WorldWideScience

Sample records for family tree program

  1. Decision-Tree Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntine, Wray

    1994-01-01

    IND computer program introduces Bayesian and Markov/maximum-likelihood (MML) methods and more-sophisticated methods of searching in growing trees. Produces more-accurate class-probability estimates important in applications like diagnosis. Provides range of features and styles with convenience for casual user, fine-tuning for advanced user or for those interested in research. Consists of four basic kinds of routines: data-manipulation, tree-generation, tree-testing, and tree-display. Written in C language.

  2. Portraits of Tree Families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balgooy, van M.M.J.

    1998-01-01

    With the publication of the second volume of the series ‘Malesian Seed Plants’, entitled ‘Portraits of Tree Families’, I would like to refer to the Introduction of the first volume, ‘Spot-characters’ for a historical background and an explanation of the aims of this series. The present book treats

  3. Programming macro tree transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Day, Laurence E.

    2013-01-01

    A tree transducer is a set of mutually recursive functions transforming an input tree into an output tree. Macro tree transducers extend this recursion scheme by allowing each function to be defined in terms of an arbitrary number of accumulation parameters. In this paper, we show how macro tree ...

  4. Fault-Tree Compiler Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Martensen, Anna L.

    1992-01-01

    FTC, Fault-Tree Compiler program, is reliability-analysis software tool used to calculate probability of top event of fault tree. Five different types of gates allowed in fault tree: AND, OR, EXCLUSIVE OR, INVERT, and M OF N. High-level input language of FTC easy to understand and use. Program supports hierarchical fault-tree-definition feature simplifying process of description of tree and reduces execution time. Solution technique implemented in FORTRAN, and user interface in Pascal. Written to run on DEC VAX computer operating under VMS operating system.

  5. Medical History: Compiling Your Medical Family Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you collect information about your relatives, respect their right to confidentiality. You might want to consult family documents, such as existing family trees, baby books, old letters, obituaries or records from places of ...

  6. GRFT - Genetic Records Family Tree Web Applet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Samuel; Walbot, Virginia; Fernandes, John

    2011-01-01

    Current software for storing and displaying records of genetic crosses does not provide an easy way to determine the lineage of an individual. The genetic records family tree (GRFT) applet processes records of genetic crosses and allows researchers to quickly visualize lineages using a family tree construct and to access other information from these records using any Internet browser. Users select from three display features: (1) a family tree view which displays a color-coded family tree for an individual, (2) a sequential list of crosses, and (3) a list of crosses matching user-defined search criteria. Each feature contains options to specify the number of records shown and the latter two contain an option to filter results by the owner of the cross. The family tree feature is interactive, displaying a popup box with genetic information when the user mouses over an individual and allowing the user to draw a new tree by clicking on any individual in the current tree. The applet is written in JavaScript and reads genetic records from a tab-delimited text file on the server, so it is cross-platform, can be accessed by anyone with an Internet connection, and supports almost instantaneous generation of new trees and table lists. Researchers can use the tool with their own genetic cross records for any sexually reproducing organism. No additional software is required and with only minor modifications to the script, researchers can add their own custom columns. GRFT's speed, versatility, and low overhead make it an effective and innovative visualization method for genetic records. A sample tool is available at http://stanford.edu/walbot/grft-sample.html.

  7. Looking Up the Family Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, Carol

    1986-01-01

    The guide to genealogical research for gifted students contains suggestions for using forms to organize data, computers and copy machines, numbering systems, consistent dating, and documentation. Data can be obtained from family members, census enumerations, county court records, property records, military records, immigration records, churches,…

  8. Intractable Tangles in the Bird Family Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Roland G

    2015-08-01

    Rapid sequential speciation events can outpace the fixation of genetic variants, resulting in a family tree that lacks clear branching patterns. A new study of bird genomes reveals such an explosive super-radiation that may coincide with the mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous period.

  9. GRFT – Genetic Records Family Tree Web Applet

    OpenAIRE

    Pimentel, Samuel; Walbot, Virginia; Fernandes, John

    2011-01-01

    Current software for storing and displaying records of genetic crosses does not provide an easy way to determine the lineage of an individual. The genetic records family tree (GRFT) applet processes records of genetic crosses and allows researchers to quickly visualize lineages using a family tree construct and to access other information from these records using any Internet browser. Users select from three display features: 1) a family tree view which displays a color-coded family tree f...

  10. TreeFam: a curated database of phylogenetic trees of animal gene families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Heng; Coghlan, Avril; Ruan, Jue

    2006-01-01

    TreeFam is a database of phylogenetic trees of gene families found in animals. It aims to develop a curated resource that presents the accurate evolutionary history of all animal gene families, as well as reliable ortholog and paralog assignments. Curated families are being added progressively......, based on seed alignments and trees in a similar fashion to Pfam. Release 1.1 of TreeFam contains curated trees for 690 families and automatically generated trees for another 11 646 families. These represent over 128 000 genes from nine fully sequenced animal genomes and over 45 000 other animal proteins...

  11. How Do Ancestral Traits Shape Family Trees Over Generations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Siwei; Dong, Hao; Cui, Weiwei; Zhao, Jian; Qu, Huamin

    2018-01-01

    Whether and how does the structure of family trees differ by ancestral traits over generations? This is a fundamental question regarding the structural heterogeneity of family trees for the multi-generational transmission research. However, previous work mostly focuses on parent-child scenarios due to the lack of proper tools to handle the complexity of extending the research to multi-generational processes. Through an iterative design study with social scientists and historians, we develop TreeEvo that assists users to generate and test empirical hypotheses for multi-generational research. TreeEvo summarizes and organizes family trees by structural features in a dynamic manner based on a traditional Sankey diagram. A pixel-based technique is further proposed to compactly encode trees with complex structures in each Sankey Node. Detailed information of trees is accessible through a space-efficient visualization with semantic zooming. Moreover, TreeEvo embeds Multinomial Logit Model (MLM) to examine statistical associations between tree structure and ancestral traits. We demonstrate the effectiveness and usefulness of TreeEvo through an in-depth case-study with domain experts using a real-world dataset (containing 54,128 family trees of 126,196 individuals).

  12. FTAP, Minimal Cut Sets of Arbitrary Fault Trees. FRTPLT, Fault Tree Structure and Logical Gates Plot for Program FTAP. FRTGEN, Fault Trees by Sub-tree Generator from Parent Tree for Program FTAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willie, Randall R.; Rabien, U.

    1997-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: FTAP is a general-purpose program for deriving minimal reliability cut and path set families from the fault tree for a complex system. The program has a number of useful features that make it well-suited to nearly all fault tree applications. An input fault tree may specify the system state as any logical function of subsystem or component state variables or complements of these variables; thus, for instance, 'exclusive-or' type relations may be formed. When fault tree logical relations involve complements of state variables, the analyst may instruct FTAP to produce a family of prime implicants, a generalization of the minimal cut set concept. The program offers the flexibility of several distinct methods of generating cut set families. FTAP can also identify certain subsystems as system modules and provide a collection of minimal cut set families that essentially expresses the system state as a function of these module state variables. Another feature allows a useful subfamily to be obtained when the family of minimal cut sets or prime implicants is too large to be found in its entirety; this subfamily may consist of only those sets not containing more than some fixed number of elements or only those sets 'interesting' to the analyst in some special sense. Finally, the analyst can modify the input fault tree in various ways by declaring state variables identically true or false. 2 - Method of solution: Fault tree methods are based on the observation that the system state, either working or failed, can usually be expressed as a Boolean relation between states of several large, readily identifiable subsystems. The state of each subsystem in turn depends on states of simpler subsystems and components which compose it, so that the state of the system itself is determined by a hierarchy of logical relationships between states of subsystems. A fault tree is a graphical representation of these relationships. 3 - Restrictions on the

  13. The Family Startup Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trillingsgaard, Tea; Maimburg, Rikke Damkjær; Simonsen, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    /design: Participants will be approximately 2500 pregnant women and partners. Inclusion criteria are parental age above 18 and the mother expecting first child. Families are recruited when attending routine pregnancy scans provided as a part of the publicly available prenatal care program at Aarhus University Hospital...... years. The primary study outcome is measured by the Parenting Sense of Competence scale (PSOC) J Clin Child Psychol 18:167-75, 1989. Other outcomes include parenting and couple relationship quality, utility of primary sector service and child physical health, socio-emotional and cognitive development...

  14. Dynamic programming for minimum steiner trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuchs, B.; Kern, Walter; Mölle, D.; Richter, S.; Rossmanith, P.; Wang, Xinhui

    2007-01-01

    We present a new dynamic programming algorithm that solves the minimum Steiner tree problem on graphs with $k$ terminals in time $O^*(c^k)$ for any $c > 2$. This improves the running time of the previously fastest parameterized algorithm by Dreyfus-Wagner of order $O^*(3^k)$ and the so-called "full

  15. The Occupational Family Tree: A Career Counseling Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Gary L.; Parmerlee, John R.

    1980-01-01

    Guidance counselors and teachers involved in career counseling must be aware of the importance of family influence on occupational choice. The guidance counselor may be able to design career planning groups with parents to illustrate the Occupational Family Tree and other methods for assisting their children in occupational development. (Author)

  16. GRFT – Genetic records family tree web applet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel ePimentel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Current software for storing and displaying records of genetic crosses does not provide an easy way to determine the lineage of an individual. The genetic records family tree (GRFT applet processes records of genetic crosses and allows researchers to quickly visualize lineages using a family tree construct and to access other information from these records using any Internet browser. Users select from three display features: 1 a family tree view which displays a color-coded family tree for an individual, 2 a sequential list of crosses, and 3 a list of crosses matching user-defined search criteria. Each feature contains options to specify the number of records shown and the latter two contain an option to filter results by the owner of the cross. The family tree feature is interactive, displaying a popup box with genetic information when the user mouses over an individual and allowing the user to draw a new tree by clicking on any individual in the current tree. The applet is written in Javascript and reads genetic records from a tab-delimited text file on the server, so it is cross-platform, can be accessed by anyone with an Internet connection, and supports almost instantaneous generation of new trees and table lists. Researchers can use the tool with their own genetic cross records for any sexually-reproducing organism. No additional software is required and with only minor modifications to the script, researchers can add their own custom columns. GRFT's speed, versatility, and low overhead make it an effective and innovative visualization method for genetic records. A sample tool is available at http://stanford.edu/~walbot/grft-sample.html.

  17. Impact of gene family evolutionary histories on phylogenetic species tree inference by gene tree parsimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Tao

    2016-03-01

    Complicated history of gene duplication and loss brings challenge to molecular phylogenetic inference, especially in deep phylogenies. However, phylogenomic approaches, such as gene tree parsimony (GTP), show advantage over some other approaches in its ability to use gene families with duplications. GTP searches the 'optimal' species tree by minimizing the total cost of biological events such as duplications, but accuracy of GTP and phylogenetic signal in the context of different gene families with distinct histories of duplication and loss are unclear. To evaluate how different evolutionary properties of different gene families can impact on species tree inference, 3900 gene families from seven angiosperms encompassing a wide range of gene content, lineage-specific expansions and contractions were analyzed. It was found that the gene content and total duplication number in a gene family strongly influence species tree inference accuracy, with the highest accuracy achieved at either very low or very high gene content (or duplication number) and lowest accuracy centered in intermediate gene content (or duplication number), as the relationship can fit a binomial regression. Besides, for gene families of similar level of average gene content, those with relatively higher lineage-specific expansion or duplication rates tend to show lower accuracy. Additional correlation tests support that high accuracy for those gene families with large gene content may rely on abundant ancestral copies to provide many subtrees to resolve conflicts, whereas high accuracy for single or low copy gene families are just subject to sequence substitution per se. Very low accuracy reached by gene families of intermediate gene content or duplication number can be due to insufficient subtrees to resolve the conflicts from loss of alternative copies. As these evolutionary properties can significantly influence species tree accuracy, I discussed the potential weighting of the duplication cost by

  18. 75 FR 25103 - Tree Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... produced for commercial purposes, such as a maple tree for syrup, papaya tree, or orchard tree. Trees used... tomato plants, biennials such as the plants that produce strawberries, and annuals such as pumpkins...

  19. f-treeGC: a questionnaire-based family tree-creation software for genetic counseling and genome cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokutomi, Tomoharu; Fukushima, Akimune; Yamamoto, Kayono; Bansho, Yasushi; Hachiya, Tsuyoshi; Shimizu, Atsushi

    2017-07-14

    The Tohoku Medical Megabank project aims to create a next-generation personalized healthcare system by conducting large-scale genome-cohort studies involving three generations of local residents in the areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake. We collected medical and genomic information for developing a biobank to be used for this healthcare system. We designed a questionnaire-based pedigree-creation software program named "f-treeGC," which enables even less experienced medical practitioners to accurately and rapidly collect family health history and create pedigree charts. f-treeGC may be run on Adobe AIR. Pedigree charts are created in the following manner: 1) At system startup, the client is prompted to provide required information on the presence or absence of children; f-treeGC is capable of creating a pedigree up to three generations. 2) An interviewer fills out a multiple-choice questionnaire on genealogical information. 3) The information requested includes name, age, gender, general status, infertility status, pregnancy status, fetal status, and physical features or health conditions of individuals over three generations. In addition, information regarding the client and the proband, and birth order information, including multiple gestation, custody, multiple individuals, donor or surrogate, adoption, and consanguinity may be included. 4) f-treeGC shows only marriages between first cousins via the overlay function. 5) f-treeGC automatically creates a pedigree chart, and the chart-creation process is visible for inspection on the screen in real time. 6) The genealogical data may be saved as a file in the original format. The created/modified date and time may be changed as required, and the file may be password-protected and/or saved in read-only format. To enable sorting or searching from the database, the file name automatically contains the terms typed into the entry fields, including physical features or health conditions, by default. 7

  20. Anatomical studies of selected tree species of the Moraceae family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The internode, bark and wood anatomy of seven tree species of the Family Moraceae, grown in Nigeria were studied to determine their characteristic tissue distribution and unique ergastic substances which could be of immense value in taxonomic work as well as of great economic and medicinal values. Direct microscopic ...

  1. MixtureTree annotator: a program for automatic colorization and visual annotation of MixtureTree.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Chuan Chen

    Full Text Available The MixtureTree Annotator, written in JAVA, allows the user to automatically color any phylogenetic tree in Newick format generated from any phylogeny reconstruction program and output the Nexus file. By providing the ability to automatically color the tree by sequence name, the MixtureTree Annotator provides a unique advantage over any other programs which perform a similar function. In addition, the MixtureTree Annotator is the only package that can efficiently annotate the output produced by MixtureTree with mutation information and coalescent time information. In order to visualize the resulting output file, a modified version of FigTree is used. Certain popular methods, which lack good built-in visualization tools, for example, MEGA, Mesquite, PHY-FI, TreeView, treeGraph and Geneious, may give results with human errors due to either manually adding colors to each node or with other limitations, for example only using color based on a number, such as branch length, or by taxonomy. In addition to allowing the user to automatically color any given Newick tree by sequence name, the MixtureTree Annotator is the only method that allows the user to automatically annotate the resulting tree created by the MixtureTree program. The MixtureTree Annotator is fast and easy-to-use, while still allowing the user full control over the coloring and annotating process.

  2. Analysis of Logic Programs Using Regular Tree Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallagher, John Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The eld of nite tree automata provides fundamental notations and tools for reasoning about set of terms called regular or recognizable tree languages. We consider two kinds of analysis using regular tree languages, applied to logic programs. The rst approach is to try to discover automatically...... a tree automaton from a logic program, approximating its minimal Herbrand model. In this case the input for the analysis is a program, and the output is a tree automaton. The second approach is to expose or check properties of the program that can be expressed by a given tree automaton. The input...... to the analysis is a program and a tree automaton, and the output is an abstract model of the program. These two contrasting abstract interpretations can be used in a wide range of analysis and verication problems....

  3. The North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology Fellowship Family Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecchioli, Yael; Jamieson, Mary Anne

    2015-12-01

    To create a family tree to chronicle the proliferation of our specialty through fellowships (formal and informal) within the pediatric and adolescent gynecology practice and among the membership of the North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology (NASPAG). This historical project was undertaken as a way to demonstrate NASPAG's rich sense of heritage and community. The tree is meant to be a dynamic project, a living document, changing and expanding as this field of medicine grows, and offers a form of institutional memory for NASPAG. Questionnaires were sent out to all current NASPAG members via e-mail (and the list-serve) and were available at the 2014 NASPAG Annual Clinical and Research Meeting. Data from the questionnaires were recorded within GRAMPS 3.4.8, software used to create a family tree. The result of the project was an elegant and intricate tree, containing 379 "family members" including physicians who specialize in pediatric and adolescent gynecology, adolescent medicine, reproductive endocrinology and infertility, and pediatric endocrinology. The family tree, which shows how one mentor might train multiple trainees and how past trainees later become mentors, highlights the value of physicians who take on supervisory and educational roles and the existence of comprehensive and inspirational training programs. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The "Family Tree" of Air Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    2011-01-01

    that all the known types of air distribution systems are interconnected in a “family tree”. The influence of supplied momentum flow versus buoyancy forces is discussed, and geometries for high ventilation effectiveness are indicated as well as geometries for fully mixed flow. The paper will also show...... conditions which are not used for air distribution in general. A number of experiments with different air distribution systems are addressed, and they illustrate the behaviour at the different conditions discussed in the paper.......In this paper all total volume air distribution principles are addressed based on discussions of air flow pattern in a room with heat sources giving a cooling load. The supply and exhaust air openings are considered to have different locations and sizes in the room, and it is possible to show...

  5. Mortality over two centuries in large pedigree with familial hypercholesterolaemia: family tree mortality study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbrands, E. J.; Westendorp, R. G.; Defesche, J. C.; de Meier, P. H.; Smelt, A. H.; Kastelein, J. J.

    2001-01-01

    To estimate all cause mortality from untreated familial hypercholesterolaemia free from selection for coronary artery disease. Family tree mortality study. Large pedigree in Netherlands traced back to a single pair of ancestors in the 19th century. Subjects: All members of pedigree aged over 20

  6. TREDRA, Minimal Cut Sets Fault Tree Plot Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fussell, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: TREDRA is a computer program for drafting report-quality fault trees. The input to TREDRA is similar to input for standard computer programs that find minimal cut sets from fault trees. Output includes fault tree plots containing all standard fault tree logic and event symbols, gate and event labels, and an output description for each event in the fault tree. TREDRA contains the following features: a variety of program options that allow flexibility in the program output; capability for automatic pagination of the output fault tree, when necessary; input groups which allow labeling of gates, events, and their output descriptions; a symbol library which includes standard fault tree symbols plus several less frequently used symbols; user control of character size and overall plot size; and extensive input error checking and diagnostic oriented output. 2 - Method of solution: Fault trees are generated by user-supplied control parameters and a coded description of the fault tree structure consisting of the name of each gate, the gate type, the number of inputs to the gate, and the names of these inputs. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: TREDRA can produce fault trees with a minimum of 3 and a maximum of 56 levels. The width of each level may range from 3 to 37. A total of 50 transfers is allowed during pagination

  7. Algorithms and programs for consequence diagram and fault tree construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollo, E.; Taylor, J.R.

    1976-12-01

    A presentation of algorithms and programs for consequence diagram and sequential fault tree construction that are intended for reliability and disturbance analysis of large systems. The system to be analyzed must be given as a block diagram formed by mini fault trees of individual system components. The programs were written in LISP programming language and run on a PDP8 computer with 8k words of storage. A description is given of the methods used and of the program construction and working. (author)

  8. VEGETATIVE MORPHOLOGY FOR SPECIES IDENTIFICATION OF TROPICAL TREES: FAMILY DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hargreaves

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Tree specimens from the ESAL herbarium of the Universidade Federal de Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were describedby vegetative characteristics using CARipé, a Microsoft Access database application specially developed for this study. Only onespecimen per species was usually described. Thus, 2 observers described 567 herbarium species as a base to test methods ofidentification as part of a larger study. The present work formed part of that study and provides information on the distribution of22 vegetative characters among 16 families having 10 or more species described. The characters are discussed. The study foundmarked differences, even discontinuities, of distributions of characters between those families. Therefore it should be possible toincorporate phylogenetic relationships into the identification process.

  9. Branch-and-bound approach for parsimonious inference of a species tree from a set of gene family trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyon, Jean-Philippe; Chauve, Cedric

    2011-01-01

    We describe a Branch-and-Bound algorithm for computing a parsimonious species tree, given a set of gene family trees. Our algorithm can consider three cost measures: number of gene duplications, number of gene losses, and both combined. Moreover, to cope with intrinsic limitations of Branch-and-Bound algorithms for species trees inference regarding the number of taxa that can be considered, our algorithm can naturally take into account predefined relationships between sets of taxa. We test our algorithm on a dataset of eukaryotic gene families spanning 29 taxa.

  10. Compile-Time Debugging of C Programs Working on Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgaard, Jacob; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael I.

    2000-01-01

    We exhibit a technique for automatically verifying the safety of simple C programs working on tree-shaped data structures. We do not consider the complete behavior of programs, but only attempt to verify that they respect the shape and integrity of the store. A verified program is guaranteed to p...

  11. Object-oriented fault tree evaluation program for quantitative analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson-Hine, F. A.; Koen, B. V.

    1988-01-01

    Object-oriented programming can be combined with fault free techniques to give a significantly improved environment for evaluating the safety and reliability of large complex systems for space missions. Deep knowledge about system components and interactions, available from reliability studies and other sources, can be described using objects that make up a knowledge base. This knowledge base can be interrogated throughout the design process, during system testing, and during operation, and can be easily modified to reflect design changes in order to maintain a consistent information source. An object-oriented environment for reliability assessment has been developed on a Texas Instrument (TI) Explorer LISP workstation. The program, which directly evaluates system fault trees, utilizes the object-oriented extension to LISP called Flavors that is available on the Explorer. The object representation of a fault tree facilitates the storage and retrieval of information associated with each event in the tree, including tree structural information and intermediate results obtained during the tree reduction process. Reliability data associated with each basic event are stored in the fault tree objects. The object-oriented environment on the Explorer also includes a graphical tree editor which was modified to display and edit the fault trees.

  12. Measuring the satisfaction of intensive care unit patient families in Morocco: a regression tree analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damghi, Nada; Khoudri, Ibtissam; Oualili, Latifa; Abidi, Khalid; Madani, Naoufel; Zeggwagh, Amine Ali; Abouqal, Redouane

    2008-07-01

    Meeting the needs of patients' family members becomes an essential part of responsibilities of intensive care unit physicians. The aim of this study was to evaluate the satisfaction of patients' family members using the Arabic version of the Society of Critical Care Medicine's Family Needs Assessment questionnaire and to assess the predictors of family satisfaction using the classification and regression tree method. The authors conducted a prospective study. This study was conducted at a 12-bed medical intensive care unit in Morocco. Family representatives (n = 194) of consecutive patients with a length of stay >48 hrs were included in the study. Intervention was the Society of Critical Care Medicine's Family Needs Assessment questionnaire. Demographic data for relatives included age, gender, relationship with patients, education level, and intensive care unit commuting time. Clinical data for patients included age, gender, diagnoses, intensive care unit length of stay, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, MacCabe index, Therapeutic Interventioning Scoring System, and mechanical ventilation. The Arabic version of the Society of Critical Care Medicine's Family Needs Assessment questionnaire was administered between the third and fifth days after admission. Of family representatives, 81% declared being satisfied with information provided by physicians, 27% would like more information about the diagnosis, 30% about prognosis, and 45% about treatment. In univariate analysis, family satisfaction (small Society of Critical Care Medicine's Family Needs Assessment questionnaire score) increased with a lower family education level (p = .005), when the information was given by a senior physician (p = .014), and when the Society of Critical Care Medicine's Family Needs Assessment questionnaire was administered by an investigator (p = .002). Multivariate analysis (classification and regression tree) showed that the education level was the predominant factor

  13. A Family-Based Evolutional Approach for Kernel Tree Selection in SVMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methasate, Ithipan; Theeramunkong, Thanaruk

    Finding a kernel mapping function for support vector machines (SVMs) is a key step towards construction of a high-performanced SVM-based classifier. While some recent methods exploited an evolutional approach to construct a suitable multifunction kernel, most of them searched randomly and diversely. In this paper, the concept of a family of identical-structured kernel trees is proposed to enable exploration of structure space using genetic programming whereas to pursue investigation of parameter space on a certain tree using evolution strategy. To control balance between structure and parameter search towards an optimal kernel, simulated annealing is introduced. By experiments on a number of benchmark datasets in the UCI and text classification collection, the proposed method is shown to be able to find a better optimal solution than other search methods, including grid search and gradient search.

  14. Full Circle Program's Family Consulting Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    In 1989-90, Full Circle Program's Family Consulting Services (FCS) staff provided family reunification services to 50 children and their families in San Francisco and Marin counties. Staff members developed individualized treatment strategies for each family, acting as advocates for the needs of the child. These services included medical and…

  15. The antisocial family tree: family histories of behavior problems in antisocial personality in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Michael G; Salas-Wright, Christopher P; DeLisi, Matt; Qian, Zhengmin

    2015-05-01

    Multiple avenues of research (e.g., criminal careers, intergenerational family transmission, and epidemiological studies) have indicated a concentration of antisocial traits and behaviors that cluster among families and within individuals in a population. The current study draws on each of these perspectives in exploring the intergenerational contours of antisocial personality disorder across multiple generations of a large-scale epidemiological sample. The analytic sample of persons meeting criteria for antisocial personality disorder (N = 1,226) was derived from waves I and II of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Path analytic, latent class, and multinomial models were executed to describe and elucidate family histories among persons diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder. Three classes of an antisocial family tree were found: minimal family history of problem behaviors (70.3 % of sample) who were characterized by higher socioeconomic functioning, parental and progeny behavior problems (9.4 % of sample) who were characterized by criminal behaviors, psychopathology, and substance use disorders, and multigenerational history of problem behaviors (20.3 % of sample) who were characterized by alcoholism, psychopathology, and versatile criminal offending. These findings add a typology to intergenerational studies of antisocial behavior that can assist in identifying etiological and treatment factors among those for whom crime runs in the family.

  16. Today's Family Trees: Branching Out in New Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Irene

    1991-01-01

    Discusses how families and family structures of the 1990s differ from those of the past, examining two-career families, single-parent families, stepfamilies, and distressed families (overwhelmed by poverty, violence, homelessness, or substance abuse). The article stresses the need for flexibility to make these families work. (SM)

  17. Family reunification following shelter placement: child, family, and program correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teare, J F; Furst, D W; Peterson, R W; Authier, K

    1992-01-01

    Factors associated with family reunification following a short-term stay in a shelter for runaway and troubled youth were examined. Children who were not reunified with their caretakers following their stay reported more family problems, appeared to be at higher risk of suicide, and stayed longer in the shelter. Implications for delivery of shelter service programs are discussed.

  18. The fine details of fast dynamic programming over tree decompositions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodlaender, Hans L.; Bonsma, P.S.; Lokshtanov, Daniel; Gutin, G.; Szeider, S.

    We study implementation details for dynamic programming over tree decompositions. Firstly, a fact that is overlooked in many papers and books on this subject is that it is not clear how to test adjacency between two vertices in time bounded by a function of $k$, where $k$ is the width of the given

  19. "My Grandfather Would Roll over in His Grave": Family Farming and Tree Plantations on Farmland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Pamela D.; Krahn, Harvey J.; Krogman, Naomi T.; Thomas, Barb R.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we hypothesize that farmers with a stronger valuation of family farming will be more resistant to converting farmland to tree plantations. Our survey data analysis from 106 farmers in northern Alberta reveals that general opposition to trees on farmland is the strongest predictor of farmers' resistance to the establishment of poplar…

  20. Correspondence between performance of Eucalyptus spp trees selected from family and clonal tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, C A F; Gonçalves, F M A; Rosse, L N; Costa, R R G F; Ramalho, M A P

    2011-06-21

    We examined the correspondence in performance between trees selected from a family test and their respective clones from a clonal test of Eucalyptus. Full-sib families were obtained from controlled pollination among individuals of Eucalyptus grandis and between E. grandis and E. urophylla. The hybridizations did not follow a factorial scheme. The family tests were carried out at three locations in Eunápolis and Itabela counties, in Bahia, Brazil, in 2003. Four hundred and ninety-seven high-performance trees were selected, by the individual BLUP procedure, in the family tests at two years of age, based on wood volume. The clones from these trees and 14 checks were evaluated in clonal tests carried out in the same region in 2006. The wood volume of the clones was evaluated at two years of age. Trait correlation between the trees selected from the family and clonal tests was low. The estimate of the coincidence between the best trees and the best clones using an average of the different intensities of selection was only 27%. These results demonstrate that the selection of trees in the family test should not be too drastic; otherwise the chance plus clones may be overlooked.

  1. Genetic Programming for Medicinal Plant Family Identification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Laksmana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Information about medicinal plants that is available in text documents is generally quite easy to access, however, one needs some efforts to use it. This research was aimed at utilizing crucial information taken from a text document to identify the family of several species of medicinal plants using a heuristic approach, i.e. genetic programming. Each of the species has its unique features. The genetic program puts the characteristics or special features of each family into a tree form. There are a number of processes involved in the investigated method, i.e. data acquisition, booleanization, grouping of training and test data, evaluation, and analysis. The genetic program uses a training process to select the best individual, initializes a generate-rule process to create several individuals and then executes a fitness evaluation. The next procedure is a genetic operation process, which consists of tournament selection to choose the best individual based on a fitness value, the crossover operation and the mutation operation. These operations have the purpose of complementing the individual. The best individual acquired is the expected solution, which is a rule for classifying medicinal plants. This process produced three rules, one for each plant family, displaying a feature structure that distinguishes each of the families from each other. The genetic program then used these rules to identify the medicinal plants, achieving an average accuracy of 86.47%.

  2. Interim reliability evaluation program, Browns Ferry fault trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.E.

    1981-01-01

    An abbreviated fault tree method is used to evaluate and model Browns Ferry systems in the Interim Reliability Evaluation programs, simplifying the recording and displaying of events, yet maintaining the system of identifying faults. The level of investigation is not changed. The analytical thought process inherent in the conventional method is not compromised. But the abbreviated method takes less time, and the fault modes are much more visible

  3. [Family physicians attitude towards quality indicator program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shani, Michal; Nakar, Sasson; Azuri, Yossi

    2012-10-01

    Quality indicator programs for primary care are implanted throughout the world improving quality in health care. In this study, we have assessed family physicians attitudes towards the quality indicators program in Israel. Questionnaires were distributed to family physicians in various continuing educational programs. The questionnaire addressed demographics, whether the physician dealt with quality indicators, time devoted by the physician to quality indicators, pressure placed on the physician related to quality indicators, and the working environment. A total of 140 questionnaires were distributed and 91 (65%) were completed. The average physician age was 49 years (range 33-65 years]; the average working experience as a family physician was 17.8 years (range 0.5-42); 58 physicians were family medicine specialist (65.9%). Quality indicators were part of the routine work of 94% of the physicians; 72% of the physicians noted the importance of quality indicators; 84% of the physicians noted that quality indicators demand better team work; 76% of the physicians noted that quality indicators have reduced their professional independence. Pressure to deal with quality indicators was noted by 72% of the family physicians. Pressure to deal with quality indicators was related to reduced loyalty to their employer (P = 0.001), reducing their interest to practice family medicine (p work (p = 0.001). It is important that policy makers find the way to leverage the advantages of quality indicator programs, without creating a heavy burden on the work of family physicians.

  4. "Tree Investigators": Supporting Families' Scientific Talk in an Arboretum with Mobile Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Heather Toomey; Land, Susan M.; McClain, Lucy R.; Mohney, Michael R.; Choi, Gi Woong; Salman, Fariha H.

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the "Tree Investigators" project to support science learning with mobile devices during family public programmes in an arboretum. Using a case study methodology, researchers analysed video records of 10 families (25 people) using mobile technologies with naturalists at an arboretum to understand how mobile devices…

  5. Instructions for collecting tree ferns of the family Cyatheaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holttum, R.E.

    1957-01-01

    The next monographic study which will be undertaken for the series Pteridophyta of the Flora Malesiana will be devoted to the tree ferns of the Cyatheaceae. In connection with the large size of these plants and the desirability of having more and complete material at our disposal, the following

  6. Developing programs for african families, by african families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halliday, Jennifer A; Green, Julie; Mellor, David

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is an emerging problem for African migrants in Australia, but few prevention programs incorporate their cultural beliefs and values. This study reports on the application of community capacity-building and empowerment principles in 4 workshops with Sudanese families in Australia. Workshop...

  7. MFAULT: a computer program for analyzing fault trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelto, P.J.; Purcell, W.L.

    1977-11-01

    A description and user instructions are presented for MFAULT, a FORTRAN computer program for fault tree analysis. MFAULT identifies the cut sets of a fault tree, calculates their probabilities, and screens the cut sets on the basis of specified cut-offs on probability and/or cut set length. MFAULT is based on an efficient upward-working algorithm for cut set identification. The probability calculations are based on the assumption of small probabilities and constant hazard rates (i.e., exponential failure distributions). Cut sets consisting of repairable components (basic events) only, non-repairable components only, or mixtures of both types can be evaluated. Components can be on-line or standby. Unavailability contributions from pre-existing failures, failures on demand, and testing and maintenance down-time can be handled. MFAULT can analyze fault trees with AND gates, OR gates, inhibit gates, on switches (houses) and off switches. The code is presently capable of finding up to ten event cut sets from a fault tree with up to 512 basic events and 400 gates. It is operational on the CONTROL DATA CYBER 74 computer. 11 figures

  8. Where is family in the family nurse practitioner program? Results of a U.S. family nurse practitioner program survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyirati, Christina M; Denham, Sharon A; Raffle, Holly; Ware, Lezlee

    2012-08-01

    Though recent progress in family nursing science can serve the family nurse practitioner (FNP) to intervene in the regulation of family health, whether those advances are taught to FNP students has been unclear. All 266 FNP programs in the United States were invited to participate in a survey to assess the content and clinical application of family nursing theories in the curriculum. The majority of FNP programs frame family as the context of care for the individual. Though FNP students receive a foundation in family nursing theory in core courses, they are not usually expected to use family assessment methods in clinical practicum courses or to plan interventions for the family as the unit of care. The authors challenge educators to consider family nursing science as an essential component of the FNP program as the Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) evolves and becomes requisite for entry into advanced practice.

  9. Tree Mortality Undercuts Ability of Tree-Planting Programs to Provide Benefits: Results of a Three-City Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Widney

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Trees provide numerous benefits for urban residents, including reduced energy usage, improved air quality, stormwater management, carbon sequestration, and increased property values. Quantifying these benefits can help justify the costs of planting trees. In this paper, we use i-Tree Streets to quantify the benefits of street trees planted by nonprofits in three U.S. cities (Detroit, Michigan; Indianapolis, Indiana, and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania from 2009 to 2011. We also use both measured and modeled survival and growth rates to “grow” the tree populations 5 and 10 years into the future to project the future benefits of the trees under different survival and growth scenarios. The 4059 re-inventoried trees (2864 of which are living currently provide almost $40,000 (USD in estimated annual benefits ($9–$20/tree depending on the city, the majority (75% of which are increased property values. The trees can be expected to provide increasing annual benefits during the 10 years after planting if the annual survival rate is higher than the 93% annual survival measured during the establishment period. However, our projections show that with continued 93% or lower annual survival, the increase in annual benefits from tree growth will not be able to make up for the loss of benefits as trees die. This means that estimated total annual benefits from a cohort of planted trees will decrease between the 5-year projection and the 10-year projection. The results of this study indicate that without early intervention to ensure survival of planted street trees, tree mortality may be significantly undercutting the ability of tree-planting programs to provide benefits to neighborhood residents.

  10. Ecological determinants of mean family age of angiosperm trees in forest communities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hong; Chen, Shengbin

    2016-06-01

    Species assemblage in a local community is determined by the interplay of evolutionary and ecological processes. The Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis proposes mechanisms underlying patterns of biodiversity in biological communities along environmental gradients. This hypothesis predicts that, among other things, clades in areas with warm or wet environments are, on average, older than those in areas with cold or dry environments. Focusing on angiosperm trees in forests, this study tested the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. We related the mean family age of angiosperm trees in 57 local forests from across China with 23 current and paleo-environmental variables, which included all major temperature- and precipitation-related variables. Our study shows that the mean family age of angiosperm trees in local forests was positively correlated with temperature and precipitation. This finding is consistent with the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. Approximately 85% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by temperature-related variables, and 81% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by precipitation-related variables. Climatic conditions at the Last Glacial Maximum did not explain additional variation in mean family age after accounting for current environmental conditions.

  11. Family-Joining: A Fast Distance-Based Method for Constructing Generally Labeled Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaghatgi, Prabhav; Pfeifer, Nico; Lengauer, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    The widely used model for evolutionary relationships is a bifurcating tree with all taxa/observations placed at the leaves. This is not appropriate if the taxa have been densely sampled across evolutionary time and may be in a direct ancestral relationship, or if there is not enough information to fully resolve all the branching points in the evolutionary tree. In this article, we present a fast distance-based agglomeration method called family-joining (FJ) for constructing so-called generally labeled trees in which taxa may be placed at internal vertices and the tree may contain polytomies. FJ constructs such trees on the basis of pairwise distances and a distance threshold. We tested three methods for threshold selection, FJ-AIC, FJ-BIC, and FJ-CV, which minimize Akaike information criterion, Bayesian information criterion, and cross-validation error, respectively. When compared with related methods on simulated data, FJ-BIC was among the best at reconstructing the correct tree across a wide range of simulation scenarios. FJ-BIC was applied to HIV sequences sampled from individuals involved in a known transmission chain. The FJ-BIC tree was found to be compatible with almost all transmission events. On average, internal branches in the FJ-BIC tree have higher bootstrap support than branches in the leaf-labeled bifurcating tree constructed using RAxML. 36% and 25% of the internal branches in the FJ-BIC tree and RAxML tree, respectively, have bootstrap support greater than 70%. To the best of our knowledge the method presented here is the first attempt at modeling evolutionary relationships using generally labeled trees. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  12. Urban Tree Risk Management:A Community Guide to Program Design and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill Pokorny; Joseph O' Brien; Richard Hauer; Gary Johnson; Jana Albers; Peter Bedker; Manfred Mielke

    2003-01-01

    Urban Tree Risk Management: A Community Guide to Program Design and Implementation is a fully illustrated, easy to read training manual written for community leaders, administrators, city foresters, parks and public works staff, and private tree care practitioners. The manual is designed to assist communities design, adopt and implement tree risk management programs,...

  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of APOBEC3 family in tree shrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Meng-Ting; Fan, Yu; Mu, Dan; Yao, Yong-Gang; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2018-03-10

    The APOBEC3 family is a series antiviral factors that inhibit the replication of many viruses, such as HIV-1 and HBV. Tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) possess great potential as an animal model for human diseases and therapeutic responses. However, the APOBEC3 family is unknown in tree shrews. Recent work has showed the presence of the APOBEC3 family in tree shrews. In this work, the cDNA sequences of five APOBEC3 members were identified in tree shrews, namely, tsAPOBEC3A, -3C, -3F, -3G and -3H. The results showed that their sequences encoded a zinc (Z)-coordinating-domain as a characteristic of APOBEC3 proteins. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the tree shrew APOBEC3 (tsAPOBEC3) genes have occurred independently and that they are clustered with other mammalian APOBEC3 members. Transcript expression analysis indicated that tsAPOBEC3 genes are constitutively expressed, and high in immune-related tissues. tsAPOBEC3 gene expression was up-regulated in hepatocytes and PBMCs by IFN-α stimulation. Finally, tsAPOBEC3 proteins could edit both sides of DNA by inserting G→A and C→T hypermutations. Overall, the results suggest that the tsAPOBEC3 family could play a key role in defense immunity through distinct editing mechanisms. Our results provided insights into the genetic basis for the development of a tree shrew model for studying viral infection. Future studies will focus on deepening our understanding on the antiviral functions of these editing enzymes in tree shrew. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A family tree of methyl oleate-based compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    A family of compounds starting with potentially bio-based methyl oleate have been synthesized through a variety of chemical methods. Grandpa EMO (Epoxidized Methyl Oleate) is the most well represented in terms of ancestors, but other catalytic cousins are also presented. Featured material on aunt Et...

  15. The Family Tree: Nurturing Language Growth through "All the Parts of Me."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeland, Patricia

    1998-01-01

    Describes a month-long project in an eighth-grade English classroom in which students (from many countries, many of them immigrants) read an array of bicultural literature, and each researched, wrote, and compiled a many-faceted Family Tree notebook. Shows how students can achieve both their own cultural authenticity and English language…

  16. A life cycle carbon dioxide inventory of the Million Trees Los Angeles Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Gregory McPherson; Alissa Kendall

    2014-01-01

    PurposeThis study seeks to answer the question, “Will the Million Trees LA (Million Trees Los Angeles, MTLA) program be a carbon dioxide (CO2) sink or source?” Because there has never been a full accounting of CO2 emissions, it is unclear if urban tree planting initiatives (TPIs) are likely to be...

  17. Family perspective on home visiting program

    OpenAIRE

    Ziyanak, Sebahattin; Yagci, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on a lately constructed survey instrument that was intended to test the family perspective on a home visiting program and school. The four areas investigated were parent-teacher communications, student-teacher interactions, the parent’s perception of the school and the parents’ understanding of the home visiting program. The participants were selected from parents/guardians of 7th, 8th, 9th and 10th grade students at a Charter school in a southwestern major city in Texas, t...

  18. On the Hosoya index of a family of deterministic recursive trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xufeng; Zhang, Jingyuan; Sun, Weigang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we calculate the Hosoya index in a family of deterministic recursive trees with a special feature that includes new nodes which are connected to existing nodes with a certain rule. We then obtain a recursive solution of the Hosoya index based on the operations of a determinant. The computational complexity of our proposed algorithm is O(log2 n) with n being the network size, which is lower than that of the existing numerical methods. Finally, we give a weighted tree shrinking method as a graphical interpretation of the recurrence formula for the Hosoya index.

  19. STUDIES ON THE BREEDING STRUCTURE OF TREE SPECIES IN THE TROPICAL RAIN FOREST. I: FAMILY CLUMPS AND INTRAPOPULATION DIFFERENTIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAN-ICHI SAKAI

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Breeding structures of two tropical rain forest tree species, Altingia excelsa in Java and Agathis borneensis in Kalimantan were investigated. Assuming that similarity in the assortment pattern of the isoperoxidase bands tells genetic relationship between trees, on the one hand, and that inbreeding increases smaller values of the disagreement counts, on the other, it has been concluded that inbreeding occurs considerably in Altingia excelsa and to some extent in Agathis borneensis. Finding that trees showing very low disagreement counts are located close to each other, they were grouped as an assumptive family. It was found that different families were quite dissimilar with respect to isoperoxide constitution and in several leaf characters as well. The distance between two trees at which they can mate is estimated to be 16 to 18 meters or 16.5 meters and the area one family occupies is 200 to 250 m^, assuming that a family clump can be a breeding unit in Altingia excelsa, within which trees mate at random. Some families were distributed mixed with each other within the mating distance, but they were found still genetically differentiated from each other. This reproductive isolation among families is interpreted to be due to genetic differences between families in flowering time. In Agathis borneensis, there was no indication of family clump formation. Related trees may have been widely scattered in the forest, and the inbreeding of the species may be due to self-fertilization of individual trees and not to outcrossing between relatives.

  20. Asymptotic Properties of the Number of Matching Coalescent Histories for Caterpillar-Like Families of Species Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disanto, Filippo; Rosenberg, Noah A

    2016-01-01

    Coalescent histories provide lists of species tree branches on which gene tree coalescences can take place, and their enumerative properties assist in understanding the computational complexity of calculations central in the study of gene trees and species trees. Here, we solve an enumerative problem left open by Rosenberg (IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics 10: 1253-1262, 2013) concerning the number of coalescent histories for gene trees and species trees with a matching labeled topology that belongs to a generic caterpillar-like family. By bringing a generating function approach to the study of coalescent histories, we prove that for any caterpillar-like family with seed tree t , the sequence (h n ) n ≥ 0 describing the number of matching coalescent histories of the n th tree of the family grows asymptotically as a constant multiple of the Catalan numbers. Thus, h n  ∼ β t c n , where the asymptotic constant β t > 0 depends on the shape of the seed tree t. The result extends a claim demonstrated only for seed trees with at most eight taxa to arbitrary seed trees, expanding the set of cases for which detailed enumerative properties of coalescent histories can be determined. We introduce a procedure that computes from t the constant β t as well as the algebraic expression for the generating function of the sequence (h n ) n ≥ 0 .

  1. Iteratively refined guide trees help improving alignment and phylogenetic inference in the mushroom family Bolbitiaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamária Tóth

    Full Text Available Reconciling traditional classifications, morphology, and the phylogenetic relationships of brown-spored agaric mushrooms has proven difficult in many groups, due to extensive convergence in morphological features. Here, we address the monophyly of the Bolbitiaceae, a family with over 700 described species and examine the higher-level relationships within the family using a newly constructed multilocus dataset (ITS, nrLSU rDNA and EF1-alpha. We tested whether the fast-evolving Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS sequences can be accurately aligned across the family, by comparing the outcome of two iterative alignment refining approaches (an automated and a manual and various indel-treatment strategies. We used PRANK to align sequences in both cases. Our results suggest that--although PRANK successfully evades overmatching of gapped sites, referred previously to as alignment overmatching--it infers an unrealistically high number of indel events with natively generated guide-trees. This 'alignment undermatching' could be avoided by using more rigorous (e.g. ML guide trees. The trees inferred in this study support the monophyly of the core Bolbitiaceae, with the exclusion of Panaeolus, Agrocybe, and some of the genera formerly placed in the family. Bolbitius and Conocybe were found monophyletic, however, Pholiotina and Galerella require redefinition. The phylogeny revealed that stipe coverage type is a poor predictor of phylogenetic relationships, indicating the need for a revision of the intrageneric relationships within Conocybe.

  2. The future of family planning programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, John C; Phillips, James F; Barkat-e-Khuda

    2002-03-01

    National family planning programs have been an important instrument in accelerating global fertility decline and in restricting ultimate world population to a level probably below ten billion. They began to come into being after 1950 and will probably go out of existence in most of the world's regions by 2050. The archetypal programs were instituted in Asia and North Africa. The end of the twentieth century is an appropriate half-way mark at which to evaluate the twentieth-century programs and to assess what changes in them will be needed for the twenty-first century. Some changes are necessary because dramatic events have occurred: (1) long-term replacement-level fertility has been attained in most of East Asia and some of Southeast Asia, and accordingly, some programs there are being phased out; (2) mainland South Asian fertility has been slower to decline; (3) international donor funding is diminishing and may not be significant during much of the twenty-first century; (4) the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development held in Cairo called for a radical change in programs away from demographic aims and toward reproductive health and the improvement of the situation of women; and (5) the future family planning frontier will be sub-Saharan Africa, for which radically new types of programs may have to be developed. These issues were discussed in January 2000 at a conference held in Dhaka, Bangladesh. A selection of contributions to the conference is published here. This article provides an overview of the issues based partly on this selection and partly on the discussions that took place at the conference.

  3. Laplacian spectrum of a family of recursive trees and its applications in network coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weigang; Xuan, Tengfei; Qin, Sen

    2016-06-01

    Many of the topological and dynamical properties of a network are related to its Laplacian spectrum; these properties include network diameter, Kirchhoff index, and mean first-passage time. This paper investigates consensus dynamics in a linear dynamical system with additive stochastic disturbances, which is characterized as network coherence by the Laplacian spectrum. We choose a family of uniform recursive trees as our model, and propose a method to calculate the first- and second-order network coherence. Using the tree structures, we identify a relationship between the Laplacian matrix and Laplacian eigenvalues. We then derive the exact solutions for the reciprocals and square reciprocals of all nonzero Laplacian eigenvalues. We also obtain the scalings of network coherence with network size. The scalings of network coherence of the studied trees are smaller than those of Vicsek fractals and are not related to its fractal dimension.

  4. The entire mean weighted first-passage time on infinite families of weighted tree networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanqiu; Dai, Meifeng; Shao, Shuxiang; Su, Weiyi

    2017-03-01

    We propose the entire mean weighted first-passage time (EMWFPT) for the first time in the literature. The EMWFPT is obtained by the sum of the reciprocals of all nonzero Laplacian eigenvalues on weighted networks. Simplified calculation of EMWFPT is the key quantity in the study of infinite families of weighted tree networks, since the weighted complex systems have become a fundamental mechanism for diverse dynamic processes. We base on the relationships between characteristic polynomials at different generations of their Laplacian matrix and Laplacian eigenvalues to compute EMWFPT. This technique of simplified calculation of EMWFPT is significant both in theory and practice. In this paper, firstly, we introduce infinite families of weighted tree networks with recursive properties. Then, we use the sum of the reciprocals of all nonzero Laplacian eigenvalues to calculate EMWFPT, which is equal to the average of MWFPTs over all pairs of nodes on infinite families of weighted networks. In order to compute EMWFPT, we try to obtain the analytical expressions for the sum of the reciprocals of all nonzero Laplacian eigenvalues. The key step here is to calculate the constant terms and the coefficients of first-order terms of characteristic polynomials. Finally, we obtain analytically the closed-form solutions to EMWFPT on the weighted tree networks and show that the leading term of EMWFPT grows superlinearly with the network size.

  5. The effect of urban trees on the rental price of single-family homes in Portland, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; David T. Butry

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have estimated the effect of environmental amenities on the rental price of houses. We address this gap in the literature by quantifying the effect of urban trees on the rental price of single-family homes in Portland, Oregon, USA. We found that an additional tree on a house's lot increased monthly rent by $5.62, and a tree in the public right of way...

  6. Determinants of establishment survival for residential trees in Sacramento County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara A. Roman; John J. Battles; Joe R. McBride

    2014-01-01

    Urban forests can provide ecosystem services that motivate tree planting campaigns, and tree survival is a key element of program success and projected benefits. We studied survival in a shade tree give-away program in Sacramento, CA, monitoring a cohort of young trees for five years on single-family residential properties. We used conditional inference trees to...

  7. Diagnosing family health and programming action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    /her health may be followed up through all of its physiological phases. If a study reveals the existence of diarrhea or malnutrition as a problem for children, or a problem of pregnancy in adolescents, the contributive factors or immediate causes may be determined, leading to the planning of preventive and curative action and to a followup of the evolution of this problem. The result of this method of work is not a unified national health policy but a variety of programs depending on the population group and its needs. This approach aims at making families more conscious of problems (health education), helping them to feel responsible for the improvement of their health. Health is then perceived as a state of greater well-being for the whole individual.

  8. Residents’ Support Intentions and Behaviors Regarding Urban Trees Programs: A Structural Equation Modeling-Multi Group Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Zhao; Yaoqi Zhang; Yali Wen

    2018-01-01

    Urban trees are more about people than trees. Urban trees programs need public support and engagement, from the intentions to support to implement actions in supporting the programs. Built upon the theory of planned behavior and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), this study uses Beijing as a case study to investigate how subjective norm (cognition of urban trees), attitude (benefits residents’ believe urban trees can provide), and perceived behavioral control (the believed ability of what re...

