Sample records for family planning counseling

  1. Counseling Women and Couples on Family Planning: A Randomized Study in Jordan. (United States)

    El-Khoury, Marianne; Thornton, Rebecca; Chatterji, Minki; Kamhawi, Sarah; Sloane, Phoebe; Halassa, Mays


    This article evaluates the effects of involving men in family planning counseling in Jordan using a randomized experiment. We randomly assigned a sample of 1,247 married women to receive women-only counseling, couples counseling, or no counseling. We measured the effects of each type of counseling on family planning use, knowledge, attitudes, and spousal communication about family planning. Compared to no counseling, couples counseling led to a 54 percent increase in uptake of modern methods. This effect is not significantly different from the 46 percent increase in modern method uptake as a result of women-only counseling. This outcome may be due, in part, to lower rates of compliance with the intervention among those assigned to couples counseling compared to women-only counseling. To realize the possible added benefits of involving men, more tailored approaches may be needed to increase men's participation.

  2. Determinants of Quality of Family Planning Counseling among Private Health Facilities in Lagos. (United States)

    Johnson, Doug; Ugaz, Jorge


    We use a unique dataset that includes an objective measure of the quality of family planning counseling from 927 private health facilities in Lagos State, Nigeria, to determine which variables at the facility and provider levels are most closely correlated with the quality of family planning counseling. Our data on quality come from mystery client surveys in which the clients posed as women seeking family planning counseling. We find that quality is strongly associated with the cadre of provider, with doctors delivering substantially higher-quality counselling than nurses. Doctors not only outperform nurses overall, but also perform better on each category of quality and spend nearly three minutes longer on average counseling the mystery client. Location, fees charged for the service, and facility type are also strongly correlated with quality. The degree to which a facility specializes in family planning and facility size are only weakly predictive of quality.

  3. Attitudes of Family Planning Workers toward Setting Up Special Counseling Stations for Unmarried Young Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂晓雯; 刘英惠; 楼超华; 高尔生


    Objective To understand attitudes of family planning workers to setting up special counseling stations for unmarried young adults and to identify the acceptable and feasible ways to provide the services for unmarried young adults in eight provinces/cities in ChinaMethods From May 1998to December 1998, 1 927family planning workers including 965 contraceptive providers and 962 contraceptive distributors were recruited for questionnaire survey in eight provinces/cities in China.Results Except the subjects from Hebei Province, over 70% of all the subjects from other provinces/cities thought it was necessary to have a special counseling station set up for unmarried young adults, while 10~ 20% of them opposed to it. Result of Multivariable Logistic regression analysis showed that where the subjects came from, were contraceptive distributors, have higher education level, younger than 50, expressed tolerance for premarital sex, perceived that unmarried young adults had no or inadequate knowledge about sexuality and considered it was difficult for unmarried young adults to obtain contraceptive methods, were more likely to support the establishment of special counseling stations for unmarried youth. The acceptable and feasible ways to provide contraceptive services varied from one province/city to another. Generally,family planning counseling stations and hospital were the most acceptable place to provide counseling services for unmarried young adults in eight provinces/cities. Specially trained persons were recommended as the suitable persons for providing the services for unmarried young adults. Conclusion It is acceptable and feasible to set up special counseling stations for unmarried young adults.

  4. Counseling a Client Whose Family Member Is Planning a Suicide. (United States)

    Crawford, Robert


    Discusses planned suicide as a topic that receives much attention both in the popular press and the scholarly literature. Provides a case scenario followed with a discussion of pertinent legal and ethical issues for counselors. (Author/GCP)

  5. HIV and family planning service integration and voluntary HIV counselling and testing client composition in Ethiopia. (United States)

