.

    1991-01-01

    The v = 1-0 S(1) and Q(3) lines of H2 have been measured in four regions of the DR 21 H2 line-emission source, in order to determine whether the observed morphology of the emission represents the distribution of the excited H2 or is modified by nonuniform extinction across the source. The measured lines originate from the same upper level, and their ratio is a direct measure of the reddening. The line ratios show that the extinction is quite uniform across the source and that there is no correlation between the intensity and the extinction. This result implies that the gap between the two lobes of emission is not due to increased extinction but rather is a region where there is little excited H2 gas. 13 refs

  9. Emission noise spectrum in a premixed H2-O2-N2 flame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkemade, C.T.J.; Hooymayers, H.P.; Lijnse, P.L.; Vierbergen, T.J.M.J.

    Experimental noise spectra in the frequency range of 15–105 Hz are reported for the thermal emission of the first resonance doublet of Na and K in a premixed H2-O2-N2 flame, and for the flame background emission. Under certain conditions, low-frequency peaks arise in the noise spectrum below 100 Hz,

  10. H2 emission and CO absorption in Centaurus A : Evidence for a circumnuclear molecular disk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Israel, F.P.; Dishoeck, van E.F.; Baas, F.; Koornneef, J.; Black, J.H.; Graauw, de Th.

    1990-01-01

    Emission and absorption lines of H2 and CO in nuclei of several galaxies with strong NIR emission, including Centaurus A (NGC 5128), were studied at the La Silla observatory to obtain constraints on the physical parameters of molecular material close to the nucleus of the NGC 5128 galaxy. Results

  11. A far-ultraviolet flare on a Pleiades G dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, T. R.; Stauffer, J. R.; Simon, Theodore; Stern, R. A.; Antiochos, S. K.; Basri, G. S.; Bookbinder, J. A.; Brown, A.; Doschek, G. A.; Linsky, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope/Faint Object Spectrograph (HST/FOS) recorded a remarkable transient brightening in the C IV lambda lambda 1548,50 emissions of the rapidly rotating Pleiades G dwarf H II 314. On the one hand the 'flare' might be a rare event luckily observed; on the other hand it might be a bellwether of the coronal heating in very young solar-mass stars. If the latter, flaring provides a natural spin-down mechanism through associated sporadic magnetospheric mass loss.

  12. Deuterium and Oxygen Toward Feige 110: Results from the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, S. D.; Howk, J. C.; Chayer, P.; Tripp, T. M.; Hebrard, G.; Andre, M.; Oliveira, C.; Jenkins, E. B.; Moos, H. W.; Oegerle, William R.

    2001-01-01

    We present measurements of the column densities of interstellar D I and O I made with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE), and of H I made with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) toward the sdOB star Feige 110 [(l,b) = (74.09 deg., - 59.07 deg.); d = 179(sup +265, sub -67) pc; Z = -154(sup +57, Sub -227 pc). Our determination of the D I column density made use of curve of growth fitting and profile fitting analyses, while our O I column density determination used only curve of growth techniques. The H I column density was estimated by fitting the damping wings of the interstellar Ly(lpha) profile. We find log N(D I) = 15.47 +/- 0.06, log N(O I) = 16.73 +/- 0.10, and log N(H I) = 20.14(sup +0.13, sub -0.20) (all errors 2(sigma)). This implies D/H = (2.14 +/- 0.82) x 10(esp -5), D/O = (5.50(sup + 1.64, sub -133)) x 10(exp -2), and O/H = (3.89 +/- 1.67) x 10(exp -4). Taken with the FUSE results reported in companion papers and previous measurements of the local interstellar medium, this suggests the possibility of spatial variability in D/H for sight lines exceeding approx. 100 pc. This result may constrain models which characterize the mixing time and length scales of material in the local interstellar medium.

  13. Spectroscopic Measurements of the Far-Ultraviolet Dust Attenuation Curve at z ˜ 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Naveen A.; Steidel, Charles C.; Pettini, Max; Bogosavljević, Milan

    2016-09-01

    We present the first spectroscopic measurements of the shape of the far-ultraviolet (far-UV; λ =950{--}1500 Å) dust attenuation curve at high redshift (z˜ 3). Our analysis employs rest-frame UV spectra of 933 galaxies at z˜ 3, 121 of which have very deep spectroscopic observations (≳ 7 hr) at λ =850{--}1300 \\mathring{{A}} , with the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrograph on the Keck Telescope. By using an iterative approach in which we calculate the ratios of composite spectra in different bins of continuum color excess, E(B-V), we derive a dust curve that implies a lower attenuation in the far-UV for a given E(B-V) than those obtained with standard attenuation curves. We demonstrate that the UV composite spectra of z˜ 3 galaxies can be modeled well by assuming our new attenuation curve, a high covering fraction of H I, and absorption from the Lyman-Werner bands of {{{H}}}2 with a small (≲ 20 % ) covering fraction. The low covering fraction of {{{H}}}2 relative to that of the {{H}} {{I}} and dust suggests that most of the dust in the ISM of typical galaxies at z˜ 3 is unrelated to the catalysis of {{{H}}}2, and is associated with other phases of the ISM (I.e., the ionized and neutral gas). The far-UV dust curve implies a factor of ≈ 2 lower dust attenuation of Lyman continuum (ionizing) photons relative to those inferred from the most commonly assumed attenuation curves for L* galaxies at z˜ 3. Our results may be utilized to assess the degree to which ionizing photons are attenuated in H II regions or, more generally, in the ionized or low column density (N({{H}} {{I}})≲ {10}17.2 cm-2) neutral ISM of high-redshift galaxies. Based on data obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA, and was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  14. FAR-ULTRAVIOLET OBSERVATIONS OF THE SPICA NEBULA AND THE INTERACTION ZONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yeon-Ju; Min, Kyoung-Wook; Lim, Tae-Ho; Jo, Young-Soo [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Seon, Kwang-Il [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), 61-1 Hwaam-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae-Woo, E-mail: zmzm83@kaist.ac.kr [Korea Intellectual Property Office (KIPO), Government Complex Daejeon Building 4, 189 Cheongsa-ro, Seo-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-01

    We report the analysis results of far-ultraviolet (FUV) observations, made for a broad region around {alpha} Vir (Spica) including the interaction zone of Loop I and the Local Bubble. The whole region was optically thin and a general correlation was seen between the FUV continuum intensity and the dust extinction, except in the neighborhood of the bright central star, indicating the dust scattering nature of the FUV continuum. We performed Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations to obtain the optical parameters related to the dust scattering as well as to the geometrical structure of the region. The albedo and asymmetry factor were found to be 0.38 {+-} 0.06 and 0.46 {+-} 0.06, respectively, in good agreement with the Milky Way dust grain models. The distance to and the thickness of the interaction zone were estimated to be 70{sup +4}{sub -8} pc and 40{sup +8}{sub -10} pc, respectively. The diffuse FUV continuum in the northern region above Spica was mostly the result of scattering of the starlight from Spica, while that in the southern region was mainly due to the background stars. The C IV {lambda}{lambda}1548, 1551 emission was found throughout the whole region, in contrast to the Si II* {lambda}1532 emission which was bright only within the H II region. This indicates that the C IV line arises mostly at the shell boundaries of the bubbles, with a larger portion likely from the Loop I than from the Local Bubble side, whereas the Si II* line is from the photoionized Spica Nebula.

  15. Road vehicle emissions of molecular hydrogen (H 2) from a tunnel study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Martin K.; Juergens, Niklas; Steinbacher, Martin; Reimann, Stefan; Weilenmann, Martin; Buchmann, Brigitte

    Motor vehicle combustion emissions of molecular hydrogen (H 2), carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO 2) were measured during a 6-week period from November 2004 to January 2005 in Gubrist Tunnel, Switzerland, to determine vehicle emission factors for these trace gases and the ratios of the concentration growths ΔH2/ΔCO and ΔH2/ΔCO2 in the tunnel under real-world highway driving conditions. For H 2, molar mixing ratios at the tunnel exit were found to be 7-10 ppm (parts-per-million, 10-6) during rush hours. Mean emission factors of E=49.7(±16.5)mgkm-1, ECO=1.46(±0.54)gkm-1, and E=266(±69)gkm-1 were calculated. E was largest during weekday rush-hour traffic, a consequence of the more frequent accelerations in congested traffic when fuel combustion is not optimal. E was smaller for heavy-duty vehicles (HDV) compared to light-duty vehicles (LDV), a finding which was attributed to the diesel vs. gasoline engine technology. The mean ΔH2/ΔCO molecular ratio was 0.48±0.12. This ratio increased to ˜0.6 during rush hours, suggesting that H 2 yield is favored relative to CO under fuel-rich conditions, presumably a consequence of an increasing contribution of the water-gas-shift reaction. The mean ΔH2/ΔCO2 molecular ratio was 4.4×10-3 but reduced to 2.5×10-3 when the relative HDV abundance was at maximum. Using three different approaches, road traffic H 2 emissions were estimated for 2004 for Switzerland at 5.0-6.6 Gg and globally at 4.2-8.1 Tg. Despite projections of increasing traffic, Swiss H 2 emissions are not expected to change significantly in the near future, and global emissions are likely to decrease due to improved exhaust gas clean-up technologies.

  16. A far ultraviolet spectroscopic study of the reflectance, luminescence and electronic properties of SrMgF4 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogorodnikov, I.N.; Pustovarov, V.A.; Omelkov, S.I.; Isaenko, L.I.; Yelisseyev, A.P.; Goloshumova, A.A.; Lobanov, S.I.

    2014-01-01

    The electronic properties of single crystals of SrMgF 4 have been determined using low-temperature (10–293 K) time-resolved vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation spectroscopy, far ultraviolet (3.7–36 eV) reflectance spectra and calculations for the spectra of optical functions. The bandgap of investigated compound was found at E g =12.55eV, the energy threshold for creation of the unrelaxed excitons at E n=1 =11.37eV, and the low-energy fundamental absorption edge at 10.3 eV. Two groups of photoluminescence (PL) bands have been identified: the exciton-type emissions at 2.6–3.3 and 3.3–4.2 eV and defect-related emissions at 1.8–2.6 and 4.2–5.5 eV. It was shown that PL excitation (PLE) for the exciton-type emission bands occurs mainly at the low-energy tail of the fundamental absorption of the crystal with a maximum at 10.7 eV. At excitation energies above E g the energy transfer from the host lattice to the PL emission centers is inefficient. The paper discusses the origin of the excitonic-type PLE spectra taking into account the results of modeling the PLE spectra shape in the framework of a simple diffusion theory and surface energy losses. -- Highlights: • Far-ultraviolet reflection spectra of SrMgF 4 were studied. • Photoluminescence (PL) emission and PL excitation spectra were studied. • Optical function spectra were calculated on the basis of experimental data. • Electronic structure properties of undoped SrMgF 4 crystals were determined

  17. On Secondary Electron Emission from Solid H2 and D2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Sørensen, H.

    1978-01-01

    The emission of secondary electrons from solid hydrogen (H2 , D2, T2) is often considered to be of importance for the interaction between a fusion plasma and pellets of solid hydrogens. A set-up was therefore built for studies of interactions between energetic particles and solid hydrogens. Studies...... of secondary electron emission (SEE) from solid H2 and D2 were made for incidence of electrons up to 3 keV and for incidence of ions of hydrogen, deuterium, and helium up to 10 keV. The measurements were made for normal incidence, and in some cases also for oblique incidence. The SEE coefficients for solid H2...... is always 0.65-0.70 times that for solid D2. This difference is attributed to different losses to vibrational states in H2 and D2 for the low energy electrons. Measurements were also made on solid para-H2 with both electrons and hydrogen ions. There was no difference from the results for normal H2, which...

  18. Stratospheric cooling and polar ozone loss due to H2 emissions of a global hydrogen economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feck, T.; Grooß, J.-U.; Riese, M.; Vogel, B.

    2009-04-01

    "Green" hydrogen is seen as a major element of the future energy supply to reduce greenhouse gas emissions substantially. However, due to the possible interactions of hydrogen (H2) with other atmospheric constituents there is a need to analyse the implications of additional atmospheric H2 that could result from hydrogen leakage of a global hydrogen infrastructure. Emissions of molecular H2 can occur along the whole hydrogen process chain which increase the tropospheric H2 burden. Across the tropical tropopause H2 reaches the stratosphere where it is oxidised and forms water vapour (H2O). This causes increased IR-emissions into space and hence a cooling of the stratosphere. Both effects, the increase of stratospheric H2O and the cooling, enhances the potential of chlorine activation on liquid sulfate aerosol and polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs), which increase polar ozone destruction. Hence a global hydrogen economy could provoke polar ozone loss and could lead to a substantial delay of the current projected recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer. Our investigations show that even if 90% of the current global fossil primary energy input could be replaced by hydrogen and approximately 9.5% of the product gas would leak to the atmosphere, the ozone loss would be increased between 15 to 26 Dobson Units (DU) if the stratospheric CFC loading would retain unchanged. A consistency check of the used approximation methods with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS) shows that this additional ozone loss can probably be treated as an upper limit. Towards more realistic future H2 leakage rate assumptions (< 3%) the additional ozone loss would be rather small (? 10 DU). However, in all cases the full damage would only occur if stratospheric CFC-levels would retain unchanged. Due to the CFC-prohibition as a result of the Montreal Protocol the forecasts suggest a decline of the stratospheric CFC loading about 50% until 2050. In this case our calculations

  19. Photoionization Models of the H_2 Emission of the Narrow Line Region of AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, I.; Gruenwald, R.

    2011-05-01

    The excitation mechanism of the narrow line region (NLR) of AGNs is still an open question. Excitation by UV radiation from O and B stars, x-rays from the central black hole, shock from supernovae or jets, or a combination of these mechanisms have been suggested. In the present work, we use photoionization models to study the excitation mechanisms of the H_2 infrared emission lines in the NLR. In the literature, analyzes of the H_2 emission have been done assuming that the molecules is present only in neutral regions (photodissociation regions, x-ray-dominated regions, or shocks; Veilleux et al. 1997, Krabbe et al. 2000, Rigopoulou et al. 2002, Rodriguez-Ardila et al. 2004, 2005, and Davies et al. 2005). However, they are not conclusive. In previous work (Aleman & Gruenwald 2004, 2011), we show that the H_2 emission from the ionized region of PNe can be significant for planetary nebulae (PNe) with hot central stars (T⋆ > 150000 K). Such stars produce copious amounts of high energy photons, which create an extended partially ionized region that favors the H_2 survival. The conditions in the NLR are similar to those in PNe with hot central stars, so we can expect that the H_2 emission might also be important. We obtain and analyze a grid of photoionization models for different NRL parameters. We study the resulting H_2 density and emission, as well as, the formation, destruction, excitation, and de-excitation mechanisms. The higher values observed for the H_2 1-0 S(1)/Brγ ratio cannot be reproduced by our models. The calculated ratios are between 10^-8 and 10^-1, while the observational ration can be as high as 10. The calculated ratio is strongly anti-correlated with the ionization parameter (U) and only models with U<10-3 result in ratios inside the observational range. We show that the NLR is an environment more hostile to the H_2 molecule than the ionized region of PNe. Another interesting result of our calculations is that the H_2 formation on grain surfaces

  20. Optical spectrophotometry of Comet P/Giacobini-Zinner and emission profiles of H2O+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, M. A.; Mccarthy, P. J.; Spinrad, H.

    1986-01-01

    Two-dimensional CCD spectrograms were obtained of Comet P/Giacobini-Zinner (1984e) on five occasions between July and October 1985. Spatial emission profiles of H2O+ were extracted at 6198 angstroms (the strongest ionic line in the visible spectrum). This emission line traces the extent of the ion, or plasma, tail. The spectrographic slit was placed approximately along the trajectory of the ICE spacecraft on September 11, 1985; the resulting H2O+ profile has a full-width-half-maximum of about 5700 km, about three times that of the plasma density profile measured by ICE, and has a full-width-zero-intensity of about 30,000 km, very similar to the ICE values. H2O production rates for the comet are derived and compared with those of Comet P/Halley (1982i).

  1. Extended analysis of the 5g→4f emissions in H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, E.S.; Pulchtopek, S.; Eyler, E.E.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis starting from Hund's case d has been used to extend the work of Herzberg and Jungen on the 5g→4f emissions in H 2 . A simple analytical expression for the line intensities is presented that agrees with their calculations is about 1%. All of the experimentally observed lines have been accounted for by including higher vibrational levels in our calculations

  2. Net emission coefficient for CO–H2 thermal plasmas with the consideration of molecular systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billoux, T.; Cressault, Y.; Gleizes, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the calculation of net emission coefficients (NECs) for CO–H 2 thermal plasmas. This task required the elaboration of a complete spectroscopic database including atoms and molecules formed by carbon, oxygen and hydrogen elements. We have used a systematic line by line method to calculate all the main radiative contributions which are the atomic and molecular continua, the atomic lines and the molecular (diatomic and polyatomic) lines. The main diatomic electronic systems for CO–H 2 plasmas and the triatomic molecular bands were considered. We present some variations of the net emission coefficient versus temperature, for various pressures and for two relative proportions of the components. The role of the diatomic molecules is important at temperatures lower than 5000 K whereas the net emission coefficient presents an unusual peak at temperature around 1000 K, due to the presence of the CO 2 molecule presenting a strong infrared radiation. Finally, the results show that the NEC slightly depends on the relative proportion of CO and H 2 . - highlights: • We calculate radiative losses from CO–H 2 thermal plasmas. • We use the up-to-date atomic and molecular databases. • The influence of CO 2 molecule is very important at low temperature. • The relative maximum of the net emission coefficient at low temperature is unusual

  3. The Far Ultraviolet M-dwarf Evolution Survey (FUMES): Overview and Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, J. Sebastian; France, Kevin; Youngblood, Allison

    2018-01-01

    M-dwarf stars are prime targets for exoplanet searches because of their close proximity and favorable properties for both planet detection and characterization, with current searches around these targets having already discovered several Earth-sized planets within their star’s habitable zones. However, the atmospheric characterization and potential habitability of these exoplanetary systems depends critically on the high-energy stellar radiation environment from X-rays to NUV. Strong radiation at these energies can lead to atmospheric mass loss and is a strong driver of photochemistry in planetary atmospheres. Recently, the MUSCLES Treasury Survey provided the first comprehensive assessment of the high-energy radiation field around old, planet hosting M-dwarfs. However, the habitability and potential for such exoplanetary atmospheres to develop life also depends on the evolution of the atmosphere and hence the evolution of the incident radiation field. The strong high-energy spectrum of young M-dwarfs can have devastating consequences for the potential habitability of a given system. We, thus, introduce the Far Ultraviolet M-dwarf Evolution Survey (FUMES), a new HST-STIS observing campaign targeting 10 early-mid M dwarfs with known rotation periods, including 6 targets with known ages, to assess the evolution of the FUV radiation, including Lyα, of M-dwarf stars with stellar rotation period. We present the initial results of our survey characterizing the FUV emission features of our targets and the implications of our measurements for the evolution of the entire high-energy radiation environment around M-dwarfs from youth to old age.

  4. Mutation induction by 365-nm radiation and far-ultraviolet light in Escherichia coli differing in near- and far-ultraviolet light sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonardo, J.M.; Reynolds, P.R.; Tuveson, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    The his-4 locus derived from Escherichia coli strain AB1157 has been transduced into 4 E. coli strains that exhibit all 4 possible combinations of genes controlling sensitivity to near-ultraviolet light (nur versus nur + ) and far-ultraviolet light (uvrA6 versus uvrA + ). The 4 strains exhibited the predicted sensitivity to 254-nm radiation based on the sensitivity of the parent strains from which they were derived and the frequency of his + mutations predicted from experiments with AB1157 from which the his-4 locus was derived. When the 4 strains were treated with 365-nm radiation, they exhibited the predicted sensitivity based on the near-ultraviolet light sensitivity of the strains from which they were derived while his + mutations were undetectable with the 4 strains as well as with strain AB1157. When treated with 365-nm radiation, cells of a WP2sub(s) strain (a derivative of B/r transduced to his-4) plated on semi-enriched medium prepared with casamino acids did not yield induced mutations, whereas plating on semi-enriched medium prepared with nutrient broth did yield mutants at both the his-4 and trp loci at frequencies at least an order of magnitude lower than that observed with far-ultraviolet light. The induction of nutritionally independent mutants by 365-nm radiation is strongly dependent on the supplement used for semi-enrichment. When compared at equivalent survival levels, mutant frequencies are significantly less following 365-nm radiation when compared with far-ultraviolet radiation. (Auth.)

  5. CO and H2 uptake and emissions by soil: variability of fluxes and their isotopic signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Maria Elena; Chen, Qianjie; Ferrero Lopez, Noelia; Röckmann, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    In order to study the uptake and release of H2 and CO by soil, we performed long term, high frequency measurements with an automatic soil chamber at two sites in the Netherlands (Cabauw - grassland, and Speuld - forest). The measurements were performed over different seasons and cover in total a cumulated interval of about one year. These measurements allow determining separately, for each species, the two distinct fluxes i.e. uptake and release, and investigating their temporal variability and dependencies on environmental variables. Additional experiments were performed for determining the isotopic signatures of the H2 and CO uptake and release by soil. Flask samples were filled from the soil chamber, and then analyzed in the laboratory for the stable isotopic composition of H2 (δD) and CO (δ13C and δ18O). We find that both uptake and release are present at all times, regardless of the direction of the net flux. The emissions are significant for both species and at Cabauw, there are times and places where emissions outweigh the soil uptake. For each species, the two fluxes have different behavior and dependence on external variables, which indicates that they have different origins. The isotope results also support that, for both H2 and CO, uptake and emission occur simultaneously. We were able to determine separately the isotopic effects of the two fluxes. For both H2 and CO, soil uptake is associated with a small positive fractionation (the lighter molecule is taken up faster). The soil uptake fractionation (α = kheavy/klight) was 0.945 ± 0.004 for H2; for CO, the fractionation was 0.992 for 13C and 0.985 for 18O. The isotopic composition of the H2 emitted from the grassland was -530 ± 40 ‰, less depleted that what is expected from the isotopic equilibrium of H2 with water. For CO, the isotopic composition of the soil emission is depleted in 13C compared to atmospheric CO, and lower than the average isotopic composition of plant or soil organic matter.

  6. ENHANCED WARM H2 EMISSION IN THE COMPACT GROUP MID-INFRARED ''GREEN VALLEY''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluver, M. E.; Ogle, P.; Guillard, P.; Appleton, P. N.; Jarrett, T. H.; Rasmussen, J.; Lisenfeld, U.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Antonucci, R.; Bitsakis, T.; Charmandaris, V.; Boulanger, F.; Egami, E.; Xu, C. K.; Yun, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    We present results from a Spitzer mid-infrared spectroscopy study of a sample of 74 galaxies located in 23 Hickson Compact Groups (HCGs), chosen to be at a dynamically active stage of H I depletion. We find evidence for enhanced warm H 2 emission (i.e., above that associated with UV excitation in star-forming regions) in 14 galaxies (∼20%), with 8 galaxies having extreme values of L(H 2 S(0)-S(3))/L(7.7 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon), in excess of 0.07. Such emission has been seen previously in the compact group HCG 92 (Stephan's Quintet), and was shown to be associated with the dissipation of mechanical energy associated with a large-scale shock caused when one group member collided, at high velocity, with tidal debris in the intragroup medium. Similarly, shock excitation or turbulent heating is likely responsible for the enhanced H 2 emission in the compact group galaxies, since other sources of heating (UV or X-ray excitation from star formation or active galactic nuclei) are insufficient to account for the observed emission. The group galaxies fall predominantly in a region of mid-infrared color-color space identified by previous studies as being connected to rapid transformations in HCG galaxy evolution. Furthermore, the majority of H 2 -enhanced galaxies lie in the optical ''green valley'' between the blue cloud and red sequence, and are primarily early-type disk systems. We suggest that H 2 -enhanced systems may represent a specific phase in the evolution of galaxies in dense environments and provide new insight into mechanisms which transform galaxies onto the optical red sequence.

  7. Circumstellar H2O maser emission associated with four late-type stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, K.J.; Spencer, J.H.; Bowers, P.F.

    1985-01-01

    The positions and structure of H2O maser associated with four long-period stars were measured using the VLA, and the results are discussed. The four stars observed were: RX Boo; R Aq1; RR Aq1; and NML Cyg. The spatial resolution of the VLA measurements was 0.07 arcsec. The H2O maser emission features appear as unresolved knots distributed over an area of no more than 0.4 arcsec. The velocity and spatial characteristics of the maser regions in R Aq1 and RR Aq1 were found to change considerably over time. The estimated sizes of the H2O maser emission were 8 x 10 to the 14th for RX Boo, R Aq1, and RR Aq1. The supergiant star NML Cyg had the largest maser region (10 to the 16th) which is comparable to that of VY CMa. The positional accuracy for individual maser features ranged between 0.03 and 0.09 arcsec. However, the precise location of the maser emission relative to the stellar photocenter did not fit the velocity and spatial distributions of the emission and therefore may be inappropriate as a standard for comparisons of stellar reference frames. 20 references

  8. Submillimeter H2O and H2O+emission in lensed ultra- and hyper-luminous infrared galaxies at z 2-4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, C.; Omont, A.; Beelen, A.; González-Alfonso, E.; Neri, R.; Gao, Y.; van der Werf, P.; Weiß, A.; Gavazzi, R.; Falstad, N.; Baker, A. J.; Bussmann, R. S.; Cooray, A.; Cox, P.; Dannerbauer, H.; Dye, S.; Guélin, M.; Ivison, R.; Krips, M.; Lehnert, M.; Michałowski, M. J.; Riechers, D. A.; Spaans, M.; Valiante, E.

    2016-01-01

    We report rest-frame submillimeter H2O emission line observations of 11 ultra- or hyper-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs or HyLIRGs) at z 2-4 selected among the brightest lensed galaxies discovered in the Herschel-Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS). Using the IRAM NOrthern

  9. Secondary electron emission from solid HD and a solid H2-D2 mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H.; Børgesen, P.; Hao-Ming, Chen

    1983-01-01

    Secondary electron emission from solid HD and a solid 0.6 H2 + 0.4 D2 mixture has been studied for electron and hydrogen ion bombardment at primary energies from 0.5 to 3 keV and 2 to 10 keV/amu, respectively. The yield for solid HD is well explained by a simple stoichiometric model of the low...

  10. H2 production by reforming route in reducing CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raphaelle Imbault

    2006-01-01

    Nowadays the most common way to produce hydrogen is the Steam Methane Reforming route from natural gas. With the pressure of new environmental rules, reducing CO 2 emissions becomes a key issue. The European project Ulcos (Ultra Low CO 2 Steelmaking) has targeted to reduce of at least 50% the CO 2 emissions in steelmaking. The H 2 route (and in particular the reforming process) is one of the solutions which have been explored. The results of this study have shown that the two main ways (which can be combined) of limiting CO 2 emissions in H 2 production are to improve the energetic efficiency of the plant or to capture CO 2 . With the first way, a reduction of 20% of emissions compared to conventional plant can be reached. The second one enables to achieve a decrease of 90%. However the CO 2 capture is much more expensive and this kind of solution can be economically competitive only if high CO 2 taxes are implemented (≥40 Euros/ton). (author)

  11. Study of a pulsed discharge in hydrogen using the far ultraviolet emission of an additional element: electron temperature measurement; Etude d'une decharge pulsee dans l'hydrogene a partir de l'emission dans l'ultraviolet lointain d'un element additionnel: mesure de la temperature electronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwob, J L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-06-15

    Ionization and excitation of an additional element in a pulsed annular discharge in hydrogen at low pressure (T.A.2000) are described by means of a simple coronal type analytical model. This model allows us to interpret the time variation of the intensity of spectral lines observed in the vacuum ultraviolet region. From this analysis two methods of electron temperature determination are deduced. The first method is based on the apparition time measurement of the intensity maximum for the spectral lines emitted from successive ions of the additional element (nitrogen). In the second method the electron temperature is determined from the intensity ratio of two spectral lines of an alkali-like ion. The transition couples (2s-2p, 2s-3p) and (2s-2p, 3s-3p) of C IV, N V and O VI have been used. The results obtained with these two independent methods are in good agreement. The electron temperature varies from a few electron-volts at the beginning of the discharge, to 70 eV at the time of N V emission (at 55 {mu}s), before the current maximum in the discharge (at 170 {mu}s). (author) [French] On etudie l'ionisation et l'excitation d'un element additionnel dans une decharge annulaire pulsee dans l'hydrogene sous faible pression (T.A.2000) a ralde d'un modele analytique simple du type coronal. Ce modele permet d'interpreter l'evolution de l'intensite des raies spectrales observees dans l'ultraviolet lointain. On deduit de cette etude deux methodes de determination de la temperature electronique. La premiere est basee sur la meaure des temps d'apparition des maximums d'intensite des raies emises par les ions successifs de l'element additionnel (azote). Dans la deuxieme methode la temperature est determinee a partir du rapport d'intensite des deux raies d'un ion alcalinoide. On a utilise les couples de transitions (2s-2p, 2s-3p) et (2e-2p, 3s-3p) des ions C IV, N V et 0 VI. Les resultats obtenus par ces deux voies independantes montrent un assez bon accord. La temperature

  12. Ultraviolet continuum and H2 fluorescent emission in Herbig-Haro objects 43 and 47

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    The results of International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) short-wavelength spectra of the low-excitation Herbig-Haro objects HH 43 and HH 47 are reported. In HH 43 a number of emission lines in the Lyman band of H 2 from the excited state 1 μ + /sub u/, #betta#' = 1, J' = 4 are observed. The lines are produced by fluorescence from the H Lyα line which pumps the lower state 1 μ + /sub g/, #betta#'' = 2.J'' = 5 which in turn is excited by a low-velocity shock wave. No evidence of emission from highly ionized gas is present in the UV spectra. Both objects exhibit a UV continuum which peaks in the vicinity of 1500 A and which is probably caused by hydrogen two-photon emission enhanced by collisional excitation in a low-velocity shock

  13. NO emission characteristics in counterflow diffusion flame of blended fuel of H2/CO2/Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong Park; Kyunghwan Lee; Keeman Lee

    2002-01-01

    Flame structure and NO emission characteristics in counterflow diffusion flame of blended fuel of H 2 /CO 2 /Ar have been numerically simulated with detailed chemistry. The combination of H 2 , CO 2 and Ar as fuel is selected to clearly display the contribution of hydrocarbon products to flame structure and NO emission characteristics due to the breakdown of CO 2 . A radiative heat loss term is involved to correctly describe the flame dynamics especially at low strain rates. The detailed chemistry adopts the reaction mechanism of GRI 2.11, which consists of 49 species and 279 elementary reactions. All mechanisms including thermal, NO 2 , N 2 O and Fenimore are taken into account to separately evaluate the effects of CO 2 addition on NO emission characteristics. The increase of added CO 2 quantity causes flame temperature to fall since at high strain rates a diluent effect is prevailing and at low strain rates the breakdown of CO 2 produces relatively populous hydrocarbon products and thus the existence of hydrocarbon products inhibits chain branching. It is also found that the contribution of NO production by N 2 O and NO 2 mechanisms are negligible and that thermal mechanism is concentrated on only the reaction zone. As strain rate and CO 2 quantity increase, NO production is remarkably augmented. (Author)

  14. The 1600 Å Emission Bump in Protoplanetary Disks: A Spectral Signature of H2O Dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Kevin; Roueff, Evelyne; Abgrall, Hervé

    2017-08-01

    The FUV continuum spectrum of many accreting pre-main sequence stars, Classical T Tauri Stars (CTTSs), does not continue smoothly from the well-studied Balmer continuum emission in the NUV, suggesting that additional processes contribute to the short-wavelength emission in these objects. The most notable spectral feature in the FUV continuum of some CTTSs is a broad emission approximately centered at 1600 Å, which has been referred to as the “1600 Å Bump.” The origin of this feature remains unclear. In an effort to better understand the molecular properties of planet-forming disks and the UV spectral properties of accreting protostars, we have assembled archival FUV spectra of 37 disk-hosting systems observed by the Hubble Space Telescope-Cosmic Origins Spectrograph. Clear 1600 Å Bump emission is observed above the smooth, underlying 1100-1800 Å continuum spectrum in 19/37 Classical T Tauri disks in the HST-COS sample, with the detection rate in transition disks (8/8) being much higher than that in primordial or non-transition sources (11/29). We describe a spectral deconvolution analysis to separate the Bump (spanning 1490-1690 Å) from the underlying FUV continuum, finding an average Bump luminosity L(Bump) ≈ 7 × 1029 erg s-1. Parameterizing the Bump with a combination of Gaussian and polynomial components, we find that the 1600 Å Bump is characterized by a peak wavelength λ o = 1598.6 ± 3.3 Å, with FWHM = 35.8 ± 19.1 Å. Contrary to previous studies, we find that this feature is inconsistent with models of H2 excited by electron -impact. We show that this Bump makes up between 5%-50% of the total FUV continuum emission in the 1490-1690 Å band and emits roughly 10%-80% of the total fluorescent H2 luminosity for stars with well-defined Bump features. Energetically, this suggests that the carrier of the 1600 Å Bump emission is powered by Lyα photons. We argue that the most likely mechanism is Lyα-driven dissociation of H2O in the inner disk, r

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NGC253 near-infrared H2 emission (Rosenberg+,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, M. J. F.; van der Werf, P. P.; Israel, F. P.

    2012-11-01

    All observations were made with SINFONI at the ESO VLT. We observed in the H, and K bands using a spatial pixel scale of 0.25" corresponding to a field of view of 8" by 8" per frame and a spectral resolution of 2000, 3000 and 4000 respectively, which corresponds to a velocity resolution of 149.8, 99.9 and 74.9km/s. All science observations were taken in the ABA'nodding mode (300s of object, 300s of sky, 300s of object), where A' is slightly offset from A. The object exposures are aligned and averaged during the reconstruction of the data cube. The observations of NGC 253 were made in visitor mode on August 28th, 2005. In order to capture the full extent of the H2 emission, consecutive frames were taken in the K band moving further away from the center, along the disk until H2 was no longer detected. This resulted in 6 separate pointings. Since there are also H2 transitions in the H band, a similar strategy was used, resulting in 4 separate pointings. We used the standard reduction techniques of the SINFONI pipeline on all observations, including corrections for flat field, dark current, nonlinearity of pixels, distortion, and wavelength calibration. We obtained the flux calibration and atmospheric corrections from observations of a standard star, namely HR 2058 in the H band and HD 20001 in the K band (2 data files).

  16. Far-ultraviolet spectral changes of titanium dioxide with gold nanoparticles by ultraviolet and visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Ichiro; Kurawaki, Yuji

    2018-05-01

    Attenuated total reflectance spectra including the far-ultraviolet (FUV, ≤ 200 nm) region of titanium dioxide (TiO2) with and without gold (Au) nanoparticles were measured. A newly developed external light-irradiation system enabled to observe spectral changes of TiO2 with Au nanoparticles upon light irradiations. Absorption in the FUV region decreased and increased by the irradiation with ultraviolet and visible light, respectively. These spectral changes may reflect photo-induced electron transfer from TiO2 to Au nanoparticles under ultraviolet light and from Au nanoparticles to TiO2 under visible light, respectively.

  17. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE DETECTION OF THE DOUBLE PULSAR SYSTEM J0737–3039 IN THE FAR-ULTRAVIOLET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durant, Martin [Department of Medical Biophysics, Sunnybrook Hospital M6 623, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto M4N 3M5 (Canada); Kargaltsev, Oleg [Department of Physics, The George Washington University, 725 21st Street NW, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Pavlov, George G., E-mail: mdurant@sri.utoronto.ca, E-mail: kargaltsev@email.gwu.edu, E-mail: pavlov@astro.psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    We report on detection of the double pulsar system J0737–3039 in the far-UV with the Advanced Camera for Surveys/Solar-blind Channel detector aboard Hubble Space Telescope. We measured the energy flux F = (4.6 ± 1.0) × 10{sup –17} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} in the 1250-1550 Å band, which corresponds to the extinction-corrected luminosity L ≈ 1.5 × 10{sup 28} erg s{sup –1} for the distance d = 1.1 kpc and a plausible reddening E(B – V) = 0.1. If the detected emission comes from the entire surface of one of the neutron stars with a 13 km radius, the surface blackbody temperature is in the range T ≅ (2-5) × 10{sup 5} K for a reasonable range of interstellar extinction. Such a temperature requires an internal heating mechanism to operate in old neutron stars, or, less likely, it might be explained by heating of the surface of the less energetic Pulsar B by the relativistic wind of Pulsar A. If the far-ultraviolet emission is non-thermal (e.g., produced in the magnetosphere of Pulsar A), its spectrum exhibits a break between the UV and X-rays.

  18. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE DETECTION OF THE DOUBLE PULSAR SYSTEM J0737–3039 IN THE FAR-ULTRAVIOLET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durant, Martin; Kargaltsev, Oleg; Pavlov, George G.

    2014-01-01

    We report on detection of the double pulsar system J0737–3039 in the far-UV with the Advanced Camera for Surveys/Solar-blind Channel detector aboard Hubble Space Telescope. We measured the energy flux F = (4.6 ± 1.0) × 10 –17  erg cm –2 s –1 in the 1250-1550 Å band, which corresponds to the extinction-corrected luminosity L ≈ 1.5 × 10 28  erg s –1 for the distance d = 1.1 kpc and a plausible reddening E(B – V) = 0.1. If the detected emission comes from the entire surface of one of the neutron stars with a 13 km radius, the surface blackbody temperature is in the range T ≅ (2-5) × 10 5  K for a reasonable range of interstellar extinction. Such a temperature requires an internal heating mechanism to operate in old neutron stars, or, less likely, it might be explained by heating of the surface of the less energetic Pulsar B by the relativistic wind of Pulsar A. If the far-ultraviolet emission is non-thermal (e.g., produced in the magnetosphere of Pulsar A), its spectrum exhibits a break between the UV and X-rays

  19. Near-infrared H2 emission from Herbig-Haro objects. I. A survey of low excitation objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, R.D.; Cohen, M.; Williams, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    A survey for H 2 1-0 S(1) emission in 16 Herbig-Haro (HH) objects and three exciting stars for HH objects is reported. Eleven HH objects which show low-excitation optical spectra exhibit H 2 emission. One object (HH 43) is more than twice as bright as any previously reported HH object. In addition, spectra in the range 1.6-2.55 microns are reported for HH 43 and HH 120, and a 2.0-2.55 micron spectrum is presented for HH 26. The spectra yield estimates of the H 2 density and temperature ranges in these objects. The role of ultraviolet H 2 emission-line fluorescence in HH 43 with respect to cascading among excited vibrational states of the ground electronic state is discussed. Models which may account for the combined ultraviolet, optical, and near-IR spectra of HHs are briefly analyzed. 35 references

  20. Atomic layer deposition and etching methods for far ultraviolet aluminum mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, John; Moore, Christopher S.; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Jewell, April D.; Carter, Christian; France, Kevin; Nikzad, Shouleh

    2017-09-01

    High-performance aluminum mirrors at far ultraviolet wavelengths require transparent dielectric materials as protective coatings to prevent oxidation. Reducing the thickness of this protective layer can result in additional performance gains by minimizing absorption losses, and provides a path toward high Al reflectance in the challenging wavelength range of 90 to 110 nm. We have pursued the development of new atomic layer deposition processes (ALD) for the metal fluoride materials of MgF2, AlF3 and LiF. Using anhydrous hydrogen fluoride as a reactant, these films can be deposited at the low temperatures required for large-area surface-finished optics and polymeric diffraction gratings. We also report on the development and application of an atomic layer etching (ALE) procedure to controllably etch native aluminum oxide. Our ALE process utilizes the same chemistry used in the ALD of AlF3 thin films, allowing for a combination of high-performance evaporated Al layers and ultrathin ALD encapsulation without requiring vacuum transfer. Progress in demonstrating the scalability of this approach, as well as the environmental stability of ALD/ALE Al mirrors are discussed in the context of possible future applications for NASA LUVOIR and HabEx mission concepts.

  1. Enhancing the far-ultraviolet sensitivity of silicon complementary metal oxide semiconductor imaging arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retherford, Kurt D.; Bai, Yibin; Ryu, Kevin K.; Gregory, James A.; Welander, Paul B.; Davis, Michael W.; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Winters, Gregory S.; Suntharalingam, Vyshnavi; Beletic, James W.

    2015-10-01

    We report our progress toward optimizing backside-illuminated silicon P-type intrinsic N-type complementary metal oxide semiconductor devices developed by Teledyne Imaging Sensors (TIS) for far-ultraviolet (UV) planetary science applications. This project was motivated by initial measurements at Southwest Research Institute of the far-UV responsivity of backside-illuminated silicon PIN photodiode test structures, which revealed a promising QE in the 100 to 200 nm range. Our effort to advance the capabilities of thinned silicon wafers capitalizes on recent innovations in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) doping processes. Key achievements to date include the following: (1) representative silicon test wafers were fabricated by TIS, and set up for MBE processing at MIT Lincoln Laboratory; (2) preliminary far-UV detector QE simulation runs were completed to aid MBE layer design; (3) detector fabrication was completed through the pre-MBE step; and (4) initial testing of the MBE doping process was performed on monitoring wafers, with detailed quality assessments.

  2. SURFACE LAYER ACCRETION IN CONVENTIONAL AND TRANSITIONAL DISKS DRIVEN BY FAR-ULTRAVIOLET IONIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Becker, Daniel; Chiang, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Whether protoplanetary disks accrete at observationally significant rates by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) depends on how well ionized they are. Disk surface layers ionized by stellar X-rays are susceptible to charge neutralization by small condensates, ranging from ∼0.01 μm sized grains to angstrom-sized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Ion densities in X-ray-irradiated surfaces are so low that ambipolar diffusion weakens the MRI. Here we show that ionization by stellar far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation enables full-blown MRI turbulence in disk surface layers. Far-UV ionization of atomic carbon and sulfur produces a plasma so dense that it is immune to ion recombination on grains and PAHs. The FUV-ionized layer, of thickness 0.01-0.1 g cm -2 , behaves in the ideal magnetohydrodynamic limit and can accrete at observationally significant rates at radii ∼> 1-10 AU. Surface layer accretion driven by FUV ionization can reproduce the trend of increasing accretion rate with increasing hole size seen in transitional disks. At radii ∼<1-10 AU, FUV-ionized surface layers cannot sustain the accretion rates generated at larger distance, and unless turbulent mixing of plasma can thicken the MRI-active layer, an additional means of transport is needed. In the case of transitional disks, it could be provided by planets.

  3. Molecular enhancement of Balmer emissions following foil-induced dissociation of fast H2+ and H3+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, H.; Oda, N.

    1984-01-01

    Relative emission yields of Balmer lines as functions of the dwell time (t/sub D/ = 0.97--54.1 fs) in thin carbon foils (2--68 μg/cm 2 ) have been measured with (0.2--0.8)-MeV/amu H + , H 2 + , and H 3 + incident on thin carbon foils. Large molecular effects for emission yields of Balmer lines have been observed for H 2 + and H 3 + , where the molecular effect for H 3 + is larger than that for H 2 + . The molecular effects for H 2 + and H 3 + depend on the principal quantum number (n = 3--6), but this n dependence disappears at the largest t/sub D/ ( = 54.1 fs). The molecular effects rapidly decrease with increasing t/sub D/ in the small-t/sub D/ ( or approx. =2 fs) region. The magnitudes of the molecular effects at the largest t/sub D/ ( = 54.1 fs) are in good agreement with those by Andresen et al. [Phys. Scr. 19, 335 (1979)]. Relative populations of n-state hydrogens in the large-t/sub D/ (> or approx. =2 fs) region have been derived from the relative yields of Balmer lines as functions of n and t/sub D/. The molecular enhancement for relative populations of n-state hydrogens for H 2 + depends on n and t/sub D/, and decreases with increasing t/sub D/ and increases with increasing n

  4. Detection of polychlorinated biphenyls in transformer oils in Vietnam by multiphoton ionization mass spectrometry using a far-ultraviolet femtosecond laser as an ionization source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Vu Thi Thuy; Duong, Vu; Lien, Nghiem Thi Ha; Imasaka, Tomoko; Tang, Yuanyuan; Shibuta, Shinpei; Hamachi, Akifumi; Hoa, Do Quang; Imasaka, Totaro

    2016-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in transformer and food oils were measured using gas chromatography combined with multiphoton ionization mass spectroscopy. An ultrashort laser pulse emitting in the far-ultraviolet region was utilized for efficient ionization of the analytes. Numerous signal peaks were clearly observed for a standard sample mixture of PCBs when the third and fourth harmonic emissions (267 and 200nm) of a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser (800nm) were employed. The signal intensities were found to be greater when measured at 200nm compared with those measured at 267nm, providing lower detection limits especially for highly chlorinated PCBs at shorter wavelengths. After simple pretreatment using disposable columns, PCB congeners were measured and found to be present in the transformer oils used in Vietnam. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The abundance and emission of H2O and O-2 in clumpy molecular clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaans, M; van Dishoeck, EF

    2001-01-01

    Recent observations with the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS) indicate abundances of gaseous H2O and O-2 in dense molecular clouds that are significantly lower than those found in standard homogeneous chemistry models. We present here results for the thermal and chemical balance of

  6. Dense Molecular Gas and H2O Maser Emission in Galaxies F ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University,. Guangzhou 510006, China. ∗ e-mail: jszhang@gzhu.edu.cn. Abstract. Extragalactic H2O masers have been found in dense gas cir- cumstance in off-nuclear star formation regions or within parsecs of. Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs).

  7. FAINT NEAR-ULTRAVIOLET/FAR-ULTRAVIOLET STANDARDS FROM SWIFT/UVOT, GALEX, AND SDSS PHOTOMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, Michael H.; Hoversten, Erik A.; Roming, Peter W. A.; Brown, Peter

    2010-01-01

    At present, the precision of deep ultraviolet photometry is somewhat limited by the dearth of faint ultraviolet standard stars. In an effort to improve this situation, we present a uniform catalog of 11 new faint (u ∼ 17) ultraviolet standard stars. High-precision photometry of these stars has been taken from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Galaxy Evolution Explorer archives and combined with new data from the Swift Ultraviolet Optical Telescope to provide precise photometric measures extending from the near-infrared to the far-ultraviolet. These stars were chosen because they are known to be hot (20, 000 eff < 50, 000 K) DA white dwarfs with published Sloan spectra that should be photometrically stable. This careful selection allows us to compare the combined photometry and Sloan spectroscopy to models of pure hydrogen atmospheres to both constrain the underlying properties of the white dwarfs and test the ability of white dwarf models to predict the photometric measures. We find that the photometry provides good constraints on white dwarf temperatures, which demonstrates the ability of Swift/UVOT to investigate the properties of hot luminous stars. We further find that the models reproduce the photometric measures in all 11 passbands to within their systematic uncertainties. Within the limits of our photometry, we find the standard stars to be photometrically stable. This success indicates that the models can be used to calibrate additional filters to our standard system, permitting easier comparison of photometry from heterogeneous sources. The largest source of uncertainty in the model fitting is the uncertainty in the foreground reddening curve, a problem that is especially acute in the UV.

  8. OBSERVATION OF THE FAR-ULTRAVIOLET CONTINUUM BACKGROUND WITH SPEAR/FIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seon, Kwang-Il; Han, Wonyong; Shinn, Jongho; Kim, Il-Joong; Edelstein, Jerry; Korpela, Eric; Witt, Adolf; Min, Kyoung-Wook; Park, Jae-Woo

    2011-01-01

    We present the general properties of the far-ultraviolet (FUV; 1370-1710 A) continuum background over most of the sky, obtained with the Spectroscopy of Plasma Evolution from Astrophysical Radiation (SPEAR) instrument (also known as FIMS), flown aboard the STSAT-1 satellite mission. We find that the diffuse FUV continuum intensity is well correlated with N HI , 100 μm, and Hα intensities but anti-correlated with soft X-ray intensity. The correlation of the diffuse background with the direct stellar flux is weaker than the correlation with other parameters. The continuum spectra are relatively flat. However, a weak softening of the FUV spectra toward some sight lines, mostly at high Galactic latitudes, is found not only in direct stellar but also in diffuse background spectra. The diffuse background is relatively softer than the direct stellar spectrum. We also find that the diffuse FUV background averaged over the sky has a bit softer spectrum compared to direct stellar radiation. A map of the ratio of 1370-1520 A to 1560-1710 A band intensity shows that the sky is divided into roughly two parts. However, this map shows a lot of patchy structures on small scales. The spatial variation of the hardness ratio seems to be largely determined by the longitudinal distribution of OB-type stars in the Galactic plane. A correlation of the hardness ratio with the FUV intensity is found at high intensities but an anti-correlation is found at low intensities. We also find evidence that the FUV intensity distribution is log-normal in nature.

  9. The far-ultraviolet spectra of two hot PG 1159 stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, K.; Rauch, T.; Kruk, J. W.

    2016-09-01

    PG 1159 stars are hot, hydrogen-deficient (pre-) white dwarfs with atmospheres mainly composed of helium, carbon, and oxygen. The unusual surface chemistry is the result of a late helium-shell flash. Observed element abundances enable us to test stellar evolution models quantitatively with respect to their nucleosynthesis products formed near the helium-burning shell of the progenitor asymptotic giant branch stars. Because of the high effective temperatures (Teff), abundance determinations require ultraviolet spectroscopy and non-local thermodynamic equilibrium model atmosphere analyses. Up to now, we have presented results for the prototype of this spectral class and two cooler members (Teff in the range 85 000-140 000 K). Here we report on the results for two even hotter stars (PG 1520+525 and PG 1144+005, both with Teff = 150 000 K) which are the only two objects in this temperature-gravity region for which useful far-ultraviolet spectra are available, and revisit the prototype star. Previous results on the abundances of some species are confirmed, while results on others (Si, P, S) are revised. In particular, a solar abundance of sulphur is measured in contrast to earlier claims of a strong S deficiency that contradicted stellar evolution models. For the first time, we assess the abundances of Na, Al, and Cl with newly constructed non-LTE model atoms. Besides the main constituents (He, C, O), we determine the abundances (or upper limits) of N, F, Ne, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar, and Fe. Generally, good agreement with stellar models is found.

  10. Interstellar matter near the Pleiades. III. A search for H2 2.4-micron vibration-rotation emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Results are reported from a search for 2.4-micron v = 1-0 H2 emission near five stars in the Pleiades, performed using a cooled InSb photometer and a 10-arcsec entrance aperture on the 2.3-m telescope at Wyoming IR Observatory. The calibration and data-reduction procedures are described, and the results are presented in a table. No emission is detected, and upper limits in the range 0.000026-0.000072 erg/sec sq cm sr are obtained, corresponding to limiting column densities of (1.3-3.7) x 10 to the 15th/sq cm and H2 densities of 400-1100/cu cm (assuming fluorescence and dissociation of the gas as it passes the stars). 16 references

  11. Diffuse H_{2} emission: a useful geochemical tool to monitor the volcanic activity at El Hierro volcano system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Nemesio M.; Melián, Gladys; González-Santana, Judit; Barrancos, José; Padilla, Germán; Rodríguez, Fátima; Padrón, Eleazar; Hernández, Pedro A.

    2016-04-01

    The occurrence of interfering processes affecting reactive gases as CO2 during its ascent from magmatic bodies or hydrothermal systems toward the surface environment hinders the interpretation of their enrichments in the soil atmosphere and fluxes for volcano monitoring purposes (Marini and Gambardella, 2005). These processes include gas scrubbing by ground-waters and interaction with rocks, decarbonatation processes, biogenic production, etc. Within the rest of the soil gases, particularly interest has been addressed to light and highly mobile gases. They offer important advantages for the detection of vertical permeability structures, because their interaction with the surrounding rocks or fluids during the ascent toward the surface is minimum. H2 is one of the most abundant trace species in volcano-hydrothermal systems and is a key participant in many redox reactions occurring in the hydrothermal reservoir gas (Giggenbach, 1987). Although H2 can be produced in soils by N2-fixing and fertilizing bacteria, soils are considered nowadays as sinks of molecular hydrogen (Smith-Downey et al., 2006). Because of its chemical and physical characteristics, H2 generated within the crust moves rapidly and escapes to the atmosphere. These characteristics make H2 one of the best geochemical indicators of magmatic and geothermal activity at depth. El Hierro is the youngest and the SW-most of the Canary Islands and the scenario of the last volcanic eruption of the archipelago, a submarine eruption that took place 2 km off the southern coast of the island from October 2011 to March 2012. Since at El Hierro Island there are not any surface geothermal manifestations (fumaroles, etc), we have focused our studies on soil degassing surveys. Here we show the results of soil H2 emission surveys that have been carried out regularly since mid-2012. Soil gas samples were collected in ˜600 sites selected based on their accessibility and geological criteria. Soil gases were sampled at ˜40

  12. Retrofitting existing chemical scrubbers to biotrickling filters for H2S emission control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, David; Deshusses, Marc A

    2003-05-27

    Biological treatment is a promising alternative to conventional air-pollution control methods, but thus far biotreatment processes for odor control have always required much larger reactor volumes than chemical scrubbers. We converted an existing full-scale chemical scrubber to a biological trickling filter and showed that effective treatment of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the converted scrubber was possible even at gas contact times as low as 1.6 s. That is 8-20 times shorter than previous biotrickling filtration reports and comparable to usual contact times in chemical scrubbers. Significant removal of reduced sulfur compounds, ammonia, and volatile organic compounds present in traces in the air was also observed. Continuous operation for >8 months showed stable performance and robust behavior for H2S treatment, with pollutant-removal performance comparable to that achieved by using a chemical scrubber. Our study demonstrates that biotrickling filters can replace chemical scrubbers and be a safer, more economical technique for odor control.

  13. Warm H2O and OH Disk Emission in V1331 Cyg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doppmann, Greg W.; Najita, Joan R.; Carr, John S.; Graham, James R.

    2011-09-01

    We present high-resolution (R = 24, 000) L-band spectra of the young intermediate-mass star V1331 Cyg obtained with NIRSPEC on the Keck II telescope. The spectra show strong, rich emission from water and OH that likely arises from the warm surface region of the circumstellar disk. We explore the use of the new BT2 water line list in fitting the spectra, and we find that it does a much better job than the well-known HITRAN water line list in the observed wavelength range and for the warm temperatures probed by our data. By comparing the observed spectra with synthetic disk emission models, we find that the water and OH emission lines have similar widths (FWHM ~= 18 km s-1). If the line widths are set by disk rotation, the OH and water emission lines probe a similar range of disk radii in this source. The water and OH emission are consistent with thermal emission for both components at a temperature ~1500 K. The column densities of the emitting water and OH are large, ~1021 cm-2 and ~1020 cm-2, respectively. Such a high column density of water is more than adequate to shield the disk midplane from external UV irradiation in the event of complete dust settling out of the disk atmosphere, enabling chemical synthesis to continue in the midplane despite a harsh external UV environment. The large OH-to-water ratio is similar to expectations for UV irradiated disks, although the large OH column density is less easily accounted for. Data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory from telescope time allocated to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration through the agency's scientific partnership with the California Institute of Technology and the University of California. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  14. Visible and ultraviolet emission from pulse irradiated amorphous and polycrystalline H2O ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, C.G.; Quickenden, T.I.; Litjens, R.A.J.; Sangster, D.F.

    1984-01-01

    Luminescence peaking at 405 nm was observed when thin films of amorphous or polycrystalline ice at 97 K were irradiated with a pulsed beam of 0.53 MeV electrons. These emissions differed from the luminescence emitted by crystalline ice in that memory effects were not observed; the peak wavelengths were red shifted by approx.20 nm; and the half-lives were 6--9 ns instead of approx.400 ns. The emission spectra of polycrystalline ice samples produced by rapid deposition or by annealing amorphous ice were similar, but both had substantially lower intensities than amorphous ice spectra

  15. Far-ultraviolet observations of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) with a sounding-rocket-borne instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, P.; McCandliss, S.; Weaver, H.; Fleming, B.; Redwine, K.; Li, M.; Kutyrev, A.; Moseley, S.

    2014-07-01

    We report on a far-ultraviolet observation of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) made from a Black Brant IX sounding rocket that was launched on 20 November 2013 at 04:40 MST from the White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, when the comet was 0.44 au from the Sun, 0.86 au from the Earth, and at a solar elongation of 26.3 degrees pre-perihelion. At the time of launch the comet was 0.1 degrees below ground horizon. The payload reached an apogee of 279 km and the total time pointed at the comet was 353 s. The sounding rocket borne instrument was our wide-field multi-object spectro-telescope called FORTIS (Far-UV Off Rowland-circle Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy), which is a Gregorian telescope (concave primary and secondary optics) with a triaxial figured diffractive secondary that provides an on-axis imaging channel and two off-axis spectral channels in a common focal plane. A multi-object spectroscopic capability is provided by an array of microshutters placed at the prime focus of the telescope. Our microshutter array (MSA) is based on prototype devices of the large area arrays developed at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for use in the Near Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The imaging channel on FORTIS has a field-of-view (FOV) of 0.5 degrees square. The MSA allows selection of up to 43 individual regions, each with a solid angle of 12.4'' × 36.9'', for spectral acquisition over the 800--1950 Ångstroms bandpass at a resolution of 6 Ångstroms. However a problem with addressing the MSA prevented the acquisition of spectra through individual slits. Nonetheless spectrally confused images, dominated by Lyman-alpha emission from the comet, were acquired in both off-axis spectral channels. The imaging channel uses a CaF_2/MgF_2 cylindrical doublet to correct for astigmatism introduced by the triaxial secondary, which restricts the bandpass to wavelengths longward of 1280 Ångstroms. The corrected imaging resolution is

  16. Variations of electric resistance and H2 and Rn emissions of concrete blocks under increasing uniaxial compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, C.-Y.; Luo, G.

    1990-01-01

    Electric resistance and emissions of hydrogen and radon isotopes of concrete (which is somewhat similar to fault-zone materials) under increasing uniaxial compression were continuously monitored to check whether they show any pre- and post-failure changes that may correspond to similar changes reported for earthquakes. The results show that all these parameters generally begin to increase when the applied stresses reach 20% to 90% of the corresponding failure stresses, probably due to the occurrence and growth of dilatant microcracks in the specimens. The prefailure changes have different patterns for different specimens, probably because of differences in spatial and temporal distributions of the microcracks. The resistance shows large co-failure increases, and the gas emissions show large post-failure increases. The post-failure increase of radon persists longer and stays at a higher level than that of hydrogen, suggesting a difference in the emission mechanisms for these two kinds of gases. The H2 increase may be mainly due to chemical reaction at the crack surfaces while they are fresh, whereas the Rn increases may be mainly the result of the increased emanation area of such surfaces. The results suggest that monitoring of resistivity and gas emissions may be useful for predicting earthquakes and failures of concrete structures. ?? 1990 Birkha??user Verlag.

  17. Polarisation observations of VY Canis Majoris H2O 532-441 620.701 GHz maser emission with HIFI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwit, M.; Houde, M.; Sonnentrucker, P.; Boogert, A. C. A.; Cernicharo, J.; De Beck, E.; Decin, L.; Henkel, C.; Higgins, R. D.; Jellema, W.; Kraus, A.; McCoey, C.; Melnick, G. J.; Menten, K. M.; Risacher, C.; Teyssier, D.; Vaillancourt, J. E.; Alcolea, J.; Bujarrabal, V.; Dominik, C.; Justtanont, K.; de Koter, A.; Marston, A. P.; Olofsson, H.; Planesas, P.; Schmidt, M.; Schöier, F. L.; Szczerba, R.; Waters, L. B. F. M.

    2010-10-01

    Context. Water vapour maser emission from evolved oxygen-rich stars remains poorly understood. Additional observations, including polarisation studies and simultaneous observation of different maser transitions may ultimately lead to greater insight. Aims: We have aimed to elucidate the nature and structure of the VY CMa water vapour masers in part by observationally testing a theoretical prediction of the relative strengths of the 620.701 GHz and the 22.235 GHz maser components of ortho H2O. Methods: In its high-resolution mode (HRS) the Herschel Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared (HIFI) offers a frequency resolution of 0.125 MHz, corresponding to a line-of-sight velocity of 0.06 km s-1, which we employed to obtain the strength and linear polarisation of maser spikes in the spectrum of VY CMa at 620.701 GHz. Simultaneous ground based observations of the 22.235 GHz maser with the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie 100-m telescope at Effelsberg, provided a ratio of 620.701 GHz to 22.235 GHz emission. Results: We report the first astronomical detection to date of H2O maser emission at 620.701 GHz. In VY CMa both the 620.701 and the 22.235 GHz polarisation are weak. At 620.701 GHz the maser peaks are superposed on what appears to be a broad emission component, jointly ejected from the star. We observed the 620.701 GHz emission at two epochs 21 days apart, both to measure the potential direction of linearly polarised maser components and to obtain a measure of the longevity of these components. Although we do not detect significant polarisation levels in the core of the line, they rise up to approximately 6% in its wings. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Appendix (page 5) is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  18. THE NATURE AND FREQUENCY OF THE GAS OUTBURSTS IN COMET 67P/CHURYUMOV–GERASIMENKO OBSERVED BY THE ALICE FAR-ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROGRAPH ON ROSETTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, Paul D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); A’Hearn, Michael F.; Feaga, Lori M. [Astronomy Department, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Bertaux, Jean-Loup [LATMOS, CNRS/UVSQ/IPSL, 11 Boulevard d’Alembert, F-78280 Guyancourt (France); Noonan, John; Parker, Joel Wm.; Schindhelm, Eric; Steffl, Andrew J.; Stern, S. Alan [Southwest Research Institute, Department of Space Studies, Suite 300, 1050 Walnut Street, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Weaver, Harold A., E-mail: pfeldman@jhu.edu [Space Exploration Sector, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723-6099 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    ALICE is a far-ultraviolet imaging spectrograph on board Rosetta that, among multiple objectives, is designed to observe emissions from various atomic and molecular species from within the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko. The initial observations, made following orbit insertion in 2014 August, showed emissions of atomic hydrogen and oxygen spatially localized close to the nucleus and attributed to photoelectron impact dissociation of H{sub 2}O vapor. Weaker emissions from atomic carbon were subsequently detected and also attributed to electron impact dissociation, of CO{sub 2}, the relative H i and C i line intensities reflecting the variation of CO{sub 2} to H{sub 2}O column abundance along the line of sight through the coma. Beginning in 2015 mid-April, Alice sporadically observed a number of outbursts above the sunward limb characterized by sudden increases in the atomic emissions, particularly the semi-forbidden O i λ 1356 multiplet, over a period of 10–30 minutes, without a corresponding enhancement in long-wavelength solar reflected light characteristic of dust production. A large increase in the brightness ratio O i λ 1356/O i λ 1304 suggests O{sub 2} as the principal source of the additional gas. These outbursts do not correlate with any of the visible images of outbursts taken with either OSIRIS or the navigation camera. Beginning in 2015 June the nature of the Alice spectrum changed considerably with CO Fourth Positive band emission observed continuously, varying with pointing but otherwise fairly constant in time. However, CO does not appear to be a major driver of any of the observed outbursts.