  9. Identification and characterization of NF-YB family genes in tung tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Susu; Wang, Yangdong; Yin, Hengfu; Guo, Haobo; Gao, Ming; Zhu, Huiping; Chen, Yicun

    2015-12-01

    The NF-YB transcription factor gene family encodes a subunit of the CCAAT box-binding factor (CBF), a highly conserved trimeric activator that strongly binds to the CCAAT box promoter element. Studies on model plants have shown that NF-YB proteins participate in important developmental and physiological processes, but little is known about NF-YB proteins in trees. Here, we identified seven NF-YB transcription factor-encoding genes in Vernicia fordii, an important oilseed tree in China. A phylogenetic analysis separated the genes into two groups; non-LEC1 type (VfNF-YB1, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13) and LEC1-type (VfNF-YB 14). A gene structure analysis showed that VfNF-YB 5 has three introns and the other genes have no introns. The seven VfNF-YB sequences contain highly conserved domains, a disordered region at the N terminus, and two long helix structures at the C terminus. Phylogenetic analyses showed that VfNF-YB family genes are highly homologous to GmNF-YB genes, and many of them are closely related to functionally characterized NF-YBs. In expression analyses of various tissues (root, stem, leaf, and kernel) and the root during pathogen infection, VfNF-YB1, 5, and 11 were dominantly expressed in kernels, and VfNF-YB7 and 9 were expressed only in the root. Different VfNF-YB family genes showed different responses to pathogen infection, suggesting that they play different roles in the pathogen response. Together, these findings represent the first extensive evaluation of the NF-YB family in tung tree and provide a foundation for dissecting the functions of VfNF-YB genes in seed development, stress adaption, fatty acid synthesis, and pathogen response.

  10. The Family Characteristics of Youth Entering a Residential Care Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Annette K.; Ingram, Stephanie D.; Barth, Richard P.; Trout, Alexandra L.; Hurley, Kristin Duppong; Thompson, Ronald W.; Epstein, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    Although much is known about the mental health and behavioral functioning of youth who enter residential care programs, very little research has focused on examining the family characteristics of this population. Knowledge about family characteristics is important, however, as it can aid in tailoring programs to meet the needs of families who are…

  11. An Evaluability Assessment of the Toyota Families in Schools Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quint, Janet

    The Toyota Families in Schools (TFS) Program is a new family literacy initiative that was developed by the National Center for Family Literacy (NCFL) with support from the Toyota Motor Corporation. TFS is based on a previous NCFL model calling for providing literacy activities to preschoolers and parents from low-income families. NCFL wanted to…

  12. Symbolic Game Semantics for Model Checking Program Families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimovski, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    . In this paper, we propose an efficient game semantics based approach for verifying open program families, i.e. program families with free (undefined) identifiers. We use symbolic representation of algorithmic game semantics, where concrete values are replaced with symbolic ones. In this way, we can compactly...... represent program families with infinite integers as so-called (finite-state) featured symbolic automata. Specifically designed model checking algorithms are then employed to verify safety of all programs from a family at once and pinpoint those programs that are unsafe (respectively, safe). We present...

  13. West Coast tree improvement programs: a break-even, cost-benefit analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Thomas Ledig; Richard L Porterfield

    1981-01-01

    Three tree improvement programs were analyzed by break-even, cost-benefit technique: one for ponderosa pine in the Pacific Northwest, and two for Douglas-fir in the Pacific Northwest-one of low intensity and the other of high intensity. A return of 8 percent on investment appears feasible by using short rotations or by accompanying tree improvement with thinning....

  14. Involving Families in Programs for Pregnant Teens: Consequences for Teens and Their Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Sandra L.

    1992-01-01

    Examined whether involving families in programs for pregnant and parenting adolescents is associated with positive outcomes for adolescent, her child, and her family. Data from three federally funded programs suggest that family involvement, regardless of how it is defined and measured, is positively associated with large number of outcomes for…

  15. Optimization and analysis of decision trees and rules: Dynamic programming approach

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalid, Abdulaziz

    2013-08-01

    This paper is devoted to the consideration of software system Dagger created in KAUST. This system is based on extensions of dynamic programming. It allows sequential optimization of decision trees and rules relative to different cost functions, derivation of relationships between two cost functions (in particular, between number of misclassifications and depth of decision trees), and between cost and uncertainty of decision trees. We describe features of Dagger and consider examples of this systems work on decision tables from UCI Machine Learning Repository. We also use Dagger to compare 16 different greedy algorithms for decision tree construction. © 2013 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  16. Programs for Strengthening Families of State Prison Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Paula J.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes "Training for Strong Families," a family strengthening program for officers working in the state prison system. The program was offered once per week on the same day and at the same time, and the sessions lasted 15-20 minutes. The new program included topics such as Budgeting 101, Relationships, and Stress Management.…

  17. Head Start Participants, Programs, Families and Staff in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Head Start programs provide poor children and their families with comprehensive early education and support services. Each year, programs are required to submit a Program Information Report (PIR) to the Office of Head Start on participating children, pregnant women, and families, as well as the staff serving the Head Start population. In 2013, the…

  18. Developing Online Family Life Prevention and Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Robert, Jr.; Bowers, Jill R.; Mitchell, Elissa Thomann; Curtiss, Sarah; Ebata, Aaron T.

    2012-01-01

    Although numerous online family life education programs have been developed over the past few years, there has been little discussion about best practices in the development of these programs. This article presents a framework to assist family life educators in the development and improvement of online programs from the initial problem analysis…

  19. Family planning program: world review 1974. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, W B; Lapham, R J

    1975-08-01

    The 1974 Population Conference at Bucharest was marked with controversy between developed and developing countries, with the latter strongly critical of aid for population control but less for social and economic development. The Plan of Action which was finally approved emphasized the importance of social and economic factors in relation to population growth while recommending that couples in all nations should have access to family planning information. Different regions of the world, however, have widely divergent population policies and goals. The Asia-Pacific region of the developing world, which has 3/4 of the population of the developing world, has articulated a strong stance in favor of reducing birth rates at Post-Bucharest Consultation. Government-supported family planning programs are seen as a high priority item to reduce rapid population growth. Rapid population growth is not seen as a high-priority problem in most African, Arab, and Latin American countries. Population problems will be solved with economic and social advancement. There is more concern in Latin America for family planning as a "human right" issue than to promote demographic goals. Latin America was also concerned with migration/urbanization issues. All of the Regional Consultations after Bucharest favored a greater emphasis on population in development planning, concern for the problems caused by migration and urbanization, improvement in the status of women, and support for the reduction of mortality levels. Some 74 countries containing 93% of the population of the developing world, supported family planning, with only 4 populous countries -- Burma, Ethiopia, Peru, and North Korea not in support. More than 98% of the population of Asia lives in countries which support family planning; the figures are 94% for Latin America, 90% for the Middle East and North Africa and 64% for Sub-Saharan Africa. The governments of 39 countries with a combined population of 2.3 billion have stated that

  20. 75 FR 55587 - Family-to-Family Health Information Center Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Family-to-Family Health Information Center Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration, HHS... Vermont Family-to-Family Health Information Center (F2F HIC) grant (H84MC00002) from the Parent to Parent...

  1. 75 FR 55588 - Family-to-Family Health Information Center Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Family-to-Family Health Information Center Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration, HHS... Florida Family-to-Family Health Information Center (F2F HIC) grant (H84MC00006) from the Florida Institute...

  2. Direct evaluation of fault trees using object-oriented programming techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson-Hine, F. A.; Koen, B. V.

    1989-01-01

    Object-oriented programming techniques are used in an algorithm for the direct evaluation of fault trees. The algorithm combines a simple bottom-up procedure for trees without repeated events with a top-down recursive procedure for trees with repeated events. The object-oriented approach results in a dynamic modularization of the tree at each step in the reduction process. The algorithm reduces the number of recursive calls required to solve trees with repeated events and calculates intermediate results as well as the solution of the top event. The intermediate results can be reused if part of the tree is modified. An example is presented in which the results of the algorithm implemented with conventional techniques are compared to those of the object-oriented approach.

  3. Developing a Parent-Centered Obesity Prevention Program for 4-H Families: Implications for Extension Family Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benke, Carrie J.; Bailey, Sandra J.; Martz, Jill; Paul, Lynn; Lynch, Wesley; Eldridge, Galen

    2013-01-01

    Planning youth and family programming in the 21st century is daunting given family members' busy schedules. This is even more challenging when planning programs in rural areas, where there are vast distances between communities. This article discusses a research and educational outreach project that uses best practices in program development…

  4. Genome skimming by shotgun sequencing helps resolve the phylogeny of a pantropical tree family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malé, Pierre-Jean G; Bardon, Léa; Besnard, Guillaume; Coissac, Eric; Delsuc, Frédéric; Engel, Julien; Lhuillier, Emeline; Scotti-Saintagne, Caroline; Tinaut, Alexandra; Chave, Jérôme

    2014-09-01

    Whole genome sequencing is helping generate robust phylogenetic hypotheses for a range of taxonomic groups that were previously recalcitrant to classical molecular phylogenetic approaches. As a case study, we performed a shallow shotgun sequencing of eight species in the tropical tree family Chrysobalanaceae to retrieve large fragments of high-copy number DNA regions and test the potential of these regions for phylogeny reconstruction. We were able to assemble the nuclear ribosomal cluster (nrDNA), the complete plastid genome (ptDNA) and a large fraction of the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) with approximately 1000×, 450× and 120× sequencing depth respectively. The phylogenetic tree obtained with ptDNA resolved five of the seven internal nodes. In contrast, the tree obtained with mtDNA and nrDNA data were largely unresolved. This study demonstrates that genome skimming is a cost-effective approach and shows potential in plant molecular systematics within Chrysobalanaceae and other under-studied groups. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Hypothesis: brain size and skull shape as criteria for a new hominin family tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardin, Pierre

    2014-10-01

    Today, gorillas and chimpanzees live in tropical forests, where acid soils do not favor fossilization. It is thus widely believed that there are no fossils of chimpanzees or gorillas. However, four teeth of a 0.5-million-year (Ma)-old chimpanzee were discovered in the rift valley of Kenya (McBrearty and Jablonski, 2005), and a handful of teeth of a 10-Ma-old gorilla-like creature were found in Ethiopia (Suwa et al., 2007), close to the major sites of Homo discoveries. These discoveries indicate that chimpanzees and gorillas once shared their range with early Homo. However, the thousands of hominin fossils discovered in the past century have all been attributed to the Homo line. Thus far, our family tree looks like a bush with many dead-branches. If one admits the possibility that the australopithecines can also be the ancestors of African great apes, one can place Paranthropus on the side of gorilla ancestors and divide the remaining Australopithecus based on the brain size into the two main lines of humans and chimpanzees, thereby resulting in a coherent family tree. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Extensions of Dynamic Programming: Decision Trees, Combinatorial Optimization, and Data Mining

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Shahid

    2016-07-10

    This thesis is devoted to the development of extensions of dynamic programming to the study of decision trees. The considered extensions allow us to make multi-stage optimization of decision trees relative to a sequence of cost functions, to count the number of optimal trees, and to study relationships: cost vs cost and cost vs uncertainty for decision trees by construction of the set of Pareto-optimal points for the corresponding bi-criteria optimization problem. The applications include study of totally optimal (simultaneously optimal relative to a number of cost functions) decision trees for Boolean functions, improvement of bounds on complexity of decision trees for diagnosis of circuits, study of time and memory trade-off for corner point detection, study of decision rules derived from decision trees, creation of new procedure (multi-pruning) for construction of classifiers, and comparison of heuristics for decision tree construction. Part of these extensions (multi-stage optimization) was generalized to well-known combinatorial optimization problems: matrix chain multiplication, binary search trees, global sequence alignment, and optimal paths in directed graphs.

  7. ProtoNet 6.0: organizing 10 million protein sequences in a compact hierarchical family tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappoport, Nadav; Karsenty, Solange; Stern, Amos; Linial, Nathan; Linial, Michal

    2012-01-01

    ProtoNet 6.0 (http://www.protonet.cs.huji.ac.il) is a data structure of protein families that cover the protein sequence space. These families are generated through an unsupervised bottom-up clustering algorithm. This algorithm organizes large sets of proteins in a hierarchical tree that yields high-quality protein families. The 2012 ProtoNet (Version 6.0) tree includes over 9 million proteins of which 5.5% come from UniProtKB/SwissProt and the rest from UniProtKB/TrEMBL. The hierarchical tree structure is based on an all-against-all comparison of 2.5 million representatives of UniRef50. Rigorous annotation-based quality tests prune the tree to most informative 162,088 clusters. Every high-quality cluster is assigned a ProtoName that reflects the most significant annotations of its proteins. These annotations are dominated by GO terms, UniProt/Swiss-Prot keywords and InterPro. ProtoNet 6.0 operates in a default mode. When used in the advanced mode, this data structure offers the user a view of the family tree at any desired level of resolution. Systematic comparisons with previous versions of ProtoNet are carried out. They show how our view of protein families evolves, as larger parts of the sequence space become known. ProtoNet 6.0 provides numerous tools to navigate the hierarchy of clusters.

  8. Rural Family Development: A Delivery System for Social Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coward, Raymond T.; And Others

    The Family Assessment and Goal Establishment Model (FAGEM) draws its major impetus and structure from recent writings and trends in education, social planning, and family counseling. Built on a series of related premises addressing rural low income family needs, FAGEM can be reduced to four operational program delivery phases which include the…

  9. Innovative Program Aims to Improve Support for Cancer Family Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Family caregivers provide the vast majority of care for people with cancer. The Family Caregiver Project at the City of Hope Cancer Center is an educational program intended to provide health professionals with the tools and information needed to help family caregivers care for themselves and their loved ones with cancer.

  10. Geographic Region, Size, and Program Type in Family Practice Residencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Jolene K.; Garrard, Judith

    1981-01-01

    Research on residency education in family practice is discussed. Programmatic variables are examined: geographic region, size, and type of program. Definitions of these variables are provided, the current distribution of family practice residency programs across each of these variables is described, and data for use by other researchers is…

  11. 32 CFR 644.138 - Family housing leasing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Family housing leasing program. 644.138 Section... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Acquisition Acquisition by Leasing § 644.138 Family housing leasing program... of Engineers. (a) Leasing requests. The Departments of the Army and Air Force direct their requests...

  12. Family Therapy Training in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Fellowship Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rait, Douglas Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study describes the current state of family therapy training in a sample of child and adolescent psychiatry fellowship programs. Method: Child and adolescent psychiatry fellows (N = 66) from seven training programs completed a questionnaire assessing demographics, family therapy training experiences, common models of treatment and…

  13. Cascade screening program for familial hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Marín, Patricia; Michán-Doña, Alfredo; Maraver-Delgado, Juan; Arroyo-Olivares, Raquel; Barrado Varea, Rosalía; Pérez de Isla, Leopoldo; Mata, Pedro

    2018-03-06

    Early detection of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HFH) is needed to prevent premature cardiovascular events. Our aim isto describe the course of an HFH screening detection day in the Northern Cadiz Health Area in Spain and to analyze the data recorded. Descriptive study of an FH cascade screening program. Index cases (ICs) and their 1st and 2nd grade relatives were appointed during a weekend by the FH Foundation. Venous blood samples were taken from the subjects for genetic, blood, and chemistry tests; specialized medical consultation and physical examination were performed. The study sample consisted of 132 subjects: 21 ICs and 111 relatives (16 under 18years old), with a mean age of 11.4years (SD4.57). Mean age of subjects over 18years was 45.2years. A gene mutation was found in 90 relatives. Mean age at diagnosis was 25years (SD17.7) for relatives and for 36.4years (SD17.2; P=.01) for ICs. Smoking rate was higher in relatives than in ICs (26.3% vs 4.8%; P=.02) and corneal arcus was more common in ICs as compared to relatives (47.6% vs 12.6%; P<.001). Prior myocardial infarction was recorded in 14.3% of ICs and 4.2% of relatives respectively (P=.07). Maximum lipid lowering treatment was being administered to 43.1%. The screening detection approach identified the estimated 4% population with HFH in the area, and allows for diagnosing HFH 11.4years earlier. Copyright © 2018 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Programming a Hearthstone agent using Monte Carlo Tree Search

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Markus Heikki; Hesselberg, Håkon Helgesen

    2016-01-01

    This thesis describes the effort of adapting Monte Carlo Tree Search (MCTS) to the game of Hearthstone, a card game with hidden information and stochastic elements. The focus is on discovering the suitability of MCTS for this environment, as well as which domain-specific adaptations are needed. An MCTS agent is developed for a Hearthstone simulator, which is used to conduct experiments to measure the agent's performance both against human and computer players. The implementation includes ...

  15. Family Matters: An Investigation of Family Coursework in School Counseling Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, J. Richelle; Harris, Pamela N.

    2016-01-01

    School counselors are expected to form collaborative relationships with the families of students. Yet, school counselors have limited knowledge about families to form these partnerships, as a descriptive content analysis of the family coursework requirements in CACREP-accredited school counseling programs in the southern region revealed that most…

  16. Theory and Programs for Dynamic Modeling of Tree Rings from Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. van Deusen; Jennifer Koretz

    1988-01-01

    Computer programs written in GAUSS(TM) for IBM compatible personal computers are described that perform dynamic tree ring modeling with climate data; the underlying theory is also described. The programs and a separate users manual are available from the authors, although users must have the GAUSS software package on their personal computer. An example application of...

  17. Dynamic Programming Strategies on the Decision Tree Hidden behind the Optimizing Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Zoltan KATAI

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to present the characteristics of certain dynamic programming strategies on the decision tree hidden behind the optimizing problems and thus to offer such a clear tool for their study and classification which can help in the comprehension of the essence of this programming technique.

  18. The apex of the family tree of protocols: optimal rates and resource inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Nilanjana; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu

    2011-01-01

    We establish bounds on the maximum entanglement gain and minimum quantum communication cost of the fully quantum Slepian-Wolf (FQSW) protocol in the one-shot regime, which is considered to be at the apex of the existing family tree in quantum information theory. These quantities, which are expressed in terms of smooth min- and max-entropies, reduce to the known rates of quantum communication cost and entanglement gain in the asymptotic independent and identically distributed scenario. We also provide an explicit proof of the optimality of these asymptotic rates. We introduce a resource inequality for the one-shot FQSW protocol, which in conjunction with our results yields achievable one-shot rates of its children protocols. In particular, it yields bounds on the one-shot quantum capacity of a noisy channel in terms of a single entropic quantity, unlike previous bounds. We also obtain an explicit expression for the achievable rate for one-shot state redistribution.

  19. Integer programming-based method for grammar-based tree compression and its application to pattern extraction of glycan tree structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Hayashida, Morihiro; Akutsu, Tatsuya

    2010-12-14

    A bisection-type algorithm for the grammar-based compression of tree-structured data has been proposed recently. In this framework, an elementary ordered-tree grammar (EOTG) and an elementary unordered-tree grammar (EUTG) were defined, and an approximation algorithm was proposed. In this paper, we propose an integer programming-based method that finds the minimum context-free grammar (CFG) for a given string under the condition that at most two symbols appear on the right-hand side of each production rule. Next, we extend this method to find the minimum EOTG and EUTG grammars for given ordered and unordered trees, respectively. Then, we conduct computational experiments for the ordered and unordered artificial trees. Finally, we apply our methods to pattern extraction of glycan tree structures. We propose integer programming-based methods that find the minimum CFG, EOTG, and EUTG for given strings, ordered and unordered trees. Our proposed methods for trees are useful for extracting patterns of glycan tree structures.

  20. Environmental justice and factors that influence participation in tree planting programs in Portland, Oregon, U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; John Mills

    2014-01-01

    Many cities have policies encouraging homeowners to plant trees. For these policies to be effective, it is important to understand what motivates a homeowner’s tree-planting decision. Researchers address this question by identifying variables that influence participation in a tree-planting program in Portland, Oregon, U.S. According to the study, homeowners with street...

  1. Empowering vulnerable parents through a family mentoring program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayton, Darshini; Joss, Nerida

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that mentoring programs can foster positive relationships through role modelling, social support and opportunities to develop new skills. Home visiting programs, where a health professional or volunteer provides parenting support and companionship to at-risk families, have received attention from the health and welfare sector. These programs tend to focus on new mothers and immediate parenting concerns, and do not address broader social determinants of health that impact on the well being and functionality of the family. Herein we report on an evaluation of the Creating Opportunities and Casting Hope (COACH) program, a family mentoring program for vulnerable parents. COACH seeks to break cycles of generational poverty by addressing social determinants, such as housing, employment, health, finances and social support. A mixed-methods approach was used to evaluate the program, involving semistructured interviews with parents (n = 12), surveys with mentors (n = 27) and client case report review (n = 27). Parents experienced improvements in their housing and employment situations, family dynamics, social support and mental health, and decreased drug and alcohol use. Mentors described providing guidance on parenting strategies, financial management and domestic skills. Partnerships with local schools, health services and welfare agencies were vital in the referral processes for families, thereby building a community network of support and care. The COACH model of mentoring highlights the benefits of a flexible and long-standing program to address the social determinants of child health through the family environment and wider social and economic factors.

  2. Reliability database development for use with an object-oriented fault tree evaluation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heger, A. Sharif; Harringtton, Robert J.; Koen, Billy V.; Patterson-Hine, F. Ann

    1989-01-01

    A description is given of the development of a fault-tree analysis method using object-oriented programming. In addition, the authors discuss the programs that have been developed or are under development to connect a fault-tree analysis routine to a reliability database. To assess the performance of the routines, a relational database simulating one of the nuclear power industry databases has been constructed. For a realistic assessment of the results of this project, the use of one of existing nuclear power reliability databases is planned.

  3. International Population Assistance and Family Planning Programs: Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nowels, Larry; Veillette, Connie

    2006-01-01

    .... international family planning programs. In 1984, controversy arose over U.S. population aid policy when the Reagan Administration introduced restrictions, which became known as the "Mexico City policy...

  4. International Population Assistance and Family Planning Programs: Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blanchfield, Luisa

    2008-01-01

    .... international family planning programs. In 1984, controversy arose over U.S. population aid policy when the Reagan Administration introduced restrictions, which became known as the "Mexico City policy...

  5. Confronting Homelessness among American Families: Federal Programs and Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWoody, Madelyn

    This book offers specific information on the wide range of federal prevention, emergency shelter, and family service programs available today that provide children and families who are homeless or at risk of homelessness with financial support, education, job training, nutritional services, and crisis funding. The chapters are: (1)…

  6. Treatment Services Received in the CASAWORKS for Families Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, James R.; Gutman, Marjorie; Mclellan, A. Thomas; Lynch, Kevin G.; Ketterlinus, Robert

    2003-01-01

    This article presents information on treatment services received by women participating in an initial multistate evaluation of CASAWORKS families. Results indicated most women received services to address medical, employment, basic needs, alcohol and drug, family, and psychiatric problems during the first six months of the program. The clients…

  7. The Family-Environment Connection: Filling a Nationwide Program Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Anthony; Franz, Nancy; Christoffel, Rebecca; Cooper, Kristi; Schmitt, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    Since its inception, Extension has focused on helping individuals, families, and communities change economic, environmental, and social conditions. Over the organization's history, environmental condition change programming has been mostly the purview of natural resource educators and less often conducted by family and consumer science…

  8. Designing a New Program in Family Relations and Applied Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Sharon Mayne; Daly, Kerry; Lero, Donna; MacMartin, Clare

    2007-01-01

    Family Relations and Applied Nutrition, which is offered at the University of Guelph, is an interdisciplinary department that previously offered three undergraduate majors: child, youth, and family; applied human nutrition; and gerontology; as well as graduate programs at the master's and doctoral levels. Several factors have precipitated a review…

  9. Opinions of Primary Care Family Physicians About Family Medicine Speciality Training Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamit Sirri Keten

    2014-04-01

    Material and Method: A total of 170 family physicians working in Kahramanmaras were included in the study. After obtaining informed consent a questionnaire comprising questions regarding socio-demographic properties, conveying contracted family physicians as family medicine specialists and organization of the training program was applied to participants. Results: Among physicians participating in the study 130 (76.5% were male and 40 (23.5% were female, with a mean age of 40.7±7.1 (min = 26 years, max = 64 years. The mean duration of professional experience of physicians was 15.3±7.0 (min = 2 years, max = 40 years years. Of all, 91 (53.5% participants had already read the decree on family medicine specialist training program for contracted family physicians. A hundred and fifteen (67.6% family physicians supported that Family Medicine Specialty program should be taken part-time without interrupting routine medical tasks. Only 51 (30.0% participants stated the requirement of an entrance examination (TUS for family medicine specialty training. Conclusion: Family medicine specialty training program towards family physicians should be considered in the light of scientific criteria. In family medicine, an area exhibited a holistic approach to the patient; specialty training should be through residency training instead of an education program. For this purpose, family medicine departments in medical faculties should play an active role in this process. Additionally further rotations in needed branches should be implemented with a revision of area should be performed. In medicine practical training is of high importance and distant or part-time education is not appropriate, and specialist training shall be planned in accordance with the medical specialty training regulations. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(2.000: 298-304

  10. 75 FR 39035 - Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) Family Self-Sufficiency (FSS) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... eligible family that opts to participate in the program; compute an escrow credit for the family, report... eligible family that opts to participate in the program; compute an escrow credit for the family, report...

  11. The Army Family Research Program: the Research Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    NJ: General Learning Press. Sprenkle, D. H., & Olson, D. H. (1978). Circumplex model of marital systems. An empirical study of clinic and nonclinic...Family Action Plans (1984-1990) by developing databases, models , program evaluation technologies, and policy options that assist the Army to retain...wrote descriptions of the Annual Survey of Army Families (ASAF), and the Model Spouse Employment Program. Bob Sadacca and Mary Kralj wrote the Project A

  12. Centering the voices of international students in family studies and family therapy graduate programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Teresa; Fang, Shi-Ruei; Kosutic, Iva; Griggs, Julie

    2012-06-01

    In this article, we report the results of a survey that accessed the perceptions of family studies and family therapy international master's and doctoral students across the United States. Our goals included giving collective voice to the experience of international students and gathering their suggestions for improving programs. Themes that emerged from responses to open- and closed-ended questions included feeling (mis)understood and (de)valued; forming personal connections and experiencing marginalization; the importance of including international perspectives in curricula; considering the relevance/transferability of knowledge; and attending to barriers to learning. Based on the results, we share suggestions for improving family studies and family therapy graduate programs relative to program planning, curricula revision, teaching strategies, and faculty development. © 2012 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  13. Families experiencing housing instability: the effects of housing programs on family routines and rituals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, Lindsay Satterwhite; Shinn, Marybeth; Benton, Jessica Gibbons; Wise, Jasmine

    2014-01-01

    Maintenance of family processes can protect parents, children, and families from the detrimental effects of extreme stressors, such as homelessness. When families cannot maintain routines and rituals, the stressors of poverty and homelessness can be compounded for both caregivers and children. However, characteristics of living situations common among families experiencing homelessness present barriers to the maintenance of family routines and rituals. We analyzed 80 in-depth interviews with parents who were experiencing or had recently experienced an instance of homelessness. We compared their assessments of challenges to family schedules, routines, and rituals across various living situations, including shelter, transitional housing programs, doubled-up (i.e., living temporarily with family or friends), and independent housing. Rules common across shelters and transitional housing programs impeded family processes, and parents felt surveilled and threatened with child protective service involvement in these settings. In doubled-up living situations, parents reported adapting their routines to those of the household and having parenting interrupted by opinions of friends and family members. Families used several strategies to maintain family routines and rituals in these living situations and ensure consistency and stability for their children during an otherwise unstable time. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Occupational Allergy to Peach (Prunus persica) Tree Pollen and Potential Cross-Reactivity between Rosaceae Family Pollens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nannan; Yin, Jia; Mak, Philip; Wen, Liping

    2015-10-01

    Orchard workers in north China are highly exposed to orchard pollens, especially peach and other Rosaceae family pollens during pollination season. The aim of this study was to investigate whether occupational allergy to peach tree pollen as a member of Rosaceae family is IgE-mediated and to evaluate the cross-reactivity among Rosaceae family pollens. Allergen skin test and conjunctival challenge test were performed; enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA), inhibiting ELISA, western immunoblotting and inhibiting western immunoblotting were done with Rosaceae family orchard pollens, including peach, apricot, cherry, apple and pear tree pollens. Mass spectrometry was also performed to probe the main allergen component and cross-reactive protein. Sensitizations to peach pollen were found in both skin test and conjunctival challenge in the patients. Serum specific IgE to three pollens (peach, apricot and cherry) were detected through ELISA. When peach pollen used as solid phase, ELISA inhibition revealed other four kinds of pollens capable of inducing partial to strong inhibitions (45% to 87%), with the strongest inhibition belonging to apricot pollen (87%). Western blotting showed predominant IgE binding to a 20 KD protein among these pollens, which appeared to be a cross-reactive allergen component through western blotting inhibition. It was recognized as a protein homologous to glutathione s-transferase 16 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Peach and other Rosaceae family tree pollen may serve as a potential cause of IgE mediated occupational respiratory disease in orchard workers in north China.

  15. The strategic importance of applied tree conservation programs to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This combined genetic testing and conservation program has identified new productive pine species, such as P. tecunumanii and P. maximinoi, that grow well and are resistant in the seedling stage to the pitch canker fungus (Fusarium circinatum). Because of the industry's foresight to assemble genetic material and test ...

  16. 77 FR 40785 - Single Family Housing Guaranteed Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ... Farm Service Agency 7 CFR Part 1980 RIN 0575-AC90 Single Family Housing Guaranteed Loan Program... Housing Guaranteed Loan Program (SFHGLP) (also referred to as ``Agency'') by requiring an annual fee for... to exceed 0.5 percent of the outstanding principal balance of the loan for the life of the loan. The...

  17. Head Start Participants, Programs, Families and Staff in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Since 1965, the Head Start program has served low-income 3- and 4-year-old children and their families with comprehensive early education and support services. Programs provide services focused on the "whole child," including early education addressing cognitive, developmental, and socio-emotional needs; medical and dental screenings and…

  18. Head Start Participants, Programs, Families, and Staff in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Anitha; Walker, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Since 1965, the Head Start program has served low-income 3- and 4-year-old children and their families with comprehensive early education and support services. Programs provide services focused on the "whole child," including early education addressing cognitive, developmental, and socio-emotional needs; medical and dental screenings and…

  19. Forecasting Shaharchay River Flow in Lake Urmia Basin using Genetic Programming and M5 Model Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Samadianfard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Precise prediction of river flows is the key factor for proper planning and management of water resources. Thus, obtaining the reliable methods for predicting river flows has great importance in water resource engineering. In the recent years, applications of intelligent methods such as artificial neural networks, fuzzy systems and genetic programming in water science and engineering have been grown extensively. These mentioned methods are able to model nonlinear process of river flows without any need to geometric properties. A huge number of studies have been reported in the field of using intelligent methods in water resource engineering. For example, Noorani and Salehi (23 presented a model for predicting runoff in Lighvan basin using adaptive neuro-fuzzy network and compared the performance of it with neural network and fuzzy inference methods in east Azerbaijan, Iran. Nabizadeh et al. (21 used fuzzy inference system and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system in order to predict river flow in Lighvan river. Khalili et al. (13 proposed a BL-ARCH method for prediction of flows in Shaharchay River in Urmia. Khu et al. (16 used genetic programming for runoff prediction in Orgeval catchment in France. Firat and Gungor (11 evaluated the fuzzy-neural model for predicting Mendes river flow in Turkey. The goal of present study is comparing the performance of genetic programming and M5 model trees for prediction of Shaharchay river flow in the basin of Lake Urmia and obtaining a comprehensive insight of their abilities. Materials and Methods: Shaharchay river as a main source of providing drinking water of Urmia city and agricultural needs of surrounding lands and finally one of the main input sources of Lake Urmia is quite important in the region. For obtaining the predetermined goals of present study, average monthly flows of Shaharchay River in Band hydrometric station has been gathered from 1951 to 2011. Then, two third of mentioned

  20. Emotions, Ideas and Experiences of Caregivers of Patients With Schizophrenia About "Family to Family Support Program".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bademli, Kerime; Duman, Zekiye Çetinkaya

    2016-06-01

    "Family to Family Support Program" is a significant intervention program to assist families by informing them about treatment procedures and coping strategies, increasing their functionality, helping them to overcome the challenges of the disease. This study was particularly designed to investigate the emotions, thoughts, and experiences of caregivers of schizophrenia patients who participated in "Family to Family Support Program." The study was conducted with one of the qualitative research methods, phenomenological method. The study sample included caregivers who care for schizophrenia patients and participated in the "Family to Family Support Program". Twenty caregivers were included in the sample. The study was carried out in İzmir Schizophrenia Support Association. The study data were collected with four open ended questions. The average age of the participants was 56,77 ± 72,89, 10 male caregivers and 10 female caregivers, 9 caregivers were fathers, 6 caregivers were mothers, and 5 of them were siblings. The thematic analysis indicated that the emotions, thoughts and experiences of caregivers can be categorized in four groups: "I learned to deal with my problems", "I am conscious in my interaction with the patient and I know and I am not alone", "I feel much better", and "Schizophrenia is not the end of the road, knowledge sorts things out." Caregivers who participated in "Family to Family Support Program" expressed their satisfaction that they were benefited from the program, their coping skills were improved, they experienced less challenges when providing care, they understood the disease better, and it felt comfortable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Gender and Poverty Fight: the Family Donation Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Aparecida Mariano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian social assistance policy is guided by the perspective of poverty fight efforts, which prioritize the conditioned income transfer. These programs privilege the income transfer to women and involve them in a net of obligations and conditions, as it is done in the Family Donation Program. The practice within Family Donation Program highlights some contradictions between the State actions and the feminist demands, especially those concerning the motherhood problem. This is thus a core question for the dialogue between the feminism and the social policies sponsored by the State.

  2. The Early Intervention Readiness Program (EIRP): A Post-ASD Diagnosis Family Support Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolmie, Rhiannon S.; Bruck, Susan; Kerslake, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    A child's diagnosis with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be an extremely stressful time for families. Researchers suggest that the period immediately following ASD diagnosis is a key time for professionals to guide families by providing appropriate information about support options. This article describes a family support program, developed by…

  3. Teaching-skills training programs for family medicine residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasse, Miriam; Ratnapalan, Savithiri

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To review the literature on teaching-skills training programs for family medicine residents and to identify formats and content of these programs and their effects. DATA SOURCES Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to mid-July 2008) and the Education Resources Information Center database (pre-1966 to mid-July 2008) were searched using and combining the MeSH terms teaching, internship and residency, and family practice; and teaching, graduate medical education, and family practice. STUDY SELECTION The initial MEDLINE and Education Resources Information Center database searches identified 362 and 33 references, respectively. Titles and abstracts were reviewed and studies were included if they described the format or content of a teaching-skills program or if they were primary studies of the effects of a teaching-skills program for family medicine residents or family medicine and other specialty trainees. The bibliographies of those articles were reviewed for unidentified studies. A total of 8 articles were identified for systematic review. Selection was limited to articles published in English. SYNTHESIS Teaching-skills training programs for family medicine residents vary from half-day curricula to a few months of training. Their content includes leadership skills, effective clinical teaching skills, technical teaching skills, as well as feedback and evaluation skills. Evaluations mainly assessed the programs’ effects on teaching behaviour, which was generally found to improve following participation in the programs. Evaluations of learner reactions and learning outcomes also suggested that the programs have positive effects. CONCLUSION Family medicine residency training programs differ from all other residency training programs in their shorter duration, usually 2 years, and the broader scope of learning within those 2 years. Few studies on teaching-skills training, however, were designed specifically for family medicine residents. Further studies assessing the

  4. Are people in Tehran prepared for the family physician program?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Majidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Upon successful experiences of family physician program in the rural regions, Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME made a decision to expand this program to urban areas. For this reason a pilot program were designated and some cities have been selected to determine dos and don′ts of performing family physician program in the cities. Various studies were published during this period demonstrating the advantages and disadvantages of family physicians′ care in these cities. After this process in 2012 and 2013 MOHME announced implementation of family physician program in Tehran. Our study investigated public attitudes, knowledge and practice about the newly introduced program. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in Tehran during November to December 2012. A telephone survey was carried out using the Random Digit Dialing (RDD method and data was gathered by a researcher designed questionnaire. A total of 386 residents aged 18 years and over participated in the study. To compare the differences between various groups′ knowledge scores data were analyzed performing Chi-square test, t-test, ANOVA, and logistic regression by SPSS software version 17, to find factors that affected individuals′ agreement with the program. Results: Among all samples 214(57.4% knew about the program and almost 120(85.1% of these aware people were planning to participate in the program. Television and Radio were the major information resources. After adjusting for Educational status, Access to Internet and Socio Economic Status(SES those people who didn′t have any kind of health coverage systems(Health insurance were most likely to accept the program and agree with that[OR= 2.38(1.05-5.38 ]. Conclusions: The fact that despite low levels of information, most of aware people intend to enroll in the new program reveals that expanding informative programs would bring more participation and involvement among community.

  5. Element Partition Trees For H-Refined Meshes to Optimize Direct Solver Performance. Part I: Dynamic Programming

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.

    2017-07-13

    We consider a class of two-and three-dimensional h-refined meshes generated by an adaptive finite element method. We introduce an element partition tree, which controls the execution of the multi-frontal solver algorithm over these refined grids. We propose and study algorithms with polynomial computational cost for the optimization of these element partition trees. The trees provide an ordering for the elimination of unknowns. The algorithms automatically optimize the element partition trees using extensions of dynamic programming. The construction of the trees by the dynamic programming approach is expensive. These generated trees cannot be used in practice, but rather utilized as a learning tool to propose fast heuristic algorithms. In this first part of our paper we focus on the dynamic programming approach, and draw a sketch of the heuristic algorithm. The second part will be devoted to a more detailed analysis of the heuristic algorithm extended for the case of hp-adaptive

  6. Choosing family medicine residency programs: what factors infuence residents’ decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joseph; Alferi, Marg; Patel, Tejal; Lee, Linda

    2011-03-01

    To describe key determinants for residents' selection of a new community-based, interprofessional site for their family medicine training, and to evaluate residents' satisfaction with their programs. Combined qualitative and quantitative methods using in-depth interviews and a survey. McMaster University, including the new site of the Centre for Family Medicine in Kitchener-Waterloo, Ont, and a long-established site in Hamilton, Ont. Eleven first-year and second-year family medicine residents from the Kitchener-Waterloo site participated in in-depth interviews. Forty-four first-year and second-year family medicine residents completed the survey, 22 in Kitchener-Waterloo and 22 in Hamilton. Kitchener-Waterloo residents participated in in-depth interviews during their residency programs in 2008 to 2009 using a semistructured format to explore their choice of site and the effect of an interprofessional environment on their education. Common themes were established using qualitative analysis techniques; based on these themes, a survey was developed and distributed to residents from both sites to further explore factors influencing site selection, satisfaction, and effects of interprofessional education. Residents identifIed several reasons for selecting a new community-based, interprofessional family medicine residency program. Reasons included preference for the location and opportunities to learn in an interprofessional teaching environment. A less hierarchical structure and greater opportunities for one-on-one teaching also influenced their choices. Perception of poor communication from the well established site was identified as a challenge. Residents at both sites indicated similarly high levels of program satisfaction. Residents selected the new community-based family medicine site for reasons of geographic location and the potential for clinical learning experiences and interprofessional education. High program satisfaction was achieved at both the new and well

  7. Microsatellite markers for the relict tree Aextoxicon punctatum: the only species in the Chilean endemic family Aextoxicaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Ávila, Mariela C; Uriarte, María; Marquet, Pablo A; Armesto, Juan J

    2011-02-01

    We screened 10 microsatellite loci for the dioecious, rainforest tree Aextoxicon punctatum, a species belonging to a monotypic family and genus, endemic to southwestern South America (30-43°S). Polymorphisms were evaluated in 108 adult trees from four populations, including the northern and southern extremes of the geographic range of Aextoxicon in Chile. All 10 microsatellites revealed polymorphic variation. A total of 69, 57, 59, and 69 alleles were found in 40 (Fray Jorge), 19 (Santa Ines), 21 (Quebrada del Tigre), and 28 (Guabun) individual trees, respectively. The mean expected heterozygosity per population ranged from 0.70 to 0.72. These polymorphic microsatellites will be useful in assessing the genetic structure and conservation status of Aextoxicon throughout its historically fragmented geographic range. Parentage analysis will provide additional insights into the key historical and contemporary processes that have mediated population differentiation in this species.

  8. The Family of Concurrent Logic Programming Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    we show here examples of manual specializations of meta-interpreters. Using partial evaluation techniques similar to those of [149,1501, the...193]. - 85 - 19.3 Proces to proceso mapping The question of how to map processes to processors is not unique to concurrent logic programming, and any...procinors(N,ToQ) queue(ToQ), -8 7 - procemorie(N,ToQ)Qnext. processors’(0,_). procesos (N,ToQ) - N>O I N’:=N-1, procesior(ToQ), processor’(N’ ,ToQ)Onext

  9. Estimating Tree-Structured Covariance Matrices via Mixed-Integer Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Héctor Corrada; Wright, Stephen; Eng, Kevin H.; Keles, Sündüz; Wahba, Grace

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel method for estimating tree-structured covariance matrices directly from observed continuous data. Specifically, we estimate a covariance matrix from observations of p continuous random variables encoding a stochastic process over a tree with p leaves. A representation of these classes of matrices as linear combinations of rank-one matrices indicating object partitions is used to formulate estimation as instances of well-studied numerical optimization problems. In particular, our estimates are based on projection, where the covariance estimate is the nearest tree-structured covariance matrix to an observed sample covariance matrix. The problem is posed as a linear or quadratic mixed-integer program (MIP) where a setting of the integer variables in the MIP specifies a set of tree topologies of the structured covariance matrix. We solve these problems to optimality using efficient and robust existing MIP solvers. We present a case study in phylogenetic analysis of gene expression and a simulation study comparing our method to distance-based tree estimating procedures. PMID:22081761

  10. Family Violence Prevention and Services Programs. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-02

    This rule will better prevent and protect survivors of family violence, domestic violence, and dating violence, by clarifying that all survivors must have access to services and programs funded under the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act. More specifically, the rule enhances accessibility and non-discrimination provisions, clarifies confidentiality rules, promotes coordination among community-based organizations, State Domestic Violence Coalitions, States, and Tribes, as well as incorporates new discretionary grant programs. Furthermore, the rule updates existing regulations to reflect statutory changes made to the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act, and updates procedures for soliciting and awarding grants. The rule also increases clarity and reduces potential confusion over statutory and regulatory standards. The rule codifies standards already used by the program in the Funding Opportunity Announcements and awards, in technical assistance, in reporting requirements, and in sub-regulatory guidance.

  11. Gene family structure, expression and functional analysis of HD-Zip III genes in angiosperm and gymnosperm forest trees

    OpenAIRE

    C?t?, Caroline L; Boileau, Francis; Roy, Vicky; Ouellet, Mario; Levasseur, Caroline; Morency, Marie-Jos?e; Cooke, Janice EK; S?guin, Armand; MacKay, John J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Class III Homeodomain Leucine Zipper (HD-Zip III) proteins have been implicated in the regulation of cambium identity, as well as primary and secondary vascular differentiation and patterning in herbaceous plants. They have been proposed to regulate wood formation but relatively little evidence is available to validate such a role. We characterised and compared HD-Zip III gene family in an angiosperm tree, Populus spp. (poplar), and the gymnosperm Picea glauca (white spruc...

  12. Aquaporins in the wild: natural genetic diversity and selective pressure in the PIP gene family in five neotropical tree species

    OpenAIRE

    Audigeos, Delphine; Buonamici, Anna; Belkadi, Laurent; Rymer, Paul; Boshier, David; Scotti-Saintagne, Caroline; Vendramini, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Tropical trees undergo severe stress through seasonal drought and flooding, and the ability of these species to respond may be a major factor in their survival in tropical ecosystems, particularly in relation to global climate change. Aquaporins are involved in the regulation of water flow and have been shown to be involved in drought response; they may therefore play a major adaptive role in these species. We describe genetic diversity in the PIP sub-family of the widespr...

  13. Stem analysis program (GOAP for evaluating of increment and growth data at individual tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gafura Aylak Özdemir

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Stem analysis is a method evaluating in a detailed way data of increment and growth of individual tree at the past periods and widely used in various forestry disciplines. Untreated data of stem analysis consist of annual ring count and measurement procedures performed on cross sections taken from individual tree by section method. The evaluation of obtained this untreated data takes quite some time. Thus, a computer software was developed in this study to quickly and efficiently perform stem analysis. This computer software developed to evaluate untreated data of stem analysis as numerical and graphical was programmed as macro by utilizing Visual Basic for Application feature of MS Excel 2013 program currently the most widely used. In developed this computer software, growth height model is formed from two different approaches, individual tree volume depending on section method, cross-sectional area, increments of diameter, height and volume, volume increment percent and stem form factor at breast height are calculated depending on desired period lengths. This calculated values are given as table. Development of diameter, height, volume, increments of these variables, volume increment percent and stem form factor at breast height according to periodic age are given as chart. Stem model showing development of diameter, height and shape of individual tree in the past periods also can be taken from computer software as chart.

  14. Aquaporins in the wild: natural genetic diversity and selective pressure in the PIP gene family in five Neotropical tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audigeos, Delphine; Buonamici, Anna; Belkadi, Laurent; Rymer, Paul; Boshier, David; Scotti-Saintagne, Caroline; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Scotti, Ivan

    2010-06-29

    Tropical trees undergo severe stress through seasonal drought and flooding, and the ability of these species to respond may be a major factor in their survival in tropical ecosystems, particularly in relation to global climate change. Aquaporins are involved in the regulation of water flow and have been shown to be involved in drought response; they may therefore play a major adaptive role in these species. We describe genetic diversity in the PIP sub-family of the widespread gene family of Aquaporins in five Neotropical tree species covering four botanical families. PIP Aquaporin subfamily genes were isolated, and their DNA sequence polymorphisms characterised in natural populations. Sequence data were analysed with statistical tests of standard neutral equilibrium and demographic scenarios simulated to compare with the observed results. Chloroplast SSRs were also used to test demographic transitions. Most gene fragments are highly polymorphic and display signatures of balancing selection or bottlenecks; chloroplast SSR markers have significant statistics that do not conform to expectations for population bottlenecks. Although not incompatible with a purely demographic scenario, the combination of all tests tends to favour a selective interpretation of extant gene diversity. Tropical tree PIP genes may generally undergo balancing selection, which may maintain high levels of genetic diversity at these loci. Genetic variation at PIP genes may represent a response to variable environmental conditions.

  15. Aquaporins in the wild: natural genetic diversity and selective pressure in the PIP gene family in five Neotropical tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vendramin Giovanni G

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tropical trees undergo severe stress through seasonal drought and flooding, and the ability of these species to respond may be a major factor in their survival in tropical ecosystems, particularly in relation to global climate change. Aquaporins are involved in the regulation of water flow and have been shown to be involved in drought response; they may therefore play a major adaptive role in these species. We describe genetic diversity in the PIP sub-family of the widespread gene family of Aquaporins in five Neotropical tree species covering four botanical families. Results PIP Aquaporin subfamily genes were isolated, and their DNA sequence polymorphisms characterised in natural populations. Sequence data were analysed with statistical tests of standard neutral equilibrium and demographic scenarios simulated to compare with the observed results. Chloroplast SSRs were also used to test demographic transitions. Most gene fragments are highly polymorphic and display signatures of balancing selection or bottlenecks; chloroplast SSR markers have significant statistics that do not conform to expectations for population bottlenecks. Although not incompatible with a purely demographic scenario, the combination of all tests tends to favour a selective interpretation of extant gene diversity. Conclusions Tropical tree PIP genes may generally undergo balancing selection, which may maintain high levels of genetic diversity at these loci. Genetic variation at PIP genes may represent a response to variable environmental conditions.

  16. Residents’ Support Intentions and Behaviors Regarding Urban Trees Programs: A Structural Equation Modeling-Multi Group Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban trees are more about people than trees. Urban trees programs need public support and engagement, from the intentions to support to implement actions in supporting the programs. Built upon the theory of planned behavior and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM, this study uses Beijing as a case study to investigate how subjective norm (cognition of urban trees, attitude (benefits residents’ believe urban trees can provide, and perceived behavioral control (the believed ability of what residents can do affect intention and its transformation into implemented of supporting action. A total of 800 residents were interviewed in 2016 and asked about their opinion of neighborhood trees, park trees, and historical trees, and analyzed, respectively. The results show that subjective norm has a significant positive effect on intentions pertaining to historical and neighborhood trees. Attitudes influence intentions, but its overall influence is much lower than that of the subjective norm, indicating that residents are more likely to be influenced by external factors. The perceived behavioral control has the strongest effect among the three, suggesting the importance of public participation in strengthening intention. The transformation from intention to behavior seems relatively small, especially regarding neighborhood trees, suggesting that perceptions and participation need to be strengthened.

  17. Yield curve event tree construction for multi stage stochastic programming models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kourosh Marjani; Poulsen, Rolf

    Dynamic stochastic programming (DSP) provides an intuitive framework for modelling of financial portfolio choice problems where market frictions are present and dynamic re--balancing has a significant effect on initial decisions. The application of these models in practice, however, is limited by...... of yield curves. Such trees may then be used to represent the underlying uncertainty in DSP models of fixed income risk and portfolio management....

  18. Application gives the technique the analytic tree in the evaluation the effectiveness programs to radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Gonzalez, F.; Perez Velazquez, R.S.; Fornet Rodriguez, O.; Mustelier Hechevarria, A.; Miller Clemente, A.

    1998-01-01

    In the work we develop the IAEA recommendations in the application the analytic tree as instrument for the evaluation the effectiveness the occupational radiological protection programs. Is reflected like it has been assimilated and converted that technique in daily work istruments in the evaluation process the security conditions in the institutions that apply the nuclear techniques with a view to its autorization on the part of the regulatory organ

  19. Cost-Effectiveness of a Family Planning Voucher Program in Rural Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Edward Ivor; Hameed, Waqas; Gul, Xaher; Sarfraz, Shabnum; Baig, Imam Yar; Villanueva, Monica

    2017-01-01

    This study reports on the effectiveness and efficiency from the program funder's perspective of the Suraj Social Franchise (SSF) voucher program in which private health-care providers in remote rural areas were identified, trained, upgraded, and certified to deliver family planning services to underserved women of reproductive age in 29 districts of Sindh and 3 districts of Punjab province, Pakistan between October 2013 and June 2016. A decision tree compared the cost of implementing SSF to the program funder and its effects of providing additional couple years of protection (CYPs) to targeted women, compared to business-as-usual. Costs included vouchers given to women to receive a free contraceptive method of their choice from the SSF provider. The vouchers were then reimbursed to the SSF provider by the program. A total of 168,206 married women of reproductive age (MWRA) received SSF vouchers between October 2013 and June 2016, costing $3,278,000 ($19.50/recipient). The average effectiveness of the program per voucher recipient was an additional 1.66 CYPs, giving an incremental cost-effectiveness of the program of $4.28 per CYP compared to not having the program (95% CI: $3.62-5.31). The result compares favorably to other interventions with similar objectives and appears affordable for the Pakistan national health-care system. It is therefore recommended to help address the unmet need for contraception among MWRA in these areas of Pakistan and is worthy of trial implementation in the country more widely.