    Bradley, H; Bedada, A; Tsui, A; Brahmbhatt, H; Gillespie, D; Kidanu, A


    Integrating voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT) with family planning and other reproductive health services may be one effective strategy for expanding VCT service delivery in resource poor settings. Using 30,257 VCT client records with linked facility characteristics from Ethiopian non-governmental, non-profit, reproductive health clinics, we constructed multi-level logistic regression models to examine associations between HIV and family planning service integration modality and three outcomes: VCT client composition, client-initiated HIV testing and client HIV status. Associations between facility HIV and family planning integration level and the likelihood of VCT clients being atypical family planning client-types, versus older (at least 25 years old), ever-married women were assessed. Relative to facilities co-locating services in the same compound, those offering family planning and HIV services in the same rooms were 2-13 times more likely to serve atypical family planning client-types than older, ever-married women. Facilities where counsellors jointly offered HIV and family planning services and served many repeat family planning clients were significantly less likely to serve single clients relative to older, married women. Younger, single men and older, married women were most likely to self-initiate HIV testing (78.2 and 80.6% respectively), while the highest HIV prevalence was seen among older, married men and women (20.5 and 34.2% respectively). Compared with facilities offering co-located services, those integrating services at room- and counsellor-levels were 1.9-7.2 times more likely to serve clients initiating HIV testing. These health facilities attract both standard material and child health (MCH) clients, who are at high risk for HIV in these data, and young, single people to VCT. This analysis suggests that client types may be differentially attracted to these facilities depending on service integration modality and other facility

  6. Family Planning Counseling in Your Pocket: A Mobile Job Aid for Community Health Workers in Tanzania. (United States)

    Agarwal, Smisha; Lasway, Christine; L'Engle, Kelly; Homan, Rick; Layer, Erica; Ollis, Steve; Braun, Rebecca; Silas, Lucy; Mwakibete, Anna; Kudrati, Mustafa


    To address low contraceptive use in Tanzania, a pilot intervention using a mobile job aid was developed to guide community health workers (CHWs) to deliver integrated counseling on family planning, HIV, and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In this article, we describe the process of developing the family planning algorithms and implementation of the mobile job aid, discuss how the job aid supported collection of real-time data for decision making, and present the cost of the overall system based on an evaluation of the pilot. The family planning algorithm was developed, beginning in June 2011, in partnership with the Tanzania Ministry of Health and Social Welfare based on a combination of evidence-based tools such as the Balanced Counseling Strategy Plus Toolkit. The pilot intervention and study was implemented with 25 CHWs in 3 wards in Ilala district in Dar es Salaam between January 2013 and July 2013. A total of 710 family planning users (455 continuing users and 255 new users) were registered and counseled using the mobile job aid over the 6-month intervention period. All users were screened for current pregnancy, questioned on partner support for contraceptive use, counseled on a range of contraceptives, and screened for HIV/STI risk. Most new and continuing family planning users chose pills and male condoms (59% and 73%, respectively). Pills and condoms were provided by the CHW at the community level. Referrals were made to the health facility for pregnancy confirmation, injectable contraceptives, long-acting reversible contraceptives and HIV/STI testing. Follow-up visits with clients were planned to confirm completion of the health facility referral. The financial cost of implementing this intervention with 25 CHWs and 3 supervisors are estimated to be US$26,000 for the first year. For subsequent years, the financial costs are estimated to be 73% lower at $7,100. Challenges such as limited client follow-up by CHWs and use of data by supervisors

  7. Reproductive desires of men and women living with HIV: implications for family planning counselling. (United States)

    van Zyl, Cornelia; Visser, Maretha J


    The reproductive desires of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) of low socioeconomic standing attending public health facilities in South Africa were studied. HIV-positive men, pregnant and non-pregnant women were recruited from two clinics at a large public hospital in Tshwane, South Africa. Individual interviews were used to explore the reproductive desires of HIV-positive participants. HIV counsellors' perceptions of their clients' reproductive desires were explored during focus group discussions. Parenthood proved to be an important factor to all participants in continuation of the family and establishing their gender identities, despite the possible risk of HIV transmission and community stigmatization. Different cultural procreation rules for men and women and stigmatizing attitudes towards PLHIV affected their reproductive decision making. Women had the dilemma of choosing which community expectations they wanted to fulfil. Community stigmatization towards PLHIV was visible in the negative attitudes of some HIV counsellors regarding HIV and procreation. Because the reproductive desires of PLHIV are currently not given high priority in HIV prevention and family planning in the public health sector in South Africa, the prevention of HIV transmission may be jeopardized. These results necessitate the integration of HIV and sexual and reproductive health counselling on a primary health care level.