  19. Laboratory, semi-pilot and room scale study of nitrite and molybdate mediated control of H(2)S emission from swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Lyman; Predicala, Bernardo; Nemati, Mehdi

    2010-04-01

    The effects of manure age on emission of H(2)S and required level of nitrite or molybdate to control these emissions were investigated in the present work. Molybdate mediated control of H(2)S emission was also studied in semi-pilot scale open systems, and in specifically designed chambers which simulated swine production rooms. With fresh 1-, 3- and 6-month old manures average H(2)S concentration in the headspace gas of the closed systems were 4856+/-460, 3431+/-208, 1037+/-98 ppm and non-detectable, respectively. Moreover, the level of nitrite or molybdate required to control the emission of H(2)S decreased as manure age increased. In the semi-pilot scale open system and chambers, average H(2)S concentration at the surface of agitated fresh manure were 831+/-26 and 88.4+/-5.7 ppm, respectively. Furthermore, 0.1-0.25 mM molybdate was sufficient to control the emission of H(2)S. A cost study for an average size swine operation showed that the cost of treatment with molybdate was less than 1% of the overall production cost for each market hog. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Far-ultraviolet Bidirectional Photometry of Apollo Soil 10084: New Results from The Southwest Ultraviolet Reflectance Chamber (SwURC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, U.

    2017-12-01

    We report new measurements of the far-ultraviolet (115-180 nm) bidirectional reflectance of Apollo soil 10084 in the Southwest Ultraviolet Reflectance Chamber (SwURC). We find the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) to be featureless in this wavelength region, though with a small blue slope. The angular distribution of the BRDF at Ly-α and 160 nm shows that this mature mare soil, containing nanophase Fe and enriched in Ti, anisotropically scatters light in the forward direction. The phase angle dependence of the BRDF is fitted with Hapke's photometric model with an additional diffuse-directional term. Future plans include measurements of mare and highland soils of differing maturity index (Is/FeO), water ice frost and lunar soil-ice aggregates. Such measurements will help constrain the abundance and distribution of the water ice on the illuminated lunar surface and dark permanently shadowed regions of the moon, as reported by LRO-LAMP.

  1. FAR-ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROSCOPY OF THE NOVA-LIKE VARIABLE KQ MONOCEROTIS: A NEW SW SEXTANTIS STAR?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, Aaron; Sion, Edward M.; Bond, Howard E.

    2013-01-01

    New optical spectra obtained with the SMARTS 1.5 m telescope and archival International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) far-ultraviolet (FUV) spectra of the nova-like variable KQ Mon are discussed. The optical spectra reveal Balmer lines in absorption as well as He I absorption superposed on a blue continuum. The 2011 optical spectrum is similar to the KPNO 2.1 m IIDS spectrum we obtained 33 years earlier except that the Balmer and He I absorption is stronger in 2011. Far-ultraviolet IUE spectra reveal deep absorption lines due to C II, Si III, Si IV, C IV, and He II, but no P Cygni profiles indicative of wind outflow. We present the results of the first synthetic spectral analysis of the IUE archival spectra of KQ Mon with realistic optically thick, steady-state, viscous accretion-disk models with vertical structure and high-gravity photosphere models. We find that the photosphere of the white dwarf (WD) contributes very little FUV flux to the spectrum and is overwhelmed by the accretion light of a steady disk. Disk models corresponding to a WD mass of ∼0.6 M ☉ , with an accretion rate of order 10 –9 M ☉ yr –1 and disk inclinations between 60° and 75°, yield distances from the normalization in the range of 144-165 pc. KQ Mon is discussed with respect to other nova-like variables. Its spectroscopic similarity to the FUV spectra of three definite SW Sex stars suggests that it is likely a member of the SW Sex class and lends support to the possibility that the WD is magnetic.

  2. Development of a Xanthene-Based Red-Emissive Fluorescent Probe for Visualizing H2O2 in Living Cells, Tissues and Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Dong, Baoli; Kong, Xiuqi; Wang, Chao; Song, Wenhui; Lin, Weiying

    2018-04-25

    Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) plays important roles in the regulation of many biological processes, and the abnormal level of H 2 O 2 has close relation with the initiation and progression of many diseases. Herein, we describe a novel red-emissive fluorescence probe (RhoB) for the visualization of H 2 O 2 in living cells, tissues and animals. RhoB was constructed on the basis of a xanthene-based red-emissive dye, and displayed nearly no fluorescence. After the treatment with H 2 O 2 , RhoB can exhibit red fluorescence with the emission wavelength at 638 nm. RhoB exhibited highly sensitive and selective response to H 2 O 2 . Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were conducted to shed light on the optical properties of RhoB, and natural bond orbital (NBO) calculations demonstrate that the boron atom shows the highest positive electricity and further support the response mechanism. RhoB was successfully applied for imaging of exogenous and endogenous H 2 O 2 in living cells, and also can be utilized for visualizing H 2 O 2 in living tissues and animals.

  3. + H2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (1D. ) + H2 (v = 0, j = 0) →. OH + H is undertaken using the quasiclassical trajectory (QCT) method for the collision energy is in the large length of 1.3 to 43 kcal/mol using Dobbyn and Knowles (DK) surface, and the obtained results are compared with those available from earlier available calculated results on the BR surface ...

  4. GALEX FAR-ULTRAVIOLET COLOR SELECTION OF UV-BRIGHT HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worseck, Gabor; Prochaska, J. Xavier

    2011-01-01

    We study the small population of high-redshift (z em >2.7) quasars detected by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer(GALEX), whose far-UV emission is not extinguished by intervening H I Lyman limit systems. These quasars are of particular importance to detect intergalactic He II absorption along their sight lines. We correlate almost all verified z em >2.7 quasars to the GALEX GR4 source catalog covering ∼ 25,000 deg 2 , yielding 304 sources detected at signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) >3. However, ∼50% of these are only detected in the GALEX NUV band, signaling the truncation of the FUV flux by low-redshift optically thick Lyman limit systems. We exploit the GALEX UV color m FUV - m NUV to cull the most promising targets for follow-up studies, with blue (red) GALEX colors indicating transparent (opaque) sight lines. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations indicate an He II detection rate of ∼60% for quasars with m FUV - m NUV ∼ em ∼ 3 to be most promising for Hubble Space Telescope follow-up, with an additional 114 quasars if we consider S/N >2 detections in the FUV. Combining the statistical properties of H I absorbers with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasar luminosity function, we predict a large all-sky population of ∼200 quasars with z em >2.7 and i ∼ 304 em ∼ em ∼ em ∼< 3.5 quasars have likely underestimated their space density by selecting intergalactic medium sight lines with an excess of strong H I absorbers.

  5. Elucidation of the electronic states in polyethylene glycol by attenuated Total reflectance spectroscopy in the far-ultraviolet region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Nami; Wakabayashi, Tomonari; Morisawa, Yusuke

    2018-05-01

    We measured the attenuated total reflectance-far ultraviolet (ATR-FUV) spectra of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG; average molecular weights of 200, 300, and 400) and related materials in the liquid state in the 145-200-nm wavelength region. For appropriately assigning the absorption bands, we also performed theoretical simulation of the unit-number dependent electronic spectra. The FUV spectra of PEGs contain three bands, which are assigned to the transitions between n(CH2OCH2)-3s Rydberg state (176 nm), n(CH2OCH2)-3p Rydberg state (163 nm), and n(OH)-3p Rydberg state (153 nm). Since the contribution of n(OH) decreases compared to n(CH2OCH2) with increase in the number of units, the ratios of the molar absorption coefficients, ε, at 153 nm relative to 163 nm, decrease. On the other hand, the ratio of ε at 176 nm to that at 163 nm increases with increase in the number of units, because of the difference in the number of unoccupied orbitals in the transitions. The calculated results suggest that n orbitals form two electronic bands. In the upper band, the electrons expand over the ether chain, whereas in the lower band, the electrons are localized in the terminal OH in the PEGs.

  6. Interstellar Deuterium, Nitrogen and Oxygen Towards HZ43A: Results from the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, J. W.; Howk, J. C.; Andre, M.; Moos, H. W.; Oegerle, William R.; Oliveira, C.; Sembach, K. R.; Chayer, P.; Linsky, J. L.; Wood, B. E.

    2002-01-01

    We present an analysis of interstellar absorption along the line of sight to the nearby white dwarf star HZ43A. The distance to this star is 68+/-13 pc, and the line of sight extends toward the north Galactic pole. Column densities of O(I), N(I), and N(II) were derived from spectra obtained by the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE), the column density of D(I) was derived from a combination of our FUSE spectra and an archival HST GARDENS spectrum, and the column density of H(I) was derived from a combination of the GARDENS spectrum and values derived from EUVE data obtained from the literature. We find the following abundance ratios (with 2 sigma uncertainties): D(I)/H(I)=(1.66+/-0.28)x10(exp -5), O(I)/H(I)=(3.63+/-0.84)x10(exp -4), and N(I)/H(I)=(3.80+/-0.74)x10(exp -5). The N(II) column density was slightly greater than that of N(I), indicating that ionization corrections are important when deriving nitrogen abundances. Other interstellar species detected along the line of sight were C(II), C(III), O(VI), Si(II), Ar(I), Mg(II) and Fe(II); an upper limit was determined for N(III). No elements other than H(I) were detected in the stellar photosphere.

  7. Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Three Long Period Nova-Like Variables, V363 Aur, AC Cnc and RZ Gru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisol, Alexandra; Sion, E. M.

    2011-01-01

    We have selected three nova-like variables: V363 Aur, RZ Gru and AC Cnc, all of which are UX UMa types, having similar orbital periods well beyond the 3 to 4 hour range where most nova-likes are found. All should have very similar secondary stars given the fact that they their physical parameters are so similar. V363 Aur is a bona fide SW Sex star, and AC Cnc is a probable one, while RZ Gru is not a member of the SW Sex subclass. Our objective is to carry out the first synthetic spectral analysis of far ultraviolet spectra of the three systems using state-of-the-art models both of accretion disks and photospheres. Therefore we shall compare the distances we obtain from the best fitting synthetic spectral models to other distance estimates in the literature. We present model-derived accretion rates and distances for all three systems. The FUV flux range of RZ Gru and V363 Aur is dominated by radiation from an optically thick, steady state, accretion but for AC Cnc, we find that a hot white dwarf accounts for 70% of the FUV flux. We compare the FUV characteristics and physical properties of these three long period nova-like systems to the properties of other nova-likes at shorter periods. This work was supported in part by NSF grant AST0807892 to Villanova University.

  8. Laboratory measurement of the millimeter wave properties of liquid sulfuric acid (H2SO4). [study of microwave emission from Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahd, Antoine K.; Steffes, Paul G.

    1991-01-01

    The methodology and the results of laboratory measurements of the millimeter wave properties of liquid sulfuric acid are presented. Measurements conducted at 30-40 and 90-100 GHz are reported, using different concentrations of liquid H2SO4. The measured data are used to compute the expected opacity of H2SO4 condensates and their effects on the millimeter wave emission from Venus. The cloud condensate is found to have an effect on the emission from Venus. The calculated decrease in brightness temperature is well below the observed decrease in brightness temperature found by de Pater et al. (1991). It is suggested that other constituents such as gaseous H2SO4 also affect the observed variation in the brightness temperature.

  9. DETAILED ANALYSIS OF NEAR-IR WATER (H2O) EMISSION IN COMET C/2014 Q2 (LOVEJOY) WITH THE GIANO/TNG SPECTROGRAPH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faggi, S.; Brucato, J. R.; Tozzi, G. P.; Oliva, E.; Massi, F.; Sanna, N.; Tozzi, A.; Villanueva, G. L.; Mumma, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    We observed the Oort cloud comet C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy) on 2015 January 31 and February 1 and 2 at a heliocentric distance of 1.3 au and geocentric distance of 0.8 au during its approach to the Sun. Comet Lovejoy was observed with GIANO, the near-infrared high-resolution spectrograph mounted at the Nasmyth-A focus of the TNG (Telescopio Nazionale Galileo) telescope in La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain. We detected strong emissions of radical CN and water, along with many emission features of unidentified origin, across the 1–2.5 μ m region. Spectral lines from eight ro-vibrational bands of H 2 O were detected, six of them for the first time. We quantified the water production rate [ Q (H 2 O), (3.11 ± 0.14) × 10 29 s −1 ] by comparing the calibrated line fluxes with the Goddard full non-resonance cascade fluorescence model for H 2 O. The production rates of ortho-water [ Q (H 2 O) ORTHO , (2.33 ± 0.11) × 10 29 s −1 ] and para-water [ Q (H 2 O) PARA , (0.87 ± 0.21) × 1029 s −1 ] provide a measure of the ortho-to-para ratio (2.70 ± 0.76)). The confidence limits are not small enough to provide a critical test of the nuclear spin temperature.

  10. Detailed Analysis of Near-IR Water (H2O) Emission in Comet C/2014 Q2 (LOVEJOY) with the GIANO/TNG Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggi, S.; Villanueva, G. L.; Mumma, M. J.; Brucato, J.R.; Tozzi, G. P.; Oliva, E.; Massi, F.; Sanna, N.; Tozzi, A.

    2016-01-01

    We observed the Oort cloud comet C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy) on 2015 January 31 and February 1 and 2 at a heliocentric distance of 1.3 au and geocentric distance of 0.8 au during its approach to the Sun. Comet Lovejoy was observed with GIANO, the near-infrared high-resolution spectrograph mounted at the Nasmyth-A focus of the TNG (Telescopio Nazionale Galileo) telescope in La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain. We detected strong emissions of radical CN and water, along with many emission features of unidentified origin, across the 1-2.5 micron region. Spectral lines from eight ro-vibrational bands of H2O were detected, six of them for the first time. We quantified the water production rate [Q(H2O), (3.11+/- 0.14) x 10(exp 29)/s] by comparing the calibrated line fluxes with the Goddard full non-resonance cascade fluorescence model for H2O. The production rates of ortho-water [Q(H2O)ORTHO, (2.33+/- 0.11) x 10(exp 29)/s] and para-water [Q(H2O)PARA, (0.87+/-0.21) x 10(exp 29)/s] provide a measure of the ortho-to-para ratio (2.70+/- 0.76)). The confidence limits are not small enough to provide a critical test of the nuclear spin temperature.

  11. A new systems engineering approach to streamlined science and mission operations for the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Madeline J.; Sonneborn, George; Perkins, Dorothy C.

    1994-01-01

    The Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate (MO&DSD, Code 500), the Space Sciences Directorate (Code 600), and the Flight Projects Directorate (Code 400) have developed a new approach to combine the science and mission operations for the FUSE mission. FUSE, the last of the Delta-class Explorer missions, will obtain high resolution far ultraviolet spectra (910 - 1220 A) of stellar and extragalactic sources to study the evolution of galaxies and conditions in the early universe. FUSE will be launched in 2000 into a 24-hour highly eccentric orbit. Science operations will be conducted in real time for 16-18 hours per day, in a manner similar to the operations performed today for the International Ultraviolet Explorer. In a radical departure from previous missions, the operations concept combines spacecraft and science operations and data processing functions in a single facility to be housed in the Laboratory for Astronomy and Solar Physics (Code 680). A small missions operations team will provide the spacecraft control, telescope operations and data handling functions in a facility designated as the Science and Mission Operations Center (SMOC). This approach will utilize the Transportable Payload Operations Control Center (TPOCC) architecture for both spacecraft and instrument commanding. Other concepts of integrated operations being developed by the Code 500 Renaissance Project will also be employed for the FUSE SMOC. The primary objective of this approach is to reduce development and mission operations costs. The operations concept, integration of mission and science operations, and extensive use of existing hardware and software tools will decrease both development and operations costs extensively. This paper describes the FUSE operations concept, discusses the systems engineering approach used for its development, and the software, hardware and management tools that will make its implementation feasible.

  12. On the detection of high-redshift black holes with ALMA through CO and H(2) emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaans, Marco; Meijerink, Rowin

    2008-01-01

    Many present-day galaxies are known to harbor supermassive, >= 10(6) M(circle dot), black holes. These central black holes must have grown through accretion from less massive seeds in the early universe. The molecules CO and H 2 can be used to trace this young population of accreting massive black

  13. Optical emission spectroscopic study of Ar/H2/CH4 plasma during the production of graphene nano-flakes by induction plasma synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanta, Antaryami; Lanfant, Briac; Asfaha, Mehari; Leparoux, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Graphene nano-flakes using CH 4 precursor were synthesized in a radio frequency inductively coupled plasma reactor with in-situ investigation of Ar/H 2 /CH 4 plasma by optical emission spectroscopy at fixed H 2 and Ar flow rates of 4 and 75 slpm, respectively, and at different plate powers (12 to 18 kW), pressures (400 to 700 mbar) and CH 4 flow rates (0.3 to 2 slpm). Emissions from C 2 Swan band, C 3 , CH and H 2 are observed in the optical emission spectra of Ar/H 2 /CH 4 plasma. Plasma temperature estimated analyzing the C 2 Swan band emission intensities is found to be decreased with increasing pressure and decreasing plate power. The decreasing plasma temperature gives rise to increase in production rate due to increase in condensation process. The production rate is observed to be increased from 0 to 0.3 g/h at 18 kW and from 0 to 1 g/h at 15 kW with increase in pressure from 400 to 700 mbar at fixed CH 4 flow rate of 0.7 slpm. Broad band continuum emission appears in the emission spectra at specific growth conditions in which the formation of vapor phase nanoparticles due to condensation of supersaturated vapor is facilitated. The production rate at 12 kW, 700 mbar, and 0.7 slpm of CH 4 flow rate is found to be 1.7 g/h which is more than that at 15 and 18 kW. Thus, the broadband continuum emission dominates the optical emission spectra at 12 kW due to lower temperature and higher production rate, and is attributed to the emission from suspended nanoparticles formed in vapor phase. The synthesized nanoparticles exhibit flake like structures having average length and width about 200 and 100 nm, respectively, irrespective of the growth conditions. Nano-flakes have thickness between 3.7 to 7.5 nm and are composed of 11 to 22 graphene layers depending on the growth conditions. The intensity ratio (I D /I G ) of D and G band observed in the Raman spectra is less than 0.33 which indicates good quality of the synthesized graphene nano-flakes. (paper)

  14. Precursory diffuse CO2 and H2S emission signatures of the 2011-2012 El Hierro submarine eruption, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Nemesio M.; Padilla, Germán D.; Padrón, Eleazar; Hernández, Pedro A.; Melián, Gladys V.; Barrancos, José; Dionis, Samara; Nolasco, Dácil; Rodríguez, Fátima; Calvo, David; Hernández, Íñigo

    2012-08-01

    On October 12, 2011, a submarine eruption began 2 km off the coast of La Restinga, south of El Hierro Island. CO2 and H2S soil efflux were continuously measured during the period of volcanic unrest by using the accumulation chamber method at two different geochemical stations, HIE01 and HIE07. Recorded CO2 and H2S effluxes showed precursory signals that preceded the submarine eruption. Beginning in late August, the CO2 efflux time series started increasing at a relatively constant rate over one month, reaching a maximum of 19 gm-2d-1 one week before the onset of the submarine volcanic eruption. The H2S efflux time series at HIE07 showed a pulse in H2S emission just one day before the initiation of the submarine eruption, reaching peak values of 42 mg m-2 d-1, 10 times the average H2S efflux recorded during the observation period. Since CO2 and H2S effluxes are strongly influenced by external factors, we applied a multiple regression analysis to remove their contribution. A statistical analysis showed that the long-term trend of the filtered data is well correlated with the seismic energy. We find that these geochemical stations are important monitoring sites for evaluating the volcanic activity of El Hierro and that they demonstrate the potential of applying continuous monitoring of soil CO2 and H2S efflux to improve and optimize the detection of early warning signals of future volcanic unrest episodes at El Hierro. Continuous diffuse degassing studies would likely prove useful for monitoring other volcanoes during unrest episodes.

  15. Emission of SO2, CO2, and H2S from Augustine Volcano, 2002-2008: Chapter 26 in The 2006 eruption of Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Kenneth A.; Doukas, Michael P.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Neal, Christina A.; Wessels, Rick L.; Power, John A.; Coombs, Michelle L.; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.

    2010-01-01

    Airborne surveillance of gas emissions from Augustine Volcano and other Cook Inlet volcanoes began in 1990 to identify baseline emission levels during noneruptive conditions. Gas measurements at Augustine for SO2, CO2, and H2S showed essentially no evidence of anomalous degassing through spring 2005. Neither did a measurement on May 10, 2005, right after the onset of low level seismicity and inflation. The following measurement, on December 20, 2005, showed Augustine to be degassing about 600 metric tons per day (t/d) of SO2, and by January 4, 2006, only 7 days before the first explosive event, SO2 emissions had climbed to ten times that amount. Maximum emission rates measured during the subsequent eruption were: 8,930 t/d SO2 (February 24, 2006), 1,800 t/d CO2 (March 9, 2006), and 4.3 t/d H2S (January 19, 2006). In total, 45 measurements for SO2 were made from December 2005 through the end of 2008, with 19 each for CO2 and H2S during the same period. Molar CO2/SO2 ratios averaged about 1.6. In general, SO2 emissions appeared to increase during inflation of the volcanic edifice, whereas CO2 emissions were at their highest during the period of deflation associated with the vigorous effusive phase of the eruption in March. High SO2 was probably associated with degassing of shallow magma, whereas high CO2 likely reflected deep (>4 km) magma recharge of the sub-volcanic plumbing system, For the 2005–6 period, the volcano released a total of about 1.5×106 tons of CO2 to the atmosphere, a level similar to the annual output of a medium-sized natural-gas-fired powerplant. Augustine also emitted about 8×105 tons of SO2, similar to that produced by the 1976 and 1986 eruptions of the volcano.

  16. Flares on dMe stars: IUE and optical observations of At Mic, and comparison of far-ultraviolet stellar and solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromage, G.E.; Phillips, K.J.H.; Dufton, P.L.; Kingston, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    The paper concerns observations of a large flare event on the dMe star At Mic, detected by the International Ultraviolet Explorer. The far-ultraviolet spectra of the flare is compared with those of other stellar flares, and also with a large solar flare recorded by the Skylab mission in 1973. The quiescent-phase optical and ultraviolet spectrum of the same dMe flare star is discussed. (U.K.)

  17. Deuterium Abundance Toward G191-B2B: Results from the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, M.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Hebrard, G.; Desert, J.-M.; Ferlet, R.; LecavelierdesEtangs, A.; Howk, J. C.; Andre, M.; Blair, W. P.; Friedman, S. D.; hide

    2002-01-01

    High-resolution spectra of the hot white dwarf G191-B2B covering the wavelength region 905-1187A were obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE). This data was used in conjunction with existing high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope STIS observations to evaluate the total H(sub I), D(sub I), O(sub I) and N(sub I) column densities along the line of sight. Previous determinations of N(D(sub I)) based upon GHRS (Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph) and STIS (Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph) observations were controversial due to the saturated strength of the D(sub I) Lyman alpha line. In the present analysis the column density of D(sub I) has been measured using only the unsaturated Lyman beta and Lyman gamma lines observed by FUSE. A careful inspection of possible systematic uncertainties tied to the modeling of the stellar continuum or to the uncertainties in the FUSE instrumental character series has been performed. The column densities derived are: log N(D(sub I)) = 13.40+/-0.07, log N(O(sub I)) = 14.86+/-0.07, and log N(N(sub I)) = 13.87+/-0.07 quoted with 2sigma, uncertainties. The measurement of the H(sub I) column density by profile fitting of the Lyman alpha line has been found to be unsecure. If additional weak hot interstellar components are added to the three detected clouds along the line of sight, the H(sub I)) column density can be reduced quite significantly, even though the signal-to-noise ratio and spectral resolution at Lyman alpha are excellent. The new estimate of N(H(sub I)) toward G191-B2B reads: logN(H (sub I)) = 18.18+/-0.18 (2sigma uncertainty), so that the average (D/H) ratio on the line of sight is: (D/H)= 1.66(+0.9/-0.6) x 10(exp -5) (2sigma uncertainty).

  18. Light Emission from the Fe2+-EGTA-H2O2 System: Possible Application for the Determination of Antioxidant Activity of Plant Phenolics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Nowak

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative reactions can result in the formation of electronically excited species that undergo radiative decay depending on electronic transition from the excited state to the ground state with subsequent ultra-weak photon emission (UPE. We investigated the UPE from the Fe2+-EGTA (ethylene glycol-bis(β-aminoethyl ether-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid–H2O2 system with a multitube luminometer (Peltier-cooled photon counter, spectral range 380 to 630 nm. The UPE of 92.6 µmol/L Fe2+—185.2 µmol/L EGTA—2.6 mmol/L H2O2 reached 4319 ± 755 relative light units during 2 min measurement and was about seven times higher (p < 0.001 than the UPE of incomplete systems (Fe2+-H2O2, EGTA-H2O2 and medium alone. Substitution of Fe2+ with Cr2+, Co2+, Mn2+ or Cu2+ as well as of EGTA with EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid or citrate completely abolished UPE. Experiments with ROS scavengers revealed the dependence of UPE on hydroxyl radicals suggesting occurrence of oxidative attack and cleavage of the ether bond in EGTA backbone structure and formation of triplet excited carbonyl groups with subsequent light emission. Plant phenolics (ferulic, chlorogenic and caffec acids at concentration 87 µmol/L and ascorbate at 0.46 mmol/L inhibited UPE by 90 ± 4%, 90 ± 5%, 97 ± 2% and 92 ± 1%, respectively. Quenching of UPE from Fe2+-EGTA-H2O2 system can be used for evaluation of antioxidant activity of phytochemicals.

  19. H2 blockers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peptic ulcer disease - H2 blockers; PUD - H2 blockers; Gastroesophageal reflux - H2 blockers; GERD - H2 blockers ... H2 blockers are used to: Relieve symptoms of acid reflux, or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This is a ...

  20. Non-Controlled Biogenic Emission of CO, H2S, NH3 and Hg0 from Lazareto's Landfill, Tenerife, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolasco, D.; Lima, R.; Salazar, J.; Hernández, P. A.; Pérez, N. M.

    2002-12-01

    Landfills are important sources of contaminant gases to the surrounding environment and a significant amount of them could be released to the atmosphere through the surface environment in a diffuse form, also known as non-controlled emission of landfill gases. CH4 and CO2 are major components in landfill gases and other gas species are only present in minor amounts. Trace compounds include both inorganic and a large number of volatile organic components. The goal of this study is to evaluate the non-controlled biogenic emission of inorganic toxic gases from Lazareto's landfill. Which is located in the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, with a population of about 150,000, and is used as a Palm tree park. Lazareto's landfill has an extension of 0.22 Km2 and it is not operative since 1980. A non-controlled biogenic gas emission survey of 281 sampling sites was carried out from February tod March, 2002. Surface CO2 efflux measurements were performed by means of a portable NDIR sensor according with the accumulation chamber method. Surface CO2 efflux ranged from negligible values up to 30,600 gm-2d-1. At each sampling site, surface landfill gas samples were collected at 40 cm depth using a metallic soil probe. These gas samples were analyzed within 24 hours for major and inorganic toxic gas species by means of microGC and specific electrochemical sensors. The highest concentrations of CO, H2S, NH3 and Hg0 were 3, 20, 2,227, 0.010 ppmV, respectively. Non-controlled biogenic emission rate of CO, H2S, NH3, and Hg0 were estimated by multiplying the observed surface CO2 efflux times (Inorganic Toxic Gas)i/CO2 weight ratio at each sampling site, respectively. The highest surface inorganic toxic gas efllux rates were 699 gm-2d-1 for NH3, 81, 431 and 4 mgm-2d-1 for CO, H2S and Hg0, respectively. Taking into consideration the spatial distribution of the inorganic toxic gas efflux values as well as the extension of the landfill, the non-controlled biogenic emission of CO, H2S, NH3

  1. Preamputation evaluation of lower-limb skeletal muscle perfusion with H(2) (15)O positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scremin, Oscar U; Figoni, Stephen F; Norman, Keith; Scremin, A M Erika; Kunkel, Charles F; Opava-Rutter, Dorene; Schmitter, Eric D; Bert, Alberto; Mandelkern, Mark

    2010-06-01

    To establish whether muscle blood flow (MBF) measurements with O-water positron emission tomography could reliably identify patients with critical limb ischemia and detect and quantify a distal deficit in skeletal MBF in these cases. O-water positron emission tomography scans were performed at rest or during unloaded ankle plantar and dorsiflexion exercise of the diseased leg in 17 subjects with leg ischemia or on a randomly selected leg of 18 age-matched healthy control subjects. TcPO2 was evaluated with Novametrix monitors and perfusion of skin topically heated to 44 degrees C and adjacent nonheated areas with a Moor Instruments laser Doppler imaging scanner. The enhancement of MBF induced by exercise was significantly lower in ischemic than in normal legs, and the sensitivity and specificity of this phenomenon were similar to those of laser Doppler imaging or TcPO2 in identifying ischemia subjects. In addition, the exercise MBF deficit was predominant at the distal-leg levels, indicating the ability of the technique to help determine the correct level of amputation. Skeletal MBF of legs with severe ischemia can be detected accurately with O-water positron emission tomography and could add valuable information about viability of skeletal muscle in the residual limb when deciding the level of an amputation.

  2. Acid Gas to Syngas (AG2S™) technology applied to solid fuel gasification: Cutting H_2S and CO_2 emissions by improving syngas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassani, Andrea; Pirola, Carlo; Maggio, Enrico; Pettinau, Alberto; Frau, Caterina; Bozzano, Giulia; Pierucci, Sauro; Ranzi, Eliseo; Manenti, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Coal gasification with improved yield and reduced emissions. • AG2S™ process converts H_2S and CO_2 into syngas, elemental sulfur and water. • Techno-economic simulation of AG2S™ process is carried out. • Industrial case-study on the Sotacarbo S.p.A. gasification pilot plant is proposed. - Abstract: The paper deals with the application of the novel Acid Gas To Syngas (AG2S™) technology to the gasification of solid fuels. The AG2S technology is a completely new effective route of processing acid gases: H_2S and CO_2 are converted into syngas (CO and H_2) by means of a regenerative thermal reactor. To show the application of the AG2S technology, modeling and simulation advances for gasification systems are initially discussed. The multi-scale, multi-phase, and multi-component coal gasification system is described by means of detailed kinetic mechanisms for coal pyrolysis, char heterogeneous reactions and for successive gas-phase reactions. These kinetic mechanisms are then coupled with transport resistances resulting in first-principles dynamic modeling of non-ideal reactors of different types (e.g., downdraft, updraft, traveling grate), also including the catalytic effect of ashes. The generalized approach pursued in developing the model allows characterizing the main phenomena involved in the coal gasification process, including the formation of secondary species (e.g., COS, CS_2). This tool is here further validated on literature data and, then, adopted to demonstrate the AG2S effectiveness, where H_2S and CO_2 emissions are reduced with an increase of syngas production. The resulting process solution is more economically appealing with respect to the traditional Claus process and finds several application areas.

  3. Experimental and theoretical studies of the VUV emission and absorption spectra of H2, HD and D2 molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roudjane, M.

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this thesis is to carry out an experimental study of the absorption and emission spectra of the D 2 and HD isotopes, with high resolution, in the VUV domain and to supplement it by a theoretical study of the excited electronic states involved in the observed transitions. The emission spectra of HD and D 2 are produced by Penning discharge source operating under low pressure and are recorded in the spectral range 78 - 170 nm. The recorded spectra contains more than 20.000 lines. The analysis of the spectrum consists in identifying and assigning the lines to the electronic transitions between energy levels of the molecule. The present analysis is based on our theoretical calculations of the ro-vibrational energy levels of the excited electronic states and the transition probabilities from these states towards the energy levels of the fundamental state. The theoretical results are obtained by resolving the coupled equations between the excited electronic states B 1 Σ u 1 , B' 1 Σ u 1 , C 1 Π u 1 and D 1 Π u 1 , taking into account the nonadiabatic couplings between these states, and they are obtained in the adiabatic approximation for the excited electronic states B''B-bar 1 Σ u + , D' 1 Π u 1 and D'' 1 Π u 1 . The equations are resolved using a modern method based on the discretization variables representation method. In addition, we have carried out a study of the absorption spectra of the HD and D 2 molecules

  4. Use of a Monte Carlo technique to complete a fragmented set of H2S emission rates from a wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauberger, Günther; Piringer, Martin; Baumann-Stanzer, Kathrin; Knauder, Werner; Petz, Erwin

    2013-12-15

    The impact of ambient concentrations in the vicinity of a plant can only be assessed if the emission rate is known. In this study, based on measurements of ambient H2S concentrations and meteorological parameters, the a priori unknown emission rates of a tannery wastewater treatment plant are calculated by an inverse dispersion technique. The calculations are determined using the Gaussian Austrian regulatory dispersion model. Following this method, emission data can be obtained, though only for a measurement station that is positioned such that the wind direction at the measurement station is leeward of the plant. Using the inverse transform sampling, which is a Monte Carlo technique, the dataset can also be completed for those wind directions for which no ambient concentration measurements are available. For the model validation, the measured ambient concentrations are compared with the calculated ambient concentrations obtained from the synthetic emission data of the Monte Carlo model. The cumulative frequency distribution of this new dataset agrees well with the empirical data. This inverse transform sampling method is thus a useful supplement for calculating emission rates using the inverse dispersion technique. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of Global Cerebral Blood Flow Measured by Phase-Contrast Mapping MRI with O-15-H2O Positron Emission Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mark Bitsch; Lindberg, Ulrich; Aachmann-Andersen, Niels Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To compare mean global cerebral blood flow (CBF) measured by phase-contrast mapping magnetic resonance imaging (PCM MRI) and by 15O-H2O positron emission tomography (PET) in healthy subjects. PCM MRI is increasingly being used to measure mean global CBF, but has not been validated in vivo...... against an accepted reference technique. Materials and Methods Same-day measurements of CBF by 15O-H2O PET and subsequently by PCM MRI were performed on 22 healthy young male volunteers. Global CBF by PET was determined by applying a one-tissue compartment model with measurement of the arterial input...... function. Flow was measured in the internal carotid and vertebral arteries by a noncardiac triggered PCM MRI sequence at 3T. The measured flow was normalized to total brain weight determined from a volume-segmented 3D T1-weighted anatomical MR-scan. Results Mean CBF was 34.9 ± 3.4 mL/100 g/min measured...

  6. Variability of the BL Lacertae objects PKS 2155 - 304 and OJ 287 in the far-ultraviolet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraschi, L.; Treves, A.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tanzi, E.G.; CNR, Istituto di Fisica Cosmica, Milan, Italy)

    1986-01-01

    All the ultraviolet spectra of the two bright BL Lacertae objects PKS 2155 - 304 and OJ 287 taken with the International Ultraviolet Explorer in the period 1978-1984 are examined. For each spectrum the best-fitting power law is determined and a correlation between spectral slope and intensity is searched for. The correlation, if present, is weak. This is discussed in terms of models of the continuum emission of active galactic nuclei. 31 references

  7. Variability of the BL Lacertae objects PKS 2155 - 304 and OJ 287 in the far-ultraviolet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maraschi, L.; Treves, A.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tanzi, E.G.

    1986-05-01

    All the ultraviolet spectra of the two bright BL Lacertae objects PKS 2155 - 304 and OJ 287 taken with the International Ultraviolet Explorer in the period 1978-1984 are examined. For each spectrum the best-fitting power law is determined and a correlation between spectral slope and intensity is searched for. The correlation, if present, is weak. This is discussed in terms of models of the continuum emission of active galactic nuclei. 31 references.

  8. Spectral properties of blazars. I. Objects observed in the far-ultraviolet. II. An X-ray observed sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghisellini, G.; Maraschi, L.; Treves, A.; Tanzi, E. G.; Milano Universita, Italy; CNR, Istituto di Fisica Cosmica, Milan, Italy)

    1986-01-01

    All blazars observed with the IUE are studied and shown to form a well-defined subgroup according to their spectral properties. These properties are discussed with respect to theoretical models and are compared with those of quasars. Radio, ultraviolet, and X-ray fluxes are used to construct composite spectral indices, and systematic differences between X-ray selected and otherwise selected objects are discussed. It is confirmed that X-ray selected objects have flatter overall spectra, and are therefore weaker radio emitters relative to their X-ray emission than objects selected otherwise. It is found that X-ray selected blazars have the same average X-ray luminosity as blazars selected otherwise and are underluminous at UV and radio frequencies. This finding is used to argue that the radio-weak, X-ray selected BL Lac objects are, in terms of space density, the dominant members of the blazar population. The results are interpreted in the framework of synchrotron emission models involving relativistic plasma jets. 134 references

  9. Spectral properties of blazars. I. Objects observed in the far-ultraviolet. II. An X-ray observed sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghisellini, G.; Maraschi, L.; Treves, A.; Tanzi, E. G.

    1986-11-01

    All blazars observed with the IUE are studied and shown to form a well-defined subgroup according to their spectral properties. These properties are discussed with respect to theoretical models and are compared with those of quasars. Radio, ultraviolet, and X-ray fluxes are used to construct composite spectral indices, and systematic differences between X-ray selected and otherwise selected objects are discussed. It is confirmed that X-ray selected objects have flatter overall spectra, and are therefore weaker radio emitters relative to their X-ray emission than objects selected otherwise. It is found that X-ray selected blazars have the same average X-ray luminosity as blazars selected otherwise and are underluminous at UV and radio frequencies. This finding is used to argue that the radio-weak, X-ray selected BL Lac objects are, in terms of space density, the dominant members of the blazar population. The results are interpreted in the framework of synchrotron emission models involving relativistic plasma jets. 134 references.

  10. Development of a LiF-filter for measuring plasma fluctuations in the far ultraviolet radiation spectral range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schittenhelm, M.

    1991-06-01

    The investigations of fluctuations and anomalous transport lie at hart of the tokamak research program, especially in the shear zone close to and beyond the last closed flux surface. Until now fluctuation measurements using plasma radiation were only made on the edge of the plasma, since they rely on the H α emission. In order to measure electron density fluctuations with good spatial and temporal resolution in the shear zone, the OVI doublet (2s-2p) can be observed. These are very strong impurity emission lines in the VUV region (103.2 nm and 103.8 nm) emitted from a narrow layer close to the separatrix. To get an image of this layer and to achieve enough intensity for a good temporal resolution, it is necessary to develop a filter with high transmission. A possible candidate is lithium fluoride (LiF), which transmits light at shorter wavelength than other materials. By cooling LiF crystals from 300 K to 220 K the cutoff wavelength decreases from 105 nm to about 103 nm. This master thesis presents a detailed investigation of the transmission of LiF near the cutoff wavelength. Crystal sheets produced by different manufactures were tested and the temperature dependence of the cutoff edge was investigated. (orig./AH)

  11. The renal blood flow reserve in healthy humans and patients with atherosclerotic renovascular disease measured by positron emission tomography using [15O]H2O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Päivärinta, Johanna; Koivuviita, Niina; Oikonen, Vesa; Iida, Hidehiro; Liukko, Kaisa; Manner, Ilkka; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Nuutila, Pirjo; Metsärinne, Kaj

    2018-06-11

    Microvascular function plays an important role in ARVD (atherosclerotic renovascular disease). RFR (renal flow reserve), the capacity of renal vasculature to dilate, is known to reflect renal microvascular function. In this pilot study, we assessed PET (positron emission tomography)-based RFR values of healthy persons and renal artery stenosis patients. Seventeen patients with ARVD and eight healthy subjects were included in the study. Intravenous enalapril 1 mg was used as a vasodilatant, and the maximum response (blood pressure and RFR) to it was measured at 40 min. Renal perfusion was measured by means of oxygen-15-labeled water PET. RFR was calculated as a difference of stress flow and basal flow and was expressed as percent [(stress blood flow - basal blood flow)/basal blood flow] × 100%. RFR of the healthy was 22%. RFR of the stenosed kidneys of bilateral stenosis patients (27%) was higher than that of the stenosed kidneys of unilateral stenosis patients (15%). RFR of the contralateral kidneys of unilateral stenosis patients was 21%. There was no difference of statistical significance between RFR values of ARVD subgroups or between ARVD subgroups and the healthy. In the stenosed kidneys of unilateral ARVD patients, stenosis grade of the renal artery correlated negatively with basal (p = 0.04) and stress flow (p = 0.02). Dispersion of RFR values was high. This study is the first to report [ 15 O]H 2 O PET-based RFR values of healthy subjects and ARVD patients in humans. The difference between RFR values of ARVD patients and the healthy did not reach statistical significance perhaps because of high dispersion of RFR values. [ 15 O]H 2 O PET is a valuable non-invasive and quantitative method to evaluate renal blood flow though high dispersion makes imaging challenging. Larger studies are needed to get more information about [ 15 O]H 2 O PET method in evaluation of renal blood flow.

  12. Redução da emissão de CO2, CH4 e H2S através da compostagem de dejetos suínos Reduction emissions of CO2, CH4 and H2S through composting of swine manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana G. Sardá

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Em conjunto com o crescente desenvolvimento da tecnologia para a produção de suínos ocorreu uma forte exploração e degradação do ambiente, razão pela qual a atividade se transformou em fonte poluidora das regiões produtoras. Buscam-se, então, alternativas que minimizem o potencial poluidor do atual sistema de produção. O trabalho proposto foi comparar o perfil de emissão de dióxido de carbono (CO2, metano (CH4 e gás sulfídrico (H2S do manejo de dejetos suínos nas formas sólida (compostagem e líquida (esterqueira, e avaliar a eficiência do processo de compostagem através dos parâmetros físico-químicos. O ensaio foi implantado no campo experimental da EMBRAPA Suínos e Aves, localizada no município de Concórdia, SC. Contatou-se, na compostagem, uma redução de 7 vezes na emissão de CH4, com relação à esterqueira; a emissão de CO2 representou 78,5% do carbono total mineralizado. Considerando-se que a emissão de H2S foi expressiva apenas no manejo dos dejetos na forma líquida, pode-se afirmar que o manejo dos resíduos na forma sólida é uma alternativa para a redução dos impactos ambientais pela mitigação do efeito estufa e pela redução de odores.In conjunction with the development of technologies for the production of swine meat, a strong exploration and degradation of the environment occurred and the activity became a source of pollution in the producing regions. Therefore, there is a need for alternative technologies that minimize the pollutant potential of the current system of production. The proposed work was to analyze and to compare the emission of carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and hydrogen sulfide (H2S between the management of swine manure in solid form (composting and liquid manure (deep pit, and assess the efficiency of the process of composting through the physical and chemical parameters. The test was implemented in the experimental field of Embrapa Suínos e Aves, located in Concordia (SC

  13. Far-ultraviolet imaging spectrograph and scanning grating spectrometers for the Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, R.P.; Meier, R.R.; Wolfram, K.D.; Picone, J.M.; Thonnard, S.E.; Fritz, G.G.; Morrill, J.S.; Christensen, A.B.; Kayser, D.C.; Pranke, J.B.; Straus, P.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS) experiment is an optical remote sensing platform consisting of eight sensors, (spectrographs, spectrometers, and photometers) covering the wavelength range 550 to 8744 angstrom. RAIDS employs a mechanical scan platform to view the Earth's limb and measure line-of-sight column emission from tangent altitudes from 50 to 750 km. These measurements provide vertical profiles of atmospheric dayglow and nightglow from the mesosphere to the upper regions of the F-region ionosphere. RAIDS will be flown on the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) J weather satellite through the auspices of the US Air Force Space Test Program. The RAIDS wavelength and altitude coverage allows remote sensing of the major and many minor constituents in the thermosphere and ionosphere. These measurements will be used as part of a proof of concept for remote sensing of ionospheric and neutral density profiles. The RAIDS database will be used to study composition, thermal structure, and couplings between the mesosphere, thermosphere, thermal structure, and couplings between the mesosphere, thermosphere, and ionosphere. RAIDS is a joint venture of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and the Aerospace Corporation. The authors describe the subset of RAIDS instruments developed at NRL covering the far to near UV regions (1,300 to 4,000 angstrom)

  14. Chemical waves in the O2 + H2 reaction on a Rh(111) surface alloyed with nickel. I. Photoelectron emission microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinsky, Tim; von Boehn, Bernhard; Imbihl, Ronald

    2018-04-01

    Chemical waves that arise in the H2 + O2 reaction on a bimetallic Rh(111)/Ni surface have been studied in the 10-6 and 10-5 mbar range at T = 773 K with photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM), low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Nickel coverages of 0.3, 0.6, and 1.0 monolayers were investigated. Coadsorbed with some oxygen, Ni starts to penetrate the Rh bulk region substantially only beyond 900 K. In the 10-5 mbar range, chemical waves are characterized by three distinct gray levels in PEEM. This number reduces to only two levels in the 10-6 mbar range. In situ LEED showed the periodic appearance of a (n × 1) (n = 8, 10) pattern during chemical waves which was assigned to a 2D-Ni oxide. With in situ AES, one observes that the bright phase in PEEM correlates with a high Ni coverage and the dark phase with a low Ni coverage.

  15. Two center electron emission in collisions of fast ions with H, and H2: Interplay between interference and Compton profile effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, D.; Kumar, Ajay; Kadhane, U.R.; Fainstein, P.D.; Tribedi, L.C.

    2006-01-01

    Young type interference effect has been studied in case of particle induced ionization of H 2 . Oscillations are derived by comparing the measured DDCS for H 2 with the calculated DDCS for H. The effect of the Compton profiles of H 2 and H on the interference structure is also studied. A theoretical model based on molecular distorted wave calculation explains the experimental results qualitatively

  16. Molecular hydrogen (H2) combustion emissions and their isotope (D/H) signatures from domestic heaters, diesel vehicle engines, waste incinerator plants, and biomass burning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollmer, M.K.; Walter, S.; Mohn, J.; Steinbacher, M.; Bond, S.W.; Röckmann, T.; Reimann, S.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H2), its stable isotope signature ( D), and the key combustion parameters carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) were measured from various combustion processes. H2 in the exhaust of gas and oil-fired heaters and of waste incinerator plants was generally

  17. The interstellar medium and star formation of galactic disks. I. Interstellar medium and giant molecular cloud properties with diffuse far-ultraviolet and cosmic-ray backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Tan, Jonathan C.; Christie, Duncan; Bisbas, Thomas G.; Wu, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    We present a series of adaptive mesh refinement hydrodynamic simulations of flat rotation curve galactic gas disks, with a detailed treatment of the interstellar medium (ISM) physics of the atomic to molecular phase transition under the influence of diffuse far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation fields and cosmic-ray backgrounds. We explore the effects of different FUV intensities, including a model with a radial gradient designed to mimic the Milky Way. The effects of cosmic rays, including radial gradients in their heating and ionization rates, are also explored. The final simulations in this series achieve 4 pc resolution across the ˜20 kpc global disk diameter, with heating and cooling followed down to temperatures of ˜10 K. The disks are evolved for 300 Myr, which is enough time for the ISM to achieve a quasi-statistical equilibrium. In particular, the mass fraction of molecular gas is stabilized by ˜200 Myr. Additional global ISM properties are analyzed. Giant molecular clouds (GMCs) are also identified and the statistical properties of their populations are examined. GMCs are tracked as the disks evolve. GMC collisions, which may be a means of triggering star cluster formation, are counted and their rates are compared with analytic models. Relatively frequent GMC collision rates are seen in these simulations, and their implications for understanding GMC properties, including the driving of internal turbulence, are discussed.

  18. The interstellar medium and star formation of galactic disks. I. Interstellar medium and giant molecular cloud properties with diffuse far-ultraviolet and cosmic-ray backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Tan, Jonathan C.; Christie, Duncan; Bisbas, Thomas G.; Wu, Benjamin

    2018-05-01

    We present a series of adaptive mesh refinement hydrodynamic simulations of flat rotation curve galactic gas disks, with a detailed treatment of the interstellar medium (ISM) physics of the atomic to molecular phase transition under the influence of diffuse far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation fields and cosmic-ray backgrounds. We explore the effects of different FUV intensities, including a model with a radial gradient designed to mimic the Milky Way. The effects of cosmic rays, including radial gradients in their heating and ionization rates, are also explored. The final simulations in this series achieve 4 pc resolution across the ˜20 kpc global disk diameter, with heating and cooling followed down to temperatures of ˜10 K. The disks are evolved for 300 Myr, which is enough time for the ISM to achieve a quasi-statistical equilibrium. In particular, the mass fraction of molecular gas is stabilized by ˜200 Myr. Additional global ISM properties are analyzed. Giant molecular clouds (GMCs) are also identified and the statistical properties of their populations are examined. GMCs are tracked as the disks evolve. GMC collisions, which may be a means of triggering star cluster formation, are counted and their rates are compared with analytic models. Relatively frequent GMC collision rates are seen in these simulations, and their implications for understanding GMC properties, including the driving of internal turbulence, are discussed.

  19. FULVUE: Far Ultraviolet Universal Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David L.; Cross, Eugene W.

    1997-10-01

    This is a concept study for a proposal to NASA/GSFC for a medium class Explorer Mission. It is designed to replace a prior SBIR Phase I design for NASA/MSFC for a Lunar far-UV survey telescope done in 1994 - 1995 for the Pathfinder Program (by the authors for I.S.E., under M. E. Nein, MSFC). A full investigation by project scientist D. L. White as to the most desirable mission science for a Lunar-based UV telescope, resulted in the decision to do a universal survey of the most interesting lines in the Lyman alpha forest, especially the O VI doublet lines around 103.2/103.8 nm. A telescope was designed by the authors incorporating a multiple instrument pod (MEDUSA), and a unique optical train featuring a selectable element secondary mirror module, with a special high resolution mode debuting a new optical design, all by chief optical engineer E. W. Cross. Special thanks go to chief spacecraft engineer T. L. Kessler for all packaging and integration of the telescope, its attendant systems, and the entire mission, including the launch interface and all presentations. In this incarnation, the basic concept has been converted by D. L. White into a free flyer designed for at least a LEO. In reconfiguring the original concept in the order to accomplish the original mission science goals, it has been necessary to take a fresh approach in order to fit the largest feasible Explorer Class Fairing (10L). In addition, the reconsideration of the mission science and the performance level available from the prior mission's optics, the authors decided to push the limits of the possible in the pursuit of excellence and choose two exceptional optical designs, augment them, and integrate them into the same limited envelope, while not sacrificing performance, communications, power, control, or serviceability. This we have kept close to focus throughout our pursuit of the mission science, which we hold foremost. We see a great need to bring the lessons learned at other portions of the spectrum to bear in this very densely populated, yet still not fully explored region. We wish to provide missions such as FUSE with the best survey data, to provide for the successor/s to FUSE, and to also do valuable science Our goal remains to provide an advancement to the field of F-UV astronomy by utilizing the best of the designs and engineering available to us, while incorporating on our team the direct participation of highly talented, as well as experienced professionals from different disciplines, while remaining open to the invaluable critiques and collaborations available in the community of which we are a part

  20. Biogeochemistry of dihydrogen (H2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehler, Tori M

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen has had an important and evolving role in Earth's geo- and biogeochemistry, from prebiotic to modern times. On the earliest Earth, abiotic sources of H2 were likely stronger than in the present. Volcanic out-gassing and hydrothermal circulation probably occurred at several times the modern rate, due to presumably higher heat flux. The H2 component of volcanic emissions was likely buffered close to the modern value by an approximately constant mantle oxidation state since 3.9 billion years ago, and may have been higher before that, if the early mantle was more reducing. The predominantly ultramafic character of the early, undifferentiated crust could have led to increased serpentinization and release of H2 by hydrothermal circulation, as in modern ultramafic-hosted vents. At the same time, the reactive atmospheric sink for H2 was likely weaker. Collectively, these factors suggest that steady state levels of H2 in the prebiotic atmosphere were 3-4 orders of magnitude higher than at present, and possibly higher still during transient periods following the delivery of Fe and Ni by large impact events. These elevated levels had direct or indirect impacts on the redox state of the atmosphere, the radiation budget, the production of aerosol hazes, and the genesis of biochemical precursor compounds. The early abiotic cycling of H2 helped to establish the environmental and chemical context for the origins of life on Earth. The potential for H2 to serve as a source of energy and reducing power, and to afford a means of energy storage by the establishment of proton gradients, could have afforded it a highly utilitarian role in the earliest metabolic chemistry. Some origin of life theories suggest the involvement of H2 in the first energy-generating metabolism, and the widespread and deeply-branching nature of H2-utilization in the modern tree of life suggests that it was at least a very early biochemical innovation. The abiotic production of H2 via several mechanisms

  1. Ab initio calculations on the X (2)B1 and A (2)A1 states of AsH2, and Franck-Condon simulation, including anharmonicity, of the A(0,0,0)-X single vibronic level emission spectrum of AsH2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Edmond P F; Mok, Daniel K W; Chau, Foo-Tim; Dyke, John M

    2010-06-21

    Restricted-spin coupled-cluster single-double plus perturbative triple excitation {RCCSD(T)} calculations were carried out on the X (2)B(1) and A (2)A(1) states of AsH(2) employing the fully relativistic small-core effective core potential (ECP10MDF) for As and basis sets of up to the augmented correlation-consistent polarized valence quintuple-zeta (aug-cc-pV5Z) quality. Minimum-energy geometrical parameters and relative electronic energies were evaluated, including contributions from extrapolation to the complete basis set limit and from outer core correlation of the As 3d(10) electrons employing additional tight 4d3f2g2h functions designed for As. In addition, simplified, explicitly correlated CCSD(T)-F12 calculations were also performed employing different atomic orbital basis sets of up to aug-cc-pVQZ quality, and associated complementary auxiliary and density-fitting basis sets. The best theoretical estimate of the relative electronic energy of the A (2)A(1) state of AsH(2) relative to the X (2)B(1) state including zero-point energy correction (T(0)) is 19,954(32) cm(-1), which agrees very well with available experimental T(0) values of 19,909.4531(18) and 19,909.4910(17) cm(-1) obtained from recent laser induced fluorescence and cavity ringdown absorption spectroscopic studies. In addition, potential energy functions (PEFs) of the X (2)B(1) and A (2)A(1) states of AsH(2) were computed at different RCCSD(T) and CCSD(T)-F12 levels. These PEFs were used in variational calculations of anharmonic vibrational wave functions, which were then utilized to calculate Franck-Condon factors (FCFs) between these two states, using a method which includes allowance for anharmonicity and Duschinsky rotation. The A(0,0,0)-X single vibronic level (SVL) emission spectrum of AsH(2) was simulated using these computed FCFs. Comparison between simulated and available experimental vibrationally resolved spectra of the A(0,0,0)-X SVL emission of AsH(2), which consist essentially of

  2. Evaluation of a hand-held far-ultraviolet radiation device for decontamination of Clostridium difficile and other healthcare-associated pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerandzic Michelle M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental surfaces play an important role in transmission of healthcare-associated pathogens. There is a need for new disinfection methods that are effective against Clostridium difficile spores, but also safe and rapid. The Sterilray™ Disinfection Wand device is a hand-held room decontamination technology that utilizes far-ultraviolet radiation (185-230 nm to kill pathogens. Methods We examined the efficacy of disinfection using the Sterilray device in the laboratory, in rooms of hospitalized patients, and on surfaces outside of patient rooms (i.e. keyboards and portable medical equipment. Cultures for C. difficile, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE were collected from commonly-touched surfaces before and after use of the Sterilray device. Results On inoculated surfaces in the laboratory, application of the Sterilray device at a radiant dose of 100 mJ/cm2 for ~ 5 seconds consistently reduced recovery of C. difficile spores by 4.4 CFU log10, MRSA by 5.4 log10CFU and of VRE by 6.9 log10CFU. A >3 log10 reduction of MRSA and VRE was achieved in ~2 seconds at a lower radiant dose, but killing of C. difficile spores was significantly reduced. On keyboards and portable medical equipment that were inoculated with C. difficile spores, application of the Sterilray device at a radiant dose of 100���mJ/cm2 for ~ 5 seconds reduced contamination by 3.2 log10CFU. However, the presence of organic material reduced the lethal effect of the far-UV radiation. In hospital rooms that were not pre-cleaned, disinfection with the Sterilray device significantly reduced the frequency of positive C. difficile and MRSA cultures (P =0.007. Conclusions The Sterilray™ Disinfection Wand is a novel environmental disinfection technology that rapidly kills C. difficile spores and other healthcare-associated pathogens on surfaces. However, the presence of organic matter

  3. Mechanisms for the Production of Fast HI from Dissociation of H2 on Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianming; Johnson, Paul; Malone, Charles; Young, Jason; Kanik, Isik; Shemansky, Donald

    2010-05-01

    Images of the Saturn system obtained by the Cassini UVIS at a pixel resolution of 0.1 × 0.1 Saturn radii (Rs) reveal atomic hydrogen in ballistic and escaping trajectories sourced at the top of the thermosphere, primarily in the southern sunlit hemisphere. The main feature in the image is a distinctive H Lyman-α plume structure with FWHM of 0.56 Rs at the exobase sub-solar limb at ~ -13.5° latitude constituting the core of the distributed outward flow of atomic hydrogen from the sunlit hemisphere, with a counterpart on the anti-solar side peaking near the equator above the exobase limb. The structure of the image indicates that part of the out-flowing population is sub-orbital and re-enters the thermosphere in ~ 5 hour time scale. A larger and more broadly distributed component fills the magnetosphere to beyond 45 Rs in the orbital plane and 20 Rs latitudinally above and below the plane in an asymmetric distribution in local time. Molecular hydrogen emission in extreme and far ultraviolet regions collected with the H Lyman-α into the image mosaic reveals a distinctive resonance property correlated with the atomic hydrogen plume and shows a strong deviation of H2 X 1Σg+ from local thermodynamic equilibrium in the main source region. The inferred approximate globally averaged energy deposition at the top of the thermosphere from the production of the hot atomic hydrogen accounts for the measured atmospheric temperature. Possible processes for the fast atomic hydrogen formation from dissociation of H2 include the excitation of singlet-ungerade states and doubly excited states by photons and electrons, and the excitation of the singlet-gerade and triplet states by electrons, and chemical reactions involving the formation and dissociative recombination of H3+. Based on the available laboratory measurements and quantum mechanics calculations, the assessment of various mechanisms for H2 - H production, especially those producing H atoms with sufficient energy to

  4. Polarisation observations of VY Canis Majoris H2O 5 32-441 620.701 GHz maser emission with HIFI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harwit, M.; Houde, M.; Sonnentrucker, P.; Boogert, A. C. A.; Cernicharo, J.; De Beck, E.; Decin, L.; Henkel, C.; Higgins, R. D.; Jellema, W.; Kraus, A.; McCoey, C.; Melnick, G. J.; Menten, K. M.; Risacher, C.; Teyssier, D.; Vaillancourt, J. E.; Alcolea, J.; Bujarrabal, V.; Dominik, C.; Justtanont, K.; de Koter, A.; Marston, A.P.; Olofsson, H.; Planesas, P.; Schmidt, M.; Schöier, F. L.; Szczerba, R.; Waters, L.B.F.M.

    2010-01-01

    Water vapour maser emission from evolved oxygen-rich stars remains poorly understood. Additional observations, including polarisation studies and simultaneous observation of different maser transitions may ultimately lead to greater insight. Aims. We have aimed to elucidate the nature and structure

  5. Polarisation observations of VY Canis Majoris H2O 5(32)-4(41) 620.701 GHz maser emission with HIFI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harwit, M.; Houde, M.; Sonnentrucker, P.; Boogert, A. C. A.; Cernicharo, J.; de Beck, E.; Decin, L.; Henkel, C.; Higgins, R. D.; Jellema, W.; Kraus, A.; McCoey, C.; Melnick, G. J.; Menten, K. M.; Risacher, C.; Teyssier, D.; Vaillancourt, J. E.; Alcolea, J.; Bujarrabal, V.; Dominik, C.; Justtanont, K.; de Koter, A.; Marston, A. P.; Olofsson, H.; Planesas, P.; Schmidt, M.; Schöier, F. L.; Szczerba, R.; Waters, L. B. F. M.

    2010-01-01

    Context. Water vapour maser emission from evolved oxygen-rich stars remains poorly understood. Additional observations, including polarisation studies and simultaneous observation of different maser transitions may ultimately lead to greater insight. Aims. We have aimed to elucidate the nature and

  6. H2@Scale Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark

    2017-07-12

    'H2@Scale' is a concept based on the opportunity for hydrogen to act as an intermediate between energy sources and uses. Hydrogen has the potential to be used like the primary intermediate in use today, electricity, because it too is fungible. This presentation summarizes the H2@Scale analysis efforts performed during the first third of 2017. Results of technical potential uses and supply options are summarized and show that the technical potential demand for hydrogen is 60 million metric tons per year and that the U.S. has sufficient domestic resources to meet that demand. A high level infrastructure analysis is also presented that shows an 85% increase in energy on the grid if all hydrogen is produced from grid electricity. However, a preliminary spatial assessment shows that supply is sufficient in most counties across the U.S. The presentation also shows plans for analysis of the economic potential for the H2@Scale concept. Those plans involve developing supply and demand curves for potential hydrogen generation options and as compared to other options for use of that hydrogen.

  7. Efficient 1.9 μm emission in H2-filled hollow core fiber by pure stimulated vibrational Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zefeng; Yu, Fei; Wadsworth, William J; Knight, Jonathan C

    2014-01-01

    We report here efficient 1.9 μm emission by pure stimulated vibrational Raman scattering in a hydrogen-filled anti-resonant hollow-core fiber pumped with a 1064 nm microchip laser. A maximum quantum conversion efficiency ∼48% was achieved by using a 6.5 m length of fiber filled with 23 bar hydrogen, with a maximum peak output power >2 kW. By properly designing the transmission bands of the fiber, selecting alternative pump sources and active gases, the emission wavelength could be extended into the mid-infrared. This provides a potential route for generating efficient, compact, broadly tunable, high power, and narrow linewidth mid-infrared fiber gas lasers with broad application in defense, environmental, and medical monitoring. (letter)

  8. Impact of D2O/H2O Solvent Exchange on the Emission of HgTe and CdTe Quantum Dots: Polaron and Energy Transfer Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Qiannan; Kershaw, Stephen V; Kalytchuk, Sergii; Zhovtiuk, Olga; Reckmeier, Claas; Vasilevskiy, Mikhail I; Rogach, Andrey L

    2016-04-26

    We have studied light emission kinetics and analyzed carrier recombination channels in HgTe quantum dots that were initially grown in H2O. When the solvent is replaced by D2O, the nonradiative recombination rate changes highlight the role of the vibrational degrees of freedom in the medium surrounding the dots, including both solvent and ligands. The contributing energy loss mechanisms have been evaluated by developing quantitative models for the nonradiative recombination via (i) polaron states formed by strong coupling of ligand vibration modes to a surface trap state (nonresonant channel) and (ii) resonant energy transfer to vibration modes in the solvent. We conclude that channel (i) is more important than (ii) for HgTe dots in either solution. When some of these modes are removed from the relevant spectral range by the H2O to D2O replacement, the polaron effect becomes weaker and the nonradiative lifetime increases. Comparisons with CdTe quantum dots (QDs) served as a reference where the resonant energy loss (ii) a priori was not a factor, also confirmed by our experiments. The solvent exchange (H2O to D2O), however, is found to slightly increase the overall quantum yield of CdTe samples, probably by increasing the fraction of bright dots in the ensemble. The fundamental study reported here can serve as the foundation for the design and optimization principles of narrow bandgap quantum dots aimed at applications in long wavelength colloidal materials for infrared light emitting diodes and photodetectors.