  20. Breastfeeding Curricular Content of Family Nurse Practitioner Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Elaine; Serowoky, Mary

    Health care provider support is essential for breastfeeding success. Family Nurse Practitioners (FNP) are in a unique position to promote and manage breastfeeding. There is a gap in the literature regarding the amount and type of breastfeeding curricular content in FNP programs. An online survey of FNP programs was conducted. Data collection included program descriptors, didactic breastfeeding coursework, and clinical breastfeeding opportunities available to students. No programs offered courses specific to breastfeeding: 82% of programs devoted 1 to 2 hours of didactic lactation content. More than three quarters of the programs offered students breastfeeding counseling opportunities; no programs, however, identified specific breastfeeding clinical competencies. FNPs can play an integral role in breastfeeding promotion and counseling. There appears to be a lack of education provided to FNPs regarding breastfeeding management. Creative approaches that incorporate lactation education into FNP programs may increase FNPs' breastfeeding knowledge and enhance their ability to provide support to breastfeeding families. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Paraprofessionals in Home Economics Programs for Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidenfrost, Nancy B.; And Others

    This booklet was developed as a guide for home economists who are responsible for teaching paraprofessionals (individuals who usually have no college degree and are trained and supervised by county home economists) how to teach low-income families. The content is in seven short sections: (1) Planning the Program discusses available resources,…

  2. 75 FR 27949 - Single Family Housing Guaranteed Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... efficiency in managing the SFHGLP. The proposed changes are in accordance with the recommendations of the... Housing Service proposes two changes to its Single Family Housing Guaranteed Loan Program (SFHGLP...-quarter of 1 percent. The first proposed rule change would eliminate the lender's published VA rate for...

  3. Early Head Start Participants, Programs, Families, and Staff in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Anitha; Walker, Christina

    2016-01-01

    In 1994, the federal Early Head Start (EHS) program was created to address the comprehensive needs of low-income pregnant women and children under age 3. EHS was launched almost 30 years after Head Start was established in 1965 to serve low-income 3- and 4-year-old children and their families with comprehensive early education and support…

  4. The School, Family, and Community Partnership Program: Initial Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treder, David; Kutash, Krista; Duchnowski, Albert J.; Rudo, Zena; Sumi, W. Carl; Harris, Karen M.; Nelson, Steven L.

    The School, Family, and Community Partnership Program is an integrated, school-based intervention for improving the outcomes of students served in classrooms for children who have emotional and behavioral disabilities. This report briefly describes the intervention, the characteristics of the children, and initial results of measuring fidelity to…

  5. A Pilot Evaluation of the Family Caregiver Support Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Mei; Hedrick, Susan C.; Young, Heather M.

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate a federal and state-funded Family Caregiver Support Program (FCSP) and explore what types of caregiver support service are associated with what caregiver outcomes. Information was obtained on a sample of 164 caregivers' use of eleven different types of support service. Descriptive and comparative…

  6. Assessing the Effectiveness of Statistical Classification Techniques in Predicting Future Employment of Participants in the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Isaac D.

    2008-01-01

    Three classification techniques (Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detection [CHAID], Classification and Regression Tree [CART], and discriminant analysis) were tested to determine their accuracy in predicting Temporary Assistance for Needy Families program recipients' future employment. Technique evaluation was based on proportion of correctly…

  7. A Reverse Genetics Platform That Spans the Zika Virus Family Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widman, Douglas G; Young, Ellen; Yount, Boyd L; Plante, Kenneth S; Gallichotte, Emily N; Carbaugh, Derek L; Peck, Kayla M; Plante, Jessica; Swanstrom, Jesica; Heise, Mark T; Lazear, Helen M; Baric, Ralph S

    2017-03-07

    DNA molecular clones and recombinant viruses that span the known ZIKV family tree, including early Brazilian isolates. Recombinant viruses replicated efficiently in cell culture and were pathogenic in immunodeficient mice, providing a genetic platform for rational vaccine and therapeutic design. Copyright © 2017 Widman et al.

  8. Integrated pipeline for inferring the evolutionary history of a gene family embedded in the species tree: a case study on the STIMATE gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jia; Zheng, Sisi; Nguyen, Nhung; Wang, Youjun; Zhou, Yubin; Lin, Kui

    2017-10-03

    Because phylogenetic inference is an important basis for answering many evolutionary problems, a large number of algorithms have been developed. Some of these algorithms have been improved by integrating gene evolution models with the expectation of accommodating the hierarchy of evolutionary processes. To the best of our knowledge, however, there still is no single unifying model or algorithm that can take all evolutionary processes into account through a stepwise or simultaneous method. On the basis of three existing phylogenetic inference algorithms, we built an integrated pipeline for inferring the evolutionary history of a given gene family; this pipeline can model gene sequence evolution, gene duplication-loss, gene transfer and multispecies coalescent processes. As a case study, we applied this pipeline to the STIMATE (TMEM110) gene family, which has recently been reported to play an important role in store-operated Ca 2+ entry (SOCE) mediated by ORAI and STIM proteins. We inferred their phylogenetic trees in 69 sequenced chordate genomes. By integrating three tree reconstruction algorithms with diverse evolutionary models, a pipeline for inferring the evolutionary history of a gene family was developed, and its application was demonstrated.

  9. Algorithms and programs for evaluating fault trees with multi-state components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickenhaeuser, A.

    1989-07-01

    Part 1 and 2 of the report contain a summary overview of methods and algorithms for the solution of fault tree analysis problems. The following points are treated in detail: Treatment of fault tree components with more than two states. Acceleration of the solution algorithms. Decomposition and modularization of extensive systems. Calculation of the structural function and the exact occurrence probability. Treatment of statistical dependencies. A flexible tool to be employed in solving these problems is the method of forming Boolean variables with restrictions. In this way, components with more than two states can be treated, the possibilities of forming modules expanded, and statistical dependencies treated. Part 3 contains descriptions of the MUSTAFA, MUSTAMO, PASPI, and SIMUST computer programs based on these methods. (orig./HP) [de

  10. New approaches to phylogenetic tree search and their application to large numbers of protein alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Simon

    2007-10-01

    Phylogenetic tree estimation plays a critical role in a wide variety of molecular studies, including molecular systematics, phylogenetics, and comparative genomics. Finding the optimal tree relating a set of sequences using score-based (optimality criterion) methods, such as maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony, may require all possible trees to be considered, which is not feasible even for modest numbers of sequences. In practice, trees are estimated using heuristics that represent a trade-off between topological accuracy and speed. I present a series of novel algorithms suitable for score-based phylogenetic tree reconstruction that demonstrably improve the accuracy of tree estimates while maintaining high computational speeds. The heuristics function by allowing the efficient exploration of large numbers of trees through novel hill-climbing and resampling strategies. These heuristics, and other computational approximations, are implemented for maximum likelihood estimation of trees in the program Leaphy, and its performance is compared to other popular phylogenetic programs. Trees are estimated from 4059 different protein alignments using a selection of phylogenetic programs and the likelihoods of the tree estimates are compared. Trees estimated using Leaphy are found to have equal to or better likelihoods than trees estimated using other phylogenetic programs in 4004 (98.6%) families and provide a unique best tree that no other program found in 1102 (27.1%) families. The improvement is particularly marked for larger families (80 to 100 sequences), where Leaphy finds a unique best tree in 81.7% of families.

  11. Neutrino oscillation in the matter, in the context of tree families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellandi, J.; Guzzo, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    From the equation of time evolution of three neutrino families system, in presence of matter, an analytical solution is derived for probability amplitude of transition between flavors. Particular cases, mixing between two families at constant matter density, and oscillations between three families in the vacuum, are obtained from the general solution

  12. Introduction of handheld computing to a family practice residency program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Goutham

    2002-01-01

    Handheld computers are valuable practice tools. It is important for residency programs to introduce their trainees and faculty to this technology. This article describes a formal strategy to introduce handheld computing to a family practice residency program. Objectives were selected for the handheld computer training program that reflected skills physicians would find useful in practice. TRGpro handheld computers preloaded with a suite of medical reference programs, a medical calculator, and a database program were supplied to participants. Training consisted of four 1-hour modules each with a written evaluation quiz. Participants completed a self-assessment questionnaire after the program to determine their ability to meet each objective. Sixty of the 62 participants successfully completed the training program. The mean composite score on quizzes was 36 of 40 (90%), with no significant differences by level of residency training. The mean self-ratings of participants across all objectives was 3.31 of 4.00. Third-year residents had higher mean self-ratings than others (mean of group, 3.62). Participants were very comfortable with practical skills, such as using drug reference software, and less comfortable with theory, such as knowing the different types of handheld computers available. Structured training is a successful strategy for introducing handheld computing to a residency program.

  13. FAMILY HEALTH PROGRAM: CHALLENGES AND POTENTIALITIES REGARDING DRUGS USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle Aparecida de Barros

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies on drugs use point towards this phenomenon as a public health problem. Nowadays, the Family Health Program (FHP is presented by the Health Ministry as a model to restructure primary health care and aims to offer family-centered care, permeated by integrality, problem solving and community bonds. This article aims to discuss action possibilities of Family Health Care professionals involving drugs patients. It is evident that, as opposed to other actions already developed by FHP professionals in other health care areas, which has appeared clearly and objectively. This fact is observed in the daily activities of FHP professionals, which give little attention to drugs-related problems. However, research emphasizes that there exists a broad range of action possibilities for FHP professionals. Although other studies evidence this team’s fragilities in terms of care for drugs users, these can be overcome by investing in the training and valuation of these professionals. KEY WORDS: Family Health Program; Street drugs; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice.

  14. SMART Optimization of a Parenting Program for Active Duty Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    helps parents to be their children’s best teachers by providing them with effective positive parenting tools. Prior rigorous research on ADAPT has shown...Parenting Tools (ADAPT) is a family resilience program which helps parents to be their children’s best teachers by providing them with effective...coordinator is being sent to a professional development conference, Forward March. Intervention facilitators have all received 8 days of formal ADAPT

  15. Abstract interpretation over non-deterministic finite tree automate for set-based analysis of logic programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallagher, John Patrick; Puebla, G.

    2002-01-01

    Set-based program analysis has many potential applications, including compiler optimisations, type-checking, debugging, verification and planning. One method of set-based analysis is to solve a set of {\\it set constraints} derived directly from the program text. Another approach is based...... constraint analysis of a particular program $P$ could be understood as an abstract interpretation over a finite domain of regular tree grammars, constructed from $P$. In this paper we define such an abstract interpretation for logic programs, formulated over a domain of non-deterministic finite tree automata...

  16. [Basic family health program in Magdalena Medio y Bajo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, R

    1992-12-01

    The Program of Information, Education, and Services for Basic Family Health Care in Magdalena Medio and Bajo was designed to increase knowledge and use of contraception and to improve basic health practices and nutrition in the region, which includes municipios belonging to 9 different departments and a total population of 1,720,000. Poverty levels in the area are high. During the 1st year of the project, which was underway from February 1988-May 1991, home visits were made to inform each family about basic family health, to weigh and measure children under 5 not receiving health care elsewhere, and to refer families to the nearest health services. Talks were presented to small groups on family planning, intestinal parasites, sexually transmitted diseases, nutrition, vaccination, cancer prevention, malaria, acute diarrhea, and acute respiratory infection. Community workshops were presented in the 2nd year. Community distribution posts were created for contraceptive and other health product distribution. Information and communication materials from PROFAMILIA were used, and other materials were specially designed for the project by the Foundation for Development of Health Education in Colombia. PROFAMILIA's system of service statistics was used for quantitative evaluation of the information and education activities and sales of contraceptives, antiparasitics, and oral rehydration packets of each instructor. In the 3 years of the program, 89.086 cycles of pills, 398,772 condoms, 29,080 vaginal tablets, 209.791 antiparasitics, and 49,305 oral rehydration packets were sold. 9295 talks were presented to 143,227 residents of the region. 22,000 children were enrolled in the growth monitoring program, and almost 40,000 women were referred for prenatal care and cytology. The instructors gave 900 talks to distributors of contraceptives, antiparasitics, and oral rehydration packets. Surveys of women aged 15-49 residing in the municipios covered by the project were conducted

  17. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Brachichiton acerifolius F. Muell., commonly called as the Illawara flame tree is a member of Malvaceae family and is native to sub-tropical parts of Australia. Due to its spectacular flowers and tolerance to wide range of climates, it's now cultivated all over the world for its beauty. The tree produces flowers during the.

  18. Dynamic Programming Algorithm for Generation of Optimal Elimination Trees for Multi-frontal Direct Solver Over H-refined Grids

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.

    2014-06-06

    In this paper we present a dynamic programming algorithm for finding optimal elimination trees for computational grids refined towards point or edge singularities. The elimination tree is utilized to guide the multi-frontal direct solver algorithm. Thus, the criterion for the optimization of the elimination tree is the computational cost associated with the multi-frontal solver algorithm executed over such tree. We illustrate the paper with several examples of optimal trees found for grids with point, isotropic edge and anisotropic edge mixed with point singularity. We show the comparison of the execution time of the multi-frontal solver algorithm with results of MUMPS solver with METIS library, implementing the nested dissection algorithm.

  19. A Student's Guide to Polish American Genealogy. Oryx American Family Tree Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollyson, Carl Sokolnicki; Paddock, Lisa Olson

    This book offers a guide to the study of genealogy, or family history, through the use of historical documents, artifacts, and private records. Intended mainly for students who wish to trace their family roots, the book also can be used by anyone interested in the lives of Polish Americans throughout the years. Chapters describe how to find…

  20. AxML: a fast program for sequential and parallel phylogenetic tree calculations based on the maximum likelihood method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatakis, Alexandros P; Ludwig, Thomas; Meier, Harald; Wolf, Marty J

    2002-01-01

    Heuristics for the NP-complete problem of calculating the optimal phylogenetic tree for a set of aligned rRNA sequences based on the maximum likelihood method are computationally expensive. In most existing algorithms the tree evaluation and branch length optimization functions, calculating the likelihood value for each tree topology examined in the search space, account for the greatest part of overall computation time. This paper introduces AxML, a program derived from fastDNAml, incorporating a fast topology evaluation function. The algorithmic optimizations introduced, represent a general approach for accelerating this function and are applicable to both sequential and parallel phylogeny programs, irrespective of their search space strategy. Therefore, their integration into three existing phylogeny programs rendered encouraging results. Experimental results on conventional processor architectures show a global run time improvement of 35% up to 47% for the various test sets and program versions we used.

  1. Use of the analytical tree technique to develop a radiological protection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domenech N, H.; Jova S, L.

    1996-01-01

    The results obtained by the Cuban Center for Radiological Protection and Hygiene by using an analytical tree technique to develop its general operational radiation protection program are presented. By the application of this method, some factors such as the organization of the radiation protection services, the provision of administrative requirements, the existing general laboratories requirements, the viability of resources and the current documentation was evaluated. Main components were considered such as: complete normative and regulatory documentation; automatic radiological protection data management; scope of 'on the-job'and radiological protection training for the personnel; previous radiological appraisal for the safety performance of the works and application of dose constrains for the personnel and the public. The detailed development of the program allowed to identify the basic aims to be achieved in its maintenance and improvement. (authors). 3 refs

  2. A simple program to measure and analyse tree rings using Excel, R and SigmaScan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    I present a new software that links a program for image analysis (SigmaScan), one for spreadsheets (Excel) and one for statistical analysis (R) for applications of tree-ring analysis. The first macro measures ring width marked by the user on scanned images, stores raw and detrended data in Excel and calculates the distance to the pith and inter-series correlations. A second macro measures darkness along a defined path to identify latewood–earlywood transition in conifers, and a third shows the potential for automatic detection of boundaries. Written in Visual Basic for Applications, the code makes use of the advantages of existing programs and is consequently very economic and relatively simple to adjust to the requirements of specific projects or to expand making use of already available code. PMID:26109835

  3. Identification and characterization of the abscisic acid (ABA) receptor gene family and its expression in response to hormones in the rubber tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dong; Zhou, Ying; Li, Hui-Liang; Zhu, Jia-Hong; Wang, Ying; Chen, Xiong-Ting; Peng, Shi-Qing

    2017-03-23

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential phytohormone involved in diverse physiological processes. Although genome-wide analyses of the ABA receptor PYR/PYL/RCAR (PYL) protein/gene family have been performed in certain plant species, little is known about the ABA receptor protein/gene family in the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). In this study, we identified 14 ABA receptor PYL proteins/genes (designated HbPYL1 through HbPYL14) in the most recent rubber tree genome. A phylogenetic tree was constructed, which demonstrated that HbPYLs can be divided into three subfamilies that correlate well with the corresponding Arabidopsis subfamilies. Eight HbPYLs are highly expressed in laticifers. Five of the eight genes are simultaneously regulated by ABA, jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET). The identification and characterization of HbPYLs should enable us to further understand the role of ABA signal in the rubber tree.

  4. Efficient mixed integer programming models for family scheduling problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Ye Lin

    Full Text Available This paper proposes several mixed integer programming models which incorporate optimal sequence properties into the models, to solve single machine family scheduling problems. The objectives are total weighted completion time and maximum lateness, respectively. Experiment results indicate that there are remarkable improvements in computational efficiency when optimal sequence properties are included in the models. For the total weighted completion time problems, the best model solves all of the problems up to 30-jobs within 5 s, all 50-job problems within 4 min and about 1/3 of the 75-job to 100-job problems within 1 h. For maximum lateness problems, the best model solves almost all the problems up to 30-jobs within 11 min and around half of the 50-job to 100-job problems within 1 h. Keywords: Family scheduling, Sequence independent setup, Total weighted completion time, Maximum lateness

  5. Cost-Effectiveness of a Family Planning Voucher Program in Rural Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Ivor Broughton

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThis study reports on the effectiveness and efficiency from the program funder’s perspective of the Suraj Social Franchise (SSF voucher program in which private health-care providers in remote rural areas were identified, trained, upgraded, and certified to deliver family planning services to underserved women of reproductive age in 29 districts of Sindh and 3 districts of Punjab province, Pakistan between October 2013 and June 2016.MethodA decision tree compared the cost of implementing SSF to the program funder and its effects of providing additional couple years of protection (CYPs to targeted women, compared to business-as-usual. Costs included vouchers given to women to receive a free contraceptive method of their choice from the SSF provider. The vouchers were then reimbursed to the SSF provider by the program.ResultsA total of 168,206 married women of reproductive age (MWRA received SSF vouchers between October 2013 and June 2016, costing $3,278,000 ($19.50/recipient. The average effectiveness of the program per voucher recipient was an additional 1.66 CYPs, giving an incremental cost-effectiveness of the program of $4.28 per CYP compared to not having the program (95% CI: $3.62–5.31.ConclusionThe result compares favorably to other interventions with similar objectives and appears affordable for the Pakistan national health-care system. It is therefore recommended to help address the unmet need for contraception among MWRA in these areas of Pakistan and is worthy of trial implementation in the country more widely.

  6. Family conflict, emotional security, and child development: translating research findings into a prevention program for community families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E Mark; Schatz, Julie N

    2012-03-01

    The social problem posed by family conflict to the physical and psychological health and well-being of children, parents, and underlying family relationships is a cause for concern. Inter-parental and parent-child conflict are linked with children's behavioral, emotional, social, academic, and health problems, with children's risk particularly elevated in distressed marriages. Supported by the promise of brief psycho-educational programs (e.g., Halford et al. in Journal of Family Psychology 22:497-505, 2008; Sanders in Journal of Family Psychology 22:506-517, 2008), the present paper presents the development and evaluation of a prevention program for community families with children, concerned with family-wide conflict and relationships, and building on Emotional Security Theory (Davies and Cummings in Psychological Bulletin 116:387-411, 1994). This program uniquely focuses on translating research and theory in this area into brief, engaging programs for community families to improve conflict and emotional security for the sake of the children. Evaluation is based on multi-domain and multi-method assessments of family-wide and child outcomes in the context of a randomized control design. A series of studies are briefly described in the programmatic development of a prevention program for conflict and emotional security for community families, culminating in a program for family-wide conflict and emotional security for families with adolescents. With regard to this ongoing program, evidence is presented at the post-test for improvements in family-wide functioning, consideration of the relative benefits for different groups within the community, and preliminary support for the theoretical bases for program outcomes.

  7. On financial management of population and family planning programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-03-01

    In the 3 day workshop of the Southeast Asian Region on the Financial Management of Population/Family Planning Programs held from March 15 to 17 it was recommended that there by standardization of financial reporting procedures by country programs for population planning. Related to this recommendation was the proposal that measurement of cost benefit and cost effective analysis of country programs be undertaken by the Research and Evaluation Units of the respective population organizations in close coordination with the financial managers. Other major recommendations included: 1) closer coordination between donor agencies and policy making bodies of country programs in the disbursement of funds; 2) more exchange of experiences, ideas, technical knowledge on the financial management of country programs in the Inter G overnmental Coordinating Committee for Southeast Asian countries; and 3) inclusion of applicable financial management topics in the training of clinical staff and followup in actual operation. The priority areas identified for the Inter Governmental Coordinating Committee countries (Nepal, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, and the Philippines) are financial planning; generation of resources and budgeting and allocation of funds; accounting and disbursement of funds; financial management at the clinic level; use of and control of foreign aid; and cost effectiveness, benefit analysis and financial reporting.

  8. Family-Based HIV Preventive Intervention: Child Level Results from the CHAMP Family Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Cami K.; Baptiste, Donna; Traube, Dorian; Paikoff, Roberta L.; Madison-Boyd, Sybil; Coleman, Doris; Bell, Carl C.; Coleman, Ida; McKay, Mary M.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Social indicators suggest that African American adolescents are in the highest risk categories of those contracting HIV/AIDS (CDC, 2001). The dramatic impact of HIV/AIDS on urban African American youth have influenced community leaders and policy makers to place high priority on programming that can prevent youth’s exposure to the virus (Pequegnat & Szapocznik, 2000). Program developers are encouraged to design programs that reflect the developmental ecology of urban youth (Tolan, Gorman-Smith, & Henry, 2003). This often translates into three concrete programmatic features: (1) Contextual relevance; (2) Developmental-groundedness; and (3) Systemic Delivery. Because families are considered to be urban youth’s best hope to grow up and survive multiple-dangers in urban neighborhoods (Pequegnat & Szapocznik, 2000), centering prevention within families may ensure that youth receive ongoing support, education, and messages that can increase their capacity to negotiate peer situations involving sex. This paper will present preliminary data from an HIV/AIDS prevention program that is contextually relevant, developmentally grounded and systematically-delivered. The collaborative HIV/AIDS Adolescent Mental Health Project (CHAMP) is aimed at decreasing HIV/AIDS risk exposure among a sample of African American youth living in a poverty-stricken, inner-city community in Chicago. This study describes results from this family-based HIV preventive intervention and involves 88 African American pre-adolescents and their primary caregivers. We present results for the intervention group at baseline and post intervention. We compare post test results to a community comparison group of youth. Suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:20852742

  9. Psychological health of military children: longitudinal evaluation of a family-centered prevention program to enhance family resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Patricia; Stein, Judith A; Saltzman, William; Woodward, Kirsten; MacDermid, Shelley W; Milburn, Norweeta; Mogil, Catherine; Beardslee, William

    2013-08-01

    Family-centered preventive interventions have been proposed as relevant to mitigating psychological health risk and promoting resilience in military families facing wartime deployment and reintegration. This study evaluates the impact of a family-centered prevention program, Families OverComing Under Stress Family Resilience Training (FOCUS), on the psychological adjustment of military children. Two primary goals include (1) understanding the relationships of distress among family members using a longitudinal path model to assess relations at the child and family level and (2) determining pathways of program impact on child adjustment. Multilevel data analysis using structural equation modeling was conducted with deidentified service delivery data from 280 families (505 children aged 3-17) in two follow-up assessments. Standardized measures included service member and civilian parental distress (Brief Symptom Inventory, PTSD Checklist-Military), child adjustment (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), and family functioning (McMaster Family Assessment Device). Distress was significantly related among the service member parent, civilian parent, and children. FOCUS improved family functioning, which in turn significantly reduced child distress at follow-up. Salient components of improved family functioning in reducing child distress mirrored resilience processes targeted by FOCUS. These findings underscore the public health potential of family-centered prevention for military families and suggest areas for future research. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  10. Gene family structure, expression and functional analysis of HD-Zip III genes in angiosperm and gymnosperm forest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Caroline L; Boileau, Francis; Roy, Vicky; Ouellet, Mario; Levasseur, Caroline; Morency, Marie-Josée; Cooke, Janice E K; Séguin, Armand; MacKay, John J

    2010-12-11

    Class III Homeodomain Leucine Zipper (HD-Zip III) proteins have been implicated in the regulation of cambium identity, as well as primary and secondary vascular differentiation and patterning in herbaceous plants. They have been proposed to regulate wood formation but relatively little evidence is available to validate such a role. We characterised and compared HD-Zip III gene family in an angiosperm tree, Populus spp. (poplar), and the gymnosperm Picea glauca (white spruce), representing two highly evolutionarily divergent groups. Full-length cDNA sequences were isolated from poplar and white spruce. Phylogenetic reconstruction indicated that some of the gymnosperm sequences were derived from lineages that diverged earlier than angiosperm sequences, and seem to have been lost in angiosperm lineages. Transcript accumulation profiles were assessed by RT-qPCR on tissue panels from both species and in poplar trees in response to an inhibitor of polar auxin transport. The overall transcript profiles HD-Zip III complexes in white spruce and poplar exhibited substantial differences, reflecting their evolutionary history. Furthermore, two poplar sequences homologous to HD-Zip III genes involved in xylem development in Arabidopsis and Zinnia were over-expressed in poplar plants. PtaHB1 over-expression produced noticeable effects on petiole and primary shoot fibre development, suggesting that PtaHB1 is involved in primary xylem development. We also obtained evidence indicating that expression of PtaHB1 affected the transcriptome by altering the accumulation of 48 distinct transcripts, many of which are predicted to be involved in growth and cell wall synthesis. Most of them were down-regulated, as was the case for several of the poplar HD-Zip III sequences. No visible physiological effect of over-expression was observed on PtaHB7 transgenic trees, suggesting that PtaHB1 and PtaHB7 likely have distinct roles in tree development, which is in agreement with the functions that

  11. Gene family structure, expression and functional analysis of HD-Zip III genes in angiosperm and gymnosperm forest trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooke Janice EK

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Class III Homeodomain Leucine Zipper (HD-Zip III proteins have been implicated in the regulation of cambium identity, as well as primary and secondary vascular differentiation and patterning in herbaceous plants. They have been proposed to regulate wood formation but relatively little evidence is available to validate such a role. We characterised and compared HD-Zip III gene family in an angiosperm tree, Populus spp. (poplar, and the gymnosperm Picea glauca (white spruce, representing two highly evolutionarily divergent groups. Results Full-length cDNA sequences were isolated from poplar and white spruce. Phylogenetic reconstruction indicated that some of the gymnosperm sequences were derived from lineages that diverged earlier than angiosperm sequences, and seem to have been lost in angiosperm lineages. Transcript accumulation profiles were assessed by RT-qPCR on tissue panels from both species and in poplar trees in response to an inhibitor of polar auxin transport. The overall transcript profiles HD-Zip III complexes in white spruce and poplar exhibited substantial differences, reflecting their evolutionary history. Furthermore, two poplar sequences homologous to HD-Zip III genes involved in xylem development in Arabidopsis and Zinnia were over-expressed in poplar plants. PtaHB1 over-expression produced noticeable effects on petiole and primary shoot fibre development, suggesting that PtaHB1 is involved in primary xylem development. We also obtained evidence indicating that expression of PtaHB1 affected the transcriptome by altering the accumulation of 48 distinct transcripts, many of which are predicted to be involved in growth and cell wall synthesis. Most of them were down-regulated, as was the case for several of the poplar HD-Zip III sequences. No visible physiological effect of over-expression was observed on PtaHB7 transgenic trees, suggesting that PtaHB1 and PtaHB7 likely have distinct roles in tree development

  12. An investigation of scale effects in family substance abuse treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A James

    2010-07-05

    This short report investigates scale effects in family substance abuse treatment programs. In Massachusetts, the family substance abuse treatment programs were much more costly than other adult residential treatment models. State officials were concerned that the "scale" or size of these programs (averaging just eight families) was too small to be economical. Although the sample size (just nine programs) was too small to permit reliable inference, the data clearly signalled the importance of "scale effects" in these family substance abuse treatment programs. To further investigate scale effects in family substance abuse treatment programs, data from the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment's (CSAT's) Residential Women and Children and Pregnant and Postpartum Women (RWC-PPW) Demonstration were re-analyzed, focusing on the relationship between cost per family-day and the estimated average family census. This analysis indicates strong economies of scale up until an average family census of about 14, and less apparent scale effects beyond that point. In consideration of these and other study findings, a multidisciplinary interagency team redesigned the Massachusetts' family treatment program model. The new programs are larger than the former family treatment programs, with each new program having capacity to treat 11 to 15 families depending on family makeup.

  13. An investigation of scale effects in family substance abuse treatment programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee A James

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This short report investigates scale effects in family substance abuse treatment programs. In Massachusetts, the family substance abuse treatment programs were much more costly than other adult residential treatment models. State officials were concerned that the "scale" or size of these programs (averaging just eight families was too small to be economical. Although the sample size (just nine programs was too small to permit reliable inference, the data clearly signalled the importance of "scale effects" in these family substance abuse treatment programs. To further investigate scale effects in family substance abuse treatment programs, data from the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment's (CSAT's Residential Women and Children and Pregnant and Postpartum Women (RWC-PPW Demonstration were re-analyzed, focusing on the relationship between cost per family-day and the estimated average family census. This analysis indicates strong economies of scale up until an average family census of about 14, and less apparent scale effects beyond that point. In consideration of these and other study findings, a multidisciplinary interagency team redesigned the Massachusetts' family treatment program model. The new programs are larger than the former family treatment programs, with each new program having capacity to treat 11 to 15 families depending on family makeup.

  14. Construction of a Family Quality of Life Support Program for families of young and adults with intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natxo MARTÍNEZ RUEDA

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is grounded on current conceptions on Family Quality of Life (FQoL and family-centered intervention. It describes a part of the building process of a ‘Program for Supporting Family Quality of Life’, within the SAIOA-BBK frame a Gorabide’s information, guidance and support service for people with intellectual disability and their families. A major goal of this project is making proposals for professionals to fit the link between FQoL assessment and its improvement. The program was developed, constructed and tested through collaborative methods between professionals and university researchers, aiming to an increase of FQoL of families with sons or daughters among the youth and adulthood period. Program features, and how it was experimented in a pilot sample of families (n = 5 is presented.

  15. Extensions of dynamic programming as a new tool for decision tree optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalid, Abdulaziz

    2013-01-01

    The chapter is devoted to the consideration of two types of decision trees for a given decision table: α-decision trees (the parameter α controls the accuracy of tree) and decision trees (which allow arbitrary level of accuracy). We study possibilities of sequential optimization of α-decision trees relative to different cost functions such as depth, average depth, and number of nodes. For decision trees, we analyze relationships between depth and number of misclassifications. We also discuss results of computer experiments with some datasets from UCI ML Repository. ©Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013.

  16. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF SET PARTITIONING IN HIERARCHICAL TREES (SPIHT ALGORITHM FOR A FAMILY OF WAVELETS USED IN COLOR IMAGE COMPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sreenivasa Murthy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With the spurt in the amount of data (Image, video, audio, speech, & text available on the net, there is a huge demand for memory & bandwidth savings. One has to achieve this, by maintaining the quality & fidelity of the data acceptable to the end user. Wavelet transform is an important and practical tool for data compression. Set partitioning in hierarchal trees (SPIHT is a widely used compression algorithm for wavelet transformed images. Among all wavelet transform and zero-tree quantization based image compression algorithms SPIHT has become the benchmark state-of-the-art algorithm because it is simple to implement & yields good results. In this paper we present a comparative study of various wavelet families for image compression with SPIHT algorithm. We have conducted experiments with Daubechies, Coiflet, Symlet, Bi-orthogonal, Reverse Bi-orthogonal and Demeyer wavelet types. The resulting image quality is measured objectively, using peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR, and subjectively, using perceived image quality (human visual perception, HVP for short. The resulting reduction in the image size is quantified by compression ratio (CR.

  17. Reproductive biology of Pittosporum dasycaulon Miq., (Family Pittosporaceae) a rare medicinal tree endemic to Western Ghats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Krishna Kumar; Thomas, Thuruthiyil Dennis

    2014-12-01

    For successful cultivation and conservation of plants a detailed knowledge of their reproductive biology is required. The reproductive features of trees are important to determine the diversity patterns and community structure of tropical forests. The present study on reproductive biology of Pittosporum dasycaulon, a rare medicinal tree, was conducted in the shola forests of Vaghamon hills, one of the foot hills of Southern Western Ghats of India from 2008-2011. The plant flowers profusely during February to April. Inflorescence is a raceme and the total number of flowers per inflorescence varies from 96-217. The flowers are comparatively small, hermaphrodite, short pedicellate, complete, zygomorphic, pentamerous, polypetalous, hypogynous and light cream in colour with an average length of 1.14 cm. Anthesis started at 08.30 h and the flowers were completely opened at approximately 09.30 h followed by anther deshiscence at 10.00-11.30 h. The pollen grains were trizonocolpate with 45 ± 5.6 μm in size. Acetocarmine staining showed 66 ± 6% fertile pollen at the time of anther dehiscence. The number of pollen grains in an anther is 5246 ± 845 and per flower is 26230 ± 1021. The stigma is wet, non-papillate, capitate and contains a thin film of exudates under the light microscope. The superior ovary is densely covered with papillate hairs and containing 3-8 ovules. The important floral visitors include bees and butterflies. The plant is self-incompatible and an out crosser. Fruit set under open-pollination was poor (24%) with 58.3% fruits having seeds inside. There was no fruit set in manually self pollinated flowers while over 57% of the cross pollinated flowers set fruits. Our study presents a detailed account on reproductive biology of this medicinal tree which may help in the conservation and genetic improvement of this particular taxa.

  18. The alpha-kinase family: an exceptional branch on the protein kinase tree.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelbeek, J.A.J.; Clark, K.; Venselaar, H.; Huynen, M.A.; Leeuwen, F.N. van

    2010-01-01

    The alpha-kinase family represents a class of atypical protein kinases that display little sequence similarity to conventional protein kinases. Early studies on myosin heavy chain kinases in Dictyostelium discoideum revealed their unusual propensity to phosphorylate serine and threonine residues in

  19. [Family planning programs and birth control in the third world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlschlagl, H

    1991-01-01

    The population explosion has been abating since the 2nd half of the 1960s. The birth rate of the 3rd World dropped from 45/1000 during 1950-55 to 31/1000 during 1985-90. From the 1st half of the 1960s to the 1st half of the 1980s the total fertility of such countries dropped from 6.1 to 4.2 children/woman. In Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, and Malaysia living standards improved as a result of industrialization, and fertility decreased significantly. In Sri Lanka, China, North Vietnam, and Thailand the drop of fertility is explained by cultural and religious factors. In 1982 about 78% of the population of developing countries lived in 39 states that followed an official policy aimed at reducing the population. Another 16% lived in countries supporting the concept of a desired family size. However, World Bank data showed that in the mid-1980s in 27 developing countries no state family planning (FP) programs existed. India adopted an official FP program in 1952, Pakistan followed suit in 1960, South Korea in 1961, and China in 1962. In Latin America a split policy manifested itself: in Brazil birth control was rejected, only Colombia had a FP policy. In 1986 the governments of 68 of 131 developing countries representing 3.1 billion people considered the number of children per woman too high. 31 of these countries followed concrete population control policies. On the other hand, in 1986 24 countries of Africa with 40% of the continent's population took no measures to influence population growth. In Latin America and the Caribbean 18 of 33 countries were idle, except for Mexico that had a massive state FP program. These programs also improve maternal and child health with birth spacing of at least 2 years, and the prevention of pregnancies of too young women or those over 40. The evaluation of rapidly spreading FP programs in the 1970s was carried out by the World Fertility Survey in 41 countries. The impact of FP programs was more substantial than

  20. Predicting Program Completion among Families Enrolled in a Child Neglect Preventive Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girvin, Heather; DePanfilis, Diane; Daining, Clara

    2007-01-01

    Objective: An exploratory analysis of self-report data gathered by the Family Connections program is used to build a predictive model of program completion. Method: The sample includes 136 families in a poor, urban neighborhood who meet risk criteria for child neglect. Families are randomly assigned to receive 3- or 9-month interventions.…

  1. A brief history of macromolecular crystallography, illustrated by a family tree and its Nobel fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskolski, Mariusz; Dauter, Zbigniew; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    As a contribution to the celebration of the year 2014, declared by the United Nations to be 'The International Year of Crystallography', the FEBS Journal is dedicating this issue to papers showcasing the intimate union between macromolecular crystallography and structural biology, both in historical perspective and in current research. Instead of a formal editorial piece, by way of introduction, this review discusses the most important, often iconic, achievements of crystallographers that led to major advances in our understanding of the structure and function of biological macromolecules. We identified at least 42 scientists who received Nobel Prizes in Physics, Chemistry or Medicine for their contributions that included the use of X-rays or neutrons and crystallography, including 24 who made seminal discoveries in macromolecular sciences. Our spotlight is mostly, but not only, on the recipients of this most prestigious scientific honor, presented in approximately chronological order. As a summary of the review, we attempt to construct a genealogy tree of the principal lineages of protein crystallography, leading from the founding members to the present generation. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. On P versus NP \\cap co-NP for Decision Trees and Read-Once Branching Programs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jukna, S.; Razborov, A.; Savický, Petr; Wegener, I.

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 4 (1999), s. 357-370 ISSN 1016-3328 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/95/0976 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : computational complexity * Boolean functions * decision trees * branching programs * P versus NP intersection co-NP Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.161, year: 1999

  3. Family Support Programs for Families Who Have Children with Severe Emotional, Behavioral or Mental Disabilities: The State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freud, Elissa

    This paper profiles nine model programs for supporting families who care for a child with a severe illness or one or more disabilities and discusses current trends as they emerged from interviews with key persons in the field. Core components examined include self-help, advocacy, parent education, respite care, family-centered case management, and…

  4. Family tree and ancestry inference: is there a need for a 'generational' consent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Susan E; Gourna, Elli G; Nikolova, Viktoriya; Sheehan, Nuala A

    2015-12-09

    Genealogical research and ancestry testing are popular recreational activities but little is known about the impact of the use of these services on clients' biological and social families. Ancestry databases are being enriched with self-reported data and data from deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) analyses, but also are being linked to other direct-to-consumer genetic testing and research databases. As both family history data and DNA can provide information on more than just the individual, we asked whether companies, as a part of the consent process, were informing clients, and through them clients' relatives, of the potential implications of the use and linkage of their personal data. We used content analysis to analyse publically-available consent and informational materials provided to potential clients of ancestry and direct-to-consumer genetic testing companies to determine what consent is required, what risks associated with participation were highlighted, and whether the consent or notification of third parties was suggested or required. We identified four categories of companies providing: 1) services based only on self-reported data, such as personal or family history; 2) services based only on DNA provided by the client; 3) services using both; and 4) services using both that also have a research component. The amount of information provided on the potential issues varied significantly across the categories of companies. 'Traditional' ancestry companies showed the greatest awareness of the implications for family members, while companies only asking for DNA focused solely on the client. While in some cases companies included text recommending clients inform their relatives, showing they recognised the issues, often it was located within lengthy terms and conditions or privacy statements that may not be read by potential clients. We recommend that companies should make it clearer that clients should inform third parties about their plans to participate, that

  5. A review of family health's latest evaluation of the demographic impact of the Louisiana Family Planning Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettys, J O; Atkins, E H; Mary, C C

    1974-03-01

    The report, "Recent Trends in Louisiana Fertility," released in January 1973 is reviewed. This report was distinguished from other Louisiana Family Planning Program evaluations of demographic impact by several features: 1) Louisiana crude birth rates are compared with those of the United States and Mississippi; 2) differences in age-specific nonwhite fertility rates in Louisiana between 1965 and 1971 are compared with corresponding differences in Mississippi; and 3) the concepts of "parity components of age-specific rates" and "excess births" are introduced into the discussion of Louisiana fertility trends. According to the reviewers, no scientific or even psudoscientific analysis of the Louisiana Family Planning Program has ever been published or made available by the Family Health Foundation to any state agency. They contend that the so-called evaluations of the demographic impact of the Louisiana Family Planning Program are textbook examples of customized statistics. It is suggested that the family planning program services may contribute to increased natality and that the family planning program workers are more highly motivated to retain their jobs than to bring down the brith rate. The reviewers are not convinced that the statisticians on the Family Health Foundation are responsible for all of the narrative that accompanies their charts and tables.

  6. Action-oriented evaluation of an in-home family therapy program for families at risk for foster care placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWey, Lenore M; Humphreys, Julie; Pazdera, Andrea L

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an action-oriented evaluation of an in-home family therapy program serving families deemed at risk for the placement of children in foster care. In this study, feedback was solicited from both clients and therapists. Results indicate "duality" associated with several aspects of in-home family therapy, including the opportunity to observe families in their own homes versus the vulnerability some families feel when therapy is conducted in-home; therapists suggesting that sufficient training is required for in-home family therapy to be effective versus clients' opinions that therapists' lived experiences are more relevant; and the importance of the therapeutic alliance versus feelings of abandonment upon termination. Implications for researchers and practitioners are discussed. © 2009 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  7. Shaking the myosin family tree: biochemical kinetics defines four types of myosin motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemink, Marieke J; Geeves, Michael A

    2011-12-01

    Although all myosin motors follow the same basic cross-bridge cycle, they display a large variety in the rates of transition between different states in the cycle, allowing each myosin to be finely tuned for a specific task. Traditionally, myosins have been classified by sequence analysis into a large number of sub-families (∼35). Here we use a different method to classify the myosin family members which is based on biochemical and mechanical properties. The key properties that define the type of mechanical activity of the motor are duty ratio (defined as the fraction of the time myosin remains attached to actin during each cycle), thermodynamic coupling of actin and nucleotide binding to myosin and the degree of strain-sensitivity of the ADP release step. Based on these properties we propose to classify myosins into four different groups: (I) fast movers, (II) slow/efficient force holders, (III) strain sensors and (IV) gates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing the effects of Families for Safe Dates, a family-based teen dating abuse prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A; McNaughton Reyes, Heath Luz; Ennett, Susan T; Cance, Jessica D; Bauman, Karl E; Bowling, J Michael

    2012-10-01

    To examine the effects of a family-based teen dating abuse prevention program, Families for Safe Dates, primarily on outcomes related to testing the conceptual underpinnings of the program including (1) factors motivating and facilitating caregiver engagement in teen dating abuse prevention activities, and 2) risk factors for teen dating abuse, and secondarily on dating abuse behaviors. Families were recruited nationwide using listed telephone numbers. Caregivers and teens completed baseline and 3-month follow-up telephone interviews (n = 324). Families randomly allocated to treatment condition received the Families for Safe Dates program including six mailed activity booklets followed-up by health educator telephone calls. There were significant (teen dating abuse prevention activities including caregiver perceived severity of dating abuse, response efficacy for preventing dating abuse, self-efficacy for talking about dating abuse, knowledge of dating abuse, acceptance of dating abuse, communication skills with the teen, and belief in the importance of involvement in their male (but not female) teen's dating. The latter effect was the only one moderated by sex of the teen. The targeted risk factor affected by the program was teen acceptance of dating abuse. Treatment was also significantly associated with less physical dating abuse victimization. Modifications to the program are warranted, but overall, the findings are very favorable for the first family-based teen dating abuse prevention program to be evaluated. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The family tree is not cut: marriage among slaves in eighteenth-century Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Stark

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Examines the frequency of slave marriage in 18th-c. Puerto Rico, through family reconstitution based on parish baptismal, marriage, and death registers. Author first sketches the development of slavery, and the work regimens and conditions of the not yet sugar-dominated slavery in Puerto Rico. Then, he describes the religious context and social implications of marriage among slaves, and discusses, through an example, spousal selection patterns, and further focuses on age and seasonality of the slave marriages. He explains that marriage brought some legal advantages for slaves, such as the prohibited separation, by sale, of married slaves. In addition, he explores how slaves pursued marital strategies in order to manipulate material conditions. He concludes from the results that in the 18th c. marriage among slaves was not uncommon, and appear to have been determined mostly by the slaves own choice, with little direct intervention by masters. Most slaves married other slaves, with the same owner.

  10. An Approach to Examining the Proximal and Intermediate Outcomes of an Intensive Family Preservation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Kristin Duppong; Griffith, Annette; Ingram, Stephanie; Bolivar, Claudine; Mason, W. Alex; Trout, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the Boys Town In-Home Family Program (BT-IHFP) on parenting skills, family functioning, and child behavior for at-risk families involved with child protective services. The BT-IHFP is designed as a home-based, family-centered alternative to out-of-home placement with the goal of improving family functioning,…

  11. Genetic program based data mining of fuzzy decision trees and methods of improving convergence and reducing bloat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James F., III; Nguyen, ThanhVu H.

    2007-04-01

    A data mining procedure for automatic determination of fuzzy decision tree structure using a genetic program (GP) is discussed. A GP is an algorithm that evolves other algorithms or mathematical expressions. Innovative methods for accelerating convergence of the data mining procedure and reducing bloat are given. In genetic programming, bloat refers to excessive tree growth. It has been observed that the trees in the evolving GP population will grow by a factor of three every 50 generations. When evolving mathematical expressions much of the bloat is due to the expressions not being in algebraically simplest form. So a bloat reduction method based on automated computer algebra has been introduced. The effectiveness of this procedure is discussed. Also, rules based on fuzzy logic have been introduced into the GP to accelerate convergence, reduce bloat and produce a solution more readily understood by the human user. These rules are discussed as well as other techniques for convergence improvement and bloat control. Comparisons between trees created using a genetic program and those constructed solely by interviewing experts are made. A new co-evolutionary method that improves the control logic evolved by the GP by having a genetic algorithm evolve pathological scenarios is discussed. The effect on the control logic is considered. Finally, additional methods that have been used to validate the data mining algorithm are referenced.

  12. Teaching-skills training programs for family medicine residents: systematic review of formats, content, and effects of existing programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasse, Miriam; Ratnapalan, Savithiri

    2009-09-01

    To review the literature on teaching-skills training programs for family medicine residents and to identify formats and content of these programs and their effects. Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to mid-July 2008) and the Education Resources Information Center database (pre-1966 to mid-July 2008) were searched using and combining the MeSH terms teaching, internship and residency, and family practice; and teaching, graduate medical education, and family practice. The initial MEDLINE and Education Resources Information Center database searches identified 362 and 33 references, respectively. Titles and abstracts were reviewed and studies were included if they described the format or content of a teaching-skills program or if they were primary studies of the effects of a teaching-skills program for family medicine residents or family medicine and other specialty trainees. The bibliographies of those articles were reviewed for unidentified studies. A total of 8 articles were identified for systematic review. Selection was limited to articles published in English. Teaching-skills training programs for family medicine residents vary from half-day curricula to a few months of training. Their content includes leadership skills, effective clinical teaching skills, technical teaching skills, as well as feedback and evaluation skills. Evaluations mainly assessed the programs' effects on teaching behaviour, which was generally found to improve following participation in the programs. Evaluations of learner reactions and learning outcomes also suggested that the programs have positive effects. Family medicine residency training programs differ from all other residency training programs in their shorter duration, usually 2 years, and the broader scope of learning within those 2 years. Few studies on teaching-skills training, however, were designed specifically for family medicine residents. Further studies assessing the effects of teaching-skills training in family medicine residents are

  13. Cost-effectiveness of a new rotavirus vaccination program in Pakistan: a decision tree model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hiten D; Roberts, Eric T; Constenla, Dagna O

    2013-12-09

    Rotavirus gastroenteritis places a significant health and economic burden on Pakistan. To determine the public health impact of a national rotavirus vaccination program, we performed a cost-effectiveness study from the perspective of the health care system. A decision tree model was developed to assess the cost-effectiveness of a national vaccination program in Pakistan. Disease and cost burden with the program were compared to the current state. Disease parameters, vaccine-related costs, and medical treatment costs were based on published epidemiological and economic data, which were specific to Pakistan when possible. An annual birth cohort of children was followed for 5 years to model the public health impact of vaccination on health-related events and costs. The cost-effectiveness was assessed and quantified in cost (2012 US$) per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted and cost per death averted. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the robustness of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). The base case results showed vaccination prevented 1.2 million cases of rotavirus gastroenteritis, 93,000 outpatient visits, 43,000 hospitalizations, and 6700 deaths by 5 years of age for an annual birth cohort scaled from 6% current coverage to DPT3 levels (85%). The medical cost savings would be US$1.4 million from hospitalizations and US$200,000 from outpatient visit costs. The vaccination program would cost US$35 million at a vaccine price of US$5.00. The ICER was US$149.50 per DALY averted or US$4972 per death averted. Sensitivity analyses showed changes in case-fatality ratio, vaccine efficacy, and vaccine cost exerted the greatest influence on the ICER. Across a range of sensitivity analyses, a national rotavirus vaccination program was predicted to decrease health and economic burden due to rotavirus gastroenteritis in Pakistan by ~40%. Vaccination was highly cost-effective in this context. As discussions of implementing the intervention

  14. Families Experiencing Housing Instability: The Effects of Housing Programs on Family Routines and Rituals

    OpenAIRE

    Mayberry, Lindsay S.; Shinn, Marybeth; Benton, Jessica Gibbons; Wise, Jasmine

    2014-01-01

    Maintenance of family processes can protect parents, children, and families from the detrimental effects of extreme stressors, such as homelessness. When families cannot maintain routines and rituals, the stressors of poverty and homelessness can be compounded for both caregivers and children. However, characteristics of living situations common among families experiencing homelessness present barriers to the maintenance of family routines and rituals. We analyzed 80 in-depth interviews with ...

  15. This is My Family

    OpenAIRE

    Yeğen, Hale Nur; Çetin, Merve

    2017-01-01

    Me and my family, Families poem, Mother-Father, Brother-Sister, Grandparents, Uncle-Aunt, Cousin, Family, Family handgame, My family tree, Activities (Three In a Family), Digital Games, A family poem, Quiz

  16. Improving reliability of state estimation programming and computing suite based on analyzing a fault tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolosok Irina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable information on the current state parameters obtained as a result of processing the measurements from systems of the SCADA and WAMS data acquisition and processing through methods of state estimation (SE is a condition that enables to successfully manage an energy power system (EPS. SCADA and WAMS systems themselves, as any technical systems, are subject to failures and faults that lead to distortion and loss of information. The SE procedure enables to find erroneous measurements, therefore, it is a barrier for the distorted information to penetrate into control problems. At the same time, the programming and computing suite (PCS implementing the SE functions may itself provide a wrong decision due to imperfection of the software algorithms and errors. In this study, we propose to use a fault tree to analyze consequences of failures and faults in SCADA and WAMS and in the very SE procedure. Based on the analysis of the obtained measurement information and on the SE results, we determine the state estimation PCS fault tolerance level featuring its reliability.