  8. Post-abortion family planning counselling practice among abortion service providers in China: a nationwide cross-sectional study. (United States)

    Tang, Longmei; Wu, Shangchun; Li, Jiong; Wang, Kun; Xu, Jialin; Temmerman, Marleen; Zhang, Wei-Hong


    To assess the practice of post-abortion family planning (PAFP) counselling among Chinese abortion service providers, and identify the influencing factors. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted between July and September 2013 among abortion services providers in 30 provinces in China. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify the factors that influenced PAFP counselling. 94% of the 579 service providers responded to the questionnaire in the survey. The median age was 39 years (range 20-72), and 95% were females. 92% providers showed a positive attitude and had promoted the PAFP counselling services; however, only 57% spent more than 10 min for it. The overall knowledge on PAFP was limited to the participants. After adjusting for potential confounding factors: providers from the middle region (compared with 'east region', ORadj = 3.33, 95% CI: 2.12-5.21) conducted more PAFP counseling; providers with more knowledge (ORadj = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.38-3.15) provided more counseling; and compared with 'middle school and below', providers with higher education gave more counseling [ORadj(95% CI)] for 'college', 'university' and 'master/doctor' [1.99 (1.01,3.92), 2.32 (1.22,4.40) and 2.34 (1.06,5.17), respectively]. The majority of providers could provide PAFP counselling to women undergone an abortion, but some of them had insufficient time to make it available. Education, knowledge about fertility and reproductive health and residence region were the main factors influencing the practice. Training of health providers and integrating family planning as a part of abortion services are essential to provide adequate PAFP to abortion seekers, thereby reducing the risk of unintended pregnancy.

  9. Evaluation on the Effectiveness and Feasibility of Integrating STI/HIV Counseling with Existing Family Planning Service in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鹏飞; 周颖燕; 高尔生


    Objective To assess the impact of pamphlet distribution and counseling on STI/HIV/condom knowledge, attitudes towards STI / AIDS patients and condom use intention of married couples in Shanghai and explore the effective way of integrating STI/HIV prevention with family planning services.Methods Four hundred and five married women aged 20~39 and their husbands were recruited from 14 family planning stations at 7 administrative districts of Shanghai. They were randomly divided into two groups, the counseling intervention (CI) group with 199 couples and the pamphlet distribution (PD) group with 206 couples. For the PD group, only pamphlets containing information on STI/AIDS/ condom were distributed and condoms given free of charge, whereas for the CI group,they were provided with not only full counseling on STI /AIDS /condom and free condoms, but also followed by demonstration of correct condom use. The two modes of interventions were conducted following the baseline survey, and the follow-up data were collected one month later.Results 1. There was no statistical difference between the two groups on STI/AIDS/condom knowledge level, attitudes towards STI /AIDS patients and condom use intention at the baseline. 2. The follow-up findings indicated that: ① A significant enhancement in knowledge level was observed in the CI group, with 20% increase for husbands and 24% for wives. While for the PD group, only slight increase was observed : 2% for husbands and 3% for wives ; ② 93% husbands and 76% wives of the CI group changed their discriminatory attitudes towards STI patients, and towards AIDS patients, the percentages were 73% and 78%, respectively; ③ 68% husbands and 64% wives of the CI group expressed their intention for condom use; ④ For the PD group, however, there was no difference in attitudes towards STI/AIDS patients and condom use intention at the baseline and follow-up. 3. The knowledge scores and attitudes towards STI/AIDS patients were mainly

  10. Availability of family planning services and quality of counseling by faith-based organizations: a three country comparative analysis. (United States)