  9. On the Emission of Electrons from Solid H_2 and D_2 by Bombardment with 1-3 keV Electrons up to Very Large Angles of Incidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Sørensen, H.

    1982-01-01

    at the largest angles. The results agree well with the existing qualitative tendencies described in the literature. The variation with the angle of incidence shows a fair agreement with an estimate based on data for the angular distribution of electrons ejected from ionized hydrogen molecules. In addition......Electron emission, i.e. electron reflection (ER) and secondary electron emission (SEE), was studied for solid H2 and D2 for oblique incidence of 1-3 keV electrons up to an angle of incidence θ of 83°. The ER coefficient η was small at low angles, and rose rapidly with increasing θ above 60......, an ionization cascade treatment leads to an expression for the behavior of the yield of those secondary electrons that are generated directly by the primaries. The agreement with experimental data is good...

  10. Stratospheric H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellsaesser, H.W.

    1979-01-01

    Documentation of the extreme aridity (approx. 3% relative humidity) of the lower stratosphere and the rapid decrease of mixing ratio with height just above the polar tropopause (20-fold in the 1st km) was begun by Dobson et al., (1946) in 1943. They recognized that this extreme and persistent aridity must be dynamically maintained else it would have been wiped out by turbulent diffusion. This led Brewer (1949) to hypothesize a stratospheric circulation in which all air enters through the tropical tropopause where it is freeze dried to a mass mixing ratio of 2 to 3 ppM. This dry air then spreads poleward and descends through the polar tropopauses overpowering upward transport of water vapor by diffusion which would otherwise be permitted by the much warmer temperatures of the polar tropopauses. Questions can indeed be raised as to the absolute magnitudes of stratospheric mixing ratios, the effective temperature of the tropical tropopause cold trap, the reality of winter pole freeze-dry sinks and the representativeness of the available observations suggesting an H 2 O mixing ratio maximum just above the tropical tropopause and a constant mixing ratio from the tropopause to 30 to 35 km. However, no model that better fits all of the available data is available, than does the Brewer (1949) hypothesis coupled with a lower stratosphere winter pole, freeze-dry sink, at least over Antarctica

  11. Preoperative mapping of cortical motor function: prospective comparison of functional magnetic resonance imaging and [15O]-H2O-positron emission tomography in the same co-ordinate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinges, Marcus H T; Krings, Timo; Meyer, Philipp T; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Rohde, Veit; Weidemann, Jürgen; Sabri, Osama; Mulders, Edith J M; Buell, Udalrich; Thron, Armin; Gilsbach, Joachim M

    2004-10-01

    Two of the most widely accepted approaches to map eloquent cortical areas preoperatively are positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). As yet, no study has compared these two modalities within the same frame of reference in tumour patients. We employed [15O]-H2O-PET and fMRI in patients undergoing presurgical evaluation and compared the results with those obtained by direct electrical cortical stimulation (DECS). Twenty-five patients with tumours of different aetiology near the central region were investigated. fMRI and PET were processed using the same methods, i.e. statistical parametric mapping (SPM) without anatomical normalization, and transformed into the same frame of reference. fMRI activity was found in more cranial and lateral sections, i.e. closer to the brain surface, in comparison with PET, which demonstrated parenchymal activation. The mean localization difference between fMRI and PET was 8.1 +/- 4.6 mm (range, 2-18 mm). fMRI and [15O]-H2O-PET could reliably identify the central sulcus, as demonstrated by DECS. fMRI and [15O]-H2O-PET demonstrate comparable results and are sensitive and reliable tools to map the central region, especially in cases of infiltrating brain tumours. However, fMRI is more prone to artefacts, such as the visualization of draining veins, which may explain the more cranial and lateral activation visualized by fMRI, whereas PET depicts capillary perfusion changes and therefore shows activation closer to the parenchyma.

  12. Fluorescent excitation of interstellar H2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Black, J.H.; Dishoeck, van E.F.

    1987-01-01

    The infrared emission spectrum of H2 excited by ultraviolet absorption, followed by fluorescence, was investigated using comprehensive models of interstellar clouds for computing the spectrum and to assess the effects on the intensity to various cloud properties, such as density, size, temperature,

  13. A national inventory of greenhouse gas (GHG), criteria air contaminants (CAC) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) emissions by the upstream oil and gas industry : volume 1, overview of the GHG emissions inventory : technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-09-01

    A detailed inventory of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the upstream oil and gas sector in Canada was presented along with explanations of the methodologies and data sources used. This report is based on previous work done on methane and volatile organic compound emissions from the upstream oil and gas sector for the period of 1990 to 1995, but it includes key improvements in identifying primary types of emissions sources such as emissions from fuel combustion, flaring, venting, fugitive equipment leaks and accidental releases. It also includes criteria air contaminants and hydrogen sulfide emissions, an analysis of GHG emission intensities and a change in the definition of volatile organic compounds from comprising all non-methane hydrocarbons to comprising all non-methane and non-ethane hydrocarbons. The report covers portions of the upstream oil and gas industry in Canada plus the natural gas transmission and natural gas distribution industries with reference to well drilling, oil production, and natural gas production, processing, transmission and distribution. Accidents and equipment failures are also included. The report reveals the total GHG emissions by source type, sub-sector, facility type and sub-type for the year 2000 at the national level. In 2000, the total carbon dioxide equivalent GHG emissions from the entire oil and gas sector were 101,211 kilo tonnes. For the upstream oil and gas sector alone, total GHG emissions were 84,355 kilo tonnes, representing 12 per cent of Canada's total national emissions of GHGs in 2000. This is an increase of about 25 per cent from 1995 levels. The biggest primary source of these emissions is fuel combustion, which accounts for 40.8 per cent of the total. This report also includes a provincial breakdown of GHG emissions for the natural gas transmission, storage and distribution sub-sectors in Canada for the year 2000. refs., tabs., figs

  14. Remote Sensing of the Upper Atmosphere and the Ionosphere in the Extreme and Far Ultraviolet: Results from the LITES Experiment aboard the IS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, S. C.; Chakrabarti, S.; Stephan, A. W.; Geddes, G.; Budzien, S. A.; Cook, T.; Aryal, S.; Martel, J.; Galkin, I. A.; Erickson, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Limb-Imaging Ionospheric and Thermospheric Extreme-ultraviolet Spectrograph (LITES) was launched as part of the Space Test Program Houston #5 (STP-H5) payload aboard a commercial resupply flight on February 19, 2017 and was subsequently installed on the International Space Station (ISS). LITES is an imaging spectrograph that spans the 60 - 140 nm wavelength range at 1 nm spectral resolution and samples tangent altitudes 150 - 350 km with 0.2° angular resolution. LITES, in combination with the GPS Radio Occultation and Ultraviolet Photometry - Colocated (GROUP-C) experiment, which includes a GPS receiver and a nadir viewing 135.6 nm photometer, jointly collect new information on the thermosphere and the ionosphere using simultaneous UV and radio emissions. LITES, which uses standard stars to perform in-flight calibration, observes altitude profiles of day and night airglow emissions that are being used to infer thermospheric and ionospheric density profiles. Furthermore, due to the inclination of the ISS, LITES has also observed auroral spectrum and their altitude and spatial variations. Finally, geomagnetic storm effects on its UV emissions can be used to remotely sense their effects on the upper atmospheric morphology. These ISS observations,which are complement to the upcoming ICON and GOLD NASA missions, are focused on ionosphere-atmosphere coupling and global-scale atmospheric response to space weather observed from higher altitudes . We will present an overview of the LITES instrument, some early results from the first few months of operations. We will also summarize the advantages in calibration and validation activities that are possible through space-based LITES, GROUP-C and stellar measurements and simultaneous ground-based optical and radar observations.

  15. Staging Hemodynamic Failure With Blood Oxygen-Level-Dependent Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Cerebrovascular Reactivity: A Comparison Versus Gold Standard (15O-)H2O-Positron Emission Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierstra, Jorn; van Niftrik, Christiaan; Warnock, Geoffrey; Wegener, Susanne; Piccirelli, Marco; Pangalu, Athina; Esposito, Giuseppe; Valavanis, Antonios; Buck, Alfred; Luft, Andreas; Bozinov, Oliver; Regli, Luca

    2018-03-01

    Increased stroke risk correlates with hemodynamic failure, which can be assessed with ( 15 O-)H 2 O positron emission tomography (PET) cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements. This gold standard technique, however, is not established for routine clinical imaging. Standardized blood oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging+CO 2 is a noninvasive and potentially widely applicable tool to assess whole-brain quantitative cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR). We examined the agreement between the 2 imaging modalities and hypothesized that quantitative CVR can be a surrogate imaging marker to assess hemodynamic failure. Nineteen data sets of subjects with chronic cerebrovascular steno-occlusive disease (age, 60±11 years; 4 women) and unilaterally impaired perfusion reserve on Diamox-challenged ( 15 O-)H 2 O PET were studied and compared with a standardized BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging+CO 2 examination within 6 weeks (8±19 days). Agreement between quantitative CBF- and CVR-based perfusion reserve was assessed. Hemodynamic failure was staged according to PET findings: stage 0: normal CBF, normal perfusion reserve; stage I: normal CBF, decreased perfusion reserve; and stage II: decreased CBF, decreased perfusion reserve. The BOLD CVR data set of the same subjects was then matched to the corresponding stage of hemodynamic failure. PET-based stage I versus stage II could also be clearly separated with BOLD CVR measurements (CVR for stage I 0.11 versus CVR for stage II -0.03; P the affected hemisphere and middle cerebral artery territory ( P the affected hemisphere and middle cerebral artery territory and for identifying hemodynamic failure stage II. BOLD CVR may, therefore, be considered for prospective studies assessing stroke risk in patients with chronic cerebrovascular steno-occlusive disease, in particular because it can potentially be implemented in routine clinical imaging. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. H2@Scale Resource and Market Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark

    2017-05-04

    The 'H2@Scale' concept is based on the potential for wide-scale utilization of hydrogen as an energy intermediate where the hydrogen is produced from low cost energy resources and it is used in both the transportation and industrial sectors. H2@Scale has the potential to address grid resiliency, energy security, and cross-sectoral emissions reductions. This presentation summarizes the status of an ongoing analysis effort to quantify the benefits of H2@Scale. It includes initial results regarding market potential, resource potential, and impacts of when electrolytic hydrogen is produced with renewable electricity to meet the potential market demands. It also proposes additional analysis efforts to better quantify each of the factors.

  17. Van der Waals bond in dimers: H2Ne, H2Ar, H2Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waaijer, M.

    1981-01-01

    The H 2 -inert gas dimers H 2 X, and particularly H 2 Ne, H 2 Ar and H 2 Kr, form the subject of this thesis and are loosely bound van der Waals complexes, which is reflected in the low number of bound states and the small anisotropic interaction. The H 2 X dimers studied are formed in a supersonic nozzle expansion, in which the internal energy is converted into the macroscopic flow energy, establishing an internal temperature drop to 3 K, which favours dimer formation. Because of this cooling the H 2 X dimers relax to the lowest rotational states. The hyperfine transitions have been measured using magnetic beam resonance and yield information about the isotropic as well as the anisotropic intermolecular potential in the range between the classical turning points and in the adjacent part of the repulsive branch. The sensitivity of the method is very high and slight changes in the intermolecular potential cause significant effects. The analysis of the measured hyperfine transitions incorporates all interacting states of the molecule, bound as well as unbound (continuum) states. For H 2 Ne, which is the best studied H 2 -inert gas system from the experimental point of view, the author succeeded in establishing an intermolecular potential, that provides a solid ground for comparison with future ab initio calculations. (Auth.)

  18. Charge exchange emission from solar wind helium ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodewits, D; Hoekstra, R; Seredyuk, B; McCullough, RW; Jones, GH; Tielens, AGGM

    2006-01-01

    Charge exchange X-ray and far-ultraviolet (FUV) aurorae can provide detailed insight into the interaction between solar system plasmas. Using the two complementary experimental techniques of photon emission spectroscopy and translation energy spectroscopy, we have studied state-selective charge

  19. H2@Scale Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pivovar, Bryan

    2017-03-31

    Final report from the H2@Scale Workshop held November 16-17, 2016, at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory hosted a technology workshop to identify the current barriers and research needs of the H2@Scale concept. H2@Scale is a concept regarding the potential for wide-scale impact of hydrogen produced from diverse domestic resources to enhance U.S. energy security and enable growth of innovative technologies and domestic industries. Feedback received from a diverse set of stakeholders at the workshop will guide the development of an H2@Scale roadmap for research, development, and early stage demonstration activities that can enable hydrogen as an energy carrier at a national scale.

  20. Zeolite encapsulation of H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, S.; Lakner, J.F.

    1982-08-01

    Experiments with H 2 have shown that it is possible to encapsulate gases in the structure of certain molecular sieves. This method may offer a better means of temporarily storing and disposing of tritium over some others presently in use. The method may also prove safer, and may enable isotope separation, and removal of 3 He. Initial experiments were performed with H 2 to screen potential candidates for use with tritium

  1. Study of first electronic transition and hydrogen bonding state of ultra-thin water layer of nanometer thickness on an α-alumina surface by far-ultraviolet spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Takeyoshi; Kinugasa, Tomoya

    2018-05-01

    The first electronic transition (A˜ ← X˜) and the hydrogen bonding state of an ultra-thin water layer of nanometer thickness between two α-alumina surfaces (0.5-20 nm) were studied using far-ultraviolet (FUV) spectroscopy in the wavelength range 140-180 nm. The ultra-thin water layer of nanometer thickness was prepared by squeezing a water droplet ( 1 μL) between a highly polished α-alumina prism and an α-alumina plate using a high pressure clamp ( 4.7 MPa), and the FUV spectra of the water layer at different thicknesses were measured using the attenuated total reflection method. As the water layer became thinner, the A˜ ← X˜ bands were gradually shifted to higher or lower energy relative to that of bulk water; at thicknesses smaller than 4 nm, these shifts were substantial (0.1-0.2 eV) in either case. The FUV spectra of the water layer with thickness lost at thicknesses below 4 nm, because of steric hydration forces between the α-alumina surfaces.

  2. Experimental study of heterogeneous organic chemistry induced by far ultraviolet light: Implications for growth of organic aerosols by CH3 addition in the atmospheres of Titan and early Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Peng; Sekine, Yasuhito; Sasamori, Tsutoni; Sugita, Seiji

    2018-06-01

    Formation of organic aerosols driven by photochemical reactions has been observed and suggested in CH4-containing atmospheres, including Titan and early Earth. However, the detailed production and growth mechanisms of organic aerosols driven by solar far ultraviolet (FUV) light remain poorly constrained. We conducted laboratory experiments simulating photochemical reactions in a CH4sbnd CO2 atmosphere driven by the FUV radiations dominated by the Lyman-α line. In the experiments, we analyzed time variations in thickness and infrared spectra of solid organic film formed on an optical window in a reaction cell. Gas species formed by FUV irradiation were also analyzed and compared with photochemical model calculations. Our experimental results show that the growth rate of the organic film decreases as the CH4/CO2 ratio of reactant gas mixture decreases, and that the decrease becomes very steep for CH4/CO2 organic film but that the addition reaction of CH3 radicals onto the organic film with the reaction probability around 10-2 can explain the growth rate. At CH4/CO2 organic film. Our results suggest that organic aerosols would grow through CH3 addition onto the surface during the precipitation of aerosol particles in the middle atmosphere of Titan and early Earth. On Titan, effective CH3 addition would reduce C2H6 production in the atmosphere. On early Earth, growth of aerosol particles would be less efficient than those on Titan, possibly resulting in small-sized monomers and influencing UV shielding.

  3. Far-ultraviolet spectrophotometry of Spica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Timothy A.; Cash, Webster; Snow, Theodore P.

    1989-01-01

    A spectrum of the star Spica (Alpha Virginis) from 960 to 1270 A was recorded by a rocket-borne spectrograph March 13, 1988. The spectrum, which has 3.4 A resolution, shows a much sharper drop-off in intensity near 1050 A than similar measurements made by the Voyager UVS, but is in good agreement with the spectrum obtained by Brune et al. in a 1977 sounding rocket. The disagreement with Voyager is a factor of 1.5 at 1100 A and grows to a factor of 5.7 at 960 A. This implies that the photometric standards between 912 and 1100 A may need some revision, and that the standard photospheric models for hot stars may err significantly near the Lyman limit.

  4. Far ultraviolet spectrophotometry of BD +28 4211

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Timothy A.; Cash, Webster; Green, James C.

    1991-01-01

    The results are reported of a November 1989 rocket flight which recorded a flux-calibrated spectrum of BD +28 4211 from 912 to 1150 A with 1A resolution. BD +28 4211, an SdO-type star, is commonly used as an ultraviolet calibration source in the IUE wavelength band. The present work extends the useful range of this standard shortward of Lyman-alpha. Since previous experiments show marked disparity, this study can be useful in determining a standard in the 912 to 1216 A band.

  5. Far-Ultraviolet Characteristics of Lunar Swirls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, A. R.; Greathouse, T. K.; Retherford, K. D.; Mandt, K. E.; Gladstone, G. R.; Kaufmann, D. E.; Hurley, D. M.; Feldman, P. D.; Pryor, W. R.; Bullock, M. A.; Stern, S. A.

    2015-10-01

    Lunar swirls are often described as bright sinuous regions of the Moon that appear to be relatively immature -i.e. less space-weathered than surrounding regions. Swirls are mysterious but seem to be linked to the interaction between the solar wind and the lunar magnetic anomalies (e.g., [1]). Commonly-studied swirls include Mare Ingenii (in a mare- highlands boundary region), Reiner Gamma (in a mare region), and Gerasimovich (in a highlands region). Swirls are known to be surface features: they have no expression at radar depths [2], exhibit no topography, and craters on swirls that penetrate the bright surface terrain reveal underlying dark material [3].

  6. H2O Formation in C-rich AGB Winds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombaert, R.; Decin, L.; Royer, P.; de Koter, A.; Cox, N.L.J.; De Ridder, J.; Khouri, T.; Agúndez, M.; Blommaert, J.A.D.L.; Gernicharo, J.; González-Alfonso, E.; Groenewegen, M.A.T.; Kerschbaum, F.; Neufeld, D.; Vandenbussche, B.; Waelkens, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Herschel detection of warm H2O vapor emission from C-rich winds of AGB stars challenges the current understanding of circumstellar chemistry. Two mechanisms have been invoked to explain warm H2O formation. In the first, penetration of UV interstellar radiation through a clumpy circumstellar

  7. Ebrotidina: nuevo antagonista H2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Padrón Pérez

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica sobre un nuevo antagonista H2, la ebrotidina, que exhibe ventajas con respecto a otros medicamentos antisecretores. Las propiedades gastroprotectoras y la actividad anti H. pylori del fármaco, en el tratamiento de la enfermedad péptica ulcerosa, se mencionan en el presente trabajo.A bibliographic review on the new H2 antagonist, ebrotidine, that presents advantages in comparison with other antisecretory drugs, is made. The gastroprotective properties and the anti H. pylori activity of the drug in the treatment of peptic ulcer are mentioned in this paper.

  8. H2@Scale Resource and Market Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark

    2017-07-12

    This presentation overviews progress to date on the H2@Scale resource and market analysis work. The work finds, for example, that hydrogen demand of 60 MMT/yr is possible when transportation and industry are considered; resources are available to meet that demand; using renewable resources would reduce emissions and fossil use by over 15%; further impacts are possible when considering synergistic benefits; additional analysis is underway to improve understanding of potential markets and synergistic impacts; and further analysis will be necessary to estimate impacts due to spatial characteristics, feedback effects in the economy, and inertia characteristics.

  9. H2, CO, and dust absorption through cold molecular clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, John H.; Sneden, Chris; Kim, Hwihyun; Jaffe, Daniel Thomas

    2017-06-01

    We have made observations with IGRINS on the Harlan J. Smith telescope at McDonald Observatory of near-infrared absorption by H2, CO, and dust toward stars behind molecular clouds, primarily the TMC. Prior to these observations, the abundance of H2 in molecular clouds, relative to the commonly used tracer CO, had only been measured toward a few embedded stars, which may be surrounded by atypical gas. The new observations provide a representative sample of these molecules in cold molecular gas. We find N(H2)/Av ~ 0.9e+21, N(CO)/Av ~ 1.6e+17, and H2/CO ~ 6000. The measured H2/CO ratio is consistent with that measured toward embedded stars in various molecular clouds, but half that derived from mm-wave observations of CO emission and star counts or other determinations of Av.

  10. Endogenous mitigation of H2S inside of the landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuan; Zhong, Zhong; Shen, Dongsheng; Du, Yao; Xu, Jing; Long, Yuyang

    2016-02-01

    Vast quantities of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emitted from landfill sites require urgent disposal. The current study focused on source control and examined the migration and conversion behavior of sulfur compounds in two lab-scale simulated landfills with different operation modes. It aimed to explore the possible strategies and mechanisms for H2S endogenous mitigation inside of landfills during decomposition. It was found that the strength of H2S emissions from the landfill sites was dependent on the municipal solid waste (MSW) degradation speed and vertical distribution of sulfide. Leachate recirculation can shorten both the H2S influence period and pollution risk to the surrounding environment. H2S endogenous mitigation may be achieved by chemical oxidation, biological oxidation, adsorption, and/or precipitation in different stages. Migration and conversion mainly affected H2S release behavior during the initial stabilization phase in the landfill. Microbial activities related to sulfur, nitrogen, and iron can further promote H2S endogenous mitigation during the high reducing phase. Thus, H2S endogenous mitigation can be effectively enhanced via control of the aforementioned processes.

  11. ROVIBRATIONALLY RESOLVED DIRECT PHOTODISSOCIATION THROUGH THE LYMAN AND WERNER TRANSITIONS OF H2 FOR FUV/X-RAY-IRRADIATED ENVIRONMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, C. D.; Porter, R. L.; Stancil, P. C.; Abel, N. P.; Ferland, G. J.; Shaw, G.; Van Hoof, P. A. M.; Williams, R. J. R.

    2012-01-01

    Using ab initio potential curves and dipole transition moments, cross-section calculations were performed for the direct continuum photodissociation of H 2 through the B 1 Σ + u 1 Σ + g (Lyman) and C 1 Π u 1 Σ + g (Werner) transitions. Partial cross-sections were obtained for wavelengths from 100 Å to the dissociation threshold between the upper electronic state and each of the 301 bound rovibrational levels v''J'' within the ground electronic state. The resulting cross-sections are incorporated into three representative classes of interstellar gas models: diffuse clouds, photon-dominated regions, and X-ray-dominated regions (XDRs). The models, which used the CLOUDY plasma/molecular spectra simulation code, demonstrate that direct photodissociation is comparable to fluorescent dissociation (or spontaneous radiative dissociation, the Solomon process) as an H 2 destruction mechanism in intense far-ultraviolet or X-ray-irradiated gas. In particular, changes in H 2 rotational column densities are found to be as large as 20% in the XDR model with the inclusion of direct photodissociation. The photodestruction rate from some high-lying rovibrational levels can be enhanced by pumping from H Lyβ due to a wavelength coincidence with cross-section resonances resulting from quasi-bound levels of the upper electronic states. Given the relatively large size of the photodissociation data set, a strategy is described to create truncated, but reliable, cross-section data consistent with the wavelength resolving power of typical observations.

  12. The Fourth Flight of CHESS: Analysis of Interstellar H2 on the γ Ara Sightline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruczek, Nick E.; France, Kevin; Nell, Nicholas; Fleming, Brian

    2018-06-01

    In this talk, we describe the scientific motivation and technical development of the Colorado High-resolution Echelle Stellar Spectrograph (CHESS) sounding rocket, focusing on the preliminary science results for the fourth launch of the payload (CHESS-4). CHESS is a far ultraviolet rocket-borne instrument designed to study the atomic-to-molecular transitions within translucent cloud regions in the interstellar medium. CHESS-4 launched on 13 April 2018 aboard NASA/CU sounding rocket mission 36.333 UG. The target for this flight was γ Ara, a B1I star that is known to display a variable and equatorially enhanced stellar wind. We present flight results of interstellar molecular hydrogen excitation, including initial measurements of the column density and temperature, on the sightline. These results are compared to previous values that were calculated using the damping wings of low-J H2 absorption features in Copernicus spectra. We also present analogous flight data for the sightline toward β Sco, finding that the derived column density of the J” = 1 rotational level differs by a factor of ~2 when compared to the previous observations. We discuss the discrepancies between the two measurements and show that the source of the difference is likely due to the opacity of higher rotational levels contributing to the J” = 1 absorption wing, increasing the inferred column density in the previous work.

  13. IRS SCAN-MAPPING OF THE WASP-WAIST NEBULA (IRAS 16253-2429). I. DERIVATION OF SHOCK CONDITIONS FROM H2 EMISSION AND DISCOVERY OF 11.3 μm PAH ABSORPTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsony, Mary; Wolf-Chase, Grace A.; Ciardi, David R.; O'Linger, JoAnn

    2010-01-01

    The outflow driven by the Class 0 protostar, IRAS 16253-2429, is associated with bipolar cavities visible in scattered mid-infrared light, which we refer to as the Wasp-Waist Nebula. InfraRed Spectometer (IRS) scan mapping with the Spitzer Space Telescope of a ∼1' x 2' area centered on the protostar was carried out. The outflow is imaged in six pure rotational (0-0 S(2) through 0-0 S(7)) H 2 lines, revealing a distinct, S-shaped morphology in all maps. A source map in the 11.3 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) feature is presented in which the protostellar envelope appears in absorption. This is the first detection of absorption in the 11.3 μm PAH feature. Spatially resolved excitation analysis of positions in the blue- and redshifted outflow lobes, with extinction-corrections determined from archival Spitzer 8 μm imaging, shows remarkably constant temperatures of ∼1000 K in the shocked gas. The radiated luminosity in the observed H 2 transitions is found to be 1.94 ± 0.05 x 10 -5 L sun in the redshifted lobe and 1.86 ± 0.04 x 10 -5 L sun in the blueshifted lobe. These values are comparable to the mechanical luminosity of the flow. By contrast, the mass of hot (T ∼ 1000 K) H 2 gas is 7.95 ± 0.19 x 10 -7 M sun in the redshifted lobe and 5.78 ± 0.17 x 10 -7 M sun in the blueshifted lobe. This is just a tiny fraction, of order 10 -3 , of the gas in the cold (30 K), swept-up gas mass derived from millimeter CO observations. The H 2 ortho/para ratio of 3:1 found at all mapped points in this flow suggests previous passages of shocks through the gas. Comparison of the H 2 data with detailed shock models of Wilgenbus et al. shows the emitting gas is passing through Jump (J-type) shocks. Pre-shock densities of 10 4 cm -3 ≤ n H ≤ 10 5 cm -3 are inferred for the redshifted lobe and n H ≤ 10 3 cm -3 for the blueshifted lobe. Shock velocities are 5 km s -1 ≤ v s ≤ 10 km s -1 for the redshifted gas and v s = 10 km s -1 for the blueshifted gas

  14. H2O sources in regions of star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, K.Y.; Burke, B.F.; Haschick, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    Regions and objects believed to be in early stages of stellar formation have been searched for H 2 O 22-GHz line emission with the Haystack 120-foot (37 m) telescope. The objects include radio condensations, infrared objects in H ii regions, and Herbig-Haro objects. Nine new H 2 O sources were detected in the vicinity of such objects, including the Sharpless H ii regions S152, S235, S255, S269, G45.1+0.1, G45.5+0.1, AFCRL infrared object No. 809--2992, and Herbig-Haro objects 1 and 9. The new H 2 O sources detected in H ii regions are associated, but not coincident, with the the radio condensations. Water vapor line emission was detected in approx.25 percent of the regions searched. The association of H 2 O sources with regions of star formation is taken to be real. The spatial relationship of H 2 O sources to infrared objects, radio condensations, class I OH sources, and molecular clouds are discussed. The suggestion is made that an H 2 O source may be excited by a highly obscured star of extreme youth

  15. H2O masers in star-forming regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downes, D.

    1985-01-01

    Water vapour near star forming regions was first detected by Cheung et al. (1969) and shortly thereafter was recognised to be maser emission. In spite of this 15 year history of H 2 O observations, the problem of interpreting such strong H 2 O masers as W49 and Orion is still very acute. Not one of the models now available can explain in an unconstrained fashion why a very large maser flux can emanate from clouds of such small size. Whereas some models proposed to explain OH masers have retained their plausibility under the pressure of new observations, H 2 O models have not. The author outlines the background of the H 2 O problem, stating that the strongest of the masers discovered are still not satisfactorily explained today. (Auth.)

  16. Are CO Observations of Interstellar Clouds Tracing the H2?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federrath, Christoph; Glover, S. C. O.; Klessen, R. S.; Mac Low, M.

    2010-01-01

    Interstellar clouds are commonly observed through the emission of rotational transitions from carbon monoxide (CO). However, the abundance ratio of CO to molecular hydrogen (H2), which is the most abundant molecule in molecular clouds is only about 10-4. This raises the important question of whether the observed CO emission is actually tracing the bulk of the gas in these clouds, and whether it can be used to derive quantities like the total mass of the cloud, the gas density distribution function, the fractal dimension, and the velocity dispersion--size relation. To evaluate the usability and accuracy of CO as a tracer for H2 gas, we generate synthetic observations of hydrodynamical models that include a detailed chemical network to follow the formation and photo-dissociation of H2 and CO. These three-dimensional models of turbulent interstellar cloud formation self-consistently follow the coupled thermal, dynamical and chemical evolution of 32 species, with a particular focus on H2 and CO (Glover et al. 2009). We find that CO primarily traces the dense gas in the clouds, however, with a significant scatter due to turbulent mixing and self-shielding of H2 and CO. The H2 probability distribution function (PDF) is well-described by a log-normal distribution. In contrast, the CO column density PDF has a strongly non-Gaussian low-density wing, not at all consistent with a log-normal distribution. Centroid velocity statistics show that CO is more intermittent than H2, leading to an overestimate of the velocity scaling exponent in the velocity dispersion--size relation. With our systematic comparison of H2 and CO data from the numerical models, we hope to provide a statistical formula to correct for the bias of CO observations. CF acknowledges financial support from a Kade Fellowship of the American Museum of Natural History.

  17. Glitters of warm H2 in cold diffuse molecular gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falgarone, Edith; Beichman, Chaz; Boulanger, Francois; Combes, Francoise; Gry, Cecile; Helou, Georges; Laureijs, Rene; Pineau Des Forets, Guillaume; Valentijn, Edwin; Verstraete, Laurent

    2004-01-01

    Cold molecular hydrogen, a possibly dominant gas fraction in galaxies, does not radiate due to the symmetry and small moment of inertia of the molecule. The only tracers of cold H2, the rotational lines of CO and dust thermal emission operate only in metal-rich environments. By detecting the lowest

  18. Effect of H2 addition on combustion characteristics of dimethyl ether jet diffusion flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yinhu; Lu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Quanhai; Gan, Lu; Ji, Xuanyu; Wang, Hu; Guo, Qiang; Song, Decai; Ji, Pengyu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • DME- and H 2 -dominated combustion regimes were quantitatively characterized. • The flame structure changed significantly when H 2 addition was above 60 vol.%. • An empirical correlation for normalized flame entrainment rate was developed. • The optimal H 2 addition to DME was 60 vol.% in the practical engineering. - Abstract: In this paper, experiments and numerical calculations were conducted to investigate the effect of H 2 addition on dimethyl ether (DME) jet diffusion flame behaviors, in terms of thermal and chemical structures, reaction zone size, flame entrainment, and NOx and CO emission indices. A wide range of H 2 additions from pure DME to pure H 2 were involved herein, while maintaining the volumetric flow rate of fuel mixture constant. The results indicate that when H 2 mole fraction in the fuel mixture exceeded 60%, the blended fuel was converted to H 2 -dominated. Besides, the flames behaved rather distinctly at the DME- and H 2 -dominated regimes. With the increment in H 2 addition, flame temperature, H 2 , H, O, and OH concentrations increased gradually, but concentrations of the intermediate hydrocarbons (such as CO, CH 2 O, CH 2 , and CH 3 ) decreased on the contrary. Additionally, after the flame became H 2 -dominated, the species concentrations varied increasingly quickly with H 2 addition. The reaction zone length and width decreased nearly linearly with H 2 addition at the DME- and H 2 -dominated regimes. But the decreasing speed of reaction zone length became faster after the flame was converted to H 2 -dominated. At the DME-dominated regime, the dependence of flame entrainment coefficient (C e ) on H 2 addition was rather small. While at the H 2 -dominated regime, C e increased increasingly quickly with H 2 addition. Moreover, with the increment in H 2 addition, NOx emission index increased and CO emission index decreased gradually. In addition, at the DME-dominated regime, NOx emission index increased fairly slowly

  19. Photolysis of H2O-H2O2 Mixtures: The Destruction of H2O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, M. J.; Fama, M.; Baragiola, R. A.; Carlson, R. W.

    2013-01-01

    We present laboratory results on the loss of H2O2 in solid H2O + H2O2 mixtures at temperatures between 21 and 145 K initiated by UV photolysis (193 nm). Using infrared spectroscopy and microbalance gravimetry, we measured the decrease of the 3.5 micrometer infrared absorption band during UV irradiation and obtained a photodestruction cross section that varies with temperature, being lowest at 70 K. We use our results, along with our previously measured H2O2 production rates via ionizing radiation and ion energy fluxes from the spacecraft to compare H2O2 creation and destruction at icy satellites by ions from their planetary magnetosphere and from solar UV photons. We conclude that, in many cases, H2O2 is not observed on icy satellite surfaces because the H2O2 photodestruction rate is much higher than the production rate via energetic particles, effectively keeping the H2O2 infrared signature at or below the noise level.

  20. H2O2: A Dynamic Neuromodulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Margaret E.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence implicates hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as an intra- and intercellular signaling molecule that can influence processes from embryonic development to cell death. Most research has focused on relatively slow signaling, on the order of minutes to days, via second messenger cascades. However, H2O2 can also mediate subsecond signaling via ion channel activation. This rapid signaling has been examined most thoroughly in the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) pathway, which plays a key role in facilitating movement mediated by the basal ganglia. In DA neurons of the substantia nigra, endogenously generated H2O2 activates ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels that inhibit DA neuron firing. In the striatum, H2O2 generated downstream from glutamatergic AMPA receptor activation in medium spiny neurons acts as a diffusible messenger that inhibits axonal DA release, also via KATP channels. The source of dynamically generated H2O2 is mitochondrial respiration; thus, H2O2 provides a novel link between activity and metabolism via KATP channels. Additional targets of H2O2 include transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. In contrast to the inhibitory effect of H2O2 acting via KATP channels, TRP channel activation is excitatory. This review describes emerging roles of H2O2 as a signaling agent in the nigrostriatal pathway and other basal ganglia neurons. PMID:21666063

  1. Dissociative recombination of molecular ions H2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abarenov, A.V.; Marchenko, V.S.

    1989-01-01

    The total cross sections of dissociation and dissociative recombination of slow electrons and molecular ions H 2 + have been calculated in terms of the quasiclassical and dipole approximations. In the calculations allowance was made for the quantum nature of vibrational motion of heavy particles and presence of autoionization of divergence states of the H 2 (Σ u , nl) molecules. It is shown that the H 2 + ion dissociation cross sections are dominant in increase of the electron energy in the ε >or approx. 2-3 eV region for H 2 + (v) ion distribution over the vibrational levels characteristic for the beam experiments. 15 refs.; 5 figs

  2. Near-Infrared [Fe II] and H2 Study of the Galactic Supernova Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Hyun; Koo, Bon-Chul; Lee, Jae-Joon; Jaffe, Daniel T.; Burton, Michael G.; Ryder, Stuart D.

    2018-01-01

    We have searched for near-infrared (NIR) [Fe II] (1.644 μm) and H2 1-0 S(1) (2.122 μm) emission features associated with Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) using the narrow-band imaging surveys UWIFE / UWISH2 (UKIRT Widefield Infrared Survey for [Fe II] / H2). Both surveys cover about 180 square degrees of the first Galactic quadrant (7° reversal” phenomenon, i.e., the H2 emission features are detected outside the [Fe II] emission boundary. We carried out high resolution (R~40,000) NIR H- and K-band spectroscopy of the five SNRs showing the [Fe II]-H2 reversal (G11.2-0.3, KES 73, W44, 3C 396, W49B) using IGRINS (Immersion GRating INfrared Spectrograph). Various ro-vibrational H2 lines have been detected, which are used to derive the kinematic distances to the SNRs and to investigate the origin of the H2 emission. The detected H2 lines show broad line width (> 10 km s-1) and line flux ratios of thermal excitation. We discuss the origin of the extended H2 emission features beyond the the [Fe II] emission boundary.

  3. H2-H2O-HI Hydrogen Separation in H2-H2O-HI Gaseous Mixture Using the Silica Membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandiangan, Tumpal

    2002-01-01

    It was evaluated aiming at the application for hydrogen iodide decomposition in the thermochemical lS process. Porous alumina tube having pore size of 0.1 μm was modified by chemical vapor deposition using tetraethoxysilane. The permeance single gas of He, H 2 , and N 2 was measured at 300-600 o C. Hydrogen permeance of the modified membrane at a permeation temperature of 600 o C was about 5.22 x 10 -08 mol/Pa m 2 s, and 3.2 x 10 -09 of using gas mixture of H 2 -H 2 O-HI, where as HI permeances was below 1 x 10 -10 mol/Pa m 2 s. The Hydrogen permeance relative was not changed after 25 hours exposure in a mixture of H 2 -H 2 O-HI gas at the temperature of 450 o C. (author)

  4. Dissociative charge exchange of H2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruijn, D. de.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to molecular dissociation, in particular the dissociation of the hydrogen molecule H 2 arising from electron capture of its ion H 2 + in a collision. Thereby the important practical question how a chemical bond can be broken is implicitly addressed. This thesis opens (chapter I) with an overview of the available experimental approaches in molecular physics. Further the simple Demkov model for NRCE is described. In chapter II a novel experimental technique for measurements on dissociative processes is introduced which combines a high efficiency with a high energy resolution. A detailed description of the techniques applied in the detector, which has a high spatial and timing resolution with 30 μm and 350 psec FWHM respectively for the detection of one particle, is given in chapter III. A semi-classical theory for NRCE in the medium energy range between a diatomic molecular ion and an atom is developed in chapter IV. The experiments on dissociative charge exchange of H 2 + with Ar, Mg, Na and Cs targets at keV energies are described in Chapter V. The predissociation of the c 3 PIsub(u)-state of H 2 populated after charge exchange of H 2 with several targets at keV energies; is the subject of chapter VI. In chapter VII, orientational oscillations in the cross section for charge exchange of H 2 + with alkali targets are discussed. The last chapter deals with predissociation of highly excited states in H 2 . (Auth.)

  5. Histone H2AX in DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowska, H.; Szumiel, I.

    2002-01-01

    The paper reviews the recent reports on the role of the phosphorylated histone H2AX (γ-H2AX). The modification of this histone is an important part of the cellular response to the induction of DNA double strand brakes (DSB) by ionising radiation and other DSB-generating factors. In irradiated cells the modification is carried out mainly by ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) kinase, the enzyme that starts the alarm signalling upon induction of DSB.γ-H2AX molecules are formed within 1-3 min after irradiation and form foci at the sites of DSB. This seems to be necessary for the recruitment of repair factors that are later present in foci of damaged nuclei. Modification of a constant percentage of H2AX molecules per DSB takes place, corresponding to chromatin domains of megabase of DNA. (author)

  6. H2SO4-HNO3-H2O ternary system in the stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, C. S.; Hamill, P.

    1974-01-01

    Estimation of the equilibrium vapor pressure over the ternary system H2SO4-HNO3-H2O to study the possibility of stratospheric aerosol formation involving HNO3. It is shown that the vapor pressures for the ternary system H2SO4-HNO3-H2O with weight composition around 70-80% H2SO4, 10-20% HNO3, 10-20% H2O at -50 C are below the order of 10 to the minus 8th mm Hg. It is concluded that there exists more than sufficient nitric acid and water vapor in the stratosphere to participate in ternary system aerosol formation at -50 C. Therefore, HNO3 should be present in stratospheric aerosols, provided that H2SO4 is also present.

  7. Autoionizing np Rydberg states of H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, E.Y.; Helm, H.; Kachru, R.

    1989-01-01

    We report a study of the autoionizing np Rydberg states near the lowest ionization threshold of H 2 . Using resonant two-photon excitation, intermediate states in specific rotovibrational levels in the double well, E,F 1 Σ/sub g/ + states are prepared. Then, a second, tunable laser is used to photoionize via excitation of the np Rydberg states. Because of the stepwise laser excitation scheme employed in our experiment the photoionization occurs from states with vibrational wave functions very similar to those of the H 2 + core. As a consequence, the autoionizing states appear as nearly symmetric resonances, rather than the highly asymmetric Beutler-Fano profiles observed from the direct photoexcitation from the ground state of H 2 . Our experiments show that the J = 1 np states are broader than the J = 3 np states converging to the same limit, suggesting that the two states autoionize into the epsilon-cp and epsilon-cf continuum, respectively. We compare our observations with a theoretical analysis using a multichannel quantum defect theory. The J = 1 states reveal the profound effect caused by the perturbation of the autoionizing Rydberg series converging to the lowest vibrational and rotational state of H 2 + by low-n states converging to higher vibrational states of the H 2 -ion core

  8. Impact of a future H2 transportation on atmospheric pollution in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, M. E.; Segers, A. J.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Krol, M. C.; Visschedijk, A. J. H.; Schaap, M.; Röckmann, T.

    2015-07-01

    Hydrogen (H2) is being explored as a fuel for passenger vehicles; it can be used in fuel cells to power electric motors or burned in internal combustion engines. In order to evaluate the potential influence of a future H2-based road transportation on the regional air quality in Europe, we implemented H2 in the atmospheric transport and chemistry model LOTOS-EUROS. We simulated the present and future (2020) air quality, using emission scenarios with different proportions of H2 vehicles and different H2 leakage rates. The reference future scenario does not include H2 vehicles, and assumes that all present and planned European regulations for emissions are fully implemented. We find that, in general, the air quality in 2020 is significantly improved compared to the current situation in all scenarios, with and without H2 cars. In the future scenario without H2 cars, the pollution is reduced due to the strict European regulations: annually averaged CO, NOx and PM2.5 over the model domain decrease by 15%, 30% and 20% respectively. The additional improvement brought by replacing 50% or 100% of traditionally-fueled vehicles by H2 vehicles is smaller in absolute terms. If 50% of vehicles are using H2, the CO, NOx and PM2.5 decrease by 1%, 10% and 1% respectively, compared to the future scenario without H2 cars. When all vehicles run on H2, then additional decreases in CO, NOx and PM2.5 are 5%, 40%, and 5% relative to the no-H2 cars future scenario. Our study shows that H2 vehicles may be an effective pathway to fulfill the strict future EU air quality regulations. O3 has a more complicated behavior - its annual average decreases in background areas, but increases in the high-NOx area in western Europe, with the decrease in NOx. A more detailed analysis shows that the population exposure to high O3 levels decreases nevertheless. In all future scenarios, traffic emissions account for only a small proportion of the total anthropogenic emissions, thus it becomes more important

  9. H-2 restriction: Independent recognition of H-2 and foreign antigen by a single receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siliciano, Robert F.; Zacharchuk, Charles M.; Shin, Hyun S.

    1980-01-01

    We describe two situations in which the recognition of hapten can compensate for the lack of recognition of appropriate H-2 gene products in hapten-specific, H-2 restricted, T lymphocyte-mediated cytolysis. First, we show that although recognition of appropriate H-2 gene products is essential for the lysis of target cells bearing a low hapten density, significant hapten-specific lysis of H-2 inappropriate target cells is observed at high levels of target cell derivatization. Secondly, we show that hapten-conjugated anti-H-2 antibody inhibits cytolysis poorly even though its binding to target cell H-2 antigens is equivalent to that of underivatized antibody. These results suggest that hapten and H-2 are recognized independently and are therefore inconsistent with the altered-self model. Although our data do not exclude the dual-recognition model, we prefer to interpret them within the framework of a single-receptor model in which hapten and H-2 are recognized independently by receptors of identical idiotype on the T cell. We postulate that the affinity of these receptors for the relevant H-2 gene product is low enough so that the T cell is not activated by encounters with normal-self cells expressing that H-2 gene product. However, when self cells express in addition a foreign antigen that can also be recognized by the same receptor, then the force of T cell-target cell interaction may be increased sufficiently to activate T cell effector function. PMID:6966404

  10. H2 molecules and the intercloud medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.K.; Hollenbach, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    We discuss expected column of densities of H 2 in the intercloud medium and the possible use of molecules as indicators of intercloud physical conditions. We treat molecule formation by the H - process and on graphite grains and show that the Barlow-Silk hypothesis of a 1 eV semichemical hydrogen-graphite bond leads to a large enhancement of the intercloud molecule formation rate. Rotational excitation calculations are presented for both cloud and intercloud conditions which show, in agreement with Jura, that the presently observed optically thin H 2 absorption components are more likely to originate in cold clouds than in the intercloud medium

  11. VUV photoionization cross sections of HO2, H2O2, and H2CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Leah G; Shen, Linhan; Savee, John D; Eddingsaas, Nathan C; Welz, Oliver; Taatjes, Craig A; Osborn, David L; Sander, Stanley P; Okumura, Mitchio

    2015-02-26

    The absolute vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization spectra of the hydroperoxyl radical (HO2), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and formaldehyde (H2CO) have been measured from their first ionization thresholds to 12.008 eV. HO2, H2O2, and H2CO were generated from the oxidation of methanol initiated by pulsed-laser-photolysis of Cl2 in a low-pressure slow flow reactor. Reactants, intermediates, and products were detected by time-resolved multiplexed synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry. Absolute concentrations were obtained from the time-dependent photoion signals by modeling the kinetics of the methanol oxidation chemistry. Photoionization cross sections were determined at several photon energies relative to the cross section of methanol, which was in turn determined relative to that of propene. These measurements were used to place relative photoionization spectra of HO2, H2O2, and H2CO on an absolute scale, resulting in absolute photoionization spectra.

  12. Remote control of the dissociative ionization of H2 based on electron-H2 + entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Ping; He, Feng

    2018-04-01

    The single ionization of H2 in strong laser fields creates the correlated electron-H2 + pair. Based on such a correlation, we conceive a strategy to control the energy spectra of the freed electron or dissociative fragments by simulating the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. Two attosecond pulses in a train produce the replica of electron-H2 + pairs, which are to be steered by a time-delayed phase-stabilized (mid)infrared laser pulse. By controlling the behavior of the freed electron, the dissociation of H2 + can be controlled even though there is no direct laser-H2 + coupling. On the other hand, the photoelectron energy spectra can be manipulated via laser-H2 + coupling. This study demonstrates the entanglement of molecular quantum wave packets, and affords a route to remotely control molecular dissociative ionization.

  13. Catalytical conversion from ortho-H2 to para-H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corat, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    The classical theory of ortho to para-H 2 conversion is discussed, considering the catalytical action of an inhomogeneous magnetic field on a surface with magnetic particles. In particular, the use of charcoal as a catalyst at low temperatures (77 0 K) is considered and some results are presented. The development of a sensor for the determination of para-H 2 concentration in H 2 gas is studied. Experimental results with this sensor are also shown. (Author) [pt

  14. UV Raman spectroscopy of H2-air flames excited with a narrowband KrF laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, John A.

    1990-01-01

    Raman spectra of H2 and H2O in flames excited by a narrowband KrF excimer laser are reported. Observations are made over a porous-plug, flat-flame burner reacting H2 in air, fuel-rich with nitrogen dilution to control the temperature, and with an H2 diffusion flame. Measurements made from UV Raman spectra show good agreement with measurements made by other means, both for gas temperature and relative major species concentrations. Laser-induced fluorescence interferences arising from OH and O2 are observed in emission near the Raman spectra. These interferences do not preclude Raman measurements, however.

  15. Study of the solubility, viscosity and density in Na+, Zn2+/Cl− − H2O, Na+ − Zn2+ − (H2PO2)− − H2O, Na+, Cl−/(H2PO2)− − H2O, and Zn2+, Cl−/(H2PO2)− − H2O ternary systems, and in Na+, Zn2+/Cl−, (H2PO2)−//H2O reciprocal quaternary system at 273.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adiguzel, Vedat; Erge, Hasan; Alisoglu, Vahit; Necefoglu, Hacali

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The physicochemical properties of ternary and one quaternary have been studied. • Reciprocal quaternary systems’ solubility and phase equilibrium have been studied. • In all systems the solid phases have been found. • It was found that Zn(H 2 PO 2 ) 2 salt contains 70% of the general crystallization field. - Abstract: The solubility and the physicochemical properties (density, viscosity) in the Na-Zn- Cl-H 2 O), (Na + Zn + H 2 PO 2 + H 2 O), (Na + Cl + H 2 PO 2 + H 2 O), and (Zn + Cl + H 2 PO 2 + H 2 O) ternaries, and in Na + , Zn 2+ /Cl − , (H 2 PO 2 ) − //H 2 O reciprocal quaternary systems at T = 273.15 K were investigated by using the isothermal method. The diagrams of ternary salts systems, (NaCl + ZnCl 2 + H 2 O), (NaCl + NaH 2 PO 2 + H 2 O), (NaH 2 PO 2 + Zn(H 2 PO 2 ) 2 + H 2 O), (ZnCl 2 + Zn(H 2 PO 2 ) 2 + H 2 O), are plotted in figures 1–4. However, whole ions of reciprocal quaternary salt systems are plotted in figure 5. Additionally, the density and viscosity values of ternary systems vs. their corresponding composition values in weight per cent are plotted in figures 6–10. At the (i) (ZnCl 2 + Zn(H 2 PO 2 ) 2 + H 2 O), (ii) (NaCl + ZnCl 2 + H 2 O), (iii) (NaCl + NaH 2 PO 2 + H 2 O), (iv) (NaH 2 PO 2 + Zn(H 2 PO 2 ) 2 + H 2 O) ternary systems the solid phase compositions have been determined as: (i) Zn(H 2 PO 2 ) 2 ⋅ H 2 O, Zn(H 2 PO 2 ) 2 , ZnCl 2 ⋅ 2H 2 O, (ii) NaCl, 2NaCl ⋅ ZnCl 2 ⋅ 2H 2 O, and ZnCl 2 ⋅ 2H 2 O, (iii) NaCl and NaH 2 PO 2 ⋅ H 2 O, (iv) Zn(H 2 PO 2 ) 2 ⋅ H 2 O and NaH 2 PO 2 ⋅ H 2 O, respectively. On the other hand reciprocal quaternary system was observed as: ZnCl 2 ⋅ 2H 2 O, 2NaCl ⋅ ZnCl 2 ⋅ 2H 2 O, Zn(H 2 PO 2 ) 2 ⋅ H 2 O, NaH 2 PO 2 ⋅ H 2 O, NaCl. According to results, the least soluble salt was Zn(H 2 PO 2 ) 2 . The crystallization field of this salt, being the largest in comparison with those of other salts, occupied 70% of the general crystallization field

  16. EPA H2O Software Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA H2O allows user to: Understand the significance of EGS in Tampa Bay watershed; visually analyze spatial distribution of the EGS in Tampa Bay watershed; obtain map and summary statistics of EGS values in Tampa Bay watershed; analyze and compare potential impacts of development...

  17. The molecular hydrogen explorer H2EX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boulanger, F.; Maillard, J. P.; Appleton, P.; Falgarone, E.; Lagache, G.; Schulz, B.; Wakker, B. P.; Bressan, A.; Cernicharo, J.; Charmandaris, V.; Drissen, L.; Helou, G.; Henning, T.; Lim, T. L.; Valentjin, E. A.; Abergel, A.; Bourlot, J. Le; Bouzit, M.; Cabrit, S.; Combes, F.; Deharveng, J. M.; Desmet, P.; Dole, H.; Dumesnil, C.; Dutrey, A.; Fourmond, J. J.; Gavila, E.; Grangé, R.; Gry, C.; Guillard, P.; Guilloteau, S.; Habart, E.; Huet, B.; Joblin, C.; Langer, M.; Longval, Y.; Madden, S. C.; Martin, C.; Miville-Deschênes, M. A.; Pineau Des Forêts, G.; Pointecouteau, E.; Roussel, H.; Tresse, L.; Verstraete, L.; Viallefond, F.; Bertoldi, F.; Jorgensen, J.; Bouwman, J.; Carmona, A.; Krause, O.; Baruffolo, A.; Bonoli, C.; Bortoletto, F.; Danese, L.; Granato, G. L.; Pernechele, C.; Rampazzo, R.; Silva, L.; Zotti, G. De; Pardo, J.; Spaans, M.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Wild, W.; Ferlet, M. J.; Ramsay Howat, S. K.; Smith, M. D.; Swinyard, B.; Wright, G. S.; Joncas, G.; Martin, P. G.; Davis, C. J.; Draine, B. T.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Mainzer, A. K.; Ogle, P.; Rinehart, S. A.; Stacey, G. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    The Molecular Hydrogen Explorer, H2 EX, was proposed in response to the ESA 2015 - 2025 Cosmic Vision Call as a medium class space mission with NASA and CSA participations. The mission, conceived to understand the formation of galaxies, stars and planets from molecular hydrogen, is designed to

  18. EPA H2O User Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA H2O is a software tool designed to support research being conducted in the Tampa Bay watershed to provide information, data, and approaches and guidance that communities can use to examine alternatives when making strategic decisions to support a prosperous and environmentall...

  19. Isotopic equilibrium constants of the deuterium exchange between HDO and H2S, H2Se and H2Te

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, D.

    1959-11-01

    We have determined experimentally the equilibrium constant K of each of the following isotope exchanges: SH 2 + OHD ↔ SHD + OH 2 ; SeH 2 + OHD ↔ SeHD + OH 2 ; TeH 2 + OHD ↔ TeHD + OH 2 . In gaseous phase, statistical thermodynamics leads to the expression: K (Z OHD x Z RH 2 )/(Z OH 2 x Z RHD ) x e W/T (R being the elements S, Se or Te). Z, the partition functions, have been calculated and, through our experimental results, the constant W has been determined. Having obtained W, the equilibrium constant K has been calculated for a series of temperatures. (author) [fr

  20. H2O maser flare in Orion A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveenko, L.I.; Moran, J.M.; Genzel, R.

    1982-01-01

    The flare of H 2 O maser emission in Orion A was observed with the Crimea--Effelsberg and Haystack--Green Bank interferometers in November 1979. Its position is α = 5/sup h/32/sup m/46/sup s/.6 +- 0/sup s/.06, delta = -5 0 24'.28''.7 +- 1'' (1950.0); its radial velocity, 8 km/sec. The asymmetric line profile has a 28-kHz halfwidth. The flare source comprises a 0''.0005 core (T/sub b/ = 5 x 10 16 0 K) embedded in a 0''.005 halo (T/sub b/ = 3 x 10 14 0 K)

  1. THE DISTRIBUTION AND CHEMISTRY OF H2CO IN THE DM TAU PROTOPLANETARY DISK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, Ryan A.; Öberg, Karin I.; Guzman, Viviana V.; Cleeves, L. Ilsedore; Andrews, Sean M.

    2015-01-01

    H 2 CO ice on dust grains is an important precursor of complex organic molecules (COMs). H 2 CO gas can be readily observed in protoplanetary disks and may be used to trace COM chemistry. However, its utility as a COM probe is currently limited by a lack of constraints on the relative contributions of two different formation pathways: on icy grain surfaces and in the gas phase. We use archival Atacama Large (sub-)Millimeter Array observations of the resolved distribution of H 2 CO emission in the disk around the young low-mass star DM Tau to assess the relative importance of these formation routes. The observed H 2 CO emission has a centrally peaked and radially broad brightness profile (extending out to 500 AU). We compare these observations with disk chemistry models with and without grain-surface formation reactions and find that both gas and grain-surface chemistry are necessary to explain the spatial distribution of the emission. Gas-phase H 2 CO production is responsible for the observed central peak, while grain-surface chemistry is required to reproduce the emission exterior to the CO snow line (where H 2 CO mainly forms through the hydrogenation of CO ice before being non-thermally desorbed). These observations demonstrate that both gas and grain-surface pathways contribute to the observed H 2 CO in disks and that their relative contributions depend strongly on distance from the host star

  2. Proof of shock-excited H2 in low-ionization structure of PNe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akras, Stavros; Gonçalves, Denise R.; Ramos-Larios, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    We report the detection of near-IR H 2 line emission from the low-ionization structures (LISs) in planetary nebulae. The deepest, high-angular resolution H 2 1-0 S(1) at 2.122 μm, and H 2 2-1 S(1) at 2.248 μm images of K 4-47 and NGC 7662, obtained using NIRI@Gemini-North, are presented here. K 4-47 reveals a remarkable high-collimated bipolar structure, with the H 2 emission emanating from the walls of the outflows and a pair of knots at the tips of these outflows. The H 2 1-0 S(1)/2-1 S(1) line ratio is ∼⃒7-8 which indicates shock interaction due to both the lateral expansion of the gas and the high-velocity knots. The strongest line, H 2 v=1-0 S(1), is also detected in several LISs located at the periphery of the outer shell of the elliptical PN NGC 7662, whereas only four knots are detected in the H 2 v = 2-1 S(1) line. These knots have H 2 v = 1-0 S(1)/v = 2-1 S(1) values between 3 and 5. These data confirm the presence of molecular gas in both highly (K 4-47) and slowly moving LISs (NGC 7662). The H 2 emission in K 4-47 is powered by shocks, whereas in NGC 7662 is due to photo-ionization by the central star. Moreover, a likely correlation is found between the H 2 v = 1-0 S(1)/H 2 v = 2-1 S(1) and [N II]/Hα line ratios. (paper)

  3. The Orion Fingers: H2 Temperatures and Excitation in an Explosive Outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngblood, Allison; France, Kevin; Ginsburg, Adam; Hoadley, Keri; Bally, John

    2018-04-01

    We measure H2 temperatures and column densities across the Orion Becklin-Neugebauer/Kleinmann-Low (BN/KL) explosive outflow from a set of 13 near-infrared (IR) H2 rovibrational emission lines observed with the TripleSpec spectrograph on Apache Point Observatory’s 3.5 m telescope. We find that most of the region is well characterized by a single temperature (∼2000–2500 K), which may be influenced by the limited range of upper-energy levels (6000–20,000 K) probed by our data set. The H2 column density maps indicate that warm H2 comprises 10‑5–10‑3 of the total H2 column density near the center of the outflow. Combining column density measurements for co-spatial H2 and CO at T = 2500 K, we measure a CO/H2 fractional abundance of 2 × 10‑3 and discuss possible reasons why this value is in excess of the canonical 10‑4 value, including dust attenuation, incorrect assumptions on co-spatiality of the H2 and CO emission, and chemical processing in an extreme environment. We model the radiative transfer of H2 in this region with ultraviolet (UV) pumping models to look for signatures of H2 fluorescence from H I Lyα pumping. Dissociative (J-type) shocks and nebular emission from the foreground Orion H II region are considered as possible Lyα sources. From our radiative transfer models, we predict that signatures of Lyα pumping should be detectable in near-IR line ratios given a sufficiently strong source, but such a source is not present in the BN/KL outflow. The data are consistent with shocks as the H2 heating source.

  4. Reactions of electronically excited molecular nitrogen with H2 and H2O molecules: theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelevkin, Alexey V.; Sharipov, Alexander S.

    2018-05-01

    Comprehensive quantum chemical analysis with the usage of the second-order perturbation multireference XMCQDPT2 approach was carried out to study the processes in the   +  H2 and   +  H2O systems. The energetically favorable reaction pathways have been revealed based on the exploration of potential energy surfaces. It has been shown that the reactions   +  H2 and   +  H2O occur with small activation barriers and, primarily, lead to the formation of N2H  +  H and N2H  +  OH products, respectively. Further, the interaction of these species could give rise to the ground state and H2 (or H2O) products, however, the estimations, based on RRKM theory and dynamic reaction coordinate calculations, exhibited that the   +  H2 and   +  H2O reactions lead to the dissociative quenching predominately. Appropriate rate constants for revealed reaction channels have been estimated by using a canonical variational theory and capture approximation. Corresponding three-parameter Arrhenius expressions for the temperature range T  =  300  ‑  3000 K were reported.

  5. High purity H2/H2O/Ni/SZ electrodes at 500º C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh, Jens Valdemar Thorvald; Hansen, Karin Vels; Norrman, Kion

    2013-01-01

    of stabilized zirconia (SZ) with 10, 13 and 18 mol% yttria and one with 6 mol% scandia plus 4 mol% yttria were studied at open circuit voltage at 400-500 C in mixtures of H2/H2O over 46 days. The polarization resistances (Rp) for all samples increased significantly during the first 10-20 days at 500 C...

  6. Fabry-Perot observations of Comet Halley H2O(+)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherb, F.; Roesler, F.L.D.; Harlander, J.; Magee-sauer, K.

    1990-01-01

    Fabry-Perot scanning spectrometer observations of Comet Halley's H 2 O(+) emissions have yielded 6158.64 and 6158.85 A spin doublet data at distances in the range of 0 to 2 million km from the comet heat in the antisunward direction. Cometary plasma outflow velocities were ascertained on the basis of the emissions' Doppler shifts, yielding results that were mostly but not exclusively consistent with the plasma's constant antisunward acceleration; the acceleration varied from night to night of observations over a 30-300 cm/sec range. The unusual plasma kinematics of December 14-15, 1985, and January 10, 1986, may be associated with the tail-disconnection activity observed by others. 30 refs

  7. Investigations on H2 combustion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breitung, W.; Hesselschwerdt, E.; Massier, H.; Moeschke, M.; Redlinger, R.; Wilkening, H.; Werle, H.; Wolff, J.