  17. Family health program user: knowledge and satisfaction about user embracement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Lacerda Borges de Sá

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the knowledge and satisfaction of users of a Basic Health Unit about the strategy of embracement. Methods: Descriptive study with qualitative approach, carried out in a Basic Health Unit, Fortaleza, Brazil, where practical activities of the Education Program of Work for Health of the University of Fortaleza were performed. Fifty eight service users were involved, following inclusion criteria: being present during the data collection, age over 18, regardless of sex, and voluntary participation. Data collection occurred in December 2009, through semi-structured interview. The data associated with the identification of users were processed in Microsoft Office Excel 2007, being organizedstatistically in table. Data related to qualitative aspects were analyzed according to the technique of content analysis. Results: 56 (97% were women, with ages ranging between 21 and 40 years, 34 (59% were married and 53 (91% are literate. On family income, 55 (95%received less than two minimum salaries per month. In order to facilitate understanding the speech of users, these were evaluated from the perspective of two categories: knowledge about embracement and satisfaction with embracement. Conclusion: Users have a limited view of the significance and magnitude of the embracement to provide the care. Although satisfied with the service, respondents report as negative aspects: the shortage of professionals, the professional relationship with user impaired due to constant delays of the professional, and the dehumanization of care.

  18. The Effects of a Family Support Program Including Respite Care on Parenting Stress and Family Quality of Life Perceived by Primary Caregivers of Children with Disabilities in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Minjung; Park, Jiyeon

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a family support program was carried out for primary caregivers of children with disabilities. The program included respite care, recreation programs, counseling, and social support coordination based on individual needs of each family. In order to verify the intervention effects, parenting stress and family quality of life were…

  19. Diversification of the monoterpene synthase gene family (TPSb) in Protium, a highly diverse genus of tropical trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Felipe; Fine, Paul V A

    2013-09-01

    Plant monoterpenes are a diverse class of secondary metabolites mediating biotic and abiotic interactions with direct effects on plant fitness. To evaluate the hypothesis that monoterpene diversity is related to functional diversification after gene duplication, we reconstructed the evolutionary history of monoterpene synthases (TPSb)--the genes underlying monoterpene synthesis--in Protium, a taxonomically and chemically diverse genus of tropical trees. We isolated multiple copies of TPSb genes from chemically divergent Protium species, reconstructed the phylogeny of this gene family, used maximum-likelihood estimation of selection coefficients, and inferred residues evolving under positive selection. We found evidence for one ancient and multiple more recent duplication events giving rise to three, and potentially five, copies of TPSb genes currently present in Protium. There was evidence for adaptive evolution in one copy with a positively selected residue likely involved in protein folding and product specificity. All other copies were inferred to be evolving under a combination of stabilizing and/or relaxed selection. Although gene copy number is consistent with the extensive phenotypic diversity in monoterpenes shown in Protium, selection analyses suggest that not all copies are undergoing divergent selection consistent with a coevolutionary arms race with enemies, but instead may be under stabilizing and relaxed selection consistent with signaling or physiological stress functionality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The pharmaceutical management system at Shade Tree Family Clinic: a medical student-run free clinic's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Benjamin P; Patel, Sanjay G; Guyer, Dana L; Dunn, Sarah R; Herceg, Megan E; Knox, Caroline K; Miller, Robert F

    2008-09-01

    The Shade Tree Family Clinic (STFC) is a student-run free walk-in health clinic opened by Vanderbilt University medical students in October 2005 to address the acute and chronic health needs of the underinsured community in East Nashville. STFC founders decided that the clinic would provide complete medical care, including dispensing commonly prescribed medications at no charge to patients. After several months of managing the inventory in a log book, a medical student author created a Web-based pharmaceutical tracking system to manage the medication formulary. In the process, the authors found little literature available addressing the logistics of setting up an electronic pharmacy system. The system created uses the freely available RxNorm and US Department of Veterans Affairs National Drug File Reference Terminology databases for medication and classification data. Incorporation of these databases allows medical students to dispense and restock medications with ease. The system ensures accurate data entry, improves efficiency, and facilitates continuity of care at a clinic staffed by hundreds of different students and physicians. The STFC pharmaceutical tracking system has facilitated the acquisition and efficient management of medications and consequently has had a great impact on the success of STFC.

  1. EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT PRE-GERMINATIVE METHODS FOR THREE TREE SPECIES OF THE FABACEAE FAMILY IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R N Costa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Sesbania virgata (Cav. Pers., Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. and Cassia grandis L.f. species belong to the Fabaceae family, are characterized by their seeds present a dormant state, which limits the germination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of pre-germination treatments to overcome dormancy these species. Seeds were collected from matrix trees, located in Agreste of Alagoas and the research developed at the Federal University of Alagoas – Campus de Arapiraca. Overcoming of dormancy was studied in laboratory and greenhouse, where they were employed eight treatments with four replications of 25 seeds, in a completely randomized design: immersion in sulfuric acid (in three periods of immersion, depending on species, scarification with sandpaper, immersion in hot water at 80 °C (2.5 and 5 minutes, imbibition for 24 hours in distilled water and control (seeds without the application of any treatment. The evaluation of the results was made through of germination and emergence percentage; germination and emergence speed index and germination and emergence average time. The pre-germination treatments, mechanical scarification with sandpaper and chemical scarification with sulfuric acid in different immersion times were the most efficient to overcome the seeds dormancy of Sesbania virgata, Mimosa caesalpiniifolia and Cassia grandis Independent of the studied environments.

  2. Osmotin induces cold protection in olive trees by affecting programmed cell death and cytoskeleton organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angeli, S; Altamura, M M

    2007-04-01

    Osmotin is a pathogenesis-related protein exhibiting cryoprotective functions. Our aim was to understand whether it is involved in the cold acclimation of the olive tree (Olea europaea L.), a frost-sensitive species lacking dormancy. We exposed olive trees expressing tobacco osmotin gene under the 35S promoter (35S:osm) [in the same manner as wild type (wt) plants] to cold shocks in the presence/absence of cold acclimation, and monitored changes in programmed cell death (PCD), cytoskeleton, and calcium ([Ca2+]c) signalling. In the wt, osmotin was immunolocalized only in cold-acclimated plants, and in the tissues showing PCD. In the 35S:osm clones, the protein was detected also in the non-acclimated plants, and always in the tissues exhibiting PCD. In the non-acclimated wt protoplasts exposed to cold shock, a transient decrease in phallotoxin signal suggests a temporary disassembly of F-actin, a transient increase occurred instead in 35S:osm protoplasts exposed to the same shock. Transient increases in [Ca2+]c were observed only in the wt protoplasts. However, when F-actin was depolymerized by cytochalasin or latrunculin, and microtubules by colchicine, increase in [Ca2+]c also occurred in the 35S:osm protoplasts. Successive cold shocks caused transient rises in [Ca2+]c and transient decreases in the phallotoxin signal in wt protoplasts. No change occurred in [Ca2+]c occurred in the 35S:osm protoplasts. The phallotoxin signal transiently increased at the first shock, but did not change after the subsequent shocks, and an overall signal reduction occurred with shock repetition. Following acclimation, no cold shock-induced change in [Ca2+]c levels and F-actin signal occurred either in wt or 35S:osm protoplasts. The results show that osmotin is positively involved in the acclimation-related PCD, in blocking the cold-induced calcium signalling, and in affecting cytoskeleton in response to cold stimuli.

  3. Additional file 1: of f-treeGC: a questionnaire-based family tree-creation software for genetic counseling and genome cohort studies

    OpenAIRE

    Tokutomi, Tomoharu; Fukushima, Akimune; Yamamoto, Kayono; Bansho, Yasushi; Hachiya, Tsuyoshi; Shimizu, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    Dialog boxes of f-treeGC (a) Confirmation of whether or not the client has a child at system startup, (b) Configuration of the color for affected individuals, (c) File attribute setting for changing the created/modified date and time, setting a password, and converting to read-only. (PPTX 141 kb)

  4. An investigation of the colorectal cancer experience and receptivity to family-based cancer prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radecki Breitkopf, Carmen; Asiedu, Gladys B; Egginton, Jason; Sinicrope, Pamela; Opyrchal, Seung M L; Howell, Lisa A; Patten, Christi; Boardman, Lisa

    2014-09-01

    Cancer is a shared family experience and may provide a "teachable moment" to motivate at-risk family members to adopt cancer prevention and health promotion behaviors. This study explored how a diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) is experienced by family members and may be used to develop a family-based CRC prevention program. Preferences regarding content, timing, and modes of program delivery were examined. Social cognitive theory provided the conceptual framework for the study. This study employed mixed methodology (semi-structured interviews and self-report questionnaires). Participants included 73 adults (21 patients, 52 family members) from 23 families (two patients were deceased prior to being interviewed). Most patients (n = 14; 67 %) were interviewed 1-5 years post-diagnosis. Individual interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and content analyzed. For many, a CRC diagnosis was described as a shared family experience. Family members supported each other's efforts to prevent CRC through screening, exercising, and maintaining a healthy diet. Teachable moments for introducing a family-based program included the time of the patient's initial cancer surgery and post-chemotherapy. Reported willingness to participate in a family-based program was associated with risk perception, self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, and the social/community context in which the program would be embedded. Program preferences included cancer screening, diet/nutrition, weight management, stress reduction, and exercise. Challenges included geographic dispersion, variation in education levels, generational differences, and scheduling. CRC patients and family members are receptive to family-based programs. Feasibility concerns, which may be mitigated but not eliminated with technological advances, must be addressed for successful family-based programs.

  5. A programme evaluation of the Family Crisis Intervention Program (FCIP): relating programme characteristics to change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al, C.M.W.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Asscher, J.J.; van der Laan, P.H.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the Family Crisis Intervention Program (FCIP), focusing on crisis, child safety, family functioning and child behaviour problems. Questionnaires were completed by 183 families in crisis and their FCIP worker. After FCIP, the crisis had decreased and child safety had increased.

  6. 77 FR 3787 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Family Unification Program (FUP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... promote family reunification. Youths 18 to 21 who left foster care at age 16 or older are also eligible to... Unification Program: Makes Housing Choice Vouchers available to eligible families to promote family reunification. Youths 18 to 21 who left foster care at age 16 or older are also eligible to receive assistance...

  7. Transitioning Together: A Multi-Family Group Psychoeducation Program for Adolescents with ASD and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    DaWalt, Leann Smith; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2018-01-01

    Currently there are few evidence-based programs available for families of individuals with ASD during the transition to adulthood. The present study provided a preliminary evaluation of a multi-family group psychoeducation intervention using a randomized waitlist control design (n = 41). Families in the intervention condition participated in…

  8. Family Violence Prevention Programs in Immigrant Communities: Perspectives of Immigrant Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simbandumwe, Louise; Bailey, Kim; Denetto, Shereen; Migliardi, Paula; Bacon, Brenda; Nighswander, Maggie

    2008-01-01

    The Strengthening Families in Canada Family Violence Prevention Project was aimed at engaging immigrant and refugee communities in family violence prevention. The project, which received support from the Community Mobilization Program, National Crime Prevention Strategy, involved a partnership of four community health and education organizations.…

  9. The Army Family Team Building Program: Facilitating a Transformative Learning Process--An Intrinsic Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to understand how the Army Family Team Building program influences self-reliance and self-sufficiency in Army spouses as they integrate into the Army community. The purpose of the Army Family Team Building program is to empower Army spouses with knowledge and skills, which foster well-being and improve quality of life. The…

  10. Family Connections: The Importance of Prison Reading Programs for Incarcerated Parents and Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Daniel M.; Griffin, Dawn A.

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces a successful reading program, Family Connections, for incarcerated parents and their children. A comprehensive review of the literature supports the need to implement prison programs from an ecological perspective, in which the needs of inmates and their families are considered. More specifically, the benefits of directing…

  11. Cultural Competence of Parenting Education Programs Used by Latino Families: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesely, Colleen K.; Ewaida, Marriam; Anderson, Elaine A.

    2014-01-01

    The cultural competence of 13 parenting education programs for Latino families with young children was examined in this study. Based on our analyses, we make several recommendations for improving the cultural competence and effectiveness of parenting education programs for Latino families with young children. Specifically, we recommend the…

  12. The Integration of a Family Systems Approach for Understanding Youth Obesity, Physical Activity, and Dietary Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzman-Ulrich, Heather; Wilson, Dawn K.; St. George, Sara M.; Lawman, Hannah; Segal, Michelle; Fairchild, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Rates of overweight in youth have reached epidemic proportions and are associated with adverse health outcomes. Family-based programs have been widely used to treat overweight in youth. However, few programs incorporate a theoretical framework for studying a family systems approach in relation to youth health behavior change. Therefore, this…

  13. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Andira inermis (wright) DC. , Dog Almond of Fabaceae is a handsome lofty evergreen tree. Leaves are alternate and pinnately compound with 4–7 pairs of leaflets. Flowers are fragrant and are borne on compact branched inflorescences. Fruit is ellipsoidal one-seeded drupe that is peculiar to members of this family.

  14. Fault-Tree Compiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Boerschlein, David P.

    1993-01-01

    Fault-Tree Compiler (FTC) program, is software tool used to calculate probability of top event in fault tree. Gates of five different types allowed in fault tree: AND, OR, EXCLUSIVE OR, INVERT, and M OF N. High-level input language easy to understand and use. In addition, program supports hierarchical fault-tree definition feature, which simplifies tree-description process and reduces execution time. Set of programs created forming basis for reliability-analysis workstation: SURE, ASSIST, PAWS/STEM, and FTC fault-tree tool (LAR-14586). Written in PASCAL, ANSI-compliant C language, and FORTRAN 77. Other versions available upon request.

  15. Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Krüppel-like transcription factor (KLF) gene family in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Ming; Ge, Guang-Zhe; Liu, Wen-Jing; Xiao, Ji; Xia, Hou-Jun; Fan, Yu; Zhao, Feng; He, Bao-Li; Chen, Ceshi

    2017-03-07

    Krüppel-like factors (KLFs) are a family of zinc finger transcription factors regulating embryonic development and diseases. The phylogenetics of KLFs has not been studied in tree shrews, an animal lineage with a closer relationship to primates than rodents. Here, we identified 17 KLFs from Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis). KLF proteins are highly conserved among humans, monkeys, rats, mice and tree shrews compared to zebrafish and chickens. The CtBP binding site, Sin3A binding site and nuclear localization signals are largely conserved between tree shrews and human beings. Tupaia belangeri (Tb) KLF5 contains several conserved post-transcriptional modification motifs. Moreover, the mRNA and protein expression patterns of multiple tbKLFs are tissue-specific . TbKLF5, like hKLF5, significantly promotes NIH3T3 cell proliferation in vitro. These results provide insight for future studies regarding the structure and function of the tbKLF gene family.

  16. The Comparison of Drawing Family and the House-Tree-Person Test in Children with Addicted and Non-Addicted Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Shafiei

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study is aimed at comparing results of the draw-a-family test and the house-tree-person test in the children with addicted and non-addicted parents. Method: This is a scientific-comparative study in which 50 children with addicted parents attending Tehran rehab centers and 50 children with non-addicted parents who were selected using the random cluster sampling method were measured by means of the draw-a-family test and the house-tree-person test. Findings: Results suggest that drawing indices in the are more in the house-tree-Person paintings and family drawings of the children with addicted parents in comparison to the non-addicted group, scoring higher in terms of the number of drawing indices such as depression and anxiety symptoms, weak self-esteem, and valuelessness. Conclusion: It can be said that the parents' drug abuse intensifies and expedites children's physical, affective and behavioral problems.

  17. Total well dominated trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....

  18. TreeFam: 2008 Update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruan, Jue; Li, Heng; Chen, Zhongzhong

    2008-01-01

    TreeFam (http://www.treefam.org) was developed to provide curated phylogenetic trees for all animal gene families, as well as orthologue and paralogue assignments. Release 4.0 of TreeFam contains curated trees for 1314 families and automatically generated trees for another 14,351 families. We have...... expanded TreeFam to include 25 fully sequenced animal genomes, as well as four genomes from plant and fungal outgroup species. We have also introduced more accurate approaches for automatically grouping genes into families, for building phylogenetic trees, and for inferring orthologues and paralogues....... The user interface for viewing phylogenetic trees and family information has been improved. Furthermore, a new perl API lets users easily extract data from the TreeFam mysql database....

  19. A Yoga and Compassion Meditation Program Reduces Stress in Familial Caregivers of Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Danucalov, M. A. D.; Kozasa, E. H.; Ribas, K. T.; Galdur?z, J. C. F.; Garcia, M. C.; Verreschi, I. T. N.; Oliveira, K. C.; Romani de Oliveira, L.; Leite, J. R.

    2013-01-01

    Familial caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease exhibit reduced quality of life and increased stress levels. the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week yoga and compassion meditation program on the perceived stress, anxiety, depression, and salivary cortisol levels in familial caregivers. A total of 46 volunteers were randomly assigned to participate in a stress-reduction program for a 2-month period (yoga and compassion meditation program-YCMP group) (n = 25) ...

  20. Assessing the Effect of a Crop-Tree Intercropping Program on Smallholders’ Incomes in Rural Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Dai

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Governments in developing counties often promote intercropping (crops intercropped with fruit trees on cultivated land schemes in order to improve smallholders’ income. However, the implementation of such schemes is often hindered by inappropriate institutional environments and inefficient project management. It is important to assess the impacts of such intercropping programs, especially since such a cultivation strategy can often align closely with smallholders’ livelihood strategies, particularly in poor and remote rural regions. This paper attempts to assess the impact of an intercropping program on participants’ incomes in rural Xinjiang (China, and to explore the possible shortcomings in the program’s design and implementation. We apply a propensity score matching method, based on a survey dataset of 352 households, supplemented with descriptive analysis based on our anecdotal field observations. The findings demonstrate that the intercropping program had negative effects on the incomes that participants derived from farming, their off-farm income and their gross income. Overall, participants experienced significant losses of income. Anecdotal observations show that land tenure insecurity played a crucial role in negating the anticipated income improvement effect of this program. Farmer’s perceptions that they have limited security of tenure made them reluctant to invest the necessary time and resources to make the new cropping systems a success, while the available subsidies only partially covered the costs involved. In addition, the program led to a significant drop in yields of field crops as the trees were competing for a limiting and fixed supply of irrigation water.

  1. Effects of a Support Program on Nurses' Communication with Hospitalized Children's Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Hiroko

    2017-09-01

    More than a few pediatric nurses experience difficulty in communicating with children's family members. However, effective means of providing communication support for pediatric nurses have not been examined sufficiently. This study aimed to develop and implement a communication support program for nurses to facilitate improved communication with families of hospitalized children, and to clarify changes in nurses' recognition and behavior toward communication with families in clinical settings. The program lasted 6 months and consisted of lectures, role-play, 4 communication models in which nurses experienced difficulty communicating with family members, and continued individual support. The effects of the program were evaluated qualitatively and descriptively using semi-structured interviews. A total of 7 nurses with less than 5 years of pediatric nursing experience completed the program. Subsequent to program completion, nurses' awareness of careful communication with families increased, and they began to approach families actively using thoughtful words. Furthermore, as nurses received favorable reactions from families, they realized that communication was interactive and recognized that their perception of their communication skills as poor had changed. This program could contribute in reducing nurses' difficulty in communicating with families and encourage them to improve their communication.

  2. Cultivating Your Family Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Once the pristine pastime of blue bloods tracing their pedigrees back to the "Mayflower," genealogy--from hobby to serious endeavor--has broadened and deepened into a democratic avocation. It was Alex Haley's "Roots," published 30 years ago, with the hugely popular TV miniseries coming a year later, that likely started the boom. Television still…

  3. International Population Assistance and Family Planning Programs: Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nowels, Larry; Veillette, Connie

    2006-01-01

    ...." The Mexico City policy denied U.S. funds to foreign nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) that perform or promote abortion as a method of family planning, regardless of whether the money came from the U.S. government...

  4. International Population Assistance and Family Planning Programs: Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blanchfield, Luisa

    2008-01-01

    ...." The Mexico City policy denies U.S. funds to foreign nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) that perform or promote abortion as a method of family planning -- even if the activities are undertaken with non-U.S. funds...

  5. International Population Assistance and Family Planning Programs: Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nowels, Larry; Veillette, Connie

    2006-01-01

    ...." The Mexico City policy denied U.S. funds to foreign nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) that perform or promote abortion as a method of family planning, regardless of whether the money came from the U.S...

  6. Strong Military Families Program: A Multifamily Group Approach to Strengthening Family Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Kate; Muzik, Maria; Waddell, Rachel; Thompson, Stephanie; Rosenberg, Lauren; Masini, Gabriella; Smith, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Military families frequently display remarkable resilience in the face of significant challenges, and yet deployment and parental separation are significant stressors for parents, particularly those with infants and young children. The Strong Military Families preventive intervention is a multifamily parenting and self-care skills group that aims…

  7. QTL mapping of growth-related traits in a full-sib family of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) evaluated in a sub-tropical climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Livia Moura; Gazaffi, Rodrigo; Mantello, Camila Campos; Silva, Carla Cristina; Garcia, Dominique; Le Guen, Vincent; Cardoso, Saulo Emilio Almeida; Garcia, Antonio Augusto Franco; Souza, Anete Pereira

    2013-01-01

    The rubber tree (Hevea spp.), cultivated in equatorial and tropical countries, is the primary plant used in natural rubber production. Due to genetic and physiological constraints, inbred lines of this species are not available. Therefore, alternative approaches are required for the characterization of this species, such as the genetic mapping of full-sib crosses derived from outbred parents. In the present study, an integrated genetic map was obtained for a full-sib cross family with simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and expressed sequence tag (EST-SSR) markers, which can display different segregation patterns. To study the genetic architecture of the traits related to growth in two different conditions (winter and summer), quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping was also performed using the integrated map. Traits evaluated were height and girth growth, and the statistical model was based in an extension of composite interval mapping. The obtained molecular genetic map has 284 markers distributed among 23 linkage groups with a total length of 2688.8 cM. A total of 18 QTLs for growth traits during the summer and winter seasons were detected. A comparison between the different seasons was also conducted. For height, QTLs detected during the summer season were different from the ones detected during winter season. This type of difference was also observed for girth. Integrated maps are important for genetics studies in outbred species because they represent more accurately the polymorphisms observed in the genitors. QTL mapping revealed several interesting findings, such as a dominance effect and unique segregation patterns that each QTL could exhibit, which were independent of the flanking markers. The QTLs identified in this study, especially those related to phenotypic variation associated with winter could help studies of marker-assisted selection that are particularly important when the objective of a breeding program is to obtain phenotypes that are adapted to sub

  8. QTL mapping of growth-related traits in a full-sib family of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis evaluated in a sub-tropical climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Moura Souza

    Full Text Available The rubber tree (Hevea spp., cultivated in equatorial and tropical countries, is the primary plant used in natural rubber production. Due to genetic and physiological constraints, inbred lines of this species are not available. Therefore, alternative approaches are required for the characterization of this species, such as the genetic mapping of full-sib crosses derived from outbred parents. In the present study, an integrated genetic map was obtained for a full-sib cross family with simple sequence repeats (SSRs and expressed sequence tag (EST-SSR markers, which can display different segregation patterns. To study the genetic architecture of the traits related to growth in two different conditions (winter and summer, quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping was also performed using the integrated map. Traits evaluated were height and girth growth, and the statistical model was based in an extension of composite interval mapping. The obtained molecular genetic map has 284 markers distributed among 23 linkage groups with a total length of 2688.8 cM. A total of 18 QTLs for growth traits during the summer and winter seasons were detected. A comparison between the different seasons was also conducted. For height, QTLs detected during the summer season were different from the ones detected during winter season. This type of difference was also observed for girth. Integrated maps are important for genetics studies in outbred species because they represent more accurately the polymorphisms observed in the genitors. QTL mapping revealed several interesting findings, such as a dominance effect and unique segregation patterns that each QTL could exhibit, which were independent of the flanking markers. The QTLs identified in this study, especially those related to phenotypic variation associated with winter could help studies of marker-assisted selection that are particularly important when the objective of a breeding program is to obtain phenotypes that are

  9. [The Family Allowance Program: reflecting on core issues in Brazil's income transfer policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    e Silva, Maria Ozanira da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Introduced in 2003, Brazil's Family Allowance Program was intended to unite several Income Transfer Programs run at the Municipal, State and Federal levels since 1995. Designed as an expression of the development of direct monetary transfers to families or individuals, its key assumption is that linking income transfers to poor families with structural policies and programs (mainly in the fields of education, healthcare and jobs) could break through the vicious cycle of poverty in the present and halt its future replication. Linking cash transfers to structuring policies and programs for poor families might well underpin a policy combating poverty and social inequality. This paper presents a retrospective of these Income Transfer Programs, examining their significance and scope in terms of Brazil's Social Security Policies, assessing their potentials and constraints as tools for fostering social inclusion.

  10. Dealing with Moms and Dads: Family Dilemmas Encountered by Youth Program Leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Griffith

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The leaders of youth programs encounter a range of challenging situations that involve youth’s parents or families. This qualitative study obtained data on the variety and nature of these family-related “dilemmas of practice.” Longitudinal interviews with leaders of 10 high quality programs for high-school-aged youth yielded narrative information on a sample of 32 family dilemmas that they had encountered. Grounded theory analysis identified four categories of family dilemmas: 1 problems at home that become a concern to the leader, 2 parents’ expectations are incongruent with program norms or functioning, 3 parents do not support youth’s participation in the program or an aspect of the program, and 4 communicating with parents on sensitive matters. Each of these categories of dilemmas entailed distinct considerations and underlying issues that effective leaders need to be able to understand.

  11. Tap to Togetherness: An Innovative Family Relationship Program Reaches Ghana, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentz, Julie L.

    2017-01-01

    Tap to Togetherness is a unique program designed to build and enhance family relationships through tap dance steps. Kansas State University researchers from the School of Music, Theatre and Dance and the College of Human Ecology, led by Julie L. Pentz, Associate Professor of Dance, Director of the K-State Dance Program, developed the program.…

  12. The influence of financial incentive programs in promoting sustainable forestry on the nation's family forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Kilgore; John L. Greene; Michael G. Jacobson; Thomas J. Straka; Steven E. Daniels

    2006-01-01

    Financial incentive programs were evaluated to assess their contribution to promoting sustainable forestry practices on the nation’s family forests. The evaluation consisted of an extensive review of the literature on financial incentive programs, a mail survey of the lead administrator of financial incentive programs in each state forestry agency, and focus groups...

  13. 9 CFR 306.4 - Assignment of Program employees where members of family employed; soliciting employment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assignment of Program employees where members of family employed; soliciting employment; procuring product from official establishments. 306.4... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ASSIGNMENT AND AUTHORITIES OF PROGRAM EMPLOYEES § 306.4 Assignment of Program...

  14. DO FAMILY PLANNING PROGRAMS DECREASE POVERTY? EVIDENCE FROM PUBLIC CENSUS DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Martha J.; Malkova, Olga; Norling, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides new evidence that family planning programs are associated with a decrease in the share of children and adults living in poverty. Our research design exploits the county roll-out of U.S. family planning programs in the late 1960s and early 1970s and examines their relationship with poverty rates in the short and longer-term in public census data. We find that cohorts born after federal family planning programs began were less likely to live in poverty in childhood and that these same cohorts were less likely to live in poverty as adults. PMID:25346655

  15. Exploring the effects of a family admissions program for adolescents with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Keren; Rhodes, Paul; Miskovic-Wheatley, Jane; Wallis, Andrew; Touyz, Stephen; Baudinet, Julian; Madden, Sloane

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated patient experience in a Family Admissions Program (FAP) - a pilot treatment program for adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa at the Children's Hospital, Westmead. Based on Maudsley Family Based Treatment (FBT), the FAP involves an adolescent and his/her family undergoing a two-week family-based hospital admission at the outset of treatment. The program aims to increase intensity and support to a level needed by some families struggling to engage with or access FBT. Narrative Inquiry and Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis were used as a dual methodological approach to explore the prospective expectations and retrospective experiences of participants partaking in the program. Results indicated that in cases where the family unit has been particularly fractured as a result of the eating disorder, the FAP offers an opportunity for relational strengthening and reunification. Combined with the program's intensive support and proximity to hospital services, this serves to provide struggling families with enhanced skills and a stronger foundation for outpatient FBT. For families deemed at risk of unsuccessful outcomes with FBT, the FAP can be considered as an appropriate treatment adjunct to place alongside or before the commencement of FBT.

  16. Dipteryx alata Vogel (Fabaceae a neotropical tree with high level of selfing: implication for conservation and breeding programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Vagner Tambarussi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dipteryx alata (Fabaceae is a threatened tropical tree of the Brazilian Savanna. Due to deforestation of its biome, many individuals and populations are now spatially isolated in forest fragments, pastures, and along roads. Plans for in situ and ex situ conservation of the species are urgently needed. To support conservation, the mating system and pollen dispersal patterns must be better understood as they determine the levels of genetic diversity, inbreeding, and effective size of seed generations. Microsatellite were used to investigated the mating system, pollen dispersal, genetic diversity, spatial genetic structure (SGS, and inbreeding in isolated trees in pastures and along roads from two populations with different densities in the Brazilian Savanna. Our aim is to determine the potential of these trees to contribute to seed collection for genetic conservation. We found that the species presents a mixed mating system, strong individual variation in outcrossing rate (0.01-1.0, and non-random mating. Low population density resulted in lower levels of outcrossing (tm = 0.45 and mating among relatives (tm - ts = 0.12, but longer pollen dispersal distances (δ = 6,572 m than in the higher density populations (tm = 0.90, tm - ts = 0.26, δ = 1,395 m. Mating among relatives was explained by SGS detected in the populations, associated with near-neighbor pollinator foraging behavior. Correlated mating indicates that a low effective number of pollen donors (1.5-10.3 fertilized the trees. Thus, open-pollinated seedling families present mixtures of different levels of relatedness and inbreeding. Our results are discussed in light of strategies for in and ex situ conservation.

  17. Fault tree applications within the safety program of Idaho Nuclear Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesely, W. E.

    1971-01-01

    Computerized fault tree analyses are used to obtain both qualitative and quantitative information about the safety and reliability of an electrical control system that shuts the reactor down when certain safety criteria are exceeded, in the design of a nuclear plant protection system, and in an investigation of a backup emergency system for reactor shutdown. The fault tree yields the modes by which the system failure or accident will occur, the most critical failure or accident causing areas, detailed failure probabilities, and the response of safety or reliability to design modifications and maintenance schemes.

  18. Medical Student Summer Externship Program: Increasing the Number Matching in Family Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Cronau

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. The number of US allopathic medical school graduates choosing a residency in family medicine has fallen from 13.4% in 1999 to 10.5% in 2002. Concern about declining numbers has led to the development of programs to provide medical students exposure to family medicine outside the clerkship. This paper reports on the development and longitudinal achievements of a clinical summer externship program 1993 to 1999. Methods. The program description, practice settings, students’ experiences, and department commitment are described. The purpose of this prospective study is to determine the percentage of family medicine summer externship participants (n=115 who match into family medicine. Results. During the six years studied, 49 (43.4% of the participants matched into family medicine. Program participants viewed the program favorably, mean = 5.82 out of 6. Conclusions. The Ohio State University Department of Family Medicine Medical Student Summer Externship Program demonstrates an effective educational experience that can increase and/or attain the proportion of students going into family medicine at the time of graduation

  19. Reducing Attrition and Improving the Recruiting Process through Family Involvement: Delayed Entry Program (DEP) Family Expositions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    DEP FAMILY EXPO PURPOSE: (1) Designed to help enhance readiness by providing future shipmates and their loved ones with essential information about the Navy to ease their transition to the military. (2...

  20. Military Stress-Busting Program for Family Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-20

    The intervention program in this study is a derivative work of the Stress-Busting Program (SBP) for caregivers of persons with dementia (Lewis...military context. Methods: Program content adapted to military context; 9-session intervention provided in small groups with two facilitators. Data...session intervention provided in small groups with two facilitators. Data collected at baseline, exit, and 2 months post- intervention , with interviews

  1. A Family of Tools for Supporting the Learning of Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Rößling

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Both learning how to program and understanding algorithms or data structures are often difficult. This paper presents three complementary approaches that we employ to help our students in learning to program, especially during the first term of their study. We use a web-based programming task database as an easy and risk-free environment for taking the first steps in programming Java. The Animal algorithm visualization system is used to visualize the dynamic behavior of algorithms and data structures. We complement both approaches with tutorial videos on using the Eclipse IDE. We also report on the experiences with this combined approach.

  2. Positive effects of a cognitive-behavioral intervention program for family caregivers of demented elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Paes Araujo Fialho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: It was to examine the effects of a Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT program administered to family caregivers of dementia patients. METHODS: Forty family caregivers were enrolled in a CBT intervention across eight weekly sessions. Cognitive, functional and behavioral status of patients were evaluated, as well as their own and their family caregivers' perceptions of quality of life. Specific instruments were also applied to evaluate caregiver stress level, coping, anxiety and depression. RESULTS: At the end of the program, family caregivers reported fewer neuropsychiatric symptoms among patients and an improvement in patients' quality of life. In addition, caregivers changed their coping strategies, whereas a significant decrease was observed in their anxiety levels. CONCLUSION: The CBT program employed appears to be a promising and useful tool for clinical practice, displaying positive effects on quality of life and neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia, as well as proving beneficial for alleviating anxiety and stress in family caregivers.

  3. 78 FR 65582 - Single Family Housing Direct Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    .... Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination against its customers, employees, and applicants for employment on the bases of race, color, national origin, age, disability, sex, gender identity....) If you wish to file a Civil Rights program complaint of discrimination, complete the USDA Program...

  4. 75 FR 24514 - Supportive Services for Veteran Families Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... determined in accordance with the income criteria for programs under section 8 of the United States Housing... Housing and Urban Development for programs under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 will... Homelessness Among Veterans, c/o Philadelphia VA Medical Center, 3900 Woodland Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19104...

  5. 45 CFR 1306.35 - Family child care program option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... potentially harmful materials for controlling pests must not occur while children are on premises. (ii... offering the family child care option must ensure that providers have made plans to notify parents in the event of any emergency or unplanned interruption of service. The provider and parent together must...

  6. Women in Family Literacy Programs: A Gendered Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuban, Sondra; Hayes, Elisabeth

    1996-01-01

    The transmission model of family literacy devalues women's home literacy practices and conceives of women primarily as conduits. It implies a simple cause-and-effect relationship with children's achievement. It obscures women's desire for change, the conflicts they experience in attempting to change, and cultural differences among women. (SK)

  7. 78 FR 59048 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Family Self-Sufficiency Program (FSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... Participation with each eligible family that opts to participate in the program, compute an escrow credit for...-52652--Escrow Account Credit 750 50 37,500 .85 31,875 Worksheet HUD-1044--Grant Agreement*...... 250 1...

  8. Success and Failure in a Family-Centered Comprehensive Care Teaching Program for Pediatric Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teberg, Annabel; Friedman, David Belais

    1970-01-01

    This Well Baby Clinic was designed to augment residency teaching program in evaluation of physical and emotional growth, in family counseling, and to gain data on response to varying immunizations. (IR)

  9. Examining the Effectiveness of a Case Management Program for Custodial Grandparent Families

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Lenora; Carthron, Dana L.; Miles, Margaret Shandor; Brown, LaShanda

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have identified complex needs of custodial grandparent families and lack of access to needed resources such as housing, financial and legal assistance, and health care. Case management links these families with needed services while helping them develop skills to promote their health and well-being. This paper describes a case management program for custodial grandparent families using a nurse-social worker case management team. data were collected from 50 grandparents and 33 chil...

  10. Measurement and evaluation of national family planning programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldin, W P

    1967-03-01

    ) segura de traducir las estadísticas de servicio en práticas y tal vez aún datos sobre suministro comercial en datos sabre tasas de natalidad. Esto incluye, par ejemplo, los esfuerzos para consolidar observaciones coma "cinco años-mujer de usa de IUD, a 400 condones equivalen a la prevención de un nacimiento," y esfuerzos como los de Pakistán de calcular tasas coma "años de protección de una pareja contra el embarazo."In the belief that a decrease in the rate of population growth will increase economic development, more than ten countries have inaugurated family planning programs in the past fifteen years. To provide a model for measuring the immediate, intermediate, and long-term effects of any such program, the authors use the Taiwan evaluation.The model suggests that a good system of evaluation should include monthly statistics on (1) participants, who are grouped by characteristics; (2) the distribution of supplies, reported at first by the characteristics of recipients, but after by gross volume only; (3) family planning activities of private physicians to measure the catalytic effect on the private sector; (4) new contacts and amount of advertising in mass media; (5) costs broken down by areas and by cost categories; and (6) distribution of commercial supplies. In addition, the program should conduct 300-400 interviews every 6-12 months to learn the rates of continuation and the rates and reasons for discontinuation. Finally, a KAP survey should be conducted every two years.The administration of the evaluation should be close to the director for policy decisions and for the ultimate work of evaluation-the finding of new ways to measure the main goal of change in fertility by the translation of statistics on Services provided and commercial supplies into birth rate data.

  11. [Domestic violence against children and prospects for intervention of the Family Health Program: the experience of the Family Doctor Program/Niterói (RJ, Brazil)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Pedro Carlos Xavier da; Moraes, Claudia Leite

    2011-07-01

    This study seeks to estimate the prevalence of psychological and physical violence practiced against children in the family environment among clients of the Family Medical Program in Niterói (RJ). It also discloses some potential opportunities for action in the prevention, early detection and monitoring of families experiencing violence. This population-based survey was conducted with face-to-face interviews with parents or legal sponsors of 278 children registered in 27 teams of the Family Health Program. The population studied was randomly selected among children up to ten years of age. The Brazilian version of Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales - CTSPC was employed to assess the occurrence of this type of violence. Psychological aggression occurred in 96.7% (CI 95%: 94.7-98.8) of the households, and corporal punishment occurred in 93.8% (CI 95%: 92.0-96.7). Minor physical violence was reported by 51.4% (CI 95%: 45.5-57.3) of the respondents, and severe physical maltreatment by 19.8% (CI 95%: 15.1-24.5) of them. Although the mother was the foremost perpetrator of all kinds of maltreatment, most of the children were abused by both parents. In view of these results, domestic violence against children should be seen as a main concern for the Family Health Program.

  12. Effects of Family Functioning and Parenting Style on Early Entrants' Academic Performance and Program Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, Erron L.; Sayler, Michael F.; Rinn, Anne N.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the predictive nature of parenting style and overall family environment on the academic performance and program completion of early college entrants. Furthermore, gender and family form were examined as possible moderators to these relationships. A total of 88 early college entrants participated in…

  13. 76 FR 18677 - Federal Monitoring of Child and Family Service Programs; Request for Public Comment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    .../Tribal/local accountability? 3. What role should the child welfare case management information system or... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families 45 CFR Parts 1355, 1356 and 1357 Federal Monitoring of Child and Family Service Programs; Request for Public Comment and...

  14. Family Integrated Transitions: A Promising Program for Juvenile Offenders with Co-Occurring Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trupin, Eric J.; Kerns, Suzanne E. U.; Walker, Sarah Cusworth; DeRobertis, Megan T.; Stewart, David G.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of the Family Integrated Transitions (FIT) program on juvenile recidivism. FIT is a family-based intervention for youths with co-occurring substance use and mental health disorders transitioning to home from incarceration. We used administrative data to compare 36-month recidivism rates for youths receiving FIT (N =…

  15. 24 CFR 982.642 - Homeownership option: Pilot program for homeownership assistance for disabled families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Special Housing Types Homeownership Option § 982.642 Homeownership... declared major disaster or emergency. (d) Amount and distribution of homeownership assistance payments. (1... payment on behalf of the family in accordance with § 982.635 and this section. (2) A family that is a low...

  16. A Community-Based Family/Patient Group Program for Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Miriam K.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes a support program for community-based Alzheimer's patients and their caregivers. In addition to joint activities, the family group focuses on the family organization, support networks, feelings, new activities, and making decisions. The patient group provides social and awareness activities. (JAC)

  17. Engaging Military Fathers in a Reflective Parenting Program: Lessons from Strong Families Strong Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVoe, Ellen R.; Paris, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Through Strong Families Strong Forces, a reflective parenting program for military families with young children, we were privileged to work with contemporary military fathers who served in the post-9/11 conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq. Due to this work, the authors gained valuable insight into the complexity of fathering during wartime, the…

  18. The Effects of Incentives on Families' Long-Term Outcome in a Parenting Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, Nina; Jensen-Doss, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    To examine the impact of paying for participation in a preventive parenting program on treatment outcomes, 197 families with preschool-aged children were randomized to paid or unpaid conditions. Although both groups improved on nearly all measures, paid families showed less improvement on 3 of 10 variables, including father-reported child…

  19. A Review of Family-Based Programs to Prevent Youth Violence among Latinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidy, Melinda S.; Guerra, Nancy G.; Toro, Rosa I.

    2010-01-01

    At present, there is limited evidence supporting the effectiveness of family-based intervention programs to prevent violence or related behavior problems with Latino youth and families. Although progress has been made, a number of important issues remain. In this article, the authors review several of the more prominent interventions for Latino…

  20. Coping with problematic drug use in the family: An evaluation of the Stepping Stones program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gethin, Anni; Trimingham, Tony; Chang, Theo; Farrell, Michael; Ross, Joanne

    2016-07-01

    Problematic substance use by an individual is often highly destructive to their family, creating emotional turmoil and destroying healthy family functioning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of participation in the Stepping Stones family support program on the coping capacity of family members affected by another's substance use. A pre and post study of the Stepping Stones intervention for families was conducted, involving 108 participants recruited from March 2013 to March 2014. Significant improvement in coping across all domains was observed post course and at follow up on both outcome measures (Coping Questionnaire and the Family Drug Support Questionnaire). Improvements for participants were either increased or sustained at 3 months follow up. Participants recorded high satisfaction ratings. The findings from this study demonstrate that participation in the Stepping Stones program assists family members to cope better with problematic substance use of a family member, as indicated by reductions in negative coping strategies, such as over-engagement, making excuses for the drug user or hopelessly tolerating the problem, and improvements in positive coping strategies such as self-care and engagement with their own activities and interests. [Gethin A, Trimingham T, Chang T, Farrell M, Ross J. Coping with problematic drug use in the family: An evaluation of the Stepping Stones program. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:470-476]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  1. Programming parallel architectures: The BLAZE family of languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Piyush

    1988-01-01

    Programming multiprocessor architectures is a critical research issue. An overview is given of the various approaches to programming these architectures that are currently being explored. It is argued that two of these approaches, interactive programming environments and functional parallel languages, are particularly attractive since they remove much of the burden of exploiting parallel architectures from the user. Also described is recent work by the author in the design of parallel languages. Research on languages for both shared and nonshared memory multiprocessors is described, as well as the relations of this work to other current language research projects.

  2. Family-Based HIV Preventive Intervention: Child Level Results from the CHAMP Family Program

    OpenAIRE

    McBride, Cami K.; Baptiste, Donna; Traube, Dorian; Paikoff, Roberta L.; Madison-Boyd, Sybil; Coleman, Doris; Bell, Carl C.; Coleman, Ida; McKay, Mary M.

    2007-01-01

    Social indicators suggest that African American adolescents are in the highest risk categories of those contracting HIV/AIDS (CDC, 2001). The dramatic impact of HIV/AIDS on urban African American youth have influenced community leaders and policy makers to place high priority on programming that can prevent youth’s exposure to the virus (Pequegnat & Szapocznik, 2000). Program developers are encouraged to design programs that reflect the developmental ecology of urban youth (Tolan, Gorman-Smit...

  3. [The third medical Rwandan colloquium on the national family planning program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhawenimana, A

    1989-12-01

    The 3rd medical colloquium in Rwanda held in Kigali in 1989 was organized jointly by the Ministry of Health and the National Office on Population (ONAPO) to promote use of family planning and to study the process of integrating family planning into basic health services. Objectives of the colloquium included identifying obstacles to family planning use, developing strategies for rational use of health resources so as to offer high quality family planning services, mobilizing health personnel to combat misinformation about family planning, and promoting methods of contraception that are still not frequently used. Over the 3 days of the colloquium there were presentations on Rwanda's family planning policy, the current status of integration of family planning into the health system, and the program of social mobilization and results of a pilot project using community promoters in 2 communes of Ruhengeri. The colloquium among other suggestions recommended that a committee be created to coordinate government and other family planning activities. Areas with particularly strong negative propaganda against modern family planning methods should be identified and should receive intensive family planning education and promotion. Adequate records should be kept of family planning activities. A survey of family planning clients should be undertaken to identify what changes would increase client satisfaction. To combat misinformation, personnel at all levels should continue and intensify provision of objective information, and the Ministry of Health and ONAPO should develop a mechanism for quality control of contraceptives. Efforts to inform the population of different contraceptive methods should be intensified.

  4. Programming parallel architectures - The BLAZE family of languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Piyush

    1989-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the various approaches to programming multiprocessor architectures that are currently being explored. It is argued that two of these approaches, interactive programming environments and functional parallel languages, are particularly attractive, since they remove much of the burden of exploiting parallel architectures from the user. This paper also describes recent work in the design of parallel languages. Research on languages for both shared and nonshared memory multiprocessors is described.

  5. A tissue-specific, Gata6-driven transcriptional program instructs remodeling of the mature arterial tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losa, Marta; Latorre, Victor; Andrabi, Munazah; Ladam, Franck; Sagerström, Charles; Novoa, Ana; Zarrineh, Peyman; Bridoux, Laure; Hanley, Neil A; Mallo, Moises; Bobola, Nicoletta

    2017-09-27

    Connection of the heart to the systemic circulation is a critical developmental event that requires selective preservation of embryonic vessels (aortic arches). However, why some aortic arches regress while others are incorporated into the mature aortic tree remains unclear. By microdissection and deep sequencing in mouse, we find that neural crest (NC) only differentiates into vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) around those aortic arches destined for survival and reorganization, and identify the transcription factor Gata6 as a crucial regulator of this process. Gata6 is expressed in SMCs and its target genes activation control SMC differentiation. Furthermore, Gata6 is sufficient to promote SMCs differentiation in vivo, and drive preservation of aortic arches that ought to regress. These findings identify Gata6-directed differentiation of NC to SMCs as an essential mechanism that specifies the aortic tree, and provide a new framework for how mutations in GATA6 lead to congenital heart disorders in humans.

  6. A Qualitative Examination of Parent Engagement in a Family-Based Childhood Obesity Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmied, Emily A; Chuang, Emmeline; Madanat, Hala; Moody, Jamie; Ibarra, Leticia; Ortiz, Kenia; Macias, Karla; Ayala, Guadalupe X

    2018-02-01

    Low parent engagement is frequently identified as a barrier to effective implementation of family-based childhood obesity prevention and control programs. A more nuanced understanding of factors affecting parent engagement is important for improving implementation and, ultimately, program efficacy. This qualitative study examined factors influencing parent engagement in a family-based childhood obesity prevention and control program. Semistructured interviews informed by the health belief model and the transtheoretical model were conducted with 22 predominantly Latina mothers following the scheduled conclusion of program activities. Spanish- and English-language interviews were transcribed, translated into English (if Spanish), coded, and summarized using established protocols. Differences between parents who attended at least two thirds of program activities and those who did not were examined. There were no significant demographic differences between parents who did and did not complete two thirds of program activities. Findings indicated that differences in parent engagement may be at least partially explained by differences in parental motivations for participating and in barriers and facilitators, such as children's level of support and enthusiasm for the program. Parents were highly satisfied with the program content and the community health workers who delivered the program. This study adds to emergent literature regarding parents' experiences in family-based childhood obesity prevention and control programs. Potential targets for improving program engagement are discussed.

  7. Fit Families Program Improves Self-Perception in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archuleta, Martha; VanLeeuwen, Dawn; Turner, Carol

    2016-06-01

    To determine the impact of the Fit Families youth weight management program on self-perception of participants. Fit Families was delivered through Cooperative Extension and provided education to overweight and obese children and their families on healthful eating and physical activity along with building self-esteem and social competence. At the beginning and end of the 7-week program, a convenience sample of 46 youth completed the Self-Perception Profile for Children questionnaire to evaluate changes in self-perception. Youth had improved self-perception in the areas of athletic competence (P = .04) and physical appearance (P = .007) after participating in Fit Families. Fit Families provides a holistic approach to weight management that promotes positive self-perception, which may decrease the burden of depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem obese youth face. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The relationship between neighborhood characteristics and recruitment into adolescent family-based substance use prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Hilary F; Miller, Brenda A; Aalborg, Annette E; Keagy, Carolyn D

    2012-04-01

    Youth in disadvantaged neighborhoods are at risk for poor health outcomes. Characteristics of these neighborhoods may translate into intensified risk due to barriers utilizing preventive care such as substance use prevention programs. While family-level risks affect recruitment into prevention programs, few studies have addressed the influence of neighborhood risks. This study consists of 744 families with an 11- to 12-year-old child recruited for a family-based substance use prevention program. Using US Census data, logistic regressions showed neighborhoods were related to recruitment, beyond individual characteristics. Greater neighborhood unemployment was related to decreased agreement to participate in the study and lower rates of high school graduation were related to lower levels of actual enrolment. Conversely, higher rates of single-female-headed households were related to increased agreement. Recruitment procedures may need to recognize the variety of barriers and enabling forces within the neighborhood in developing different strategies for the recruitment of youth and their families.

  9. Evaluation of the Implementation of a Socio-Educational Program with Immigrant Families: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, Miguel Angel Santos; Otero, Agustin Godas; Moledo, M del Mar Lorenzo

    2009-01-01

    There exist an increasing number of studies that demonstrate the necessity to evaluate the processes which characterize a program and guarantee its implementation and evaluation. This paper deals with the implementation of a program designed to improve the acculturation of immigrant families in Spain (EU). Implementation followed a process that…

  10. 4-H Night at the Movies: A Program for Adolescents and Their Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurich, Anthony P.; Collins, Olivia P.

    1996-01-01

    Evaluates a program designed to improve self-esteem in adolescents. Used commercial movies about teenagers to enhance adolescents' interest and understanding of their world. Findings indicated significant increases in measures of self concept, self satisfaction, family self, and social self over the course of the program. (RJM)

  11. The Caregiver Education and Training Project: A Comprehensive Training Program for Family Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmont District Hospital, La Mesa, CA.