    Barden-O'Fallon, Janine


    Faith-based organizations (FBOs) have a long history of providing health services in developing countries and are important contributors to healthcare systems. Support for the wellbeing of women, children, and families is evidenced through active participation in the field of family planning (FP). However, there is little quantitative evidence on the availability or quality of FP services by FBOs. The descriptive analysis uses facility-level data collected through recent Service Provision Assessments in Malawi (2013-14), Kenya (2010), and Haiti (2012) to examine 11 indicators of FP service and method availability and nine indicators of comprehensive and quality counseling. The indicators include measures of FP service provision, method mix, method stock, the provision of accurate information, and the discussion of reproductive intentions, client's questions/concerns, prevention of sexually transmitted infections, and return visits, among others. Pearson's Chi-square test is used to assess the selected indicators by managing authority (FBO, public, and other private sector) to determine statistical equivalence. Results show that FBOs are less likely to offer FP services than other managing authorities (p analysis indicate that there is room for improvement in the availability of FP services by FBOs in these countries. Quality of counseling should be improved by all managing authorities in the three countries, as indicated by low overall coverage for practices such as ensuring confidentiality (22% in Malawi, 47% in Kenya and 12% in Haiti), discussion of sexually transmitted infections (18%, 25%, 17%, respectively), and providing services to youth (53%, 27%, 32%, respectively).

  11. Family Assessment and Genetic Counseling. (United States)

    Carpenter, Pat; And Others

    Presented are two papers from a panel discussion on prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling with families. D. Blackston (director of the Developmental Evaluation Clinic, Decatur, Georgia) points out that a concise family history, pregnancy and birth data, developmental history, careful physical examination, and appropriate laboratory studies are…

  12. Expanding HIV testing and counselling into communities: Feasibility, acceptability, and effects of an integrated family planning/HTC service delivery model by Village Health Teams in Uganda. (United States)

    Brunie, Aurélie; Wamala-Mucheri, Patricia; Akol, Angela; Mercer, Sarah; Chen, Mario


    Improving HIV testing and counselling (HTC) requires a range of strategies. This article reports on HTC service delivery by Village Health Teams (VHTs) in Uganda in the context of a model integrating this new component into pre-existing family planning services. Eight health centres from matched pairs were randomly allocated to intervention or control. After being trained, 36 VHTs reporting to selected facilities in the intervention group started offering HTC along with family planning, while VHTs in the control group provided family planning only. Proficiency testing was conducted as external quality assurance. A survey of all 36 VHTs and 137 family planning clients in the intervention group and 119 clients in the control group and a review of record data were conducted after 10 months. Survey responses by VHTs and their clients in the intervention group demonstrate knowledge of counselling messages and safe testing. External quality assessment results provide additional evidence of competency. Eighty per cent of the family planning clients surveyed in the intervention group received an HIV test during the intervention; 27% of those were first-time testers. More clients had ever tested for HIV in the intervention group compared with the control; clients also retested more often. Findings indicate that this model is feasible and acceptable for expanding quality HTC into communities. This study was registered with, number [NCT02244398].

  13. The effect of prenatal counselling on postpartum family planning use among early postpartum women in Masindi and Kiryandongo districts, Uganda. (United States)

    Ayiasi, Richard Mangwi; Muhumuza, Christine; Bukenya, Justine; Orach, Christopher Garimoi


    Globally, most postpartum pregnancies are unplanned, mainly as a result of low level of knowledge and fear of contraceptive use especially in low-income settings. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of prenatal contraceptive counselling on postpartum contraceptive use and pregnancy outcomes after one year. Sixteen health centres were equally and randomly allocated to control and intervention arms. Mothers were consecutively recruited during their first antenatal clinic consultations. In the intervention arm Village Health Team members made home visits and provided prenatal contraceptive advice and made telephone consultations with health workers for advice while in the control arm mothers received routine antenatal care offered in the health centres. Data were collected in 2014 in the two districts of Kiryandongo and Masindi. This data was collected 12-14 months postpartum. Mothers were asked about their family planning intentions, contraceptive use and screened for pregnancy using human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) levels. Socio-demographic and obstetric indices were recorded. Our primary outcomes of interests were current use of modern contraceptive, decision to use a modern contraceptive method and pregnancy status. Multilevel analysis using the xtmelogit stata command was used to determine differences between intervention and control groups. A total of 1,385 women, 748 (control) and 627 (intervention) were recruited. About 80% initiated breastfeeding within six hours of delivery 78.4% (control) and 80.4% (intervention). About half of the mothers in each arm had considered to delay the next pregnancy 47.1% (control) and 49% (intervention). Of these 71.4% in the control and 87% in the intervention had considered to use a modern contraceptive method, only 28.2% of the control and 31.6% in the intervention were current modern contraceptive users signifying unmet contraceptive needs among immediate postpartum mothers. Regarding pregnancy, 3.3% and 5

  14. Family Counseling for All Counselors. (United States)

    Kaplan, David M.