    1995-01-01

    During 1994 results were obtained for turbulent deflagrations, detonation ignition criteria, and detonations. In the field of turbulent deflagrations, two different 2-d codes have been developed, which are capable of describing the large spectrum of combustion regimes important for severe accident analysis. Two series of large scale experiments on turbulent H 2 -air combustion have been completed, one with premixed atmospheres, one with dynamic H 2 -injection into the test volume. They provided new clean data for code evaluation on reactor relevant scale (up to 480 m 3 volume). In the field of detonation ignition criteria different mechanisms were investigated which can trigger a transition from deflagration to detonation (DDT). Large scale experiments were performed on turbulent jet ignition of unconfined H 2 -air mixtures. As in earlier small scale tests, detonation ignition was only observed above 25% hydrogen in air. Such reactive mixtures will be rare in severe accidents. Pressure wave focussing was also investigated experimentally. The Mach numbers necessary to trigger a local detonation in different geometries and in different H 2 -air mixtures were measured on small scale. The conditions necessary for a shockless detonation ignition by induction time gradients were calculated. Only close to the reactor pressure vessel the corresponding temperatures and temperature gradients can possibly exist, not in the remainder of the containment. In the field of detonation modeling the code development was completed. Detonation experiments were performed in a 12 m tube equipped with complex obstacles. Some of the data were used to validate the codes. The remaining analysis will be performed in early 1995. The codes can describe well all important physical phenomena which influence detonation loads in complex 3-d geometries. The validated codes were used to calculate local detonation loads in a preliminary EPR containment. (orig./HP)

  8. Electron mass stopping power in H2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fursa, Dmitry V.; Zammit, Mark C.; Threlfall, Robert L.; Savage, Jeremy S.; Bray, Igor

    2017-08-01

    Calculations of electron mass stopping power (SP) of electrons in H2 have been performed using the convergent close-coupling method for incident electron energies up to 2000 eV. Convergence of the calculated SP has been established by increasing the size of the close-coupling expansion from 9 to 491 states. Good agreement was found with the SP measurements of Munoz et al. [Chem. Phys. Lett. 433, 253 (2007), 10.1016/j.cplett.2006.10.114].

  9. Solid H2 in the interstellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füglistaler, A.; Pfenniger, D.

    2018-06-01

    Context. Condensation of H2 in the interstellar medium (ISM) has long been seen as a possibility, either by deposition on dust grains or thanks to a phase transition combined with self-gravity. H2 condensation might explain the observed low efficiency of star formation and might help to hide baryons in spiral galaxies. Aims: Our aim is to quantify the solid fraction of H2 in the ISM due to a phase transition including self-gravity for different densities and temperatures in order to use the results in more complex simulations of the ISM as subgrid physics. Methods: We used molecular dynamics simulations of fluids at different temperatures and densities to study the formation of solids. Once the simulations reached a steady state, we calculated the solid mass fraction, energy increase, and timescales. By determining the power laws measured over several orders of magnitude, we extrapolated to lower densities the higher density fluids that can be simulated with current computers. Results: The solid fraction and energy increase of fluids in a phase transition are above 0.1 and do not follow a power law. Fluids out of a phase transition are still forming a small amount of solids due to chance encounters of molecules. The solid mass fraction and energy increase of these fluids are linearly dependent on density and can easily be extrapolated. The timescale is below one second, the condensation can be considered instantaneous. Conclusions: The presence of solid H2 grains has important dynamic implications on the ISM as they may be the building blocks for larger solid bodies when gravity is included. We provide the solid mass fraction, energy increase, and timescales for high density fluids and extrapolation laws for lower densities.

  10. Dissociative phototionization cross sections of H2, SO2 and H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y.

    1989-01-01

    The partial photoionization cross sections of H 2 , SO 2 , and H 2 O were calculated from the measured photoionization branching ratios and the known total photoionization cross sections. The branching ratios were measured with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer and synchrotron radiation. The branching ratios Of H 2 , SO 2 , and H 2 O were measured for 100 ∼ 410, 150 ∼ 380 and 120 ∼ 720 angstrom. The author also measured the photoionization yield Of SO 2 from 520 to 665 angstrom using a double ion chamber and a glow discharge light source. The principle of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer is explained. New calculations were made to see how the design of the mass spectrometer, applied voltage, and kinetic energy of the ions affect the overall performance of the mass spectrometer. Several useful techniques that we used at the synchrotron for wavelength calibration and higher order suppression are also discussed

  11. Raman overtone intensities measured for H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelton, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    The Raman spectra of the vibrational fundamental, first overtone and second overtone transitions of the H 2 molecule were recorded using visible and ultraviolet argon--ion laser excitation. The ratios of transition polarizability matrix elements, α 01,21 /α 01,11 and α 01,31 /α 01,11 , were determined from the measured intensities of the Q(1) Raman lines v,J=0,1→v',1 for v'=1,2,3. The experimentally determined value of the Raman first overtone matrix element is in good agreement with the value from the best ab initio calculation

  12. Uranous nitrate production using PtO2 catalyst and H2/H2 gas mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, K.S.; Shyamlal, R.; Narayanan, C.V.; Patil, A.R.; Ramanujam, A.; Kansra, V.P.; Balu, K.; Vaidya, V.N.

    2001-01-01

    The feasibility of producing near 100% uranous nitrate, the partitioning agent used in the spent fuel reprocessing by Purex process, by catalytically reducing uranyl nitrate with H 2 and H 2 gas mixtures was extensively studied. As near quantitative reduction of uranyl nitrate could be easily achieved in laboratory scale studies, pilot plant scale reduction of uranyl nitrate was also carried out and five litres of uranyl nitrate of 100 g/1 could be quantitatively reduced in one hour. (author)

  13. Unexpected Far-Ultraviolet Photometric Characteristics On Mimas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, E. M.; Hendrix, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    While infrared and visible are the most common wavelength domains used to investigate planetary surfaces, ultraviolet (UV) data are significant and useful. Here, we present the first far-UV phase curves of Mimas, thus displaying another piece of the Saturnian System puzzle. Our preliminary results shows that, one more time, Mimas surface properties are far from what we was expected. Namely, we observe a leading hemisphere brighter than the trailing hemisphere at some far-UV wavelengths. We used the far-UV channel of the Cassini/UVIS instrument, ranging from 118 to 190 nm. Disk-integrated phase curves for the leading hemisphere and the trailing hemisphere, at 180nm, have been produced. Data points span from 0.5 to 163.5 degrees in phase angle. Mimas displays a leading hemisphere brighter than its trailing hemisphere, when theory and previous Voyager observations at longer wavelengths attest of a brighter trailing hemisphere due to the impact of the E-ring grains on this face of the satellite. Surprisingly, UVIS data show a very bright opposition effect on Mimas leading hemisphere, greater than what is observed on Tethys or Dione leading hemisphere at the same wavelength of 180 nm. Preliminary results of photometric properties modeling seem to indicate an important contribution of the coherent-backscattering process in the opposition surge. Exogenic processes such as bombardment by energetic electrons and/or E-ring grains are discussed to explain this unexpected surface property of Mimas.

  14. SOLARNET & LAIME: Imaging & Spectroscopy in the Far Ultraviolet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damé, Luc; Koutchmy, Serge

    SOLARNET is a medium size high resolution solar physics mission proposed to CNES and ESA for a new start in 2007 and a possible launch in 2012 (CNES) or later (ESA Cosmic Vision framework: 2015-2016). Partnerships with India and China are under discussion, and several European contributions are considered. At the center of the SOLARNET mission is a 3-telescope interferometer of 1 meter baseline capable to provide 40 times the best ever spatial resolution achieved in Space with previous, current or even planned solar missions: 20 mas - 20 km on the Sun in the FUV. The interferometer is associated to an on-axis Subtractive Double Monochromator coupled to an Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer capable of high spectral (0.01 nm) and high temporal resolutions (50 ms) on a field of view of 40 arcsec and covering the FUV and UV spectral domains (from 117.5 to 400 nm). This will allow to access process scales of magnetic reconnection, dissipation, emerging flux and much more, from the chromosphere to the low corona with emphasis on the transition zone where the magnetic confinement is expected to be maximum. A whole new chapter of the physics of solar magnetic field structuring, evolution and mapping from the photosphere to the high atmosphere will be opened. The interferometer is completed by instruments providing larger field of view and higher temperature (EUV-XUV coronal imaging & spectroscopy) to define the context and extension of the solar phenomena. The 3-telescope interferometer design results of an extensive laboratory demonstration program of interferometric imaging of extended objects. We will review the scientific program of SOLARNET, describe the interferometer concept and design, present the results of the breadboard and give a short overview of the mission aspects. In a different category, LAIME, the Lyman Alpha Imaging-Monitor Experiment, is a remarkably simple (no mechanisms) and compact full Sun imager to be flown with TESIS on the CORONAS-PHOTON mission in 2008. It could be the only chromospheric imager to be flown in the next years, supporting Solar-B, STEREO, SDO and the Belgian LYRA Lyman Alpha flux monitor. We will give a short description of this unique 60 mm aperture imaging telescope, dedicated to the investigation of the UV sources of solar variability and of the chromospheric and coronal disruptive events (Moreton waves, prominences, CMEs, etc.).

  15. S201 Catalog of Far-Ultraviolet Objects. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-06

    0 (pz r -r -r .r Sr -r -r 0 0 0 i t. 0i n Si n i Zr t0I In i l W tD 0 i 4~ -- MMMMMMS S oflor ZZ r-onInculp0 r m0 _ 0m W r r 0r- r-2r w m m - 0 w m...CARRUTHERS, AND HECKATHORN ww o22:w-p o 0> La0 -2 W~ ~ --- M-!l~f~ulj W -- l.- 0~* z. Z (L La LaJ (’uH flJ M m-flm~l N -- u M CL 000 0000 0000 0 0 0...2 f0 n.. M 2~ 0~n T 2 0MgFn flj - i m -rV f MNfuf r r 0 2 U 1 0 o 1 0 0 0 CO T JM ) M0t, ZLa 0 m2 m00 nj~nIO - - ~ - a0> 0 In 0 0 L. c" fl. in ( r

  16. Physiological responses of Escherichia coli to far-ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, P.A.

    1976-01-01

    The following topics are reviewed: photochemical damage to DNA; measurement of cell survival; DNA repair processes and genetics of radiation sensitivity; degradation of DNA and RNA; biochemical and physiological consequences; reactivation of bacteriophage in Escherichia coli cells; filament formation; influence of growth phase on survival after uv irradiation; and post-uv-irradiation treatment

  17. A Superpowerful Source of Far-Ultraviolet Monochromatic Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, E.P.; Ivanov, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    In several independent experiments investigating the interaction between the optical field of an intense laser pulse and a xenon cluster beam, we recorded an anomalously high quantum yield of the plasma radiation in the region 10-15 nm. In several cases, the conversion efficiency into the hemisphere reached 10% of the pumping pulse energy. The nature of this phenomenon has not yet been adequately explained. A high conversion efficiency is shown to be possible when producing a plasma with optimal parameters for the amplification of spontaneous radiation on Ni-like xenon transitions to be generated. In a collisional-radiative model, we performed detailed atomic-kinetic calculations of the gains and radiation spectra on the transitions with λ ≅ 4, 10, and 11.3 nm and in the region 13-13.9 nm. For each transition, we determined the time dependences of the gains on plasma parameters. The theoretical and experimental values of the optimal plasma parameters and energy yields of the radiation are in close agreement. Using a theoretical model, we propose possible plasma pumping schemes to achieve the maximum yield of the intense, narrowly beamed soft X-ray radiation. At a pumping pulse repetition rate of 10 4 Hz, the output power for various Ni-like xenon transitions ranges from 100 to 5 x 10 3 W

  18. Hydrogen Dynamics in Cyanobacteria Dominated Microbial Mats Measured by Novel Combined H2/H2S and H2/O2 Microsensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Maegaard

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen may accumulate to micromolar concentrations in cyanobacterial mat communities from various environments, but the governing factors for this accumulation are poorly described. We used newly developed sensors allowing for simultaneous measurement of H2S and H2 or O2 and H2 within the same point to elucidate the interactions between oxygen, sulfate reducing bacteria, and H2 producing microbes. After onset of darkness and subsequent change from oxic to anoxic conditions within the uppermost ∼1 mm of the mat, H2 accumulated to concentrations of up to 40 μmol L-1 in the formerly oxic layer, but with high variability among sites and sampling dates. The immediate onset of H2 production after darkening points to fermentation as the main H2 producing process in this mat. The measured profiles indicate that a gradual disappearance of the H2 peak was mainly due to the activity of sulfate reducing bacteria that invaded the formerly oxic surface layer from below, or persisted in an inactive state in the oxic mat during illumination. The absence of significant H2 consumption in the formerly oxic mat during the first ∼30 min after onset of anoxic conditions indicated absence of active sulfate reducers in this layer during the oxic period. Addition of the methanogenesis inhibitor BES led to increase in H2, indicating that methanogens contributed to the consumption of H2. Both H2 formation and consumption seemed unaffected by the presence/absence of H2S.

  19. Molecular beam scattering experiments with polar molecules. 1. Differential elastic scattering of H2+NH3 and H2+H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Scoles, G.; Smith, K.M.

    1974-01-01

    Differential elastic scattering cross sections with well resolved quantum oscillations have been measuremed for the systems H 2 +NH 3 and H 2 +H 2 O. Assuming a spherically symmetric interaction the data show that a simple spherical potential (i.e. Lennard-Jones) does not properly describe the scattering

  20. High spectral resolution observations of the H2 2.12 micron line in Herbig-Haro objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinnecker, H.; Mundt, R.; Geballe, T.R.; Zealey, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    High-spectral-resolution Fabry-Perot observations of the H 2 2.12-micron line emissions of several Herbig-Haro (HH) objects are discussed. It is shown that H 2 emission by the shock heating of external molecular gas in the wings of the bow shock associated with the working surface of a high-velocity jet may occur for HH objects associated with the jet's end. The shock heating of external molecular gas entrained in the flow by internal shocks occurring in the jet itself and/or in its boundary layer may be the H 2 emission mechanism for HH objects observed along the flow axis. 59 refs

  1. A process for the thermochemical poduction of H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, J.H.; Russell, J.L. Jr.; Porter, J.T. II; McCorkl, K.H.; Roemer, T.S.; Sharp, Robert.

    1976-01-01

    A process is described for the thermochemical production of H 2 from water. HI 3 and H 2 SO 4 are prepared by chemical reaction between I 2 , SO 2 and H 2 O. Then HI 3 is heated and decomposed into H 2 and I 2 . The heat is produced by a nuclear reactor [fr

  2. The synthesis of [2-3H2] taurine and [2-3H2] hypotaurine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellman, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The synthesis of [2- 3 H 2 ]-2-aminoethanesulfonate [2- 3 H]-taurine by the reduction of cyanomethanesulfonic acid with tritium gas is described. The conversion of [2- 3 H]-taurine and its 14 C and 35 S isotopic forms to 2-aminoethanesulfinate (hypotaurine) was accomplished by converting taurine to its corresponding sulfonyl chloride and reducing the latter with metallic zinc. (author)

  3. H2O2 space shuttle APU

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A cryogenic H2-O2 auxiliary power unit (APU) was developed and successfully demonstrated. It has potential application as a minimum weight alternate to the space shuttle baseline APU because of its (1) low specific propellant consumption and (2) heat sink capabilities that reduce the amount of expendable evaporants. A reference system was designed with the necessary heat exchangers, combustor, turbine-gearbox, valves, and electronic controls to provide 400 shp to two aircraft hydraulic pumps. Development testing was carried out first on the combustor and control valves. This was followed by development of the control subsystem including the controller, the hydrogen and oxygen control valves, the combustor, and a turbine simulator. The complete APU system was hot tested for 10 hr with ambient and cryogenic propellants. Demonstrated at 95 percent of design power was 2.25 lb/hp-hr. At 10 percent design power, specific propellant consumption was 4 lb/hp-hr with space simulated exhaust and 5.2 lb/hp-hr with ambient exhaust. A 10 percent specific propellant consumption improvement is possible with some seal modifications. It was demonstrated that APU power levels could be changed by several hundred horsepower in less than 100 msec without exceeding allowable turbine inlet temperatures or turbine speed.

  4. H2 Equilibrium Pressure with a Neg-Coated Vacuum Chamber as a Function of Temperature and H2 Concentration

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Adriana

    2006-01-01

    Non Evaporable Getter (NEG) coating is used in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) room-temperature sections to ensure a low residual gas pressure for its properties of distributed pumping, low outgassing and desorption under particle bombardment; and to limit or cure electron cloud build-up due to its low secondary electron emission. In certain regions of the LHC, and in particular close to the beam collimators, the temperature of the vacuum chamber is expected to rise due to energy deposition from particle losses. Hydrogen molecules are pumped by the NEG via dissociation on the surface, sorption at the superficial sites and diffusion into the NEG bulk. In the case of hydrogen, the sorption is thermally reversible, causing the dissociation pressure to increase with NEG temperature and amount of H2 pumped. Measurements were carried out on a stainless steel chamber coated with TiZrV NEG as a function of the H2 concentration and the chamber temperature, to estimate the residual gas pressure in the collimator region...

  5. Methodological aspects of breath hydrogen (H2) analysis. Evaluation of a H2 monitor and interpretation of the breath H2 test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Kokholm, G; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1987-01-01

    The reliability of end-expiratory hydrogen (H2) breath tests were assessed and the significance of some important pitfalls were studied, using a compact, rapid H2-monitor with electrochemical cells. The H2 response was shown to be linear and stable. The reproducibility of the breath collection...... were studied in 10 healthy adults during a 4-month period and they showed very marked inter- and intra-individual variability (16% above 40 p.p.m.). Initial peaks (early, short-lived H2 rises unrelated to carbohydrate malabsorption) were identified in 25% of the breath tests (in 4% above 20 p.......p.m). It is concluded that the technique used for interval sampling of end-expiratory breath samples for H2 concentration gives reliable results. The biological significance of H2 concentration increments can only be evaluated if the limitations of the technical procedures and the individual ability to produce H2...

  6. The effect of the partial pressure of H2 gas and atomic hydrogen on diamond films deposited using CH3OH/H2O gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwon-Jai; Koh, Jae-Gui; Shin, Jae-Soo; Kwon, Ki-Hong; Lee, Chang-Hee

    2006-01-01

    Diamond films were deposited on Si(100) substrates by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) with a CH 3 OH/H 2 O gas mixture while changing the gas ratio. The films were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, and optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The diamond films were grown with CH 3 OH being 52 % by volume of the gas mixture. The effect of atomic hydrogen on the film was different from that of the CH 4 /H 2 gas mixture. Analysis with OES during film growth indicated that among the thermally dissociated hydrogen radicals, only H α contributed to the etching of graphite.

  7. Increased H2CO production in the outer disk around HD 163296

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, M. T.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Loomis, R. A.; Salinas, V. N.; Öberg, K. I.; Qi, C.; Wilner, D. J.

    2017-09-01

    Context. The gas and dust in circumstellar disks provide the raw materials to form planets. The study of organic molecules and their building blocks in such disks offers insight into the origin of the prebiotic environment of terrestrial planets. Aims: We aim to determine the distribution of formaldehyde, H2CO, in the disk around HD 163296 to assess the contribution of gas- and solid-phase formation routes of this simple organic. Methods: Three formaldehyde lines were observed (H2CO 303-202, H2CO 322-221, and H2CO 321-220) in the protoplanetary disk around the Herbig Ae star HD 163296 with ALMA at 0.5″ (60 AU) spatial resolution. Different parameterizations of the H2CO abundance were compared to the observed visibilities, using either a characteristic temperature, a characteristic radius or a radial power law index to describe the H2CO chemistry. Similar models were applied to ALMA Science Verification data of C18O. In each scenario, χ2 minimization on the visibilities was used to determine the best-fit model in each scenario. Results: H2CO 303-202 was readily detected via imaging, while the weaker H2CO 322-221 and H2CO 321-220 lines required matched filter analysis to detect. H2CO is present throughout most of the gaseous disk, extending out to 550 AU. An apparent 50 AU inner radius of the H2CO emission is likely caused by an optically thick dust continuum. The H2CO radial intensity profile shows a peak at 100 AU and a secondary bump at 300 AU, suggesting increased production in the outer disk. In all modeling scenarios, fits to the H2CO data show an increased abundance in the outer disk. The overall best-fit H2CO model shows a factor of two enhancement beyond a radius of 270 ± 20 AU, with an inner abundance (relative to H2) of 2 - 5 × 10-12. The H2CO emitting region has a lower limit on the kinetic temperature of T> 20 K. The C18O modeling suggests an order of magnitude depletion of C18O in the outer disk and an abundance of 4 - 12 × 10-8 in the inner disk

  8. Experimental study on SI engine fuelled with butanol–gasoline blend and H2O addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Renhua; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Daming; Deng, Banglin; Fu, Jianqin; Liu, Jingping; Liu, Xiaoqiang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Ignition timing has been optimized. • 1% H 2 O has been added. • Positive results have been achieved in engine torque, BSEC, CO emissions and HC emissions. • NOx and CO 2 emissions go up. - Abstract: An experimental study was conducted on a single cylinder motorcycle engine for two operating modes of full load and partial load at 6500 rpm and 8500 rpm with pure gasoline and 35% volume butanol–gasoline blend. The engine ignition timing for 35% volume butanol–gasoline blend has been optimized, and 1% volume H 2 O has also been added to the butanol–gasoline blend fuel. Engine performance parameters, fuel economy and emissions have been measured and analyzed. The experimental results showed that engine torque, BSEC, CO emissions and HC emissions are better than that of pure gasoline at both full load and partial load with 35% volume butanol and 1% H 2 O addition, combined with the modified ignition timing. But NOx and CO 2 emissions are worse than that of the original level of pure gasoline

  9. Contribution of the pre-ionized H2 and the ionized H2+ subsystems to the HHG Spectra of H2 in intense laser fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iravani, Hossein; Sabzyan, Hassan; Vafaee, Mohsen; Buzari, Behnaz

    2018-04-01

    Contributions of the pre-ionized H2 (PI-H2) and ionized {{{H}}}2+ subsystems of the two-electron H2 system to its high-order harmonic generation in eight-cycle sin2-like ultrafast intense laser pulses are calculated and analyzed based on the solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the one-dimensional two-electronic H2 system with fixed nuclei. The laser pulses have λ = 390 and 532 nm wavelengths and I = 1 × 1014, 5 × 1014, 1 × 1015 and 5 × 1015 W cm‑2 intensities. It is found that at the two lower intensities, the PI-H2 subsystem dominantly produces the HHG spectra. However, at the two higher intensities, both PI-H2 and ionized {{{H}}}2+ subsystems contribute comparably to the HHG spectra. In the {{{H}}}2+ subsystem, the symmetry of the populations of {{{H}}}2+(I) and {{{H}}}2+(II) regions (left and right regions of {{{H}}}2+ subsystem) is broken by increasing the laser intensity. Complex patterns and even harmonics also appear at these two higher intensities. For instance, at 1 × 1015 W cm‑2 intensity and λ = 532 nm wavelength, the even harmonics are appeared near cutoff region. Interestingly, at 5 × 1015 W cm‑2 intensity and λ = 390 nm wavelength, the even harmonics replaced by the odd harmonics with red shift. At λ = 390 and 532 nm wavelengths and I = 1 × 1015 intensity, the two-electron cutoffs corresponding to nonsequential double-recombination with maximum return kinetic energy of 4.70Up are detected. The HHG spectra of the whole H2 system obtained with and without nuclear dynamics treated classically are approximately similar. However, at 1 × 1015 W cm‑2 intensity and λ = 532 nm wavelength, if we take into account nuclear dynamics, the even harmonics which are appeared near cutoff region, replaced by the odd harmonics with blue shift.

  10. Schroedinger equation from 0 (h/2π) to o(h/2πinfinity)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voros, A.

    1985-08-01

    The Balian and Bloch idea, that the semiclassical treatment of the Schroedinger equation can be carried out exactly to all orders, o(h/2πinfinity), has been explicitly confirmed upon the time-independent equation with a polynomial potential V(q) in one degree of freedom. The global analytic structure of certain functions, which encode the full eigenvalue distribution, has indeed been computed in great detail with the complex WKB method, yielding a structure called a resurgence algebra. In the special case V(q) = q 2 sub(M), this leads to sum rules for the eigenvalues, which have been verified numerically. Inasmuch as the leading order 0(h/2π) of the WKB expansion amounts to the stationary phase evaluation of the Feynman path integral, it is a yet unsolved challenge to reproduce our results by an exact analysis of this path integral using a generalized saddle-point treatment

  11. Structure of LaH(PO3H)2.3H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loukili, M.; Durand, J.; Larbot, A.; Cot, L.; Rafiq, M.

    1991-01-01

    Lanthanum hydrogen bis(hydrogenphosphite) trihydrate, LaH(Po 3 H) 2 .3H 2 O, M r =353.8, monoclinic, P2 1 /c, a=9.687 (3), b=7.138 (2), c=13.518 A, β=104.48 (3) deg, V=905.0 (5) A 3 , Z=4, D m =2.56 (2), D x =2.598 Mg m -3 , λ(MoKα)=0.71073 A, μ(MoKα)=5.103 mm -1 , F(000)=672, T=300 K, R=0.032 for 1018 independent observed reflections. The structure contains two phosphite anions connected by a hydrogen bond. The La 3+ cation is eight coordinated by seven O atoms from phosphite anions and one O atom of a water molecule. (orig.)

  12. Behaviour of ceramic and metallic layers in a H2O-H2S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furtuna, I.; Mihailescu, M.; Deaconu, M.; Dinu, A.; Cotolan, V; Nedelcu, L.; Titescu, Gh.

    1996-01-01

    In the installations for heavy water production there exist zones where the action of aggressive working conditions combined with a severe variable hydrodynamical regime lead to the destruction of the pyrite protecting layer. An alternating solution for the protection of these zones is to cover them with ceramic or metallic layers. This work presents the results of the preliminary tests on G28-52 steel samples, covered with ceramic and metallic layers, in the working environment (H 2 O-H 2 S) of the heavy water production installations and in severe hydrodynamical conditions. On the basis of the results obtained in the experiments and from the examination of the microstructure of the layers prior and after testing, a phenomenological model was developed to explain the behaviour of the deposed layers. On the basis of this model the conditions that the layers must satisfy have been deduced to improve their behaviour in the working environment

  13. State resolved rotational excitation cross-sections and rates in H2 + H2 collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultanov, Renat A.; Guster, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    Rotational transitions in molecular hydrogen collisions are computed. The two most recently developed potential energy surfaces for the H 2 -H 2 system are used from the following works: [A.I. Boothroyd, P.G. Martin, W.J. Keogh, M.J. Peterson, J. Chem. Phys., 116 (2002) 666; P. Diep, J.K. Johnson, J. Chem. Phys., 113 (2000) 3480; P. Diep, J.K. Johnson, J. Chem. Phys., 112 (2000) 4465]. Cross-sections for rotational transitions 00 → 20, 22, 40, 42, 44 and corresponding rate coefficients are calculated using a quantum-mechanical approach. Results are compared for a wide range of kinetic temperatures 300 K ≤ T≤ 3000 K

  14. DFT Calculation of IR Absorption Spectra for PCE-nH2O, TCE-nH2O, DCE-nH2O, VC-nH2O for Small and Water-Dominated Molecular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-31

    VC-nH2O for Small and Water-Dominated Molecular Clusters October 31, 2017 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. L. Huang S.g...Calculation of IR Absorption Spectra for PCE-nH2O, TCE-nH2O, DCE-nH2O, VC-nH2O for Small and Water-Dominated Molecular Clusters L. Huang,1 S.G...nH2O molecular clusters using density function theory (DFT). DFT can provide interpretation of absorption spectra with respect to molecular

  15. Hydrogen constituents of the mesosphere inferred from positive ions - H2O, CH4, H2CO, H2O2, and HCN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, E.

    1990-01-01

    The concentrations in the mesosphere of H2O, CH4, H2CO, H2O2, and HCN were inferred from data on positive ion compositions, obtained from one mid-latitude and four high-latitude rocket flights. The inferred concentrations were found to agree only partially with the ground-based microwave measurements and/or model prediction by Garcia and Solomon (1985). The CH4 concentration was found to vary between 70 and 4 ppb in daytime and 900 and 100 ppbv at night, respectively. Unexpectedly high H2CO concentrations were obtained, with H2CO/H2O ratios between 0.0006 and 0.1, and a mean HCN volume mixing ratio of 6 x 10 to the -10th was inferred.

  16. Advanced oxidation technology for H2S odor gas using non-thermal plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, ZHU; Ruonan, WANG; Wenjing, BIAN; Yang, CHEN; Weidong, JING

    2018-05-01

    Non-thermal plasma technology is a new type of odor treatment processing. We deal with H2S from waste gas emission using non-thermal plasma generated by dielectric barrier discharge. On the basis of two criteria, removal efficiency and absolute removal amount, we deeply investigate the changes in electrical parameters and process parameters, and the reaction process of the influence of ozone on H2S gas removal. The experimental results show that H2S removal efficiency is proportional to the voltage, frequency, power, residence time and energy efficiency, while it is inversely proportional to the initial concentration of H2S gas, and ozone concentration. This study lays the foundations of non-thermal plasma technology for further commercial application.

  17. Calculation of intermolecular potentials for H2H2 and H2−O2 dimers ab initio and prediction of second virial coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Van, Tat; Deiters, Ulrich K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We construct the angular orientations of dimers H 2H 2 and H 2 −O 2 . • We calculate the ab initio intermolecular interaction energies for all built orientations. • Extrapolating the interaction energies to the complete basis set limit aug-cc-pV23Z. • We develop two 5-site ab initio intermolecular potentials of dimers H 2H 2 , H 2 −O 2 . • Calculating the virial coefficients of dimer H 2H 2 and H 2 −O 2 . - Abstract: The intermolecular interaction potentials of the dimers H 2H 2 and H 2 −O 2 were calculated from quantum mechanics, using coupled-cluster theory CCSD(T) and correlation-consistent basis sets aug-cc-pVmZ (m = 2, 3); the results were extrapolated to the basis set limit aug-cc-pV23Z. The interaction energies were corrected for the basis set superposition error with the counterpoise scheme. For comparison also Møller–Plesset perturbation theory (at levels 2–4) with the basis sets aug-cc-pVTZ were considered, but the results proved inferior. The quantum mechanical results were used to construct analytical pair potential functions. From these functions the second virial coefficients of hydrogen and the cross virial coefficients of the hydrogen–oxygen system were obtained by integration; in both cases corrections for quantum effects were included. The results agree well with experimental data, if available, or with empirical correlations

  18. Nanosecond pulsed discharges in N2 and N2/H2O mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, R.M.; Verreycken, T.; Veldhuizen, van E.M.; Bruggeman, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Nanosecond pulsed discharges in N2 and N2/H2O at atmospheric pressure between two pin-shaped electrodes are studied. The evolution of the discharge is investigated with time-resolved imaging and optical emission spectroscopy. The discharge consists of three phases, the ignition (mainly molecular

  19. Electron capture in collisions between O6+ ions and H2O molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodewits, D.; Hoekstra, R.

    By means of photon emission spectroscopy, state selective electron capture cross section for low energy (0.1-7.5 keV/amu) collisions of O6+ on H2O molecules have been measured. Over the range of interaction energies the state selective cross sections change strongly, i.e., by factors up to 5, while

  20. Genomic constitution of an H-2:Tla variant leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, F W; Chaganti, R S; Doucette, L A; Litman, G W; Steinmetz, M; Hood, L; Boyse, E A

    1984-10-01

    A TL+ leukemia of a (B6 X A)F1 hybrid mouse (H-2b/H-2a) was previously subjected to immunoselection against H-2a by passage in (B6 X A.SW)F1 mice (H-2b/H-2s). A variant leukemia line was obtained that serologically lacked not only the H-2a phenotype but also the TL phenotype determined by the linked cis Tlaa allele of strain A. The H-2b phenotype and the TL phenotype of the Tlab allele of the B6 strain, which is expressed only by leukemia cells, were retained by the variant. Southern blotting with an H-2 cDNA probe that identifies restriction fragment polymorphisms distinguishing alleles of the H-2 and Tla regions of the B6 and A strains indicates that both the H-2a and Tlaa alleles are missing from the genome of this H-2a:Tlaa negative variant. Since the variant has two apparently unaltered chromosomes 17, where the H-2:Tla complex is situated, and since the intensity of bands in Southern blotting is suggestive of H-2b homozygosity, it is considered that loss of the H-2a:Tlaa haplotype by the variant was accompanied by duplication of the H-2b:Tlab haplotype. The implied change from heterozygosity to homozygosity that the variant has undergone with respect to H-2:Tla was not paralleled by a similar change at the three other loci tested, since the variant retained heterozygosity for Pep-3 (chromosome 1), Gpi-1 (chromosome 7), and Es-1 (chromosome 8).

  1. Laser photoelectron spectroscopy of MnH - 2, FeH - 2, CoH - 2, and NiH - 2: Determination of the electron affinities for the metal dihydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Amy E. S.; Feigerle, C. S.; Lineberger, W. C.

    1986-04-01

    The laser photoelectron spectra of MnH-2, FeH-2, CoH-2, and NiH-2 and the analogous deuterides are reported. Lack of vibrational structure in the spectra suggests that all of the dihydrides and their negative ions have linear geometries, and that the transitions observed in the spectra are due to the loss of nonbonding d electrons. The electron affinities for the metal dihydrides are determined to be 0.444±0.016 eV for MnH2, 1.049±0.014 eV for FeH2, 1.450±0.014 eV for CoH2, and 1.934±0.008 eV for NiH2. Electronic excitation energies are provided for excited states of FeH2, CoH2, and NiH2. Electron affinities and electronic excitation energies for the dideuterides are also reported. A limit on the electron affinity of CrH2 of ≥2.5 eV is determined. The electron affinities of the dihydrides directly correlate with the electron affinities of the high-spin states of the monohydrides, and with the electron affinities of the metal atoms. These results are in agreement with a qualitative model developed for bonding in the monohydrides.

  2. Structural variations in the H-2 genes of AKR lymphomas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Hui; L. Minamide; N. Prandoni; H. Festenstein; F.G. Grosveld (Frank)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractK36.16 is an AKR H-2k thymoma which expresses an aberrant H-2Dd-like allospecificity, does not have a detectable amount of the H-2Kk syngeneic antigen and grows very easily in syngeneic mice. By DNA-mediated gene transfer experiments, we were able to obtain transformed clones which do

  3. EERE-SBIR technology transfer opportunity. H2 Safety Sensors for H2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, Mariann R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) works in partnership with industry (including small businesses), academia, and DOE's national laboratories to establish fuel cell and hydrogen energy technologies as economically competitive contributors to U.S. transportation needs. The work that is envisioned between the SBIR/STTR grantee and Los Alamos National Laboratory would involve Technical Transfer of Los Alamos Intellectual Property (IP) on Thin-film Mixed Potential Sensor (U.S. Patent 7,264,700) and associated know-how for H2 sensor manufacturing and packaging.

  4. Method for heavy-water production by H2S--H2O chemical exchange process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strathdee, G.G.

    1978-01-01

    The invention discloses a heavy water production stage in a bithermal H 2 S gas H 2 O liquid exchange plant wherein the cold tower is operated under temperature and pressure conditions such that H 2 S in the liquid phase is formed and is maintained in the separation units (sieve trays or plates) of the cold tower. It has been found that the presence of liquid H 2 S acts as an efficient anti-foaming agent

  5. Dynamic investigation of the diffusion absorption refrigeration system NH3-H2O-H2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Izzedine Serge Adjibade

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a numerical and experimental study of a diffusion absorption refrigerator. The performance of the system is examined by computer simulation using MATLAB software and Engineering Equations Solver. A dynamic model is developed for each component of the system and solved numerically in order to predict the transient state of the diffusion absorption refrigeration. The experiment set included 0.04 m3 commercial absorption diffusion refrigerator working with the ammonia-water-hydrogen (NH3-H2O-H2 solution. The transient numerical results were validated with the experimental data. The investigations are focused on the dynamic profile of the temperature of each component. The results obtained agree with the experiment; the relative error between numerical and experimental models doesn’t exceed 15% for all temperatures of each component. The increase of the average ambient temperature from 23.04 °C to 32.56 °C causes an increase of the condensation temperature from 29.46 °C to 37.51 °C, and the best evaporation temperature obtained was 3 °C, with an ambient temperature of 23.04 °C. The results show that a minimum starting temperature of 152 °C and 63.8 W electric power are required to initiate the decrease of evaporation temperature.

  6. Coordination polymers of scandium sulfate. Crystal structures of (H2Bipy)[Sc(H2O)(SO4)2]2·2H2O and (H2Bipy)[HSO4]2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrosyants, S.P.; Ilyukhin, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    Compounds with general formula Cat x [Sc(H 2 O) z (SO 4 ) y ]·nH 2 O (Cat=NH 4 , H 2 Bipy (Bipy - 4,4'-bipyridine), HEdp (Edp - ethylene dipyridine)) identified on element analysis data and IR spectra are synthesized. X-ray diffraction analysis of (H 2 Bipy)[Sc(H 2 O)(SO 4 ) 2 ] 2 ·2H 2 O shows that in structure of the compound chains of ScO 6 octahedron and SO 4 tetrahedrons are joined in bands by tridentate coordination of sulfate ions. Bands form skeleton in endless emptiness of which there are H 2 Bipy 2+ cations [ru

  7. H2S and polysulfide metabolism: Conventional and unconventional pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Kenneth R

    2018-03-01

    It is now well established that hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) is an effector of a wide variety of physiological processes. It is also clear that many of the effects of H 2 S are mediated through reactions with cysteine sulfur on regulatory proteins and most of these are not mediated directly by H 2 S but require prior oxidation of H 2 S and the formation of per- and polysulfides (H 2 S n , n = 2-8). Attendant with understanding the regulatory functions of H 2 S and H 2 S n is an appreciation of the mechanisms that control, i.e., both increase and decrease, their production and catabolism. Although a number of standard "conventional" pathways have been described and well characterized, novel "unconventional" pathways are continuously being identified. This review summarizes our current knowledge of both the conventional and unconventional. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Unusual H2O maser source near Herbig-Haro object number 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, K.Y.; Morris, M.; Moran, J.M.; Haschick, A.D.

    1976-01-01

    Water emission spectra of an unusual source near Herbig-Haro (HH) 11 have been monitored over a 14-month period. Variations in the intensity and the radial velocity of the emission are noticeable on time scales as short as one day. At any given time, only one or two velocity components are present in the spectrum. The variations are such that each component appears and disappears at a fixed radial velocity, and new components appear at seemingly random velocities within a 40 km s -1 range. It is suggested that the exciting source is losing mass via a stellar wind, and that the H 2 O emission arises in the transition region between the cavity created by the stellar wind and the surrounding molecular medium. The proposed model can be tested by VLBI observations; an accurate position for the H 2 O maser source is required to determine the physical relationship between the maser source and the infrared or HH objects

  9. UV and VUV photolysis vs. UV/H2O2 and VUV/H2O2, treatment for removal of clofibric acid from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenzhen; Lu, Shuguang; Qiu, Zhaofu; Lin, Kuangfei

    2011-07-01

    Clofibric acid (CA), a metabolite of lipid regulators, was investigated in ultra-pure water and sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent at 10 degrees C under UV, vacuum UV (VUV), UV/H2O2 and VUV/H2O2 processes. The influences of NO3-, HCO3- and humic acid (HA) on CA photolysis in all processes were examined. The results showed that all the experimental data well fitted the pseudo-first-order kinetic model, and the apparent rate constant (k(ap)) and half-life time (t(1/2)) were calculated accordingly. Direct photolysis of CA through UV irradiation was the main process, compared with the indirect oxidation of CA due to the slight generation of hydroxyl radicals dissociated from water molecules under UV irradiation below 200 nm monochromatic wavelength emission. In contrast, indirect oxidation was the main CA degradation mechanism in UV/H2O2 and VUV/H2O2, and VUV/H2O2 was the most effective process for CA degradation. The addition of 20 mg L(-1) HA could significantly inhibit CA degradation, whereas, except for UV irradiation, the inhibitive effects of NO3- and HCO3- (1.0 x 10(-3) and 0.1 mol L(-1), respectively) on CA degradation were observed in all processes, and their adverse effects were more significant in UV/H2O2 and VUV/H2O2 processes, particularly at the high NO3- and HCO3- concentrations. The degradation rate decreased 1.8-4.9-fold when these processes were applied to a real STP effluent owing to the presence of complex constituents. Of the four processes, VUV/H2O2 was the most effective, and the CA removal efficiency reached over 99% after 40 min in contrast to 80 min in both the UV/H2O2 and VUV processes and 240 min in the UV process.

  10. XPS study on the surface reaction of uranium metal in H2 and H2-CO atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaolin; Fu Yibei; Xie Renshou

    1996-04-01

    The surface reactions of uranium metal in H 2 and H 2 -CO atmospheres and the effects of temperature and CO on the hydriding reaction have been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The reaction between commercial H 2 and uranium metal at 25 degree C leads mainly to the further oxidation of surface layer of metal due to traces of water vapour. At 200 degree C, it may lead to the hydriding reaction of uranium and the hydriding increases with increasing the exposure of H 2 . Investigation indicates CO inhibits both the hydriding reaction and oxidation on the condition of H 2 -CO atmospheres. (13 refs., 10 figs.)

  11. Detectability of H2-Ar and H2-Ne Dimers in Jovian Atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Key Minn

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The detection of jovian hydrogen-hydrogen dimers through the clear telluric 2-micron window(Kim et al. 1995, Trafton et al. 1997 suggests possibility to detect noble gases in the form of dimer with hydrogen in jovian atmospheres. Since noble gases do not have spectral structures in the infrared, it has been difficult to derive their abundances in the atmospheres of jovian planets. If there is a significant component of noble gases other than helium in the jovian atmospheres. it might be detected through its dimer spectrum with hydrogen molecule. The relatively sharp spectral structures of hydrogen-argon and hydrogen-neon dimers compared with those of hydrogen-hydrogen dimers are useful for the detection, if an adequate signal-to-noise (S/N is obtained. If we use a large telescope, such as the Keck telescope, with a long exposure time (>24 hours, then H2-Ar spectral structure may be detected.

  12. Absorption spectra of H2-H2 pairs in the fundamental band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, W.; Borysow, A.; Frommhold, L.

    1989-01-01

    For the computation of the induced-dipole moment, the collisional complex consisting of two H 2 molecules is treated like one molecule in the self-consistent-field and size-consistent, coupled electron pair approximations that separates correctly at distant range. The basis set accounts for 95% of the correlation energies. The radial transition matrix elements of the induced-dipole components are obtained for the two cases v 1 =v 2 =0 and v 1 =0,v 2 =1, where the v i are the vibrational quantum numbers of the interacting H 2 molecules (i=1 or 2). The dependence of these elements on the most important rotational states (j 1 , j 1 ',j 2 ,j 2 '=0,...,3) involved is obtained and seen to be significant in the fundamental band. The results are recast in a simple, but accurate analytical form that is used in a quantum formalism for computations of the spectral moments (sum rules) and line shapes of the collision-induced absorption spectra of molecular hydrogen pairs in the infrared 2.4-μm band. The calculations are based on a proven isotropic potential model that we have extended to account for effects of vibrational excitations. Numerical consistency of the line-shape calculations with the sum rules is observed at the 1% level. The comparison of the computational results with the available measurements at temperatures from 20 to 300 K shows agreement within the estimated uncertainties of the best measurements (∼10%). This fact suggests that theory is capable of predicting these spectra reliably at temperatures for which no measurements exist, with an accuracy that compares favorably with that of good laboratory measurements

  13. Importance of collisional rates for anomalous absorption in H2CO molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Monika; Sharma, M.K.; Chandra, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    Formaldehyde (H 2 CO) is the first organic molecule identified in a number of galactic and extragalactic radio sources through its transition 1 10 –1 11 at 4.830 GHz in absorption. Later on, this transition was found in anomalous absorption. In some cosmic objects, this transition however was found in emission and even as a maser radiation. Since the transition 1 10 –1 11 of ortho-H 2 CO is considered as a unique probe of high density gas at low temperature, the study of H 2 CO has always been of great importance for astrophysicists as well as for spectroscopists. In view of the availability of better input data required for such investigation, it is worth while to investigate again about the radiations from ortho-H 2 CO. In the present study, we have investigated anomalous absorption of 1 10 –1 11 , 2 11 –2 12 and 3 12 –3 13 transitions of ortho-H 2 CO. The present results are more reliable as compared to those obtained earlier. -- Highlights: ► Accurate rotational levels and A-coefficients for H 2 CO are calculated. ► Transitions 1 10 –1 11 , 2 11 –2 12 and 3 12 –3 13 show anomalous absorption. ► Anomalous absorption is found to increase with kinetic temperature. ► Anomalous absorption may be found for n H 2 ≈10 4 cm −3 . ► Colliding partner para-H 2 may be approximated as He atom.

  14. Synthesis and crystal structure of hydrogen phosphites RbH2PO3, CsH2PO3, and TlH2PO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosterina, E.V.; Troyanov, S.I.; Kemnits, Eh.; Aslanov, L.A.

    2001-01-01

    The crystal acid phosphites RbH 2 PO 3 , CsH 2 PO 3 and TlH 2 PO 3 were separated during reaction of Rb, Cs and Tl carbonates with phosphorous acid solution. The crystal structure of the compounds was analyzed by X-ray diffraction method at 150 K. CsH 2 PO 3 has a monoclinic system, a = 7.930(2), b = 8.929(2), c = 13.163(3) A, β = 104.84(3) Deg, V = 900.9(4) A 3 , Z 8, sp. gr. P2 1 /c, R 1 = 0.239. In the structure hydrogen bonds integrate the PHO 3 tetrahedrons in the unlimited zigzag chains [HPHO 3 ] n n- laying at the layers, which are alternate to the layers of metal cations. The layers of anion chains have a wavy form [ru

  15. Untersuchungen am System NMMO/H2O/Cellulose

    OpenAIRE

    Cibik, T.

    2003-01-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit befasst sich mit der Untersuchung des Zweistoffsystems N-Methylmorpholin-N-oxid (NMMO)/H2O und des Dreistoffsystems NMMO/H2O/Cellulose sowie mit der Herstellung und Charakterisierung von faserverstärkten Cellulosefolien. Das binäre System wird mittels Dynamischer Differenzkalorimetrie und Röntgenweitwinkel-Diffraktometrie untersucht und dadurch das Schmelzverhalten und die Phasenzusammensetzung dieses Systems im festen Zustand als Funktion des NMMO/H2O-Verhältnisses bes...

  16. Effect of Water Content on Properties of Homogeneous [bmim]Fe(IIICl4–H2O Mixtures and Their Application in Oxidative Absorption of H2S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhong Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrachloroferrate ([bmim]Fe(IIICl4 for replacing an iron(III chelate catalytic solution in the catalytic oxidation of H2S is attributed to its no side reaction and no degradation of the chelating agent. The catalytic oxidation product of water in non-aqueous [bmim]Fe(IIICl4 possibly has an influence on the oxidative absorption of H2S. Water and hydrophobic [bmim]Fe(IIICl4 mixtures at water volume percents from 40% to 70% formed separate phases after srirring, without affecting the oxidative absorption of hydrogen sulfide. Then, studies on the properties of homogeneous [bmim]Fe(IIICl4–H2O mixtures at water volume percents in the range of 5.88–30% and above 80% reveal that these mixtures are both Brønsted and Lewis acids at vol % (H2O ≤ 30%, and only Lewis acids at vol % (H2O ≥ 80%. Raman spectra showed that [bmim]Fe(IIICl4 was the dominating species at vol % (H2O ≤ 30%, in contrast, [bmim]Fe(IIICl4 decomposed into FeCl3·2H2O and [bmim]Cl at vol % (H2O ≥ 80%. Further research on oxidative absorption of H2S by homogeneous [bmim]Fe(IIICl4–H2O mixtures demonstrated that [bmim]Fe(IIICl4 was reduced by H2S to [bmim]Fe(IICl4H and FeCl3·2H2O was reduced to FeCl2, at the same time, H2S was oxidized to S8. In addition, the decrease in acidity caused by increasing the water content increased the weight percent of absorbed H2S, and decreased volatile HCl emissions. However, it is difficult to prevent the suspended S8 generated at vol % (H2O ≥ 80% from the formation of sulfur blockage. Therefore, oxidative absorption of H2S by [bmim]Fe(IIICl4–H2O mixtures is feasible at vol % (H2O < 80% without sulfur blockage.

  17. SIMULTANEOUS OBSERVATIONS OF SiO AND H2O MASERS TOWARD SYMBIOTIC STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Se-Hyung; Kim, Jaeheon

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of simultaneous observations of SiO v = 1, 2, J = 1-0, 29 SiO v = 0, J = 1-0, and H 2 O 6 16 -5 23 maser lines performed with the KVN Yonsei 21 m radio telescope from 2009 November to 2010 January. We searched for these masers in 47 symbiotic stars and detected maser emission from 21 stars, giving the first time detection from 19 stars. Both SiO and H 2 O masers were detected from seven stars of which six were D-type symbiotic stars and one was an S-type star, WRAY 15-1470. In the SiO maser emission, the 28 SiO v = 1 maser was detected from 10 stars, while the v = 2 maser was detected from 15 stars. In particular, the 28 SiO v = 2 maser emission without the v = 1 maser detection was detected from nine stars with a detection rate of 60%, which is much higher than that of isolated Miras/red giants. The 29 SiO v = 0 maser emission was also detected from two stars, H 2-38 and BF Cyg, together with the 28 SiO v = 2 maser. We conclude that these different observational results between isolated Miras/red giants and symbiotic stars may be related with the presence of hot companions in a symbiotic binary system.

  18. Detonability of H2-air-diluent mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tieszen, S.R.; Sherman, M.P.; Benedick, W.B.; Berman, M.

    1987-06-01

    This report describes the Heated Detonation Tube (HDT). Detonation cell width and velocity results are presented for H 2 -air mixtures, undiluted and diluted with CO 2 and H 2 O for a range of H 2 concentration, initial temperature and pressure. The results show that the addition of either CO 2 or H 2 O significantly increases the detonation cell width and hence reduces the detonability of the mixture. The results also show that the detonation cell width is reduced (detonability is increased) for increased initial temperature and/or pressure

  19. Influence of H2O2 on LPG fuel performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Muhammad Saad; Ahmed, Iqbal; Mutalib, Mohammad Ibrahim bin Abdul; Nadeem, Saad; Ali, Shahid

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this mode of combustion is to insertion of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) to the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) combustion on spark plug ignition engines. The addition of hydrogen peroxide may probably decrease the formation of NO x , CO x and unburned hydrocarbons. Hypothetically, Studies have shown that addition of hydrogen peroxide to examine the performance of LPG/H 2 O 2 mixture in numerous volumetric compositions starting from lean LPG until obtaining a better composition can reduce the LPG fuel consumption. The theory behind this idea is that, the addition of H 2 O 2 can cover the lean operation limit, increase the lean burn ability, diminution the burn duration along with controlling the exhaust emission by significantly reducing the greenhouse gaseous

  20. Relative importance of H2 and H2S as energy sources for primary production in geothermal springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Imperio, Seth; Lehr, Corinne R; Oduro, Harry; Druschel, Greg; Kühl, Michael; McDermott, Timothy R

    2008-09-01

    Geothermal waters contain numerous potential electron donors capable of supporting chemolithotrophy-based primary production. Thermodynamic predictions of energy yields for specific electron donor and acceptor pairs in such systems are available, although direct assessments of these predictions are rare. This study assessed the relative importance of dissolved H(2) and H(2)S as energy sources for the support of chemolithotrophic metabolism in an acidic geothermal spring in Yellowstone National Park. H(2)S and H(2) concentration gradients were observed in the outflow channel, and vertical H(2)S and O(2) gradients were evident within the microbial mat. H(2)S levels and microbial consumption rates were approximately three orders of magnitude greater than those of H(2). Hydrogenobaculum-like organisms dominated the bacterial component of the microbial community, and isolates representing three distinct 16S rRNA gene phylotypes (phylotype = 100% identity) were isolated and characterized. Within a phylotype, O(2) requirements varied, as did energy source utilization: some isolates could grow only with H(2)S, some only with H(2), while others could utilize either as an energy source. These metabolic phenotypes were consistent with in situ geochemical conditions measured using aqueous chemical analysis and in-field measurements made by using gas chromatography and microelectrodes. Pure-culture experiments with an isolate that could utilize H(2)S and H(2) and that represented the dominant phylotype (70% of the PCR clones) showed that H(2)S and H(2) were used simultaneously, without evidence of induction or catabolite repression, and at relative rate differences comparable to those measured in ex situ field assays. Under in situ-relevant concentrations, growth of this isolate with H(2)S was better than that with H(2). The major conclusions drawn from this study are that phylogeny may not necessarily be reliable for predicting physiology and that H(2)S can dominate over H(2

  1. Broadening of spectral lines of CO2, N2O , H2CO, HCN, and H2S by pressure of gases dominant in planetary atmospheres (H2, He and CO2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Shanelle; Gordon, Iouli; Tan, Yan

    2018-01-01

    HITRAN1,2 is a compilation of spectroscopic parameters that a variety of computer codes use to predict and simulate the transmission and emission of light in planetary atmospheres. The goal of this project is to add to the potential of the HITRAN database towards the exploration of the planetary atmospheres by including parameters describing broadening of spectral lines by H2, CO2, and He. These spectroscopic data are very important for the study of the hydrogen and helium-rich atmospheres of gas giants as well as rocky planets with volcanic activities, including Venus and Mars, since their atmospheres are dominated by CO2. First step in this direction was accomplished by Wilzewski et al.3 where this was done for SO2, NH3, HF, HCl, OCS and C2H2. The molecules investigated in this work were CO2, N2O, H2CO, HCN and H2S. Line-broadening coefficients, line shifts and temperature-dependence exponents for transitions of these molecules perturbed by H2, CO2 and He have been assembled from available peer-reviewed experimental and theoretical sources. The data was evaluated and the database was populated with these data and their extrapolations/interpolations using semi-empirical models that were developed to this end.Acknowledgements: Financial support from NASA PDART grant NNX16AG51G and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Latino Initiative Program from the Latino Initiatives Pool, administered by the Smithsonian Latino Center is gratefully acknowledged.References: 1. HITRAN online http://hitran.org/2. Gordon, I.E., Rothman, L.S., Hill, C., Kochanov, R.V., Tan, Y., et al., 2017. The HITRAN2016 Molecular Spectroscopic Database. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2017.06.0383. Wilzewski, J.S., Gordon, I.E., Kochanov, R. V., Hill, C., Rothman, L.S., 2016. H2, He, and CO2 line-broadening coefficients, pressure shifts and temperature-dependence exponents for the HITRAN database. Part 1: SO2, NH3, HF, HCl, OCS and C2H2. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat

  2. (Solid + liquid) phase equilibria of (Ca(H2PO2)2 + CaCl2 + H2O) and (Ca(H2PO2)2 + NaH2PO2 + H2O) ternary systems at T = 323.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Hong-yu; Zhou, Huan; Bai, Xiao-qin; Ma, Ruo-xin; Tan, Li-na; Wang, Jun-min

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Solubility diagram of the (Ca(H 2 PO 2 ) 2 + NaH 2 PO 2 + H 2 O) system at T = (323.15 and 298.15) K. - Highlights: • Phase diagrams of Ca 2+ -H 2 PO 2 − -Cl − -H 2 O, Ca 2+ -Na + -H 2 PO 2 − -H 2 O at 323.15 K were obtained. • Incompatible double salt of NaCa(H 2 PO 2 ) 3 in Ca 2+ -Na + -H 2 PO 2 − -H 2 O system was determined. • Density diagram of the corresponding liquid were simultaneously measured. - Abstract: Calcium hypophosphite has been widely used as an anti-corrosive agent, flame retardant, fertilizer, assistant for Ni electroless plating, and animal nutritional supplement. High purity calcium hypophosphite can be synthesized via the replacement reaction of sodium hypophosphite and calcium chloride. In this work, the (solid + liquid) phase equilibria of (Ca(H 2 PO 2 ) 2 + CaCl 2 + H 2 O) and (Ca(H 2 PO 2 ) 2 + NaH 2 PO 2 + H 2 O) ternary systems at T = 323.15 K were studied experimentally via the classical isothermal solubility equilibrium method, and the phase diagrams for these two systems were obtained. It was found that two solid salts of CaCl 2 ·2H 2 O and Ca(H 2 PO 2 ) 2 exist in the (Ca(H 2 PO 2 ) 2 + CaCl 2 + H 2 O) system, and three salts of Ca(H 2 PO 2 ) 2 , NaH 2 PO 2 ·H 2 O and one incompatible double salt, NaCa(H 2 PO 2 ) 3 occur in the (Ca(H 2 PO 2 ) 2 + NaH 2 PO 2 + H 2 O) system.

  3. CFD Recombiner Modelling and Validation on the H2-Par and Kali-H2 Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimouni, S.; Mechitoua, N.; Ouraou, M.

    2011-01-01

    A large amount of Hydrogen gas is expected to be released within the dry containment of a pressurized water reactor (PWR), shortly after the hypothetical beginning of a severe accident leading to the melting of the core. According to local gas concentrations, the gaseous mixture of hydrogen, air and steam can reach the flammability limit, threatening the containment integrity. In order to prevent mechanical loads resulting from a possible conflagration of the gas mixture, French and German reactor containments are equipped with passive autocatalytic recombiners (PARs) which preventively oxidize hydrogen for concentrations lower than that of the flammability limit. The objective of the paper is to present numerical assessments of the recombiner models implemented in CFD solvers NEPTUNE C FD and Code S aturne. Under the EDF/EPRI agreement, CEA has been committed to perform 42 tests of PARs. The experimental program named KALI-H 2 , consists checking the performance and behaviour of PAR. Unrealistic values for the gas temperature are calculated if the conjugate heat transfer and the wall steam condensation are not taken into account. The combined effects of these models give a good agreement between computational results and experimental data

  4. Accelerating Palladium Nanowire H2 Sensors Using Engineered Nanofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Won-Tae; Qiao, Shaopeng; Ogata, Alana F; Jha, Gaurav; Jang, Ji-Soo; Chen, Vivian T; Kim, Il-Doo; Penner, Reginald M

    2017-09-26

    The oxygen, O 2 , in air interferes with the detection of H 2 by palladium (Pd)-based H 2 sensors, including Pd nanowires (NWs), depressing the sensitivity and retarding the response/recovery speed in air-relative to N 2 or Ar. Here, we describe the preparation of H 2 sensors in which a nanofiltration layer consisting of a Zn metal-organic framework (MOF) is assembled onto Pd NWs. Polyhedron particles of Zn-based zeolite imidazole framework (ZIF-8) were synthesized on lithographically patterned Pd NWs, leading to the creation of ZIF-8/Pd NW bilayered H 2 sensors. The ZIF-8 filter has many micropores (0.34 nm for gas diffusion) which allows for the predominant penetration of hydrogen molecules with a kinetic diameter of 0.289 nm, whereas relatively larger gas molecules including oxygen (0.345 nm) and nitrogen (0.364 nm) in air are effectively screened, resulting in superior hydrogen sensing properties. Very importantly, the Pd NWs filtered by ZIF-8 membrane (Pd NWs@ZIF-8) reduced the H 2 response amplitude slightly (ΔR/R 0 = 3.5% to 1% of H 2 versus 5.9% for Pd NWs) and showed 20-fold faster recovery (7 s to 1% of H 2 ) and response (10 s to 1% of H 2 ) speed compared to that of pristine Pd NWs (164 s for response and 229 s for recovery to 1% of H 2 ). These outstanding results, which are mainly attributed to the molecular sieving and acceleration effect of ZIF-8 covered on Pd NWs, rank highest in H 2 sensing speed among room-temperature Pd-based H 2 sensors.

  5. Incorporating H2 Dynamics and Inhibition into a Microbially Based Methanogenesis Model for Restored Wetland Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, David; Jaffe, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Estimates of global CH4 emissions from wetlands indicate that wetlands are the largest natural source of CH4 to the atmosphere. In this paper, we propose that there is a missing component to these models that should be addressed. CH4 is produced in wetland sediments from the microbial degradation of organic carbon through multiple fermentation steps and methanogenesis pathways. There are multiple sources of carbon for methananogenesis; in vegetated wetland sediments, microbial communities consume root exudates as a major source of organic carbon. In many methane models propionate is used as a model carbon molecule. This simple sugar is fermented into acetate and H2, acetate is transformed to methane and CO2, while the H2 and CO2 are used to form an additional CH4 molecule. The hydrogenotrophic pathway involves the equilibrium of two dissolved gases, CH4 and H2. In an effort to limit CH4 emissions from wetlands, there has been growing interest in finding ways to limit plant transport of soil gases through root systems. Changing planted species, or genetically modifying new species of plants may control this transport of soil gases. While this may decrease the direct emissions of methane, there is little understanding about how H2 dynamics may feedback into overall methane production. The results of an incubation study were combined with a new model of propionate degradation for methanogenesis that also examines other natural parameters (i.e. gas transport through plants). This presentation examines how we would expect this model to behave in a natural field setting with changing sulfate and carbon loading schemes. These changes can be controlled through new plant species and other management practices. Next, we compare the behavior of two variations of this model, with or without the incorporation of H2 interactions, with changing sulfate, carbon loading and root volatilization. Results show that while the models behave similarly there may be a discrepancy of nearly

  6. Self-Driven Photoelectrochemical Splitting of H2S for S and H2 Recovery and Simultaneous Electricity Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Tao; Bai, Jing; Li, Jinhua; Zeng, Qingyi; Ji, Youzhi; Qiao, Li; Li, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Baoxue

    2017-11-07

    A novel, facile self-driven photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) system was established for highly selective and efficient recovery of H 2 S and simultaneous electricity production. The key ideas were the self-bias function between a WO 3 photoanode and a Si/PVC photocathode due to their mismatched Fermi levels and the special cyclic redox reaction mechanism of I - /I 3 - . Under solar light, the system facilitated the separation of holes in the photoanode and electrons in the photocathode, which then generated electricity. Cyclic redox reactions were produced in the photoanode region as follows: I - was transformed into I 3 - by photoholes or hydroxyl radicals, H 2 S was oxidized to S by I 3 - , and I 3 - was then reduced to I - . Meanwhile, H + was efficiently converted to H 2 in the photocathode region. In the system, H 2 S was uniquely oxidized to sulfur but not to polysulfide (S x n- ) because of the mild oxidation capacity of I 3 - . High recovery rates for S and H 2 were obtained up to ∼1.04 mg h -1 cm -1 and ∼0.75 mL h -1 cm -1 , respectively, suggesting that H 2 S was completely converted into H 2 and S. In addition, the output power density of the system reached ∼0.11 mW cm -2 . The proposed PEC-H 2 S system provides a self-sustaining, energy-saving method for simultaneous H 2 S treatment and energy recovery.

  7. A model for radiolysis of water and aqueous solutions of H2, H2O2 and O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, B.G.; Gordeev, A.V.