    This demonstration program was designed to impart specific nursing, psychosocial, and community knowledge skills to caregivers, particularly those who themselves were older adults and were caring for a family member at home. Begun in October 1986, this program featured basic home nursing instruction and an orientation to the demands and rewards of…

  12. Applying Coaching Strategies to Support Youth- and Family-Focused Extension Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Jonathan R.; Hawkey, Kyle R.; Smith, Burgess; Perkins, Daniel F.; Borden, Lynne M.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we describe how a peer-coaching model has been applied to support community-based Extension programming through the Children, Youth, and Families at Risk (CYFAR) initiative. We describe the general approaches to coaching that have been used to help with CYFAR program implementation, evaluation, and sustainability efforts; we…

  13. Computer-aided Fault Tree Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willie, R.R.

    1978-08-01

    A computer-oriented methodology for deriving minimal cut and path set families associated with arbitrary fault trees is discussed first. Then the use of the Fault Tree Analysis Program (FTAP), an extensive FORTRAN computer package that implements the methodology is described. An input fault tree to FTAP may specify the system state as any logical function of subsystem or component state variables or complements of these variables. When fault tree logical relations involve complements of state variables, the analyst may instruct FTAP to produce a family of prime implicants, a generalization of the minimal cut set concept. FTAP can also identify certain subsystems associated with the tree as system modules and provide a collection of minimal cut set families that essentially expresses the state of the system as a function of these module state variables. Another FTAP feature allows a subfamily to be obtained when the family of minimal cut sets or prime implicants is too large to be found in its entirety; this subfamily consists only of sets that are interesting to the analyst in a special sense

  14. Family and Community Perceptions of Quality in Juvenile Justice Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selber, Katherine; Streeter, Calvin

    2004-01-01

    The conceptualization and empirical assessment of service quality in juvenile justice remains limited. There are few reports on programmatic attempts to assess satisfaction in juvenile justice programs or attempts to include what constitutes quality of service from multiple customer perspectives. This article describes a potential model, the Gap…

  15. Implementation fidelity in adolescent family-based prevention programs: relationship to family engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Byrnes, Hilary F.; Miller, Brenda A.; Aalborg, Annette E.; Plasencia, Ana V.; Keagy, Carolyn D.

    2010-01-01

    Reliability and validity of intervention studies are impossible without adequate program fidelity, as it ensures that the intervention was implemented as designed and allows for accurate conclusions about effectiveness (Bellg AJ, Borrelli B, Resnick B et al. Enhancing treatment fidelity in health behavior change studies: best practices and recommendations from the NIH behavior change consortium. Health Psychol 2004; 23: 443–51). This study examines the relation between program fidelity with f...

  16. Molecular identification and characterization of the pyruvate decarboxylase gene family associated with latex regeneration and stress response in rubber tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xiangyu; He, Bin; Wang, Chuang; Fang, Yongjun; Qi, Jiyan; Tang, Chaorong

    2015-02-01

    In plants, ethanolic fermentation occurs not only under anaerobic conditions but also under aerobic conditions, and involves carbohydrate and energy metabolism. Pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) is the first and the key enzyme of ethanolic fermentation, which branches off the main glycolytic pathway at pyruvate. Here, four PDC genes were isolated and identified in a rubber tree, and the protein sequences they encode are very similar. The expression patterns of HbPDC4 correlated well with tapping-simulated rubber productivity in virgin rubber trees, indicating it plays an important role in regulating glycometabolism during latex regeneration. HbPDC1, HbPDC2 and HbPDC3 had striking expressional responses in leaves and bark to drought, low temperature and high temperature stresses, indicating that the HbPDC genes are involve in self-protection and defense in response to various abiotic and biotic stresses during rubber tree growth and development. To understand ethanolic fermentation in rubber trees, it will be necessary to perform an in-depth study of the regulatory pathways controlling the HbPDCs in the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. A yoga and compassion meditation program reduces stress in familial caregivers of Alzheimer's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danucalov, M A D; Kozasa, E H; Ribas, K T; Galduróz, J C F; Garcia, M C; Verreschi, I T N; Oliveira, K C; Romani de Oliveira, L; Leite, J R

    2013-01-01

    Familial caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease exhibit reduced quality of life and increased stress levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week yoga and compassion meditation program on the perceived stress, anxiety, depression, and salivary cortisol levels in familial caregivers. A total of 46 volunteers were randomly assigned to participate in a stress-reduction program for a 2-month period (yoga and compassion meditation program-YCMP group) (n = 25) or an untreated group for the same period of time (control group) (n = 21). The levels of stress, anxiety, depression, and morning salivary cortisol of the participants were measured before and after intervention. The groups were initially homogeneous; however, after intervention, the groups diverged significantly. The YCMP group exhibited a reduction of the stress (P anxiety (P meditation program may offer an effective intervention for reducing perceived stress, anxiety, depression, and salivary cortisol in familial caregivers.

  18. The impact of stratifying by family history in colorectal cancer screening programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goede, Simon Lucas; Rabeneck, Linda; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Zauber, Ann G; Paszat, Lawrence F; Hoch, Jeffrey S; Yong, Jean H E; van Hees, Frank; Tinmouth, Jill; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein

    2015-09-01

    In the province-wide colorectal cancer (CRC) screening program in Ontario, Canada, individuals with a family history of CRC are offered colonoscopy screening and those without are offered guaiac fecal occult blood testing (gFOBT, Hemoccult II). We used microsimulation modeling to estimate the cumulative number of CRC deaths prevented and colonoscopies performed between 2008 and 2038 with this family history-based screening program, compared to a regular gFOBT program. In both programs, we assumed screening uptake increased from 30% (participation level in 2008 before the program was launched) to 60%. We assumed that 11% of the population had a family history, defined as having at least one first-degree relative diagnosed with CRC. The programs offered screening between age 50 and 74 years, every two years for gFOBT, and every ten years for colonoscopy. Compared to opportunistic screening (2008 participation level kept constant at 30%), the gFOBT program cumulatively prevented 6,700 more CRC deaths and required 570,000 additional colonoscopies by 2038. The family history-based screening program increased these numbers to 9,300 and 1,100,000, a 40% and 93% increase, respectively. If biennial gFOBT was replaced with biennial fecal immunochemical test (FIT), annual Hemoccult Sensa or five-yearly sigmoidoscopy screening, both the added benefits and colonoscopies required would decrease. A biennial gFOBT screening program that identifies individuals with a family history of CRC and recommends them to undergo colonoscopy screening would prevent 40% (range in sensitivity analyses: 20-51%) additional deaths while requiring 93% (range: 43-116%) additional colonoscopies, compared to a regular gFOBT screening program. © 2015 UICC.

  19. A Pilot Telerehabilitation Program: Delivering Early Intervention Services to Rural Families

    OpenAIRE

    Cason, Jana

    2009-01-01

    The enTECH Telerehabilitation Program explored the use of telerehabilitation as an alternative service delivery model for early intervention therapy services. Utilizing the Kentucky Telehealth Network, two families living in rural Kentucky received occupational therapy services over a 12-week period. Following program implementation, qualitative data was collected using participant journals and interviews. Data analysis identified three thematic categories related to the program: benefits/str...

  20. Navy Family Advocacy Program. Appendix. Analysis of Central Registry Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    2/76) 2 Suspected Abuzso/Malect/Sexua1 Assault an ae2404 65.) "Suspected Abuso /Neglect/ Sexual Assault and Rape Report" 2226 60.5 NAVMED 6320/15A...ANALYSIS OF SEXUAL ASSAULT REPORTS ........... 50 HAPTER V: SUMAY ANALYSIS Or rAMILY ADVOCACY PROGRAM REPORTS . 56 APPENDIX...cont’d)I PAGE CHAPTER IV: SEXUAL ASSAULT TV-1 Fore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 IV-2 Type of Maltreatment ............... 53 IV-3

  1. Family medicine residency program director expectations of procedural skills of medical school graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Gretchen M; Chesser, Amy K; Woods, Nikki Keene; Krug, Nathan R; Kellerman, Rick D

    2013-06-01

    Mismatch between program directors' expectations of medical school graduates and the experience of students in medical school has important implications for patient safety and medical education. We sought to define family medicine residency program directors' expectations of medical school graduates to independently perform various procedural skills and medical school graduates' self-reported competence to perform those skills at residency outset. In July of 2011, a paper-based survey was distributed nationwide by mail to 441 family medicine residency program directors and 3,287 medical school graduates enrolled as postgraduate year 1 (PGY-1) residents in family medicine residency programs. Program director expectation of independent performance and recent medical school graduate self-reported ability to independently perform each of 40 procedures was assessed. Surveys were completed and returned from 186 program directors (response rate 42%) and 681 medical school graduates (response rate 21%). At least 66% of program directors expected interns to enter residency able to independently perform 15 of 40 procedures. More than 80% of new interns reported they were able to independently perform five of the 15 procedures expected by program directors. Incongruity exists between program director expectations and intern self-reported ability to perform common procedures. Both patient safety and medical education may be jeopardized by a mismatch of expectation and experience. Assessment of medical students prior to medical school graduation or at the start of residency training may help detect procedural skill gaps and protect patient safety.

  2. Characterization of a stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase gene family from chocolate tree, Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufan; Maximova, Siela N; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    In plants, the conversion of stearoyl-ACP to oleoyol-ACP is catalyzed by a plastid-localized soluble stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase (SAD). The activity of SAD significantly impacts the ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and is thus a major determinant of fatty acid composition. The cacao genome contains eight putative SAD isoforms with high amino acid sequence similarities and functional domain conservation with SAD genes from other species. Sequence variation in known functional domains between different SAD family members suggested that these eight SAD isoforms might have distinct functions in plant development, a hypothesis supported by their diverse expression patterns in various cacao tissues. Notably, TcSAD1 is universally expressed across all the tissues, and its expression pattern in seeds is highly correlated with the dramatic change in fatty acid composition during seed maturation. Interestingly, TcSAD3 and TcSAD4 appear to be exclusively and highly expressed in flowers, functions of which remain unknown. To test the function of TcSAD1 in vivo, transgenic complementation of the Arabidopsis ssi2 mutant was performed, demonstrating that TcSAD1 successfully rescued all AtSSI2 related phenotypes further supporting the functional orthology between these two genes. The identification of the major SAD gene responsible for cocoa butter biosynthesis provides new strategies for screening for novel genotypes with desirable fatty acid compositions, and for use in breeding programs to help pyramid genes for quality and other traits such as disease resistance.

  3. Characterization of a stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase gene family from chocolate tree, Theobroma cacao L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufan; Maximova, Siela N.; Guiltinan, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    In plants, the conversion of stearoyl-ACP to oleoyol-ACP is catalyzed by a plastid-localized soluble stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase (SAD). The activity of SAD significantly impacts the ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and is thus a major determinant of fatty acid composition. The cacao genome contains eight putative SAD isoforms with high amino acid sequence similarities and functional domain conservation with SAD genes from other species. Sequence variation in known functional domains between different SAD family members suggested that these eight SAD isoforms might have distinct functions in plant development, a hypothesis supported by their diverse expression patterns in various cacao tissues. Notably, TcSAD1 is universally expressed across all the tissues, and its expression pattern in seeds is highly correlated with the dramatic change in fatty acid composition during seed maturation. Interestingly, TcSAD3 and TcSAD4 appear to be exclusively and highly expressed in flowers, functions of which remain unknown. To test the function of TcSAD1 in vivo, transgenic complementation of the Arabidopsis ssi2 mutant was performed, demonstrating that TcSAD1 successfully rescued all AtSSI2 related phenotypes further supporting the functional orthology between these two genes. The identification of the major SAD gene responsible for cocoa butter biosynthesis provides new strategies for screening for novel genotypes with desirable fatty acid compositions, and for use in breeding programs to help pyramid genes for quality and other traits such as disease resistance. PMID:25926841

  4. Implementing a Conditional Cash Transfer Program in Two American Cities: Early Lessons from Family Rewards 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechausay, Nadine; Miller, Cynthia; Quiroz-Becerra, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, New York City launched the first test of a conditional cash transfer program in the United States. Called Family Rewards, the program sought to break the intergenerational cycle of poverty by offering cash assistance to poor families to reduce immediate hardship, but conditioned this assistance on families' efforts to improve their…

  5. 25 CFR 63.33 - What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program funds include? 63.33 Section 63.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.33 What must an application for Indian...

  6. 25 CFR 63.32 - Under what authority are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program funds awarded? 63.32 Section 63.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.32 Under what authority are Indian child...

  7. 25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program? 63.30 Section 63.30 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.30 What is the purpose of the Indian child protection...

  8. 24 CFR 5.657 - Section 8 project-based assistance programs: Reexamination of family income and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... programs: Reexamination of family income and composition. 5.657 Section 5.657 Housing and Urban Development...: Reexamination of family income and composition. (a) Applicability. This section states requirements for reexamination of family income and composition in the Section 8 project-based assistance programs, except for...

  9. Pushdown machines for the macro tree transducer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, Joost; Vogler, Heiko

    1986-01-01

    The macro tree transducer can be considered as a system of recursive function procedures with parameters, where the recursion is on a tree (e.g., the syntax tree of a program). We investigate characterizations of the class of tree (tree-to-string) translations which is induced by macro tree

  10. Key informants' perspectives on development of family medicine training programs in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gossa W

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Weyinshet Gossa,1,2 Dawit Wondimagegn,3 Demeke Mekonnen,4 Wondwossen Eshetu,5 Zerihun Abebe,6 Michael D Fetters2 1Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Department of Family Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, 4Department of Pediatrics, Jimma University, Jimma, 5Federal Ministry of Health, 6St Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Abstract: As a very low-income country, Ethiopia faces significant development challenges, though there is great aspiration to dramatically improve health care in the country. Family medicine has recently been recognized through national policy as one potential contributor in addressing Ethiopia's health care challenges. Family medicine is a new specialty in Ethiopia emerging in the context of family medicine development in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Addis Ababa University family medicine residency program started in 2013 and is the first and the only family medicine program in the country as of March 2016. Stakeholders on the ground feel that family medicine is off to a good start and have great enthusiasm and optimism for its success. While the Ministry of Health has a vision for the development of family medicine and a plan for rapid upscaling of family medicine across the country, significant challenges remain. Continuing discussion about the potential roles of family medicine specialists in Ethiopia and policy-level strategic planning to place family medicine at the core of primary health care delivery in the country is needed. In addition, the health care-tier system needs to be restructured to include the family medicine specialists along with appropriately equipped health care facilities for training and practice. Key stakeholders are optimistic that family medicine expansion can be successful in Ethiopia through a coordinated effort by

  11. Family leader empowerment program using participatory learning process for dengue vector control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengvanich, Veerapong

    2011-02-01

    Assess the performance of the empowerment program using participatory learning process for the control of Dengue vector The program focuses on using the leaders of families as the main executer of the vector control protocol. This quasi-experimental research utilized the two-group pretest-posttest design. The sample group consisted of 120 family leaders from two communities in Mueang Municipality, Chachoengsao Province. The research was conducted during an 8-week period between April and June 2010. The data were collected and analyzed based on frequency, percentage, mean, paired t-test, and independent t-test. The result was evaluated by comparing the difference between the mean prevalence index of mosquito larvae before and after the process implementation in terms of the container index (CI) and the house index (HI). After spending eight weeks in the empowerment program, the family leader's behavior in the aspect of Dengue vector control has improved. The Container Index and the House Index were found to decrease with p = 0.05 statistical significance. The reduction of CI and HI suggested that the program worked well in the selected communities. The success of the Dengue vector control program depended on cooperation and participation of many groups, especially the families in the community When the family leaders have good attitude and are capable of carrying out the vector control protocol, the risk factor leading to the incidence of Dengue rims infection can be reduced.

  12. Electrocardiography teaching in Canadian family medicine residency programs: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Baldeep; Baranchuk, Adrian

    2011-04-01

    Electrocardiography (ECG) interpretation is an essential skill for a family physician. Teaching and learning electrocardiography is a difficult task, in part due to the erosion of knowledge when interpretation is not part of a daily activity. The objective of this study was to assess the current status of electrocardiography teaching in Canadian family medicine residency programs. A national survey was designed to specifically address the status of the ECG teaching curricula. This national survey was electronically sent to the family medicine program directors of all 17 Canadian accredited medical schools. Approximately 75% of the schools responded to the survey. There was a great variance among Canadian family medicine residency programs with respect to the time allotment, ECG training location, training faculty, and teaching methods utilized. The goals of each respective program are also quite wide-ranging. Family medicine residency programs across Canada are quite diverse regarding ECG training curricula and its goals. The need for a homogeneous way of teaching and evaluating has been identified.

  13. A web-based decision support system to enhance IPM programs in Washington tree fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Vincent P; Brunner, Jay F; Grove, Gary G; Petit, Brad; Tangren, Gerald V; Jones, Wendy E

    2010-06-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM) decision-making has become more information intensive in Washington State tree crops in response to changes in pesticide availability, the development of new control tactics (such as mating disruption) and the development of new information on pest and natural enemy biology. The time-sensitive nature of the information means that growers must have constant access to a single source of verified information to guide management decisions. The authors developed a decision support system for Washington tree fruit growers that integrates environmental data [140 Washington State University (WSU) stations plus weather forecasts from NOAA], model predictions (ten insects, four diseases and a horticultural model), management recommendations triggered by model status and a pesticide database that provides information on non-target impacts on other pests and natural enemies. A user survey in 2008 found that the user base was providing recommendations for most of the orchards and acreage in the state, and that users estimated the value at $ 16 million per year. The design of the system facilitates education on a range of time-sensitive topics and will make it possible easily to incorporate other models, new management recommendations or information from new sensors as they are developed.

  14. Family Income, Parent Education, and Perceived Constraints as Predictors of Observed Program Quality and Parent Rated Program Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torquati, Julia C.; Raikes, Helen H.; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine A.; Bovaird, James A.; Harris, Beatrice A.

    2011-01-01

    Observed child care quality and parent perceptions of child care quality received by children in poor (below Federal Poverty Line, FPL), low-income (between FPL and 200% of FPL), and non-low-income families were examined. Observations were completed in 359 center- and home-based child care programs in four Midwestern states and surveys were…

  15. 77 FR 42085 - Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Family Education Loan Program, and William D. Ford Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ...), Program Manager, Educational Debt Relief and Outreach, Equal Justice Works. Ms. Jennifer Mishory, Deputy... Mr. Scott Giles (alternate), Vice President for Operations, Social Marketing and Strategy, Vermont... AGI and 150 percent of the annual poverty guideline amount for the borrower's State and family size...

  16. Teaching and evaluation of ethics and professionalism: in Canadian family medicine residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, Merril A

    2012-12-01

    To document the scope of the teaching and evaluation of ethics and professionalism in Canadian family medicine postgraduate training programs, and to identify barriers to the teaching and evaluation of ethics and professionalism. A survey was developed in collaboration with the Committee on Ethics of the College of Family Physicians of Canada. The data are reported descriptively and in aggregate. Canadian postgraduate family medicine training programs. Between June and December of 2008, all 17 Canadian postgraduate family medicine training programs were invited to participate. The first part of the survey explored the structure, resources, methods, scheduled hours, and barriers to teaching ethics and professionalism. The second section focused on end-of-rotation evaluations, other evaluation strategies, and barriers related to the evaluation of ethics and professionalism. Eighty-eight percent of programs completed the survey. Most respondents (87%) had learning objectives specifically for ethics and professionalism, and 87% had family doctors with training or interest in the area leading their efforts. Two-thirds of responding programs had less than 10 hours of scheduled instruction per year, and the most common barriers to effective teaching were the need for faculty development, competing learning needs, and lack of resident interest. Ninety-three percent of respondents assessed ethics and professionalism on their end-of-rotation evaluations, with 86% assessing specific domains. The most common barriers to evaluation were a lack of suitable tools and a lack of faculty comfort and interest. By far most Canadian family medicine postgraduate training programs had learning objectives and designated faculty leads in ethics and professionalism, yet there was little curricular time dedicated to these areas and a perceived lack of resident interest and faculty expertise. Most programs evaluated ethics and professionalism as part of their end-of-rotation evaluations, but

  17. 25 CFR 63.35 - How may Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds be used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How may Indian child protection and family violence... INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.35 How may Indian child protection and family violence...

  18. 25 CFR 63.34 - How are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds distributed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are Indian child protection and family violence... INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.34 How are Indian child protection and family violence...

  19. Parenting While Incarcerated: Tailoring the Strengthening Families Program for Use with Jailed Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alison L.; Weston, Lauren E.; Perryman, Jamie; Horwitz, Talia; Franzen, Susan; Cochran, Shirley

    2015-01-01

    Most incarcerated women are mothers. Parenting programs may benefit women, children and families, yet effectively intervening in correctional settings is a challenge. An evidence-based parenting intervention (the Strengthening Families Program) was tailored and implemented with women in a jail setting. Goals were to assess mothers' needs and interests regarding parenting while they were incarcerated, adapt the program to address those needs, and establish intervention delivery and evaluation methods in collaboration with a community-based agency. Women reported wanting to know more about effective communication; how children manage stress; finances; drug and alcohol use; self-care; and stress reduction. They reported high program satisfaction and reported reduced endorsement of corporal punishment after the intervention. Barriers to implementation included unpredictable attendance from session to session due to changing release dates, transfer to other facilities, and jail policies (e.g., lock-down; commissary hours). Implications for sustainable implementation of parenting programs in jail settings are discussed. PMID:26612963

  20. A survey of formal training in the care of children in family practice residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldor, R A; Luckmann, R

    1992-08-01

    Declining hospitalization rates for children and an increased emphasis on ambulatory care may be affecting the way family practice residency programs train their residents in the care of children. We surveyed all US family practice residency program directors to determine the nature of the child care training that programs currently provide to residents. Responses were received from 78% of the programs. Residencies required a mean of 5.2 months of formal pediatric training (range: 1 to 11 months). Thirty percent of programs noted a declining inpatient census on inpatient pediatric teaching services, but since 1978, the mean duration of inpatient pediatric training increased by 0.4 months to a required mean of 2.7 months of general pediatric inpatient training (range: 0 to 6 months). The mean time devoted to structured outpatient pediatric training was only 1.6 months (range: 0 to 6 months). Nine percent of responding programs required no formal pediatric outpatient training other than family health center experience. Despite declining inpatient census and increased emphasis on comprehensive ambulatory care, family practice residencies require more formal inpatient pediatric training than formal outpatient training.

  1. WAMCUT, a computer code for fault tree evaluation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdmann, R.C.

    1978-06-01

    WAMCUT is a code in the WAM family which produces the minimum cut sets (MCS) for a given fault tree. The MCS are useful as they provide a qualitative evaluation of a system, as well as providing a means of determining the probability distribution function for the top of the tree. The program is very efficient and will produce all the MCS in a very short computer time span. 22 figures, 4 tables

  2. Longitudinal Evaluation of the Tupange Urban Family Planning Program in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Aimee; Calhoun, Lisa M; Corroon, Meghan; Lance, Peter; O'Hara, Rick; Otsola, John; Speizer, Ilene S; Winston, Jennifer

    2017-06-01

    Levels of fertility and contraceptive use have long fluctuated in Kenya. The multicomponent Tupange program, part of the Urban Reproductive Health Initiative, was initiated in 2011 to increase use of modern family planning methods. Women aged 15-49 in the five Kenyan cities where Tupange was implemented were interviewed in 2010 and reinterviewed in 2014 to obtain information on their contraceptive use and exposure to components of the Tupange program. Fixed-effects models were estimated to identify associations between program exposure and use of modern family planning methods. Analyses were performed to determine the relative cost-effectiveness of program components. During the four-year follow-up period, the proportion of women using modern contraceptives increased from 45% to 52%, and the proportion of users who were using long-acting or permanent methods rose from 6% to 19%. The fixed-effects model indicated that modern method use was associated with having heard Tupange-related local radio programming and marginally associated with having discussed family planning with a community health worker (CHW); among women who were unmarried or did not give birth during the study period, modern method use was associated with living near program facilities. Local radio programming was the most cost-effective program component, followed by proximity to Tupange facilities and discussions with CHWs. Urban reproductive health programs seeking to increase use of modern family planning methods in Kenya and other Sub-Saharan African settings should consider multicomponent approaches that include CHW activities, local radio programming and improvements to the supply environment.

  3. Costs to implement an effective transition-to-parenthood program for couples: analysis of the Family Foundations program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Damon E; Feinberg, Mark E; Hostetler, Michelle L

    2014-06-01

    The transition to parenthood involves many stressors that can have implications for the couple relationship as well as the developmental environment of the child. Scholars and policymakers have recognized the potential for interventions that can help couples navigate these stressors to improve parenting and coparenting strategies. Such evidence-based programs are scarcely available, however, and little is known about the resources necessary to carry out these programs. This study examines the costs and resources necessary to implement Family Foundations, a program that addresses the multifaceted issues facing first-time parents through a series of pre- and post-natal classes. Costs were determined using a 6-step analytic process and are based on the first implementation of the program carried out through a five-year demonstration project. This assessment demonstrates how overall costs change across years as new cohorts of families are introduced, and how cost breakdowns differ by category as needs shift from training group leaders to sustaining program services. Information from this cost analysis helps clarify how the program could be made more efficient in subsequent implementations. We also consider how results may be used in future research examining economic benefits of participation in the program. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Costs to implement an effective transition-to-parenthood program for couples: Analysis of the Family Foundations program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Damon E.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Hostetler, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The transition to parenthood involves many stressors that can have implications for the couple relationship as well as the developmental environment of the child. Scholars and policymakers have recognized the potential for interventions that can help couples navigate these stressors to improve parenting and coparenting strategies. Such evidence-based programs are scarcely available, however, and little is known about the resources necessary to carry out these programs. This study examines the costs and resources necessary to implement Family Foundations, a program that addresses the multifaceted issues facing first-time parents through a series of pre- and post-natal classes. Costs were determined using a 6-step analytic process and are based on the first implementation of the program carried out through a five-year demonstration project. This assessment demonstrates how overall costs change across years as new cohorts of families are introduced, and how cost breakdowns differ by category as needs shift from training group leaders to sustaining program services. Information from this cost analysis helps clarify how the program could be made more efficient in subsequent implementations. We also consider how results may be used in future research examining economic benefits of participation in the program. PMID:24603052

  5. Learning Under the Tree : Evaluating Skillful Parenting Program in West Kenya ICS Full Evaluation Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esch, R.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371571502; de Haan, M.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074405624

    2016-01-01

    Summary The central purpose of this evaluation is to determine if and how the Skillful Parenting Program (SPP) effects the parenting of its participants. In addition, it aims to determine how the parenting program was adapted to the West Kenyan setting, and how the specific content and processes of

  6. The cost-effectiveness of a nonpharmacologic intervention for individuals with dementia and family caregivers: the tailored activity program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitlin, Laura N; Hodgson, Nancy; Jutkowitz, Eric; Pizzi, Laura

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate cost-effectiveness of the Tailored Activity Program (TAP) for individuals with dementia and family caregivers. Cost-effectiveness study of a two-group randomized controlled trial involving 60 patients-caregiver dyads randomized to intervention or wait-list control. Participants' homes in Philadelphia region. Caregivers were aged ≥ 21 years, lived with patients, and provided ≥ 4 hours of daily care. Patients had moderate dementia and behavioral symptoms Eight sessions of occupational therapy over 4 months to identify patients' preserved capabilities, previous roles, habits and interests, develop customized activities, and train families in their use. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) expressed as the cost to bring about one additional unit of benefit measured by caregiver hours per day "doing things" and hours per day "being on duty." Decision tree and Monte Carlo analyses tested robustness of the economic models. Total average intervention cost was $941.63 per day. Intervention caregivers saved one extra hour per day "doing things" at a cost of $2.37/day and one extra hour per day "being on duty" at a cost of $1.10/day. Monte Carlo showed that TAP was cost-effective 79.2% of the time for "doing things" and 79.6% of the time for "being on duty." Varying the cost assumptions did not change cost-effectiveness. Findings suggest that investment in TAP is cost-effective and afforded families an important, limited and highly valued resource, needed time off from caregiving. This nonpharmacologic approach should be considered part of the clinical management of dementia.

  7. Structure and expression profile of the sucrose synthase gene family in the rubber tree: indicative of roles in stress response and sucrose utilization in the laticifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiaohu; Tang, Chaorong; Fang, Yongjun; Yang, Meng; Zhou, Binhui; Qi, Jiyan; Zhang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Sucrose synthase (Sus, EC 2.4.1.13) is widely recognized as a key enzyme in sucrose metabolism in plants. However, nothing is known about this gene family in Hevea brasiliensis (para rubber tree). Here, we identified six Sus genes in H. brasiliensis that comprise the entire Sus family in this species. Analysis of the gene structure and phylogeny of the Sus genes demonstrates evolutionary conservation in the Sus families across Hevea and other plant species. The expression of Sus genes was investigated via Solexa sequencing and quantitative PCR in various tissues, at various phases of leaf development, and under abiotic stresses and ethylene treatment. The Sus genes exhibited distinct but partially redundant expression profiles. Each tissue has one abundant Sus isoform, with HbSus3, 4 and 5 being the predominant isoforms in latex (cytoplasm of rubber-producing laticifers), bark and root, respectively. HbSus1 and 6 were barely expressed in any tissue examined. In mature leaves (source), all HbSus genes were expressed at low levels, but HbSus3 and 4 were abundantly expressed in immature leaves (sink). Low temperature and drought treatments conspicuously induced HbSus5 expression in root and leaf, suggesting a role in stress responses. HbSus2 and 3 transcripts were decreased by ethylene treatment, consistent with the reduced sucrose-synthesizing activity of Sus enzymes in the latex in response to ethylene stimulation. Our results are beneficial to further determination of functions for the Sus genes in Hevea trees, especially roles in regulating latex regeneration. © 2013 FEBS.

  8. A Multi-Family Group Intervention for Adolescent Depression: The BEST MOOD Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Lucinda A; Lewis, Andrew J; Toumbourou, John W; Knight, Tess; Bertino, Melanie D; Pryor, Reima

    2017-06-01

    Depression is the most common mental disorder for young people, and it is associated with educational underachievement, self-harm, and suicidality. Current psychological therapies for adolescent depression are usually focused only on individual-level change and often neglect family or contextual influences. The efficacy of interventions may be enhanced with a broader therapeutic focus on family factors such as communication, conflict, support, and cohesion. This article describes a structured multi-family group approach to the treatment of adolescent depression: Behaviour Exchange Systems Therapy for adolescent depression (BEST MOOD). BEST MOOD is a manualized intervention that is designed to address both individual and family factors in the treatment of adolescent depression. BEST MOOD adopts a family systems approach that also incorporates psychoeducation and elements of attachment theories. The program consists of eight multifamily group therapy sessions delivered over 2 hours per week, where parents attend the first four sessions and young people and siblings join from week 5. The program design is specifically aimed to engage youth who are initially resistant to treatment and to optimize youth and family mental health outcomes. This article presents an overview of the theoretical model, session content, and evaluations to date, and provides a case study to illustrate the approach. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  9. [Mites (Acari) from rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg., Euphorbiaceae) and spontaneous euphorbiaceous in rubber trees cultivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, Marcos R; Feres, Reinaldo J F; Buosi, Renato

    2008-01-01

    Quarterly samples were done in 2001 on three rubber tree plantation in the northwest of the state of São Paulo. Three rubber trees of each locality were sampled. Between the rows of rubber tree four species of spontaneous euphorbiaceous were collected: Chamaesyce hirta, C. hyssopifolia, Euphorbia heterophylla and Phyllanthus tenellus. A total of 8.954 mites of 38 species, belonging to 31 genera of 11 families were collected. Tydeidae and Phytoseiidae had the highest diversity of species, 9 and 7, respectively. The most abundant families were Eriophyidae (3.594), Tydeidae (2.825) and Tenuipalpidae (1.027). The most abundant species on the rubber trees were: phytophagous - Calacarus heveae Feres, Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, Lorryia sp.2, Lorryia formosa Cooreman and Lorryia sp.1; predators - Zetzellia quasagistemas Hernandes & Feres, Pronematus sp., Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma and Euseius citrifolius Denmark & Muma. Among the spontaneous euphorbiaceous, predatory mites were abundantly found on C. hirta and E. heterophylla, mainly Pronematus sp. and E. citrifolius, suggesting that these plants could be important in the maintenance of these predators in the rubber tree cultivation areas. However, plants that can shelter predators and at the same time exert strong competition (nutrients, water etc) to rubber trees, can not be recommended for pest management programs. Studies about competition between rubber trees and spontaneous plants need to be conducted for feasible efficient programs of environmental management, aiming at the control of pest mites of rubber tree.

  10. Software support for Motorola 68000 microprocessor at CERN. CERN convention for programming the MC68000 family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cailliau, R.; Carpenter, B.

    1984-01-01

    The CERN convention for programming the MC68000 family of microprocessors gives a set of rules describing the layout of the memory and stack frames used by routines as they should appear before and after their calling sequences. It does not deal with the instructions used to achieve these states. The aim of the convention is to allow programming language mixing as well as debugging of programs built from units written in different languages. It is to be followed by programmers and programming-language compilers. (orig.)

  11. Teaching corner: child family health international : the ethics of asset-based global health education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evert, Jessica

    2015-03-01

    Child Family Health International (CFHI) is a U.S.-based nonprofit, nongovernmental organization (NGO) that has more than 25 global health education programs in seven countries annually serving more than 600 interprofessional undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate participants in programs geared toward individual students and university partners. Recognized by Special Consultative Status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), CFHI utilizes an asset-based community engagement model to ensure that CFHI's programs challenge, rather than reinforce, historical power imbalances between the "Global North" and "Global South." CFHI's programs are predicated on ethical principles including reciprocity, sustainability, humility, transparency, nonmaleficence, respect for persons, and social justice.

  12. Changes in Families' Caregiving Experiences through Involvement as Participants then Facilitators in a Family Peer-Education Program for Mental Disorders in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Masako; Yokoyama, Keiko; Nakamura, Yukako; Kobayashi, Sayaka

    2017-06-01

    A family peer-education program for mental disorders was developed in Japan, similar to existing programs in the United States and Hong Kong. Families that serve as facilitators in such programs may enhance their caregiving processes and, thereby, their well-being. This study's aim was to describe how families' caregiving experiences change, beginning with the onset of a family member's mental illness, through their involvement in a family group or peer-education program as participants then facilitators. Thus, this study was conducted in a family peer-education program for mental disorders in Japan. Group interviews were conducted with 27 facilitators from seven program sites about their experiences before, during, and after becoming facilitators. Interview data were coded and categorized into five stages of caregiving processes: (1) withdrawing and suppressing negative experiences with difficulty and regret; (2) finding comfort through being listened to about negative experiences; (3) supporting participants' sharing as facilitators; (4) understanding and affirming oneself through repeated sharing of experiences; and (5) finding value and social roles in one's experiences. The third, fourth, and fifth stages were experienced by the facilitators. The value that the facilitators placed on their caregiving experiences changed from negative to positive, which participants regarded as helpful and supportive. We conclude that serving as facilitators may improve families' caregiving processes. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  13. National impacts of the Weatherization Assistance Program in single-family and small multifamily dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G.; Balzer, R.A.; Faby, E.

    1993-05-01

    Since 1976, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has operated one of the largest energy conservation programs in the nation -- the low-income Weatherization Assistance Program. The program strives to increase the energy efficiency of dwellings occupied by low-income persons in order to reduce their energy consumption, lower their fuel bills, increase the comfort of their homes, and safeguard their health. It targets vulnerable groups including the elderly, people with disabilities, and families with children. The most recent national evaluation of the impacts of the Program was completed in 1984 based on energy consumption data for households weatherized in 1981. DOE Program regulations and operations have changed substantially since then: new funding sources, management principles, diagnostic procedures, and weatherization technologies have been incorporated. Many of these new features have been studied in isolation or at a local level; however, no recent evaluation has assessed their combined, nationwide impacts to date or their potential for the future. In 1990, DOE initiated such an evaluation. This evaluation is comprised of three ``impact`` studies (the Single-Family Study, High-Density Multifamily Study, and Fuel-Oil Study) and two ``policy`` studies. Altogether, these five studies will provide a comprehensive national assessment of the Weatherization Assistance Program as it existed in the 1989 Program Year (PY 1989). This report presents the results of the first phase of the Single-Family Study. It evaluates the energy savings and cost effectiveness of the Program as it has been applied to the largest portion of its client base -- low-income households that occupy single-family dwellings, mobile homes, and small (2- to 4-unit) multifamily dwellings. It is based upon a representative national sample that covers the full range of conditions under which the program was implemented in PY 1989.

  14. Management Oversight and Risk Tree (MORT): a new system safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.L.

    Experiences of Aerojet Nuclear Company (ANC), in the development and implementation of a system safety program for ANC and for the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) are discussed. Aerojet Nuclear is the prime operating contractor for ERDA, formerly AEC, at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The ERDA sponsored ''MORT'' system safety program is described along with the process whereby formal system safety methods are incorporated into a stable organization. Specifically, a discussion is given of initial development of MORT; pilot program trials conducted at ANC; implementation methodology; and reaction of the ANC organization. (auth)

  15. Common families across test series—how many do we need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.R. Johnson

    2004-01-01

    In order to compare families that are planted on different sites, many forest tree breeding programs include common families in their different series of trials. Computer simulation was used to examine how many common families were needed in each series of progeny trials in order to reliably compare families across series. Average gain and its associated variation...

  16. A Pilot Telerehabilitation Program: Delivering Early Intervention Services to Rural Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Cason

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The enTECH Telerehabilitation Program explored the use of telerehabilitation as an alternative service delivery model for early intervention therapy services. Utilizing the Kentucky Telehealth Network, two families living in rural Kentucky received occupational therapy services over a 12-week period. Following program implementation, qualitative data was collected using participant journals and interviews. Data analysis identified three thematic categories related to the program: benefits/strengths, challenges/weaknesses, and recommendations for program improvement. Results of the program evaluation indicated that telerehabilitation has the potential to cost-effectively meet the therapeutic needs of children living in rural areas where provider shortages exist. The enTECH Telerehabilitation Program serves as a model for how telerehabilitation can be used to deliver early intervention services to ameliorate health disparities and improve access to rehabilitation services. Keywords: Telerehabilitation, Occupational Therapy, Rural, Early Intervention, Children, Program Evaluation, Cost Analysis

  17. Identification and Characterization of the Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Gene Family in the Para Rubber Tree, Hevea brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xiangyu; He, Bin; Fang, Yongjun; Tang, Chaorong

    2016-01-01

    As a key enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) provides nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and intermediary metabolites for rubber biosynthesis, and plays an important role in plant development and stress responses. In this study, four Hevea brasiliensis (Para rubber tree) G6PDH genes (HbG6PDH1 to 4) were identified and cloned using a genome-wide scanning approach. All four HbG6PDH genes encode functional G6PDH enzymes as shown by heterologous expression in E. coli. Phylogeny analysis and subcellular localization prediction show that HbG6PDH3 is a cytosolic isoform, while the other three genes (HbG6PDH1, 2 and 4) are plastidic isoforms. The subcellular locations of HbG6PDH3 and 4, two latex-abundant isoforms were further verified by transient expression in rice protoplasts. Enzyme activity assay and expression analysis showed HbG6PDH3 and 4 were implicated in PPP during latex regeneration, and to influence rubber production positively in rubber tree. The cytosolic HbG6PDH3 is a predominant isoform in latex, implying a principal role for this isoform in controlling carbon flow and NADPH production in the PPP during latex regeneration. The expression pattern of plastidic HbG6PDH4 correlates well with the degree of tapping panel dryness, a physiological disorder that stops the flow of latex from affected rubber trees. In addition, the four HbG6PDHs responded to temperature and drought stresses in root, bark, and leaves, implicating their roles in maintaining redox balance and defending against oxidative stress.

  18. Assessing parent education programs for families involved with child welfare services: evidence and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michelle; Stone, Susan; Lou, Christine; Ling, Jennifer; Claassen, Jennette; Austin, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    Parent education programs may be offered or mandated at various stages of the child welfare services continuum. However, little is known regarding their efficacy in addressing the parenting problems that bring families to the attention of child welfare services. This article synthesizes outcome data generated from 58 parenting programs with families determined to be at-risk of child maltreatment and/or abusive or neglectful. It places parent education programs within the broader context of research on effective parenting as well as the leading etiological models of child maltreatment to assess the evaluations of these programs with regard to methodological rigor as well as theoretical salience. Practical and theoretical implications are presented along with recommendations for future research.

  19. The impact of family planning programs on unmet need and demand for contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongaarts, John

    2014-06-01

    Much of the existing literature on the demographic impact of family planning programs focuses on their role in increasing contraceptive use, which, in turn, accelerates fertility decline. What is not clear, however, is whether this effect operates solely through a reduction in unmet need brought about by eliminating obstacles to use or whether and to what extent the programs also affect demand for contraception through messages concerning the benefits of family planning. This article aims to shed additional light on this issue by analyzing data drawn from recent Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 63 developing countries. The first section reviews general levels and trends in unmet need, demand, and use over the course of the fertility transition. The second section presents different types of evidence of program effects, including results from a controlled experiment and from country case studies. The evidence indicates a program impact on both unmet need and demand. © 2013 The Population Council, Inc.

  20. The Father Friendly Initiative within Families: Using a logic model to develop program theory for a father support program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Christine; de Montigny, Francine; Lacharité, Carl; Dubeau, Diane

    2015-10-01

    The transition to fatherhood, with its numerous challenges, has been well documented. Likewise, fathers' relationships with health and social services have also begun to be explored. Yet despite the problems fathers experience in interactions with healthcare services, few programs have been developed for them. To explain this, some authors point to the difficulty practitioners encounter in developing and structuring the theory of programs they are trying to create to promote and support father involvement (Savaya, R., & Waysman, M. (2005). Administration in Social Work, 29(2), 85), even when such theory is key to a program's effectiveness (Chen, H.-T. (2005). Practical program evaluation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications). The objective of the present paper is to present a tool, the logic model, to bridge this gap and to equip practitioners for structuring program theory. This paper addresses two questions: (1) What would be a useful instrument for structuring the development of program theory in interventions for fathers? (2) How would the concepts of a father involvement program best be organized? The case of the Father Friendly Initiative within Families (FFIF) program is used to present and illustrate six simple steps for developing a logic model that are based on program theory and demonstrate its relevance. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Construction and bootstrap analysis of DNA fingerprinting-based phylogenetic trees with the freeware program FreeTree: application to trichomonad parasites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hampl, V.; Pavlíček, Adam; Flegr, J.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 51, - (2001), s. 731-735 ISSN 1466-5026 R&D Projects: GA MŠk VS96142 Grant - others:GA UK(XC) 107/1998 Keywords : FreeTree software * fingerprinting * Trichomonas Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.004, year: 2001

  2. Department of the Navy Family Advocacy Program: Service Need and Service Response. Phase II Report: Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    cases where physical injuries are minimal, or in sexual assualt and rape cases when victims reports the incident days after the attack. In the latter case...Military Family Advocacy; Child Abuse; Spouse Abuse; Sexual Assault; Rape 20. ABSTRACT (Contnue on reverse If neeoery and Identify by block number...child abuse, spouse abuse, and sexual assault or rape. The report also identifies program needs and recommendations for program inmrovement. Findings

  3. PpeTAC1 promotes the horizontal growth of branches in peach trees and is a member of a functionally conserved gene family found in diverse plants species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardick, Chris; Callahan, Ann; Horn, Renate; Ruiz, Karina B; Zhebentyayeva, Tetyana; Hollender, Courtney; Whitaker, Michael; Abbott, Albert; Scorza, Ralph

    2013-08-01

    Trees are capable of tremendous architectural plasticity, allowing them to maximize their light exposure under highly competitive environments. One key component of tree architecture is the branch angle, yet little is known about the molecular basis for the spatial patterning of branches in trees. Here, we report the identification of a candidate gene for the br mutation in Prunus persica (peach) associated with vertically oriented growth of branches, referred to as 'pillar' or 'broomy'. Ppa010082, annotated as hypothetical protein in the peach genome sequence, was identified as a candidate gene for br using a next generation sequence-based mapping approach. Sequence similarity searches identified rice TAC1 (tiller angle control 1) as a putative ortholog, and we thus named it PpeTAC1. In monocots, TAC1 is known to lead to less compact growth by increasing the tiller angle. In Arabidopsis, an attac1 mutant showed more vertical branch growth angles, suggesting that the gene functions universally to promote the horizontal growth of branches. TAC1 genes belong to a gene family (here named IGT for a shared conserved motif) found in all plant genomes, consisting of two clades: one containing TAC1-like genes; the other containing LAZY1, which contains an EAR motif, and promotes vertical shoot growth in Oryza sativa (rice) and Arabidopsis through influencing polar auxin transport. The data suggest that IGT genes are ancient, and play conserved roles in determining shoot growth angles in plants. Understanding how IGT genes modulate branch angles will provide insights into how different architectural growth habits evolved in terrestrial plants. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Molecular phylogenetics and systematics of the bivalve family Ostreidae based on rRNA sequence-structure models and multilocus species tree.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Salvi

    Full Text Available The bivalve family Ostreidae has a worldwide distribution and includes species of high economic importance. Phylogenetics and systematic of oysters based on morphology have proved difficult because of their high phenotypic plasticity. In this study we explore the phylogenetic information of the DNA sequence and secondary structure of the nuclear, fast-evolving, ITS2 rRNA and the mitochondrial 16S rRNA genes from the Ostreidae and we implemented a multi-locus framework based on four loci for oyster phylogenetics and systematics. Sequence-structure rRNA models aid sequence alignment and improved accuracy and nodal support of phylogenetic trees. In agreement with previous molecular studies, our phylogenetic results indicate that none of the currently recognized subfamilies, Crassostreinae, Ostreinae, and Lophinae, is monophyletic. Single gene trees based on Maximum likelihood (ML and Bayesian (BA methods and on sequence-structure ML were congruent with multilocus trees based on a concatenated (ML and BA and coalescent based (BA approaches and consistently supported three main clades: (i Crassostrea, (ii Saccostrea, and (iii an Ostreinae-Lophinae lineage. Therefore, the subfamily Crassostreinae (including Crassostrea, Saccostreinae subfam. nov. (including Saccostrea and tentatively Striostrea and Ostreinae (including Ostreinae and Lophinae taxa are recognized [corrected]. Based on phylogenetic and biogeographical evidence the Asian species of Crassostrea from the Pacific Ocean are assigned to Magallana gen. nov., whereas an integrative taxonomic revision is required for the genera Ostrea and Dendostrea. This study pointed out the suitability of the ITS2 marker for DNA barcoding of oyster and the relevance of using sequence-structure rRNA models and features of the ITS2 folding in molecular phylogenetics and taxonomy. The multilocus approach allowed inferring a robust phylogeny of Ostreidae providing a broad molecular perspective on their systematics.

  5. The Family Startup Program: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of a universal group-based parenting support program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trillingsgaard, Tea; Maimburg, Rikke Damkjær; Simonsen, Marianne

    2015-04-21

    Inadequate parenting is an important public health problem with possible severe and long-term consequences related to child development. We have solid theoretical and political arguments in favor of efforts enhancing the quality of the early family environment in the population at large. However, little is known about effect of universal approaches to parenting support during the transition to parenthood. This protocol describes an experimental evaluation of group based parenting support, the Family Startup Program (FSP), currently implemented large scale in Denmark. Participants will be approximately 2500 pregnant women and partners. Inclusion criteria are parental age above 18 and the mother expecting first child. Families are recruited when attending routine pregnancy scans provided as a part of the publicly available prenatal care program at Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby. Families are randomized within four geographically defined strata to one of two conditions a) participation in FSP or b) Treatment As Usual (TAU). FSP aims to prepare new families for their roles as parents and enhance parental access to informal sources of support, i.e. social network and community resources. The program consists of twelve group sessions, with nine families in each group, continuing from pregnancy until the child is 15 months old. TAU is the publicly available pre- and postnatal care available to families in both conditions. Analyses will employ survey data, administrative data from health visitors, and administrative register based data from Statistics Denmark. All data sources will be linked via the unique Danish Civil Registration Register (CPR) identifier. Data will be obtained at four time points, during pregnancy, when the child is nine months, 18 months and seven years. The primary study outcome is measured by the Parenting Sense of Competence scale (PSOC) J Clin Child Psychol 18:167-75, 1989. Other outcomes include parenting and couple relationship quality

  6. A Pilot Telerehabilitation Program: Delivering Early Intervention Services to Rural Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Jana

    2009-01-01

    The enTECH Telerehabilitation Program explored the use of telerehabilitation as an alternative service delivery model for early intervention therapy services. Utilizing the Kentucky Telehealth Network, two families living in rural Kentucky received occupational therapy services over a 12-week period. Following program implementation, qualitative data was collected using participant journals and interviews. Data analysis identified three thematic categories related to the program: benefits/strengths, challenges/weaknesses, and recommendations for program improvement. Results of the program evaluation indicated that telerehabilitation has the potential to cost-effectively meet the therapeutic needs of children living in rural areas where provider shortages exist. The enTECH Telerehabilitation Program serves as a model for how telerehabilitation can be used to deliver early intervention services to ameliorate health disparities and improve access to rehabilitation services. PMID:25945160

  7. A pilot telerehabilitation program: delivering early intervention services to rural families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Jana

    2009-01-01

    The enTECH Telerehabilitation Program explored the use of telerehabilitation as an alternative service delivery model for early intervention therapy services. Utilizing the Kentucky Telehealth Network, two families living in rural Kentucky received occupational therapy services over a 12-week period. Following program implementation, qualitative data was collected using participant journals and interviews. Data analysis identified three thematic categories related to the program: benefits/strengths, challenges/weaknesses, and recommendations for program improvement. Results of the program evaluation indicated that telerehabilitation has the potential to cost-effectively meet the therapeutic needs of children living in rural areas where provider shortages exist. The enTECH Telerehabilitation Program serves as a model for how telerehabilitation can be used to deliver early intervention services to ameliorate health disparities and improve access to rehabilitation services.

  8. 76 FR 11505 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Family Unification Program (FUP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ...The proposed information collection requirement described below has been submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act. The Department is soliciting public comments on the subject proposal. Application for the Family Unification Program: Makes Housing Choice Vouchers available to eligible families to promote family reunification. Youths 18 to 21 who left foster care at age 16 or older are also eligible to receive assistance under the program for a maximum of 18 months. Eligible applicants are Public Housing Agencies, who must work with a Public Child Welfare Agency to identify and assist FUP voucher recipients. Information collected will be used to evaluate applications and award grants through the HUD SuperNOFA process.

  9. Feasibility of recruiting families into a heart disease prevention program based on dietary patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offspring of parents with a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) inherit a similar genetic profile and share diet and lifestyle behaviors. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of recruiting families at risk of CVD to a dietary prevention program, determine the changes in diet achieved, an...

  10. Genomic selection accuracy using multi-family prediction models in a wheat breeding program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic selection (GS) uses genome-wide molecular marker data to predict the genetic value of selection candidates in breeding programs. In plant breeding, the ability to produce large numbers of progeny per cross allows GS to be conducted within each family. However, this approach requires phenotyp...