    Counselors whose specialty is marriage and family counseling develop a theoretical and research base and acquire countless hours of experience upon which to base their interventions. Most counselors and other helping professionals whose specialty is in another area do as well as they can lacking specific theoretical concepts and experience from…

  15. Natural Family Planning (United States)

    ... Sex and Birth Control Birth Control Natural Family Planning Natural Family Planning Birth ControlPrevention and WellnessSex and Birth Control Share Natural Family Planning Natural Family PlanningWhat is natural family planning?Natural ...

  16. Counselling and Career Planning: Symposium V A. (United States)

    Awang, Amir; And Others

    Focusing generally on counseling and career planning, this symposium provides (1) a review and critique of guidance and counseling in Malaysian schools, by Amir Awang and Latiff Mirasa; (2) a discussion of the needs of Malaysian youth, by Mohd. Yunus Mohd. Noor; and (3) an abstract of the findings of a study of some aspects of student development…

  17. Conversion Therapy: Ethical Considerations in Family Counseling. (United States)

    Steigerwald, Fran; Janson, Gregory R.


    Explores the ethical and practical considerations of conversion therapy when counseling families and individuals within families with gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transsexual concerns. Emphasis is placed on the need for counselors to assess personal biases in the area of working with sexual minorities. Presents a reflective exercise and case study…

  18. Family Systems-Oriented School Counseling. (United States)

    Widerman, James L.; Widerman, Eileen


    Emphasizes the importance of positive family influence in successful school education. Describes and applies family systems counseling, using the interactional game metaphor, to many of the problems common in school settings. Stresses that negative responses or physical punishment are not only ineffective but result in perpetuating unintended…

  19. Family Counseling in the Schools: A Graduate Course. (United States)

    Terry, Linda L.


    Describes a one semester-unit course, entitled "Family Counseling in the Schools" to complement other training in family systems counseling for students interested in family-school intervention. Links literature on changes in the cultures of the social institutions of schools, families, and family counseling with the systemic conceptual framework…

  20. Family Counseling Interventions: Understanding Family Systems and the Referral Process. (United States)

    McWhirter, Ellen Hawley; And Others


    This article describes concepts underlying the idea of the "family as a system"; compares and contrasts four approaches to family therapy (those of Virginia Satir, Jay Haley, Murray Bowen, and Salvador Minuchin); and offers suggestions to teachers referring parents for family counseling. (DB)

  1. Family Counseling Interventions: Understanding Family Systems and the Referral Process. (United States)

    McWhirter, Ellen Hawley; And Others


    This article describes concepts underlying the idea of the "family as a system"; compares and contrasts four approaches to family therapy (those of Virginia Satir, Jay Haley, Murray Bowen, and Salvador Minuchin); and offers suggestions to teachers referring parents for family counseling. (DB)

  2. Marriage and Family Counseling: Ethics in Context (United States)

    Southern, Stephen; Smith, Robert L.; Oliver, Marvarene


    Codes of ethics typically provide rules and guidelines for best practices in marriage and family counseling. An emerging model for ethical decision making emphasizes the ethics of virtues and aspirations. Exploring fundamental models of helping, as well as contemporary issues in community systems, affords context for examining the professional…

  3. Counselling Intervention for Family Security (United States)

    Fareo, Dorcas Oluremi


    All couples look forward to having normal healthy babies. The issues of disabilities in their children shake the families and serve as sources of severe psychological disruption to family adjustment. The parents of such children live with many difficult issues and frequently experience trauma, grief and stress. This article deals with counselling…

  4. Integrating School and Family Counseling: Practical Solutions. The Family Psychology and Counseling Series. (United States)

    Miller, Lynn D., Ed.