    2008-01-01

    Kinetic model for the radiolysis of pure water describing the formation of H 2 , H 2 O 2 and O 2 and the radiation chemical transformations of aqueous solutions containing these compounds over a broad range of concentrations, pH, absorbed doses and dose rates is proposed and substantiated. The model includes a set of chemical reactions with optimized rate constants and the radiation chemical yields of radiolysis products. The model applicability to the description of the whole set of data on the radiation chemical transformations of water and aqueous solutions of H 2 , H 2 O 2 and O 2 is demonstrated

  8. TETRACHLORO ZINCATE (II) [H2pymo][ZnCl4

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    assembly of a hexa-palladium bowl-shaped cluster, ... mimic the properties of conventional porous solids. A number of ... mg (2 mmol) of [H2pymo]Cl were ground ... Figure 2: The anion environment in the structure of [H2pymo]2[ZnCl4]. Figure ...

  9. Robust H2 performance for sampled-data systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Mike Lind

    1997-01-01

    Robust H2 performance conditions under structured uncertainty, analogous to well known methods for H∞ performance, have recently emerged in both discrete and continuous-time. This paper considers the extension into uncertain sampled-data systems, taking into account inter-sample behavior. Convex...... conditions for robust H2 performance are derived for different uncertainty sets...

  10. 45 CFR 1626.11 - H-2 agricultural workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Other employment rights as provided in the worker's specific contract under which the nonimmigrant... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false H-2 agricultural workers. 1626.11 Section 1626.11... ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO ALIENS § 1626.11 H-2 agricultural workers. (a) Nonimmigrant agricultural...

  11. Charge transfer in H2+-H(1s) collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Errea, L.F.; Macias, A.; Mendez, L.; Rabadan, I.; Riera, A.

    2005-01-01

    We present an ab initio study of H 2 + +H(1s) collisions at H 2 + impact energies between 0.4 and 50keV. Cross sections are obtained within the sudden approximation for rotation and vibration of the diatomic molecule. We have found that anisotropy effects are crucial to correctly describe this system in this energy range

  12. The Role of Endogenous H(2)S in Cardiovascular Physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Nini; Gouliaev, Anja; Aalling, Mathilde

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has shown that the endogenous gas hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) is a signalling molecule of considerable biological potential and has been suggested to be involved in a vast number of physiological processes. In the vascular system, H(2)S is synthesized from cysteine by cystathionine-...

  13. Chemical absorption of H2S for biogas purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horikawa M.S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an experimental study of purification of a biogas by removal of its hydrogen sulphide (H2S content. The H2S was removed by means of chemical absorption in an iron-chelated solution catalyzed by Fe/EDTA, which converts H2S into elemental sulphur (S. Preparation of the catalyst solution and the results of biogas component absorption in the catalyst solution (0.2 mol/L are presented. These results are compared with those for physical absorption into pure water under similar conditions. Experimental results demonstrate that, under the same experimental conditions, a higher percentage of H2S can be removed in the catalytic solution than in water. In a continuous counter current using adequate flow-rate phases contact at room temperature and low gas pressure, the results demonstrate that is possible to totally remove the H2S from the biogas with the prepared catalytic solution.

  14. Numerical simulation of H2S and CO2 generation during SAGD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Perez, A.; Kamp, A.M. [CHLOE, UFR Science, University of Pau, 64000, Pau (France); Soleimani, H. (IFP School (France)); Darche, G. (TOTAL, Pau (France))

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, the steam assisted gravity drainage process is often used to enhance oil recovery but the production of undesirable gases occurs during this process. These gases are mainly hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide, generated through chemical reactions triggered by high temperatures and water presence. The aim of this paper is to create a kinetic model for H2S and CO2 generation and to insert it in a reservoir simulation. This model was then tested under steam injection conditions in an SAGD system using experimental data available in the literature. The model developed successfully reproduced gas plateaus at different temperatures and results from the test showed that the model's predicted gas emissions are of the same order of magnitude as the field results. This paper presented a new kinetic model which can predict H2S and CO2 emissions of a SAGD system and could thus be used in the design of treatment facilities.

  15. GaAs micromachining in the 1 H2SO4:1 H2O2:8 H2O system. From anisotropy to simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, C. R.

    2011-02-01

    The bulk micromachining on (010), (110) and (111)A GaAs substrates in the 1 H2SO4:1 H2O2:8 H2O system is investigated. Focus is placed on anisotropy of 3D etching shapes with a special emphasis on convex and concave undercuts which are of prime importance in the wet micromachining of mechanical structures. Etched structures exhibit curved contours and more and less rounded sidewalls showing that the anisotropy is of type 2. This anisotropy can be conveniently described by a kinematic and tensorial model. Hence, a database composed of dissolution constants is further determined from experiments. A self-elaborated simulator which works with the proposed database is used to derive theoretical 3D shapes. Simulated shapes agree well with observed shapes of microstructures. The successful simulations open up two important applications for MEMS: CAD of mask patterns and meshing of simulated shapes for FEM simulation tools.

  16. Alignment dependence in the breakup of the H2 molecule by an xuv laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Xiaoxu; Bartschat, Klaus; Schneider, Barry I

    2012-01-01

    We present theoretical predictions for the angular distribution of the ejected electrons in two-photon double-ionization of H 2 by an xuv laser pulse. The results were obtained by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in prolate spheroidal coordinates. We find a strong dependence of the emission pattern on the relative orientation of the laser polarization vector and the molecular axis.

  17. Fitting law for the density shift of Q(J) transitinos of H2 in H2-X (X: H2, He, N2) mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaut, X.; Berger, J.-P.; Sinclair, P.M.; Berger, H.

    1998-01-01

    A variety of fitting laws have been developed for the purpose of modelling broadening effects in collisional processes, but only a few have been proposed for modelling collision-induced lineshifts in molecules. We analysed accurate stimulated Raman data obtained in several H 2 -X mixtures (X: H 2 , He and N 2 ). For the first time, we show that an empirical law provides a very good representation of collisional lineshift coefficients in the range 300-1200 K and for J quantum number up to 9. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  18. Synthesis and physicochemical investigation of vanadium tripolyphosphate, H2VP3O10·3H2O (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutsko, V.A.; Romanij, T.V.

    1987-01-01

    The new compound - vanadium dihydrotripolyphosphate, H 2 VP 3 O 10 x3H 2 O of the modification III has been prepared by interaction of the metalic vanadium and orthophosphoric acid at 483 K. It has been investigated by chemical analysis, thin layer chromatography, X-ray phase analysis, infrared spectroscopy and thermal analysis

  19. A novel H2S/H2O2 fuel cell operating at the room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanli, Ayse Elif [Gazi University (Turkey)], email: aecsanli@gmail.com; Aytac, Aylin [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Gazi University, Teknikokullar (Turkey)], email: aytaca@gazi.edu.tr

    2011-07-01

    This study concerns the oxidation mechanism of hydrogen sulfide and a fuel cell; acidic peroxide is used as the oxidant and basic hydrogen sulfide is the fuel. A solid state H2S/H2O2 stable fuel cell was produced at room temperature. A cell potential of 0.85 V was reached; this is quite remarkable in comparison to the H2S/O2 fuel cell potential of 0.85 V obtained at 850-1000 degree celsius. The hydrogen sulfide goes through an oxidation reaction in the alkaline fuel cell (H2S/H2O2 fuel cell) which opens up the possibility of using the cheaper nickel as a catalyst. As a result, the fuel cell becomes a potentially low cost technology. A further benefit from using H2S as the alkaline liquid H2S/H2O2 fuel cell, is that sulfide ions are oxidized at the anode, releasing electrons. Sulfur produced reacts with the other sulfide ions and forms disulfide and polysulfide ions in basic electrolytes (such as Black Sea water).

  20. The application of H2 in S.I. engines. Paper no. IGEC-1-065

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.; Neill, W.S.; Karim, G.A.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen has long been recognized as a fuel having some unique and highly desirable combustion properties, such as a wide flammable mixture range, low ignition energy, very fast flame propagation rates and clean combustion products especially without greenhouse gases. These features made H 2 an excellent fuel for both traditional and emerging innovative power devices such as spark ignition engines and fuel cells. The application of H 2 makes it possible for these devices to potentially meet the ever increasingly stringent environmental controls of exhaust emissions, including the possible elimination of green house gas emissions. This paper contributes to the experimental examination of H 2 applications in spark ignition engines. The detailed engine performance including the onset of knock, lean operational limits and exhaust emissions is to be presented. Comparison with the corresponding performances of other common gases fuels such as natural gas is made. The optimization of spark timing for efficiency and for the avoidance of knock while maintaining high thermal efficiency is also to be discussed. (author)

  1. Sulfur fertilization and fungal infections affect the exchange of H(2)S and COS from agricultural crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloem, Elke; Haneklaus, Silvia; Kesselmeier, Jürgen; Schnug, Ewald

    2012-08-08

    The emission of gaseous sulfur (S) compounds by plants is related to several factors, such as the plant S status or fungal infection. Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is either released or taken up by the plant depending on the ambient air concentration and the plant demand for S. On the contrary, carbonyl sulfide (COS) is normally taken up by plants. In a greenhouse experiment, the dependence of H(2)S and COS exchange with ambient air on the S status of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and on fungal infection with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was investigated. Thiol contents were determined to understand their influence on the exchange of gaseous S compounds. The experiment revealed that H(2)S emissions were closely related to pathogen infections as well as to S nutrition. S fertilization caused a change from H(2)S consumption by S-deficient oilseed rape plants to a H(2)S release of 41 pg g(-1) (dw) min(-1) after the addition of 250 mg of S per pot. Fungal infection caused an even stronger increase of H(2)S emissions with a maximum of 1842 pg g(-1) (dw) min(-1) 2 days after infection. Healthy oilseed rape plants acted as a sink for COS. Fungal infection caused a shift from COS uptake to COS releases. The release of S-containing gases thus seems to be part of the response to fungal infection. The roles the S-containing gases may play in this response are discussed.

  2. Properties of Highly Rotationally Excited H2 in Photodissociation Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Sally Jane; Wan, Yier; Stancil, Phillip C.; Yang, Benhui H.; Zhang, Ziwei

    2018-06-01

    H2 is the dominant molecular species in the vast majority of interstellar environments and it plays a crucial role as a radiative coolant. In photodissociation regions, it is one of the primary emitters in the near to mid-infrared which are due to lines originating from highly excited rotational levels. However, collisional data for rotational levels j>10 are sparse, particularly for H2-H2 collisions. Utilizing new calculations for para-H2 and ortho-H2 collisional rate coefficients with H2 for j as high as 30, we investigate the effects of the new results in standard PDR models with the spectral simulation package Cloudy. We also perform Cloudy models of the Orion Bar and use Radex to explore rotational line ratio diagnostics. The resulting dataset of H2 collisional data should find wide application to other molecular environments. This work was support by Hubble Space Telescope grant HST-AR-13899.001-A and NASA grants NNX15AI61G and NNX16AF09G.

  3. Vibrational inelasticity in H2 collisions with He and Li+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raczkowski, A.W.

    1975-09-01

    The partially averaged version of classical S-matrix theory was applied to three-dimensional collisions of H 2 with He and Li + . For H 2 -Li + , cross-sections for the de-excitation of H 2 from (n 1 ,j 1 ) = (1,0) to the ground vibrational manifold were computed at a total energy of 1.2 eV and compared to previously done coupled channel calculations of Schaefer and Lester. The agreement is very good. For H 2 -He, the Kutzelnigg-Tsapline interaction potential was extended to small atom-diatom separations, the ab initio points were then fit to an analytic form, and cross sections for the de-excitation of H 2 from the states (n 1 ,j 1 ), n 1 = 1, j 1 = 0,2,4 to the ground vibrational manifold were computed at total energies of .9, 1.1, 1.3 and 1.5 eV. For comparison, coupled channel calculations were also performed on the system at the same energies. The agreement was poorer than in the H 2 -Li + case, for identifiable reasons. The cross sections were used to compute rate constants and relaxation times for the H 2 -He system. Comparison of these results with the results of experiment and of other calculations shows good agreement, certainly within the expected errors. (7 figs., 30 refs., 3 tables)

  4. Secondary electron emission of thin carbon foils under the impact of hydrogen atoms, ions and molecular ions, under energies within the MeV range; Multiplicite des electrons secondaires emis par des cibles minces de carbone sous l'impact de projectiles H0, H2+, H3+ d'energie de l'ordre du MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidovic, Z

    1997-06-15

    This work focuses on the study of the emission statistics of secondary electrons from thin carbon foils bombarded with H{sup 0}, H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} projectiles in the 0.25-2.2 MeV energy range. The phenomenon of secondary electron emission from solids under the impact of swift ions is mainly due to inelastic interactions with target electrons. The phenomenological and theoretical descriptions, as well as a summary of the main theoretical models are the subject of the first chapter. The experimental set-up used to measure event by event the electron emission of the two faces of a thin carbon foil traversed by an energetic projectile is described in the chapter two. In this chapter are also presented the method and algorithms used to process experimental spectra in order to obtain the statistical distribution of the emitted electrons. Chapter three presents the measurements of secondary electron emission induced by H atoms passing through thin carbon foils. The secondary electron yields are studied in correlation with the emergent projectile charge state. We show the peculiar role of the projectile electron, whether it remains or not bound to the incident proton. The fourth chapter is dedicated to the secondary electron emission induced by H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} polyatomic ions. The results are interpreted in terms of collective effects in the interactions of these ions with solids. The role of the proximity of the protons, molecular ion fragments, upon the amplitude of these collective effects is evidenced from the study of the statistics of forward emission. These experiences allowed us to shed light on various aspects of atom and polyatomic ion inter-actions with solid surfaces. (author)

  5. Secondary electron emission of thin carbon foils under the impact of hydrogen atoms, ions and molecular ions, under energies within the MeV range; Multiplicite des electrons secondaires emis par des cibles minces de carbone sous l'impact de projectiles H0, H2+, H3+ d'energie de l'ordre du MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidovic, Z

    1997-06-15

    This work focuses on the study of the emission statistics of secondary electrons from thin carbon foils bombarded with H{sup 0}, H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} projectiles in the 0.25-2.2 MeV energy range. The phenomenon of secondary electron emission from solids under the impact of swift ions is mainly due to inelastic interactions with target electrons. The phenomenological and theoretical descriptions, as well as a summary of the main theoretical models are the subject of the first chapter. The experimental set-up used to measure event by event the electron emission of the two faces of a thin carbon foil traversed by an energetic projectile is described in the chapter two. In this chapter are also presented the method and algorithms used to process experimental spectra in order to obtain the statistical distribution of the emitted electrons. Chapter three presents the measurements of secondary electron emission induced by H atoms passing through thin carbon foils. The secondary electron yields are studied in correlation with the emergent projectile charge state. We show the peculiar role of the projectile electron, whether it remains or not bound to the incident proton. The fourth chapter is dedicated to the secondary electron emission induced by H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} polyatomic ions. The results are interpreted in terms of collective effects in the interactions of these ions with solids. The role of the proximity of the protons, molecular ion fragments, upon the amplitude of these collective effects is evidenced from the study of the statistics of forward emission. These experiences allowed us to shed light on various aspects of atom and polyatomic ion inter-actions with solid surfaces. (author)

  6. Extension of a He-H2 potential energy surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raczkowski, A.W.; Lester, W.A. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The CI surface of Tsapline and Kutzelnigg is extended to smaller H 2 -He separations. Defining R as the H 2 -He distance, r as the H 2 separation, and γ as the angle between them, the ab initio values are fit to a Legendre series in cosγ retaining the first three (even) terms with the coefficients given as analytic functions of R and r to facilitate semiclassical scattering computations. The fit is quantitative for 1.0 approximately r/2+1. (Auth.)

  7. Inelastic neutron scattering of H2 adsorbed in HKUST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.; Brown, C.M.; Neumann, D.A.; Peterson, V.K.; Kepert, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    A series of inelastic neutron scattering (INS) investigations of hydrogen adsorbed in activated HKUST-1 (Cu 3 (1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate) 2 ) result in INS spectra with rich features, even at very low loading ( 2 :Cu). The distinct inelastic features in the spectra show that there are three binding sites that are progressively populated when the H 2 loading is less than 2.0 H 2 :Cu, which is consistent with the result obtained from previous neutron powder diffraction experiments. The temperature dependence of the INS spectra reveals the relative binding enthalpies for H 2 at each site

  8. Photoionization of H2O at high resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehmer, P.M.; Chupka, W.A.

    1978-01-01

    The relative photoionization cross sections for the formation of H 2 O + , OH + , and H + from H 2 O were measured at high wavelength resolution using a 3-meter photoionization mass spectrometer equipped with a quadrupole mass flter and a 1-meter photoionization mass spectrometer equipped with a 12-inch radius, 60 0 sector magnetic mass spectrometer. Discrete structure in the parent ion photoionization efficiency curve is interpreted in terms of Rydberg series converging to excited states of the H 2 O + ion. 9 references

  9. Abundances and Excitation of H2, H3+ & CO in Star-Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulesa, Craig A.

    Although most of the 123 reported interstellar molecules to date have been detected through millimeter-wave emission-line spectroscopy, this technique is inapplicable to non-polar molecules like H2 and H3+, which are central to our understanding of interstellar chemistry. Thus high resolution infrared absorption-line spectroscopy bears an important role in interstellar studies: chemically important non-polar molecules can be observed, and their abundances and excitation conditions can be referred to the same ``pencil beam'' absorbing column. In particular, through a weak quadrupole absorption line spectrum at near-infrared wavelengths, the abundance of cold H2 in dark molecular clouds and star forming regions can now be accurately measured and compared along the same ``pencil beam'' line of sight with the abundance of its most commonly cited surrogate, CO, and its rare isotopomers. Also detected via infrared line absorption is the pivotal molecular ion H3+, whose abundance provides the most direct measurement of the cosmic ray ionization rate in dark molecular clouds, a process that initiates the formation of many other observed molecules there. Our growing sample of H2 and CO detections now includes detailed multi-beam studies of the ρ Ophiuchi molecular cloud and NGC 2024 in Orion. We explore the excitation and degree of ortho- and para-H2 thermalization in dark clouds, variation of the CO abundance over a cloud, and the relation of H2 column density to infrared extinction mapping, far-infrared/submillimeter dust continuum emission, and large scale submillimeter CO, [C I] and HCO+ line emission -- all commonly invoked to indirectly trace H2 during the past 30+ years. For each of the distinct velocity components seen toward some embedded young stellar objects, we are also able to determine the temperature, density, and a CO/H2 abundance ratio, thus unraveling some of the internal structure of a star-forming cloud. H2 and H3+ continue to surprise and delight us

  10. HIGHLY EXCITED H2 IN HERBIG–HARO 7: FORMATION PUMPING IN SHOCKED MOLECULAR GAS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, R. E.; Geballe, T. R.; Burton, M. G.; Chrysostomou, A.

    2016-01-01

    We have obtained K -band spectra at R ∼ 5000 and an angular resolution of 0.″3 of a section of the Herbig–Haro 7 (HH7) bow shock, using the Near-Infrared Integral Field Spectrograph at Gemini North. Present in the portion of the data cube corresponding to the brightest part of the bow shock are emission lines of H 2 with upper state energies ranging from ∼6000 K to the dissociation energy of H 2 , ∼50,000 K. Because of low signal-to-noise ratios, the highest excitation lines cannot be easily seen elsewhere in the observed region. However, excitation temperatures, measured throughout much of the observed region using lines from levels as high as 25,000 K, are a strong function of upper level energy, indicating that the very highest levels are populated throughout. The level populations in the brightest region are well fit by a two-temperature model, with 98.5% of the emitting gas at T = 1800 K and 1.5% at T = 5200 K. The bulk of the H 2 line emission in HH7, from the 1800 K gas, has previously been well-modeled by a continuous shock, but the 5200 K cozmponent is inconsistent with standalone standard continuous shock models. We discuss various possible origins for the hot component and suggest that this component is H 2 newly reformed on dust grains and then ejected from them, presumably following dissociation of some of the H 2 by the shock.

  11. SUBMILLIMETER-WAVE ROTATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY OF H2F+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, R.; Kawaguchi, K.; Amano, T.

    2011-01-01

    Five pure rotational transitions of H 2 F + generated by a discharge in an HF/H 2 /Ar mixture were observed in the range 473-774 GHz with a backward-wave oscillator based submillimeter-wave spectrometer. A simultaneous analysis of the rotational lines with 120 combination differences for the ground state derived from the infrared spectra was carried out to determine the precise molecular constants for the ground state. The rotational transition frequencies that lie below 2 THz were calculated, together with their estimated uncertainties, to facilitate future astronomical identifications. The chemistry for H 2 F + formation in interstellar space is discussed in comparison with a case for recently detected H 2 Cl + .

  12. H2S: a universal defense against antibiotics in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatalin, Konstantin; Shatalina, Elena; Mironov, Alexander; Nudler, Evgeny

    2011-11-18

    Many prokaryotic species generate hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) in their natural environments. However, the biochemistry and physiological role of this gas in nonsulfur bacteria remain largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that inactivation of putative cystathionine β-synthase, cystathionine γ-lyase, or 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase in Bacillus anthracis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli suppresses H(2)S production, rendering these pathogens highly sensitive to a multitude of antibiotics. Exogenous H(2)S suppresses this effect. Moreover, in bacteria that normally produce H(2)S and nitric oxide, these two gases act synergistically to sustain growth. The mechanism of gas-mediated antibiotic resistance relies on mitigation of oxidative stress imposed by antibiotics.

  13. Hydrogen degradation of the 26H2MF alloy steel in H2SO4 and hydrocarbon environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, A.; Swieczko-Zurek, B.; Michaliak, P.

    2004-01-01

    The Polish 26H2M alloy steel has been subjected to different heat treatment resulting in different microstructure and fracture appearance. The slow strain rate tests have been made on smooth round specimens in diluted sulphuric acid, boiler fuel and used mineral machine oil. The 26H2MF steel has become relatively immune in neutral boiler fuel and mineral oil and been heavily suffered from hydrogen degradation in acidic environment. The results demonstrate that the 26H2MF steel is highly susceptible to hydrogen degradation but in absence of stress raisers the increased hydrogen absorption in hydrocarbons can cause only small loss of its plasticity. (author) >>>

  14. Ab initio study of MgH2 formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakovic, Nikola; Matovic, Ljiljana; Novakovic, Jasmina Grbovic; Manasijevic, Miodrag; Ivanovic, Nenad

    2009-01-01

    Even if there is considerable literature dealing with structure and properties of MgH 2 compound there are still some uncertain details about nature of bonding governing its formation and decomposition. In order to better understand the processes essential for absorption and desorption of MgH 2 , ab initio DFT based calculations of rutile MgH 2 compound, elemental hcp-Mg, and three different hypothetical hcp-Mg-derived hydrides are performed. Our findings show that all structures are unstable, and that MgH (Wurtzite) is a closest possible candidate for intermediate phase between the hcp-Mg and MgH 2 at 1:1 stoichiometry. An alternative hydration pathway is suggested, including promotion of hcp-Mg to bcc-Mg and consecutive transformation to rutile MgH 2 by means of hydrogen incorporation into Mg matrix. Rutile MgH 2 calculations with various hydrogen vacancies concentration are performed. Calculation shows that at high hydrogen concentration close to 1:2, stable substoichiometric hydride is possible. Calculation also shows that high vacancy (low hydrogen) concentration favors bcc-Mg 2 H over rutile Mg 2 H structure.

  15. H2S mediated thermal and photochemical methane activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltrusaitis, Jonas; de Graaf, Coen; Broer, Ria; Patterson, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable, low temperature methods of natural gas activation are critical in addressing current and foreseeable energy and hydrocarbon feedstock needs. Large portions of natural gas resources are still too expensive to process due to their high content of hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) in mixture with methane, CH4, altogether deemed as sub-quality or “sour” gas. We propose a unique method for activating this “sour” gas to form a mixture of sulfur-containing hydrocarbon intermediates, CH3SH and CH3SCH3, and an energy carrier, such as H2. For this purpose, we computationally investigated H2S mediated methane activation to form a reactive CH3SH species via direct photolysis of sub-quality natural gas. Photoexcitation of hydrogen sulfide in the CH4+H2S complex results in a barrier-less relaxation via a conical intersection to form a ground state CH3SH+H2 complex. The resulting CH3SH can further be heterogeneously coupled over acidic catalysts to form higher hydrocarbons while the H2 can be used as a fuel. This process is very different from a conventional thermal or radical-based processes and can be driven photolytically at low temperatures, with enhanced controllability over the process conditions currently used in industrial oxidative natural gas activation. Finally, the proposed process is CO2 neutral, as opposed to the currently industrially used methane steam reforming (SMR). PMID:24150813

  16. H2S-mediated thermal and photochemical methane activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltrusaitis, Jonas; de Graaf, Coen; Broer, Ria; Patterson, Eric V

    2013-12-02

    Sustainable, low-temperature methods for natural gas activation are critical in addressing current and foreseeable energy and hydrocarbon feedstock needs. Large portions of natural gas resources are still too expensive to process due to their high content of hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) mixed with methane, deemed altogether as sub-quality or "sour" gas. We propose a unique method of activation to form a mixture of sulfur-containing hydrocarbon intermediates, CH3SH and CH3SCH3 , and an energy carrier such as H2. For this purpose, we investigated the H2S-mediated methane activation to form a reactive CH3SH species by means of direct photolysis of sub-quality natural gas. Photoexcitation of hydrogen sulfide in the CH4 + H2S complex resulted in a barrierless relaxation by a conical intersection to form a ground-state CH3SH + H2 complex. The resulting CH3SH could further be coupled over acidic catalysts to form higher hydrocarbons, and the resulting H2 used as a fuel. This process is very different from conventional thermal or radical-based processes and can be driven photolytically at low temperatures, with enhanced control over the conditions currently used in industrial oxidative natural gas activation. Finally, the proposed process is CO2 neutral, as opposed to the current industrial steam methane reforming (SMR). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. A Critical Review of Models of the H-2/H2O/Ni/SZ Electrode Kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Høgh, Jens Valdemar Thorvald; Hansen, Karin Vels

    2007-01-01

    Various models of the H-2/H2O/Ni/SZ (SZ = stabilized zirconia) electrode kinetics have been presented in the literature in order to explain the reported experimental data. However, there has been a strong tendency of using a limited set of data to "verify" a given model, disregarding other data...... sets, which do not fit the model. We have inspected some models in the literature, and problems (e.g. no quantitative model has explained the large variation in reported values of apparent activation energy of the electrode kinetics) as well as strengths of the models are discussed. We point out...... important for any realistic and useful mathematical model of the H-2/H2O/Ni/SZ electrode....

  18. Kinetics of oxidation of H2 and reduction of H2O in Ni-YSZ based solid oxide cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Sune Dalgaard; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2012-01-01

    Reduction of H2O and oxidation of H2 was studied in a Ni-YSZ electrode supported Solid Oxide Cells produced at DTU Energy conversion (former Risø DTU). Polarisation (i-V) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic characterisation show that the kinetics for reduction of H 2O is slower compared...... to oxidation of H2. The kinetic differences cannot be explained by the reaction mechanisms which are similar in the two cases but are rather an effect of the thermodynamics. The preliminary analysis performed in this study show that the slow kinetic for reduction is partly related to the endothermic nature...... of the reaction, cooling the active electrode, thereby leading to slower kinetics at low current densities. Likewise, the increased kinetic for oxidation was found to be related to the exothermic nature of the reaction, heating the active electrode, and thereby leading to faster kinetics. At higher current...

  19. Different reaction of the core histones H2A and H2B to red laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, G. E.; Egorova, A. V.; Bugaeva, I. O.; Postnov, D. E.; Ushakova, O. V.

    2017-03-01

    Analysis of the influence of red laser irradiation on the processes of self-assembly of the core histones H2A and H2B was performed using a wedge dehydration method. Image-analysis of facies included their qualitative characteristics and calculation of quantitative parameters with subsequent statistical processing. It was established that linearly polarized red laser light (λ - 660 nm, 1 J/cm2) significantly modified the process of self-assembly of core histone H2B, whereas the structure of the facies of H2A histone changed to a lesser extent. Histones were used in the form of aqueous salt solutions. The effect of red light seems to result from the formation of singlet oxygen by direct laser excitation of molecular oxygen.

  20. Crystal structure of strontium osmate (8) Sr[OsO5(H2O)]x3H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevskij, N.N; Ivanov-Ehmin, B.N.; Nevskaya, N.A.; Belov, N.V.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Kristallografii)

    1982-01-01

    Crystal structure of the Sr[OsO 5 (H 2 O)]x3H 2 O complex is studied. Rhombic P-cell has the parameters: a=6.426(1), b=7.888(1), c=14.377(5) A, Vsub(c)=729 A 3 . The R-factor equals 0.034. The coordinates of the basis atoms and isotropic temperature corrections, as well as basic interatomic distances, are determined

  1. Validation of UARS Microwave Limb Sounder 183 GHz H2O Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahoz, W. A.; Suttie, M. R.; Froidevaux, L.; Harwood, R. S.; Lau, C. L.; Lungu, T. A.; Peckham, G. E.; Pumphrey, H. C.; Read, W. G.; Shippony, Z.; hide

    1996-01-01

    The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) microwave limb sounder (MLS) makes measurements of thermal emission at 183.3 GHz which are used to infer the concentration of water vapor over a pressure range of 46-0.2hPa (approximately 20-60 km). We provide a validation of MLS H2O by analyzing the integrity of the measurements, by providing an error characterization, and by comparison with data from other instruments. It is estimated that version 3 MLS H2O retrievals are accurate to within 20-25% in the lower stratosphere and to within 8-13% in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere. The precision of a single profile is estimated to be approximately 0.15 parts per million by volume (ppmv) in the midstratosphere and 0.2 ppmv in the lower and upper stratosphere. In the lower mesosphere the estimate of a single profile precision is 0.25-0.45 ppmv. During polar winter conditions, H2O retrievals at 46 hPa can have a substantial contribution from climatology. The vertical resolution of MLS H2O retrievals is approximately 5 km.

  2. Time resolved studies of H2+ dissociation with phase-stabilized laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Bettina

    2010-01-01

    In the course of this thesis, experimental studies on the dissociation of H 2 + (H 2 + →p+H) in ultrashort laser pulses with a stabilized carrier-envelope phase (CEP) were carried out. In single-pulse measurements, the ability to control the emission direction of low energetic protons, i.e. the localization of the bound electron at one of the nuclei after dissociation, by the CEP was demonstrated. The coincident detection of the emitted protons and electrons and the measurement of their three-dimensional momentum vectors with a reaction microscope allowed to clarify the localization mechanism. Further control was achieved by a pump-control scheme with two timedelayed CEP-stabilized laser pulses. Here the neutral H 2 molecule was ionized in the first pulse and dissociation was induced by the second pulse. Electron localization was shown to depend on the properties of the bound nuclear wave packet in H 2 + at the time the control pulse is applied, demonstrating the ability to use the shape and dynamics of the nuclear wave packet as control parameters. Wave packet simulations were performed reproducing qualitatively the experimental results of the single and the two-pulse measurements. For both control schemes, intuitive models are presented, which qualitatively explain the main features of the obtained results. (orig.)

  3. Metagenomic Evidence for H2 Oxidation and H2 Production by Serpentinite-Hosted Subsurface Microbial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazelton, William J.; Nelson, Bridget; Schrenk, Matthew O.

    2012-01-01

    Ultramafic rocks in the Earth’s mantle represent a tremendous reservoir of carbon and reducing power. Upon tectonic uplift and exposure to fluid flow, serpentinization of these materials generates copious energy, sustains abiogenic synthesis of organic molecules, and releases hydrogen gas (H2). In order to assess the potential for microbial H2 utilization fueled by serpentinization, we conducted metagenomic surveys of a marine serpentinite-hosted hydrothermal chimney (at the Lost City hydrothermal field) and two continental serpentinite-hosted alkaline seeps (at the Tablelands Ophiolite, Newfoundland). Novel [NiFe]-hydrogenase sequences were identified at both the marine and continental sites, and in both cases, phylogenetic analyses indicated aerobic, potentially autotrophic Betaproteobacteria belonging to order Burkholderiales as the most likely H2-oxidizers. Both sites also yielded metagenomic evidence for microbial H2 production catalyzed by [FeFe]-hydrogenases in anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria belonging to order Clostridiales. In addition, we present metagenomic evidence at both sites for aerobic carbon monoxide utilization and anaerobic carbon fixation via the Wood–Ljungdahl pathway. In general, our results point to H2-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria thriving in shallow, oxic–anoxic transition zones and the anaerobic Clostridia thriving in anoxic, deep subsurface habitats. These data demonstrate the feasibility of metagenomic investigations into novel subsurface habitats via surface-exposed seeps and indicate the potential for H2-powered primary production in serpentinite-hosted subsurface habitats. PMID:22232619

  4. Metagenomic evidence for h(2) oxidation and h(2) production by serpentinite-hosted subsurface microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazelton, William J; Nelson, Bridget; Schrenk, Matthew O

    2012-01-01

    Ultramafic rocks in the Earth's mantle represent a tremendous reservoir of carbon and reducing power. Upon tectonic uplift and exposure to fluid flow, serpentinization of these materials generates copious energy, sustains abiogenic synthesis of organic molecules, and releases hydrogen gas (H(2)). In order to assess the potential for microbial H(2) utilization fueled by serpentinization, we conducted metagenomic surveys of a marine serpentinite-hosted hydrothermal chimney (at the Lost City hydrothermal field) and two continental serpentinite-hosted alkaline seeps (at the Tablelands Ophiolite, Newfoundland). Novel [NiFe]-hydrogenase sequences were identified at both the marine and continental sites, and in both cases, phylogenetic analyses indicated aerobic, potentially autotrophic Betaproteobacteria belonging to order Burkholderiales as the most likely H(2)-oxidizers. Both sites also yielded metagenomic evidence for microbial H(2) production catalyzed by [FeFe]-hydrogenases in anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria belonging to order Clostridiales. In addition, we present metagenomic evidence at both sites for aerobic carbon monoxide utilization and anaerobic carbon fixation via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. In general, our results point to H(2)-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria thriving in shallow, oxic-anoxic transition zones and the anaerobic Clostridia thriving in anoxic, deep subsurface habitats. These data demonstrate the feasibility of metagenomic investigations into novel subsurface habitats via surface-exposed seeps and indicate the potential for H(2)-powered primary production in serpentinite-hosted subsurface habitats.

  5. Metagenomic evidence for H2 oxidation and H2 production by serpentinite-hosted subsurface microbial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Brazelton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultramafic rocks in the Earth’s mantle represent a tremendous reservoir of carbon and reducing power. Upon tectonic uplift and exposure to fluid flow, serpentinization of these materials generates copious energy, sustains abiogenic synthesis of organic molecules, and releases hydrogen gas (H2. In order to assess the potential for microbial H2 utilization fueled by serpentinization, we conducted metagenomic surveys of a marine serpentinite-hosted hydrothermal chimney (at the Lost City hydrothermal field and two continental serpentinite- hosted alkaline seeps (at the Tablelands Ophiolite, Newfoundland. Novel [NiFe]-hydrogenase sequences were identified at both the marine and continental sites, and in both cases, phylogenetic analyses indicated aerobic, potentially autotrophic Betaproteobacteria belonging to order Burkholderiales as the most likely H2-oxidizers. Both sites also yielded metagenomic evidence for microbial H2 production catalyzed by [FeFe]-hydrogenases in anaerobic Gram- positive bacteria belonging to order Clostridiales. In addition, we present metagenomic evidence at both sites for aerobic carbon monoxide utilization and anaerobic carbon fixation via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. In general, our results point to H2-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria thriving in shallow, oxic-anoxic transition zones and the anaerobic Clostridia thriving in anoxic, deep subsurface habitats. These data demonstrate the feasibility of metagenomic investigations into novel subsurface habitats via surface-exposed seeps and indicate the potential for H2- powered primary production in serpentinite-hosted subsurface habitats.

  6. Different reaction of core histones H2A and H2B to the red laser radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brill G.E.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to investigate the influence of red laser irradiation on the processes of self-assembly of core histones H2A and H2B. Material and Methods. Solutions of human histone proteins were used in the work. Self-assembly was studied by the method of wedge dehydration. Image facies analysis consisted in their qualitative characterization and calculation of quantitative indicators with subsequent statistical processing. Results. It was established that linearly polarized laser light of the red region of the spectrum (A=660 nm, 1 J/cm2 significantly modifies the process of self-assembly of core histone H2B, while the structure of the facies of H2A histone changing to a lesser extent. Conclusion. Red laser radiation influences on the on the processes of self-assembly of core histones H2A and H2B. There is a differential sensitivity of different classes of histones to laser action. Histone proteins used in the experiments are present in the form of aqueous salt solutions. Red light realizes the effect seems to be due to the formation of singlet oxygen by direct laser excitation of molecular oxygen.

  7. Investigation of the Na2(H2PO2)2 - Ba(H2PO2)2 - H2O Water-Salt Ternary System at Room Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Erge, Hasan; Turan, Hakan; Kul, Ali Riza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this study, the solubility, density, conductivity and phase equilibria of the Na2(H2PO2)2-Ba(H2PO2)2-H2O ternary system located in the structure of the Na+, Ba2+, (H2PO2)-//H2O quaternary reciprocal water-salt system were investigated using physicochemical analysis methods. Material and Methods: Riedel-de Haen and Merck salts were used to investigate the solubility and phase equilibria of the Na2(H2PO2)2 -Ba(H2PO2)2-H2O ternary water–salt system at room temperature Res...

  8. Presumed PDF modeling of microjet assisted CH4–H2/air turbulent flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chouaieb, Sirine; Kriaa, Wassim; Mhiri, Hatem; Bournot, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Microjet assisted CH 4 –H 2 /air turbulent flames are numerically investigated. • Temperature, species and soot are well predicted by the Presumed PDF model. • An inner flame is identified due to the microjet presence. • The addition of hydrogen to the microjet assisted flames enhances mixing. • Soot emission is reduced by 36% for a 10% enriched microjet assisted flame. - Abstract: The characteristics of microjet assisted CH 4 –H 2 /air flames in a turbulent mode are numerically investigated. Simulations are performed using the Computational Fluid Dynamics code Fluent. The Presumed PDF and the Discrete Ordinates models are considered respectively for combustion and radiation modeling. The k–ε Realizable model is adopted as a turbulence closure model. The Tesner model is used to calculate soot particle quantities. In the first part of this paper, the Presumed PDF model is compared to the Eddy Dissipation model and to slow chemistry combustion models from literature. Results show that the Presumed PDF model predicts correctly thermal and species fields, as well as soot formation. The effect of hydrogen enrichment on CH 4 /air confined flames under the addition of an air microjet is investigated in the second part of this work. The found results show that an inner flame was identified due to the air microjet for the CH 4 –H 2 /air flames. Moreover, the increase of hydrogen percentage in the fuel mixture leads to mixing enhancement and consequently to considerable soot emission reduction.

  9. An experimental study on premixed CNG/H2/CO2 mixture flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ilker; Yilmaz, Harun; Cam, Omer

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the effect of swirl number, gas composition and CO2 dilution on combustion and emission behaviour of CNG/H2/CO2 gas mixtures was experimentally investigated in a laboratory scale combustor. Irrespective of the gas composition, thermal power of the combustor was kept constant (5 kW). All experiments were conducted at or near stoichiometric and the local atmospheric conditions of the city of Kayseri, Turkey. During experiments, swirl number was varied and the combustion performance of this combustor was analysed by means of centreline temperature distributions. On the other hand, emission behaviour was examined with respect to emitted CO, CO2 and NOx levels. Dynamic flame behaviour was also evaluated by analysing instantaneous flame images. Results of this study revealed the great impact of swirl number and gas composition on combustion and emission behaviour of studied flames.

  10. An experimental study on premixed CNG/H2/CO2 mixture flames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Ilker

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of swirl number, gas composition and CO2 dilution on combustion and emission behaviour of CNG/H2/CO2 gas mixtures was experimentally investigated in a laboratory scale combustor. Irrespective of the gas composition, thermal power of the combustor was kept constant (5 kW. All experiments were conducted at or near stoichiometric and the local atmospheric conditions of the city of Kayseri, Turkey. During experiments, swirl number was varied and the combustion performance of this combustor was analysed by means of centreline temperature distributions. On the other hand, emission behaviour was examined with respect to emitted CO, CO2 and NOx levels. Dynamic flame behaviour was also evaluated by analysing instantaneous flame images. Results of this study revealed the great impact of swirl number and gas composition on combustion and emission behaviour of studied flames.

  11. Industrial production of MgH2 and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uesugi, H.; Sugiyama, T.; Nii, H.; Ito, T.; Nakatsugawa, I.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Tablet and powder Mg were hydrogenated in a 50 kg batch furnace based on thermal equilibrium method. → Compression of Mg tablet improved the hydrogenation yield. → Hydrolysis of MgH 2 using citric acid generated hydrogen under 373 K. → A MgH 2 -hydrogen reactor utilizing hydraulic head pressure was developed. → - Abstract: A process for the industrial production of magnesium hydride (MgH 2 ) based on a thermal equilibrium method and its application to portable hydrogen sources is proposed. Mg powders and tablets compressed with mechanically ground Mg ribbons were successfully hydrogenated in a 50-kg-batch furnace. The resultant MgH 2 showed a hydrogen yield of around 96% with good reproducibility. The compression ratio of Mg tablets was found to be an important factor in the hydrogenation yield. A hydrolysis technique using citric acid as an additive was employed to generate hydrogen under 373 K. Increasing the concentration of citric acid and the temperature accelerated the hydrolysis reactivity. A hydrogen reactor utilizing hydraulic head pressure was developed. It generated hydrogen continuously for 1 h at a flow rate of 100 ml min -1 with hydrolysis of 5 g of tablet-form MgH 2 . The conversion yield was around 70%, regardless of the flow rate.

  12. Electrochemical, H2O2-Boosted Catalytic Oxidation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akse, James R.; Thompson, John O.; Schussel, Leonard J.

    2004-01-01

    An improved water-sterilizing aqueous-phase catalytic oxidation system (APCOS) is based partly on the electrochemical generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). This H2O2-boosted system offers significant improvements over prior dissolved-oxygen water-sterilizing systems in the way in which it increases oxidation capabilities, supplies H2O2 when needed, reduces the total organic carbon (TOC) content of treated water to a low level, consumes less energy than prior systems do, reduces the risk of contamination, and costs less to operate. This system was developed as a variant of part of an improved waste-management subsystem of the life-support system of a spacecraft. Going beyond its original intended purpose, it offers the advantage of being able to produce H2O2 on demand for surface sterilization and/or decontamination: this is a major advantage inasmuch as the benign byproducts of this H2O2 system, unlike those of systems that utilize other chemical sterilants, place no additional burden of containment control on other spacecraft air- or water-reclamation systems.

  13. Atmospheric photochemical loss of H and H2 from formaldehyde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jens Bæk; Rusteika, Nerijus; Johnson, Matthew Stanley

    2008-01-01

    We have performed ab initio calculations to examine the potential energy along the normal modes of ground-state HCHO and along the reaction coordinates for loss of H2 and atomic hydrogen, respectively. This exploration showed that there are no specific features that will lead to reaction on the e......We have performed ab initio calculations to examine the potential energy along the normal modes of ground-state HCHO and along the reaction coordinates for loss of H2 and atomic hydrogen, respectively. This exploration showed that there are no specific features that will lead to reaction...... on the excited-state surfaces for excitations that are relevant to the troposphere and stratosphere. The calculations did however lead to the localization of a conical intersection point through which a specific loss of H2 could take place. However, the conical intersection lies at 5.4 eV relative to the ground...

  14. Data-Driven Controller Design The H2 Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Sanfelice Bazanella, Alexandre; Eckhard, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Data-driven methodologies have recently emerged as an important paradigm alternative to model-based controller design and several such methodologies are formulated as an H2 performance optimization. This book presents a comprehensive theoretical treatment of the H2 approach to data-driven control design. The fundamental properties implied by the H2 problem formulation are analyzed in detail, so that common features to all solutions are identified. Direct methods (VRFT) and iterative methods (IFT, DFT, CbT) are put under a common theoretical framework. The choice of the reference model, the experimental conditions, the optimization method to be used, and several other designer’s choices are crucial to the quality of the final outcome, and firm guidelines for all these choices are derived from the theoretical analysis presented. The practical application of the concepts in the book is illustrated with a large number of practical designs performed for different classes of processes: thermal, fluid processing a...

  15. HIFI Spectroscopy of H2O Submillimeter Lines in Nuclei of Actively Star-forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Weiß, A.; Perez-Beaupuits, J. P.; Güsten, R.; Liu, D.; Gao, Y.; Menten, K. M.; van der Werf, P.; Israel, F. P.; Harris, A.; Martin-Pintado, J.; Requena-Torres, M. A.; Stutzki, J.

    2017-09-01

    We present a systematic survey of multiple velocity-resolved H2O spectra using Herschel/Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared (HIFI) toward nine nearby actively star-forming galaxies. The ground-state and low-excitation lines (E up ≤ 130 K) show profiles with emission and absorption blended together, while absorption-free medium-excitation lines (130 K ≤ E up ≤ 350 K) typically display line shapes similar to CO. We analyze the HIFI observation together with archival SPIRE/PACS H2O data using a state-of-the-art 3D radiative transfer code that includes the interaction between continuum and line emission. The water excitation models are combined with information on the dust and CO spectral line energy distribution to determine the physical structure of the interstellar medium (ISM). We identify two ISM components that are common to all galaxies: a warm ({T}{dust}˜ 40{--}70 K), dense (n({{H}})˜ {10}5{--}{10}6 {{cm}}-3) phase that dominates the emission of medium-excitation H2O lines. This gas phase also dominates the far-IR emission and the CO intensities for {J}{up}> 8. In addition, a cold ({T}{dust}˜ 20{--}30 K), dense (n({{H}})˜ {10}4{--}{10}5 {{cm}}-3), more extended phase is present. It outputs the emission in the low-excitation H2O lines and typically also produces the prominent line absorption features. For the two ULIRGs in our sample (Arp 220 and Mrk 231) an even hotter and more compact (R s ≤ 100 pc) region is present, which is possibly linked to AGN activity. We find that collisions dominate the water excitation in the cold gas and for lines with {E}{up}≤slant 300 K and {E}{up}≤slant 800 K in the warm and hot component, respectively. Higher-energy levels are mainly excited by IR pumping.

  16. Clinical Applications of CO2 and H2 Breath Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Si-qian;CHEN Bao-jun;LUO Zhi-fu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Breath test is non-invasive, high sensitivity and high specificity. In this article, CO2 breath test, H2 breath test and their clinical applications were elaborated. The main applications of CO2 breath test include helicobacter pylori test, liver function detection, gastric emptying test, insulin resistance test, pancreatic exocrine secretion test, etc. H2 breath test can be applied in the diagnosis of lactose malabsorption and detecting small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. With further research, the breath test is expected to be applied in more diseases diagnosis.

  17. Ultrafast Librational Relaxation of H2O in Liquid Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jakob; Møller, Klaus Braagaard; Rey, Rossend

    2013-01-01

    The ultrafast librational (hindered rotational) relaxation of a rotationally excited H2O molecule in pure liquid water is investigated by means of classical nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations and a power and work analysis. This analysis allows the mechanism of the energy transfer from...... the excited H2O to its water neighbors, which occurs on a sub-100 fs time scale, to be followed in molecular detail, i.e., to determine which water molecules receive the energy and in which degrees of freedom. It is found that the dominant energy flow is to the four hydrogen-bonded water partners in the first...

  18. H∞ /H2 model reduction through dilated linear matrix inequalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegas, Fabiano Daher; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents sufficient dilated linear matrix inequalities (LMI) conditions to the $H_{infty}$ and $H_{2}$ model reduction problem. A special structure of the auxiliary (slack) variables allows the original model of order $n$ to be reduced to an order $r=n/s$ where $n,r,s in field{N}$. Arb......This paper presents sufficient dilated linear matrix inequalities (LMI) conditions to the $H_{infty}$ and $H_{2}$ model reduction problem. A special structure of the auxiliary (slack) variables allows the original model of order $n$ to be reduced to an order $r=n/s$ where $n,r,s in field...

  19. Backward Stochastic H2/H∞ Control: Infinite Horizon Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mixed H2/H∞ control problem is studied for systems governed by infinite horizon backward stochastic differential equations (BSDEs with exogenous disturbance signal. A necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a unique solution to the H2/H∞ control problem is derived. The equivalent feedback solution is also discussed. Contrary to deterministic or stochastic forward case, the feedback solution is no longer feedback of the current state; rather, it is feedback of the entire history of the state.

  20. [3H]-2-Deoxyglucose autoradiography in a molluscan nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reingold, S.C.; Sejnowski, T.J.; Gelperin, A.

    1981-01-01

    The authors have used [ 3 H]2-deoxyglucose autoradiography to correlate the labeling of individual neurons with electrical activity within the central nervous system of a terrestrial mollusc, Limax maximus. In an electrically quiescent control preparation where a single neuron is impaled with a glass microelectrode but not stimulated, several somata are uniformly labeled at 3-5 times background. In preparations where a single cell is impaled and stimulated, one or more somata are heavily labeled with [ 3 H]2-deoxyglucose at 10-50 times tissue background. This technique may be useful for surveying metabolically active neurons during spontaneous and driven electrical activity. (Auth.)

  1. The solubility of gold in H 2 O-H 2 S vapour at elevated temperature and pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zezin, Denis Yu.; Migdisov, Artashes A.; Williams-Jones, Anthony E.

    2011-09-01

    This experimental study sheds light on the complexation of gold in reduced sulphur-bearing vapour, specifically, in H 2O-H 2S gas mixtures. The solubility of gold was determined in experiments at temperatures of 300, 350 and 365 °C and reached 2.2, 6.6 and 6.3 μg/kg, respectively. The density of the vapour varied from 0.02 to 0.22 g/cm 3, the mole fraction of H 2S varied from 0.03 to 0.96, and the pressure in the cell reached 263 bar. Statistically significant correlations of the amount of gold dissolved in the fluid with the fugacity of H 2O and H 2S permit the experimental data to be fitted to a solvation/hydration model. According to this model, the solubility of gold in H 2O-H 2S gas mixtures is controlled by the formation of sulphide or bisulphide species solvated by H 2S or H 2O molecules. Formation of gold sulphide species is favoured statistically over gold bisulphide species and thus the gold is interpreted to dissolve according to reactions of the form: Au(s)+(n+1)HS(g)=AuS·(HS)n(g)+H(g) Au(s)+HS(g)+mHO(g)=AuS·(HO)m(g)+H(g) Equilibrium constants for Reaction (A1) and the corresponding solvation numbers ( K A1 and n) were evaluated from the study of Zezin et al. (2007). The equilibrium constants as well as the hydration numbers for Reaction (A2) ( K A2 and m) were adjusted simultaneously by a custom-designed optimization algorithm and were tested statistically. The resulting values of log K A2 and m are -15.3 and 2.3 at 300 and 350 °C and -15.1 and 2.2 at 365 °C, respectively. Using the calculated stoichiometry and stability of Reactions (A1) and (A2), it is now possible to quantitatively evaluate the contribution of reduced sulphur species to the transport of gold in aqueous vapour at temperatures up to 365 °C. This information will find application in modelling gold ore-forming processes in vapour-bearing magmatic hydrothermal systems, notably those of epithermal environments.

  2. A study of the accelerated zircaloy-4 oxidation reaction with H2O/H2 mixture gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. S.; Cho, I. J.

    2001-01-01

    A study of the Zircaloy-4 reaction with H 2 O/H 2 mixture gas is carried out by using TGA (Thermo Gravimetric Apparatus) to estimate the hydrogen embrittlement which can possibly cause catastrophic nuclear fuel rod failure. Reaction rates are measured as a function of H 2 /H 2 O. In the experiments reaction temperature is set at 500 .deg. C and total pressure of the mixture gas is maintained at 1 atm. Experimental results reveal that hydriding and oxidation reaction are competing. In early stage, hydriding kinetics is faster than oxidation, however, oxidant in H 2 O forms oxide on the surface as steam environment is maintained, thus, this growing oxide begins to protect the zirconium base metal against hydrogen permeation. In this second stage, the total kinetic rate follows enhanced oxidation kinetics. In the final stage, it is observed that the oxide is broken down and massive hydriding takes place through the mechanical defects in the oxide, whose kinetics is similar to pure hydriding kinetics. These results are confirmed by SEM and EDX analysis along with hydrogen concentration measurements

  3. Temporal dynamics of cortical and subcortical responses to apomorphine in Parkinson disease: an H2(15)O PET study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosey, Lara A.; Thompson, Jennifer L. W.; Metman, Leonard Verhagen; van den Munckhof, Pepyn; Braun, Allen R.

    2005-01-01

    H2(15)O positron emission tomography (PET) was used to study the temporal course of central nervous system (CNS) responses to apomorphine in patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease (PD). Agonist-induced changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were evaluated within

  4. Atomic and molecular data for H2O, CO and CO2 relevant to edge plasma impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawara, Hiro.

    1992-10-01

    The present status of atomic and molecular data under electron impact involving the most relevant plasma impurity species (H 2 O, CO and CO 2 ) has been surveyed and some data have been compiled and evaluated. The emphasis is the cross sections for ionization, dissociation, excitation, photon emission and recombination processes. (author)

  5. Observations of Concentration and δ D of Atmospheric H2 in an Alaskan Boreal Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahn, T.; Kitchen, N.; Fessenden, J.; Randerson, J. T.; Eiler, J. M.

    2001-12-01

    Molecular hydrogen is the second most abundant reduced gas in the atmosphere with a seasonally dependent mixing ratio averaging ~ 0.5 ppmv; the budget is thought to be controlled by sources from photo-oxidation of hydrocarbons, biomass burning and anthropogenic emissions and sinks dominated by soil uptake and oxidation by OH radicals. We are examining the isotopic signatures of these processes using a new method of H2 recovery and mass spectrometry on sub-liter-sized air samples (i.e., vigorous H2 uptake and were negatively correlated with respiring CO2 (-0.8 to -1.2 ppb H2/ppm CO2). Decreases in H2 concentration are correlated with increases in δ D, indicating that one or more steps in the process of hydrogen consumption (presumably either diffusion into the soil or microbial utilization) is isotopically fractionating. Based on these data, we derive a fractionation factor, α = D/Hresidual/D/Hconsumed = 0.96±0.01. This value is within the range of previous flux-chamber experiments [Gerst and Quay, 2001]. Data from the 24 hour time series yielded a similar nighttime draw down of H2 and elevated CO2 (observable even above canopy) and comparable fractionation factors for D/H. Unexpectedly, samples collected during daylight hours when the canopy was well flushed (evidenced by background CO2 levels) exhibited a modest positive correlation between hydrogen concentration and its deuterium content. We speculate that these enrichments may be the first observational verification of photochemically induced enrichment during oxidation of methane and non-methane hydrocarbons such as that proposed by Gerst and Quay [2001]. Gerst, S. and P. Quay, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 5021-5031, 2001.

  6. Model analysis of the influence of gas diffusivity in soil on CO and H2 uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonemura, S.; Yokozawa, M.; Kawashima, S.; Tsuruta, H.

    2000-01-01

    CO and H 2 uptake by soil was studied as a diffusion process. A diffusion model was used to determine how the surface fluxes (net deposition velocities) were controlled by in-situ microbial uptake rates and soil gas diffusivity calculated from the 3-phase system (solid, liquid, gas) in the soil. Analytical solutions of the diffusion model assuming vertical uniformity of soil properties showed that physical properties such as air-filled porosity and soil gas diffusivity were more important in the uptake process than in the emission process. To incorporate the distribution of in-situ microbial uptake, we used a 2-layer model incorporating 'a microbiologically inactive layer and an active layer' as suggested from experimental results. By numerical simulation using the 2-layer model, we estimated the effect of several factors on deposition velocities. The variations in soil gas diffusivity due to physical properties, i.e., soil moisture and air-filled porosity, as well as to the depth of the inactive layer and in-situ microbial uptake, were found to be important in controlling deposition velocities. This result shows that the diffusion process in soil is critically important for CO and H 2 uptake by soil, at least in soils with higher in-situ uptake rates and/or with large variation in soil moisture. Similar uptake rates and the difference in deposition velocity between CO and H 2 may be attributable to differences in CO and H 2 molecular diffusivity. The inactive layer is resistant to diffusion and creates uptake limits in CO and H 2 by soil. The coupling of high temperature and a thick inactive layer, common in arid soils, markedly lowers net CO deposition velocity. The temperature for maximum uptake of CO changes with depth of the inactive layer

  7. Adsorption of CO, CO2, H2, and H2O on titania surfaces with different oxidation states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raupp, G.B.; Dumesic, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    The adsorptive properties of titania surfaces with different oxidation states were proved by temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of CO, H 2 , CO 2 , and H 2 O. Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that vacuum annealing an oxidized titanium foil at temperatures from 300 to 800 K was an effective means of systematically varying the average surface oxidation state from Ti 4+ to Ti 2+ . Carbon monoxide weakly adsorbed (desorption energy of 44-49 kJ x mol -1 ) in a carbonyl fashion on coordinatively unsaturated cation sites. Titania surfaces were inert with respect to H 2 adsorption and dissociation. Carbon dioxide adsorbed in a linear molecular fashion. Water adsorbed both molecularly and dissociatively. Results are discussed in terms of the role of titania oxidation state in CO hydrogenation over titania-supported metal catalysts. 74 references, 7 figures

  8. Resonances in photoionization. Cross section for vibrationally excited H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezei, J.Zs.; Jungen, Ch.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Diatomic molecular Hydrogen is the most abundant molecule in interstellar molecular clouds. The modeling of these environments relies on accurate cross sections for the various relevant processes. Among them, the photoionization plays a major role in the kinetics and in the energy exchanges involving H 2 . The recent discovery of vibrationally excited molecular hydrogen in extragalactic environments revealed the need for accurate evaluation of the corresponding photoionization cross sections. In the present work we report theoretical photoionization cross sections for excitation from excited vibrational levels of the ground state, dealing with the Q(N = 1) (ΔN = 0, where N is the total angular momentum of the molecule) transitions which account for roughly one third of the total photoabsorption cross section. We will focus on the v' = 1 excited level of the ground electronic state. Our calculations are based on Multichannel Quantum Defect Theory (MQDT), which allows us to take into account of the full manifold of Rydberg states and their interactions with the electronic continuum. We have carried out two types of MQDT calculations. First, we omitted all open channels and calculated energy levels, wave functions and spontaneous emission Einstein coefficients, making use of the theoretical method presented in [2]. In a second set of calculations we included the open ionization channels in the computations getting the continuum phase shifts, channel mixing coefficients and channel dipole moments and finally the photoabsorption/ photoionization cross section. The cross section is dominated by the presence of resonance structures corresponding to excitation of various vibrational levels of bound electronic states which lie above the ionization threshold. In order to assess the importance of the resonances we have calculated for each vibrational interval (the energy interval between two consecutive ionization thresholds) the

  9. Solar kerosene from H2O and CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furler, P.; Marxer, D.; Scheffe, J.; Reinalda, D.; Geerlings, H.; Falter, C.; Batteiger, V.; Sizmann, A.; Steinfeld, A.

    2017-06-01

    The entire production chain for renewable kerosene obtained directly from sunlight, H2O, and CO2 is experimentally demonstrated. The key component of the production process is a high-temperature solar reactor containing a reticulated porous ceramic (RPC) structure made of ceria, which enables the splitting of H2O and CO2 via a 2-step thermochemical redox cycle. In the 1st reduction step, ceria is endo-thermally reduced using concentrated solar radiation as the energy source of process heat. In the 2nd oxidation step, nonstoichiometric ceria reacts with H2O and CO2 to form H2 and CO - syngas - which is finally converted into kerosene by the Fischer-Tropsch process. The RPC featured dual-scale porosity for enhanced heat and mass transfer: mm-size pores for volumetric radiation absorption during the reduction step and μm-size pores within its struts for fast kinetics during the oxidation step. We report on the engineering design of the solar reactor and the experimental demonstration of over 290 consecutive redox cycles for producing high-quality syngas suitable for the processing of liquid hydrocarbon fuels.

  10. submitter Thermodynamics of the formation of sulfuric acid dimers in the binary (H2SO4–H2O) and ternary (H2SO4–H2O–NH3) system

    CERN Document Server

    Kürten, A; Rondo, L; Bianchi, F; Duplissy, J; Jokinen, T; Junninen, H; Sarnela, N; Schobesberger, S; Simon, M; Sipilä, M; Almeida, J; Amorim, A; Dommen, J; Donahue, N M; Dunne, E M; Flagan, R C; Franchin, A; Kirkby, J; Kupc, A; Makhmutov, V; Petäjä, T; Praplan, A P; Riccobono, F; Steiner, G; Tomé, A; Tsagkogeorgas, G; Wagner, P E; Wimmer, D; Baltensperger, U; Kulmala, M; Worsnop, D R; Curtius, J

    2015-01-01

    Sulfuric acid is an important gas influencing atmospheric new particle formation (NPF). Both the binary $(H_2SO_4–H_2O)$ system and the ternary system involving ammonia $(H_2SO_4–H_2O–NH_3)$ may be important in the free troposphere. An essential step in the nucleation of aerosol particles from gas-phase precursors is the formation of a dimer, so an understanding of the thermodynamics of dimer formation over a wide range of atmospheric conditions is essential to describe NPF. We have used the CLOUD chamber to conduct nucleation experiments for these systems at temperatures from 208 to 248 K. Neutral monomer and dimer concentrations of sulfuric acid were measured using a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS). From these measurements, dimer evaporation rates in the binary system were derived for temperatures of 208 and 223 K. We compare these results to literature data from a previous study that was conducted at higher temperatures but is in good agreement with the present study. For the ternary sys...

  11. Room temperature CO and H2 sensing with carbon nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Daegyu; Pikhitsa, Peter V; Yang, Hongjoo; Choi, Mansoo

    2011-01-01

    We report on a shell-shaped carbon nanoparticle (SCNP)-based gas sensor that reversibly detects reducing gas molecules such as CO and H 2 at room temperature both in air and inert atmosphere. Crystalline SCNPs were synthesized by laser-assisted reactions in pure acetylene gas flow, chemically treated to obtain well-dispersed SCNPs and then patterned on a substrate by the ion-induced focusing method. Our chemically functionalized SCNP-based gas sensor works for low concentrations of CO and H 2 at room temperature even without Pd or Pt catalysts commonly used for splitting H 2 molecules into reactive H atoms, while metal oxide gas sensors and bare carbon-nanotube-based gas sensors for sensing CO and H 2 molecules can operate only at elevated temperatures. A pristine SCNP-based gas sensor was also examined to prove the role of functional groups formed on the surface of functionalized SCNPs. A pristine SCNP gas sensor showed no response to reducing gases at room temperature but a significant response at elevated temperature, indicating a different sensing mechanism from a chemically functionalized SCNP sensor.