  11. The impact of stratifying by family history in colorectal cancer screening programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Goede (S. Lucas); L. Rabeneck (L.); I. Lansdorp-Vogelaar (Iris); A. Zauber (Ann); L.F. Paszat (Lawrence F.); J.S. Hoch (Jeffrey S.); J.H.E. Yong (Jean H.E.); F. Van Hees (Frank); J. Tinmouth (Jill); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIn the province-wide colorectal cancer (CRC) screening program in Ontario, Canada, individuals with a family history of CRC are offered colonoscopy screening and those without are offered guaiac fecal occult blood testing (gFOBT, Hemoccult II). We used microsimulation modeling to

  12. Development of a Unique, Culturally Focused Family Science Program in the UAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldridge, Deborah; Keino, Leah; Mayers, Gloysis

    2006-01-01

    Empowering women and allowing them to provide community leadership in a rapidly changing and increasingly complex society is essential. Offering a sound family science curriculum is one way to facilitate empowerment of women in a developing country. Conceptualizing, planning, and developing strong programs became an opportunity to review existing…

  13. AdvoCasey: Documenting Programs That Work for Kids and Families, 1999-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AdvoCasey, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This periodical provides accessible, in-depth profiles of programs and policies that have made measurable differences in the lives of children and families. A particular focus is on initiatives that have helped reform child-serving institutions and systems and that have strengthened the physical infrastructure, economic vitality, and social fabric…

  14. Program of Adaptation Assistance in Foster Families and Particular Features of Its Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakirova, Venera G.; Gaysina, Guzel I.; Zhumabaeva, Asia

    2015-01-01

    Relevance of the problem stated in the article, conditioned by the fact that the successful adaptation of orphans in a foster family requires specialized knowledge and skills, as well as the need of professional support. Therefore, this article aims at substantiation of the effectiveness of the developed pilot program psycho-pedagogical support of…

  15. 77 FR 58442 - Fund Availability Under the Supportive Services for Veteran Families Program; Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... homelessness, VA announces that grantees are permitted to utilize a maximum of 50 percent of supportive... INFORMATION CONTACT: John Kuhn, Supportive Services for Veteran Families Program Office, National Center on Homelessness Among Veterans, 4100 Chester Avenue, Suite 201, Philadelphia, PA 19104; (877) 737-0111 (this is a...

  16. Pilot Evaluation of a Home Visit Parent Training Program in Disadvantaged Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cynthia; Tsang, Sandra; Heung, Kitty

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The study reported the pilot evaluation of the Healthy Start Home Visit Program for disadvantaged Chinese parents with preschool children, delivered by trained parent assistants. Home visiting was used to make services more accessible to disadvantaged families. Method: The participants included 21 parent-child dyads. Outcome measures…

  17. Stimulating parent-child interaction through storytelling activities of a family literacy program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teepe, R.C.; Molenaar, I.; Oostdam, R.J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2017-01-01

    Preschool vocabulary knowledge develops mainly informally via parent-child interaction. Family literacy programs (FLP’s) aim to promote children's vocabulary by supporting parent-child interaction quantity and quality. In addition to traditional storytelling activities that are part of FLP's

  18. Inside the Black Box: An Exploration of Service Delivery in a Family Reunification Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff, Ilene; Fein, Edith

    1994-01-01

    Describes a three-month study of a family reunification program for abused and neglected children that explored the process and outcomes of service delivery. The coding scheme measured both the time used in and purposes of activities of the service workers. Discusses the implications of this method for practice, planning, and research. (TM)

  19. A Dialogue about an Award-Winning Evaluation of Minnesota's Early Childhood Family Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Marsha R.; Fitzpatrick, Jody L.

    1998-01-01

    The evaluation of Minnesota's Early Childhood Family Education program is described, and a dialog between one of the evaluators and an editor of this journal provides further insight into the evaluation process. Noteworthy in this evaluation, called exemplary by the American Evaluation Association, was highly motivated collaboration of evaluation…

  20. Early Intervention for Families Exposed to Chronic Stress and Trauma: The Attachment Vitamins Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulette, Annmarie C.; Dunham, Mackenzie; Davis, Mindy; Gortney, Jason; Lieberman, Alicia F.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the Attachment Vitamins program, a trauma-informed parent group intervention for families with young children. Attachment Vitamins is a relational psychoeducational intervention based on the principles of Child-Parent Psychotherapy (CPP). Its goal is to repair the impact of chronic stress and trauma through strengthening the…

  1. Process Evaluation of a Parenting Program for Low-Income Families in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachman, Jamie M.; Kelly, Jane; Cluver, Lucie; Ward, Catherine L.; Hutchings, Judy; Gardner, Frances

    2018-01-01

    Objective: This mixed-methods process evaluation examined the feasibility of a parenting program delivered by community facilitators to reduce the risk of child maltreatment in low-income families with children aged 3-8 years in Cape Town, South Africa (N = 68). Method: Quantitative measures included attendance registers, fidelity checklists,…

  2. 76 FR 74849 - Fund Availability Under the Supportive Services for Veteran Families Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ...: Supportive Services for Veteran Families Program Office, National Center on Homelessness Among Veterans, 4100... Homelessness Among Veterans, 4100 Chester Avenue, Suite 201, Philadelphia, PA 19104; ((877) 737-0111 (this is a... steps to end homelessness and prevent a return to homelessness.'') The aim of the provision of...

  3. Weatherization and Indoor Air Quality: Measured Impacts in Single Family Homes Under the Weatherization Assistance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigg, Scott [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Cautley, Dan [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Francisco, Paul [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Hawkins, Beth A [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brennan, Terry M [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes findings from a national field study of indoor air quality parameters in homes treated under the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP). The study involved testing and monitoring in 514 single-family homes (including mobile homes) located in 35 states and served by 88 local weatherization agencies.

  4. Teaching Humanities in Medicine: The University of Massachusetts Family Medicine Residency Program Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Hugh; Shields, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Humanities in medicine (HIM) is an important aspect of medical education intended to help preserve humanism and a focus on patients. At the University of Massachusetts Family Medicine Residency Program, we have been expanding our HIM curriculum for our residents including orientation, home visit reflective writing, didactics and a department-wide…

  5. Monetary Value of a Prescription Assistance Program Service in a Rural Family Medicine Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Heather P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the monetary value of medications provided to rural Alabamians through provision of pharmaceutical manufacturer-sponsored prescription assistance programs (PAPs) provided by a clinical pharmacist in a private Black Belt family medicine clinic during 2007 and 2008. Methods: Patients struggling to afford prescription medications…

  6. Brucellosis Prevention Program: Applying “Child to Family Health Education” Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Allahverdipour

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Pupils have efficient potential to increase community awareness and promoting community health through participating in the health education programs. Child to family health education program is one of the communicative strategies that was applied in this field trial study. Because of high prevalence of Brucellosis in Hamadan province, Iran, the aim of this study was promoting families’ knowledge and preventive behaviors about Brucellosis in the rural areas by using child to family health education method.Materials & Methods: In this nonequivalent control group design study three rural schools were chosen (one as intervention and two others as control. At first knowledge and behavior of families about Brucellosis were determined using a designed questionnaire. Then the families were educated through “child to family” procedure. At this stage the students gained information. Then they were instructed to teach their parents what they had learned. After 3 months following the last session of education, the level of knowledge and behavior changes of the families about Brucellosis were determined and analyzed by paired t-test.Results: The results showed significant improvement in the knowledge of the mothers. The knowledge of the mothers about the signs of Brucellosis disease in human increased from 1.81 to 3.79 ( t:-21.64 , sig:0.000 , and also the knowledge on the signs of Brucellosis in animals increased from 1.48 to 2.82 ( t:-10.60 , sig:0.000. Conclusion: Child to family health education program is one of the effective and available methods, which would be useful and effective in most communities, and also Students potential would be effective for applying in the health promotion programs.

  7. Exploring the relationship between sequence similarity and accurate phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarel, Brandi L; Morrison, Hilary G; Pearson, William

    2006-11-01

    We have characterized the relationship between accurate phylogenetic reconstruction and sequence similarity, testing whether high levels of sequence similarity can consistently produce accurate evolutionary trees. We generated protein families with known phylogenies using a modified version of the PAML/EVOLVER program that produces insertions and deletions as well as substitutions. Protein families were evolved over a range of 100-400 point accepted mutations; at these distances 63% of the families shared significant sequence similarity. Protein families were evolved using balanced and unbalanced trees, with ancient or recent radiations. In families sharing statistically significant similarity, about 60% of multiple sequence alignments were 95% identical to true alignments. To compare recovered topologies with true topologies, we used a score that reflects the fraction of clades that were correctly clustered. As expected, the accuracy of the phylogenies was greatest in the least divergent families. About 88% of phylogenies clustered over 80% of clades in families that shared significant sequence similarity, using Bayesian, parsimony, distance, and maximum likelihood methods. However, for protein families with short ancient branches (ancient radiation), only 30% of the most divergent (but statistically significant) families produced accurate phylogenies, and only about 70% of the second most highly conserved families, with median expectation values better than 10(-60), produced accurate trees. These values represent upper bounds on expected tree accuracy for sequences with a simple divergence history; proteins from 700 Giardia families, with a similar range of sequence similarities but considerably more gaps, produced much less accurate trees. For our simulated insertions and deletions, correct multiple sequence alignments did not perform much better than those produced by T-COFFEE, and including sequences with expressed sequence tag-like sequencing errors did not

  8. Community Alternatives for Love and Limits (CALL: A community-based family strengthening multi-family intervention program to respond to adolescents at risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wilkerson

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Family strengthening has become a source of growing interest, research, and program design in the fields of prevention and treatment for problems of youth delinquency, school failure, alcohol, tobacco and other drug abuse (ATOD. Despite many studies that illustrate the positive outcomes of family strengthening programs and family-focused interventions, their use in communities has not advanced commensurate with their promise. This article offers a rationale for why programming efforts should continue to be directed towards family strengthening efforts as opposed to youth-focused only interventions. In addition, a community-based, family-strengthening alternative is described that addresses issues of youth delinquency while reducing barriers associated with availability, accessibility, and cost.

  9. Development of a New South Dakota Rural Family Medicine Residency Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisler, Jean; Huber, Thomas; Huntington, Mark K

    2017-11-01

    The healthcare workforce is a priority in South Dakota. It has been estimated that 8,000 additional healthcare workers beyond those in practice in 2010 will be needed by 2020. In 2016, the South Dakota Department of Health included in its budget funds for the development of a new Rural Family Medicine Residency Training Program as one of the steps toward addressing the physician component of these workforce needs. This new program has just received its accreditation and is recruiting the inaugural class of resident physicians for the spring of 2018. This article provides a concise overview of the program's initial development. Copyright© South Dakota State Medical Association.

  10. The effectiveness of online, family-based media literacy education for substance abuse prevention in elementary school children: Study of the Media Detective Family program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scull, Tracy M; Kupersmidt, Janis B; Weatherholt, Tara N

    2017-08-01

    The present study investigates the effectiveness of a family-based, online media literacy education (MLE) program for substance abuse prevention in children from rural areas. A total of 83 families were randomly assigned to receive Media Detective Family (MDF) (n = 47) or a control computer program (n = 36) between pre- and posttest questionnaires. Fifty-one percent (N=42) completed a three-month follow-up questionnaire. Children receiving MDF reported a significant reduction in their use of substances over time compared to children in the control group (d = -.80). Parents receiving MDF reported that the program was convenient and engaging. The current study showed that an online substance use prevention program using MLE and designed for families is an effective intervention method for reducing children's substance use.

  11. Organizational environment and perceptions of teaching quality in seven South Carolina family medicine residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, J C; Baxley, E G; Schell, B J; Cleghorn, G D; Bogdewic, S P

    1998-08-01

    To explore the relationship between organizational environment and teaching quality in seven family medicine residency programs. In 1995, a questionnaire on organizational environment was administered to the faculties at all seven family medicine residency programs in South Carolina. Eighty-seven percent of the faculty members participated, as did convenience samples of residents, nurses, and administrative staff. The questionnaire measured seven variables: teaching quality, job satisfaction, organizational climate, employees' autonomy, goal attainment, organizational commitment, and job-related stress. Residents, nurses, and administrative staff who were connected to programs at which faculty expressed high levels of job satisfaction assessed teaching quality as higher than did those at other programs. The residents' perceptions of teaching quality were positively correlated with high ratings of organizational climate and job-related stress. The staffs' ratings of goal attainment were also associated with teaching quality. Faculty satisfaction was associated with their reported employee autonomy and goal attainment. The organizational characteristics of family medicine residency programs significantly influence the perceptions of teaching quality: specifically, there perceptions are correlated with the degree to which faculty are satisfied with their work environments. In addition, residents' and staffs' perceptions of teaching quality are associated with their attitudes toward their organizations' environments.

  12. Investigation of administrative obstacles to family physician program in urban areas of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Javan noughabi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Health is regarded as one of the basic rights of each person in society; so governments are obligated to provide it equally for everyone. The best way to achieve this goal is the establishment of health insurance with the orientation of family physician and the strategic referral system. Yet, such programs will not be successful without encouraging people to participate and changing social behaviors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the administrative obstacles and problems to family physician program in urban areas of Iran. This study was a qualitative research conducted. A purposive sampling method was employed and the data were gathered via semi-structured interview with open-ended questions and document examination. All the interviews were recorded digitally and immediately transcribed verbatim. They were finally analyzed based on framework analysis. The participants' detailed descriptions showed that systemic, environmental, and human related factors were the main obstacles to the implementation of family physician plan. Since the success and performance of each program effectively cannot be obtained without people’s acceptance and collaboration, the necessity of training and giving information rapidly and timely to the residents in urban areas is felt more than ever. Also, making authorities aware of the obstacles expressed by people can be helpful in harmonizing the program with people’s requests; and can result in overcoming the challenges and obstacles facing the program.

  13. Pathways of Risk and Resilience: Impact of a Family Resilience Program on Active-Duty Military Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, William R; Lester, Patricia; Milburn, Norweeta; Woodward, Kirsten; Stein, Judith

    2016-12-01

    Over the past decade, studies into the impact of wartime deployment and related adversities on service members and their families have offered empirical support for systemic models of family functioning and a more nuanced understanding of the mechanisms by which stress and trauma reverberate across family and partner relationships. They have also advanced our understanding of the ways in which families may contribute to the resilience of children and parents contending with the stressors of serial deployments and parental physical and psychological injuries. This study is the latest in a series designed to further clarify the systemic functioning of military families and to explicate the role of resilient family processes in reducing symptoms of distress and poor adaptation among family members. Drawing upon the implementation of the Families Overcoming Under Stress (FOCUS) Family Resilience Program at 14 active-duty military installations across the United States, structural equation modeling was conducted with data from 434 marine and navy active-duty families who participated in the FOCUS program. The goal was to better understand the ways in which parental distress reverberates across military family systems and, through longitudinal path analytic modeling, determine the pathways of program impact on parental distress. The findings indicated significant cross-influence of distress between the military and civilian parents within families, families with more distressed military parents were more likely to sustain participation in the program, and reductions in distress among both military and civilian parents were significantly mediated by improvements in resilient family processes. These results are consistent with family systemic and resilient models that support preventive interventions designed to enhance family resilient processes as an important part of comprehensive services for distressed military families. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  14. The Effect of Barkley's family-oriented program on the burden of care on families of children with attention deficit-hyperactive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifeh Mousavi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention deficit-hyperactive disorder (ADHD is the most common behavioral disorders during childhood whose treatment is greatly dependent on families; therefore, families of such children should improve their relation with them so that they could enjoy their lives. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Barkley's family-oriented program on the burden of care on such families. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was conducted among 64 family care givers for children with ADHD. By simple sampling, samples passing the inclusion criteria were selected and randomly allocated into two groups of control and intervention. The intervention group received Barkley's family education program through 9 sessions; the control group participated in 3 group sessions and expressed their problems and experiences. Data were collected and analyzed using the Zarit Burden Interview. Results: Burden of care was gradually reduced through the study in the intervention group, however, the mean score of burden of care did not have a significant reduction in the control group. Conclusions: Because Barkley's family-oriented program was able to reduce the burden of care in families of children with ADHD, it is recommended to develop similar programs and evaluate them through various studies.

  15. Evaluation of a family education program for overweight children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Jarvis, Kay; Johnston, Cyne; Clark, Camillia

    2011-01-01

    Increased child and youth overweight and obesity, as well as significant health effects associated with obesity, have led to recommendations for multicomponent prevention programs. In 2005 to 2006, the former Calgary Health Region (now Alberta Health Services) had an opportunity to develop, deliver, and evaluate an early intervention service for families with children at risk for overweight and obesity. Using available evidence and with access to key advisors, core team members developed and implemented a curriculum for a family-focused, behaviour-based education program entitled Make It HAPPEN. A health-centred approach based on the physical, mental, and social well-being of the whole child was used. Physical, self-esteem, and quality-of-life measures were included in program evaluation. After the program, statistically significant reductions in body mass index (BMI) percentile and z-score were seen, as were increases in quality of life. Self-esteem improved significantly for children with initial BMI percentiles of at least 98. Evaluation results indicate that an effective program can be developed with limited resources to meet best practice needs. Potentially, such programs could be integrated into other community obesity prevention programs or within primary health services models.

  16. Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families Program, Evaluation Findings: Annual Report to Congress 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report to Congress provides critical information about the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and their Families Program (CMHI), including the characteristics of children, youth, and families as they enter the CMHI; the outcomes attained for children and youth, and their caregivers and families after entry into the…

  17. Implementation of a Community-Based Family-Centered Program in Portugal: A Multiple Case Study Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira de Melo, Ana; Alarcao, Madalena

    2012-01-01

    Family-centered, community-based programs are particularly suited to support families with at-risk children or maltreated children and achieve family preservation or reunification. In these child protection and child welfare cases, assessment is of great importance to inform decision making. But the implementation of services to support the…

  18. Evaluation of a Childhood Obesity Prevention Online Training Certificate Program for Community Family Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, Kaitlyn; Alleman, Gayle Povis; Quick, Virginia; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Hongu, Nobuko; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2016-12-01

    Community family educators have the opportunity to incorporate childhood obesity prevention concepts in their programming with families of young children, but often lack formal health and nutrition education. The purpose of this feasibility study was to create an online training certificate program for community family educators and assess the program's effectiveness at improving participant's knowledge, attitudes, and intended and actual behaviors related to healthy lifestyles. Community family educators (n = 68) completed an online pretest, viewed 13 brief videos (8-15 min) focused on childhood obesity related topics and took mini-knowledge self-checks after each video followed by an online posttest. At posttest, paired t tests showed participants' childhood obesity prevention related knowledge (i.e., nutrition, physical activity, screen time and sleep) improved significantly (p obesity prevention behaviors (i.e., age appropriate portions sizes, adequate physically active, and parental role modeling). Furthermore, changes in personal health behaviors at posttest revealed participants had significantly (p obesity-prevention related parenting practices.

  19. [Paper on sterilization in the family planning programs of Colombia: a national debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizo, A; Roper, L

    1986-01-01

    During 1984, family planning became the object of heated public debate in Colombia. In particular, considerable controversy surrounded the practice of sterilization. In Colombia in 1980, 49% of married women were practicing family planning. The main protagonist has been Profamilia, an IPPF affliate, which runs clinics and advisory services throughout Colombia. Sterilization is performed quite extensively on men of at least 28 years and women of 25 with 3 living children. Further activities of Profamilia include community distribution and social marketing programs. Many of the health facilities used are those of the Ministry of Public Health. The Minister of Health responded to criticism levelled by the Catholic church and others by instituting an investigation into alleged practices of mass sterilization. Profamilia declared publicy that sterilization was performed only under certain conditions, after waiting periods, and under no circumstances with coersion. Various groups including medical associations publicy supported Profamilia. Although recognizing the need for families to be limited in size, religious and other commentators suggested that sterilization was often presented as a solution to family ills, and that it represented foreign involvement in Colombian social policy. The opposing opinions were that church-supported natural family planning was not an effective enough strategy. The ministry has resolved to invoke more stringent screening of women desiring sterilization to include natural family planning in its programs, and to deal with international organizations only on the ministry level. The number of sterilizations has diminished. The controversy helped to expose political weaknesses of Profamilia's programs (e.g. the use of monetary incentives; lack of supervision).

  20. Tree Contractions and Evolutionary Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Kao, Ming-Yang

    2001-01-01

    An evolutionary tree is a rooted tree where each internal vertex has at least two children and where the leaves are labeled with distinct symbols representing species. Evolutionary trees are useful for modeling the evolutionary history of species. An agreement subtree of two evolutionary trees is an evolutionary tree which is also a topological subtree of the two given trees. We give an algorithm to determine the largest possible number of leaves in any agreement subtree of two trees T_1 and ...

  1. Project SKI*HI Outreach Programming for Hearing Impaired Infants and Families: Recertification Statement, Questions, Responses, and Approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Carol J.; Clark, Thomas C.

    This program evaluation report presents information on Project SKI*HI, a home-based program for infants and young children with hearing impairments and their families. The program's major goals are early identification of hearing-impaired infants and a home program to facilitate child development. A parent advisor makes weekly home visits to each…

  2. Correlates of Participation in a Family-Based HIV Prevention Program: Exploring African-American Women’s Motivations and Understanding of the Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Rogério M.; McKay, Mary M.; Wilson, Marla; Phillips, Daisy; Baptiste, Donna; Bell, Carl C.; Madison-Boyd, Sybil; Paikoff, Roberta L.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY This study examines the relationship between contextual factors and attendance in a family-based HIV prevention program for low-income, urban, African-American women and their children. Participants’ motivations to become involved, their concerns about discussing sex-related issues with their children, recruiters’ perceptions of respondents’ understanding of the program, and environmental stressors were examined. Participants’ level of motivation and recruiters’ success in improving respondents’ understanding of the program were significant correlates of attendance. Stressors experienced by the family and concerns around talking with children about sex were not significantly associated with participation. Recommendations to enhance involvement in family-based HIV prevention programs are made. PMID:20657725

  3. Summary of the discussions held at a conference of the behavioral sciences and family planning programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synder, M

    1966-01-01

    A conference was called in the hope that by applying the knowledge science can give, family planners can improve the form and efficiency of their programs. A summary of the major points made by the participants is presented. Philip Huaser urger employing a full battery of social scientists to do basic research into the theory and methodology of surveys. Michael Young proposed shifting the focus from individual use of contraception to social policies designed to reduce birthrates. Le Bogart commented on the ignorance about the psychological relationship between sexuality and procreation. Brewster Smith suggested a psychological perspective from which to examine questions involved in family planning. Orville Brim, Jr., argued that sociological theorists must learn to work with technologists to develop contraceptive devices and other tools of family planning programs. Richard Bell reported on the physical and mental impairments in children from large families with short birth intervals. Reuben Hill focused on family studies which see man as an initiator in the social process, as opposed to the passive picture painted by demographers. A lively discussion on the use of mass communications in the spread of family planning was ushered in by Daniel Lerner. Dr. Freedman wondered if family planning communications should be designed primarily for education or persuasion, seeing greater numbers of recruits in the former. Cultural innovations from an anthropological point of view were discussed by George Foster, who suggested that people are so pragmatic that they will accept any innovation that meets a need in their lives. Everett Rogers reported on research in the diffusion of agricultural innovations. A discussion on barriers to effective organization was introduced by Nicholas Demarath.

  4. Postabortion Care: 20 Years of Strong Evidence on Emergency Treatment, Family Planning, and Other Programming Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Douglas; Curtis, Carolyn; Irani, Laili; Pappa, Sara; Arrington, Lauren

    2016-09-28

    Worldwide 75 million women need postabortion care (PAC) services each year following safe or unsafe induced abortions and miscarriages. We reviewed more than 550 studies on PAC published between 1994 and 2013 in the peer-reviewed and gray literature, covering emergency treatment, postabortion family planning, organization of services, and related topics that impact practices and health outcomes, particularly in the Global South. In this article, we present findings from studies with strong evidence that have major implications for programs and practice. For example, vacuum aspiration reduced morbidity, costs, and time in comparison to sharp curettage. Misoprostol 400 mcg sublingually or 600 mcg orally achieved 89% to 99% complete evacuation rates within 2 weeks in multiple studies and was comparable in effectiveness, safety, and acceptability to manual vacuum aspiration. Misoprostol was safely introduced in several PAC programs through mid-level providers, extending services to secondary hospitals and primary health centers. In multiple studies, postabortion family planning uptake before discharge increased by 30-70 percentage points within 1-3 years of strengthening postabortion family planning services; in some cases, increases up to 60 percentage points in 4 months were achieved. Immediate postabortion contraceptive acceptance increased on average from 32% before the interventions to 69% post-intervention. Several studies found that women receiving immediate postabortion intrauterine devices and implants had fewer unintended pregnancies and repeat abortions than those who were offered delayed insertions. Postabortion family planning is endorsed by the professional organizations of obstetricians/gynecologists, midwives, and nurses as a standard of practice; major donors agree, and governments should be encouraged to provide universal access to postabortion family planning. Important program recommendations include offering all postabortion women family planning

  5. Gains from the clonal and the clonal seed-orchard options compared for tree breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, A C; Lindgren, D

    1985-12-01

    Gains expected from clonal propagation of selections for plantation from a breeding population were compared with those expected from seed propagation via clonal seed-orchards of selections from the same breeding population. Assumptions were made about numbers of clones selected, size of the breeding population, relative sizes of additive and dominance genetic variance components and time required for various operations. Even when dominance variance is zero, considerable extra gain is obtained by the clonal option over the seed-orchard option; mostly due to the shorter time between selection in the breeding population and field planting. When dominance variance equals additive variance, the advantage of the clonal option due to time saved is approximately equal to the advantage due to genetics (i.e. use of more of the additive variance, use of non-additive variance and greater precision of selection). This means that there is a substantial gain to be made simply by getting superior genotypes into plantations more quickly via the clonal option. The gains obtainable through the use of clonal forestry may also be obtained through seed orchards, but some decades later. In no case was the seed-orchard option superior to the clonal option in terms of the gains obtained. No clonal propagation program can advance without a strong sexually-based breeding program to supply it with improved genotypes. The opportunity for improvement comes from genetic recombination.

  6. Use of chemical elements of 1A family by tropical tree species; Uso de elementos quimicos da familia 1A por especies arboreas tropicais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmo, Andrius M.J.; Paiva, Jose Daniel S. de; Magalhaes, Marcelo R.L. de; Franca, Elvis J. de; Hazin, Clovis A., E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Bacchi, Marcio A.; Fernandes, Elisabete A.N., E-mail: mabacchi@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil).

    2013-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the distribution of K, Rb and Cs in leaves of trees of the Atlantic Forest through studies of correlation between the chemical elements. For this, we used the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis for the quantification of the chemical elements. The concentration ranges found were 6700-24000 mg / kg for K, 16 to 72mg / kg for Rb and 0.08 to 0,92mg / kg for Cs. As Rb has chemical similarity to K, is easily absorbed by plants, leading to a high value (0.9) of the Pearson correlation. For the correlation between K and Cs, no significant values were detected except for some species of the Myrtaceae family. However, average correlations (0.6 families. The absence of a specific pattern using of K, Rb and Cs by plants showed great complexity in the distribution of chemical elements in the ecosystem.

  7. Character’s Selection of Leaf Morphology in Some Families (Tree Habit In Sumatra Region for Species Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saida Rasnovi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Identification is a basic activity and one of primary objective on systematic. For plant biodiversity studies, it was the first steps that researcher performed before studying any topics in the research area. Unfortunately, species identification is usually a time consuming activity. One of the main objectives of this study was to obtain a set of leaf morphology characters that were useful and efficient enough for species identification, especially on the tree habits group in order to reduce time consuming for the identification species.  All of the leaf morphology characters were selected by correlation coefficient and separation coefficient values. Besides of that, the stability, simplicity and validity of the characters were also part of concern. The characters that had high value of separation coefficient and low value of correlation coefficient would be added one by one as in their rank, until the value of the combination separation coefficient was equal to 1 (100%. The result of this study suggested that 30 from 92 characters of leaf morphology were recommended as a set of characters that useful and efficient enough for species identification.

  8. [The Family Health Program (FHP) and human resources: perceptions of students from two different dentistry schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Heriberto Fiúza; Drumond, Marisa Maia; Vilaça, Enio Lacerda

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perceptions and opinions of dental students from two different Dentistry Schools in Brazil, both known here as Dentistry Schools 1 and 2 about the Family Health Program--FHP. The study analyzed if the Dentistry Schools had any influence on the students, graduating professionals with humanitarian and social sensibility, which are considered very important prerequisites for those who wish to work on this governmental health program, as well as searching for professional expectation of the students. Individual questionnaires were applied by only one researcher among the students who took part in the study. Answers were analysed by the Epi-Info program and results showed that difficulties related to the job market may be influencing students to join the FHP. Results also reveal that students consider technician an important prerequisite for dentists who wish to work on this governmental program. Significant statistical differences between the students were found: those who were graduating in Dentistry School 1 seemed more adequate to FHP and the reason for this difference may be the Supervised Training Program, a unit available on this Dentistry School that enables the students face the reality of FHP, as well the social and economical reality of the families assisted by this program.

  9. Antennal transcriptome analysis of the chemosensory gene families in the tree killing bark beetles, Ips typographus and Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Martin N; Grosse-Wilde, Ewald; Keeling, Christopher I; Bengtsson, Jonas M; Yuen, Macaire M S; Li, Maria; Hillbur, Ylva; Bohlmann, Jörg; Hansson, Bill S; Schlyter, Fredrik

    2013-03-21

    The European spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus, and the North American mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), are severe pests of coniferous forests. Both bark beetle species utilize aggregation pheromones to coordinate mass-attacks on host trees, while odorants from host and non-host trees modulate the pheromone response. Thus, the bark beetle olfactory sense is of utmost importance for fitness. However, information on the genes underlying olfactory detection has been lacking in bark beetles and is limited in Coleoptera. We assembled antennal transcriptomes from next-generation sequencing of I. typographus and D. ponderosae to identify members of the major chemosensory multi-gene families. Gene ontology (GO) annotation indicated that the relative abundance of transcripts associated with specific GO terms was highly similar in the two species. Transcripts with terms related to olfactory function were found in both species. Focusing on the chemosensory gene families, we identified 15 putative odorant binding proteins (OBP), 6 chemosensory proteins (CSP), 3 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMP), 43 odorant receptors (OR), 6 gustatory receptors (GR), and 7 ionotropic receptors (IR) in I. typographus; and 31 putative OBPs, 11 CSPs, 3 SNMPs, 49 ORs, 2 GRs, and 15 IRs in D. ponderosae. Predicted protein sequences were compared with counterparts in the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, the cerambycid beetle, Megacyllene caryae, and the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. The most notable result was found among the ORs, for which large bark beetle-specific expansions were found. However, some clades contained receptors from all four beetle species, indicating a degree of conservation among some coleopteran OR lineages. Putative GRs for carbon dioxide and orthologues for the conserved antennal IRs were included in the identified receptor sets. The protein families important for chemoreception have now been identified in

  10. Public policy for family farming: evaluation of the Program “Farmer's Factory” (Fábrica do Agricultor)

    OpenAIRE

    Decio Estevão do Nascimento; Caio Zerbato; Christian Luiz da Silva; Marta Chaves Vasconcelos

    2018-01-01

    In the state of Paraná, in 1999 the Family Agribusiness program "Factory Farmer" (PFA) was created with the objective of adding value to products from family farming through the vertical integration of production by small agro-industrialization. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the Family Agribusiness program "Factory Farmer". The research was conducted descriptively as to approach their goals with the use of bibliographic research techniques, document research and survey, using st...

  11. Cherish the family: A program model of strengths and attachment in reunifying substance-abusing mothers with their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Ruby; Scott, Stephanie H; Camejo, Stephanie T; Hernandez, Maria; Sellas-Lamberty, Omayra

    2012-01-01

    The Cherish the Family (CTF) program targets mothers with children (age 0-3) engaged in the child welfare system, and provide services to strengthen a mother's ability to care for her child. A multimodal design was used with data collected at three points of time. Program results revealed positive changes in the areas of child well-being, parental capabilities, family interactions, family safety, caregiver/child ambivalence, and readiness for reunification among the treatment group.

  12. Women's experiences after Planned Parenthood's exclusion from a family planning program in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, C Junda; Alamgir, Hasanat; Potter, Joseph E

    2016-04-01

    We assessed the impact on depot medroxyprogesterone continuation when a large care provider was banned from a state-funded family planning program. We used three methods to assess the effect of the ban: (a) In a records review, we compared how many state program participants returned to two Planned Parenthood affiliates for a scheduled dose of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) immediately after the ban; (b) We conducted phone interviews with 224 former Planned Parenthood patients about DMPA use and access to contraception immediately after the ban; (c) We compared current contraceptive method of our interviewees to that of comparable DMPA users in the National Survey of Family Growth 2006-2010 (NSFG). (a) Fewer program clients returned for DMPA at a large urban Planned Parenthood, compared to a remotely located affiliate (14.4%, vs. 64.8%), reflecting different levels of access to alternative providers in the two cities. (b) Among program participants who went elsewhere for the injection, only 56.8% obtained it at no cost and on time. More than one in five women missed a dose because of barriers, most commonly due to difficulty finding a provider. (c) Compared to NSFG participants, our interviewees used less effective methods of contraception, even more than a year after the ban went into effect. Injectable contraception use was disrupted during the rollout of the state-funded family planning program. Women living in a remote area of Texas encountered more barriers. Requiring low-income family planning patients to switch healthcare providers has adverse consequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A recipe for success: ingredients for a successful family planning program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, J

    1992-09-01

    The basic elements of a successful family planning (FP) program are variable between countries. Providing better access to modern contraceptives, access to general and reproductive health care, and increasing economic and educational opportunities contribute to reducing fertility rates. Effective distribution is constrained by rural, isolated populations and cultural attitudes. Indonesia has used floating clinics located on boats to reach inaccessible areas; Norplant and hormonal injection availability also contribute to the 53% contraceptive prevalence rate. The Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning has shipped bicycles to developing countries. The result has been improved status among peers and greater program success. Contraceptive social marketing programs (CSM) have been successful in some countries to distribute contraceptives through local channels such as shops and stalls; people seem willing to pay also. CSM has been successful in Egypt in increasing condom sales. IUD use increased from 11% to 42% between 1975-88 with CSM. Multimedia promotion that is carefully researched and targeted is another way to increase contraceptive prevalence (CP) rates. A Brazilian multimedia vasectomy campaign led to an 80% monthly increase in Pro-Pater male health clinics. 240,000 women in Turkey were encouraged through multimedia efforts to switch to modern methods. In Zimbabwe, men have been the target of efforts to educate them about the advantages of small families. Women are recruited to implement FP services in INdia and in poor neighborhoods; an increase from 12% to 61% was achieved. Highly motivated workers with a respect for the community's values is essential to any successful FP program as is government support. China's policy has drawn criticism; China has welcomed a UN program which provides financial motivation. Thailand has been successful due to the commitment between public and private sectors; in 17 years CP rose from 10% to

  14. Structural, biochemical, and computational characterization of the glycoside hydrolase family 7 cellobiohydrolase of the tree-killing fungus Heterobasidion irregulare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Majid Haddad; Payne, Christina M; Hansson, Henrik; Mikkelsen, Nils Egil; Svedberg, Jesper; Engström, Åke; Sandgren, Mats; Beckham, Gregg T; Ståhlberg, Jerry

    2013-02-22

    Root rot fungi of the Heterobasidion annosum complex are the most damaging pathogens in temperate forests, and the recently sequenced Heterobasidion irregulare genome revealed over 280 carbohydrate-active enzymes. Here, H. irregulare was grown on biomass, and the most abundant protein in the culture filtrate was identified as the only family 7 glycoside hydrolase in the genome, which consists of a single catalytic domain, lacking a linker and carbohydrate-binding module. The enzyme, HirCel7A, was characterized biochemically to determine the optimal conditions for activity. HirCel7A was crystallized and the structure, refined at 1.7 Å resolution, confirms that HirCel7A is a cellobiohydrolase rather than an endoglucanase, with a cellulose-binding tunnel that is more closed than Phanerochaete chrysosporium Cel7D and more open than Hypocrea jecorina Cel7A, suggesting intermediate enzyme properties. Molecular simulations were conducted to ascertain differences in enzyme-ligand interactions, ligand solvation, and loop flexibility between the family 7 glycoside hydrolase cellobiohydrolases from H. irregulare, H. jecorina, and P. chrysosporium. The structural comparisons and simulations suggest significant differences in enzyme-ligand interactions at the tunnel entrance in the -7 to -4 binding sites and suggest that a tyrosine residue at the tunnel entrance of HirCel7A may serve as an additional ligand-binding site. Additionally, the loops over the active site in H. jecorina Cel7A are more closed than loops in the other two enzymes, which has implications for the degree of processivity, endo-initiation, and substrate dissociation. Overall, this study highlights molecular level features important to understanding this biologically and industrially important family of glycoside hydrolases.

  15. Growth habit of the late Paleozoic rhizomorphic tree-lycopsid family Diaphorodendraceae: phylogenetic, evolutionary, and paleoecological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimichele, William A; Elrick, Scott D; Bateman, Richard M

    2013-08-01

    Rhizomorphic lycopsids evolved the tree habit independently of all other land plants. Newly discovered specimens allow radical revision of our understanding of the growth architectures of the extinct Paleozoic sister-genera Synchysidendron and Diaphorodendron. Detailed descriptions of six remarkable adpression specimens from the Pennsylvanian of the USA and three casts from the late Mississippian of Scotland are used to revise and reanalyze a previously published morphological cladistic matrix and to reinterpret their remarkable growth forms. Contrary to previous assertions, Synchysidendron resembled Diaphorodendron in having a distinct and relatively complex growth habit that emphasized serially homologous, closely spaced, deciduous lateral branches at the expense of reduced monocarpic crown branches. Lateral branches originated through several strongly anisotomous dichotomies before producing during extended periods large numbers of Achlamydocarpon strobili. The comparatively large diameter of abscission scars remaining on the main trunk and the emergence of branches above the horizontal plane suggest that the lateral branch systems were robust. Lateral branches were borne in two opposite rows on the main trunk and continued upward into an isotomously branched, determinate crown; their striking distichous arrangement caused preferred orientation of fallen trunks on bedding planes. This discovery identifies the plagiotropic growth habit, dominated by serial lateral branches, as ubiquitous in the Diaphorodendraceae and also as unequivocally primitive within Isoetales s.l., a conclusion supported by both the revised morphological cladistic analysis and relative first appearances of taxa in the fossil record. Previously assumed complete homology between crown branching in Lepidodendraceae and that of all earlier-divergent genera requires reassessment. Saltational phenotypic transitions via modification of key developmental switches remains the most credible

  16. Mothers’ experiences in the Nurse-Family Partnership program: a qualitative case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landy Christine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have explored the experiences of low income mothers participating in nurse home visiting programs. Our study explores and describes mothers' experiences participating in the Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP Program, an intensive home visiting program with demonstrated effectiveness, from the time of program entry before 29 weeks gestation until their infant's first birthday. Methods A qualitative case study approach was implemented. A purposeful sample of 18 low income, young first time mothers participating in a pilot study of the NFP program in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada partook in one to two face to face in-depth interviews exploring their experiences in the program. All interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Conventional content analysis procedures were used to analyze all interviews. Data collection and initial analysis were implemented concurrently. Results The mothers participating in the NFP program were very positive about their experiences in the program. Three overarching themes emerged from the data: 1. Getting into the NFP program; 2. The NFP nurse is an expert, but also like a friend providing support; and 3. Participating in the NFP program is making me a better parent. Conclusions Our findings provide vital information to home visiting nurses and to planners of home visiting programs about mothers' perspectives on what is important to them in their relationships with their nurses, how nurses and women are able to develop positive therapeutic relationships, and how nurses respond to mothers' unique life situations while home visiting within the NFP Program. In addition our findings offer insights into why and under what circumstances low income mothers will engage in nurse home visiting and how they expect to benefit from their participation.

  17. Increasing family planning in Myanmar: the role of the private sector and social franchise programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Tin; Hom, Nang Mo; Sudhinaraset, May

    2017-07-01

    This study examines the influence of clinical social franchise program on modern contraceptive use. This was a cross-sectional survey of contraceptive use among 2390 currently married women across 25 townships in Myanmar in 2014. Social franchise program measures were from programmatic records. Multivariable models show that women who lived in communities with at least 1-5 years of a clinical social franchise intrauterine device (IUD) program had 4.770 higher odds of using a modern contraceptive method compared to women living in communities with no IUD program [CI: 3.739-6.084]. Townships where the reproductive health program had existed for at least 10 years had 1.428 higher odds of reporting modern method use compared to women living in townships where the programs had existed for less than 10 years [CI: 1.016-2.008]. This study found consistent and robust evidence for an increase in family planning methods over program duration as well as intensity of social franchise programs.

  18. National program for family planning and primary health care Pakistan: a SWOT analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The National Program for Family Planning and Primary Healthcare was launched in 1994. It is one of the largest community based programs in the world, providing primary healthcare services to about 80 million people, most of which is rural poor. The program has been instrumental in improving health related indicators of maternal and child health in the last two decades. Methods SWOT analysis was used by making recourse to the structure and dynamics of the program as well as searching the literature. SWOT analysis Strengths of the program include: comprehensive design of planning, implementation and supervision mechanisms aided by an MIS, selection and recruitments processes and evidence created through improving health impact indicators. Weaknesses identified are slow progress, poor integration of the program with health services at local levels including MIS, and de-motivational factors such as job insecurity and non-payment of salaries in time. Opportunities include further widening the coverage of services, its potential contribution to health system research, and its use in areas other than health like women empowerment and poverty alleviation. Threats the program may face are: political interference, lack of funds, social threats and implications for professional malpractices. Conclusion Strengthening of the program will necessitate a strong political commitment, sustained funding and a just remuneration to this bare foot doctor of Pakistan, the Lady Health Worker. PMID:24268037

  19. National program for family planning and primary health care Pakistan: a SWOT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazir, Mohammad Salim; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem; Ahmed, Ashfaq

    2013-11-22

    The National Program for Family Planning and Primary Healthcare was launched in 1994. It is one of the largest community based programs in the world, providing primary healthcare services to about 80 million people, most of which is rural poor. The program has been instrumental in improving health related indicators of maternal and child health in the last two decades. SWOT analysis was used by making recourse to the structure and dynamics of the program as well as searching the literature. Strengths of the program include: comprehensive design of planning, implementation and supervision mechanisms aided by an MIS, selection and recruitments processes and evidence created through improving health impact indicators. Weaknesses identified are slow progress, poor integration of the program with health services at local levels including MIS, and de-motivational factors such as job insecurity and non-payment of salaries in time. Opportunities include further widening the coverage of services, its potential contribution to health system research, and its use in areas other than health like women empowerment and poverty alleviation. Threats the program may face are: political interference, lack of funds, social threats and implications for professional malpractices. Strengthening of the program will necessitate a strong political commitment, sustained funding and a just remuneration to this bare foot doctor of Pakistan, the Lady Health Worker.

  20. The Brazilian Program for Family Farming Assistance and the Diffusion of Technical Patterns: An Institutional Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maísa Gomide Teixeira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the diffusion process of technical practices in order to understand how PRONAF-Credit (National Program for Family Farming Assistance impacted the institutionalization of new technological standards in family farms in the region of Maringá, PR, from 1997 to 2006. We aim to check the institutional assumption that proclaims itself in favor of coercion for institutionalization. Based on a cross-sectional research design with a longitudinal perspective analysis, interviewees were separated into two main groups representing different periods of involvement and types of relationship with the program. These procedures allowed comparing the interpretive schemes of farmers in different situations of dependency with the program. The premise is that dependence, as measured by whether or not the resources are used, implies stronger interpretive schemes in relation to the program and the techniques instructed. Comparison of the data allowed us to observe proximity between interpretive schemes of “quasi-experimental” and “control” groups, which reinforces evidence that there was internalization of the standards rather than just formal adoption. However, the results suggest that coercive diffusion in programs that aim to contribute perennially to their audiences should consider cultural background and relational aspects of people's context of reference. These aspects potentially can influence how coercion is interpreted, as they did in this case.

  1. Expansion of the residential conservation service program to multi-family and small commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-11-01

    Alternative regulatory provisions are considered which might permit achievement of the building energy conservation regulatory goals at a lower cost. Major issues, regulatory and legislative options, and cost-benefit analyses are discussed for multi-family and commercial buildings. The following are presented: related government programs, urban and community impact analysis, institutional impacts, energy cost, Residential Conservation Service coverage, methods of analysis, and regional studies. (MHR)

  2. Days La Familia community drug and alcohol prevention program: Family-centered model for working with inner-city Hispanic families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, L P; Lucero, E

    1996-03-01

    Substance abuse among Hispanics is on the increase despite national efforts toward reducing it. Researchers and service providers have recognized the specific need for better prevention models that address the issues of poor Hispanics. La Familia is a community-based ATOD prevention program that targets Hispanic families with high-risk youth from 6 to 11 years old, and attempts to reduce identified risk factors while building on culturally relevant protective factors. During the 2 years, the program has enrolled 219 youth and their families utilizing existing community networks and aggressive outreach. The program resulted in a 92% retention rate and over 80% attendance per session. As a result of the program, families became more willing to discuss ATOD issues openly and made positive steps toward empowerment.

  3. Characterization of the rubber tree metallothionein family reveals a role in mitigating the effects of reactive oxygen species associated with physiological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yacheng; Fang, Yongjun; Long, Xiangyu; Liu, Linya; Wang, Jia; Zhu, Jinheng; Ma, Yanyan; Qin, Yunxia; Qi, Jiyan; Hu, Xinwen; Tang, Chaorong

    2018-02-07

    Metallothioneins (MTs) as reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers play important roles in stress response and heavy metal homeostasis. In Hevea brasiliensis (the para rubber tree that is the source of commercial natural rubber) and in other trees, the functions of MTs are not well understood. Latex exudes when the rubber tree is tapped. The flow of latex and its regeneration can be enhanced by tapping, wounding and ethylene treatment, all of which produce ROS as a by-product. Here, we show the presence of four MT genes in H. brasiliensis, comprising three Type 2 (HbMT2, -2a and -2b) and one Type 3 (HbMT3L) isoforms, representing one of the smallest MT gene families among angiosperms. The four HbMTs exhibited distinct tissue expression patterns: HbMT2 and HbMT3L mainly in leaves, HbMT2a specifically in flowers and HbMT2b in diverse tissues. The expression of HbMT2b, an isoform present in latex, decreased significantly in the latex following the stress-inducing treatments of tapping, wounding and ethephon (an ethylene generator). The expressions of the leaf-abundant isoforms, HbMT2 and -3L were up-regulated following pathogenic fungus infection and high-temperature stress, but down-regulated by low-temperature stress. These reactions were consistent with multiple defense- and hormone-responsive cis-acting elements in the HbMT promoters. Nine transcription factors were shown to implicate in the high-temperature responsiveness of HbMT2 and -3L in leaves. Overexpression of HbMT2 in Escherichia coli enhanced the bacterium's tolerance to heavy metals and ROS, consistent with its predicted role as an ROS scavenger. Taken together, our results, along with other relevant studies, suggest an important role of HbMTs in latex regeneration as well as species adaptation via the regulation of ROS homeostasis. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Selective prevention programs for children from substance-affected families: a comprehensive systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bröning Sonja

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Children from substance-affected families show an elevated risk for developing own substance-related or other mental disorders. Therefore, they are an important target group for preventive efforts. So far, such programs for children of substance-involved parents have not been reviewed together. We conducted a comprehensive systematic review to identify and summarize evaluations of selective preventive interventions in childhood and adolescence targeted at this specific group. From the overall search result of 375 articles, 339 were excluded, 36 full texts were reviewed. From these, nine eligible programs documented in 13 studies were identified comprising four school-based interventions (study 1–6, one community-based intervention (study 7–8, and four family-based interventions (study 9–13. Studies’ levels of evidence were rated in accordance with the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN methodology, and their quality was ranked according to a score adapted from the area of meta-analytic family therapy research and consisting of 15 study design quality criteria. Studies varied in program format, structure, content, and participants. They also varied in outcome measures, results, and study design quality. We found seven RCT’s, two well designed controlled or quasi-experimental studies, three well-designed descriptive studies, and one qualitative study. There was preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of the programs, especially when their duration was longer than ten weeks and when they involved children’s, parenting, and family skills training components. Outcomes proximal to the intervention, such as program-related knowledge, coping-skills, and family relations, showed better results than more distal outcomes such as self-worth and substance use initiation, the latter due to the comparably young age of participants and sparse longitudinal data. However, because of the small overall number of studies found

  5. Tight bounds for top tree compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Fernstrøm, Finn; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2017-01-01

    We consider compressing labeled, ordered and rooted trees using DAG compression and top tree compression. We show that there exists a family of trees such that the size of the DAG compression is always a logarithmic factor smaller than the size of the top tree compression (even for an alphabet...

  6. Examining the Effectiveness of a Case Management Program for Custodial Grandparent Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lenora; Carthron, Dana L.; Miles, Margaret Shandor; Brown, LaShanda

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have identified complex needs of custodial grandparent families and lack of access to needed resources such as housing, financial and legal assistance, and health care. Case management links these families with needed services while helping them develop skills to promote their health and well-being. This paper describes a case management program for custodial grandparent families using a nurse-social worker case management team. data were collected from 50 grandparents and 33 children using surveys and semi-structured instruments. Physical and mental health outcomes were measured using Short Form-12 Health Survey (SF 12) to measure the perceived quality of health for grandparents and the Child Behavior Checklist to measure the emotional and behavioral functioning of grandchildren. Grandparents more positively perceived their mental health after participating in the program. Perceptions about physical health were generally the same before and after the program. Grandparents' reported that many grandchildren had emotional and behavioral problems in the clinical range. These findings highlight the need for further research on the mental health needs of children being parented by grandparents as well as determining effective models and interventions to minimize adverse effects of parenting on grandparents. PMID:22720151

  7. [Panorama of purchasing food products from family farmers for the Brazilian School Nutrition Program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Elisa Braga; da Silva, Ana Paula Ferreira; de Sousa, Anete Araújo; Cerqueira, Gabrielle Fernandes; Chagas, Carolina Martins dos Santos; Toral, Natacha

    2013-04-01

    This article seeks to describe the viewpoint of purchasing food products from family farmers, analyzing their performance within the new guidelines of the Brazilian School Nutrition Program (PNAE). It is a critical assessment based on a review of the literature and the official data provided by the National Fund for the Development of Education/Ministry of Education relating to 2010. The program budget in 2010 was approximately R$2.5 billion and attended 45.6 million children, adolescents and adults. From the total amount, R$150,397,052.68 was allocated for the purchase of agricultural products from family farmers. In Brazil, 47.4% of the local councils acquired food products from family farmers for the Brazilian School Nutrition Program and the purchase percentage was, on average, 22.7%. Given the nature of recent legislation, other aspects should be explored in order to strengthen the compliance with the regulations in different Brazilian contexts and thus contribute both to local economic development and the provision of school meals which fulfill the principles of a healthy and adequate diet.