  12. Reaction of ferric leghemoglobin with H2O2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, S; Davies, M J; Puppo, A

    1995-01-01

    Ferric leghemoglobin in the presence of H2O2 is known to give rise to protein radicals, at least one of which is centred on a tyrosine residue. These radicals are quenched by at least two processes. The first one involves an intramolecular heme-protein cross-link probably involving the tyrosine r...

  13. Analytical potential energy function for the Br + H2 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosaki, Yuzuru

    2001-01-01

    Analytical functions with a many-body expansion for the ground and first-excited-state potential energy surfaces for the Br+H 2 system are newly presented in this work. These functions describe the abstraction and exchange reactions qualitatively well, although it has been found that the function for the ground-state potential surface is still quantitatively unsatisfactory. (author)

  14. Surface tension of H2O and D2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargaftik, N.B.; Voljak, L.D.; Volkov, B.N.

    1975-01-01

    There is a great number of works on surface tension of clean water (H 2 O) at temperatures up to 100 deg C and very few above the boiling point. Works on surface tension of heavy water (D 2 O) are insufficient. A review of works on surface tension of both kinds of water is given

  15. Review of H2 and O2 detection in LWRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neidel, E.C.; Castle, J.G. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogen detection systems are being installed in existing LWR's and are being planned for new ones. This review summarizes the present status of instrument availability and of application in nuclear power plants. The H 2 sensors in most of the detection systems purchased to date by the nuclear utilities are being located outside of containment. The air sampled for each H 2 sensor is circulated outside to the analyzer and back through two pipes which penetrate the containment wall. The travel time for the air to reach the sensor increases the response time for H 2 detection by approximately one-half minute. A few of the utilities will operate their H 2 sensors inside LWR containment. Since these systems lack radiation-hardened electronics, they require multiple wire penetrations which considerably increase installation costs and reduce the attractiveness of these systems. One electric power utility has requested quotations from hydrogen detector manufacturers for hydrogen detection equipment with better performance and faster system response than that presently available commercially. The requested detector response time of 15 seconds or less would permit the decision delay prior to initiating hydrogen control measures to be on the order of one minute

  16. Inelastic scattering in metal-H-2-metal junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, I. S.; Paulsson, Magnus; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2009-01-01

    We present first-principles calculations of the dI/dV characteristics of an H-2 molecule sandwiched between Au and Pt electrodes in the presence of electron-phonon interactions. The conductance is found to decrease by a few percentages at threshold voltages corresponding to the excitation energy ...

  17. Dynamics of H2 on Ti/Al(100) surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Jian-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    What is the catalytic role played by titanium in the hydrogen storage material NaAlH4? This thesis aims at unraveling the dynamics of an elementary reaction: H2 dissociation on Ti/Al(100) surfaces. Although this reaction is not the rate limiting step in the hydrogen storage of NaAlH4, it is an

  18. Economic analysis of novel synergistic biofuel (H2Bioil) processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Navneet R.; Mallapragada, Dharik S.; Agrawal, Rakesh; Tyner, Wallace E.

    2012-01-01

    Fast-pyrolysis based processes can be built on small-scale and have higher process carbon and energy efficiency as compared to other options. H 2 Bioil is a novel process based on biomass fast-hydropyrolysis and subsequent hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) and can potentially provide high yields of high energy density liquid fuel at relatively low hydrogen consumption. This paper contains a comprehensive financial analysis of the H 2 Bioil process with hydrogen derived from different sources. Three different carbon tax scenarios are analyzed: no carbon tax, $55/metric ton carbon tax and $110/metric ton carbon tax. The break-even crude oil price for a delivered biomass cost of $94/metric ton when hydrogen is derived from coal, natural gas or nuclear energy ranges from $103 to $116/bbl for no carbon tax and even lower ($99-$111/bbl) for the carbon tax scenarios. This break-even crude oil price compares favorably with the literature estimated prices of fuels from alternate biochemical and thermochemical routes. The impact of the chosen carbon tax is found to be limited relative to the impact of the H 2 source on the H 2 Bioil break-even price. The economic robustness of the processes for hydrogen derived from coal, natural gas, or nuclear energy is seen by an estimated break-even crude oil price of $114-$126/bbl when biomass cost is increased to $121/metric ton. (orig.)

  19. H2A Production Model, Version 2 User Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, D.; Ramsden, T.; Zuboy, J.

    2008-09-01

    The H2A Production Model analyzes the technical and economic aspects of central and forecourt hydrogen production technologies. Using a standard discounted cash flow rate of return methodology, it determines the minimum hydrogen selling price, including a specified after-tax internal rate of return from the production technology. Users have the option of accepting default technology input values--such as capital costs, operating costs, and capacity factor--from established H2A production technology cases or entering custom values. Users can also modify the model's financial inputs. This new version of the H2A Production Model features enhanced usability and functionality. Input fields are consolidated and simplified. New capabilities include performing sensitivity analyses and scaling analyses to various plant sizes. This User Guide helps users already familiar with the basic tenets of H2A hydrogen production cost analysis get started using the new version of the model. It introduces the basic elements of the model then describes the function and use of each of its worksheets.

  20. H2S-Mediated Thermal and Photochemical Methane Activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltrusaitis, Jonas; de Graaf, Coen; Broer, Ria; Patterson, Eric V.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable, low-temperature methods for natural gas activation are critical in addressing current and foreseeable energy and hydrocarbon feedstock needs. Large portions of natural gas resources are still too expensive to process due to their high content of hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) mixed with

  1. Centrifugal turbocompressor with contactless sealing for H-2 S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peculea, M.; Balint, I.; Hirean, I.; Dumitrescu, C.; Pitigoi, Gh.; Balanuca, C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports the development of a centrifugal turbocompressor with contactless sealing for H 2 S specially designed for the ROMAG Drobeta heavy water plant. The bench-scale experiments are described and the resulted main characteristics are given. For this equipment an asymmetric automatic anti-pumping protection system has been developed and patented

  2. Overtone vibrational spectroscopy in H2-H2O complexes: a combined high level theoretical ab initio, dynamical and experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemkiewicz, Michael P; Pluetzer, Christian; Nesbitt, David J; Scribano, Yohann; Faure, Alexandre; van der Avoird, Ad

    2012-08-28

    First results are reported on overtone (v(OH) = 2 ← 0) spectroscopy of weakly bound H(2)-H(2)O complexes in a slit supersonic jet, based on a novel combination of (i) vibrationally mediated predissociation of H(2)-H(2)O, followed by (ii) UV photodissociation of the resulting H(2)O, and (iii) UV laser induced fluorescence on the nascent OH radical. In addition, intermolecular dynamical calculations are performed in full 5D on the recent ab initio intermolecular potential of Valiron et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 129, 134306 (2008)] in order to further elucidate the identity of the infrared transitions detected. Excellent agreement is achieved between experimental and theoretical spectral predictions for the most strongly bound van der Waals complex consisting of ortho (I = 1) H(2) and ortho (I = 1) H(2)O (oH(2)-oH(2)O). Specifically, two distinct bands are seen in the oH(2)-oH(2)O spectrum, corresponding to internal rotor states in the upper vibrational manifold of Σ and Π rotational character. However, none of the three other possible nuclear spin modifications (pH(2)-oH(2)O, pH(2)-pH(2)O, or oH(2)-pH(2)O) are observed above current signal to noise level, which for the pH(2) complexes is argued to arise from displacement by oH(2) in the expansion mixture to preferentially form the more strongly bound species. Direct measurement of oH(2)-oH(2)O vibrational predissociation in the time domain reveals lifetimes of 15(2) ns and <5(2) ns for the Σ and Π states, respectively. Theoretical calculations permit the results to be interpreted in terms of near resonant energy levels and intermolecular alignment of the H(2) and H(2)O wavefunctions, providing insight into predissociation dynamical pathways from these metastable levels.

  3. Hydrogen Financial Analysis Scenario Tool (H2FAST); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, Marc

    2015-04-21

    This presentation describes the Hydrogen Financial Analysis Scenario Tool, H2FAST, and provides an overview of each of the three H2FAST formats: the H2FAST web tool, the H2FAST Excel spreadsheet, and the H2FAST Business Case Scenario (BCS) tool. Examples are presented to illustrate the types of questions that H2FAST can help answer.

  4. H_2 production by the steam reforming of excess boil off gas on LNG vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández, Ignacio Arias; Gómez, Manuel Romero; Gómez, Javier Romero; López-González, Luis M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • BOG excess in LNG vessels is burned in the GCU without energy use. • The gas management plants need to be improved to increase efficiency. • BOG excess in LNG vessels is used for H_2 production by steam reforming. • The availability of different fuels increases the versatility of the ship. - Abstract: The gas management system onboard LNG (Liquid Natural Gas) vessels is crucial, since the exploitation of the BOG (Boil Off Gas) produced is of utmost importance for the overall efficiency of the plant. At present, LNG ships with no reliquefaction plant consume the BOG generated in the engines, and the excess is burned in the GCU (Gas Combustion Unit) without any energy use. The need to improve the gas management system, therefore, is evident. This paper proposes hydrogen production through a steam reforming plant, using the excess BOG as raw material and thus avoiding it being burned in the GCU. To test the feasibility of integrating the plant, an actual study of the gas management process on an LNG vessel with 4SDF (4 Stroke Dual Fuel) propulsion and with no reliquefaction plant was conducted, along with a thermodynamic simulation of the reforming plant. With the proposed gas management system, the vessel disposes of different fuels, including H_2, a clean fuel with zero ozone-depleting emissions. The availability of H_2 on board in areas with strict anti-pollution regulations, such as ECAs (Emission Control Area), means that the vessel may be navigated without using fossil fuels which generate CO_2 and SO_X emissions. Moreover, while at port, Cold Ironing is avoided, which entails high costs. Thus it is demonstrated that the installation of a reforming plant is both energetically viable and provides greater versatility to the ship.

  5. Computational study on the mechanisms and energetics of trimethylindium reactions with H2O and H2S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, P; Lin, M C

    2007-07-19

    The reactions of trimethylindium (TMIn) with H2O and H2S are relevant to the chemical vapor deposition of indium oxide and indium sulfide thin films. The mechanisms and energetics of these reactions in the gas phase have been investigated by density functional theory and ab initio calculations using the CCSD(T)/[6-31G(d,p)+Lanl2dz]//B3LYP/[6-31G(d,p)+Lanl2dz] and CCSD(T)/[6-31G(d,p)+Lanl2dz] //MP2/[6-31G(d,p)+Lanl2dz] methods. The results of both methods are in good agreement for the optimized geometries and relative energies. When TMIn reacts with H2O and H2S, initial molecular complexes [(CH3)3In:OH2 (R1)] and [(CH3)3In:SH2 (R2)] are formed with 12.6 and 3.9 kcal/mol binding energies. Elimination of a CH4 molecule from each complex occurs with a similar energy barrier at TS1 (19.9 kcal/mol) and at TS3 (22.1 kcal/mol), respectively, giving stable intermediates (CH3)2InOH and (CH3)2InSH. The elimination of the second CH4 molecule from these intermediate products, however, has to overcome very high and much different barriers of 66.1 and 53.2 kcal/mol, respectively. In the case of DMIn with H2O and H2S reactions, formation of both InO and InS is exothermic by 3.1 and 30.8 kcal/mol respectively. On the basis of the predicted heats of formation of R1 and R2 at 0 K and -20.1 and 43.6 kcal/mol, the heats of formation of (CH3)2InOH, (CH3)2InSH, CH3InO, CH3InS, InO, and InS are estimated to be -20.6, 31.8, and 29.0 and 48.4, 35.5, and 58.5 kcal/mol, respectively. The values for InO and InS are in good agreement with available experimental data. A similar study on the reactions of (CH3)2In with H2O and H2S has been carried out; in these reactions CH3InOH and CH3InSH were found to be the key intermediate products.

  6. Improved radiosensitive microcapsules using H2O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Satoshi; Ehara, Shigeru; Ishii, Keizo

    2010-01-01

    The radiation-induced releasing of the liquid-core of the microcapsules was improved using H 2 O 2 , which produced O 2 generation of H 2 O 2 after irradiation. Further, we tested whether these microcapsules enhanced the antitumor effects and decreased the adverse effects in vivo in C3He/J mice. The capsules were produced by spraying a mixture of 3.0% hyaluronic acid, 2.0% alginate, 3.0% H 2 O 2 , and 0.3 mmol of carboplatin on a mixture of 0.3 mol FeCl 2 and 0.15 mol CaCl 2 . The microcapsules were subcutaneously injected into MM46 tumors that had been inoculated in the left hind legs of C3He/J mice. The radiotherapy comprised tumor irradiation with 10 Gy or 20 Gy 60 Co. The antitumor effect of the microcapsules was tested by measuring tumor size and monitoring tumor growth. Three types of adverse effects were considered: fuzzy hair, loss of body weight, and death. The size of the capsule size was 23±2.4 μmφ and that of the liquid core, 20.2±2.2 μmφ. The injected microcapsules localized drugs around the tumor. The production of O 2 by radiation increased the release of carboplatin from the microcapsules. The antitumor effects of radiation, carboplatin, and released oxygen were synergistic. Localization of the carboplatin decreased its adverse effects. However, the H 2 O 2 caused ulceration of the skin in the treated area. The use of our microcapsules enhanced the antitumor effects and decreased the adverse effects of carboplatin. However, the skin-ulceration caused by H 2 O 2 must be considered before these microcapsules can be used clinically. (author)

  7. Tricyclic sesquiterpene copaene prevents H2O2-induced neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Turkez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Copaene (COP, a tricyclic sesquiterpene, is present in several essential oils of medicinal and aromatic plants and has antioxidant and anticarcinogenic features. But, very little information is known about the effects of COP on oxidative stress induced neurotoxicity. Method: We used hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 exposure for 6 h to model oxidative stress. Therefore, this experimental design allowed us to explore the neuroprotective potential of COP in H2O2-induced toxicity in rat cerebral cortex cell cultures for the first time. For this purpose, methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release assays were carried out to evaluate cytotoxicity. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC and total oxidative stress (TOS parameters were used to evaluate oxidative changes. In addition to determining of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG levels, the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE or comet assay was also performed for measuring the resistance of neuronal DNA to H2O2-induced challenge. Result: The results of this study showed that survival and TAC levels of the cells decreased, while TOS, 8-OH-dG levels and the mean values of the total scores of cells showing DNA damage increased in the H2O2 alone treated cultures. But pre-treatment of COP suppressed the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress which were increased by H2O2. Conclusion: It is proposed that COP as a natural product with an antioxidant capacity in mitigating oxidative injuries in the field of neurodegenerative diseases. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(1.000: 21-28

  8. Electron localization in fragmentation of H2 with CEP stabilized laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremer, Manuel; Fischer, Bettina; Schroeter, Claus Dieter; Feuerstein, Bernold; Moshammer, Robert; Ullrich, Joachim; Rudenko, Artem; Jesus, Vitor L B de

    2009-01-01

    Fully differential data on ionization and dissociation of H 2 in ultra-short (∼ 6 fs), linearly polarized, intense (∼ 4 . 10 14 W/cm 2 ) laser pulses with stabilized carrier-envelope-phase (CEP) have been measured using a reaction microscope. Depending on the CEP of the laser pulses we see a clear asymmetry in the emission direction of the created protons. Contrary to earlier measurements by Kling et al. we observe the highest asymmetry for kinetic energy releases (proton energy) between 0-2 eV. This excludes the electron re-collision mechanism suggested in [1] as dominant excitation channel and requires another explanation.

  9. Strong charge state dependence of H+ and H2+ sputtering induced by slow highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakutani, N.; Azuma, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Komaki, K.; Kuroki, K.

    1995-01-01

    Secondary ion emission has been studied for very slow ( similar 0.01ν B ) highly charged Ar and N ions bombarding C 60 containing hydrogen as an impurity. It is found that the fragmentations of C 60 are very rare even for Ar 16+ bombardments. On the other hand, the sputtering of H + and H 2 + has been observed to increase drastically as a function of incident charge q like q γ (e.g., γ similar 4.6 for H + sputtering by 500 eV Ar q+ ). (orig.)

  10. Crystalline and amorphous H2O on Charon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Ore, Cristina M.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Grundy, Will M.; Ennico, Kimberly; Olkin, Catherine B.; Stern, S. Alan; Young, Leslie A.; Weaver, Harold A.

    2015-11-01

    Charon, the largest satellite of Pluto, is a gray-colored icy world covered mostly in H2O ice, with spectral evidence for NH3, as previously reported (Cook et al. 2007, Astrophys. J. 663, 1406-1419 Merlin, et al. 2010, Icarus, 210, 930; Cook, et al. 2014, AAS/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstracts, 46, #401.04). Images from the New Horizons spacecraft reveal a surface with terrains of widely different ages and a moderate degree of localized coloration. The presence of H2O ice in its crystalline form (Brown & Calvin 2000 Science 287, 107-109; Buie & Grundy 2000 Icarus 148, 324-339; Merlin et al, 2010) along with NH3 is consistent with a fresh surface.The phase of H2O ice is a key tracer of variations in temperature and physical conditions on the surface of outer Solar System objects. At Charon’s surface temperature H2O is expected to be amorphous, but ground-based observations (e.g., Merlin et al. 2010) show a clearly crystalline signature. From laboratory experiments it is known that amorphous H2O ice becomes crystalline at temperatures of ~130 K. Other mechanisms that can change the phase of the ice from amorphous to crystalline include micro-meteoritic bombardment (Porter et al. 2010, Icarus, 208, 492) or resurfacing processes such as cryovolcanism.New Horizons observed Charon with the LEISA imaging spectrometer, part of the Ralph instrument (Reuter, D.C., Stern, S.A., Scherrer, J., et al. 2008, Space Science Reviews, 140, 129). Making use of high spatial resolution (better than 10 km/px) and spectral resolving power of 240 in the wavelength range 1.25-2.5 µm, and 560 in the range 2.1-2.25 µm, we report on an analysis of the phase of H2O ice on parts of Charon’s surface with a view to investigate the recent history and evolution of this small but intriguing object.This work was supported by NASA’s New Horizons project.

  11. Speciation in the aqueous H+/H2VO4-/H2O2/citrate system of biomedical interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzsás, András; Getty, Kendra; Andersson, Ingegärd; Pettersson, Lage

    2004-09-21

    The speciation in the quaternary aqueous H+/H2VO4-/H2O2/citrate (Cit3-) and H+/H2VO4-/Cit3-/L-(+)-lactate (Lac-) systems has been determined at 25 degrees C in the physiological medium of 0.150 M Na(Cl). A combination of 51V NMR integral intensities and chemical shift (Bruker AMX500) as well as potentiometric data (glass electrode) have been collected and evaluated with the computer program LAKE, which is able to treat multimethod data simultaneously. The pKa-values for citric acid have been determined as 2.94, 4.34 and 5.61. Altogether six vanadate-citrate species have been found in the ternary H+/H2VO4-/Cit3- system in the pH region 2-10, only two of which are mononuclear. Reduction of vanadium(V) becomes more pronounced at pH acidic solutions limited the final model to pH > 4. In the quaternary H+/H2VO4-/Cit3-/Lac- system, two mixed-ligand species have been determined, with the compositions V2CitLac2- and V2CitLac3- (pKa = 5.0). To our knowledge, this is the first time such complexes have been reported for vanadium(V). 51V NMR chemical shifts, compositions and formation constants are given, and equilibrium conditions are illustrated in distribution diagrams as well as the fit of the model to the experimental data. When suitable, structural proposals are given, based on 13C NMR measurements and available literature data of related compounds.

  12. Dissociation of nucleosomal particles by chemical modification. Equivalence of the two binding sites for H2A.H2B dimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordano, J.; Nieto, M.A.; Palacian, E.

    1985-01-01

    Treatment of nucleosomal particles with dimethylmaleic anhydride, a reagent for protein amino groups, is accompanied by a biphasic release of histones H2A plus H2B; one H2A.H2B dimer is more easily released than the other. This behavior allows the preparation of nucleosomal particles containing only one H2A.H2B dimer, which were complemented with 125 I-labeled H2A.H2B. These reconstituted particles, which contain one labeled and one unlabeled H2A.H2B dimer, were treated with the amount of reagent needed to release one of the two H2A.H2B dimers. Radioactivity was equally distributed between residual particles and released proteins, which is consistent with equivalent binding sites in the nucleosomal particle for H2A.H2B dimers, rather than with intrinsically different sites. The asymmetric release of H2A.H2B dimers would be caused by a change in the binding site of one dimer following the release of the other. This behavior might be related to the structural dynamics of nucleosomes

  13. TRACING H2 COLUMN DENSITY WITH ATOMIC CARBON (C I) AND CO ISOTOPOLOGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, N.; Bronfman, L.; Cunningham, M. R.; Jones, P. A.; Lowe, V.; Cortes, P. C.; Simon, R.; Fissel, L.; Novak, G.

    2014-01-01

    We present the first results of neutral carbon ([C I] 3 P 1 - 3 P 0 at 492 GHz) and carbon monoxide ( 13 CO, J = 1-0) mapping in the Vela Molecular Ridge cloud C (VMR-C) and the G333 giant molecular cloud complexes with the NANTEN2 and Mopra telescopes. For the four regions mapped in this work, we find that [C I] has very similar spectral emission profiles to 13 CO, with comparable line widths. We find that [C I] has an opacity of 0.1-1.3 across the mapped region while the [C I]/ 13 CO peak brightness temperature ratio is between 0.2 and 0.8. The [C I] column density is an order of magnitude lower than that of 13 CO. The H 2 column density derived from [C I] is comparable to values obtained from 12 CO. Our maps show that C I is preferentially detected in gas with low temperatures (below 20 K), which possibly explains the comparable H 2 column density calculated from both tracers (both C I and 12 CO underestimate column density), as a significant amount of the C I in the warmer gas is likely in the higher energy state transition ([C I] 3 P 2 - 3 P 1 at 810 GHz), and thus it is likely that observations of both the above [C I] transitions are needed in order to recover the total H 2 column density

  14. Enhanced competitive adsorption of CO2 and H2 on graphyne: A density functional theory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuk Jae Kwon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption using carbon-based materials has been established to be a feasible method for separating carbon dioxide and hydrogen to mitigate the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and for the collection of fuel for energy sources, simultaneously. We carried out density functional theory calculation with dispersion correction to investigate the physisorption characteristics of carbon allotropes such as graphene and graphyne for the competitive adsorption of CO2 and H2. It is worth noting that the graphyne represented preferable adsorption energies, short bond lengths and energy charges for both gases, compared with the characteristics observed with graphene. We found that in graphyne, both the affinitive adsorption of CO2, and the competitive adsorption of CO2 and H2, took place at the hollow site between acetylene links, which do not exist in graphene. We demonstrate that in the presence of H2, the CO2 adsorption selectivity of graphyne is higher than that of graphene, because of the improved electronic properties resulting from the acetylene links.

  15. H2O Megamasers toward Radio-bright Seyfert 2 Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. S.; Liu, Z. W.; Henkel, C.; Wang, J. Z.; Coldwell, G. V.

    2017-02-01

    Using the Effelsberg-100 m telescope, we perform a successful pilot survey on H2O maser emission toward a small sample of radio-bright Seyfert 2 galaxies with a redshift larger than 0.04. The targets were selected from a large Seyfert 2 sample derived from the spectroscopic Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS-DR7). One source, SDSS J102802.9+104630.4 (z ˜ 0.0448), was detected four times during our observations, with a typical maser flux density of ˜30 mJy and a corresponding (very large) luminosity of ˜1135 L ⊙. The successful detection of this radio-bright Seyfert 2 and an additional tentative detection support our previous statistical results that H2O megamasers tend to arise from Seyfert 2 galaxies with large radio luminosity. The finding provides further motivation for an upcoming larger H2O megamaser survey toward Seyfert 2s with particularly radio-bright nuclei with the basic goal to improve our understanding of the nuclear environment of active megamaser host galaxies. Based on observations with the 100 m telescope of the MPIfR (Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie) at Effelsberg.

  16. THE MAGNETIZED ENVIRONMENT OF THE W3(H2O) PROTOSTARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Huei-Ru; Rao, Ramprasad; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Wilner, David J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first interferometric polarization map of the W3(OH) massive star-forming region observed with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) at 878 μm with an angular resolution of 1.''5 (about 3 × 10 3 AU). Polarization is detected in the W3(H 2 O) hot core, an extended emission structure in the northwest of W3(H 2 O), and part of the W3(OH) ultracompact H II region. The W3(H 2 O) hot core is known to be associated with a synchrotron jet along the east-west direction. In this core, the inferred magnetic field orientation is well aligned with the synchrotron jet and close to the plane of sky. Using the Chandrasekhar-Fermi method with the observed dispersion in polarization angle, we estimate a plane-of-sky magnetic field strength of 17.0 mG. Combined with water maser Zeeman measurements, the total magnetic field strength is estimated to be 17.1 mG, comparable to the field strength estimated from the synchrotron model. The magnetic field energy dominates over turbulence in this core. In addition, the depolarization effect is discerned in both SMA and James Clerk Maxwell Telescope measurements. Despite the great difference in angular resolutions and map extents, the polarization percentage shows a similar power-law dependence with the beam averaged column density. We suggest that the column density may be an important factor to consider when interpreting the depolarization effect.

  17. Co3(PO42·4H2O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Kim

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of Co3(PO42·4H2O, tricobalt(II bis[orthophosphate(V] tetrahydrate, were obtained under hydrothermal conditions. The title compound is isotypic with its zinc analogue Zn3(PO42·4H2O (mineral name hopeite and contains two independent Co2+ cations. One Co2+ cation exhibits a slightly distorted tetrahedral coordination, while the second, located on a mirror plane, has a distorted octahedral coordination environment. The tetrahedrally coordinated Co2+ is bonded to four O atoms of four PO43− anions, whereas the six-coordinate Co2+ is cis-bonded to two phosphate groups and to four O atoms of four water molecules (two of which are located on mirror planes, forming a framework structure. In addition, hydrogen bonds of the type O—H...O are present throughout the crystal structure.

  18. Radiative association of CH3(+) and H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    The temperature variation of the rate coefficient for k(1) for CH3(+) + H2 yields CH5(+) + hv is computed treating the para and ortho forms of H2 separately, taking account of nuclear spin and using an accurate theory of the kinetics of association. The results are made absolute with the aid of the measurement at 13 K by Barlow et al. (1984). By combining this measurement with the CH5(+) vibrational frequencies obtained by Pople (1984) from a quantal study, it is deduced that the probability of the stabilizing radiative transition is 5400/s. The rate coefficients k(1) (T, para) and k(1) (T, ortho) are given at 13 K, 30 K, and 80 K. 23 references

  19. H2 as a Possible Carrier of the DIBs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubachs, W.

    2014-02-01

    In the 1990s the hydrogen molecule, by far the most abundant molecular species in the interstellar medium, has been proposed as a possible carrier of the diffuse interstellar bands. While some remarkable coincidences were found in the rich spectrum of inter-Rydberg transitions of this molecule with DIB-features, both in frequency position as in linewidth, some open issues remained on a required non-linear optical pumping scheme that should explain the population of certain intermediate levels and act as a selection mechanism. Recently a similar scheme has been proposed relating the occurrence of the UV-bump (the ubiquitous 2170 Å extinction feature) to the spectrum of H2, therewith reviving the H2 hypothesis.

  20. Quasimolecular autoionization in the collisions He+ - He, H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogurtsov, G.N.; Krupyshev, A.G.; Gordeev, Yu.S.

    1993-01-01

    Data on the autoionization transition level width dependence Γ(R) for He + - He, He + - H 2 pairs are obtained. Data on the probability of autoionization transition in a three-atom quasimolecule are obtained for the first time. It is shown that Γ(R) values for He + - He 2 quasimolecule exceed notably the similar values for isoelectron He + - He quasimolecule and may reach ∼ 1 eV. 6 refs., 2 figs

  1. H 2 guaranteed cost control of discrete linear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colmenares W.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a quadratically stabilizing output feedback controller which also assures H 2 guaranteed cost performance on a discrete linear uncertain system where the uncertainty is of the norm bounded type. The conditions are presented as a collection of linear matrix inequalities.The solution, however requires a search over a scalar parameter space.

  2. Pb-H2O Thermogravimetric Plants. The Rankine Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arosio, S.; Carlevaro, R.

    2000-01-01

    An economic evaluation concerning Pb-H 2 O thermogravimetric systems with an electric power in the range 200-1.000 kW has been done. Moreover, plant and running costs for a thermogravimetric and a Rankine cycle, 1 MW power, have been compared. Basically due to the lead charge, the plant cost of the former is higher: nevertheless such amount can be recuperated in less than three years, being higher the running cost of the latter [it

  3. Membranes for H2 generation from nuclear powered thermochemical cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenoff, Tina Maria; Ambrosini, Andrea; Garino, Terry J.; Gelbard, Fred; Leung, Kevin; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Iyer, Ratnasabapathy G.; Axness, Marlene

    2006-01-01

    In an effort to produce hydrogen without the unwanted greenhouse gas byproducts, high-temperature thermochemical cycles driven by heat from solar energy or next-generation nuclear power plants are being explored. The process being developed is the thermochemical production of Hydrogen. The Sulfur-Iodide (SI) cycle was deemed to be one of the most promising cycles to explore. The first step of the SI cycle involves the decomposition of H 2 SO 4 into O 2 , SO 2 , and H 2 O at temperatures around 850 C. In-situ removal of O 2 from this reaction pushes the equilibrium towards dissociation, thus increasing the overall efficiency of the decomposition reaction. A membrane is required for this oxygen separation step that is capable of withstanding the high temperatures and corrosive conditions inherent in this process. Mixed ionic-electronic perovskites and perovskite-related structures are potential materials for oxygen separation membranes owing to their robustness, ability to form dense ceramics, capacity to stabilize oxygen nonstoichiometry, and mixed ionic/electronic conductivity. Two oxide families with promising results were studied: the double-substituted perovskite A x Sr 1-x Co 1-y B y O 3-δ (A=La, Y; B=Cr-Ni), in particular the family La x Sr 1-x Co 1-y Mn y O 3-δ (LSCM), and doped La 2 Ni 1-x M x O 4 (M = Cu, Zn). Materials and membranes were synthesized by solid state methods and characterized by X-ray and neutron diffraction, SEM, thermal analyses, calorimetry and conductivity. Furthermore, we were able to leverage our program with a DOE/NE sponsored H 2 SO 4 decomposition reactor study (at Sandia), in which our membranes were tested in the actual H 2 SO 4 decomposition step

  4. Non-adiabatic generator-coordinate calculation of H2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tostes, J.G.R.; Para Univ., Belem; Toledo Piza, A.F.R. de

    1982-10-01

    A non-adiabatic calculation of the few lowest J=O states in the H 2+ molecule done within the framework of the Generator Coordinate Method is reported. Substantial accuracy is achivied with the diagonalization of matrices of very modest dimensions. The resulting wavefunctions are strongly dominated by just a few basis states. The computational scheme is set up so as to take the best advantage of good analytical approximations to existing adiabatic molecular wavefunctions. (Author) [pt

  5. Periodic H-2 Synthesis for Spacecraft Attitude Control with Magnetometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2004-01-01

    between the Earth´s magnetic field and an artificial magnetic field generated by the coils produces a control torque. The magnetic attitude control is intrinsically periodic due to cyclic variation of the geomagnetic field in orbit. The control performance is specified by the generalized H2 operator norm....... A linear matrix inequality-based algorithm is proposed for attitude control synthesis. Simulation results are provided, showing the prospect of the concept for onboard implementation....

  6. Acetylene C2H 2 retrievals from MIPAS data and regions of enhanced upper tropospheric concentrations in August 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Kanawade

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Acetylene (C2H2 volume mixing ratios (VMRs have been successfully retrieved from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS Level 1B radiances during August 2003, providing the first global map of such data and ratios to CO in the literature. The data presented here contain most information between 300 hPa and 100 hPa with systematic errors less than 10% at the upper levels. Random errors per point are less than 15% at lower levels and are closer to 30% at 100 hPa. Global distributions of the C2H2 and C2H2/CO ratio confirm significant features associated with both the Asian monsoon anticyclone and biomass burning for this important hydrocarbon in a characteristic summer month (August 2003, showing tight correlations regionally, particularly at lower to medium values, but globally emphasising the differences between sources and lifetimes of CO and C2H2. The correlations are seen to be particularly disturbed in the regions of highest C2H2 concentrations, indicating variability in the surface emissions or fast processing. A strong isolation of C2H2 within the Asian monsoon anticyclone is observed, evidencing convective transport into the upper troposphere, horizontal advection within the anticyclone at 200 hPa, distinct gradients at the westward edge of the vortex and formation of a secondary dynamical feature from the eastward extension of the anticyclone outflow over the Asian Pacific. Ratios of C2H2/CO are consistent with the evidence from the cross-sections that the C2H2 is uplifted rapidly in convection. Observations are presented of enhanced C2H2 associated with the injection from biomass burning into the upper troposphere and the outflow from Africa at 200 hPa into both the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. In the biomass burning regions, C2H2 and CO are well correlated, but the uplift is less marked and peaks at lower altitudes compared to the strong effects observed in the Asian monsoon anticyclone. Ratios of C2H2/CO

  7. Online analysis of H2S and SO2 via advanced mid-infrared gas sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruci, João Flavio da Silveira; Wilk, Andreas; Cardoso, Arnaldo Alves; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2015-10-06

    Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are among the most prevalent emitted pollutants in urban and rural atmospheres. Mainly because of the versatility of sulfur regarding its oxidation state (2- to 6+), VSCs are present in a wide variety of redox-environments, concentration levels, and molar ratios. Among the VSCs, hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide are considered most relevant and have simultaneously been detected within naturally and anthropogenically caused emission events (e.g., volcano emissions, food production and industries, coal pyrolysis, and various biological activities). Next to their presence as pollutants, changes within their molar ratio may also indicate natural anomalies. Prior to analysis, H2S- and SO2-containing samples are usually preconcentrated via solid sorbents and are then detected by gas chromatographic techniques. However, such analytical strategies may be of limited selectivity, and the dimensions and operation modalities of the involved instruments prevent routine field usage. In this contribution, we therefore describe an innovative portable mid-infrared chemical sensor for simultaneously determining and quantifying gaseous H2S and SO2 via coupling a substrate-integrated hollow waveguides (iHWG) serving as a highly miniaturized mid-infrared photon conduit and gas cell with a custom-made preconcentration tube and an in-line UV-converter device. Both species were collected onto a solid sorbent within the preconcentrator and then released by thermal desorption into the UV-device. Hydrogen sulfide is detected by UV-assisted quantitative conversion of the rather weak IR-absorber H2S into SO2, which provides a significantly more pronounced and distinctively detectable rovibrational signature. Modulation of the UV-device system (i.e., UV-lamp on/off) enables discriminating between SO2 generated from H2S conversion and abundant SO2 signals. After optimization of the operational parameters, calibrations in the range of 0.75-10 ppmv with a limit

  8. Fast metastable hydrogen atoms from H2 molecules: twin atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trimèche A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a difficult task to obtain “twin atoms”, i.e. pairs of massive particles such that one can perform experiments in the same fashion that is routinely done with “twin photons”. One possible route to obtain such pairs is by dissociating homonuclear diatomic molecules. We address this possibility by investigating the production of metastable H(2s atoms coming from the dissociation of cold H2 molecules produced in a Campargue nozzle beam crossing an electron beam from a high intensity pulsed electron gun. Dissociation by electron impact was chosen to avoid limitations of target molecular excited states due to selection rules. Detectors placed several centimeters away from the collision center, and aligned with respect to possible common molecular dissociation channel, analyze the neutral fragments as a function of their time-of-flight (TOF through Lyman-α detection. Evidence for the first time observed coincidence of pairs of H(2s atoms obtained this way is presented.

  9. Graphene oxide and H2 production from bioelectrochemical graphite oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Zeng, Cuiping; Wang, Luda; Yin, Xiaobo; Jin, Song; Lu, Anhuai; Jason Ren, Zhiyong

    2015-11-17

    Graphene oxide (GO) is an emerging material for energy and environmental applications, but it has been primarily produced using chemical processes involving high energy consumption and hazardous chemicals. In this study, we reported a new bioelectrochemical method to produce GO from graphite under ambient conditions without chemical amendments, value-added organic compounds and high rate H2 were also produced. Compared with abiotic electrochemical electrolysis control, the microbial assisted graphite oxidation produced high rate of graphite oxide and graphene oxide (BEGO) sheets, CO2, and current at lower applied voltage. The resultant electrons are transferred to a biocathode, where H2 and organic compounds are produced by microbial reduction of protons and CO2, respectively, a process known as microbial electrosynthesis (MES). Pseudomonas is the dominant population on the anode, while abundant anaerobic solvent-producing bacteria Clostridium carboxidivorans is likely responsible for electrosynthesis on the cathode. Oxygen production through water electrolysis was not detected on the anode due to the presence of facultative and aerobic bacteria as O2 sinkers. This new method provides a sustainable route for producing graphene materials and renewable H2 at low cost, and it may stimulate a new area of research in MES.

  10. Intermolecular Interactions in Ternary Glycerol–Sample–H2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, Peter; Rasmussen, Erik Lumby; Koga, Yoshikata

    2011-01-01

    We studied the intermolecular interactions in ternary glycerol (Gly)–sample (S)–H2O systems at 25 °C. By measuring the excess partial molar enthalpy of Gly, HGlyEHEGly, we evaluated the Gly–Gly enthalpic interaction, HGly-GlyEHEGly--Gly, in the presence of various samples (S). For S, tert...... little effect on HGly-GlyEHEGly--Gly. This contrasts with our earlier studies on 1P–S–H2O in that Na+, F− and Cl− are found as hydration centers from the induced changes on HIP-IPEHEIP--IP in the presence of S, while Br−, I−, and SCN− are found to act as hydrophiles. In comparison with the Hofmeister...... ranking of these ions, the kosmotropes are hydration centers and the more kosmotropic the higher the hydration number, consistent with the original Hofmeister’s concept of “H2O withdrawing power.” Br−, I− and SCN−, on the other hand, acted as hydrophiles and the more chaotropic they are the more...

  11. Electron angular distributions in He single ionization impact by H2+ ions at 1 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shaofeng; Ma Xinwen; Suske, J; Fischer, D; Kuehnel, K U; Voitkiv, A; Najjaril, B; Krauss, A; Moshammer, R; Ullrich, J; Hagmann, S

    2009-01-01

    For the first time we investigated in a kinematically complete experiment the ionization of helium in collisions with H 2 + -molecular ions at 1 MeV. Using two separate detectors, the orientation of the projectile H 2 + -molecular ions was determined at the instance of the collision. The electron angular distribution was measured by a R eaction Microscope . The observed structures are found in agreement with theoretical calculations, indicating that the ionized electron of He shows a slight preferential emission direction parallel to the molecular axis.

  12. Synthesis of ZnO nanorods by spray pyrolysis for H2S gas sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinde, S.D.; Patil, G.E.; Kajale, D.D.; Gaikwad, V.B.; Jain, G.H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Hexagonal pillar shaped ZnO nanorods with different sizes have been successfully synthesized by spray pyrolysis technique. ► ZnO nanorods thin films showed much better sensitivity and stability than the conventional materials to H 2 S gas (100 ppm) at 50 °C. ► This ZnO thin film has potential in application of room temperature H 2 S gas sensing. - Abstract: Hexagonal pillar shaped ZnO nanorods with different sizes have been successfully synthesized by spray pyrolysis technique (SPT). The equal amount of methanol and water is used as a solvent to dissolve the AR grade Zinc acetate for precursor solution. This solution is sprayed on to the glass substrate heated at 350 °C. The films were characterized by ultra-violet spectroscopy (UV), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The deposition of thin films results in a layer comprising well-shaped hexagonal ZnO nanorods with diameter of 90–120 nm and length of up to 200 nm. The gas sensing properties of these films have been investigated for various interfering gases such as CO 2 , CO, ethanol, NH 3 and H 2 S, etc. at operating temperature from 30° (room temperature) to 450 °C. The results indicate that the ZnO nanorods thin films showed much better sensitivity and stability than the conventional materials to H 2 S gas (100 ppm) at 50 °C. The hexagonal pillar shaped ZnO nanorods can improve the sensitivity and selectivity of the sensors.

  13. Ortho-H2 and the age of prestellar cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, L.; Lesaffre, P.; Jorfi, M.; Honvault, P.; González-Lezana, T.; Faure, A.

    2013-03-01

    Prestellar cores form from the contraction of cold gas and dust material in dark clouds before they collapse to form protostars. Several concurrent theories exist to describe this contraction but they are currently difficult to distinguish. One major difference is the timescale involved in forming the prestellar cores: some theories advocate nearly free-fall speed via, e.g., rapid turbulence decay, while others can accommodate much longer periods to let the gas accumulate via, e.g., ambipolar diffusion. To tell the difference between these theories, measuring the age of prestellar cores could greatly help. However, no reliable clock currently exists. We present a simple chemical clock based on the regulation of the deuteration by the abundance of ortho-H2 that slowly decays away from the ortho-para statistical ratio of 3 down to or less than 0.001. We use a chemical network fully coupled to a hydrodynamical model that follows the contraction of a cloud, starting from uniform density, and reaches a density profile typical of a prestellar core. We compute the N2D+/N2H+ ratio along the density profile. The disappearance of ortho-H2 is tied to the duration of the contraction and the N2D+/N2H+ ratio increases in the wake of the ortho-H2 abundance decrease. By adjusting the time of contraction, we obtain different deuteration profiles that we can compare to the observations. Our model can test fast contractions (from 104 to 106 cm-3 in ~0.5 My) and slow contractions (from 104 to 106 cm-3 in ~5 My). We have tested the sensitivity of the models to various initial conditions. The slow-contraction deuteration profile is approximately insensitive to these variations, while the fast-contraction deuteration profile shows significant variations. We found that, in all cases, the deuteration profile remains clearly distinguishable whether it comes from the fast collapse or the slow collapse. We also study the para-D2H+/ortho-H2D+ ratio and find that its variation is not monotonic

  14. On-line H2S monitoring using near-infrared tunable diode laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partin, J.K.; Jeffrey, C.L.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to evaluate and demonstrate the technique of frequency-modulated, tunable diode laser spectroscopy for the monitoring of H 2 S gas in geothermal plant emissions. The geothermal power industry has an interest in the development of real-time techniques for monitoring these emissions, since improved measurement capabilities could lead to considerable cost savings through the optimization of the chemicals used for abatement. There are several locations throughout the plant at which this measurement could be performed. They vary from the main stream line which operates at a temperature of about 350 F (175 C) and a pressure of 100 psig to the cooling stack with a temperature of 80--100 F (27--38 C) at ambient pressure. Gas concentrations range from 0.1 ppm to 1,000's of ppms. The technical goal of this effort was to perform a series of scoping experiments to determine the effect of elevated pressure, temperature and water vapor on the sensitivity of this spectroscopic technique for the detection of H 2 S. The results of these experiments are presented, and the deployment options and system designs are discussed

  15. Effects of H2O and H2O2 on thermal desorption of tritium from stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinlan, M. J.; Shmayda, W. T.; Lim, S.; Salnikov, S.; Chambers, Z.; Pollock, E.; Schroeder, W. U.

    2008-01-01

    Tritiated stainless steel was subjected to thermal desorption at various temperatures, different temperature profiles, and in the presence of different helium carrier gas additives. In all cases the identities of the desorbing tritiated species were characterized as either water-soluble or insoluble. The samples were found to contain 1.1 mCi±0.4 mCi. Approximately ninety-five percent of this activity was released in molecular water-soluble form. Additives of H 2 O or H 2 O 2 to dry helium carrier gas increase the desorption rate and lower the maximum temperature to which the sample must be heated, in order to remove the bulk of the tritium. The measurements validate a method of decontamination of tritiated steel and suggest a technique that can be used to further explore the mechanisms of desorption from tritiated metals. (authors)

  16. Mesospheric H2O and H2O2 densities inferred from in situ positive ion composition measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, E.

    1984-01-01

    A model for production and loss of oxonium ions in the high-latitude D-region is developed, based on the observed excess of 34(+) which has been interpreted as H2O2(+). The loss mechanism suggested in the study is the attachment of N2 and/or CO2 in three-body reactions. Furthermore, mesospheric water vapor and H2O2 densities are inferred from measurements of four high-latitude ion compositions, based on the oxonium model. Mixing ratios of hydrogen peroxide of up to two orders of magnitude higher than previous values were obtained. A number of reactions, reaction constants, and a block diagram of the oxonium ion chemistry in the D-region are given.

  17. Rotational excitation of H2O by para-H2 from an adiabatically reduced dimensional potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribano, Yohann; Faure, Alexandre; Lauvergnat, David

    2012-03-07

    Cross sections and rate coefficients for low lying rotational transitions in H(2)O colliding with para-hydrogen pH(2) are computed using an adiabatic approximation which reduces the dimensional dynamics from a 5D to a 3D problem. Calculations have been performed at the close-coupling level using the recent potential of Valiron et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 129, 134306 (2008)]. A good agreement is found between the reduced adiabatic calculations and the 5D exact calculations, with an impressive time saving and memory gain. This adiabatic reduction of dimensionality seems very promising for scattering studies involving the excitation of a heavy target molecule by a light molecular projectile. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  18. Retention and variability of hydrogen (H2) samples stored in plastic syringes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1987-01-01

    The utility of two brands of 20 ml plastic syringes for storage of hydrogen (H2) samples as obtained in H2 breath tests were studied. Plastipak syringes were found to be significantly better with regard to the stability of the H2 concentration and the variability between the H2 samples. Storage...... of the H2 samples in Plastipak syringes at 5 degrees C significantly improved the H2 retention, whereas refrigeration of H2 samples stored in Once syringes did not reduce H2 loss. Storage of H2 samples in refrigerated plastic syringes is efficient and reliable for several days if syringes with minimal...... sample variation are used....

  19. Capture and dissociation in the complex-forming CH + H2 → CH2 + H, CH + H2 reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Miguel; Saracibar, Amaia; Garcia, Ernesto

    2011-02-28

    The rate coefficients for the capture process CH + H(2)→ CH(3) and the reactions CH + H(2)→ CH(2) + H (abstraction), CH + H(2) (exchange) have been calculated in the 200-800 K temperature range, using the quasiclassical trajectory (QCT) method and the most recent global potential energy surface. The reactions, which are of interest in combustion and in astrochemistry, proceed via the formation of long-lived CH(3) collision complexes, and the three H atoms become equivalent. QCT rate coefficients for capture are in quite good agreement with experiments. However, an important zero point energy (ZPE) leakage problem occurs in the QCT calculations for the abstraction, exchange and inelastic exit channels. To account for this issue, a pragmatic but accurate approach has been applied, leading to a good agreement with experimental abstraction rate coefficients. Exchange rate coefficients have also been calculated using this approach. Finally, calculations employing QCT capture/phase space theory (PST) models have been carried out, leading to similar values for the abstraction rate coefficients as the QCT and previous quantum mechanical capture/PST methods. This suggests that QCT capture/PST models are a good alternative to the QCT method for this and similar systems.

  20. Plasmas pour la destruction de l'H2S et des mercaptans Plasmas for Destruction of H2s and Mercaptans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czernichowski A.

    2006-12-01

    media for an oxidation of H2S or CH3SH diluted in air, CO2 or steam in order to convert them into less malodorous SO2. The product can be then used as a reagent in a Claus-like process in presence of water to convert twice as much of initial pollutants into elemental sulfur. A particular attention is devoted to the gliding electrical discharges (GlidArc. These powerful discharges produce non-thermal plasma, which activates oxidation reactions. Most of experiments were performed using one and four-stage GlidArc-I reactors. Air-diluted sulfides at initial concentrations up to 1% (H2S or 0. 1% (CH3SH were processed at up to 70 m3(n/h flow rate and 5 kW power scale. The tests were done at 1 atm. Up to 100% clean-up was obtained at a quite low energy cost depending on initial pollutant concentration: roughly 1000 kWh per 1 kg of removed sulfur at 100 ppm of H2S, but only 10 kWh/kg for 1% initial H2S in air. Almost the same energies were needed in the case of CH3SH-air mixtures. Using a very simple washing column in which water saturates with the produced SO2 and so captures unprocessed H2S we cut these process energy by three, avoiding the SO2 emission and obtaining non-toxic sulfur. New development based on GlidArc-ll brush-like electric discharges is also presented. Preliminary tests are very promising as the energy expense is already cut down by a factor of two with respect to the GlidArc-I devices. Up to industrial scale tests can be therefore performed.

  1. Hydrothermal synthesis and structural characterization of an organic–inorganic hybrid sandwich-type tungstoantimonate [Cu(en)2(H2O)]4[Cu(en)2(H2O)2][Cu2Na4(α-SbW9O33)2]·6H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yingjie; Cao, Jing; Wang, Yujie; Li, Yanzhou; Zhao, Junwei; Chen, Lijuan; Ma, Pengtao; Niu, Jingyang

    2014-01-01

    An organic–inorganic hybrid sandwich-type tungstoantimonate [Cu(en) 2 (H 2 O)] 4 [Cu(en) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ][Cu 2 Na 4 (α-SbW 9 O 33 ) 2 ]·6H 2 O (1) has been synthesized by reaction of Sb 2 O 3 , Na 2 WO 4 ·2H 2 O, CuCl 2 ·2H 2 O with en (en=ethanediamine) under hydrothermal conditions and structurally characterized by elemental analysis, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, IR spectrum and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. 1 displays a centric dimeric structure formed by two equivalent trivacant Keggin [α-SbW 9 O 33 ] 9− subunits sandwiching a hexagonal (Cu 2 Na 4 ) cluster. Moreover, those related hexagonal hexa-metal cluster sandwiched tungstoantimonates have been also summarized and compared. The variable-temperature magnetic measurements of 1 exhibit the weak ferromagnetic exchange interactions within the hexagonal (Cu 2 Na 4 ) cluster mediated by the oxygen bridges. - Graphical abstract: An organic–inorganic hybrid (Cu 2 Na 4 ) sandwiched tungstoantimonate [Cu(en) 2 (H 2 O)] 4 [Cu (en) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ][Cu 2 Na 4 (α-SbW 9 O 33 ) 2 ]·6H 2 O was synthesized and magnetic properties was investigated. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Organic–inorganic hybrid sandwich-type tungstoantimonate. • (Cu 2 Na 4 sandwiched) tungstoantimonate [Cu 2 Na 4 (α-SbW 9 O 33 ) 2 ] 10− . • Ferromagnetic tungstoantimonate

  2. Relationship between C2H2 reduction, H2 evolution and 15N2 fixation in root nodules of pea (Pisum sativum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøt, Leif

    1983-01-01

    for N2 reduction, is often stated as the relative efficiency (1-H2/C2H2). This factor varied significantly (P 2 and N2, expressed as the H2/N2 ratio, was independent of plant age, however. This discrepancy and the observation......The quantitative relationship between C2H2 reduction, H2 evolution and 15N2 fixation was investigated in excised root nodules from pea plants (Pisum sativum L. cv. Bodil) grown under controlled conditions. The C2H2/N2 conversion factor varied from 3.31 to 5.12 between the 32nd and the 67th day...... after planting. After correction for H2 evolution in air, the factor (C2H2-H2)/N2 decreased to values near the theoretical value 3, or in one case to a value significantly (P 2 production but used...

  3. Ultrafast phosphate hydration dynamics in bulk H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costard, Rene; Tyborski, Tobias; Fingerhut, Benjamin P.; Elsaesser, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate vibrations serve as local probes of hydrogen bonding and structural fluctuations of hydration shells around ions. Interactions of H 2 PO 4 − ions and their aqueous environment are studied combining femtosecond 2D infrared spectroscopy, ab-initio calculations, and hybrid quantum-classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Two-dimensional infrared spectra of the symmetric (ν S (PO 2 − )) and asymmetric (ν AS (PO 2 − )) PO 2 − stretching vibrations display nearly homogeneous lineshapes and pronounced anharmonic couplings between the two modes and with the δ(P-(OH) 2 ) bending modes. The frequency-time correlation function derived from the 2D spectra consists of a predominant 50 fs decay and a weak constant component accounting for a residual inhomogeneous broadening. MD simulations show that the fluctuating electric field of the aqueous environment induces strong fluctuations of the ν S (PO 2 − ) and ν AS (PO 2 − ) transition frequencies with larger frequency excursions for ν AS (PO 2 − ). The calculated frequency-time correlation function is in good agreement with the experiment. The ν(PO 2 − ) frequencies are mainly determined by polarization contributions induced by electrostatic phosphate-water interactions. H 2 PO 4 − /H 2 O cluster calculations reveal substantial frequency shifts and mode mixing with increasing hydration. Predicted phosphate-water hydrogen bond (HB) lifetimes have values on the order of 10 ps, substantially longer than water-water HB lifetimes. The ultrafast phosphate-water interactions observed here are in marked contrast to hydration dynamics of phospholipids where a quasi-static inhomogeneous broadening of phosphate vibrations suggests minor structural fluctuations of interfacial water

  4. Ultrafast phosphate hydration dynamics in bulk H2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costard, Rene; Tyborski, Tobias; Fingerhut, Benjamin P.; Elsaesser, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Phosphate vibrations serve as local probes of hydrogen bonding and structural fluctuations of hydration shells around ions. Interactions of H2PO4- ions and their aqueous environment are studied combining femtosecond 2D infrared spectroscopy, ab-initio calculations, and hybrid quantum-classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Two-dimensional infrared spectra of the symmetric ( ν S ( PO2 - ) ) and asymmetric ( ν A S ( PO2 - ) ) PO 2- stretching vibrations display nearly homogeneous lineshapes and pronounced anharmonic couplings between the two modes and with the δ(P-(OH)2) bending modes. The frequency-time correlation function derived from the 2D spectra consists of a predominant 50 fs decay and a weak constant component accounting for a residual inhomogeneous broadening. MD simulations show that the fluctuating electric field of the aqueous environment induces strong fluctuations of the ν S ( PO2 - ) and ν A S ( PO2 - ) transition frequencies with larger frequency excursions for ν A S ( PO2 - ) . The calculated frequency-time correlation function is in good agreement with the experiment. The ν ( PO2 - ) frequencies are mainly determined by polarization contributions induced by electrostatic phosphate-water interactions. H2PO4-/H2O cluster calculations reveal substantial frequency shifts and mode mixing with increasing hydration. Predicted phosphate-water hydrogen bond (HB) lifetimes have values on the order of 10 ps, substantially longer than water-water HB lifetimes. The ultrafast phosphate-water interactions observed here are in marked contrast to hydration dynamics of phospholipids where a quasi-static inhomogeneous broadening of phosphate vibrations suggests minor structural fluctuations of interfacial water.

  5. A new vibrational level of the H2+ molecular ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonell, J.; Lazauskas, R.; Delande, D.; Hilico, L.; Kilic, S.; Hilico, L.; Kilic, S.

    2003-01-01

    A new vibrational level of the molecular ion H 2 + with binding energy of 1.09 x 10 -9 a.u. ∼ 30 neV below the first dissociation limit is predicted, using highly accurate numerical non-relativistic quantum calculations, which go beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. It is the first-excited vibrational level v=1 of the 2pσ u electronic state, antisymmetric with respect to the exchange of the two protons, with orbital angular momentum L=0. It manifests itself as a huge p - H scattering length of a = 750 ± 5 Bohr radii. (authors)

  6. An application to H2+ of Laplace type integral transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primorac, M.; Kovacevic, K.

    1985-01-01

    Laplace type integral transformation (LIT) has been applied to wavefunctions. The effect of the inverse transform is also discussed. LIT wavefunctions are tested in the calculation of the ground-state energy of H 2 + , where the untransformed functions were 1s, 12s, 123s and 1234s-STO. The results presented here show that LIT wavefunctions are applicable in molecular computations. The analytical formulae for two-centre one-electron integrals over LIT wavefunctions are derived by use of a Barnett-Coulson-like expansion of rsub(b)sup(N)(rsub(b)+p)sup(-ν). (orig.)

  7. Hydrogen Learning for Local Leaders – H2L3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serfass, Patrick [Technology Transition Corporation, Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-03-30

    The Hydrogen Learning for Local Leaders program, H2L3, elevates the knowledge about hydrogen by local government officials across the United States. The program reaches local leaders directly through “Hydrogen 101” workshops and webinar sessions; the creation and dissemination of a unique report on the hydrogen and fuel cell market in the US, covering 57 different sectors; and support of the Hydrogen Student Design Contest, a competition for interdisciplinary teams of university students to design hydrogen and fuel cell systems based on technology that’s currently commercially available.

  8. Testing of irradiated and annealed 15H2MFA materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillemot, F.; Uri, G.

    1994-01-01

    A set of surveillance samples made from 15H2MFA material has been studied in the laboratory of AEKI. Miniature notched tensile specimens were cut from some remnants of irradiated and broke surveillance charpy remnants. The Absorbed Specific Fracture Energy (ASFE) was measured on the specimens. A cutting machine and testing technique were elaborated for the measurements. The second part of the Charpy remnants was annealed at 460 deg. C and 490 deg. C for 6-8 hours. The specimens were tested similarity and the results were compared. (author). 5 refs, 9 figs

  9. Relations Between FUV Excess and Coronal Soft X-Ray Emission Among Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Graeme H.; Hargrave, Mason; Eckholm, Elliot

    2017-11-01

    The far-ultraviolet magnitudes of late-F, G and early-K dwarfs with (B - V) ⩾ 0.50 as measured by the GALEX satellite are shown to correlate with soft X-ray luminosity. This result indicates that line and continuum emission from stellar active regions make significant contributions to the flux in the GALEX FUV band for late-F, G and K dwarfs. By contrast, detection of a correlation between FUV brightness and soft X-ray luminosity among early-F dwarfs requires subtraction of the photospheric component from the FUV flux. The range in (B - V) among F and G dwarfs over which a correlation between uncorrected FUV magnitude and X-ray luminosity is detected coincides with the range in colour over which coronal and chromospheric emission correlates with stellar rotation.

  10. ORION'S BAR: PHYSICAL CONDITIONS ACROSS THE DEFINITIVE H+/H0/H2 INTERFACE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrini, E. W.; Baldwin, J. A.; Ferland, G. J.; Shaw, G.; Heathcote, S.

    2009-01-01

    Previous work has shown the Orion Bar to be an interface between ionized and molecular gas, viewed roughly edge-on, which is excited by the light from the Trapezium cluster. Much of the emission from any star-forming region will originate from such interfaces, so the Bar serves as a foundation test of any emission model. Here we combine X-ray, optical, infrared (IR), and radio data sets to derive emission spectra along the transition from H + to H 0 to H 2 regions. We then reproduce the spectra of these layers with a simulation that simultaneously accounts for the detailed microphysics of the gas, the grains, and molecules, especially H 2 and CO. The magnetic field, observed to be the dominant pressure in another region of the Orion Nebula, is treated as a free parameter, along with the density of cosmic rays. Our model successfully accounts for the optical, IR, and radio observations across the Bar by including a significant magnetic pressure and also heating by an excess density of cosmic rays, which we suggest is due to cosmic rays being trapped in the compressed magnetic field. In the Orion Bar, as we had previously found in M17, momentum carried by radiation and winds from the newly formed stars pushes back and compresses the surrounding gas. There is a rough balance between outward momentum in starlight and the total pressure in atomic and molecular gas surrounding the H + region. If the gas starts out with a weak magnetic field, the starlight from a newly formed cluster will push back the gas and compress the gas, magnetic field, and cosmic rays until magnetic pressure becomes an important factor.

  11. Gene-specific characterization of human histone H2B by electron capture dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siuti, Nertila; Roth, Michael J; Mizzen, Craig A; Kelleher, Neil L; Pesavento, James J

    2006-02-01

    The basis set of protein forms expressed by human cells from the H2B gene family was determined by Top Down Mass Spectrometry. Using Electron Capture Dissociation for MS/MS of H2B isoforms, direct evidence for the expression of unmodified H2B.Q, H2B.A, H2B.K/T, H2B.J, H2B.E, H2B.B, H2B.F, and monoacetylated H2B.A was obtained from asynchronous HeLa cells. H2B.A was the most abundant form, with the overall expression profile not changing significantly in cells arrested in mitosis by colchicine or during mid-S, mid-G2, G2/M, and mid-G1 phases of the cell cycle. Modest hyperacetylation of H2B family members was observed after sodium butyrate treatment.

  12. Structure of solid H2-D2 mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupskij, I.N.; Kovalenko, S.I.; Krajnyukova, N.V.

    1978-01-01

    The structure of vapor deposited H 2 -D 2 solid mixtures is investigated. The electron-diffraction examination has been carried out in the temperature range from 2.3K up to the sample sublimation temperature, taking place in case of H 2 at T approximately 5K and D 2 -at T approximately 7K. On the basis of the difractogramm obtained it is shown that in solid films of pure components a FCC structure with parameters asub(Hsub(2))=5.310+-0.01A and asub(Osub(2))=5.100+-0.005A is realized, the structure being metastable in the temperature range. The existence of non-limitted solubility in solid two-component condensates is stated. The decay absence at T approximately 5K, when molecula mobility is enough for the transition of metastable FCC structure into HCP, is in good agreement with the results of experimental and theoretical estimations, according to which the decay critical temperature should not exceed 4K. The existance of the continuous series of solutions at lower temperatures is explained by a small coefficient value of a volumetric and surface diffusion of molecula as well

  13. Structure and stability of solid Xe(H2)n

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somayazulu, Maddury; Hemley, Russell J.; Dera, Przemyslaw; Smith, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    Mixtures of xenon and molecular hydrogen form a series of hexagonal, van der Waals compounds at high pressures and at 300 K. Synchrotron, x-ray, single crystal diffraction studies reveal that below 7.5 GPa, Xe(H 2 ) 8 crystallizes in a P3 - m1 structure that displays pressure-induced occupancy changes of two pairs of xenon atoms located on the 2c and 2d sites (while the third pair on yet another 2c site remains fully occupied). The occupancy becomes 1 at the P3 - m1 to R3 transition and all the xenon atoms occupy the 3d sites in the high-pressure structure. These pressure-induced changes in occupancy coincide with volume changes that maintain the average Xe:H 2 stoichiometry fixed at 1:8. The synchrotron x-ray diffraction and Raman measurements show that this unique hydrogen-bearing compound that can be synthesized at 4.2 GPa and 300 K, quenched at low temperatures to atmospheric pressure, and retained up to 90 K on subsequent warming

  14. The roles of H2S and H2O2 in regulating AsA-GSH cycle in the leaves of wheat seedlings under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Changjuan; Zhang, Shengli; Ou, Xingqi

    2018-01-25

    This paper investigated the roles of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and the possible relationship between them in regulating the AsA-GSH cycle in wheat leaves under drought stress (DS). Results showed that DS markedly increased the production of H 2 S and H 2 O 2 , the transcript levels and activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR); malondialdehyde (MDA) content; and electrolyte leakage (EL). Meanwhile, DS markedly reduced plant height and biomass. Above increases induced by drought stress except MDA content and EL were all suppressed by pretreatments with H 2 S synthesis inhibitor aminooxyaceticacid (AOA) and H 2 O 2 synthesis inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI). Besides, pretreatments with AOA and DPI further significantly increased MDA content and EL and significantly reduced plant height and biomass under DS. DPI reduced the production of H 2 O 2 and H 2 S induced by DS. AOA also reduced the production of H 2 S and H 2 O 2 induced by DS. Pretreatments with NaHS + AOA and H 2 O 2 + DPI reversed above effects of AOA and DPI. Our results suggested that H 2 S and H 2 O 2 all participated in the up-regulation of AsA-GSH cycle in wheat leaves by DS and possibly affected each other.

  15. Laboratory studies of H2SO4/H2O binary homogeneous nucleation from the SO2+OH reaction: evaluation of the experimental setup and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kulmala

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Binary homogeneous nucleation (BHN of sulphuric acid and water (H2SO4/H2O is one of the most important atmospheric nucleation processes, but laboratory observations of this nucleation process are very limited and there are also large discrepancies between different laboratory studies. The difficulties associated with these experiments include wall loss of H2SO4 and uncertainties in estimation of H2SO4 concentration ([H2SO4] involved in nucleation. We have developed a new laboratory nucleation setup to study H2SO4/H2O BHN kinetics and provide relatively constrained [H2SO4] needed for nucleation. H2SO4 is produced from the SO2+OH→HSO3 reaction and OH radicals are produced from water vapor UV absorption. The residual [H2SO4] were measured at the end of the nucleation reactor with a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS. Wall loss factors (WLFs of H2SO4 were estimated by assuming that wall loss is diffusion limited and these calculated WLFs were in good agreement with simultaneous measurements of the initial and residual [H2SO4] with two CIMSs. The nucleation zone was estimated from numerical simulations based on the measured aerosol sizes (particle diameter, Dp and [H2SO4]. The measured BHN rates (J ranged from 0.01–220 cm−3 s−1 at the initial and residual [H2SO4] from 108−1010 cm−3, a temperature of 288 K and relative humidity (RH from 11–23%; J increased with increasing [H2SO4] and RH. J also showed a power dependence on [H2SO4] with the exponential power of 3–8. These power dependences are consistent with other laboratory studies under similar [H2SO4] and RH, but different from atmospheric field observations which showed that particle number concentrations are often linearly dependent on [H2SO4]. These results, together with a higher [H2SO4] threshold (108–109 cm−3 needed to produce the unit J measured from the laboratory studies compared to the atmospheric conditions (106–107 cm−3, imply that H2SO4/H2O BHN alone is

  16. Mineral storage of CO2/H2S gas mixture injection in basaltic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. E.; Gunnarsson, I.; Aradottir, E. S.; Oelkers, E. H.; Sigfússon, B.; Snæbjörnsdottír, S. Ó.; Matter, J. M.; Stute, M.; Júlíusson, B. M.; Gíslason, S. R.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon capture and storage is one solution to reducing CO2 emissions in the atmosphere. The long-term geological storage of buoyant supercritical CO2 requires high integrity cap rock. Some of the risk associated with CO2 buoyancy can be overcome by dissolving CO2 into water during its injection, thus eliminating its buoyancy. This enables injection into fractured rocks, such as basaltic rocks along oceanic ridges and on continents. Basaltic rocks are rich in divalent cations, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Fe2+, which react with CO2 dissolved in water to form stable carbonate minerals. This possibility has been successfully tested as a part of the CarbFix CO2storage pilot project at the Hellisheiði geothermal power plant in Iceland, where they have shown mineralization occurs in less than two years [1, 2]. Reykjavik Energy and the CarbFix group has been injecting a mixture of CO2 and H2S at 750 m depth and 240-250°C since June 2014; by 1 January 2016, 6290 tons of CO2 and 3530 tons of H2S had been injected. Once in the geothermal reservoir, the heat exchange and sufficient dissolution of the host rock neutralizes the gas-charged water and saturates the formation water respecting carbonate and sulfur minerals. A thermally stable inert tracer was also mixed into the stream to monitor the subsurface transport and to assess the degree of subsurface carbonation and sulfide precipitation [3]. Water and gas samples have been continuously collected from three monitoring wells and geochemically analyzed. Based on the results, mineral saturation stages have been defined. These results and tracer mass balance calculations are used to evaluate the rate and magnitude of CO2 and H2S mineralization in the subsurface, with indications that mineralization of carbon and sulfur occurs within months. [1] Gunnsarsson, I., et al. (2017). Rapid and cost-effective capture and subsurface mineral storage of carbon and sulfur. Manuscript submitted for publication. [2] Matter, J., et al. (2016). Rapid

  17. Line shape parameters for the H2O-H2 collision system for application to exoplanet and planetary atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Candice L.; Cleghorn, Kara; Hartmann, Léna; Vispoel, Bastien; Gamache, Robert R.

    2018-05-01

    Water can be detected throughout the universe: in comets, asteroids, dwarf planets, the inner and outer planets in our solar system, cool stars, brown dwarfs, and on many exoplanets. Here the focus is on locations rich in hydrogen gas. To properly study these environments, there is a need for the line shape parameters for H2O transitions in collision with hydrogen. This work presents calculations of the half-width and line shift, made using the Modified Complex Robert-Bonamy (MCRB) formalism, at a number of temperatures. It is shown that this collision system is strongly off-resonance. For such conditions, the atom-atom part of the intermolecular potential dominates the interaction of the radiating and perturbing molecules. The atom-atom parameters were adjusted by fitting the H2O-H2 measurements of Brown and Plymate (1996). Several techniques were used to extract lines for which there is more confidence in the quality of the data. The final potential yields results that agree with the measurements with ∼0.3% difference and a 5.9% standard deviation. Using this potential, MCRB calculations were made for all transitions in the pure rotation, ν2, ν1, and ν3 bands. The structure of the line shape parameters and the temperature dependence of the half-width, as a function of the rotational and vibrational quantum numbers, are discussed. It is shown that the power law model of the T-dependence of the half-width is inadequate over large temperature ranges.

  18. Registration of H2O and SiO masers in the Calabash Nebula to confirm the planetary nebula paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, R.; Rioja, M.; Bujarrabal, V.; Kim, J.; Cho, S. H.; Choi, Y. K.; Youngjoo, Y.

    2018-05-01

    We report on the astrometric registration of very long baseline interferometry images of the SiO and H2O masers in OH 231.8+4.2, the iconic proto-planetary nebula also known as the Calabash nebula, using the Korean VLBI Network and source frequency phase referencing. This, for the first time, robustly confirms the alignment of the SiO masers, close to the asymptotic giant branch star, driving the bilobe structure with the water masers in the outflow. We are able to trace the bulk motions for the H2O masers over the last few decades to be 19 km s-1 and deduce that the age of this expansion stage is 38 ± 2 yr. The combination of this result with the distance allows a full 3D reconstruction and confirms that the H2O masers lie on and expand along the known large-scale symmetry axis and that the outflow is only a few decades old, so mass loss is almost certainly ongoing. Therefore, we conclude that the SiO emission marks the stellar core of the nebular, the H2O emission traces the expansion, and there must be multiple epochs of ejection to drive the macro-scale structure.

  19. Determination of Ar metastable atom densities in Ar and Ar/H2 inductively coupled low-temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox-Lyon, N; Knoll, A J; Oehrlein, G S; Franek, J; Demidov, V; Koepke, M; Godyak, V

    2013-01-01

    Ar metastable atoms are important energy carriers and surface interacting species in low-temperature plasmas that are difficult to quantify. Ar metastable atom densities (N Ar,m ) in inductively coupled Ar and Ar/H 2 plasmas were obtained using a model combining electrical probe measurements of electron density (N e ) and temperature (T e ), with analysis of spectrally resolved Ar plasma optical emission based on 3p → 1s optical emission ratios of the 419.8 nm line to the 420.1 nm line. We present the variation of N Ar,m as the Ar pressure and the addition of H 2 to Ar are changed comparatively to recent adsorption spectroscopy measurements. (paper)

  20. Supersaturation of dissolved H(2) and CO (2) during fermentative hydrogen production with N(2) sparging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Jeremy T; Bagley, David M

    2006-09-01

    Dissolved H(2) and CO(2) were measured by an improved manual headspace-gas chromatographic method during fermentative H(2) production with N(2) sparging. Sparging increased the yield from 1.3 to 1.8 mol H(2)/mol glucose converted, although H(2) and CO(2) were still supersaturated regardless of sparging. The common assumption that sparging increases the H(2) yield because of lower dissolved H(2) concentrations may be incorrect, because H(2) was not lowered into the range necessary to affect the relevant enzymes. More likely, N(2) sparging decreased the rate of H(2) consumption via lower substrate concentrations.

  1. Phase formation in the systems ZrO2-H2SO4-Na2SO4 (NaCl)-H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sozinova, Yu.P.; Motov, D.L.; Rys'kina, M.P.

    1988-01-01

    Formation of solid phases in the systems ZrO 2 - H 2 SO 4 - Na 2 SO 4 (NaCl) - H 2 O at 25 and 75 deg C is studied. Three basic Na 2 Zr(OH) 2 (SO 4 ) 2 x (0.2 - 0.4)H 2 O, NaZrOH(SO 4 ) 2 x H 2 O, NaZrO 0.5 (OH) 2 SO 4 x 2H 2 O and three normal sodium sulfatozirconates Na 2 Zr(SO 4 ) 3 x 3H 2 O, Na 4 Zr(SO 4 ) 4 x 3H 2 O, Na 6 Zr(SO 4 ) 5 x 4H 2 O have been isolated, their solubility and crystal optical properties are determined

  2. Hot H2O Emission and Evidence for Turbulence in the Disk of a Young Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    matter — infrared: stars — planetary systems: protoplanetary disks — stars: formation — stars: pre–main-sequence 1. INTRODUCTION The presence of hot...in disk gaps . Molecules other than CO are expected to exist at the temperatures and densities in the inner few AU of disks . Water should be very... protoplanetary disks . In addition, non-Gaussian line profiles might be ex- pected, given that a characteristic of turbulence seen in both laboratory experiments

  3. The effects of CO addition on the autoignition of H-2, CH4 and CH4/H-2 fuels at high pressure in an RCM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gersen, Sander; Darmeveil, Harry; Levinsky, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Autoignition delay times of stoichiometric and fuel-lean (phi = 0.5) H-2, H-2/CO, CH4, CH4/CO, CH4/H-2 and CH4/CO/H-2 mixtures have been measured in an Rapid Compression Machine at pressures ranging from 20 to 80 bar and in the temperature range 900-1100K. The effects of CO addition on the ignition

  4. High-bandwidth scanned-wavelength-modulation spectroscopy sensors for temperature and H2O in a rotating detonation engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldenstein, Christopher S; Almodóvar, Christopher A; Jeffries, Jay B; Hanson, Ronald K; Brophy, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    The design and use of two-color tunable diode laser (TDL) absorption sensors for measurements of temperature and H 2 O in a rotating detonation engine (RDE) are presented. Both sensors used first-harmonic-normalized scanned-wavelength-modulation spectroscopy with second-harmonic detection (scanned-WMS-2f/1f) to account for non-absorbing transmission losses and emission encountered in the harsh combustion environment. One sensor used two near-infrared (NIR) TDLs near 1391.7 nm and 1469.3 nm that were modulated at 225 kHz and 285 kHz, respectively, and sinusoidally scanned across the peak of their respective H 2 O absorption transitions to provide a measurement rate of 50 kHz and a detection limit in the RDE of 0.2% H 2 O by mole. The other sensor used two mid-infrared (MIR) TDLs near 2551 nm and 2482 nm that were modulated at 90 kHz and 112 kHz, respectively, and sinusoidally scanned across the peak of their respective H 2 O transitions to provide a measurement rate of 10 kHz and a detection limit in the RDE of 0.02% H 2 O by mole. Four H 2 O absorption transitions with different lower-state energies were used to assess the homogeneity of temperature in the measurement plane. Experimentally derived spectroscopic parameters that enable temperature and H 2 O sensing to within 1.5–3.5% of known values are reported. The sensor design enabling the high-bandwidth scanned-WMS-2f/1f measurements is presented. The two sensors were deployed across two orthogonal and coplanar lines-of-sight (LOS) located in the throat of a converging-diverging nozzle at the RDE combustor exit. Measurements in the non-premixed H 2 -fueled RDE indicate that the temperature and H 2 O oscillate at the detonation frequency (≈3.25 kHz) and that production of H 2 O is a weak function of global equivalence ratio. (paper)

  5. High-bandwidth scanned-wavelength-modulation spectroscopy sensors for temperature and H2O in a rotating detonation engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenstein, Christopher S.; Almodóvar, Christopher A.; Jeffries, Jay B.; Hanson, Ronald K.; Brophy, Christopher M.

    2014-10-01

    The design and use of two-color tunable diode laser (TDL) absorption sensors for measurements of temperature and H2O in a rotating detonation engine (RDE) are presented. Both sensors used first-harmonic-normalized scanned-wavelength-modulation spectroscopy with second-harmonic detection (scanned-WMS-2f/1f) to account for non-absorbing transmission losses and emission encountered in the harsh combustion environment. One sensor used two near-infrared (NIR) TDLs near 1391.7 nm and 1469.3 nm that were modulated at 225 kHz and 285 kHz, respectively, and sinusoidally scanned across the peak of their respective H2O absorption transitions to provide a measurement rate of 50 kHz and a detection limit in the RDE of 0.2% H2O by mole. The other sensor used two mid-infrared (MIR) TDLs near 2551 nm and 2482 nm that were modulated at 90 kHz and 112 kHz, respectively, and sinusoidally scanned across the peak of their respective H2O transitions to provide a measurement rate of 10 kHz and a detection limit in the RDE of 0.02% H2O by mole. Four H2O absorption transitions with different lower-state energies were used to assess the homogeneity of temperature in the measurement plane. Experimentally derived spectroscopic parameters that enable temperature and H2O sensing to within 1.5-3.5% of known values are reported. The sensor design enabling the high-bandwidth scanned-WMS-2f/1f measurements is presented. The two sensors were deployed across two orthogonal and coplanar lines-of-sight (LOS) located in the throat of a converging-diverging nozzle at the RDE combustor exit. Measurements in the non-premixed H2-fueled RDE indicate that the temperature and H2O oscillate at the detonation frequency (≈3.25 kHz) and that production of H2O is a weak function of global equivalence ratio.

  6. Characterisation of the coke formed during metal dusting of iron in CO-H2-H2O gas mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.; Schneider, A.; Inden, G.

    2003-01-01

    Carbon deposits formed on the surface of iron samples during carburisation at 700 deg. C in a gas mixture of 75%CO-24.81%H 2 -0.19%H 2 O were characterised by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Moessbauer spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cross-section observation of the iron sample by light optical microscopy revealed the formation of cementite after only 10 min reaction, together with a thin layer of graphite. After 4 h reaction, a thick coke layer was formed on top of the cementite surface. SEM surface observation indicated the formation of filamentous carbon in the coke layer. Further analysis of the coke by XRD and Moessbauer showed the presence of mainly Fe 3 C and small amount of Fe 2 C but no metallic iron in the carbon deposit. TEM analysis of the coke detected very convoluted filaments with iron-containing particles at the tip or along their length. These particles were identified to be cementite by selected area diffraction. Carbon deposits produced at the same temperature but with other gas compositions were also analysed by using XRD. It was found that with a low content of CO, e.g. 5%, both α-Fe and Fe 3 C were detected in the coke. Increasing CO content to more than 30%, iron carbide was the only iron-containing phase

  7. Temperature dependence of third order ion molecule reactions. The reaction H+3 + 2H2 = H+5 + H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, K.; Kebarle, P.

    1975-01-01

    The rate constants k 1 for Reaction (1): H + 3 +2H 2 = H + 5 +H 2 were measured in the temperature range 100--300 degreeK. The temperature dependence of k 1 has the form k 1 proportionalT - /subn/, where n=2.3. Pierce and Porter have reported a much stronger negative temperature dependence with n=4.6. The difference arises from a determination of k 1 at 300 degreeK obtained by Arifov and used by Porter. The present k 1 (300 degreeK) =9times10 -30 (cm 6 molecules -2 center-dotsec -1 ). This is more than an order of magnitude larger than the Arifov value. The temperature dependence of third body dependent association reactions like (1) is examined on the basis of the energy transfer theory and the recently proposed trimolecular complex transition state theory by Meot-Ner, Solomon, Field, and Gershinowitz. The temperature dependence of the rate constant for the reverse reaction (-1) is obtained from k 1 and the previously determined temperature dependence of the equilibria (1). k/sub -//sub 1/ gives a good straight line Arrhenius plot leading to k/sub -//sub 1/ =8.7times10 -6 exp(-8.4/RT) cm 3 molecules -1 center-dotsec -1 . The activation energy is in kcal/mole. The preexponential factor is much larger than the rate constant for Langevin collisions. This is typical for pyrolysis of ions involving second order activation

  8. Staining Against Phospho-H2AX (gamma-H2AX) as a Marker for DNA Damage and Genomic Instability in Cancer Tissues and Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelkerke, A.P.; Span, P.N.

    2016-01-01

    Phospho-H2AX or gamma-H2AX- is a marker of DNA double-stranded breaks and can therefore be used to monitor DNA repair after, for example, irradiation. In addition, positive staining for phospho-H2AX may indicate genomic instability and telomere dysfunction in tumour cells and tissues. Here, we

  9. Does residual H2O2 result in inhibitory effect on enhanced anaerobic digestion of sludge pretreated by microwave-H2O2 pretreatment process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jibao; Jia, Ruilai; Wang, Yawei; Wei, Yuansong; Zhang, Junya; Wang, Rui; Cai, Xing

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of residual H 2 O 2 on hydrolysis-acidification and methanogenesis stages of anaerobic digestion after microwave-H 2 O 2 (MW-H 2 O 2 ) pretreatment of waste activated sludge (WAS). Results showed that high sludge solubilization at 35-45 % was achieved after pretreatment, while large amounts of residual H 2 O 2 remained and refractory compounds were thus generated with high dosage of H 2 O 2 (0.6 g H 2 O 2 /g total solids (TS), 1.0 g H 2 O 2 /g TS) pretreatment. The residual H 2 O 2 not only inhibited hydrolysis-acidification stage mildly, such as hydrolase activity, but also had acute toxic effect on methanogens, resulting in long lag phase, low methane yield rate, and no increase of cumulative methane production during the 30-day BMP tests. When the low dosage of H 2 O 2 at 0.2 g H 2 O 2 /g TS was used in MW-H 2 O 2 pretreatment, sludge anaerobic digestion was significantly enhanced. The cumulative methane production increased by 29.02 %, but still with a lag phase of 1.0 day. With removing the residual H 2 O 2 by catalase, the initial lag phase of hydrolysis-acidification stage decreased from 1.0 to 0.5 day.

  10. Evaluation of plasma H2S levels and H2S synthesis in streptozotocin induced Type-2 diabetes-an experimental study based on Swietenia macrophylla seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moumita Dutta

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: Although considering a small sample size, it can conclude that the fasting blood glucose levels are inversely related to plasma H2S levels as well as H2S synthesis activity in plasma and the extract of S. macrophylla is associated with increased plasma H2S levels with effective lowering of blood glucose in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

  11. Characterization of mussel H2A.Z.2: a new H2A.Z variant preferentially expressed in germinal tissues from Mytilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Casas, Ciro; González-Romero, Rodrigo; Vizoso-Vazquez, Ángel; Cheema, Manjinder S; Cerdán, M Esperanza; Méndez, Josefina; Ausió, Juan; Eirin-Lopez, Jose M

    2016-10-01

    Histones are the fundamental constituents of the eukaryotic chromatin, facilitating the physical organization of DNA in chromosomes and participating in the regulation of its metabolism. The H2A family displays the largest number of variants among core histones, including the renowned H2A.X, macroH2A, H2A.B (Bbd), and H2A.Z. This latter variant is especially interesting because of its regulatory role and its differentiation into 2 functionally divergent variants (H2A.Z.1 and H2A.Z.2), further specializing the structure and function of vertebrate chromatin. In the present work we describe, for the first time, the presence of a second H2A.Z variant (H2A.Z.2) in the genome of a non-vertebrate animal, the mussel Mytilus. The molecular and evolutionary characterization of mussel H2A.Z.1 and H2A.Z.2 histones is consistent with their functional specialization, supported on sequence divergence at promoter and coding regions as well as on varying gene expression patterns. More precisely, the expression of H2A.Z.2 transcripts in gonadal tissue and its potential upregulation in response to genotoxic stress might be mirroring the specialization of this variant in DNA repair. Overall, the findings presented in this work complement recent reports describing the widespread presence of other histone variants across eukaryotes, supporting an ancestral origin and conserved role for histone variants in chromatin.

  12. Electron scattering from H2+: Resonances in the Π symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, L.A.; Schneider, B.I.; Noble, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    We present the results of calculations for e - +H 2 + scattering in the region below the first excited state. We employ three distinct and independent methods, close-coupling linear algebraic, effective-optical-potential linear algebraic, and R matrix, to examine the collision at the highest level of sophistication and to provide a valuable check on the results of a single technique. For the 1 Π u and 3 Π u symmetries, we find strong interference effects between various autoionizing series, leading to significant variations of the resonance width with internuclear separation R. Such variations may have profound effects on such processes as photoionization, dissociation, and recombination. For the 1 Π g and 3 Π g symmetries, we observe monotonic behavior of the width with R and find no evidence of strong interference effects or rapid changes

  13. Fuel cell bus operation, system investigation H2 bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The WP covers two tasks: - Prepartion of Technical Catalogue: In cooperation with ICIL, AR have compiled a technical catalogue, providing the impartial descriptions, both of existing technology and regulations, and the likely future developments of these, as to remedy the first problem faced by a potential hydrogen bus fleet operator viz the absence of an impartial description of the available vehicle and fuels systems together with the absence of a description of regulatory and safety factors which need consideration. - Fuel Cell Bus Operation - System Investigation H 2 Bus: The application of fuel cell electric generation systems to hybrid electrical buses or electrical busses without any storage system on board is considered. The task will cover safety and environmental aspects, a cost estimate and a market evaluation. (orig.)

  14. Utilization of membranes for H2O recycle system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohya, H.; Oguchi, M.

    1986-01-01

    Conceptual studies of closed ecological life support systems (CELSS) carried out at NAL in Japan for a water recycle system using membranes are reviewed. The system will treat water from shower room, urine, impure condensation from gas recycle system, and so on. The H2O recycle system is composed of prefilter, ultrafiltration membrane, reverse osmosis membrane, and distillator. Some results are shown for a bullet train of toilet-flushing water recycle equipment with an ultraviltration membrane module. The constant value of the permeation rate with a 4.7 square meters of module is about 70 1/h after 500th of operation. Thermovaporization with porous polytetrafluorocarbon membrane is also proposed to replce the distillator.

  15. Polarizability tensor invariants of H2, HD, and D2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Ankit; Hamaguchi, Hiro-o.; Witek, Henryk A.

    2018-03-01

    We report an exhaustive compilation of wavelength-dependent matrix elements over the mean polarizability (α ¯ ) and polarizability anisotropy (γ) operators for the rovibrational states of the H2, HD, and D2 molecules together with an accompanying computer program for their evaluation. The matrix elements can be readily evaluated using the provided codes for rovibrational states with J = 0-15 and v = 0-4 and for any laser wavelengths in the interval 182.25-1320.6 nm corresponding to popular, commercially available lasers. The presented results substantially extend the scope of the data available in the literature, both in respect of the rovibrational transitions analyzed and the range of covered laser frequencies. The presented detailed tabulation of accurate polarizability tensor invariants is essential for successful realization of our main long-term goal: developing a universal standard for determining absolute Raman cross sections and absolute Raman intensities in experimental Rayleigh and Raman scattering studies of molecules.

  16. D2-H2 equilibration over γ-irradiated zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakova, J.; Wichterlova, B.

    1987-01-01

    D 2 -H 2 equilibration was studied at 77 and 298 K over HY, AlHY, HZSM-5 and Alsub(x)Osub(y)HZSM-5 zeolites which had been γ-irradiated at 77 and/or 298 K. The exchange rate was found to be higher at the lower temperature regardless of the temperature of irradiation. Moreover, at 77 K the exchange rates were similar and more stable over the individual zeolites than at 298 K, thus indicating a common reaction path at 77 K. The exchange rate at 298 K depended on the zeolite type: it was more stable and higher over HZSM-5 than over HY, and extra-lattice Al increased both these properties on HY as well as on HZSM-5. The reaction mechanism is discussed in connection with the nature of defects generated by γ-irradiation. (author)

  17. C3H2 observations as a diagnostic probe for molecular clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, L. W.

    1986-01-01

    Recently the three-membered ring molecule, cyclopropenylidene, C3H2, has been identified in the laboratory and detected in molecular clouds by Thaddeus, Vrtilek and Gottlieb (1985). This molecule is wide-spread throughout the Galaxy and has been detected in 25 separate sources including cold dust clouds, circumstellar envelopes, HII regions, and the spiral arms observed against the Cas supernova remnant. In order to evaluate the potential of C3H2 as a diagnostic probe for molecular clouds, and to attempt to identify the most useful transitions, statistical equilibrium calculations were carried out for the lowest 24 levels of the ortho species and the lowest 10 levels of the para species. Many of the sources observed by Matthews and Irvine (1985) show evidence of being optically thick in the 1(10)-1(01) line. Consequently, the effects of radiative trapping should be incorporated into the equilibrium calculations. This was done using the Large Velocity Gradient approximation for a spherical cloud of uniform density. Some results of the calculations for T(K)=10K are given. Figures are presented which show contours of the logarithm of the ratio of peak line brightness temperatures for ortho-para pairs of lines at similar frequencies. It appears that the widespread nature of C3H2, the relatively large strength of its spectral lines, and their sensitivity to density and molecular abundance combine to make this a useful molecule for probing physical conditions in molecular clouds. The 1(10)-1(01) and 2(20)-2(11) K-band lines may be especially useful in this regard because of the ease with which they are observed and their unusual density-dependent emission/absorption properties.

  18. On Estimating the Mass of Keplerian Accretion Disks in H2O Maser Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, C. Y.; Reid, M. J.; Braatz, J. A.; Gao, F.; Impellizzeri, C. M. V.; Chien, W. T.

    2018-06-01

    H2O maser disks with Keplerian rotation in active galactic nuclei offer a clean way to determine accurate black hole mass and the Hubble constant. An important assumption made in using a Keplerian H2O maser disk for measuring black hole mass and the Hubble constant is that the disk mass is negligible compared to the black hole mass. A simple and useful model of Huré et al. can be used to test this assumption. In that work, the authors apply a linear disk model to a position–dynamical mass diagram and re-analyze position–velocity data from H2O maser disks associated with active galactic nuclei. They claim that a maser disk with nearly perfect Keplerian rotation could have a disk mass comparable to the black hole mass. This would imply that ignoring the effects of disk self-gravity can lead to large systematic errors in the measurement of black hole mass and the Hubble constant. We examine their methods and find that their large estimated disk masses of Keplerian disks are likely the result of their use of projected instead of three-dimensional position and velocity information. To place better constraints on the disk masses of Keplerian maser systems, we incorporate disk self-gravity into a three-dimensional Bayesian modeling program for maser disks and also evaluate constraints based on the physical conditions for disks that support water maser emission. We find that there is little evidence that disk masses are dynamically important at the ≲1% level compared to the black holes.

  19. Catalase activity is stimulated by H2O2 in rich culture medium and is required for H2O2 resistance and adaptation in yeast ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Dorival; English, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    Catalases are efficient scavengers of H2O2 and protect cells against H2O2 stress. Examination of the H2O2 stimulon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed that the cytosolic catalase T (Ctt1) protein level increases 15-fold on H2O2 challenge in synthetic complete media although previous work revealed that deletion of the CCT1 or CTA1 genes (encoding peroxisomal/mitochondrial catalase A) does not increase the H2O2 sensitivity of yeast challenged in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). This we attributed to...

  20. Crystal-field-driven redox reactions: How common minerals split H2O and CO2 into reduced H2 and C plus oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, F.; Batllo, F.; Leroy, R. C.; Lersky, S.; Masuda, M. M.; Chang, S.

    1991-01-01

    It is difficult to prove the presence of molecular H2 and reduced C in minerals containing dissolved H2 and CO2. A technique was developed which unambiguously shows that minerals grown in viciously reducing environments contain peroxy in their crystal structures. The peroxy represent interstitial oxygen atoms left behind when the solute H2O and/or CO2 split off H2 and C as a result of internal redox reactions, driven by the crystal field. The observation of peroxy affirms the presence of H2 and reduced C. It shows that the solid state is indeed an unusual reaction medium.

  1. Adiabatic burning velocity of H2-O2 mixtures diluted with CO2/N2/Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratna Kishore, V.; Muchahary, Ringkhang; Ray, Anjan; Ravi, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Global warming due to CO 2 emissions has led to the projection of hydrogen as an important fuel for future. A lot of research has been going on to design combustion appliances for hydrogen as fuel. This has necessitated fundamental research on combustion characteristics of hydrogen fuel. In this work, a combination of experiments and computational simulations was employed to study the effects of diluents (CO 2 , N 2 , and Ar) on the laminar burning velocity of premixed hydrogen/oxygen flames using the heat flux method. The experiments were conducted to measure laminar burning velocity for a range of equivalence ratios at atmospheric pressure and temperature (300 K) with reactant mixtures containing varying concentrations of CO 2 , N 2 , and Ar as diluents. Measured burning velocities were compared with computed results obtained from one-dimensional laminar premixed flame code PREMIX with detailed chemical kinetics and good agreement was obtained. The effectiveness of diluents in reduction of laminar burning velocity for a given diluent concentration is in the increasing order of argon, nitrogen, carbon dioxide. This may be due to increased capabilities either to quench the reaction zone by increased specific heat or due to reduced transport rates. The lean and stoichiometric H 2 /O 2 /CO 2 flames with 65% CO 2 dilution exhibited cellular flame structures. Detailed three-dimensional simulation was performed to understand lean H 2 /O 2 /CO 2 cellular flame structure and cell count from computed flame matched well with the experimental cellular flame. (author)

  2. Modelling of plume chemistry of high flying aircraft with H2 combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weibring, G.; Zellner, R.

    1993-01-01

    Emissions from hydrogen fueled aircraft engines include large concentrations of radicals such as NO, OH, O and H. We describe the result of modelling studies in which the evolution of the radical chemistry in an expanding and cooling plume for three different mixing velocities is evaluated. The simulations were made for hydrogen combustion engines at an altitude of 26 km. For the fastest mixing conditions, the radical concentrations decrease only because of dilution with the ambient air, since the time for chemical reaction is too short. With lower mixing velocities, however, larger chemical conversions were determined. For the slowest mixing conditions the unburned hydrogen is converted into water. As a consequence the radicals O and OH increase considerably around 1400 K. The only exception being NO, for which no chemical change during the expansion is found. The concentrations of the reservoir molecules like H 2 O 2 , N 2 O 5 or HNO 3 have been calculated to remain relatively small. (orig.)

  3. Uranous nitrate production for purex process applications using PtO2 catalyst and H2/H2-gas mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivasa Rao, K.; Shyamali, R.; Narayan, C.V.; Patil, A.R.; Jambunathan, U.; Ramanujam, A.; Kansara, V.P.

    2003-04-01

    In the Purex process of spent fuel reprocessing. the twin objectives- decontamination and partitioning are achieved by extracting uranium (VI) and plutonium (IV) together in the solvent 30% TBP-dodecane and then selectively reducing Pu (IV) to Pu (III) in which valency it is least extractable in the solvent. Uranous nitrate stabilized with hydrazine nitrate is the widely employed partitioning agent. The conventional method of producing U(IV) is by the electrolytic reduction of uranyl nitrate with hydrazine nitrate as uranous ion stabilizer. Tre percentage conversion of U(VI) to U(IV) obtained in this method is 50 -60 %. The use of this solution as partitioning agent leads not only to the dilution of the plutonium product but also to increase in uranium processing load by each externally fed uranous nitrate batch. Also the oxide coating of the anode, TSIA (Titanium Substrate Insoluble Anode) wears out after a certain period of operation. This necessitates recoating which is quite cumbersome considering the amount of the decontamination involved. An alternative to the conventional electrolytic method of reduction of uranyl nitrate to uranous nitrate was explored at FRD laboratory .The studies have revealed that near 100% uranous nitrate can be produced by reducing uranyl nitrate with H 2 gas or H 2 (8%)- Ar/N 2 gas mixture in presence of PtO 2 catalyst. This report describes the laboratory scale studies carried out to optimize the various parameters. Based on these studies reduction of uranyl nitrate on a pilot plant scale was carried out. The design and operation of the reductor column and also the various studies carried out in the pilot plant studies are discussed. Near 100% conversion of uranyl nitrate to uranous nitrate and also the redundancy of supply of electrical energy make this process a viable alternative to the existing electrolytic method. (author)

  4. 26 CFR 1.642(h)-2 - Excess deductions on termination of an estate or trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... trust. 1.642(h)-2 Section 1.642(h)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(h)-2...)) in excess of gross income, the excess is allowed under section 642(h)(2) as a deduction to the...

  5. The histone variant macroH2A is an epigenetic regulator of key developmental genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buschbeck, Marcus; Uribesalgo, Iris; Wibowo, Indra

    2009-01-01

    The histone variants macroH2A1 and macroH2A2 are associated with X chromosome inactivation in female mammals. However, the physiological function of macroH2A proteins on autosomes is poorly understood. Microarray-based analysis in human male pluripotent cells uncovered occupancy of both macroH2A ...

  6. Anti-H-Y responses of H-2b mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, E; Gordon, R D; Chandler, P R; Bailey, D

    1978-10-01

    Two strains of H-2b mutant mice, H-2ba and H-2bf, in which the mutational event took place at H-2K, make anti-H-Y cytotoxic T cell responses which are H-2-restricted, Db-associated and indistinguishable in target cell specificity from those of H-2b mice. Thus, alteration of the H-2K molecule affects neither the Ir gene controlling the response, nor the associative antigen. On the other hand, one H-2Db mutant strain, H-2bo, although it makes a good anti-H-Y cytotoxic response, shows target cell specificity restricted to its own Dbo antigen(s), and neither H-2b, H-2ba or H-2bf anti-H-Y cytotoxic cells kill H-2bo male target cells. Thus, the alteration of the H-2Db molecule does not affect the Ir gene of H-2b mice, but it does alter the H-2Db-associative antigen.

  7. Application of UV/TiO2/H2O2 Advanced Oxidation to Remove Naphthalene from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behroz Karimi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Naphthalene is released into the environment by burning such organic materials as fossil fuels and wood and in industrial and vehicle exhaust emissions. Naphthalene is used in the manufacture of plastics, resins, fuels, and dyes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of UV/TiO2/H2O2 process to decompose naphthalene in aqueous solutions. For this purpose, the photocatalytic degradation of naphthalene was investigated under UV light irradiation in the presence of TiO2 and H2O2 under a variety of conditions. Photodegradation efficiencies of H2O2/UV, TiO2/UV, and H2O2/TiO2/UV processes were compared in a batch reactor using the low pressure mercury lamp irradiation. The effects of operating parameters such as reaction time (min; solution pH; and initial naphthalene, TiO2, and H2O2 concentrations on photodegradation were examined. In the UV/TiO2/H2O2 system with a naphthalene concentration of 15 mg/L, naphthalene removal efficiencies of 63, 75, 80, 88, 92, 95, 96.5, and 98% were achieved, respectively, for reaction times of 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 100 and 120 min. This is while removal efficienciesof 50, 59.5, 69, 80, 85, 88, 91, and 95% were obtained in the UV/TiO2 system under the same conditions. For initial pH values of 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,9, 10, and 12, naphthalene removal efficiencies of approximately 96.8, 85.5, 86, 75.5, 68.8, 57.8, and 52.5% were acheived, respectively, with the UV/TiO2/H2O2 system. Thus, it may be claiomed that, compared to either H2O2/UV or TiO2/UV process, the H2O2/TiO2/UV process yielded a far more efficient photodegradation.

  8. Histamine H2 Receptor-Mediated Suppression of Intestinal Inflammation by Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chunxu; Major, Angela; Rendon, David; Lugo, Monica; Jackson, Vanessa; Shi, Zhongcheng; Mori-Akiyama, Yuko; Versalovic, James

    2015-12-15

    Probiotics and commensal intestinal microbes suppress mammalian cytokine production and intestinal inflammation in various experimental model systems. Limited information exists regarding potential mechanisms of probiotic-mediated immunomodulation in vivo. In this report, we demonstrate that specific probiotic strains of Lactobacillus reuteri suppress intestinal inflammation in a trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced mouse colitis model. Only strains that possess the hdc gene cluster, including the histidine decarboxylase and histidine-histamine antiporter genes, can suppress colitis and mucosal cytokine (interleukin-6 [IL-6] and IL-1β in the colon) gene expression. Suppression of acute colitis in mice was documented by diminished weight loss, colonic injury, serum amyloid A (SAA) protein concentrations, and reduced uptake of [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([(18)F]FDG) in the colon by positron emission tomography (PET). The ability of probiotic L. reuteri to suppress colitis depends on the presence of a bacterial histidine decarboxylase gene(s) in the intestinal microbiome, consumption of a histidine-containing diet, and signaling via the histamine H2 receptor (H2R). Collectively, luminal conversion of l-histidine to histamine by hdc(+) L. reuteri activates H2R, and H2R signaling results in suppression of acute inflammation within the mouse colon. Probiotics are microorganisms that when administered in adequate amounts confer beneficial effects on the host. Supplementation with probiotic strains was shown to suppress intestinal inflammation in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and in rodent colitis models. However, the mechanisms of probiosis are not clear. Our current studies suggest that supplementation with hdc(+) L. reuteri, which can convert l-histidine to histamine in the gut, resulted in suppression of colonic inflammation. These findings link luminal conversion of dietary components (amino acid metabolism) by gut microbes and probiotic

  9. Energy recovery of the H2S and CO2 elimination with technology by hybrid plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar T, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    This document is a research focused on energy recovery from acid gas removal contained in natural gas as hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), by obtaining highly energetic gas such as syngas (mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, in particular) using plasma technology in its hybrid form, namely, gliding arc plasma, that has the property to behave like a thermal plasma and cold plasma, besides possessing among other virtues the ability to treat large flows continuously at atmospheric pressure without the need of using noble gases, with a power consumption of no more than 1000 W. Furthermore, this type of plasma has demonstrated to be a clean and efficient not only by high conversion rates of H 2 S (86%) and CO 2 (56%) and high percentages of selectivity in the production of hydrogen (H 2 ) and carbon monoxide carbon (CO) obtained in this work, but because it can even be seriously considered to replace other technologies currently used in the process of sweetening natural gas as adsorption, absorption and sequestering membranes. The results shown are based on a series of analysis, simulations, experiments and calculations, from the design of the plasma generating source based on an impulse-phase circuit, to the electrical characterization results and simulation by acquiring electrical signals, without forgetting the characterization of the resulting chemical components using various analytical techniques such as mass spectrometry, gas chromatography (GC), optical emission spectroscopy (OES), optical spectroscopy Fourier inverse transformed (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (Sem), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and multi-gas detectors (iBrid MX6). Additionally, performed chemical kinetics and reaction mechanism of the compounds involved in the degradation of H 2 S and CO 2 similar to those experienced as well as the study of energy efficiency (Ece), specific energy (Se), all this to meet a projects needs 127499, entitled -Development of alternative

  10. Hydrothermal syntheses, structural, Raman, and luminescence studies of Cm[M(CN)2]3.3H2O and Pr[M(CN)2]3.3H2O (M=Ag, Au)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assefa, Zerihun; Haire, Richard G.; Sykora, Richard E.

    2008-01-01

    We have prepared Cm[Au(CN) 2 ] 3 .3H 2 O and Cm[Ag(CN) 2 ] 3 .3H 2 O as a part of our continuing investigations into the chemistry of the 5f-elements' dicyanometallates. Single crystals of Cm[Au(CN) 2 ] 3 .3H 2 O were obtained from the reaction of CmCl 3 and KAu(CN) 2 under mild hydrothermal conditions. Due to similarities in size, the related praseodymium compounds were also synthesized and characterized for comparison with the actinide systems. The compounds crystallize in the hexagonal space group P6 3 /mcm, where the curium and the transition metals interconnect through cyanide bridging. Crystallographic data (Mo Kα, λ=0.71073 A): Cm[Au(CN) 2 ] 3 .3H 2 O (1), a=6.6614(5) A, c=18.3135(13) A, V=703.77(9), Z=2; Pr[Au(CN) 2 ] 3 .3H 2 O (3), a=6.6662(8) A, c=18.497(3) A, V=711.83(17), Z=2; Pr[Ag(CN) 2 ] 3 .3H 2 O (4), a=6.7186(8) A, c=18.678(2) A, V=730.18(14), Z=2. The Cm 3+ and/or Pr 3+ ions are coordinated to six N-bound CN - groups resulting in a trigonal prismatic arrangement. Three oxygen atoms of coordinated water molecules tricap the trigonal prismatic arrangement providing a coordination number of nine for the f-elements. The curium ions in both compounds exhibit a strong red emission corresponding to the 6 D 7/2 → 8 S 7/2 transition. This transition is observed at 16,780 cm -1 , with shoulders at 17,080 and 16,840 cm -1 for the Ag complex, while the emission is red shifted by ∼100 cm -1 in the corresponding gold complex. The Pr systems also provide well-resolved emissions upon f-f excitation. - Graphical abstract: Coordination polymeric compounds between a trans-plutonium element, curium and transition metal ions, gold(I) and silver(I), were prepared using the hydrothermal synthetic procedure. The curium ion and the transition metals are interconnected through cyanide bridging. The Cm ion has a tricapped trigonal prismatic coordination environment with coordination number of nine. Detail photoluminescence studies of the complexes are also reported

  11. H2-rich fluids from serpentinization: geochemical and biotic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep, N H; Meibom, A; Fridriksson, Th; Coleman, R G; Bird, D K

    2004-08-31

    Metamorphic hydration and oxidation of ultramafic rocks produces serpentinites, composed of serpentine group minerals and varying amounts of brucite, magnetite, and/or FeNi alloys. These minerals buffer metamorphic fluids to extremely reducing conditions that are capable of producing hydrogen gas. Awaruite, FeNi3, forms early in this process when the serpentinite minerals are Fe-rich. Olivine with the current mantle Fe/Mg ratio was oxidized during serpentinization after the Moon-forming impact. This process formed some of the ferric iron in the Earth's mantle. For the rest of Earth's history, serpentinites covered only a small fraction of the Earth's surface but were an important prebiotic and biotic environment. Extant methanogens react H2 with CO2 to form methane. This is a likely habitable environment on large silicate planets. The catalytic properties of FeNi3 allow complex organic compounds to form within serpentinite and, when mixed with atmospherically produced complex organic matter and waters that circulated through basalts, constitutes an attractive prebiotic substrate. Conversely, inorganic catalysis of methane by FeNi3 competes with nascent and extant life. Copyright 2004 The National Academy of Sciencs of the USA

  12. Interpretation of the H2O maser outbursts in Orion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'nitskij, V.S.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown, that the H 2 O maser that flared up in Orion (+8 km/s) was partly unsaturated. The anti-correlation between the line width and intensity, the asymmetry of the profile and the changes of the visibility function within it are explained by blending of two componenets, one of which has experienced a flare. From the observed polarization properties the upper limit to the electron density (nsub(e) 5 cm -3 ), the strength of the magnetic field (B approximately 10 -2 G) and its direction (position angle phi approximately -15 deg) within the source are deduced. According to the proposed physical model the source is a gas condensation, pressed, heated and accelerated by the strong stellar wind from a young star (possibly IRc4). The maser is pumped by the CCr-process at sup(n)H approximately 10 11 -10 12 cm -3 . If the condensation is a remnant of a circumstellar gas-dust disk, the magnetic field within the disk must be essentially azimuthal [ru

  13. Solid-state photoelectrochemical H2 generation with gaseous reactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwu, Kingsley O.; Galeckas, Augustinas; Kuznetsov, Andrej Yu.; Norby, Truls

    2013-01-01

    Photocurrent and H 2 production were demonstrated in an all solid-state photoelectrochemical cell employing gaseous methanol and water vapour at the photoanode. Open circuit photovoltage of around −0.4 V and short circuit photocurrent of up to 250 μA/cm 2 were obtained. At positive bias, photocurrent generation was limited by the irradiance, i.e., the amount of photogenerated charge carriers at the anode. Time constants and impedance spectra showed an electrochemical capacitance of the cell of about 15 μF/cm 2 in the dark, which increased with increasing irradiance. With only water vapour at the anode, the short circuit photocurrent was about 6% of the value with gaseous methanol and water vapour. The photoanode and electrocatalyst on carbon paper support were affixed to the proton conducting membrane using Nafion ® as adhesive, an approach that yielded photocurrents up to 15 times better than that of a cell assembled by hot-pressing, in spite of the overall cell resistance of the latter being up to five times less than that of the former. This is attributed, at least partially, to reactants being more readily available at the photoanode of the better performing cell

  14. Graphitic Carbon Nitride Nanosheets-Based Ratiometric Fluorescent Probe for Highly Sensitive Detection of H2O2 and Glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Wen; Luo, Ying; Wang, Yu-Min; Duan, Lu-Ying; Jiang, Jian-Hui; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2016-12-14

    Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C 3 N 4 ) nanosheets, an emerging graphene-like carbon-based nanomaterial with high fluorescence and large specific surface areas, hold great potential for biosensor applications. Current g-C 3 N 4 nanosheets based fluorescent biosensors majorly rely on single fluorescent intensity reading through fluorescence quenching interactions between the nanosheets and metal ions. Here we report for the first time the development of a novel g-C 3 N 4 nanosheets-based ratiometric fluorescence sensing strategy for highly sensitive detection of H 2 O 2 and glucose. With o-phenylenediamine (OPD) oxidized by H 2 O 2 in the presence of horseradish peroxidase (HRP), the oxidization product can assemble on the g-C 3 N 4 nanosheets through hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking, which effectively quenches the fluorescence of g-C 3 N 4 while delivering a new emission peak. The ratiometric signal variations enable robust and sensitive detection of H 2 O 2 . On the basis of the glucose converting into H 2 O 2 through the catalysis of glucose oxidase, the g-C 3 N 4 -based ratiometric fluorescence sensing platform is also exploited for glucose assay. The developed strategy is demonstrated to give a detection limit of 50 nM for H 2 O 2 and 0.4 μM for glucose, at the same time, it has been successfully used for glucose levels detection in human serum. This strategy may provide a cost-efficient, robust, and high-throughput platform for detecting various species involving H 2 O 2 -generation reactions for biomedical applications.

  15. Pt-decorated GaN nanowires with significant improvement in H2 gas-sensing performance at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Q N; Yam, F K; Hassan, Z; Bououdina, M

    2015-12-15

    Superior sensitivity towards H2 gas was successfully achieved with Pt-decorated GaN nanowires (NWs) gas sensor. GaN NWs were fabricated via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) route. Morphology (field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy) and crystal structure (high resolution X-ray diffraction) characterizations of the as-synthesized nanostructures demonstrated the formation of GaN NWs having a wurtzite structure, zigzaged shape and an average diameter of 30-166nm. The Pt-decorated GaN NWs sensor shows a high response of 250-2650% upon exposure to H2 gas concentration from 7 to 1000ppm respectively at room temperature (RT), and then increases to about 650-4100% when increasing the operating temperature up to 75°C. The gas-sensing measurements indicated that the Pt-decorated GaN NWs based sensor exhibited efficient detection of H2 at low concentration with excellent sensitivity, repeatability, and free hysteresis phenomena over a period of time of 100min. The large surface-to-volume ratio of GaN NWs and the catalytic activity of Pt metal are the most influential factors leading to the enhancement of H2 gas-sensing performances through the improvement of the interaction between the target molecules (H2) and the sensing NWs surface. The attractive low-cost, low power consumption and high-performance of the resultant decorated GaN NWs gas sensor assure their uppermost potential for H2 gas sensor working at low operating temperature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of a future H2-based road transportation sector on the composition and chemistry of the atmosphere - Part 2: Stratospheric ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D.; Jia, W.; Olsen, S. C.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Dubey, M. K.; Rockett, A. A.

    2013-07-01

    The prospective future adoption of molecular hydrogen (H2) to power the road transportation sector could greatly improve tropospheric air quality but also raises the question of whether the adoption would have adverse effects on the stratospheric ozone. The possibility of undesirable impacts must be fully evaluated to guide future policy decisions. Here we evaluate the possible impact of a future (2050) H2-based road transportation sector on stratospheric composition and chemistry, especially on the stratospheric ozone, with the MOZART (Model for OZone And Related chemical Tracers) model. Since future growth is highly uncertain, we evaluate the impact of two world evolution scenarios, one based on an IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) high-emitting scenario (A1FI) and the other on an IPCC low-emitting scenario (B1), as well as two technological options: H2 fuel cells and H2 internal combustion engines. We assume a H2 leakage rate of 2.5% and a complete market penetration of H2 vehicles in 2050. The model simulations show that a H2-based road transportation sector would reduce stratospheric ozone concentrations as a result of perturbed catalytic ozone destruction cycles. The magnitude of the impact depends on which growth scenario evolves and which H2 technology option is applied. For the evolution growth scenario, stratospheric ozone decreases more in the H2 fuel cell scenarios than in the H2 internal combustion engine scenarios because of the NOx emissions in the latter case. If the same technological option is applied, the impact is larger in the A1FI emission scenario. The largest impact, a 0.54% decrease in annual average global mean stratospheric column ozone, is found with a H2 fuel cell type road transportation sector in the A1FI scenario; whereas the smallest impact, a 0.04% increase in stratospheric ozone, is found with applications of H2 internal combustion engine vehicles in the B1 scenario. The impacts of the other two scenarios fall

  17. Impact of a future H2-based road transportation sector on the composition and chemistry of the atmosphere – Part 2: Stratospheric ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The prospective future adoption of molecular hydrogen (H2 to power the road transportation sector could greatly improve tropospheric air quality but also raises the question of whether the adoption would have adverse effects on the stratospheric ozone. The possibility of undesirable impacts must be fully evaluated to guide future policy decisions. Here we evaluate the possible impact of a future (2050 H2-based road transportation sector on stratospheric composition and chemistry, especially on the stratospheric ozone, with the MOZART (Model for OZone And Related chemical Tracers model. Since future growth is highly uncertain, we evaluate the impact of two world evolution scenarios, one based on an IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change high-emitting scenario (A1FI and the other on an IPCC low-emitting scenario (B1, as well as two technological options: H2 fuel cells and H2 internal combustion engines. We assume a H2 leakage rate of 2.5% and a complete market penetration of H2 vehicles in 2050. The model simulations show that a H2-based road transportation sector would reduce stratospheric ozone concentrations as a result of perturbed catalytic ozone destruction cycles. The magnitude of the impact depends on which growth scenario evolves and which H2 technology option is applied. For the evolution growth scenario, stratospheric ozone decreases more in the H2 fuel cell scenarios than in the H2 internal combustion engine scenarios because of the NOx emissions in the latter case. If the same technological option is applied, the impact is larger in the A1FI emission scenario. The largest impact, a 0.54% decrease in annual average global mean stratospheric column ozone, is found with a H2 fuel cell type road transportation sector in the A1FI scenario; whereas the smallest impact, a 0.04% increase in stratospheric ozone, is found with applications of H2 internal combustion engine vehicles in the B1 scenario. The impacts of the other two

  18. Investigation of H2S separation from H2S/CH4 mixtures using functionalized and non-functionalized vertically aligned carbon nanotube membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, Neda; Towfighi, Jafar; Rashidi, Alimorad; Mohammadi, Toraj; Omidkhah, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghian, Ahmad

    2013-04-01

    Separation of H2S from binary mixtures of H2S/CH4 using vertically aligned carbon nanotube membranes fabricated in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template was studied experimentally. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were grown in five AAO templates with different pore diameters using chemical vapor deposition, and CNT/AAO membranes with tubular carbon nanotube structure and open caps were selected for separation of H2S. For this, two tubular CNT/AAO membranes were fabricated with the CNT inner diameters of 23 and 8 nm. It was found that permeability and selectivity of the membrane with inner diameter of 23 nm for CNT were independent of upstream feed pressure and H2S feed concentration unlike that of CNT having an inner diameter of 8 nm. Selectivity of these membranes for separation of H2S was obtained in the ranges of 1.36-1.58 and 2.11-2.86, for CNTs with internal diameters of 23 and 8 nm, respectively. In order to enhance the separation of H2S from H2S/CH4 mixtures, dodecylamine was used to functionalize the CNT/AAO membrane with higher selectivity. The results showed that for amido-functionalized membrane, both upstream feed pressure and H2S partial pressure in the feed significantly increased H2S permeability, and selectivity for H2S being in the range of 3.0-5.57 respectively.

  19. Promotion of H2 production by microwave-assisted treatment of water hyacinth with dilute H2SO4 through combined dark fermentation and photofermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Jun; Xia, Ao; Su, Huibo; Song, Wenlu; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Water hyacinth is microwaved with dilute H 2 SO 4 to improve enzymatic hydrolysis. • Hydrolyzed hyacinth is fermented by hydrogenogens to improve dark H 2 yield. • Nearly 100% glucose and most arabinose in hydrolysate are used in dark fermentation. • H 2 yield from hyacinth via combined fermentation is 75.2% of theoretical H 2 yield. - Abstract: Water hyacinth was treated with microwave-assisted dilute H 2 SO 4 to improve saccharification before enzymatic hydrolysis and H 2 production during dark fermentation. A maximum reducing sugar (RS) yield of 64.4 g/100 g total volatile solid (TVS) (96.1% of the theoretical RS yield) was achieved when water hyacinth was treated through microwave heating with 1% dilute H 2 SO 4 for 15 min at 140 °C and then enzymatically hydrolyzed for 72 h. During enzymatic hydrolysis, glucose was efficiently produced from the hydrolysis of cellulose that resulted from the disruption of the lignocellulosic structure of water hyacinth after microwave-assisted H 2 SO 4 treatment. When the hydrolyzed water hyacinth was inoculated with H 2 -producing bacteria to produce H 2 during dark fermentation, a maximum H 2 yield of 112.3 ml/g TVS was obtained. The major sugar compositions in the residual solution from dark fermentation were xylose and cellobiose (total RS utilization efficiency: 88.5%). Through a combination of dark fermentation and photofermentation, the maximum H 2 yield from water hyacinth was significantly increased from 112.3 ml/g TVS to 751.5 ml/g TVS, which is 75.2% of the theoretical H 2 yield

  20. Techno-economic assessment of membrane assisted fluidized bed reactors for pure H_2 production with CO_2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spallina, V.; Pandolfo, D.; Battistella, A.; Romano, M.C.; Van Sint Annaland, M.; Gallucci, F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Membrane reactors improve the overall efficiency of H_2 production up to 20%. • Respect to conventional reforming, the H_2 yield increases from 12% to 20%. • The COH is reduced of at least 220% using membrane reactors. • FBMR capture 72% of CO_2 with a specific cost of 8 eur/tonn_C_O_2_. • MA-CLR can reach 90% of CO_2 avoided with same cost of FTR. - Abstract: This paper addresses the techno-economic assessment of two membrane-based technologies for H_2 production from natural gas, fully integrated with CO_2 capture. In the first configuration, a fluidized bed membrane reactor (FBMR) is integrated in the H_2 plant: the natural gas reacts with steam in the catalytic bed and H_2 is simultaneously separated using Pd-based membranes, and the heat of reaction is provided to the system by feeding air as reactive sweep gas in part of the membranes and by burning part of the permeated H_2 (in order to avoid CO_2 emissions for heat supply). In the second system, named membrane assisted chemical looping reforming (MA-CLR), natural gas is converted in the fuel rector by reaction with steam and an oxygen carrier (chemical looping reforming), and the produced H_2 permeates through the membranes. The oxygen carrier is re-oxidized in a separate air reactor with air, which also provides the heat required for the endothermic reactions in the fuel reactor. The plants are optimized by varying the operating conditions of the reactors such as temperature, pressures (both at feed and permeate side), steam-to-carbon ratio and the heat recovery configuration. The plant design is carried out using Aspen Simulation, while the novel reactor concepts have been designed and their performance have been studied with a dedicated phenomenological model in Matlab. Both configurations have been designed and compared with reference technologies for H_2 production based on conventional fired tubular reforming (FTR) with and without CO_2 capture. The results of the analysis show

  1. Antibodies to H2a and H2b histones from the sera of HIV-infected patients catalyze site-specific degradation of these histones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranova, Svetlana V; Dmitrienok, Pavel S; Ivanisenko, Nikita V; Buneva, Valentina N; Nevinsky, Georgy A

    2017-06-01

    Histones and their post-translational modifications have key roles in chromatin remodeling and gene transcription. Besides intranuclear functions, histones act as damage-associated molecules when they are released into the extracellular space. Administration of histones to animals leads to systemic inflammatory and toxic responses. Autoantibodies with enzymatic activities (abzymes) are distinctive features of some autoimmune and viral diseases. Electrophoretically homogeneous IgGs containing no canonical enzymes were isolated from the sera of HIV-infected patients by chromatography on several affinity sorbents including anti-histone Sepharose. In contrast to canonical proteases (trypsin, chymotrypsin, proteinase K), IgGs from HIV-infected patients specifically hydrolyzed only histones but not many other tested globular proteins. Using MALDI mass spectrometry the sites of H2a and H2b histone cleavage by anti-histone IgGs were determined for the first time. One cluster of H2a hydrolysis contains two major (↕) and four moderate (↓) cleavage sites: 31-H↓R↓L↓L↓R↕K G↕N-38. One major and two moderate sites of cleavage were revealed in the second cluster: 14-A↕KSRS↓SRA↓G-22. The third cluster corresponding to the H2a C-terminal part contains only five minor (†) sites of cleavage: 82-H†LQLAIRNDEELN†KLLG†RV†T†I-102. It was shown that two major and four moderate sites of cleavage were present in the main cluster of H2b hydrolysis: 46-K↕QvhpD↓TgiS↓SkA↓M↕GiM↓N-63. Two moderate sites of cleavage correspond to a relatively short 6-mer cluster: 12-K↓GskK↓A-17. The third relatively long 9-mer cluster contains one major and two minor sites of H2b cleavage: 80-L↕AHYN†KRS†T-88. In the nucleosome core particle, most of the major and moderate cleavage sites are located at the H2a/H2b interaction interface. Minor cleavage sites of H2a are involved in binding with H3 in the nucleosome core. Two moderate cleavage sites of H2b and one

  2. Herschel Observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources: H2S as a Probe of Dense Gas and Possibly Hidden Luminosity Toward the Orion KL Hot Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, N. R.; Bergin, E. A.; Neill, J. L.; Black, J. H.; Blake, G. A.; Kleshcheva, M.

    2014-02-01

    We present Herschel/HIFI observations of the light hydride H2S obtained from the full spectral scan of the Orion Kleinmann-Low nebula (Orion KL) taken as part of the Herschel Observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources GT (guaranteed time) key program. In total, we observe 52, 24, and 8 unblended or slightly blended features from H2 32S, H2 34S, and H2 33S, respectively. We only analyze emission from the so-called hot core, but emission from the plateau, extended ridge, and/or compact ridge are also detected. Rotation diagrams for ortho and para H2S follow straight lines given the uncertainties and yield T rot = 141 ± 12 K. This indicates H2S is in local thermodynamic equilibrium and is well characterized by a single kinetic temperature or an intense far-IR radiation field is redistributing the population to produce the observed trend. We argue the latter scenario is more probable and find that the most highly excited states (E up >~ 1000 K) are likely populated primarily by radiation pumping. We derive a column density, N tot(H2 32S) = 9.5 ± 1.9 × 1017 cm-2, gas kinetic temperature, T kin = 120+/- ^{13}_{10} K, and constrain the H2 volume density, n_H_2 >~ 9 × 10 7 cm-3, for the H2S emitting gas. These results point to an H2S origin in markedly dense, heavily embedded gas, possibly in close proximity to a hidden self-luminous source (or sources), which are conceivably responsible for Orion KL's high luminosity. We also derive an H2S ortho/para ratio of 1.7 ± 0.8 and set an upper limit for HDS/H2S of <4.9 × 10 -3. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  3. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet utilizing Ar and Ar/H2O mixtures and its applications to bacteria inactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Cheng; Shen Jie; Xiao De-Zhi; Xie Hong-Bing; Lan Yan; Fang Shi-Dong; Meng Yue-Dong; Chu Paul K

    2014-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure plasma jet generated with Ar with H 2 O vapor is characterized and applied to inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores. The emission spectra obtained from Ar/H 2 O plasma shows a higher intensity of OH radicals compared to pure argon at a specified H 2 O concentration. The gas temperature is estimated by comparing the simulated spectra of the OH band with experimental spectra. The excitation electron temperature is determined from the Boltzmann's plots and Stark broadening of the hydrogen Balmer H β line is applied to measure the electron density. The gas temperature, excitation electron temperature, and electron density of the plasma jet decrease with the increase of water vapor concentration at a fixed input voltage. The bacteria inactivation rate increases with the increase of OH generation reaching a maximum reduction at 2.6% (v/v) water vapor. Our results also show that the OH radicals generated by the Ar/H 2 O plasma jet only makes a limited contribution to spore inactivation and the shape change of the spores before and after plasma irradiation is discussed. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  4. Study of the properties of plasma of CH4/H2 and its interactions with liquid hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambus, G.; Patino, P.

    2003-01-01

    Properties of a CH 4 /H 2 plasma, as a reducing agent in heterogeneous reactions with one olefin hydrocarbon, were studied in this work. The characterization of the plasma was carried out by means of optical emission spectroscopy, by varying the gas composition (CH 4 /H 2 ) and the working pressure, in a radio frequency discharge. The variation of the relative populations of H and CH radicals was followed, at pressures between 0.001 and 0.4 mbar and CH 4 /H 2 proportions 1:1 to 1:5. The conditions selected for treating squalene were 0.1 mbar and CH 4 /H 2 of 1:5. Although these conditions did not yield the maximum intensities for the two signals, these were strong enough and black carbon and polymers ceased from being produced under this regime. At 5 C, more than two double bonds per molecule, out of six, were hydrogenated with the plasma in 12 hours. (Author)

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Highly Sensitive Hydrogen (H2 Sensing Device Based on Ag Doped SnO2 Nanospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaorui Lu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, pure and Ag-doped SnO2 nanospheres were synthesized by hydrothermal method and characterized via X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS, respectively. The gas sensing performance of the pure, 1 at.%, 3 at.%, and 5 at.% Ag-doped SnO2 sensing devices toward hydrogen (H2 were systematically evaluated. The results indicated that compared with pure SnO2 nanospheres, Ag-doped SnO2 nanospheres could not only decrease the optimum working temperature but also significantly improve H2 sensing such as higher gas response and faster response-recovery. Among all the samples, the 3 at.% Ag-doped SnO2 showed the highest response 39 to 100 μL/L H2 at 300 °C. Moreover, its gas sensing mechanism was discussed, and the results will provide reference and theoretical guidance for the development of high-performance SnO2-based H2 sensing devices.