  8. A Yoga and Compassion Meditation Program Reduces Stress in Familial Caregivers of Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. D. Danucalov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease exhibit reduced quality of life and increased stress levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week yoga and compassion meditation program on the perceived stress, anxiety, depression, and salivary cortisol levels in familial caregivers. A total of 46 volunteers were randomly assigned to participate in a stress-reduction program for a 2-month period (yoga and compassion meditation program—YCMP group (n=25 or an untreated group for the same period of time (control group (n=21. The levels of stress, anxiety, depression, and morning salivary cortisol of the participants were measured before and after intervention. The groups were initially homogeneous; however, after intervention, the groups diverged significantly. The YCMP group exhibited a reduction of the stress (P<0.05, anxiety (P<0.000001, and depression (P<0.00001 levels, as well as a reduction in the concentration of salivary cortisol (P<0.05. Our study suggests that an 8-week yoga and compassion meditation program may offer an effective intervention for reducing perceived stress, anxiety, depression, and salivary cortisol in familial caregivers.

  9. Examining the Effectiveness of a Case Management Program for Custodial Grandparent Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenora Campbell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have identified complex needs of custodial grandparent families and lack of access to needed resources such as housing, financial and legal assistance, and health care. Case management links these families with needed services while helping them develop skills to promote their health and well-being. This paper describes a case management program for custodial grandparent families using a nurse-social worker case management team. data were collected from 50 grandparents and 33 children using surveys and semi-structured instruments. Physical and mental health outcomes were measured using Short Form-12 Health Survey (SF 12 to measure the perceived quality of health for grandparents and the Child Behavior Checklist to measure the emotional and behavioral functioning of grandchildren. Grandparents more positively perceived their mental health after participating in the program. Perceptions about physical health were generally the same before and after the program. Grandparents' reported that many grandchildren had emotional and behavioral problems in the clinical range. These findings highlight the need for further research on the mental health needs of children being parented by grandparents as well as determining effective models and interventions to minimize adverse effects of parenting on grandparents.

  10. The Aboriginal Australian Family Wellbeing Program: A Historical Analysis of the Conditions That Enabled Its Spread

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    Janya McCalman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionSpreading proven or promising Aboriginal health programs and implementing them in new settings can make cost-effective contributions to a range of Aboriginal Australian development, health and wellbeing, and educational outcomes. Studies have theorized the implementation of Aboriginal health programs but have not focused explicitly on the conditions that influenced their spread. This study examined the broader political, institutional, social and economic conditions that influenced negotiations to transfer, implement, adapt, and sustain one Aboriginal empowerment program—the Family Wellbeing (FWB program—to at least 60 geographical sites across Australia over 24 years.Materials and methodsA historical account of the spread of the FWB Program was constructed using situational analysis, a theory-methods package derived from a poststructural interpretation of grounded theory methods. Data were collected from published empirical articles, evaluation reports and project articles, and interviews with 18 key actors in the spread of FWB. Social worlds and arenas maps were used to determine the organizations and their representative agents who were involved in FWB spread and to analyze the enabling and constraining conditions.ResultsThe program was transferred through three interwoven social arenas: employment and community development; training and capacity development; and social and emotional wellbeing promotion and empowerment research. Program spread was fostered by three primary conditions: government policies and the availability and Aboriginal control of funding and support; Aboriginal leadership, associated informal networks and capability; and research evidence that built credibility for the program.Discussion and conclusionThe continued demand-driven transfer of empowerment programs requires policies that enable Aboriginal control of funding and Aboriginal leadership and networks. Flexible and sustained coordination of

  11. Women’s impressions of their inpatient birth care as provided by family physicians in the Shizuoka Family Medicine Training Program in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Even though Japan faces serious challenges in women’s health care such as a rapidly aging population, attrition of obstetrical providers, and a harsh legal climate, few family medicine residency training programs in Japan include training in obstetrics, and the literature lacks research on women’s views of intra-partum pregnancy care by family physicians. Findings In this exploratory study, we conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with five women who received their admission, intrapartum, delivery and discharge care from family medicine residents in the obstetrics ward of a community training hospital. Four women had vaginal births, and one had a Cesarean section. Three were primiparous, and two multiparous. Their ages ranged from 22–33. They found value in family physician medical knowledge and easy communication style, though despite explanation, some had trouble understanding the family physician’s scope of work. These women identified negative aspects of the hospital environment, and wanted more anticipatory guidance about what to expect physically after birth, but were enthusiastic about seeing a family doctor after discharge. Conclusions These results demonstrate the feasibility of family medicine residents providing inpatient birth care in a community hospital, and that patients are receptive to family physicians providing that care as well after discharge. Women’s primary concerns relate mostly to hospital environment issues, and better understanding the care family physicians provide. This illustrates-areas for family physicians to work for improvements. PMID:23698036

  12. Women's impressions of their inpatient birth care as provided by family physicians in the Shizuoka Family Medicine Training Program in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Mariko; Tsunawaki, Shinji; Narumoto, Keiichiro; Fetters, Michael D

    2013-05-22

    Even though Japan faces serious challenges in women's health care such as a rapidly aging population, attrition of obstetrical providers, and a harsh legal climate, few family medicine residency training programs in Japan include training in obstetrics, and the literature lacks research on women's views of intra-partum pregnancy care by family physicians. In this exploratory study, we conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with five women who received their admission, intrapartum, delivery and discharge care from family medicine residents in the obstetrics ward of a community training hospital. Four women had vaginal births, and one had a Cesarean section. Three were primiparous, and two multiparous. Their ages ranged from 22-33. They found value in family physician medical knowledge and easy communication style, though despite explanation, some had trouble understanding the family physician's scope of work. These women identified negative aspects of the hospital environment, and wanted more anticipatory guidance about what to expect physically after birth, but were enthusiastic about seeing a family doctor after discharge. These results demonstrate the feasibility of family medicine residents providing inpatient birth care in a community hospital, and that patients are receptive to family physicians providing that care as well after discharge. Women's primary concerns relate mostly to hospital environment issues, and better understanding the care family physicians provide. This illustrates-areas for family physicians to work for improvements.

  13. Tea Tree Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Grants and Contracts General Award Mechanisms Small Business Research Grant Program (SBIR) Funding for: Natural Product ... cuts and wounds by the aboriginal people of Australia. Today, tea tree oil is often used externally ...

  14. Family-Based Psychoeducation Programs for Prevention of Depression in Adolescents with Depressed Parents: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Basogul

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review examines the effects of family-based psychoeducation programs to the prevention depression for children of depressed parents and investigates participant, intervention, provider, and research designs. Family-based psychoeducation programs described by articles in several national and international databases were reviewed. Five studies were identified using this approach and are included in this review. The adolescents who participated in Family-Based Psychoeducation programs reported a significant decrease in symptoms of depression, internalizing and externalizing symptoms and increase in secondary control coping. Moreover, it was noted that there was an increase in positive parental skills and a moderate effect for episodes of depression of the parents who participated in the programs. Studies evaluating effects of family-based psychoeducation programs have indicated positive results to the prevention depression for children of depressed parents. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(3.000: 265-279

  15. 78 FR 12032 - U.S. Department of Agriculture Multi-Family Housing Program 2013 Industry Forums-Open...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... to register again. Non-Discrimination Statement USDA prohibits discrimination in all its programs and... status, familial status, parental status, religion, sexual orientation, political beliefs, genetic... program. (Not all prohibited bases apply to all programs.) To file a complaint of discrimination, complete...

  16. Mechanisms of Risk and Resilience in Military Families: Theoretical and Empirical Basis of a Family-Focused Resilience Enhancement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, William R.; Lester, Patricia; Beardslee, William R.; Layne, Christopher M.; Woodward, Kirsten; Nash, William P.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have confirmed that repeated wartime deployment of a parent exacts a toll on military children and families and that the quality and functionality of familial relations is linked to force preservation and readiness. As a result, family-centered care has increasingly become a priority across the military health system. FOCUS…

  17. Preparing Future Teachers to Collaborate with Families: Contributions of Family Systems Counselors to a Teacher Preparation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatea, Ellen S.; Mixon, Kacy; McCarthy, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    Systemically trained counselors have a distinctive set of skills that make them well suited to prepare teachers to work with students' families. In this article, we discuss our experiences as family counselors in developing and teaching a required course in family-school collaboration to elementary teachers in training. We first describe the…

  18. The Role of Public-Sector Family Planning Programs in Meeting the Demand for Contraception in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongaarts, John; Hardee, Karen

    2017-06-01

    Commonly used indicators of contraceptive behavior in a population-modern contraceptive prevalence (mCPR), unmet need for contraception, demand for contraception and demand satisfied-are not well-suited for evaluating the progress made by government family planning programs in helping women and men achieve their reproductive goals. Trends in these measures in 26 Sub-Saharan African countries between 1990 and 2014 were examined. Trends in a proposed new indicator, the public-sector family planning program impact score (PFPI), and its relationship to mCPR and the family planning effort score were also assessed. Case studies were used to review public family planning program development and implementation in four countries (Nigeria, Ethiopia, Rwanda and Kenya). The four commonly used indicators capture the extent to which women use family planning and to which demand is satisfied, but shed no direct light on the role of family planning programs. PFPI provides evidence that can be used to hold governments accountable for meeting the demand for family planning, and was closely related to policy developments in the four case-study countries. PFPI provides a useful addition to the indicators currently used to assess progress in reproductive health and family planning programs.

  19. Using Facebook to Recruit Parents to Participate in a Family Program to Prevent Teen Drug Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterle, Sabrina; Epstein, Marina; Haggerty, Kevin P; Moreno, Megan A

    2018-05-01

    Despite strong evidence that family programs are effective in preventing adolescent substance use, recruiting parents to participate in such programs remains a persistent challenge. This study explored the feasibility of using Facebook to recruit parents of middle school students to a self-directed family program to prevent adolescent drug use. The study used paid Facebook ads aiming to recruit 100 parents in Washington and Colorado using marijuana- or parenting-focused messages. All ad-recruited parents were also invited to refer others in order to compare Facebook recruitment to web-based respondent-driven sampling. Despite offering a $15 incentive for each successfully referred participant, the majority of the screened (70.4%) and eligible (65.1%) parents were recruited through Facebook ads. Yet, eligibility and consent rates were significantly higher among referred (76.6 and 57.3%, respectively) than Facebook-recruited parents (60.0 and 36.6%, respectively). Click-through rates on Facebook were higher for marijuana-focused than parenting-focused ads (0.72 and 0.65%, respectively). The final sample (54% Facebook-recruited) consisted of 103 demographically homogeneous parents (female, educated, non-Hispanic White, and mostly from Washington). Although Facebook was an effective and efficient method to recruit parents to a study with equal to better cost-effectiveness than traditional recruitment strategies, the promise of social media to reach a diverse population was not realized. Additional approaches to Facebook recruitment are needed to reach diverse samples in real-world settings and increase public health impact of family programs.

  20. Construction of an α-labeled tree from a given set of α-labeled trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sethuraman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the method of Koh et al. (1979 of combining known graceful trees to construct bigger graceful trees, a new class of graceful trees is constructed from a set of k known graceful trees, k≥2 in a specific way. In fact, each member of this new class of trees admits α-labeling, a stronger version of graceful labeling. Consequently, each member of this family of trees decomposes complete graphs and complete bipartite graphs.

  1. Randomized Trial of a Family-based, Automated, Conversational Obesity Treatment Program for Underserved Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J. A.; Phillips, B.D.; Watson, B.L.; Newby, P.K.; Norman, G. J.; Adams, W.G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the acceptability and feasibility of a scalable obesity treatment program integrated with pediatric primary care and delivered using interactive voice technology (IVR) to families from underserved populations. Design and Methods Fifty parent-child dyads (child 9–12 yrs, BMI >95th percentile) were recruited from a pediatric primary care clinic and randomized to either an IVR or a wait-list control (WLC) group. The majority were lower-income, African-American (72%) families. Dyads received IVR calls for 12 weeks. Call content was informed by two evidenced-based interventions. Anthropometric and behavioral variables were assessed at baseline and 3 mo follow-up. Results Forty-three dyads completed the study. IVR parents ate 1 cup more fruit than WLC (p 75% agreed that the calls were useful, made for people like them, credible, and helped them eat healthy foods. Conclusion An obesity treatment program delivered via IVR may be an acceptable and feasible resource for families from underserved populations. PMID:23512915

  2. Effects of a prevention program for divorced families on youth cortisol reactivity 15 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecken, Linda J; Hagan, Melissa J; Mahrer, Nicole E; Wolchik, Sharlene A; Sandler, Irwin N; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether an empirically based, randomised controlled trial of a preventive intervention for divorced mothers and children had a long-term impact on offspring cortisol regulation. Divorced mothers and children (age 9-12) were randomly assigned to a literature control condition or the 11-week New Beginnings Program, a family-focused group preventive intervention for mothers and children in newly divorced families. Fifteen years after the trial, offspring salivary cortisol (n = 161) was measured before and after a social stress task. Multilevel mixed models were used to predict cortisol from internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, group assignment and potential moderators of intervention effects. Across the sample, higher externalizing symptoms were associated with lower cortisol reactivity. There was a significant group-by-age interaction such that older offspring in the control group had higher reactivity relative to the intervention group, and younger offspring in the control group exhibited a decline across the task relative to younger offspring in the intervention group. Preventive interventions for youth from divorced families may have a long-term impact on cortisol reactivity to stress. Results highlight the importance of examining moderators of program effects.

  3. 'Partnerships are crucial': an evaluation of the Aboriginal Family Birthing Program in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Philippa; Bubner, Tanya; Glover, Karen; Rumbold, Alice; Weetra, Donna; Scheil, Wendy; Brown, Stephanie

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate implementation and outcomes of the Aboriginal Family Birthing Program (AFBP), which provides culturally competent antenatal, intrapartum and early postnatal care for Aboriginal families across South Australia (SA). Analysis of births to Aboriginal women in SA 2010-2012; interviews with health professionals and AFBP clients. Around a third of all Aboriginal women giving birth in SA 2010-2012 (n=486) attended AFBP services. AFBP women were more likely to be more socially disadvantaged, have poorer pregnancy health and to have inadequate numbers of antenatal visits than Aboriginal women attending other services. Even with greater social disadvantage and higher clinical complexity, pregnancy outcomes were similar for AFBP and other Aboriginal women. Interviews with 107 health professionals (including 20 Aboriginal Maternal and Infant Care (AMIC) workers) indicated differing levels of commitment to the model, with some lack of clarity about AMIC workers and midwives roles. Interviews with 20 AFBP clients showed they highly valued care from another Aboriginal woman. Despite challenges, the AFBP reaches out to women with the greatest need, providing culturally appropriate, effective care through partnerships. Implications for Public Health: Programs like the AFBP need to be expanded and supported to improve maternal and child health outcomes for Aboriginal families. © 2016 The Authors.

  4. Guidelines for a Comprehensive Care Program to Ostomized Patients and Families: a Nursing proposal1

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiredo, Paula Alvarenga; Alvim, Neide Aparecida Titonelli

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: describe care needs and demands that mark the discursive practices of ostomized clients and family members and discuss guidelines for a comprehensive care program to ostomized clients and their families, organized by macrosociological categories. Method: Creative and Sensitive, involving 17 ostomized subjects and family members at a municipal outpatient clinic. The ethical aspects were complied with. A characterization form was used, as well as Creativity and Sensitivity Dynamics: "speaking map", "body-knowledge" and "calendar". Critical Discourse Analysis was applied. Results: the health needs and care demands of the ostomized patients and their family members, in their multiple dimensions, were constituted in the home and community, outpatient and social context, implying new orientations for nursing care. The unveiling of the data brought elements that constituted guidelines, in a macrosociological approach, to achieve the expanded integrality of nursing care. Conclusion: the ostomized clients are unique in their genre/peculiar from Latin sui generis, calling for strategies that respond to and distinguish their specificities. Elaborating a Public Health Policy that improves and reorganizes the care demands, taking into account these individual biopsychosocial and spiritual aspects, is a possible and irrevocable target in the attempt to achieve better conditions of health and wellbeing. PMID:27192418

  5. Background and elements of the linkage between the Brazilian school feeding program and family farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzman, Flavia; Mora, Claudia Andrea Rodriguez; Bogus, Claudia Maria; Villar, Betzabeth Slater

    2017-12-18

    Since 2009, legislation of the National School Feeding Program of Brazil (PNAE) institutionalizes its linkage with family farming as it establishes the requirement that at least 30% out of the total financial resources allocated by the federal government to the states and municipalities for school feeding must be used in the purchase of products directly from this sector. This study analyzes the process of drafting this legislation, focusing on the elements related to the procurement from family farming, through a historical contextualization, and it also presents a graphical representation with the main elements of this linkage: its objectives, target population, actions implemented and expected results. Actors involved with the drafting of the legislation were interviewed. The analyses show that the procurement from family farming is a far-reaching initiative in terms of the concept, execution and results. It has also showed that a strong articulation between the actors and institutions of the different sectors involved is critical to its success. The education, agriculture, planning, procurement and civil society sectors should work articulately at national, state and local level. The results of this study demonstrate that initiatives like this, of institutional procurement from family farming, which are currently being implemented in several countries, constitute as an important strategy of food and nutrition security, for the fulfillment of the human right to adequate food and the promotion of long-term sustainable development.

  6. Guidelines for a Comprehensive Care Program to Ostomized Patients and Families: a Nursing proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Alvarenga de Figueiredo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: describe care needs and demands that mark the discursive practices of ostomized clients and family members and discuss guidelines for a comprehensive care program to ostomized clients and their families, organized by macrosociological categories. Method: Creative and Sensitive, involving 17 ostomized subjects and family members at a municipal outpatient clinic. The ethical aspects were complied with. A characterization form was used, as well as Creativity and Sensitivity Dynamics: "speaking map", "body-knowledge" and "calendar". Critical Discourse Analysis was applied. Results: the health needs and care demands of the ostomized patients and their family members, in their multiple dimensions, were constituted in the home and community, outpatient and social context, implying new orientations for nursing care. The unveiling of the data brought elements that constituted guidelines, in a macrosociological approach, to achieve the expanded integrality of nursing care. Conclusion: the ostomized clients are unique in their genre/peculiar from Latin sui generis, calling for strategies that respond to and distinguish their specificities. Elaborating a Public Health Policy that improves and reorganizes the care demands, taking into account these individual biopsychosocial and spiritual aspects, is a possible and irrevocable target in the attempt to achieve better conditions of health and wellbeing.

  7. Risk and Protective Factors for Family Violence among Low-Income Fathers: Implications for Violence Prevention and Fatherhood Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, R Anna; Honegger, Laura; Hammock, Amy Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Over the last decade there has been an increased focus on improving father engagement to improve child and family outcomes. Recent research suggests that child and family outcomes improve with increased fatherhood engagement. This exploratory study examined risk and protective factors associated with approval of family violence among a sample of low-income fathers (N = 686) enrolled in a responsible fatherhood program. The program goals include increasing father involvement and economic stability and encouraging healthy relationships-with a focus on preventing intimate partner violence. Toward these aims, this study explored factors associated with fathers' self-reported approval of family violence. Understanding the prevalence of risk and protective factors in this population and factors associated with fathers' potential for family violence is important in developing programs to address responsible fatherhood and healthy relationships. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.

  8. Public policy for family farming: evaluation of the Program “Farmer's Factory” (Fábrica do Agricultor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decio Estevão do Nascimento

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the state of Paraná, in 1999 the Family Agribusiness program "Factory Farmer" (PFA was created with the objective of adding value to products from family farming through the vertical integration of production by small agro-industrialization. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the Family Agribusiness program "Factory Farmer". The research was conducted descriptively as to approach their goals with the use of bibliographic research techniques, document research and survey, using structured interviews. The policy presented different results between the proposed objectives, being extremely successful in technological innovation objectives, market focus and support for family farming. He highlighted the importance of family farming in Paraná state and the significant contribution of public policies to strengthen family farming.

  9. From Project to Program: Tupange's Experience with Scaling Up Family Planning Interventions in Urban Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyonzo, Nelson; Nyachae, Paul; Kagwe, Peter; Kilonzo, Margaret; Mumba, Feddis; Owino, Kenneth; Kichamu, George; Kigen, Bartilol; Fajans, Peter; Ghiron, Laura; Simmons, Ruth

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes how the Urban Reproductive Health Initiative in Kenya, the Tupange Project (2010-2015), successfully applied the ExpandNet approach to sustainably scale up family planning interventions, first in Machakos and Kakamega, and subsequently also in its three core cities, Nairobi, Kisumu and Mombasa. This new focus meant shifting from a "project" to a "program" approach, which required paying attention to government leadership and ownership, limiting external inputs, institutionalizing interventions in existing structures and emphasizing sustainability. The paper also highlights the project's efforts to prepare for the future scale up of Tupange's interventions in other counties to support continuing and improved access to family planning services in the new context of devolution (decentralization) in Kenya. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. TreePics: visualizing trees with pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Puillandre

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available While many programs are available to edit phylogenetic trees, associating pictures with branch tips in an efficient and automatic way is not an available option. Here, we present TreePics, a standalone software that uses a web browser to visualize phylogenetic trees in Newick format and that associates pictures (typically, pictures of the voucher specimens to the tip of each branch. Pictures are visualized as thumbnails and can be enlarged by a mouse rollover. Further, several pictures can be selected and displayed in a separate window for visual comparison. TreePics works either online or in a full standalone version, where it can display trees with several thousands of pictures (depending on the memory available. We argue that TreePics can be particularly useful in a preliminary stage of research, such as to quickly detect conflicts between a DNA-based phylogenetic tree and morphological variation, that may be due to contamination that needs to be removed prior to final analyses, or the presence of species complexes.

  11. NON-MUSCULOSKELETAL SPORTS MEDICINE LEARNING IN FAMILY MEDICINE RESIDENCY PROGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasqualino Caputo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing popularity of primary care sports medicine fellowships, as evidenced by the more than two-fold increase in family medicine sports medicine fellowships from a total of 31 accredited programs during the 1998/1999 academic year (ACGME, 1998 to 63 during the 2003/2004 academic year (ACGME, 2006, there are few empirical studies to support the efficacy of such programs. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have been conducted to assess the impact of primary care sports medicine fellowships on family medicine residents' learning of non-musculoskeletal sports medicine topics. Rigorous evaluations of the outcomes of such programs are helpful to document the value of such programs to both the lay public and interested medical residents. In order to evaluate such programs, it is helpful to apply the same objective standards to residents trained across multiple programs. Hence, we would like to know if there is a learning effect with respect to non-musculoskeletal sports medicine topics identified on yearly administered American Board of Family Medicine (ABFM in-training exams (ITE to family medicine residents in family medicine residency programs in the United States with and without primary care sports medicine fellowship programs. Review and approval for the research proposal was granted by the ABFM, who also allowed access to the required data. Permission to study and report only non-musculoskeletal sports medicine topics excluding musculoskeletal topics was granted at the time due to other ongoing projects at the ABFM involving musculoskeletal topics. ABFM allowed us access to examinations from 1998 to 2003. We were given copies of each exam and records of responses to each item (correct or incorrect by each examinee (examinees were anonymous for each year.For each year, each examinee was classified by the ABFM as either (a belonging to a program that contained a sports medicine fellowship, or (b not belonging to a program

  12. Long-term changes in parenting and child behavior after the Home-Start family support program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermanns, J.M.A.; Asscher, J.J.; Zijlstra, B.J.H.; Hoffenaar, P.J.; Deković, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The intervention Home-Start is a wide spread program in a number of countries, among which the Netherlands. In Home-Start, trained volunteers visit families with young children in need of support once or twice a week to help them to deal with problems in family life and parenting. Little

  13. Using Technology to Expand and Enhance Applied Behavioral Analysis Programs for Children with Autism in Military Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    C. T. (2007). Predictors of depressive symptoms in primary caregivers of young children with or at risk for developmental delay. Journal of...Applied Behavioral Analysis Programs for Children with Autism in Military Families PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Wayne Fisher, Ph.D... Autism in Military Families 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0444 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Wayne W. Fisher

  14. Home for now: A mixed-methods evaluation of a short-term housing support program for homeless families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschede, Tatjana; Chaganti, Sara

    2015-10-01

    The use of short-term rental subsidy vouchers offers a new approach to addressing the housing needs of families facing homelessness. In Massachusetts, the Family Home pilot program placed homeless families in housing instead of shelter, providing two years of rental subsidy plus support services with the goal of enabling families to maintain market rate housing. This mixed-method case study complements staff and participant interview data with participant survey and administrative data to evaluate the implementation and short-term outcomes of Family Home in one region. Data point to improved family well-being in housing but also persistent barriers to achieving longer-term housing and economic stability. Of the families who had exited the program at the end of the study, one quarter were able to retain their housing at market rate, only 9% returned to shelter, and one in five moved in with families/friends. Lack of affordable housing in a high rental cost region and jobs that pay living wages were among the major reasons that families struggled to maintain housing. This research points to the need for integrating supportive services from the program's start, including targeted workforce development, to plan for the end of the short-term rental subsidy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Patients' and physicians' satisfaction with a pharmacist managed anticoagulation program in a family medicine clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Lisa; Young, Stephanie; Twells, Laurie; Dillon, Carla; Hawboldt, John

    2015-06-09

    A pharmacist managed anticoagulation service was initiated in a multi-physician family medicine clinic in December 2006. In order to determine the patient and physician satisfaction with the service, a study was designed to describe the patients' satisfaction with the warfarin education and management they received from the pharmacist, and to describe the physicians' satisfaction with the level of care provided by the pharmacist for patients taking warfarin. A self-administered survey was completed by both eligible patients receiving warfarin and physicians prescribing warfarin between December 2006 and May 2008. The patient survey collected information on patient demographics, satisfaction with warfarin education and daily warfarin management. The physician survey collected data about the satisfaction with patient education and daily anticoagulation management by the pharmacist. Seventy-six of 94 (81%) patients completed the survey. Fifty-nine percent were male with a mean age of 65 years (range 24-90). Ninety-six percent agreed/strongly agreed the pharmacist did a good job teaching the importance of warfarin adherence, the necessity of INR testing and the risks of bleeding. Eighty-five percent agreed/strongly agreed the risk of blood clots was well explained, 79% felt the pharmacist did a good job teaching about dietary considerations and 77% agreed/strongly agreed the pharmacist explained when to see a doctor. All patients felt the pharmacist gave clear instructions on warfarin dosing and INR testing. Four of nine physicians (44%) completed the survey. All agreed/strongly agreed the pharmacist was competent in the care provided, were confident in the care their patients received, would like the pharmacist to continue the service, and would recommend this program to other clinics. Patients and family physicians were satisfied with the pharmacist managed anticoagulation program and recommended continuation of the program. These results support the role of the

  16. Effectiveness of a Formal Mentorship Program in Family Medicine Residency: The Residents’ Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Andrades

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Mentoring is a recognized form of teaching learning strategy in postgraduate medical education. This paper describes the effectiveness of a formal mentorship program from the residents’ perspective after a year of implementation. Methods. The Aga Khan University Family Medicine Residency Program is the first program in Pakistan to our knowledge to implement formal mentorship for all four years of residency. A mentorship program was developed, implemented, and evaluated a year later using a rating scale. The 10-point Likert scale consisted of questions on academics, clinical work, research, administrative issues, and personal/social issues. Results. The response rate was 95% (. Eighty percent ( were women. Satisfaction level in seeking help was the highest for academics (75%. Residents scored mentorship as low in helping to tackle their personal problems (20%. Barriers reported in rapport building with mentor were time constraints and gender difference. The most useful attributes of the mentor which helped rapport building were accessibility, active listening, support for emotional needs, and trustworthiness. Conclusion. Mentoring has a role in trainees’ personal and professional growth especially when their needs are addressed. The effectiveness of the mentorship program in residency can improve if the residents are allowed to choose their own mentors.

  17. A survey of program evaluation practices in family-centered pediatric rehabilitation settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Katherine A; Cousins, J Bradley

    2014-04-01

    Program evaluation is becoming increasingly important in pediatric rehabilitation settings that adhere to the family-centered service (FCS) philosophy. However, researchers know little about the specific evaluation activities occurring in these settings or the extent to which evaluators/service providers uphold FCS in their program evaluation activities. Through a questionnaire survey, this study aimed to document evaluators/service providers' perceptions of the level of program evaluation occurring in their Canadian pediatric rehabilitation centers. It also investigated the extent to which evaluators/service providers perceive program evaluation practices at their centers to be consistent with the FCS context of Canadian pediatric rehabilitation settings. The findings suggested that the amount of evaluation activities occurring within the respondents' centers is variable; that the majority of individuals working in program evaluation do not have formal training in it; and that the respondents' centers have limited resources for evaluation. The study also showed that staff members believe their centers' evaluation activities are somewhat consistent with FCS philosophy, but that improvements are needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Program experiences of adults with autism, their families, and providers: Findings from a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffer Miller, Kaitlin H; Mathew, Mary; Nonnemacher, Stacy L; Shea, Lindsay L

    2017-02-01

    A growing number of individuals with autism spectrum disorder are aging into adulthood. In the United States, Medicaid is the primary payer for services for adults with autism spectrum disorder, yet there are few funded programs that provide dedicated supports to this population. This study examined the experiences of adults with autism spectrum disorder in two Medicaid-funded programs in Pennsylvania through focus groups. Researchers conducted 20 focus groups with a total of 36 adults with autism spectrum disorder, 32 family members, 32 direct care staff, and 20 program administrators. Using thematic analysis, we identified three themes: training needs, community engagement and socialization, and employment. There was a need for additional training to meet the varying needs of program participants including co-occurring diagnoses, sexuality, and long-term planning. Adults with autism spectrum disorder prioritized more individualized community activities based on their interests. Finally, barriers to and strategies for successful employment were discussed. It will be crucial for policy makers to utilize the findings to inform program improvement and development based on the experiences of individuals impacted by these services and systems directly. Additionally, researchers should use the findings from this study to design interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorder as it includes their voices.

  19. Our Strength in Families (OSIDF): A Web-Based Interactive Coping Skills and Resiliency Program for Military Families

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chiauzzi, Emil

    2006-01-01

    The project builds on existing interventions and available knowledge on family functioning to develop an interactive, Web- based relationship-enhancement intervention for military couples experiencing deployments...

  20. Usages of Computers and Smartphones to Develop Dementia Care Education Program for Asian American Family Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Ah; Nguyen, Hannah; Park, Joan; Tran, Linh; Nguyen, Trang; Huynh, Yen

    2017-10-01

    Families of ethnic minority persons with dementia often seek help at later stages of the disease. Little is known about the effectiveness of various methods in supporting ethnic minority dementia patients' caregivers. The objective of the study was to identify smartphone and computer usage among family caregivers of dementia patients (i.e., Korean and Vietnamese Americans) to develop dementia-care education programs for them. Participants were asked various questions related to their computer or smartphone usage in conjunction with needs-assessment interviews. Flyers were distributed at two ethnic minority community centers in Southern California. Snowball recruitment was also utilized to reach out to the families of dementia patients dwelling in the community. Thirty-five family caregivers, including 20 Vietnamese and 15 Korean individuals, participated in this survey. Thirty participants (30 of 35, 85.7%) were computer users. Among those, 76.7% (23 of 30) reported daily usage and 53% (16 of 30) claimed to use social media. A majority of the participants (31 of 35, 88.6%) reported that they owned smartphones. More than half of smartphone users (18 of 29, 62%) claimed to use social media applications. Many participants claimed that they could not attend in-class education due to caregiving and/or transportation issues. Most family caregivers of dementia patients use smartphones more often than computers, and more than half of those caregivers communicate with others through social media apps. A smartphone-app-based caregiver intervention may serve as a more effective approach compared to the conventional in-class method. Multiple modalities for the development of caregiver interventions should be considered.

  1. New Opportunitie s for Small Satellite Programs Provided by the Falcon Family of Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinardi, A.; Bjelde, B.; Insprucker, J.

    2008-08-01

    The Falcon family of launch vehicles, developed by Space Exploration Technologies Corporation (SpaceX), are designed to provide the world's lowest cost access to orbit. Highly reliable, low cost launch services offer considerable opportunities for risk reduction throughout the life cycle of satellite programs. The significantly lower costs of Falcon 1 and Falcon 9 as compared with other similar-class launch vehicles results in a number of new business case opportunities; which in turn presents the possibility for a paradigm shift in how the satellite industry thinks about launch services.

  2. Identifying Coevolving Partners from Paralogous Gene Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Hsiang Yeang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Many methods have been developed to detect coevolution from aligned sequences. However, all the existing methods require a one-to-one mapping of candidate coevolving partners (nucleotides, amino acids a priori. When two families of sequences have distinct duplication and loss histories, finding the one-to-one mapping of coevolving partners can be computationally involved. We propose an algorithm to identify the coevolving partners from two families of sequences with distinct phylogenetic trees. The algorithm maps each gene tree to a reference species tree, and builds a joint state of sequence composition and assignments of coevolving partners for each species tree node. By applying dynamic programming on the joint states, the optimal assignments can be identified. Time complexity is quadratic to the size of the species tree, and space complexity is exponential to the maximum number of gene tree nodes mapped to the same species tree node. Analysis on both simulated data and Pfam protein domain sequences demonstrates that the paralog coevolution algorithm picks up the coevolving partners with 60%–88% accuracy. This algorithm extends phylogeny-based coevolutionary models and make them applicable to a wide range of problems such as predicting protein-protein, protein-DNA and DNA-RNA interactions of two distinct families of sequences.

  3. Exploratory Evaluation and Initial Adaptation of a Parent Training Program for Hispanic Families of Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzhardt, Jay; Rusinko, Lisa; Heitzman-Powell, Linda; Trevino-Maack, Sylvia; McGrath, Ashley

    2016-03-01

    The present paper takes a translational approach in applying the themes of the current special section to prevention and intervention science in Latino families. The paper reviews the current literature on cultural processes in prevention and intervention research with Latino families. Overall, many prevention and intervention programs have either been developed specifically for Latino families or have been modified for Latino families with great attention paid to the socio-cultural needs of these families. Nevertheless, few studies have tested the role of cultural values or acculturation processes on outcomes. We make recommendations based on findings within basic science and in particular this special section on the incorporation of these values and processes into prevention and intervention science with Latino families. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  4. Peer support in the community: initial findings of a mentoring program for individuals with traumatic brain injury and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, Mary R; Cantor, Joshua; Charatz, Heather; Rosenthal, Robin; Ashman, Teresa; Gundersen, Nancy; Ireland-Knight, Lynne; Gordon, Wayne; Avner, Judith; Gartner, Audrey

    2002-04-01

    To evaluate the impact of a community-based peer support program for individuals and their family members following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Community-based sample of family members and individuals with traumatic brain injury. Twenty individuals who had participated in the peer support program (11 individuals with TBI and 9 family members). Quantitative and qualitative approaches were used: a retrospective structured interview assessing self-reported impacts of peer support on empowerment, quality of life, mood, skills and knowledge, and social supports; an in-depth qualitative interview with a subgroup of family members focused on the specific benefits/limitations of the peer support program. Participants in the peer support program reported positive impacts of peer support on increasing their knowledge of TBI, enhancing their overall quality of life, improving their general outlook, and enhancing their ability to cope with depression post TBI. The peer support program was reported to have had a minimal impact on enhancing social support from families, friends, and the community, with varying impacts noted on levels of happiness, coping with anger and anxiety, communication with professionals, and control over one's life. Qualitative analysis suggests the merits of this type of community-based support and areas of improvement for the peer support program itself. Preliminary data suggest that peer support is a promising approach to enhancing coping for both individuals and their family members after TBI.

  5. Performance of full-sib families of Douglas-fir in pure-family and mixed-family deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Gould; J. Bradley St.Clair; Paul D. Anderson

    2011-01-01

    A major objective of tree improvement programs is to identify genotypes that will perform well in operational deployments. Relatively little is known, however, about how the competitive environment affects performance in different types of deployments. We tested whether the genetic composition and density of deployments affect the performance of full-sib families of...

  6. A community based intervention program to enhance neighborhood cohesion: The Learning Families Project in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen; Wan, Alice; Kwok, Lit Tung; Pang, Sally; Wang, Xin; Stewart, Sunita M; Lam, Tai Hing; Chan, Sophia S

    2017-01-01

    Neighborhood cohesion, which refers to the extent of the connectedness and solidarity among residents in a community or neighborhood, is an important determinant of human health. To enhance neighborhood cohesion, the "Learning Families Project" was developed with a series of intervention programs in Kwun Tong in Hong Kong, a district with low neighborhood cohesion. This project, based on the social ecological model, provided a platform for neighbors to learn, communicate and interact with each other. This quasi-experimental study included two nearby government subsidized low rent housing estates separated by busy main roads. One served as the intervention (Tsui Ping (South) Estate) and one as the control (Shun Tin Estate) estate. The intervention included promotion, resident training and learning programs, embodied by a series of community activities such as talks, day camp, thematic activities and horticulture class. Baseline (before the programs) and follow-up (one year after the programs) surveys were conducted both in the intervention and control estate to assess the impact of the programs on neighborhood cohesion. The number of residents who completed both the baseline and follow-up surveys was 502 in the intervention estate and 476 in the control estate. Neighborhood cohesion significantly improved in the intervention group after the programs (Cohen effect size d: 0.15). Compared with the control group, the improvements in closeness of the neighborhood and trust in neighbors were significantly greater in the intervention group (Cohen effect size d: 0.13 and 0.14, respectively). This brief intervention program using a quasi-experimental study design increased neighborhood cohesion in a low rent housing estate. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02851667.

  7. 'Only systems thinking can improve family planning program in Pakistan': A descriptive qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Saira; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem

    2014-12-01

    Family Planning (FP) program in Pakistan has been struggling to achieve the desired indicators. Despite a well-timed initiation of the program in late 50s, fertility decline has been sparingly slow. As a result, rapid population growth is impeding economic development in the country. A high population growth rate, the current fertility rate, a stagnant contraceptive prevalence rate and high unmet need remain challenging targets for population policies and FP programs. To accelerate the pace of FP programs and targets concerned, it is imperative to develop and adopt a holistic approach and strategy for plugging the gaps in various components of the health system: service delivery, information systems, drugs-supplies, technology and logistics, Human Resources (HRs), financing, and governance. Hence, World Health Organization (WHO) health systems building blocks present a practical framework for overall health system strengthening. This descriptive qualitative study, through 23 in-depth interviews, explored the factors related to the health system, and those responsible for a disappointing FP program in Pakistan. Provincial representatives from Population Welfare and Health departments, donor agencies and non-governmental organizations involved with FP programs were included in the study to document the perspective of all stakeholders. Content analysis was done manually to generate nodes, sub-nodes and themes. Performance of FP programs is not satisfactory as shown by the indicators, and these programs have not been able to deliver the desired outcomes. Interviewees agreed that inadequate prioritization given to the FP program by successive governments has led to this situation. There are issues with all health system areas, including governance, strategies, funding, financial management, service delivery systems, HRs, technology and logistic systems, and Management Information System (MIS); these have encumbered the pace of success of the program. All stakeholders

  8. ‘Only Systems Thinking Can Improve Family Planning Program in Pakistan’: A Descriptive Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saira Zafar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Family Planning (FP program in Pakistan has been struggling to achieve the desired indicators. Despite a well-timed initiation of the program in late 50s, fertility decline has been sparingly slow. As a result, rapid population growth is impeding economic development in the country. A high population growth rate, the current fertility rate, a stagnant contraceptive prevalence rate and high unmet need remain challenging targets for population policies and FP programs. To accelerate the pace of FP programs and targets concerned, it is imperative to develop and adopt a holistic approach and strategy for plugging the gaps in various components of the health system: service delivery, information systems, drugs-supplies, technology and logistics, Human Resources (HRs, financing, and governance. Hence, World Health Organization (WHO health systems building blocks present a practical framework for overall health system strengthening. Methods This descriptive qualitative study, through 23 in-depth interviews, explored the factors related to the health system, and those responsible for a disappointing FP program in Pakistan. Provincial representatives from Population Welfare and Health departments, donor agencies and non-governmental organizations involved with FP programs were included in the study to document the perspective of all stakeholders. Content analysis was done manually to generate nodes, sub-nodes and themes. Results Performance of FP programs is not satisfactory as shown by the indicators, and these programs have not been able to deliver the desired outcomes. Interviewees agreed that inadequate prioritization given to the FP program by successive governments has led to this situation. There are issues with all health system areas, including governance, strategies, funding, financial management, service delivery systems, HRs, technology and logistic systems, and Management Information System (MIS; these have encumbered the pace of

  9. The fault-tree compiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martensen, Anna L.; Butler, Ricky W.

    1987-01-01

    The Fault Tree Compiler Program is a new reliability tool used to predict the top event probability for a fault tree. Five different gate types are allowed in the fault tree: AND, OR, EXCLUSIVE OR, INVERT, and M OF N gates. The high level input language is easy to understand and use when describing the system tree. In addition, the use of the hierarchical fault tree capability can simplify the tree description and decrease program execution time. The current solution technique provides an answer precise (within the limits of double precision floating point arithmetic) to the five digits in the answer. The user may vary one failure rate or failure probability over a range of values and plot the results for sensitivity analyses. The solution technique is implemented in FORTRAN; the remaining program code is implemented in Pascal. The program is written to run on a Digital Corporation VAX with the VMS operation system.

  10. Family Conflict, Emotional Security, and Child Development: Translating Research Findings into a Prevention Program for Community Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E. Mark; Schatz, Julie N.

    2012-01-01

    The social problem posed by family conflict to the physical and psychological health and well-being of children, parents, and underlying family relationships is a cause for concern. Inter-parental and parent-child conflict are linked with children's behavioral, emotional, social, academic, and health problems, with children's risk particularly…

  11. Balint groups in family medicine residency programs: a follow-up study from 1990--2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Vanessa A; Chessman, Alexander; Johnson, Alan H; Brock, Clive D; Gavin, Jennifer K

    2015-05-01

    Balint groups have been part of residency education for decades. This study updates our understanding of the organization, purpose, and leadership of Balint groups within US family medicine residency programs. Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-approved family medicine residency training programs (n=453) were contacted to complete a questionnaire, similar to ones performed in 1990 and 2000. This survey included questions regarding Balint groups, including their composition, management, and goals. More than half (54%) of respondent programs (n=159) have at least one Balint group, compared to 19% in 1990 and 60% in 2000. Of programs without Balint, 24% would like to have a Balint group, and 6% plan to initiate one within the following year. The proportion of groups meeting weekly decreased over time (80.9% in 1990 versus 40.4% in 2000 versus 11.7% in 2010). The proportion of peer only groups decreased (45.2% versus 53.6% versus 35.1%) while the proportion of groups with > 11 members increased (11.1% versus 15.8% versus 27.2%). Less than half of Balint group leaders reported going to formal training at the American Balint Society Leader's Intensive Workshop (41%). "Understanding the patient as a person" was seen as the main objective of Balint groups. Balint groups are still commonly occurring, but their implementation is changing. Groups are meeting less frequently and are more likely to be larger and heterogeneous. This trend and lack of formally trained/certified leaders may be decreasing the benefit to residents involved in Balint groups.

  12. Retention of Children and Their Families in the Longitudinal Outcome Study of the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families Program: A Multilevel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebreselassie, Tesfayi; Stephens, Robert L.; Maples, Connie J.; Johnson, Stacy F.; Tucker, Alyce L.

    2014-01-01

    Predictors of retention of participants in a longitudinal study and heterogeneity between communities were investigated using a multilevel logistic regression model. Data from the longitudinal outcome study of the national evaluation of the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families program and information on…

  13. Current Directions in Family Nurse Practitioner Curricula. Proceedings of a National Conference of Representatives from Family Nurse Practitioner Programs (Chapel Hill, North Carolina, January 29-31, 1976)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, C. Glenn, Jr., Ed.; Watkins, Julia D., Ed.

    The conference reported here was held for nurse faculty and physicians from twenty-five family nurse practitioner (FNP) programs based in twenty-one states to provide the participants with an opportunity to consider their common curriculum problems and successes in FNP education. The first half of this booklet contains five paper presentations…

  14. Cost-effectiveness of surveillance programs for families at high and moderate risk of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose Olsen, Kim; Bojesen, Stig E; Gerdes, Anne-Marie M

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Surveillance programs are recommended to both families at high risk (Amsterdam-positive families with known- and unknown mutation) and moderate risk (families not fulfilling all Amsterdam criteria) of colorectal cancer (CRC). Cost-effectiveness has so far only been estimated...... to any surgical treatment. The risk of metachronous CRC is also modeled. RESULTS: Incremental costs per life year gained are estimated to be euro 980 when families at both high and moderate risk of HNPCC undergo surveillance (euro 508 for high risk and euro 1600 for moderate risk) and euro 1947 when...

  15. Assessing the effect of introducing a new method into family planning programs in India, Peru, and Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Rebecka; Sinai, Irit; Jha, Priya; Mukabatsinda, Marie; Sacieta, Luisa; León, Federico R

    2012-09-01

    Introducing a new method into family planning programs requires careful attention to ensure it meets an actual need and has a positive effect on program goals. The Standard Days Method® is a fertility awareness-based method of family planning that is being introduced into family planning programs in countries around the world. It is different from other methods offered by programs, and may bring new couples into family planning, and increase contraceptive prevalence. The study assesses the effect on contraceptive use and prevalence of Introducing Standard Days Method into existing family planning services in whole regions of India, Peru, and Rwanda. In collaboration with the Ministry of Health, health providers were given a contraceptive update on all methods, then trained in counseling on Standard Days Method. Efforts were made to promote demand in the context of informed choice. Routine monthly service statistics in control and intervention areas were used to assess the effect of Standard Days Method introduction at the clinic level; baseline and endline household-based surveys were undertaken to obtain results at the community level (n > 3400 women at endline). Demand for the method is evident in countries with different levels of contraceptive prevalence. The method attracts couples new to family planning, and introducing it into services may increase overall contraceptive prevalence. Introducing Standard Days Method into existing family planning has the potential of benefiting men and women in diverse settings and populations. This study illustrates the critical role of evidence in scaling up a health innovation.

  16. Universal family-based prevention programs for alcohol misuse in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxcroft, David R; Tsertsvadze, Alexander

    2011-09-07

    Alcohol misuse in young people is a cause of concern for health services, policy makers, prevention workers, and criminal justice system, youth workers, teachers, and parents. To systematically review evidence on the effectiveness of universal family-based prevention programs in preventing alcohol misuse in school-aged children up to 18 years of age. To update a part of a previously published Cochrane systematic review. Relevant evidence (up to 2002) was selected from the previous Cochrane review. Later studies, to July 2010, were identified from MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, Project CORK, and PsycINFO. Randomized trials evaluating universal family-based prevention programs and reporting outcomes for alcohol use in students 18 years of age or younger were included. Two reviewers screened titles/abstracts and full text of identified records. Two reviewers extracted relevant data independently using an a priori defined extraction form. Risk of bias was assessed. 12 parallel-group trials were included. The reporting quality of trials was poor, only 20% of them reporting adequate method of randomisation and program allocation concealment. Incomplete data was adequately addressed in about half of the trials and this information was unclear for about 30% of the trials. Due to extensive heterogeneity across interventions, populations, and outcomes, the results were summarized only qualitatively.9 of the 12 trials showed some evidence of effectiveness compared to a control or other intervention group, with persistence of effects over the medium and longer-term. Four of these effective interventions were gender-specific, focusing on young females. One study with a small sample size showed positive effects that were not statistically significant, and two studies with larger sample sizes reported no significant effects of the family-based intervention for reducing alcohol misuse. In conclusion, in this Cochrane systematic review we found

  17. Evaluation of a sleep education program for low-income preschool children and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Katherine E; Miller, Alison L; Bonuck, Karen; Lumeng, Julie C; Chervin, Ronald D

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate a novel sleep education program for low-income preschool children and their families. Randomized trial of an educational intervention. Community-based. Head Start preschool families (n = 152) in greater Lansing and Detroit, Michigan. Classrooms or Head Start sites were randomized to an intervention group (prompt intervention) versus a control group (delayed intervention). Parents attended a one-time, 45-min sleep education program and preschoolers received 2 w (320 total min) of classroom sleep curriculum. Parent knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, and beliefs were assessed as the primary outcomes just before the 45-min sleep intervention, immediately postintervention, and approximately 1 mo postintervention. Parents reported their child's bedtimes and wake times on 7-day sleep diaries at baseline and at 1-mo follow-up. Average weeknight sleep durations and bedtimes served as secondary outcomes. Linear mixed models showed a time × treatment effect for parents' knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy (each P Educational interventions in early childhood can have an effect on parents' sleep knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy, and on children's sleep behavior. However, repeated exposure to the new information may be important for parents as well as their children.

  18. Family-Based Intervention Program for Parents of Substance-Abusing Youth and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisetto Pons, David; González Barrón, Remedios

    2016-01-01

    The use of drugs among adolescents/youth often results in a high degree of distress for the family members who live with them. This in turn can lead to a deterioration of mental (psychological) health, hindering any attempt to successfully cope with the situation. The goal of our research was to study the effect of the Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) program on parents of adolescents/young adult drug users. Study volunteers (n = 50) were parents from Valencia (Spain) that were divided into two groups. The experimental group (n = 25) was made up of parents whose sons and daughters exhibited problems with drug use and the constructed noncausal baseline group (n = 25) was made up of parents whose sons and daughters did not show any substance abuse problems. For both groups, self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), depression (BDI-II), anxiety (STAI), and anger (STAXI-II) were evaluated before and after the application of the CRAFT program. Results show a significant improvement in the experimental group's self-esteem, depression, and anger state and a decrease in negative moods. These changes in parents produce a positive effect on their substance-using sons and daughters: of the 25 participants, 15 contacted specialized addiction treatment resources for the first time. PMID:27800208

  19. Family-Based Intervention Program for Parents of Substance-Abusing Youth and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bisetto Pons

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of drugs among adolescents/youth often results in a high degree of distress for the family members who live with them. This in turn can lead to a deterioration of mental (psychological health, hindering any attempt to successfully cope with the situation. The goal of our research was to study the effect of the Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT program on parents of adolescents/young adult drug users. Study volunteers (n=50 were parents from Valencia (Spain that were divided into two groups. The experimental group (n=25 was made up of parents whose sons and daughters exhibited problems with drug use and the constructed noncausal baseline group (n=25 was made up of parents whose sons and daughters did not show any substance abuse problems. For both groups, self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, depression (BDI-II, anxiety (STAI, and anger (STAXI-II were evaluated before and after the application of the CRAFT program. Results show a significant improvement in the experimental group’s self-esteem, depression, and anger state and a decrease in negative moods. These changes in parents produce a positive effect on their substance-using sons and daughters: of the 25 participants, 15 contacted specialized addiction treatment resources for the first time.

  20. Trends in Health Insurance Coverage of Title X Family Planning Program Clients, 2005-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Emily J; Ahrens, Katherine A; Fowler, Christina I; Carter, Marion; Gavin, Loretta; Moskosky, Susan

    2017-12-13

    The federal Title X Family Planning Program supports the delivery of family planning services and related preventive care to 4 million individuals annually in the United States. The implementation of the 2010 Affordable Care Act's (ACA's) Medicaid expansion and provisions expanding access to health insurance, which took effect in January 2014, resulted in higher rates of health insurance coverage in the U.S. population; the ACA's impact on individuals served by the Title X program has not yet been evaluated. Using administrative data we examined changes in health insurance coverage among Title X clinic patients during 2005-2015. We found that the percentage of clients without health insurance decreased from 60% in 2005 to 48% in 2015, with the greatest annual decrease occurring between 2013 and 2014 (63% to 54%). Meanwhile, between 2005 and 2015, the percentage of clients with Medicaid or other public health insurance increased from 20% to 35% and the percentage of clients with private health insurance increased from 8% to 15%. Although clients attending Title X clinics remained uninsured at substantially higher rates compared with the national average, the increase in clients with health insurance coverage aligns with the implementation of ACA-related provisions to expand access to affordable health insurance.