  6. LiOH - H2O2 - H2O trinary system study for the selection of optimal conditions of lithium peroxide synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nefedov, R A; Ferapontov, Yu A; Kozlova, N P

    2016-01-01

    Using solubility method the decay kinetics of peroxide products contained in liquid phase of LiOH - H 2 O 2 - H 2 O trinary system with 2 to 6% by wt hydrogen peroxide content in liquid phase in 21 to 33 °C temperature range has been studied. Conducted studies have allowed to determine temperature and concentration limits of solid phase existence of Li 2 O 2 ·H 2 O content, distinctness of which has been confirmed using chemical and qualitative X- ray phase analysis. Stabilizing effect of solid phase of Li 2 O 2 ·H 2 O content on hydrogen peroxide decay contained in liquid phase of LiOH - H 2 O 2 - H 2 O trinary system under conditions of experiments conducted has been shown. (paper)

  7. LiOH - H2O2 - H2O trinary system study for the selection of optimal conditions of lithium peroxide synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedov, R. A.; Ferapontov, Yu A.; Kozlova, N. P.

    2016-01-01

    Using solubility method the decay kinetics of peroxide products contained in liquid phase of LiOH - H2O2 - H2O trinary system with 2 to 6% by wt hydrogen peroxide content in liquid phase in 21 to 33 °C temperature range has been studied. Conducted studies have allowed to determine temperature and concentration limits of solid phase existence of Li2O2·H2O content, distinctness of which has been confirmed using chemical and qualitative X- ray phase analysis. Stabilizing effect of solid phase of Li2O2·H2O content on hydrogen peroxide decay contained in liquid phase of LiOH - H2O2 - H2O trinary system under conditions of experiments conducted has been shown.

  8. Study of ZrO2-H2SO4-(NH4)2SO4(NH4Cl)-H2O systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motov, D.L.; Sozinova, Yu.P.; Rys'kina, M.P.

    1988-01-01

    Regions of formation, composition and solubility of ammonium sulfatozirconates (ASZ) in ZrO 2 -H 2 SO 4 -(NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 (NH 4 Cl)-H 2 O systems at 25 and 75 deg C are studied by the isothermal method. Five ASZ: (NH 4 ) 2 Zr(OH) 2 (SO 4 ) 2 , NH 4 ZrOH(SO 4 ) 2 xH 2 O, NH 4 ZrO 0.5 (OH) 2 SO 4 x1.5H 2 O, (NH 4 ) 2 Zr(SO 4 ) 3 x2H 2 O, (NH 4 ) 4 Zr(SO 4 ) 4 x4H 2 O are detected, their properties are investigated. Main sulfates are new compounds never described ealier

  9. H2A-DUBbing the mammalian epigenome: expanding frontiers for histone H2A deubiquitinating enzymes in cell biology and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, Jad I; Nijnik, Anastasia

    2014-05-01

    Posttranslational modifications of histone H2A through the attachment of ubiquitin or poly-ubiquitin conjugates are common in mammalian genomes and play an important role in the regulation of chromatin structure, gene expression, and DNA repair. Histone H2A deubiquitinases (H2A-DUBs) are a group of structurally diverse enzymes that catalyze the removal ubiquitin from histone H2A. In this review we provide a concise summary of the mechanisms that mediate histone H2A ubiquitination in mammalian cells, and review our current knowledge of mammalian H2A-DUBs, their biochemical activities, and recent developments in our understanding of their functions in mammalian physiology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The correlation between HCN/H2O flux ratios and disk mass: evidence for protoplanet formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Caitlin; Salyk, Colette

    2017-01-01

    We analyze hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and water vapor flux ratios in protoplanetary disks as a way to trace planet formation. Analyzing only disks in the Taurus molecular cloud, Najita et al. (2013) found a tentative correlation between protoplanetary disk mass and the HCN/H2O line flux ratio in Spitzer-IRS emission spectra. They interpret this correlation to be a consequence of more massive disks forming planetesimals more efficiently than smaller disks, as the formation of large planetesimals may lock up water ice in the cool outer disk region and prevent it from migrating, drying out the inner disk. The sequestering of water (and therefore oxygen) in the outer disk may also increase the carbon-to- oxygen ratio in the inner disk, leading to enhanced organic molecule (e.g. HCN) emission. To confirm this trend, we expand the Najita et al. sample by calculating HCN/H2O line flux ratios for 8 more sources with known disk masses from clusters besides Taurus. We find agreement with the Najita et al. trend, suggesting that this is a widespread phenomenon. In addition, we find HCN/H2O line flux ratios for 17 more sources that await disk mass measurements, which should become commonplace in the ALMA era. Finally, we investigate linear fits and outliers to this trend, and discuss possible causes.

  11. Dust effect on the collisional pumping of the H2O cosmic maser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolgova, G.T.; Strel'nitskij, V.S.; Shmeld, I.K.

    1977-01-01

    The rate equations for the pupulations of 48 ortho-H 2 O rotational levels are solved simultaneously with the equations of the radiative transfer in the rotational lines, accounting for the continuous absorption and emission of resonance photon by dust grains. The radiative transport was treated in a model of a homogeneous isothermal plane-parallel slab, approximating the region of collisional pumping behind a shock front. It is found, that continuous absorption and emission may strongly influence the character of the distribution of the rotational level populations. Depending on the relation between the kinetic temperature Tsub(k) and the dust temperature Tsub(d) the ''turning on'' of the dust may either greatly increase the inversion of the 6 16 -5 23 transition (when Tsub(d) < Tsub(k)) or, on the contrary, greatly decrease and even liquidate the inversion (when Tsub(d)=Tsub(k)). The sink of the rotational photons on the cold dust reduces the thermalizing effect of the radiation trapping, reestablishing the inversion of many transitions provided by the collisional pumping

  12. Removal of Organic Dyes from Industrial Wastewaters Using UV/H2O2, UV/H2O2/Fe (II, UV/H2O2/Fe (III Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezamaddin Daneshvar

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available UV/H2O2, UV/H2O2/Fe (II and UV/H2O2/Fe (III processes are very effective in removing pollutants from wastewater and can be used for treatment of dyestuff units wastewaters. In this study, Rhodamine B was used as a typical organic dye. Rhodamine B has found wide applications in wax, leather, and paper industries. The results from this study showed that this dye was degradable in the presence of hydrogen peroxide under UV-C irradiation (30W mercury light and Photo-Fenton process. The dye was resistant to UV irradiation. In the absence of UV irradiation, the decolorization efficiency was very negligible in the presence of hydrogen. The effects of different system variables such as initial dye concentration, duration of UV irradiation, and initial hydrogen peroxide concentration were investigated in the UV/H2O2 process. Investigation of the kinetics of the UV/H2O2 process showed that the semi-log plot of the dye concentration versus time was linear, suggesting a first order reaction. It was found that Rhodamine B decolorization efficiencies in the UV/H2O2/Fe (II and UV/H2O2/Fe (III processes were higher than that in the UV/H2O2 process. Furthermore, a solution containing 20 ppm of Rhodamine B was decolorized in the presence 18 mM of H2O2 under UV irradiation for 15 minutes. It was also found that addition of 0.1 mM Fe(II or Fe(III to the solution containing  20  ppm of the dye and 5 mM H2O2 under UV light  illumination decreased removal time to 10 min.

  13. A New Overpotential — Capacitance Mechanism for H2 Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Wei

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The H2 electrode is commonly assumed to be a half-cell, 2 H+ 2e == H2, andexplained by the Nernst equation. We cannot assume that the H+ is easily reduced to H2 inan H2 saturated solution, and H2 becoming oxidized to H+ in a strongly acid solution againstthe equilibrium principle. How can the H2 gas is involved from a basic solution where thereis practically no H+ ions? Another equilibrium has been postulated, H2 (soln = 2H(adsorbed on metal = 2 H 2e. This paper reports the results of studying the H2 electrodeusing various techniques, such as adsorption, bubbling with H2, and N2, charging,discharging, and recharging, replacing the salt bridge with a conducting wire, etc. Aninteresting overpotential was observed that bubbling H2 into the solution caused a suddenchange of potential to more negative without changing the solution pH. The H2 may bereplaced by N2 to give a similar calibration curve without the overpotential. The resultscontradict the redox mechanism. When the Pt is separated by H2 coating, it cannot act as acatalyst in the solution. Our results seem to explain the H2 electrode mechanism as thecombination of its overpotential and capacitance potential. Bubbling of H2 or N2 onlyremoves interfering gases such as O2 and CO2. Since neither H2 nor N2 is involved in thepotential development, it is improper to call the H2 or N2 electrode. A term of pH / OH Ptelectrode, like the pH / OH glass electrode, is suggested.

  14. Conductivity And Thermal Stability of Solid Acid Composites CsH2PO4 /NaH2PO4/ SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norsyahida Mohammad; Abu Bakar Mohamad; Abu Bakar Mohamad; Abdul Amir Hassan Kadhum

    2016-01-01

    Solid acid composites CsH 2 PO 4 / NaH 2 PO 4 / SiO 2 with different mole ratios of CsH 2 PO 4 and NaH 2 PO 4 to SiO 2 were synthesized and characterized. Preliminary infrared measurements of CsH 2 PO 4 and its composites indicated that hydrogen bonds breaking and formation were detected between 1710 to 2710 cm -1 , while the rotation of phosphate tetrahedral anions occurred between 900 and 1200 cm -1 . The superprotonic transition of CsH 2 PO 4 / NaH 2 PO 4 / SiO 2 composite was identified at superprotonic temperatures between 230 and 260 degree Celcius, under atmospheric pressure. This study reveals higher conductivity values for composites with higher CsH 2 PO 4 (CDP) content. Solid acid composite CDP 613 appeared as the composite with the highest conductivity that is 7.2x10 -3 S cm -1 at 230 degree Celcius. Thermal stability of the solid acid composites such as temperature of dehydration, melting and decomposition were investigated. The addition of NaH 2 PO 4 lowers the dehydration temperature of the solid acid composites. (author)

  15. Using H2O2 as oxidant in leaching of uranium ores. The new research on the reaction of H2O2 with Fe2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Xizhen

    1997-05-01

    The new research on the reaction of H 2 O 2 with Fe 2+ has been studied. Through determining the electric potential, pH and O 2 release during the mutual titration between H 2 O 2 solution and FeSO 4 solution, deduced the chemical equations of H 2 O 2 (without free hydroxyl) oxidizing FeSO 4 and Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 oxidizing H 2 O 2 . The research results show that acid is a catalytic agent for decomposing H 2 O 2 to be O 2 and H 2 O besides iron ions. The maximum oxidizing potential is up to about 640 mV. While using H 2 O 2 as an oxidant in uranium heap leaching and in-situ leaching, controlling electric potential can be regarded as a method for adjusting the feeding speed of H 2 O 2 to keep the electric potential below 500 mV, thus the H 2 O 2 decomposition can be reduced. (13 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.)

  16. Nucleosome acidic patch promotes RNF168- and RING1B/BMI1-dependent H2AX and H2A ubiquitination and DNA damage signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin W Leung

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Histone ubiquitinations are critical for the activation of the DNA damage response (DDR. In particular, RNF168 and RING1B/BMI1 function in the DDR by ubiquitinating H2A/H2AX on Lys-13/15 and Lys-118/119, respectively. However, it remains to be defined how the ubiquitin pathway engages chromatin to provide regulation of ubiquitin targeting of specific histone residues. Here we identify the nucleosome acid patch as a critical chromatin mediator of H2A/H2AX ubiquitination (ub. The acidic patch is required for RNF168- and RING1B/BMI1-dependent H2A/H2AXub in vivo. The acidic patch functions within the nucleosome as nucleosomes containing a mutated acidic patch exhibit defective H2A/H2AXub by RNF168 and RING1B/BMI1 in vitro. Furthermore, direct perturbation of the nucleosome acidic patch in vivo by the expression of an engineered acidic patch interacting viral peptide, LANA, results in defective H2AXub and RNF168-dependent DNA damage responses including 53BP1 and BRCA1 recruitment to DNA damage. The acidic patch therefore is a critical nucleosome feature that may serve as a scaffold to integrate multiple ubiquitin signals on chromatin to compose selective ubiquitinations on histones for DNA damage signaling.

  17. H2 profiles of C-type bow shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.D.; Brand, P.W.J.L.

    1990-01-01

    We present emission-line profiles of molecular hydrogen from curved C-shocks within molecular clouds. Shock configurations arising from the supersonic motion of jets and bullets within a dense cloud are chosen. Bow shock speeds in the range υ w = 40-200 km s -1 are investigated. Breakdown through dissociation and self-ionization restricts the C-shock section to the bow tail. We find that profiles are essentially single-peaked and narrow with full widths (at 10 per cent maximum intensity, deconvolved) of up to about 50, 40 and 30 km s -1 for cones, hemispherical caps and paraboloids, respectively. Exceptional field alignments can produce lines as wide as 75 km s -1 in the conical shock model. (author)

  18. A neural network potential energy surface for the NaH2 system and dynamics studies on the H(2S) + NaH(X1Σ+) → Na(2S) + H2(X1Σg+) reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shufen; Yuan, Jiuchuang; Li, Huixing; Chen, Maodu

    2017-08-02

    In order to study the dynamics of the reaction H( 2 S) + NaH(X 1 Σ + ) → Na( 2 S) + H 2 (X 1 Σ g + ), a new potential energy surface (PES) for the ground state of the NaH 2 system is constructed based on 35 730 ab initio energy points. Using basis sets of quadruple zeta quality, multireference configuration interaction calculations with Davidson correction were carried out to obtain the ab initio energy points. The neural network method is used to fit the PES, and the root mean square error is very small (0.00639 eV). The bond lengths, dissociation energies, zero-point energies and spectroscopic constants of H 2 (X 1 Σ g + ) and NaH(X 1 Σ + ) obtained on the new NaH 2 PES are in good agreement with the experiment data. On the new PES, the reactant coordinate-based time-dependent wave packet method is applied to study the reaction dynamics of H( 2 S) + NaH(X 1 Σ + ) → Na( 2 S) + H 2 (X 1 Σ g + ), and the reaction probabilities, integral cross-sections (ICSs) and differential cross-sections (DCSs) are obtained. There is no threshold in the reaction due to the absence of an energy barrier on the minimum energy path. When the collision energy increases, the ICSs decrease from a high value at low collision energy. The DCS results show that the angular distribution of the product molecules tends to the forward direction. Compared with the LiH 2 system, the NaH 2 system has a larger mass and the PES has a larger well at the H-NaH configuration, which leads to a higher ICS value in the H( 2 S) + NaH(X 1 Σ + ) → Na( 2 S) + H 2 (X 1 Σ g + ) reaction. Because the H( 2 S) + NaH(X 1 Σ + ) → Na( 2 S) + H 2 (X 1 Σ g + ) reaction releases more energy, the product molecules can be excited to a higher vibrational state.

  19. The impact of a future H2-based road transportation sector on the composition and chemistry of the atmosphere - Part 2: Stratospheric ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D.; Jia, W.; Olsen, S. C.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Dubey, M. K.; Rockett, A. A.

    2012-08-01

    The prospective future adoption of hydrogen to power the road transportation sector could greatly improve tropospheric air quality but also raises the question whether the adoption would have adverse effects on stratospheric ozone. The possibility of these undesirable impacts must be fully evaluated to guide future policy decisions. Here we evaluate the possible impact of a future (2050) H2-based road transportation sector on stratospheric composition and chemistry, especially on stratospheric ozone, with the MOZART chemical transport model. Since future growth is highly uncertain we evaluate the impact for two world evolution scenarios, one based on a high emitting scenario (IPCC A1FI) and the other on a low emitting scenario (IPCC B1), as well as two technological options: H2 fuel cells and H2 internal combustion engines. We assume a H2 leakage rate of 2.5% and a complete market penetration of H2 vehicles in 2050. The model simulations show that a H2-based road transportation sector would reduce stratospheric ozone concentrations as a result of perturbed catalytic ozone destruction cycles. The magnitude of the impact depends on which growth scenario the world evolves and which H2 technology option is applied. For the same world evolution scenario, stratospheric ozone decreases more in the H2 fuel cell scenarios than in the H2 internal combustion engine scenarios because of the NOx emissions in the latter case. If the same technological option is applied, the impact is larger in the A1FI emission scenario. The largest impact, a 0.54% decrease in annual average global mean stratospheric column ozone, is found with a H2 fuel cell type road transportation sector in the A1FI scenario; whereas the smallest impact, a 0.04% increase in stratospheric ozone, is found with applications of H2 internal combustion engine vehicles in the B1 scenario. The impacts of the other two scenarios fall between the above two bounding scenarios. However, the magnitude of these changes is

  20. Density functional study on the heterogeneous oxidation of NO over α-Fe_2O_3 catalyst by H_2O_2: Effect of oxygen vacancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Zijian; Wang, Ben; Yu, Jie; Ma, Chuan; Zhou, Changsong; Chen, Tao; Yan, Qianqian; Wang, Ke; Sun, Lushi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • NO and H_2O_2 adsorption on perfect and oxygen defect α-Fe_2O_3 (0 0 1) surface were studied by DFT calculations. • H_2O_2 shows high chemical reactivity for its adsorption on oxygen defect α-Fe_2O_3 (0 0 1) surface. • Oxygen vacancy plays an important role of the catalytic oxidation of NO by H_2O_2 over the α-Fe_2O_3 catalyst surfaces. • Mechanism of NO oxidation over α-Fe_2O_3 (0 0 1) surface by H_2O_2 was explained. - Abstract: Catalytic oxidation with H_2O_2 is a promising method for NOx emission control in coal-fired power plants. Hematite-based catalysts are attracting increased attention because of their surface redox reactivity. To elucidate the NO oxidation mechanism on α-Fe_2O_3 surfaces, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were conducted by investigating the adsorption characteristics of nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H_2O_2) on perfect and oxygen defect α-Fe_2O_3 (0 0 1) surfaces. Results show that NO was molecularly adsorbed on two kinds of surfaces. H_2O_2 adsorption on perfect surface was also in a molecular form; however, H_2O_2 dissociation occurred on oxygen defect α-Fe_2O_3 (0 0 1) surface. The adsorption intensities of the two gas molecules in perfect α-Fe_2O_3 (0 0 1) surface followed the order NO > H_2O_2, and the opposite was true for the oxygen defect α-Fe_2O_3 (0 0 1). Oxygen vacancy remarkably enhanced the adsorption intensities of NO and H_2O_2 and promoted H_2O_2 decomposition on catalyst surface. As an oxidative product of NO, HNO_2 was synthesized when NO and H_2O_2 co-adsorbed on the oxygen defect α-Fe_2O_3 (0 0 1) surface. Analyses of Mulliken population, electron density difference, and partial density of states showed that H_2O_2 decomposition followed the Haber–Weiss mechanism. The trends of equilibrium constants suggested that NO adsorption on α-Fe_2O_3 (0 0 1) surface was more favorable at low than at high temperatures, whereas H_2O_2 adsorption was favorable between 375 and

  1. A role for H2S in the microcirculation of newborns: the major metabolite of H2S (thiosulphate is increased in preterm infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M Dyson

    Full Text Available Excessive vasodilatation during the perinatal period is associated with cardiorespiratory instability in preterm neonates. Little evidence of the mechanisms controlling microvascular tone during circulatory transition exists. We hypothesised that hydrogen sulphide (H2S, an important regulator of microvascular reactivity and central cardiac function in adults and animal models, may contribute to the vasodilatation observed in preterm newborns. Term and preterm neonates (24-43 weeks gestational age were studied. Peripheral microvascular blood flow was assessed by laser Doppler. Thiosulphate, a urinary metabolite of H2S, was determined by high performance liquid chromatography as a measure of 24 hr total body H2S turnover for the first 3 days of postnatal life. H2S turnover was greatest in very preterm infants and decreased with increasing gestational age (p = 0.0001. H2S turnover was stable across the first 72 hrs of life in older neonates. In very preterm neonates, H2S turnover increased significantly from day 1 to 3 (p =0.0001; and males had higher H2S turnover than females (p = 0.04. A significant relationship between microvascular blood flow and H2S turnover was observed on day 2 of postnatal life (p = 0.0004. H2S may play a role in maintaining microvascular tone in the perinatal period. Neonates at the greatest risk of microvascular dysfunction characterised by inappropriate peripheral vasodilatation--very preterm male neonates--are also the neonates with highest levels of total body H2S turnover suggesting that overproduction of this gasotransmitter may contribute to microvascular dysfunction in preterms. Potentially, H2S is a target to selectively control microvascular tone in the circulation of newborns.

  2. I + (H2O)2 → HI + (H2O)OH Forward and Reverse Reactions. CCSD(T) Studies Including Spin-Orbit Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Li, Guoliang; Li, Qian-Shu; Xie, Yaoming; Schaefer, Henry F

    2016-03-03

    The potential energy profile for the atomic iodine plus water dimer reaction I + (H2O)2 → HI + (H2O)OH has been explored using the "Gold Standard" CCSD(T) method with quadruple-ζ correlation-consistent basis sets. The corresponding information for the reverse reaction HI + (H2O)OH → I + (H2O)2 is also derived. Both zero-point vibrational energies (ZPVEs) and spin-orbit (SO) coupling are considered, and these notably alter the classical energetics. On the basis of the CCSD(T)/cc-pVQZ-PP results, including ZPVE and SO coupling, the forward reaction is found to be endothermic by 47.4 kcal/mol, implying a significant exothermicity for the reverse reaction. The entrance complex I···(H2O)2 is bound by 1.8 kcal/mol, and this dissociation energy is significantly affected by SO coupling. The reaction barrier lies 45.1 kcal/mol higher than the reactants. The exit complex HI···(H2O)OH is bound by 3.0 kcal/mol relative to the asymptotic limit. At every level of theory, the reverse reaction HI + (H2O)OH → I + (H2O)2 proceeds without a barrier. Compared with the analogous water monomer reaction I + H2O → HI + OH, the additional water molecule reduces the relative energies of the entrance stationary point, transition state, and exit complex by 3-5 kcal/mol. The I + (H2O)2 reaction is related to the valence isoelectronic bromine and chlorine reactions but is distinctly different from the F + (H2O)2 system.

  3. NK cell receptor/H2-Dk-dependent host resistance to viral infection is quantitatively modulated by H2q inhibitory signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodil-Cornu, Nassima; Loredo-Osti, J Concepción; Vidal, Silvia M

    2011-04-01

    The cytomegalovirus resistance locus Cmv3 has been linked to an epistatic interaction between two loci: a Natural Killer (NK) cell receptor gene and the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) locus. To demonstrate the interaction between Cmv3 and H2(k), we generated double congenic mice between MA/My and BALB.K mice and an F(2) cross between FVB/N (H-2(q)) and BALB.K (H2(k)) mice, two strains susceptible to mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV). Only mice expressing H2(k) in conjunction with Cmv3(MA/My) or Cmv3(FVB) were resistant to MCMV infection. Subsequently, an F(3) cross was carried out between transgenic FVB/H2-D(k) and MHC-I deficient mice in which only the progeny expressing Cmv3(FVB) and a single H2-D(k) class-I molecule completely controlled MCMV viral loads. This phenotype was shown to be NK cell-dependent and associated with subsequent NK cell proliferation. Finally, we demonstrated that a number of H2(q) alleles influence the expression level of H2(q) molecules, but not intrinsic functional properties of NK cells; viral loads, however, were quantitatively proportional to the number of H2(q) alleles. Our results support a model in which H-2(q) molecules convey Ly49-dependent inhibitory signals that interfere with the action of H2-D(k) on NK cell activation against MCMV infection. Thus, the integration of activating and inhibitory signals emanating from various MHC-I/NK cell receptor interactions regulates NK cell-mediated control of viral load.

  4. NK Cell Receptor/H2-Dk–Dependent Host Resistance to Viral Infection Is Quantitatively Modulated by H2 q Inhibitory Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodil-Cornu, Nassima; Loredo-Osti, J. Concepción; Vidal, Silvia M.

    2011-01-01

    The cytomegalovirus resistance locus Cmv3 has been linked to an epistatic interaction between two loci: a Natural Killer (NK) cell receptor gene and the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) locus. To demonstrate the interaction between Cmv3 and H2k, we generated double congenic mice between MA/My and BALB.K mice and an F2 cross between FVB/N (H-2q) and BALB.K (H2k) mice, two strains susceptible to mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV). Only mice expressing H2k in conjunction with Cmv3MA/My or Cmv3FVB were resistant to MCMV infection. Subsequently, an F3 cross was carried out between transgenic FVB/H2-Dk and MHC-I deficient mice in which only the progeny expressing Cmv3FVB and a single H2-Dk class-I molecule completely controlled MCMV viral loads. This phenotype was shown to be NK cell–dependent and associated with subsequent NK cell proliferation. Finally, we demonstrated that a number of H2q alleles influence the expression level of H2q molecules, but not intrinsic functional properties of NK cells; viral loads, however, were quantitatively proportional to the number of H2q alleles. Our results support a model in which H-2q molecules convey Ly49-dependent inhibitory signals that interfere with the action of H2-Dk on NK cell activation against MCMV infection. Thus, the integration of activating and inhibitory signals emanating from various MHC-I/NK cell receptor interactions regulates NK cell–mediated control of viral load. PMID:21533075

  5. Post-Translational Modifications of H2A Histone Variants and Their Role in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Corujo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Histone variants are chromatin components that replace replication-coupled histones in a fraction of nucleosomes and confer particular characteristics to chromatin. H2A variants represent the most numerous and diverse group among histone protein families. In the nucleosomal structure, H2A-H2B dimers can be removed and exchanged more easily than the stable H3-H4 core. The unstructured N-terminal histone tails of all histones, but also the C-terminal tails of H2A histones protrude out of the compact structure of the nucleosome core. These accessible tails are the preferential target sites for a large number of post-translational modifications (PTMs. While some PTMs are shared between replication-coupled H2A and H2A variants, many modifications are limited to a specific histone variant. The present review focuses on the H2A variants H2A.Z, H2A.X, and macroH2A, and summarizes their functions in chromatin and how these are linked to cancer development and progression. H2A.Z primarily acts as an oncogene and macroH2A and H2A.X as tumour suppressors. We further focus on the regulation by PTMs, which helps to understand a degree of context dependency.

  6. The effect of host relaxation and dynamics on guest molecule dynamics in H2/tetrahydrofuranhydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Vanessa K; Shoko, Elvis; Kearley, Gordon J

    2011-01-01

    We use ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to obtain classically the effects of H2O cage motions on the potential-energy surface (PES) of encapsulated H2 in the H2/tetrahydrofuran-hydrate system. The significant differences between the PES for the H2 in rigid and flexible cages that we find will influence calculation of the quantum dynamics of the H2. Part of these differences arises from the relaxation of the H2O cage around the classical H2, with a second part arising from the coupling of both translational and rotational motions of H2 with the H20 cage. We find that isotopic substitution of 2H for 1H of the H2O cage affects the coupling, which has implications for experiments that require the use of 2H2O, including inelastic neutron scattering that uses 2H2O cages in order to focus on the H2 guest dynamics. Overall, this work emphasizes the importance of taking into account cage dynamics in any approach used to understand the dynamics of H2 guests in porous framework materials.

  7. Time Variations of the Radial Velocity of H2O Masers in the Semi-Regular Variable R Crt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudou, Hiroshi; Shiga, Motoki; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Nakai, Chihiro; Ueda, Kazuki; Takaba, Hiroshi

    2017-12-01

    H2O maser emission {at 22 GHz} in the circumstellar envelope is one of the good tracers of detailed physics and inematics in the mass loss process of asymptotic giant branch stars. Long-term monitoring of an H2O maser spectrum with high time resolution enables us to clarify acceleration processes of the expanding shell in the stellar atmosphere. We monitored the H2O maser emission of the semi-regular variable R Crt with the Kagoshima 6-m telescope, and obtained a large data set of over 180 maser spectra over a period of 1.3 years with an observational span of a few days. Using an automatic peak detection method based on least-squares fitting, we exhaustively detected peaks as significant velocity components with the radial velocity on a 0.1 km s^{-1} scale. This analysis result shows that the radial velocity of red-shifted and blue-shifted components exhibits a change between acceleration and deceleration on the time scale of a few hundred days. These velocity variations are likely to correlate with intensity variations, in particular during flaring state of H2O masers. It seems reasonable to consider that the velocity variation of the maser source is caused by shock propagation in the envelope due to stellar pulsation.However, it is difficult to explain the relationship between the velocity variation and the intensity variation only from shock propagation effects. We found that a time delay of the integrated maser intensity with respect to the optical light curve is about 150 days.

  8. Study of NaBH4 reaction with RhCl3·4H2O and H2PtCl6·6H2O in dimethylformamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khain, V.S.; Val'kova, V.P.

    1988-01-01

    Data on study of NaBH 4 reactions with RhCl 3 x4H 2 O and H 2 PtCl 6 x6H 2 O in dimethylformamide, which is a good solvent of both complex hydride and compounds of platinum metals are presented. Rhodium (3) and platinum (4) reduction by sodium tetrahydridoborate in dimethylformamide proceeds quantitatively up to element state. Depositions of powder-like rhodium and platinum or their sols stable up to 8 months are formed depending on the ratio of concentrations of the reacting substances. Stoichiometry of redox-reactions is established based on spectrophotometric, gasovolumetric measurements,

  9. Water in star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH) : IV. A survey of low-J H2O line profiles toward high-mass protostars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Tak, F. F. S.; Chavarria, L.; Herpin, F.; Wyrowski, F.; Walmsley, C. M.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Benz, A. O.; Bergin, E. A.; Caselli, P.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Johnstone, D.; Kristensen, L. E.; Liseau, R.; Nisini, B.; Tafalla, M.

    Context. Water is a key constituent of star-forming matter, but the origin of its line emission and absorption during high-mass star formation is not well understood. Aims. We study the velocity profiles of low-excitation H2O lines toward 19 high-mass star-forming regions and search for trends with

  10. Quantitative agreement between [(15)O]H2O PET and model free QUASAR MRI-derived cerebral blood flow and arterial blood volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijtel, D. F. R.; Petersen, E. T.; Mutsaerts, H. J. M. M.; Bakker, E.; Schober, P.; Stevens, M. F.; van Berckel, B. N. M.; Majoie, C. B. L. M.; Booij, J.; van Osch, M. J. P.; van Bavel, E. T.; Boellaard, R.; Lammertsma, A. A.; Nederveen, A. J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether there was an agreement between quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) and arterial cerebral blood volume (CBVA) measurements by [(15)O]H2O positron emission tomography (PET) and model-free QUASAR MRI. Twelve healthy subjects were scanned within a week

  11. Ultra Low Air and H2 Permeability Cryogenic Bladder Materials for Inflatable Habitats, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NanoSonic has recently developed a hydrogen (H2) dispenser hose to realize H2 as a safe, reliable, and cost competitive replacement for gasoline. NanoSonic's...

  12. Nanoparticle formation in H2O/N-2 and H2O/Ar mixtures under irradiation by 20 MeV protons and positive corona discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imanaka, M.; Tomita, S.; Kanda, S.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the contribution of ions to gas nucleation, we have performed experiments on the formation of water droplets in H2O/N-2 and H2O/Ar gas mixtures by irradiation with a 20 MeV proton beam and by positive corona discharge. The size of the formed nanoparticles was measured using...

  13. Soil carbon content and relative abundance of high affinity H2-oxidizing bacteria predict atmospheric H2 soil uptake activity better than soil microbial community composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khdhiri, Mondher; Hesse, Laura; Popa, Maria Elena; Quiza, Liliana; Lalonde, Isabelle; Meredith, Laura K.; Röckmann, Thomas; Constant, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Soil-atmosphere exchange of H2 is controlled by gas diffusion and the microbial production and oxidation activities in soil. Among these parameters, the H2 oxidation activity catalyzed by soil microorganisms harboring high affinity hydrogenase is the most difficult variable to parameterize because

  14. Decolorization and Mineralization of Reactive Dyes, by the H2O2/UV Process With Electrochemically Produced H2O2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeric, T.; Bisselink, R.J.M.; Tongeren, W. van; Marechal. A.M. Le

    2013-01-01

    Decolorization of Reactive Red 238, Reactive Orange 16, Reactive Black 5 and Reactive Blue 4 was studied in the UV/H2O2 process with H2O2 being produced electrochemically. The experimental results show that decolorization increased considerably when switching on the electrochemical production of

  15. Structural Insights into the Association of Hif1 with Histones H2A-H2B Dimer and H3-H4 Tetramer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengying; Liu, Hejun; Gao, Yongxiang; Zhu, Zhongliang; Chen, Zijun; Zheng, Peiyi; Xue, Lu; Li, Jixi; Teng, Maikun; Niu, Liwen

    2016-10-04

    Histone chaperones are critical for guiding specific post-transcriptional modifications of histones, safeguarding the histone deposition (or disassociation) of nucleosome (dis)assembly, and regulating chromatin structures to change gene activities. HAT1-interacting factor 1 (Hif1) has been reported to be an H3-H4 chaperone and to be involved in telomeric silencing and nucleosome (dis)assembly. However, the structural basis for the interaction of Hif1 with histones remains unknown. Here, we report the complex structure of Hif1 binding to H2A-H2B for uncovering the chaperone specificities of Hif1 on binding to both the H2A-H2B dimer and the H3-H4 tetramer. Our findings reveal that Hif1 interacts with the H2A-H2B dimer and the H3-H4 tetramer via distinct mechanisms, suggesting that Hif1 is a pivotal scaffold on alternate binding of H2A-H2B and H3-H4. These specificities are conserved features of the Sim3-Hif1-NASP interrupted tetratricopeptide repeat proteins, which provide clues for investigating their potential roles in nucleosome (dis)assembly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Plasmonics-based detection of H(2) and CO: discrimination between reducing gases facilitated by material control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmalingam, Gnanaprakash; Joy, Nicholas A; Grisafe, Benjamin; Carpenter, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring emissions in high-temperature-combustion applications is very important for regulating the discharge of gases such as NO(2) and CO as well as unburnt fuel into the environment. This work reports the detection of H(2) and CO gases by employing a metal-metal oxide nanocomposite (gold-yttria stabilized zirconia (Au-YSZ)) film fabricated through layer-by-layer physical vapor deposition (PVD). The change in the peak position of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) was monitored as a function of time and gas concentration. The responses of the films were preferential towards H(2), as observed from the results of exposing the films to the gases at temperatures of 500 °C in a background of dry air. Characterization of the samples by XRD and SEM enabled the correlation of material properties with the differences in the CO- and H(2)-induced LSPR peak shifts, including the relative desensitization towards NO(2). Sensing characteristics of films with varying support thicknesses and metal-particle diameters have been studied, and the results are presented. A comparison has been made to films fabricated through co-sputtered PVD, and the calibration curves of the sensing response show a preferential response towards H(2). The distinction between H(2) and CO responses is also seen through the use of principal-component analysis (PCA). Such material arrangements, which can be tuned for their selectivity by changing certain parameters such as particle size, support thickness, etc., have direct applications within optical chemical sensors for turbine engines, solid-oxide fuel cells, and other high-temperature applications.

  17. Plasmonics-based detection of H2 and CO: discrimination between reducing gases facilitated by material control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnanaprakash Dharmalingam

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring emissions in high-temperature-combustion applications is very important for regulating the discharge of gases such as NO2 and CO as well as unburnt fuel into the environment. This work reports the detection of H2 and CO gases by employing a metal–metal oxide nanocomposite (gold–yttria stabilized zirconia (Au–YSZ film fabricated through layer-by-layer physical vapor deposition (PVD. The change in the peak position of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR was monitored as a function of time and gas concentration. The responses of the films were preferential towards H2, as observed from the results of exposing the films to the gases at temperatures of 500 °C in a background of dry air. Characterization of the samples by XRD and SEM enabled the correlation of material properties with the differences in the CO- and H2-induced LSPR peak shifts, including the relative desensitization towards NO2. Sensing characteristics of films with varying support thicknesses and metal-particle diameters have been studied, and the results are presented. A comparison has been made to films fabricated through co-sputtered PVD, and the calibration curves of the sensing response show a preferential response towards H2. The distinction between H2 and CO responses is also seen through the use of principal-component analysis (PCA. Such material arrangements, which can be tuned for their selectivity by changing certain parameters such as particle size, support thickness, etc., have direct applications within optical chemical sensors for turbine engines, solid-oxide fuel cells, and other high-temperature applications.

  18. Multiphoton ionization of H2+ in xuv laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Xiaoxu; Secor, Ethan B.; Bartschat, Klaus; Schneider, Barry I.

    2011-01-01

    We consider the ionization of the hydrogen molecular ion after one-, two-, and three-photon absorption over a large range of photon energies between 9 and 40 eV in the fixed-nuclei approximation. The temporal development of the system is obtained in a fully ab initio time-dependent grid-based approach in prolate spheroidal coordinates. The alignment dependence of the one-photon ionization amplitude is highlighted in the framework of time-dependent perturbation theory. For one-photon ionization as a function of the nuclear separation, the calculations reveal a significant minimum in the ionization probability. The suppressed ionization is attributed to a Cooper-type minimum, which is similar, but not identical, to the cancellation effect observed in photoionization cross sections of some noble-gas atoms. The effect of the nonspherical two-center Coulomb potential is analyzed. For two- and three-photon ionization, the angle-integrated cross sections clearly map out intermediate-state resonances, and the predictions of the current computations agree very well with those from time-independent calculations. The dominant emission modes for two-photon ionization are found to be very similar in both resonance and off-resonance regions.

  19. The Cs2SO4-Ce2(SO4)3-H2SO4-H2O system at 150 and 200 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar', S.A.; Belokoskov, V.I.; Trofimov, G.V.

    1982-01-01

    Solubility in the system Cs 2 SO 4 -Ce 2 (SO 4 ) 3 -H 2 SO 4 -H 2 O using the isothermal method at 150 and 200 deg C at molar ratios Cs 2 SO 4 :Ce 2 (SO 4 ) 3 =1:5 and conditions of sulfate crystallization Cs 2 SO 4 xCe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 , Ce 2 (SO 4 ) 3 x0.5H 2 SO 4 xnH 2 O (n=2-3) and Ce 2 (SO 4 ) 3 x3H 2 SO 4 are determined. Double sulfate Cs 2 SO 4 xCe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 is studied using the methods of crystallooptical, thermal, X-ray phase analyses and IR spectroscopy

  20. Anomalous absorption in H2CN and CH2CN molecules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Structures of H2CN and CH2CN molecules are similar to that of H2CO mole- cule. The H2CO has shown anomalous absorption for its transition 111 − 110 at 4.8 GHz in a number of cool molecular clouds. Though the molecules H2CN and CH2CN have been identified in TMC-1 and Sgr B2 through some ...

  1. Far-ultraviolet spectrophotometry of two very hot O type subdwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drilling, J. S.; Holberg, J. B.; Schoenberner, D.

    1984-01-01

    As a result of a spectroscopic survey of stars classified as nonemission OB+, Drilling (1983) has detected 12 new subluminous O stars. It was found that these stars are the hottest known O type subdwarfs. The effective temperatures of the stars are 60,000 K or higher. It has been possible to observe two of these stars with Voyager 1, taking into account LSE 21 and LS IV +10.9 deg. LSE 21 is one of the hottest of the new subdwarfs, with an effective temperature of at least 100,000 K. The optical spectrum indicates a hydrogen-rich atmosphere of high surface gravity. LX IV +10.9 deg is one of the cooler objects with an effective temperature of 65,000 K. The optical spectrum indicates an extremely helium-rich atmosphere and a somewhat lower surface gravity than LSE 21. The Voyager 1 observations confirm the temperature scale set up by Schoenberger and Drilling (1984) for the hottest O type subdwarfs.

  2. Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer Spectroscopy of the Nova-Like Cataclysmic Variable BB Doradus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Godon, Patrick; Sion, Edward M; Barrett, Paul E; Szkody, Paula; Schlegel, Eric M

    2008-01-01

    ... (possibly lower than 10 ). Assuming an average white dwarf (WD) mass of 0.8 M leads to a mass accretion rate of 10 9 M yr 1 and a distance on the order of 650 pc, consistent with the extremely low Galactic reddening in the direction of BB Dor...

  3. Far-ultraviolet and visible observations of flares on dMe stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromage, G.E.; Patchett, B.E.; Phillips, K.J.H.

    1983-01-01

    Four large flare events - one on each of the dMe stars UV Cet, AT Mic, EV Lac and EQ Peg - have been witnessed during a total of 17 1/2 hours of far-UV (lambdalambda1150-1950) IUE exposures. Some observational characteristics of these four events are compared. Two showed strong enhancements of chromospheric and transition-region line strengths. The other two did not, even though their visible flares were intense (ΔU approx. 2 mag.). The brightest UV flare spectrum (EQ Peg) is contrasted with that of the largest solar flare seen from 'Skylab'. (Auth.)

  4. Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer Spectroscopy of the Nova-Like Cataclysmic Variable BB Doradus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-27

    which we have best-fit models in the parameter space, we use the infrared magnitudes J, H, and K from the Two Micron All Sky Survey ( 2MASS ) to assess the...in a high state with a visual red magnitude R ¼ 14:60 and a blue magnitude B ¼ 13:90 (whereas B 16:5 in the low state). The 2MASS IR apparent...therefore certainly larger than 300 pc, and most likely in the range of 500 pc. Since BB Dor was observed in a high state (with 2MASS ), it is likely

  5. A study of the direct effects of ionising and far ultraviolet radiation on nucleic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, A.A.

    1987-03-01

    This thesis reports the results of a study of the direct effects of gamma and far UV radiation on nucleic acid model systems. For the gamma study, frozen aqueous solutions of 2'-deoxyribonucleosides were chosen as the model systems which best mimic possible radiation chemical events via the direct effects occuring in DNA in vivo. In Chapter I, we report and discuss the results of the study of the direct effects of gamma radiation on thymidine including the isolation and identification of the chemical modifications induced, and describe experiments designed to probe the mechanisms involved in their formation. In Chapters II and III, we extend the study to other 2'-deoxyribo-nucleosides, 2'-deoxycytidine and 2'-deoxyadenosine. Chapter IV presents the results of the study of the direct effects of far UV light on thymidine, a project designed to complement the gamma study and hopefully to bring additional insight into the mechanisms of formation of those products common to both radiation energies. In particular, the mechanisms of the formation of the spore photoproduct, a lesion known to be formed in DNA in vivo, have been elucidated. The study of the direct effects of gamma radiation on thymidine and 2'-deoxycytidine revealed the formation of several new products. Chapter V reports an analysis of the configurational and conformational properties of these molecules. (author)

  6. Exergetic and energetic comparison of LiCl-H_2O and LiBr-H_2O working pairs in a solar absorption cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellos, Evangelos; Tzivanidis, Christos; Antonopoulos, Kimon A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Two working pairs (LiCl-H_2O and LiBr-H_2O) are examined in a solar absorption chiller. • The examined single effect absorption chiller is driven by flat plate collectors. • The system is analyzed energetically and energetically for 3 ambient temperatures. • LiCl-H_2O performs better than LiBr-H_2O in all the examined cases. • The optimum operating temperature is lower for the case of pair LiCl-H_2O. - Abstract: The objective of this study is to investigate the use of an alternative working pair in a solar absorption cooling system. LiCl-H_2O is the new examined pair and it is compared energetically and exegetically with the conventional pair LiBr-H_2O, which is the most usual in air-conditioning applications. The simplest solar cooling system is analyzed in order to focus in the comparison between these working fluids. Specifically, flat plate collectors, coupled with a storage tank, feed the single effect absorption chiller which produces 250 kW cooling at 10 °C. The two pairs are examined parametrically for various heat source temperature levels and for three ambient temperature levels (25 °C, 30 °C and 35 °C). The minimization of the collecting area, which means maximum exergetic efficiency, is the optimization goal in every case. The final results show that LiCl-H_2O pair performs better in all cases by giving greater exergetic efficiency. More specifically, about 8% lower collecting area is required to cover the demanded cooling load with this working pair. Another interesting result is that the optimum heat source temperature for the LiCl-H_2O is roughly lower than the respective for the LiBr-H_2O. The system is analyzed in steady state with the commercial software Engineering Equator Solver (EES).

  7. Reassessing the variability in atmospheric H2 using the two-way nested TM5 model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieterse, G.; Batenburg, A.M; Roeckmann, T. [Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht (IMAU), Utrecht (Netherlands); Krol, M.C. [Department of Meteorology and Air Quality at Wageningen University, Wageningen (Netherlands); Brenninkmeijer, C.A.M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemie, Air Chemistry Division, Mainz (Germany); Popa, M.E.; Vermeulen, A.T. [Department of Air Quality and Climate Research at the Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands); O' Doherty, S.; Grant, A. [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Steele, L.P.; Krummel, P.B.; Langenfelds, R.L. [Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Aspendale, Victoria (Austria); Wang, H.J. [School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Schmidt, M.; Yver, C. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement (LSCE), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Jordan, A. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Biogeochemie, Jena (Germany); Engel, A. [Institut fuer Meteorologie und Geophysik, Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt, Frankfurt (Germany); Fisher, R.E.; Lowry, D.; Nisbet, E.G. [Department of Earth Sciences, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham (United Kingdom); Reimann, S.; Vollmer, M.K.; Steinbacher, M. [Empa, Swiss Federal Institute for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Air Pollution/Environmental Technology, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Hammer, S. [Institut fuer Umweltphysik, Heidelberg Universitaet, Heidelberg (Germany); Forster, G.; Sturges, W.T. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-16

    This work reassesses the global atmospheric budget of H2 with the TM5 model. The recent adjustment of the calibration scale for H2 translates into a change in the tropospheric burden. Furthermore, the ECMWF Reanalysis-Interim (ERA-Interim) data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) used in this study show slower vertical transport than the operational data used before. Consequently, more H2 is removed by deposition. The deposition parametrization is updated because significant deposition fluxes for snow, water, and vegetation surfaces were calculated in our previous study. Timescales of 1-2h are asserted for the transport of H2 through the canopies of densely vegetated regions. The global scale variability of H2 and {rho}({Delta}H2) is well represented by the updated model. H2 is slightly overestimated in the Southern Hemisphere because too little H2 is removed by dry deposition to rainforests and savannahs. The variability in H2 over Europe is further investigated using a high-resolution model subdomain. It is shown that discrepancies between the model and the observations are mainly caused by the finite model resolution. The tropospheric burden is estimated at 165{+-}8 Tg H2. The removal rates of H2 by deposition and photochemical oxidation are estimated at 53{+-}4 and 23{+-}2 Tg H2/yr, resulting in a tropospheric lifetime of 2.2{+-}0.2 year.

  8. File list: His.PSC.10.H2APERIODZac.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.PSC.10.H2APERIODZac.AllCell mm9 Histone H2A.Zac Pluripotent stem cell SRX111870... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.PSC.10.H2APERIODZac.AllCell.bed ...

  9. File list: His.PSC.05.H2APERIODZac.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.PSC.05.H2APERIODZac.AllCell mm9 Histone H2A.Zac Pluripotent stem cell SRX111870... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.PSC.05.H2APERIODZac.AllCell.bed ...

  10. Sampled-data and discrete-time H2 optimal control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trentelman, Harry L.; Stoorvogel, Anton A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper deals with the sampled-data H2 optimal control problem. Given a linear time-invariant continuous-time system, the problem of minimizing the H2 performance over all sampled-data controllers with a fixed sampling period can be reduced to a pure discrete-time H2 optimal control problem. This

  11. Overview of the Hydrogen Financial Analysis Scenario Tool (H2FAST); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, Marc; Bush, Brian; Penev, Michael

    2015-05-12

    This presentation provides an introduction to the Hydrogen Financial Analysis Scenario Tool (H2FAST) and includes an overview of each of the three versions of H2FAST: the Web tool, the Excel spreadsheet version, and the beta version of the H2FAST Business Case Scenario tool.

  12. Process for the production of heavy water by H2-methylamine isotopic exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briec, M.; Ravoire, J.; Rostaing, M.

    1977-01-01

    An isotopic exchange process for separating D 2 from H 2 is presented. The H 2 -monomethylamine system is studied on the laboratory scale (kinetics, H 2 solubility, thermal stability and solubility of the catalyst) and on the pilot plant scale (operating conditions and economics) [fr

  13. 17 CFR 240.17h-2T - Risk assessment reporting requirements for brokers and dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements for brokers and dealers. 240.17h-2T Section 240.17h-2T Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Organizations § 240.17h-2T Risk assessment reporting requirements for brokers and dealers. (a) Reporting requirements of risk assessment information required to be maintained by section 240.17h-1T. (1) Every broker...

  14. The system Ba(H2PO4)2-Sr(H2PO4)2-H3PO4(30%)-H2O at 25, 40 and 60 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taranenko, N.P.; Serebrennikova, G.M.; Stepin, B.D.; Oboznenko, Yu.V.

    1982-01-01

    The system Ba(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 -Sr(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 -H 3 PO 4 (30%)-H 2 O (25 deg C) belongs to eutonic type systems. Solubility isotherms of salt components at 40 and 60 deg C are calculated. Polytherms (25-60 deg C) of solubility of monosubstituted barium and strontium phosphates in 30-60% H 3 PO 4 are obtained. The value of cocrystallization coefficient of Sr 2 + and Ba(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 Dsub(Sr)=0.042+-0.005 remains stable in the temperature range of 25-60 deg C and concentrations 30-60% phosphoric acid at initial content [Sr 2 + ]=1x10 - 2 mass%

  15. 75 FR 2879 - Identification of Foreign Countries Whose Nationals Are Eligible To Participate in the H-2A and H...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... Countries Whose Nationals Are Eligible To Participate in the H-2A and H-2B Visa Programs AGENCY: Office of..., U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) may only approve petitions for H-2A and H-2B... the H-2A and H-2B programs for the coming year. DATES: Effective Date: This notice is effective...

  16. 78 FR 4154 - Identification of Foreign Countries Whose Nationals Are Eligible To Participate in the H-2A and H...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... Whose Nationals Are Eligible To Participate in the H-2A and H-2B Nonimmigrant Worker Programs AGENCY...) regulations, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) may approve petitions for H-2A and H-2B... participate in the H-2A and H-2B programs for the coming year. The list published today includes one new...

  17. Crystal structures of ZnCl2·2.5H2O, ZnCl2·3H2O and ZnCl2·4.5H2O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Hennings

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The formation of different complexes in aqueous solutions is an important step in understanding the behavior of zinc chloride in water. The structure of concentrated ZnCl2 solutions is governed by coordination competition of Cl− and H2O around Zn2+. According to the solid–liquid phase diagram, the title compounds were crystallized below room temperature. The structure of ZnCl2·2.5H2O contains Zn2+ both in a tetrahedral coordination with Cl− and in an octahedral environment defined by five water molecules and one Cl− shared with the [ZnCl4]2− unit. Thus, these two different types of Zn2+ cations form isolated units with composition [Zn2Cl4(H2O5] (pentaaqua-μ-chlorido-trichloridodizinc. The trihydrate {hexaaquazinc tetrachloridozinc, [Zn(H2O6][ZnCl4]}, consists of three different Zn2+ cations, one of which is tetrahedrally coordinated by four Cl− anions. The two other Zn2+ cations are each located on an inversion centre and are octahedrally surrounded by water molecules. The [ZnCl4] tetrahedra and [Zn(H2O6] octahedra are arranged in alternating rows parallel to [001]. The structure of the 4.5-hydrate {hexaaquazinc tetrachloridozinc trihydrate, [Zn(H2O6][ZnCl4]·3H2O}, consists of isolated octahedral [Zn(H2O6] and tetrahedral [ZnCl4] units, as well as additional lattice water molecules. O—H...O hydrogen bonds between the water molecules as donor and ZnCl4 tetrahedra and water molecules as acceptor groups leads to the formation of a three-dimensional network in each of the three structures.

  18. Competition between weak OH···π and CH··O hydrogen bonds: THz spectroscopy of the C2H2H2O and C2H4—H2O complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas; Heimdal, Jimmy; Nelander, B.

    2017-01-01

    an intermolecular CH⋯O hydrogen-bonded configuration of C2v symmetry with the H2O subunit acting as the hydrogen bond acceptor. The observation and assignment of two large-amplitude donor OH librational modes of the C2H4—H2O complex at 255.0 and 187.5 cm−1, respectively, confirms an intermolecular OH⋯π hydrogen...

  19. H2@Scale: Technical and Economic Potential of Hydrogen as an Energy Intermediate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jadun, Paige [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pivovar, Bryan S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-09

    The H2@Scale concept is focused on developing hydrogen as an energy carrier and using hydrogen's properties to improve the national energy system. Specifically hydrogen has the abilities to (1) supply a clean energy source for industry and transportation and (2) increase the profitability of variable renewable electricity generators such as wind turbines and solar photovoltaic (PV) farms by providing value for otherwise potentially-curtailed electricity. Thus the concept also has the potential to reduce oil dependency by providing a low-carbon fuel for fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs), reduce emissions of carbon dioxide and pollutants such as NOx, and support domestic energy production, manufacturing, and U.S. economic competitiveness. The analysis reported here focuses on the potential market size and value proposition for the H2@Scale concept. It involves three analysis phases: 1. Initial phase estimating the technical potential for hydrogen markets and the resources required to meet them; 2. National-scale analysis of the economic potential for hydrogen and the interactions between willingness to pay by hydrogen users and the cost to produce hydrogen from various sources; and 3. In-depth analysis of spatial and economic issues impacting hydrogen production and utilization and the markets. Preliminary analysis of the technical potential indicates that the technical potential for hydrogen use is approximately 60 million metric tons (MMT) annually for light duty FCEVs, heavy duty vehicles, ammonia production, oil refining, biofuel hydrotreating, metals refining, and injection into the natural gas system. The technical potential of utility-scale PV and wind generation independently are much greater than that necessary to produce 60 MMT / year hydrogen. Uranium, natural gas, and coal reserves are each sufficient to produce 60 MMT / year hydrogen in addition to their current uses for decades to centuries. National estimates of the economic potential of

  20. Potential Size of and Value Proposition for H2@Scale Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jadun, Paige [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pivovar, Bryan S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Elgowainy, Amgad [Argonne National Laboratory

    2017-11-09

    The H2@Scale concept is focused on developing hydrogen as an energy carrier and using hydrogen's properties to improve the national energy system. Specifically hydrogen has the abilities to (1) supply a clean energy source for industry and transportation and (2) increase the profitability of variable renewable electricity generators such as wind turbines and solar photovoltaic (PV) farms by providing value for otherwise potentially-curtailed electricity. Thus the concept also has the potential to reduce oil dependency by providing a low-carbon fuel for fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs), reduce emissions of carbon dioxide and pollutants such as NOx, and support domestic energy production, manufacturing, and U.S. economic competitiveness. The analysis reported here focuses on the potential market size and value proposition for the H2@Scale concept. It involves three analysis phases: 1. Initial phase estimating the technical potential for hydrogen markets and the resources required to meet them; 2. National-scale analysis of the economic potential for hydrogen and the interactions between willingness to pay by hydrogen users and the cost to produce hydrogen from various sources; and 3. In-depth analysis of spatial and economic issues impacting hydrogen production and utilization and the markets. Preliminary analysis of the technical potential indicates that the technical potential for hydrogen use is approximately 60 million metric tons (MMT) annually for light duty FCEVs, heavy duty vehicles, ammonia production, oil refining, biofuel hydrotreating, metals refining, and injection into the natural gas system. The technical potential of utility-scale PV and wind generation independently are much greater than that necessary to produce 60 MMT / year hydrogen. Uranium, natural gas, and coal reserves are each sufficient to produce 60 MMT / year hydrogen in addition to their current uses for decades to centuries. National estimates of the economic potential of

  1. Generation of H2 and CO by solar thermochemical splitting of H2O and CO2 by employing metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, C.N.R.; Dey, Sunita

    2016-01-01

    Generation of H 2 and CO by splitting H 2 O and CO 2 respectively constitutes an important aspect of the present-day concerns with energy and environment. The solar thermochemical route making use of metal oxides is a viable means of accomplishing these reduction reactions. The method essentially involves reducing a metal oxide by heating and passing H 2 O or CO 2 over the nonstoichiometric oxide to cause reverse oxidation by abstracting oxygen from H 2 O or CO 2 . While ceria, perovskites and other oxides have been investigated for this purpose, recent studies have demonstrated the superior performance of perovskites of the type Ln 1−x A x Mn 1−y M y O 3 (Ln=rare earth, A=alkaline earth, M=various +2 and +3 metal ions), in the thermochemical generation of H 2 and CO. We present the important results obtained hitherto to point out how the alkaine earth and the Ln ions, specially the radius of the latter, determine the performance of the perovskites. The encouraging results obtained are exemplefied by Y 0.5 Sr 0.5 MnO 3 which releases 483 µmol/g of O 2 at 1673 K and produces 757 µmol/g of CO from CO 2 at 1173 K. The production of H 2 from H 2 O is also quite appreciable. Modification of the B site ion of the perovskite also affects the performance. In addition to perovskites, we present the generation of H 2 based on the Mn 3 O 4 /NaMnO 2 cycle briefly. - Graphical abstract: Ln 0.5 A 0.5 Mn 1−x M x O 3 (Ln=lanthanide; A=Ca, Sr; M=Al, Ga, Sc, Mg, Cr, Fe, Co) perovskites are employed for the two step thermochemical splitting of CO 2 and H 2 O for the generation of CO and H 2 . - Highlights: • Perovskite oxides based on Mn are ideal for the two-step thermochemical splitting of CO 2 and H 2 O. • In Ln 1−x A x MnO 3 perovskite (Ln=rare earth, A=alkaline earth) both Ln and A ions play major roles in the thermochemical process. • H 2 O splitting is also achieved by the use of the Mn 3 O 4 -sodium carbonate system. • Thermochemical splitting of CO 2 and H

  2. Correlation of optical emission and turbulent length scale in a coaxial jet diffusion flame

    OpenAIRE

    松山, 新吾; Matsuyama, Shingo

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the correlation between optical emission and turbulent length scale in a coaxial jet diffusion flame. To simulate the H2O emission from an H2/O2 diffusion flame, radiative transfer is calculated on flame data obtained by numerical simulation. H2O emission characteristics are examined for a one-dimensional opposed-flow diffusion flame. The results indicate that H2O emission intensity is linearly dependent on flame thickness. The simulation of H2O emission is then exte...

  3. Methanogenic H2 syntrophy among thermophiles: a model of metabolism, adaptation and survival in the subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcuoglu, B. D.; Stewart, L. C.; Butterfield, D. A.; Huber, J. A.; Holden, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    Approximately 1 giga ton (Gt, 1015 g) of CH4 is formed globally per year from H2, CO2 and acetate through methanogenesis, largely by methanogens growing in syntrophic association with anaerobic microbes that hydrolyze and ferment biopolymers. However, our understanding of methanogenesis in hydrothermal regions of the subseafloor and potential syntrophic methanogenesis at thermophilic temperatures (i.e., >50°C) is nascent. In this study, the growth of natural assemblages of thermophilic methanogens from Axial Seamount was primarily limited by H2 availability. Heterotrophs supported thermophilic methanogenesis by H2 syntrophy in microcosm incubations of hydrothermal fluids at 55°C and 80°C supplemented with tryptone only. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, only heterotrophic archaea that produce H2, H2-consuming methanogens, and sulfate reducing archaea were found in 80°C tryptone microcosms from Marker 113 vent. No bacteria were found. In 55°C tryptone microcosms, sequences were found from H2-producing bacteria and H2-consuming methanogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria. In order to model the impact of H2 syntrophy at hyperthemophilic temperatures, a co-culture was established consisting of the H2-producing hyperthermophilic heterotroph Thermococcus paralvinellae and a H2-consuming hyperthermophilic methanogen Methanocaldococcus bathoardescens. When grown alone in a chemostat, the growth rates and steady-state cell concentrations of T. paralvinellae decreased significantly when a high H2 (70 µM) background was present. H2 inhibition was ameliorated by the production of formate, but in silico modeling suggests less energetic yield for the cells. H2 syntrophy relieved H2 inhibition for both the heterotroph and the methanogenic partners. The results demonstrate that thermophilic H2 syntrophy can support methanogenesis within natural microbial assemblages and may be an important alternative energy source for thermophilic autotrophs in marine geothermal environments.

  4. Analytic cross sections for collisions of H, H2, He and Li atoms and ions with atoms and molecules, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Rinsuke; Tabata, Tatsuo; Shirai, Toshizo; Phaneuf, R.A.

    1993-06-01

    Analytic expressions fitted to Barnett's recommended data are given for the cross sections of the following reactions: (1) electron capture by H, H + , H 2 + , He + , and He 2+ colliding with atoms, molecules, and ions and (2) electron capture into excited states by H + , He + , and He 2+ colliding with atoms and molecules. The latter category includes cross sections for photon emission due to electron capture. The expressions use the semiempirical functional forms proposed by Green and McNeal and some modified forms to make it possible not only to interpolate but also to extrapolate the recommended data. (author)

  5. D/H fractionation in the H2-H2O system at supercritical water conditions: Compositional and hydrogen bonding effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foustoukos, Dionysis I.; Mysen, Bjorn O.

    2012-06-01

    A series of experiments has been conducted in the H2-D2-D2O-H2O-Ti-TiO2 system at temperatures ranging from 300 to 800 °C and pressures between ∼0.3 and 1.3 GPa in a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell, utilizing Raman spectroscopy as a quantitative tool to explore the relative distribution of hydrogen and deuterium isotopologues of the H2 and H2O in supercritical fluids. In detail, H2O-D2O solutions (1:1) were reacted with Ti metal (3-9 h) in the diamond cell, leading to formation of H2, D2, HD, and HDO species through Ti oxidation and H-D isotope exchange reactions. Experimental results obtained in situ and at ambient conditions on quenched samples indicate significant differences from the theoretical estimates of the equilibrium thermodynamic properties of the H-D exchange reactions. In fact, the estimated enthalpy for the H2(aq)-D2(aq) disproportionation reaction (ΔHrxn) is about -3.4 kcal/mol, which differs greatly from the +0.16 kcal/mol predicted for the exchange reaction in the gas phase by statistical mechanics models. The exothermic behavior of the exchange reaction implies enhanced stability of H2 and D2 relative to HD. Accordingly, the significant energy difference of the internal H2(aq)-D2(aq)-HD(aq) equilibrium translates to strong differences of the fractionation effects between the H2O-H2 and D2O-D2 isotope exchange relationships. The D/H fractionation factors between H2O-H2(aq) and D2O-D2(aq) differ by 365‰ in the 600-800 °C temperature range, and are indicative of the greater