  1. Family health nurse project--an education program of the World Health Organization: the University of Stirling experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Ian

    2008-11-01

    This article outlines the delivery of the Family Health Nurse Education Programme of the World Health Organization (WHO) at the University of Stirling, Scotland, from 2001 to 2005. The program was part of the WHO European Family Health Nurse pilot project. The curriculum outlined by the WHO Curriculum Planning Group detailed the broad thrust of the Family Health Nurse Education Programme and was modified to be responsive to the context in which it was delivered, while staying faithful to general principles and precepts. The Family Health Nurse Education Programme is described in its evolving format over the two phases of the project; the remote and rural context occurred from 2001 to 2003, and the modification of the program for the urban phase of the project occurred during 2004 and 2005. The conceptual framework that was foundational to the development of the curriculum to prepare family health nurses will be described.

  2. Pilot study comparing multi-family therapy to single family therapy for adults with anorexia nervosa in an intensive eating disorder program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitropoulos, Gina; Farquhar, Jamie C; Freeman, Victoria Emily; Colton, Patricia Anne; Olmsted, Marion Patricia

    2015-07-01

    Multi-family therapy (MFT) has yet to be evaluated in families of adults with anorexia nervosa (AN). The study aims were: (i) assess the feasibility of MFT for AN; and, (ii) assess whether MFT is associated with improved outcomes for families compared with single-family therapy (SFT). Adult patients with AN consecutively referred to an eating disorder treatment program were assigned (non-randomly) to receive eight sessions of SFT or MFT. Assessment occurred pre-therapy, immediately post-therapy, and at 3-month follow-up. A total of 37 female patients (13 SFT, 24 MFT) and 45 family members (16 SFT, 29 MFT) completed treatment. There were significant time effects for patients' BMI, eating disorder-related psychopathology and multiple family outcome measures. There were no differences between MFT and SFT on family outcome measures at end of treatment and 3 months post treatment. MFT is a feasible intervention that can be used in adult intensive treatment for those with AN. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  3. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dolichandrone atrovirens (Roth) K. Schum. (Spathe Trumpet Tree) of Bignoniaceae is a medium-sized handsome tree with a straight bole that branches at the top. Leaves are once pinnate, with two to three pairs of leaflets. Young parts of the tree are velvety. Inflorescence is a branched raceme borne at the branch ends.

  4. A family involvement and patient-tailored health management program in elderly Korean stroke patients' day care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ae Kyung; Park, Yeon-Hwan; Fritschi, Cynthia; Kim, Mi Ja

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of a family involvement and functional rehabilitation program in an adult day care center on elderly Korean stroke patients' perceived health, activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, and cost of health services, and on family caregivers' satisfaction. Using one-group pre- and posttest design, dyads consisting of 19 elderly stroke patients and family caregivers participated in 12-week intervention, including involvement of family caregivers in day care services and patient-tailored health management. Outcomes of patients and caregivers were significantly improved (all p health services did not decrease significantly. This program improved functional levels and health perception of elderly stroke patients and caregivers' satisfaction. However, results must be interpreted with caution, because this was only a small, single-group pilot study. This program may be effective for elderly stroke patients and their caregivers. © 2013 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  5. Genome-Wide Analysis of Oleosin Gene Family in 22 Tree Species: An Accelerator for Metabolic Engineering of BioFuel Crops and Agrigenomics Industrial Applications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Heping

    2015-09-01

    Trees contribute to enormous plant oil reserves because many trees contain 50%-80% of oil (triacylglycerols, TAGs) in the fruits and kernels. TAGs accumulate in subcellular structures called oil bodies/droplets, in which TAGs are covered by low-molecular-mass hydrophobic proteins called oleosins (OLEs). The OLEs/TAGs ratio determines the size and shape of intracellular oil bodies. There is a lack of comprehensive sequence analysis and structural information of OLEs among diverse trees. The objectives of this study were to identify OLEs from 22 tree species (e.g., tung tree, tea-oil tree, castor bean), perform genome-wide analysis of OLEs, classify OLEs, identify conserved sequence motifs and amino acid residues, and predict secondary and three-dimensional structures in tree OLEs and OLE subfamilies. Data mining identified 65 OLEs with perfect conservation of the "proline knot" motif (PX5SPX3P) from 19 trees. These OLEs contained >40% hydrophobic amino acid residues. They displayed similar properties and amino acid composition. Genome-wide phylogenetic analysis and multiple sequence alignment demonstrated that these proteins could be classified into five OLE subfamilies. There were distinct patterns of sequence conservation among the OLE subfamilies and within individual tree species. Computational modeling indicated that OLEs were composed of at least three α-helixes connected with short coils without any β-strand and that they exhibited distinct 3D structures and ligand binding sites. These analyses provide fundamental information in the similarity and specificity of diverse OLE isoforms within the same subfamily and among the different species, which should facilitate studying the structure-function relationship and identify critical amino acid residues in OLEs for metabolic engineering of tree TAGs.

  6. Delivering high-quality family planning services in crisis-affected settings I: program implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Dora Ward; Rattan, Jesse; Nzau, Jean Jose; Giri, Kamlesh

    2015-02-04

    In 2012, about 43 million women of reproductive age experienced the effects of conflict. Provision of basic sexual and reproductive health services, including family planning, is a recognized right and need of refugees and internally displaced people, but funding and services for family planning have been inadequate. This article describes lessons learned during the first 2.5 years of implementing the ongoing Supporting Access to Family Planning and Post-Abortion Care in Emergencies (SAFPAC) initiative, led by CARE, which supports government health systems to deliver family planning services in 5 crisis-affected settings (Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Mali, and Pakistan). SAFPAC's strategy focuses on 4 broad interventions drawn from public health best practices in more stable settings: competency-based training for providers, improved supply chain management, regular supervision, and community mobilization to influence attitudes and norms related to family planning. Between July 2011 and December 2013, the initiative reached 52,616 new users of modern contraceptive methods across the 5 countries (catchment population of 698,053 women of reproductive age), 61% of whom chose long-acting methods of implants or intrauterine devices. Prudent use of data to inform decision making has been an underpinning to the project's approach. A key approach to ensuring sustained ability to train and supervise new providers has been to build capacity in clinical skills training and supervision by establishing in-country training centers. In addition, monthly supervision using simple checklists has improved program and service quality, particularly with infection prevention procedures and stock management. We have generally instituted a "pull" system to manage commodities and other supplies, whereby health facilities place resupply orders as needed based on actual consumption patterns and stock-alert thresholds. Finally, reaching the community with mobilization

  7. Differences Between the Family-Centered "COPCA" Program and Traditional Infant Physical Therapy Based on Neurodevelopmental Treatment Principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirks, Tineke; Blauw-Hospers, Cornill H.; Hulshof, Lily J.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    Background. Evidence for effectiveness of pediatric physical therapy in infants at high risk for developmental motor disorders is limited. Therefore, "Coping With and Caring for Infants With Special Needs" (COPCA), a family-centered, early intervention program, was developed. The COPCA program is

  8. Fun & Fit, Phase I: A Program for Overweight African American and Hispanic American Children from Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Karen S.; Hart, Melanie A.; Griffin, L. Kent

    2009-01-01

    Fun & Fit is a program designed to create positive physical activity experiences and to promote healthy lifestyle choices among overweight children from low-income African American and Hispanic American families. The program is a collaborative project between Texas Tech University and the Lubbock Independent School District funded through a…

  9. Analysis of the Dynamics among Tutors in an After-School Tutoring Program in a Homeless Shelter for Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGillivray, Laurie; Goode, Gretchen S.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers of after-school tutoring primarily focus on educational outcomes with little attention to the social dynamics of such programs. In our qualitative case study, we examined the nature of interactions among tutors in a tutoring program at a homeless shelter for families. Employing Bourdieu's concepts of "social capital" and…

  10. Beyond Work-Family Programs: Confronting and Resolving the Underlying Causes of Work-Personal Life Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofodimos, Joan R.

    Work-Family Programs (WFPs) are among the most popular and publicized workplace innovations of the 1990s. These programs are intended to alleviate employees' work-personal conflicts by addressing issues such as child care assistance, parental leave, elder care, flexible working arrangements, wellness and fitness, and stress management. The problem…

  11. Spitzer Reveals Stellar 'Family Tree'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] High resolution poster version Generations of stars can be seen in this new infrared portrait from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. In this wispy star-forming region, called W5, the oldest stars can be seen as blue dots in the centers of the two hollow cavities (other blue dots are background and foreground stars not associated with the region). Younger stars line the rims of the cavities, and some can be seen as pink dots at the tips of the elephant-trunk-like pillars. The white knotty areas are where the youngest stars are forming. Red shows heated dust that pervades the region's cavities, while green highlights dense clouds. W5 spans an area of sky equivalent to four full moons and is about 6,500 light-years away in the constellation Cassiopeia. The Spitzer picture was taken over a period of 24 hours. Like other massive star-forming regions, such as Orion and Carina, W5 contains large cavities that were carved out by radiation and winds from the region's most massive stars. According to the theory of triggered star-formation, the carving out of these cavities pushes gas together, causing it to ignite into successive generations of new stars. This image contains some of the best evidence yet for the triggered star-formation theory. Scientists analyzing the photo have been able to show that the ages of the stars become progressively and systematically younger with distance from the center of the cavities. This is a three-color composite showing infrared observations from two Spitzer instruments. Blue represents 3.6-micron light and green shows light of 8 microns, both captured by Spitzer's infrared array camera. Red is 24-micron light detected by Spitzer's multiband imaging photometer.

  12. Chain-Constrained Spanning Trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olver, N.K.; Zenklusen, R.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the problem of finding a spanning tree satisfying a family of additional constraints. Several settings have been considered previously, the most famous being the problem of finding a spanning tree with degree constraints. Since the problem is hard, the goal is typically to find a

  13. The PLUS family: A set of computer programs to evaluate analytical solutions of the diffusion equation and thermoelasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montan, D.N.

    1987-02-01

    This report is intended to describe, document and provide instructions for the use of new versions of a set of computer programs commonly referred to as the PLUS family. These programs were originally designed to numerically evaluate simple analytical solutions of the diffusion equation. The new versions include linear thermo-elastic effects from thermal fields calculated by the diffusion equation. After the older versions of the PLUS family were documented a year ago, it was realized that the techniques employed in the programs were well suited to the addition of linear thermo-elastic phenomena. This has been implemented and this report describes the additions. 3 refs., 14 figs

  14. Family physicians and youth tobacco-free education: outcomes of the Colorado Tar Wars program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Jeffrey J; Dickinson, W Perry; Fernald, Douglas; Bublitz, Caroline; Dickinson, L Miriam; West, David

    2006-01-01

    Tar Wars is a national school-based tobacco-free education program operated by the American Academy of Family Physicians. The Tar Wars lesson uses an interactive 45-min session taught by volunteer family physicians in 4th- and 5th-grade classrooms and focuses on the short-term image-based consequences of tobacco use. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of the Tar Wars program in Colorado with both quantitative and qualitative measures. Students participating in the quantitative evaluation were tested before and after a Tar Wars teaching session using a 14-question test covering the short-term and image-based consequences of tobacco use, cost of smoking, tobacco advertising, and social norms of tobacco use. Qualitative evaluation of the program included guided telephone interviews and focus groups with participating students, teachers, and presenters. Quantitative evaluation showed statistically significant improvement in correct responses for the 14 questions measured with an average increase in correct responses from 8.95 to 10.23. Three areas recommended by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) for youth tobacco prevention showed greater change in correct responses, including cost of smoking, truth of tobacco advertising, and peer norms of tobacco use. Qualitative evaluation found that the overall message of the session was well received, that previously known tobacco information was reinforced by its presentation in a novel format, and that new information learned included cost of smoking, truth of tobacco advertising, and peer norms of tobacco use. The Tar Wars lesson plan is effective in increasing students' understanding about the short-term consequences of tobacco use, cost of tobacco use, truth of tobacco advertising, and peer norms. Tar Wars meets the CDC guidelines as one component of effective comprehensive youth tobacco prevention.

  15. Tree compression with top trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees [3]. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...

  16. Tree compression with top trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...

  17. The Lidcombe Program of early stuttering intervention for Malaysian families: Four case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vong, Etain; Wilson, Linda; Lincoln, Michelle

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the outcomes of implementing the Lidcombe Program, an evidence-based early intervention for stuttering, with four preschool children in Malaysia. Early stuttering intervention is currently underdeveloped in Malaysia, where stuttering treatment is often more assertion-based than evidence-based. Therefore, introducing an evidence-based early stuttering intervention is an important milestone for Malaysian preschoolers who stutter. The participants ranged from 3 years 3 months to 4 years 9 months at the start of the study. Beyond-clinic speech samples were obtained at 1 month and 1 week pretreatment and immediately post-Stage 1, and at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months post-Stage 1. Two participants, who were bilingual, achieved near-zero levels of stuttering at 12 months posttreatment. Near zero levels of stuttering were also present in their untreated languages. One participant withdrew due to reasons not connected with the research or treatment. The remaining participant, who presented with severe stuttering, completed Stage 1 but had some relapse in Stage 2 and demonstrated mild stuttering 12 months post-Stage 1. The outcomes were achieved without the need to significantly adapt Lidcombe Program procedures to Malaysian culture. Further research to continue evaluation of the Lidcombe Program with Malaysian families and to estimate proportion of those who will respond is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. DensiTree: making sense of sets of phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouckaert, Remco R

    2010-05-15

    Bayesian analysis through programs like BEAST (Drummond and Rumbaut, 2007) and MrBayes (Huelsenbeck et al., 2001) provides a powerful method for reconstruction of evolutionary relationships. One of the benefits of Bayesian methods is that well-founded estimates of uncertainty in models can be made available. So, for example, not only the mean time of a most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) is estimated, but also the spread. This distribution over model space is represented by a set of trees, which can be rather large and difficult to interpret. DensiTree is a tool that helps navigating these sets of trees. The main idea behind DensiTree is to draw all trees in the set transparently. As a result, areas where a lot of the trees agree in topology and branch lengths show up as highly colored areas, while areas with little agreement show up as webs. This makes it possible to quickly get an impression of properties of the tree set such as well-supported clades, distribution of tMRCA and areas of topological uncertainty. Thus, DensiTree provides a quick method for qualitative analysis of tree sets. DensiTree is freely available from http://compevol.auckland.ac.nz/software/DensiTree/. The program is licensed under GPL and source code is available. remco@cs.auckland.ac.nz

  19. Effects of structured education program on organ donor designation of nursing students and their families: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Minoru; Fukuma, Shingo; Ikezoe, Masaya; Iizuka, Chizuko; Izawa, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Yamazaki, Shin; Fukuhara, Shunichi

    2016-11-01

    Little is known about the effect of education programs on changing attitudes and behaviors of participants and their families toward deceased organ donation. The subjects of this randomized trial were Japanese nursing students who were not previously designated organ donors. They were randomly assigned to either the education program or information booklet group. The program comprised a lecture followed by group discussion and information booklet. The primary outcome was self-reported organ donor designation. Outcomes were assessed by questionnaire. Data of 203 (99.0%) students were analyzed. At study end, seven of 102 students (6.9%) of the program group and one of 101 students (1.0%) of the booklet group consented to donate organs (proportion ratio 6.93 [95% CI 0.87-55.32]). There were significant between-group differences in willingness to consent for donation (54.9% vs 39.6%; proportion ratio 1.39 [95% CI 1.03-1.87]), family discussion (31.4% vs 15.9%; 1.98 [1.16-3.38]), and organ donor designation of family members (11.8% vs 2.0%; 5.94 [1.36-25.88]). No group differences were found in willingness for organ donation by students and family members. Although there were no significant between-group differences in organ donor designation, the program seems to indirectly promote consent to organ donation by their families. © 2016 The Authors. Clinical Transplantation Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Family Planning Supply Environment in Kinshasa, DRC: Survey Findings and Their Value in Advancing Family Planning Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayembe, Patrick; Babazadeh, Saleh; Dikamba, Nelly; Akilimali, Pierre; Hernandez, Julie; Binanga, Arsene; Bertrand, Jane T

    2015-01-01

    Background: Modern contraceptive prevalence was 14.1% in 2007 in Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Yet virtually nothing was known about the family planning supply environment. Methods: Three surveys of health facilities were conducted in 2012, 2013, and 2014 to determine the number, spatial distribution, and attributes of sites providing family planning services. The 2012 and 2013 surveys aimed to identify the universe of family planning facilities while obtaining a limited set of data on “readiness” to provide family planning services (defined as having at least 3 modern methods, at least 1 person training in family planning in the last 3 years, and an information system to track distribution of products to clients) and output (measured by couple-years of protection, or CYP). In contrast, the 2014 survey, conducted under the umbrella of the Performance Monitoring and Accountability 2020 (PMA2020) project, was based on 2-stage cluster sampling. This article provides detailed analysis of the 2012 and 2013 surveys, including bivariate and multivariate analysis of correlates of readiness to provide services and of output. Results: We identified 184 health facilities that reported providing at least 1 contraceptive method in 2012 and 395 facilities in 2013. The percentage of sites defined as “ready” to provide services increased from 44.1% in 2012 to 63.3% in 2013. For the 3-month period between January and March 2013, facilities distributed between 0 and 879.2 CYP (mean, 39.7). Nearly half (49%) of the CYP was attributable to implants, followed by IUDs (24%), CycleBeads (11%), and injectables (8%). In 2013, facilities supported by PEPFAR (n = 121) were more likely than other facilities to be rated as ready to provide services (Pfamily planning implementing agencies (Pfamily planning in the DRC in many ways, including mobilizing partners to increase contraceptive access and increasing donor investment in family

  1. Home discharge of technology-dependent children: evaluation of a respiratory-therapist driven family education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tearl, Donna K; Hertzog, James H

    2007-02-01

    Initial hospital discharge to home of technology-dependent children requires extensive training and education of the family caregivers. Education of adult family members should promote positive interactions in a nonthreatening manner while facilitating the development of the knowledge and skills to competently and independently provide all aspects of the medical care. We utilize a training program for adult family members of children who have undergone tracheostomy to facilitate long-term mechanical ventilatory support and who are being prepared for their initial discharge from the hospital to home. A dedicated respiratory therapist family educator directs this program. Multiple teaching tools, activities, and training sessions, based on adult learning theory, are utilized to develop appropriate clinical skills to manage children with tracheostomies and the associated technological supports. We evaluated the effectiveness of our program by administering a written test to caregivers, at the start and the conclusion of their training. We also surveyed the caregivers about their satisfaction with the educational program and the respiratory therapist family educator's performance. We also surveyed employees of the durable medical equipment companies used by the families, regarding the caregivers' knowledge and competency in the home one month following discharge. Our program was associated with a statistically significant improvement in caregiver test performance, and the caregivers expressed a high degree of satisfaction with the program. The employees of the durable medical equipment companies perceived a high degree of knowledge and competence on the part of the home caregivers. Our training program appears to have a positive impact on the educational preparation of caregivers.

  2. [Pregnant women's perceptions of the Family Health Program concerning barriers to dental care in Pernambuco, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque, Olga Maria Ramalho; Abegg, Claídes; Rodrigues, Cecile Soriano

    2004-01-01

    This study focused on barriers to dental care for pregnant women registered with the Health Family Program in Cabo de Santo Agostinho, Pernambuco, Brazil. A qualitative approach using three focal groups was adopted. Each focal group included four to nine pregnant women. The information was analyzed by means of content analysis. The main individual barriers were folk beliefs that discouraged dental care during pregnancy, lack of perceived need, and fear of pain. In addition, the women reported difficulties in leaving home in the early hours of the morning to meet a dental appointment, highlighting an aspect of barriers to dental care which has not been identified in other studies. The article concludes by emphasizing the importance of health education for pregnant women, humanization of dental care, and continuing education for health professionals.

  3. Promoting and recovering health: meanings produced in community groups within the family health program context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celiane Camargo-Borges

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Public Healthcare in Brazil has tended to reflect major changes in the healthcare model. New tendencies point to the importance of actions being built up from their context and focused on specific communities. The objective of this study is to describe the meanings of health / illness as produced by community groups within the context of a Family Healthcare Program. Five groups had their single-session discussions taped and recorded, under the coordination of the first author. This material was transcribed and, coupled with field notes, formed the database for this study. The analysis described the meanings of the ideas on which new healthcare proposals are being based, providing visibility for the multiplicity of meanings and denaturalizing fixed lines of discourse on healthcare / illness. The final thoughts, developed from the point of view of social constructionism, indicate that healthcare practices based on the process of constant conversation and negotiation between all the social actors involved is a fertile ground.

  4. Parent Engagement in Youth Drug Prevention in Chinese Families: Advancement in Program Development and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra K. M. Tsang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The escalating youth drug abuse problem in Hong Kong has attracted intense attention from the government, schools, and youth service professionals. Most preventive efforts have focused directly on positive youth development, very often through school programs delivered to secondary school students. There have been limited efforts to engage parents even though it is obvious that the family is actually the primary context of children and youth development. This paper will assert the importance of parental engagement in youth drug-prevention work, discuss some barriers in such parental involvement, present some promising local attempts and their strengths and limitations, and propose that sustained efforts are needed to build up theory-driven and evidence-based resources for Chinese communities on the subject.

  5. [Pharmaceutical Assistance in the Family Healthcare Program: points of affinity and discord in the organization process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Oliveira, Tatiana de Alencar; Maria, Tatiane de Oliveira Silva; Alves do Nascimento, Angela Maria; do Nascimento, Angela Alves

    2011-09-01

    The scope of this study was to discuss the organization of the pharmaceutical assistance service in the family healthcare program. Qualitative research from a critical/analytical perspective was conducted in family healthcare units in a municipality of the state of Bahia, Brazil. Data was collected on the basis of systematic observation, semi-structured interviews and documents analysis from a dialectic standpoint. The organization of Pharmaceutical Assistance consisted of selection, planning, acquisition, storage and dispensing activities. The process was studied in the implementation phase, which was occurring in a centralized and uncoordinated fashion, without the proposed team work. An excess of activity was observed among the healthcare workers and there was an absence of a continued education policy for the workers. For the transformation of this situation and to ensure the organization of pharmaceutical assistance with quality and in an integrated manner, a reworking of the manner of thinking and action of the players concerned (managers, health workers and users), who participate directly in the organization, is necessary. Furthermore, mechanical, bureaucratic and impersonal work practices need to be abandoned.

  6. Friere's dialogic concept enables family health program teams to incorporate health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, Ivonete T S B; Almeida, Maria C P

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The study analyzes the possibility of incorporating health promotion measures into the work processes of Family Health Program teams at a primary health care clinic in Brazil. We used the participatory research concept developed in 1968 by Freire. The study sample comprised the end-users of the health care system, together with 3 multidisciplinary teams. A total of 77 health care users and 55 health professionals participated in the study. Culture circles composed of health care professionals, and users from different areas investigated generative topics, encoded/decoded topics, and engaged in critical probing for clarification. Topics affecting quality of life and health were heuristically evaluated. Although most topics were related to changing the focus of health care facilities, some were related to subsidizing community-based interventions, improving environmental strategies, individual skills, and public policies. Incorporating the novel health promotion measures and creating an expanded full-treatment clinic are important steps toward that goal. Topics that can stimulate dialogue among the members of the culture circles include creating an environment of closer cultural contact, with repercussions for work processes, family health models, and general health models, as well as the inclusion of social aspects in the decision-making processes related to health issues that affect the living conditions of the population. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Encouraging Family and Parent Education: Program Development and Evaluation in the Federal State of Baden-Württemberg, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Landhäusser

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of a European-wide strategy of governance aimed at improving support for parents and families, the following report details the conceptualization and evaluation of a federal state program 4 in Baden-Württemberg (Germany which was launched in 2008 to encourage family and parent education. Two program components, a voucher system for parents with a new-born child and an element that emphasizes educational offers for families with special needs in particular living situations, were started to increase requests for educational courses. The aim was to establish and deepen cooperation between different public and private professional services that are in contact with parents and their children. The results show that main goals of the program were reached.

  8. Necessary but Not Sufficient: The Role of Policy for Advancing Programs of School, Family, and Community Partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce L. Epstein

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the release of Equality of Educational Opportunity, researchers have emphasized the importance of applying the results of research to policies for school improvement. Policies tell educators to do something, but not how to enact specific laws. This study analyzes data from 347 schools in 21 districts to identify variables that support the enactment of policies for parental engagement. We address research questions on how school and district practices affect the quality of school-based partnership programs. Our results indicate that a policy on parental involvement may be a good first step, but other factors—principals’ support for family and community engagement and active facilitation of research-based structures and processes by district leaders—are important for establishing a basic partnership program. These factors promote programs that engage all students’ families. Schools that take these steps have higher percentages of engaged families and report higher rates of average daily attendance among their students.

  9. Nine years of publications on strengths and weaknesses of Family Physician Program in rural area of Iran: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Azami-Aghdash

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the most important duties of a family physician is to provide primary health care. This is completely considered in the Family Physician Program for a target population. The aim of this study was to systematically review the Family Physician and Referral System strength and weakness in rural area of Iran. Methods: In this systematic review, Scientific Information Database (SID, Science Direct, and PubMed databases were searched and Google search engine was employed using key words such as family medicine, family physician, and referral system for the period of January 2005 to June 2013, both in English and Persian. For identifying duplicated references, Endnote Software was used and for summarizing results of fully assessed articles extraction table was employed. Results: Strengths and weaknesses of Family Physician Program and referral system in rural areas of Iran were extracted from 28 studies. In total, 115 weaknesses (3.96 per study and 103 strengths (3.55 per study were obtained. Content analysis was used and 218 items were summarized into 29 items. Strengths of Family Physician Program were: access of villagers to health services, filling health document for clients, improving services for pregnant mothers, and family planning; while its obvious weaknesses included repeated unnecessary referral of clients as well as lack of providing job stability. Conclusion: Results of studies conducted in Iran showed that Family Physician and Referral System in rural area of Iran could not be successful enough and has many shortcomings. Therefore, a growing body of effective changes must be made for a better performance and to obtain better outcomes.

  10. Integrating an internet-mediated walking program into family medicine clinical practice: a pilot feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Ananda

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular participation in physical activity can prevent many chronic health conditions. Computerized self-management programs are effective clinical tools to support patient participation in physical activity. This pilot study sought to develop and evaluate an online interface for primary care providers to refer patients to an Internet-mediated walking program called Stepping Up to Health (SUH and to monitor participant progress in the program. Methods In Phase I of the study, we recruited six pairs of physicians and medical assistants from two family practice clinics to assist with the design of a clinical interface. During Phase II, providers used the developed interface to refer patients to a six-week pilot intervention. Provider perspectives were assessed regarding the feasibility of integrating the program into routine care. Assessment tools included quantitative and qualitative data gathered from semi-structured interviews, surveys, and online usage logs. Results In Phase I, 13 providers used SUH and participated in two interviews. Providers emphasized the need for alerts flagging patients who were not doing well and the ability to review participant progress. Additionally, providers asked for summary views of data across all enrolled clinic patients as well as advertising materials for intervention recruitment. In response to this input, an interface was developed containing three pages: 1 a recruitment page, 2 a summary page, and 3 a detailed patient page. In Phase II, providers used the interface to refer 139 patients to SUH and 37 (27% enrolled in the intervention. Providers rarely used the interface to monitor enrolled patients. Barriers to regular use of the intervention included lack of integration with the medical record system, competing priorities, patient disinterest, and physician unease with exercise referrals. Intention-to-treat analyses showed that patients increased walking by an average of 1493 steps

  11. Integrating an internet-mediated walking program into family medicine clinical practice: a pilot feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, David E; Buis, Lorraine R; Janney, Adrienne W; Ditty, Megan D; Krause, Christine W; Zheng, Kai; Sen, Ananda; Strecher, Victor J; Hess, Michael L; Piette, John D; Richardson, Caroline R

    2011-06-24

    Regular participation in physical activity can prevent many chronic health conditions. Computerized self-management programs are effective clinical tools to support patient participation in physical activity. This pilot study sought to develop and evaluate an online interface for primary care providers to refer patients to an Internet-mediated walking program called Stepping Up to Health (SUH) and to monitor participant progress in the program. In Phase I of the study, we recruited six pairs of physicians and medical assistants from two family practice clinics to assist with the design of a clinical interface. During Phase II, providers used the developed interface to refer patients to a six-week pilot intervention. Provider perspectives were assessed regarding the feasibility of integrating the program into routine care. Assessment tools included quantitative and qualitative data gathered from semi-structured interviews, surveys, and online usage logs. In Phase I, 13 providers used SUH and participated in two interviews. Providers emphasized the need for alerts flagging patients who were not doing well and the ability to review participant progress. Additionally, providers asked for summary views of data across all enrolled clinic patients as well as advertising materials for intervention recruitment. In response to this input, an interface was developed containing three pages: 1) a recruitment page, 2) a summary page, and 3) a detailed patient page. In Phase II, providers used the interface to refer 139 patients to SUH and 37 (27%) enrolled in the intervention. Providers rarely used the interface to monitor enrolled patients. Barriers to regular use of the intervention included lack of integration with the medical record system, competing priorities, patient disinterest, and physician unease with exercise referrals. Intention-to-treat analyses showed that patients increased walking by an average of 1493 steps/day from pre- to post-intervention (t = (36) = 4.13, p

  12. Long-term effects of the strong African American families program on youths' alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H; Chen, Yi-Fu; Kogan, Steven M; Murry, Velma McBride; Brown, Anita C

    2010-04-01

    This report extends earlier accounts by addressing the effects of the Strong African American Families (SAAF) program across 65 months. Two hypotheses were tested: (a) Rural African American youths randomly assigned to participate in SAAF would demonstrate lower rates of alcohol use than would control youths more than 5 years later, and (b) SAAF's effects on deterring the onset of alcohol use in early adolescence would carry forward to mediate the program's long-term effects. African American youths in rural Georgia (mean age at pretest = 10.8 years) were assigned randomly to the SAAF group (n = 369) or to a control group (n = 298). Past-month alcohol use was assessed at pretest and at 9, 18, 29, 53, and 65 months after pretest. SAAF participants increased their alcohol use at a slower rate than did adolescents in the control condition across the follow-up assessments. At the 65-month assessment, SAAF participants reported having drunk alcohol half as often as did youths in the control group. Consistent with the second hypothesis, SAAF's effects on deterring initiation carried forward to account for its effects on alcohol use across time. Training in protective parenting processes and self-regulatory skills during preadolescence may contribute to a self-sustaining trajectory of disinterest in and avoidance of alcohol use during adolescence when peers begin to model and sanction it. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  13. Shared Parenting: Assessing the Success of a Foster Parent Program Aimed at Family Reunification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, Sarah; Munro, Sheila

    1998-01-01

    A study of 13 Canadian families investigated the effectiveness of a model of family reunification which had foster parents act as parent aides. Results indicate that although the treatment model has excellent potential with less at-risk families, it could not meet the treatment needs of the majority of families. (Author/CR)

  14. Effectiveness and Moderators of Improvement in a Family Education Program for Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiditch, Emily R.

    2010-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) puts great stress on the family system as family members cope with difficult symptoms, accompanying stigma, and caregiver burden. However, development and research on family interventions for BPD lags behind that of other serious mental illnesses. The current study describes a sample of family members,…

  15. Mechanisms of Risk and Resilience in Military Families: Theoretical and Empirical Basis of a Family-Focused Resilience Enhancement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    develop- mental regressions in the form of separation anxiety or the inability to sleep alone, whereas teens may exhibit sullen or defiant behavior...greater school attendance, and reduced childbearing (Lester et al. 2008), and in families with depressed parents, an improvement in child-coping...E. (2008). TALK: Teens and adults learning to communicate. In C. W. LeCroy (Ed.), Evidence-based treatment manuals for children and adolescents (pp

  16. Development of a diabetes care management curriculum in a family practice residency program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuovo, Jim; Balsbaugh, Thomas; Barton, Sue; Davidson, Ellen; Fox-Garcia, Jane; Gandolfo, Angela; Levich, Bridget; Seibles, Joann

    2004-01-01

    Improving the quality of care for patients with chronic illness has become a high priority. Implementing training programs in disease management (DM) so the next generation of physicians can manage chronic illness more effectively is challenging. Residency training programs have no specific mandate to implement DM training. Additional barriers at the training facility include: 1) lack of a population-based perspective for service delivery; 2) weak support for self-management of illness; 3) incomplete implementation due to physician resistance or inertia; and 4) few incentives to change practices and behaviors. In order to overcome these barriers, training programs must take the initiative to implement DM training that addresses each of these issues. We report the implementation of a chronic illness management curriculum based on the Improving Chronic Illness Care (ICIC) Model. Features of this process included both patient care and learner objectives. These were: development of a multidisciplinary diabetes DM team; development of a patient registry; development of diabetes teaching clinics in the family practice center (nutrition, general management classes, and one-on-one teaching); development of a group visit model; and training the residents in the elements of the ICIC Model, ie, the community, the health system, self-management support, delivery system design, decision support, and clinical information systems. Barriers to implementing these curricular changes were: the development of a patient registry; buy-in from faculty, residents, clinic leadership, staff, and patients for the chronic care model; the ability to bill for services and maintain clinical productivity; and support from the health system key stakeholders for sustainability. Unique features of each training site will dictate differences in emphasis and structure; however, the core principles of the ICIC Model in enhancing self-management may be generalized to all sites.

  17. Parent training education program: a pilot study, involving families of children with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodra, Yllka; Kondili, Loreta A; Ferraroni, Alessia; Serra, Maria Antonietta; Caretto, Flavia; Ricci, Maria Antonietta; Taruscio, Domenica

    2016-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by severe hypotonia during the neonatal period and the first two years of life, the onset of hyperphagia with a risk of obesity during infancy and adulthood, learning difficulties and behavioral or severe psychiatric problems. This complex disease has severe consequences and difficult management issues also for patients' families. Parents of children with PWS need appropriate psychoeducational intervention in order to better manage their children with PWS. The purpose of this study was the implementation and evaluation of a PWS psychoeducational parent training program. The Italian National Center for Rare Diseases implemented a pilot parent training program offered to parents of children with PWS. The intervention's effects was evaluated using questionnaires comprised of 11 items rated on a 7 point Likert scale. The intervention was offered to 43 parents. The behavior problems management, dietary restrictions, autonomy and relationships were indicated by parents as the priority topics which needed to be addressed. Evaluations, immediately post-intervention and after 6 months, were reported by parents, fulfilling specific questionnaires. 90% of parents involved in the study, appreciated the methodology, 86% felt more informed about PWS, 47-62% felt more capable to better approach behaviour's problems, 20-25% felt better about the child's health situation and future expectations. Feeling more capable to help the child autonomy and relationships were reported in 62% and 63% of parents respectively, which decreased significantly (p children with behavior's problems. Interventions with a behaviorally oriented program, addressed to parents of PWS affected children, is a useful tool in increasing their ability to manage the problems related to the disease.

  18. Impact of a New York City Supportive Housing Program on Housing Stability and Preventable Health Care among Homeless Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sungwoo; Singh, Tejinder P; Hall, Gerod; Walters, Sarah; Gould, L Hannah

    2018-03-12

    To assess the impact of a New York City supportive housing program on housing stability and preventable emergency department (ED) visits/hospitalizations among heads of homeless families with mental and physical health conditions or substance use disorders. Multiple administrative data from New York City and New York State for 966 heads of families eligible for the program during 2007-12. We captured housing events and health care service utilization during 2 years prior to the first program eligibility date (baseline) and 2 years postbaseline. We performed sequence analysis to measure housing stability and compared housing stability and preventable ED visits and hospitalizations between program participants (treatment group) and eligible applicants not placed in the program (comparison group) via marginal structural modeling. We matched electronically collected data. Eighty-seven percent of supportive housing tenants experienced housing stability in 2 years postbaseline. Compared with unstably housed heads of families in the comparison group, those in the treatment group were 0.60 times as likely to make preventable ED visits postbaseline (95% CI = 0.38, 0.96). Supportive housing placement was associated with improved housing stability and reduced preventable health care visits among homeless families. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  19. The piloting of a culturally centered American Indian family prevention program: a CBPR partnership between Mescalero Apache and the University of New Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Belone, Lorenda; Orosco, Ardena; Damon, Eloise; Smith-McNeal, Willymae; Rae, Rebecca; Sherpa, Mingma L.; Myers, Orrin B.; Omeh, Anslem O.; Wallerstein, Nina

    2017-01-01

    The Mescalero Apache Family Listening Program (MAFLP) is a culturally centered family prevention program with third, fourth, and fifth graders; a parent/caregiver; and a family elder. The program follows a positive youth development model to develop stronger communication and shared cultural practices between elders, parents, and youth in the tribe to reduce substance initiation of use among the youth. The MAFLP was created using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach in par...

  20. The State of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Affirmative Training: A Survey of Faculty from Accredited Couple and Family Therapy Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeorge, Christi R; Stone Carlson, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the state of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) affirmative training in the couple and family therapy field. LGB affirmative refers to holding positive views of LGB identities and relationships. A total of 117 faculty members completed the online survey for this study. Participants were asked to respond to items on the following topics: LGB affirmative stances, LGB affirmative program environment, LGB affirmative course content, self-of-the-therapist work, and professional opportunities to work with LGB topics and clients. The findings of this study were encouraging as participants reported holding positive beliefs about LGB individuals, that their training programs had fairly affirmative program environments, and that LGB affirmative course content was included in their program curriculum. © 2015 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  1. Practitioner perceptions of the use of the Triple P - Positive Parenting Program with families from culturally diverse backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawska, Alina; Sanders, Matthew R; O'Brien, Jennifer O; McAuliffe, Christine; Pope, Sue; Anderson, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Parenting programs are effective as a means of preventing and treating child emotional and behavioural problems; however, engagement of families from culturally diverse populations has been low. The perceptions of practitioners who conduct parent consultations with families from culturally diverse backgrounds were assessed to examine the perceived suitability of the Triple P - Positive Parenting Program. Practitioners rated the program as moderately acceptable. Previous training in parenting intervention and years of experience working with parents impacted on practitioner ratings, as did the type of practitioner profession. Practitioners identified certain barriers to parents' participation and preferred traditional face-to-face delivery formats. Practitioner perceptions may influence parental access to parenting programs. To enhance parental access to parenting interventions, practitioners may require additional training and education about parental preferences and evidence based practice.

  2. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Acrocarpus fraxinifolius Wight & Arn. (PINK CEDAR, AUSTRALIAN ASH) of. Caesalpiniaceae is a lofty unarmed deciduous native tree that attains a height of 30–60m with buttresses. Bark is thin and light grey. Leaves are compound and bright red when young. Flowers in dense, erect, axillary racemes.

  3. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cassia siamia Lamk. (Siamese tree senna) of Caesalpiniaceae is a small or medium size handsome tree. Leaves are alternate, pinnately compound and glandular, upto 18 cm long with 8–12 pairs of leaflets. Inflorescence is axillary or terminal and branched. Flowering lasts for a long period from March to February.

  4. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. ex R. Br. (Sil- ver Oak) of Proteaceae is a daintily lacy ornamental tree while young and growing into a mighty tree (45 m). Young shoots are silvery grey and the leaves are fern- like. Flowers are golden-yellow in one- sided racemes (10 cm). Fruit is a boat- shaped, woody follicle.

  5. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Baccaurea courtallensis Muell.-Arg. of Euphorbiaceae is an evergreen tree that is very attractive when in flower. Leaves are alternate. Male and female flowers are borne on separate trees. Inflorescences bearing several flowers arise in tufts on tubercles on the stem. Fruits are crimson red in colour. Seeds are covered.

  6. Effects of a family-to-family support program on the mental health and coping strategies of caregivers of adults with mental illness: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bademli, Kerime; Duman, Zekiye Çetinkaya

    2014-12-01

    This randomized, controlled intervention study was carried out to investigate the effects of a Family-to-Family Support (FFS) program on the coping strategies and mental health status of caregivers of schizophrenia patients. Data were collected via a General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and the Ways of Coping with Stress Scale (WCSS). During the first phase of the study, the FFS program was developed, followed by a second phase in which the participants of the study were identified and trained. In the third phase, trained caregivers trained other caregivers. The study sample consisted of 46 caregivers. We determined statistically significant differences in the mean GHQ scores of the FFS group over four measurements. In the WCSS subscales, the self-confident approach, optimistic approach and seeking social support approach scores of caregivers participating in the FFS program were high, while their helpless approach score was low. The FFS program had a positive impact on the coping strategies and mental health status of caregivers of schizophrenia patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Educational Program on the Burden of Family Caregivers of Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Ashghali Farahani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies suggest that family caregivers of hemodialysis patients experience a high level of burden, which could lead to numerous physical and psychological problems. Despite the need for adequate training and support, these caregivers are mostly neglected, and few studies have been performed in this regard. Aim: to evaluate the effect of educational programs on the home care of hemodialysis patients and burden of their family caregivers. Method: This randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 76 caregivers of hemodialysis patients referred to Shahid Hasheminejad Hemodialysis Center of Tehran, Iran in 2015.­ Subjects were divided into two groups of intervention and control (n=38. The intervention group received four training sessions on the home care of hemodialysis patients for two weeks, and the control group received routine care. Data were collected using the Caregiver Burden Inventory (CBI at the beginning and six weeks after the intervention­. Data analysis was performed in SPSS V.21 using Chi-square, Fisher’s exact test, independent and paired T-test, and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: In this study, no significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of demographic characteristics. At the baseline, mean score of caregiver burden in the intervention and control groups was 88.5±11.7 and 84.9±15.1, respectively, and no significant difference was observed between the groups in this regard (P=0.30. Six weeks after the intervention, the results of independent T-test revealed a significant difference between the mean scores of caregiver burden in the intervention (58.7±6.6 and control groups (87.8±11.7 ­(P

  8. Tabulations of Responses from the 1999 Survey of Spouses of Active Duty Personnel. Volume 2. Programs and Services, Employment, Family, Economic Issues, and Background

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deak, Mary

    2001-01-01

    The 1999 Active Duty Surveys (ADS) gather information on current location, spouse's military assignment, military life, programs and services, spouse employment, family information, economic issues, and background...

  9. My Family-Study, Early-Onset Substance use Prevention Program: An Application of Intervention Mapping Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mirzaei-Alavijeh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Based on different studies, substance use is one of the health problems in the Iranian society. The prevalence of substance use is on a growing trend; moreover, the age of the onset of substance use has declined to early adolescence and even lower. Regarding this, the present study aimed to develop a family-based early-onset substance use prevention program in children (My Family-Study by using intervention mapping approach. Materials and Methods: This study descirbes the research protocol during which the intervention mapping approach was used as a framework to develop My Family-Study. In this study, six steps of intervention mapping were completed. Interviews with experts and literature review fulfilled the need assessment. In the second step, the change objectivs were rewritten based on the intersection of the performance objectives and the determinants associated in the matrices. After designing the program and planning the implementation of the intervention, the evaluation plan of the program was accomplished. Results: The use of intervention mapping approach facilitated the develop-pment of a systematic as well as theory- and evidence-based program. Moreover, this approach was helful in the determination of outcomes, performance and change objectives, determinants, theoretical methods, practical application, intervention, dissemination, and evaluation program. Conclusions: The intervention mapping provided a systematic as well as theory- and evidence-based approach to develop a quality continuing health promotion program.

  10. Treating conduct disorder: An effectiveness and natural language analysis study of a new family-centred intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Kimberly A; Ronan, Prof Kevin; Davies, Gene

    2017-05-01

    This paper reports on a new family-centred, feedback-informed intervention focused on evaluating therapeutic outcomes and language changes across treatment for conduct disorder (CD). The study included 26 youth and families from a larger randomised, controlled trial (Ronan et al., in preparation). Outcome measures reflected family functioning/youth compliance, delinquency, and family goal attainment. First- and last-treatment session audio files were transcribed into more than 286,000 words and evaluated through the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count Analysis program (Pennebaker et al., 2007). Significant outcomes across family functioning/youth compliance, delinquency, goal attainment and word usage reflected moderate-strong effect sizes. Benchmarking findings also revealed reduced time of treatment delivery compared to a gold standard approach. Linguistic analysis revealed specific language changes across treatment. For caregivers, increased first person, action-oriented, present tense, and assent type words and decreased sadness words were found; for youth, significant reduction in use of leisure words. This study is the first using lexical analyses of natural language to assess change across treatment for conduct disordered youth and families. Such findings provided strong support for program tenets; others, more speculative support. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Individual and Structural Attributions for Poverty and Persistence in Family Literacy Programs: The Resurgence of the Culture of Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Esther; Schafft, Kai A.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Context: Educational researchers have long sought to understand the factors that enable or constrain persistence in non-formal family literacy and adult education programs. Scholars typically posit three sets of factors influencing persistence: situational (learners' life circumstances), institutional (programmatic factors), and…

  12. Rapid Assessment with Qualitative Telephone Interviews: Lessons from an Evaluation of California's Healthy Families Program & Medi-Cal for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobo, Elisa J.; Simmes, Diana R.; Landsverk, John A.; Kurtin, Paul S.

    2003-01-01

    California's Healthy Families/Medi-Cal for Children (HF/MCC) program provides low- and no-cost health insurance to low-income children. In December 1999 and January 2000, 72 community-based organizations (CBOs) were contracted by California's Department of Health Services (DHS) to supply culturally appropriate HF/MCC outreach and enrollment…

  13. Perceptions of stakeholder groups about the participation of African American family forest landowners in federal landowner assistance programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puneet Dwivedi; Arundhati Jagadish; John Schelhas

    2016-01-01

    This study examines perceptions of three stakeholder groups (African American Family Forest Landowner, Government Agency, and Nonprofit) regarding federal landowner assistance programs in the southern United States by combining a SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunity, and threat) analysis with the AHP (analytical hierarchy process). Factors with the highest priority...

  14. Family Well-Being in a Participant-directed Autism Waiver Program: The Role of Relational Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfield, M. E.; Chiri, G.; Leutz, W. N.; Timberlake, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Massachusetts is one of a very limited number of states exclusively employing participant-direction to deliver autism waiver services to children. A crucial element of this waiver program is the work conducted by the state's Department of Developmental Services (DDS) staff and state-approved providers with waiver families to facilitate…

  15. Changes in parenting and child behavior after the home-start family support program: A 10 year follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aar, J.V.; Asscher, J.J.; Zijlstra, B.J.H.; Deković, M.; Hoffenaar, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Home-Start is a parenting support program in which mothers experiencing difficulties in family life and parenting, receive weekly support at home from a volunteer. The present study extends the work of Hermanns et al. (2013), by examining self-reported and observed parenting and child

  16. Family and Consumer Sciences Focus on the Human Dimension: The Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Katherine L.; Chipman, Helen; Forstadt, Leslie A.; Rasco, Mattie R.; Sellers, Debra M.; Stephenson, Laura; York, De'Shoin A.

    2017-01-01

    The history of family and consumer sciences (FCS) and the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) is discussed with an emphasis on the critical importance of the human dimension. EFNEP's focus on people, education for change, accountability, strategic partnerships, and public value are highlighted as an example and model for…

  17. The Effects of Building Strong Families: A Healthy Marriage and Relationship Skills Education Program for Unmarried Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Robert G.; McConnell, Sheena; Moore, Quinn; Clarkwest, Andrew; Hsueh, JoAnn

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the impacts of Building Strong Families, a healthy marriage and relationship skills education program serving unmarried parents who were expecting or had recently had a baby. Based on a random assignment research design, the analysis uses survey data from more than 4,700 couples across eight research sites to estimate program…

  18. The effectiveness of a group psycho-educational program on family caregiver burden of patients with mental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navidian Ali

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brief family intervention may have a positive impact on family caregivers for patients with mental disorders. We assessed the effectiveness of a group psycho-educational program on family caregivers for patients with schizophrenia and mood disorders. Methods This randomized controlled trial was performed on 100 caregivers for patients with mental disorders attending the Isfahan Behavioral Sciences Research Center (IBSRC, in Isfahan, Iran. One hundred family caregivers of patients with schizophrenia (n = 50 and mood disorders (n = 50 were selected and assigned randomly to either a psycho-educational group intervention or routine care in each diagnosis category. The caregivers were followed for 3 months. Caregiver burden was assessed using the Zarit Burden Interview Results The mean scores of the Zarit caregiver burden decreased significantly for the group that participated in the psycho-educational program, while scores in the control group did not change significantly. Conclusions This group intervention program was effective to reduce the caregiver burden for both categories of mental disorders in the Iranian population. This group intervention program may improve the quality of life of patients and caregivers by improving the standards of care giving. Trial registration RCT registration number: IRCT138804272200N

  19. Should Family and Friends Be Involved in Group-Based Rehabilitation Programs for Adults with Low Vision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, G.; Saw, C.; Larizza, M.; Lamoureux, E.; Keeffe, J.

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative study investigates the views of clients with low vision and vision rehabilitation professionals on the involvement of family and friends in group-based rehabilitation programs. Both groups outlined advantages and disadvantages to involving significant others, and it is essential that clients are given the choice. Future work is…

  20. A "Community Fit" Community-Based Participatory Research Program for Family Health, Happiness, and Harmony: Design and Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, Cissy Ss; Wang, Man Ping; Mui, Moses; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Lam, Tai Hing; Chan, Sophia Sc

    2015-10-28

    A principal factor in maintaining positive family functioning and well-being, family communication time is decreasing in modern societies such as Hong Kong, where long working hours and indulgent use of information technology are typical. The objective of this paper is to describe an innovative study protocol, "Happy Family Kitchen," under the project, "FAMILY: A Jockey Club Initiative for a Harmonious Society," aimed at improving family health, happiness, and harmony (3Hs) through enhancement of family communication. This study employed the community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, and adopted 5 principles of positive psychology and the traditional Chinese concepts of cooking and dining, as a means to connect family members to promote family health, happiness, and harmony (3Hs). In-depth collaboration took place between an academic institution and a large nongovernmental community organization association (NGO association) with 400 social service agency members. Both groups were deeply involved in the project design, implementation, and evaluation of 23 community-based interventions. From 612 families with 1419 individuals' findings, significant increases in mean communication time per week (from 153.44 to 170.31 minutes, P=.002) at 6 weeks after the intervention and mean communication scores (from 67.18 to 69.56 out of 100, P<.001) at 12 weeks after the intervention were shown. Significant enhancements were also found for mean happiness scores 12 weeks after the intervention (from 7.80 to 7.82 out of 10, P<.001), and mean health scores (from 7.70 to 7.73 out of 10, P<.001) and mean harmony scores (from 7.70 to 8.07 out of 10, P<.001) 6 weeks after the intervention. This was the first CBPR study in a Hong Kong Chinese community. The results should be useful in informing collaborative intervention programs and engaging public health researchers and community social service providers, major stakeholders, and community participants in the promotion of