    This book offers practical suggestions for school counselors to begin integrating family counseling methods into their practice, while providing a rationale and the research support for working with families from a school base. It also provides specific techniques for using solution-focused tools, conducting family therapy with children, working…

  5. Teachers' Perceptions of Students' Needs for Family Counseling and Attitudes toward School-Based Family Counseling (United States)

    Star Snyder, Marjorie


    A comprehensive search of multiple databases for references to the connection between families and schools yields a rich representation from family therapy, school counseling, school psychology, and education literature supporting the idea that schools must serve not only students, but students' families as well. One of the common themes emerging…

  6. A Process for Working with Families across Counseling Specialties. (United States)

    Kaplan, David M.

    This chapter discusses the development of an approach to counseling that allows counselors to incorporate family counseling into their individual counseling practices. The six-stage counseling process that is presented draws upon a broad-based behavior therapy/social learning theory approach. The stages of this process are identified as: establish…

  7. The Practice of Marriage and Family Counseling in Cyberspace. (United States)

    Jencius, Marty; Sager, Denise E.


    Reviews the current practice of using the Internet to provide marriage and family counseling services. Discusses how the Internet has developed into a medium that can be used for the provision of marriage and family counseling services. Ethical guidelines developed by other associations have direct implication in how marriage and family therapists…

  8. An Application of Satir's Model to Family Counseling. (United States)

    Seligman, Linda


    Describes the use of Virginia Satir's model to family counseling, emphasizing prevention, personal growth, self-esteem, and communication in improving the functioning of the family system. Presents a case study using the model. Results indicate the family became more nurturing as a result of counseling. (JAC)

  9. An Application of Satir's Model to Family Counseling. (United States)

    Seligman, Linda


    Describes the use of Virginia Satir's model to family counseling, emphasizing prevention, personal growth, self-esteem, and communication in improving the functioning of the family system. Presents a case study using the model. Results indicate the family became more nurturing as a result of counseling. (JAC)

  10. Family Counseling in Malaysia: Current Issues and Practices (United States)

    Noor, Norhayati Mohd.


    The study is carried out to explore the issues and practices in family counselling among the family counsellors at few counseling centres in Malaysia. Qualitative approach of single case embedded units was used for the study. Data collection was done using in-depth interview, observation and document analysis with 12 family counsellors. The data…

  11. Incorporating Family Work into Individual Counseling: Establishing a Relationship with Families. ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Kaplan, David M.; Cole, Melody J.

    This digest provides an overview of basic family counseling concepts for counselors whose specialty is in an area other than marriage and family counseling. The author notes that there are two pivotal areas the counselor and client must address upon deciding to involve a family in the client's counseling sessions: how to get the family to come…

  12. General Counsel`s office FY 1995 site support program plan WBS 6.10.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, S.R.


    The General Counsel`s office provides legal counsel to all levels of WHC management; administers the intellectual property program; coordinates all WHC investigative activity and supports WHC activities to ensure compliance with all applicable federal, state, and local laws, DOE directives, contractual provisions, and other requirements. In so doing, the Office of General Counsel supports the Hanford site mission of transforming the Hanford site into an environmentally attractive and economically sustainable community. This document briefs the FY95 site support plan.

  13. Integrating Family Counseling Theories and Techniques with Developmental Counseling and Therapy. (United States)

    Chang, Catherine Y.

    This paper summarizes Iveys Developmental Counseling and Therapy theory and includes practical applications of theory, discusses the general concepts of family counseling theories and the family systems continuum, summarizes the central theoretical constructs and goals and practical therapeutic techniques of Systemic Cognitive-Developmental…

  14. Structural-Strategic Family Counseling: A Case Study in Elementary School Counseling. (United States)

    Davis, Keith M.


    Provides an overview for understanding the application of a structural-strategic family counseling model to school-based family counseling. Presents examples from a case study with a six-year-old boy experiencing behavior problems in school, which occurred as problems escalated between his mother and grandmother. Several implications are discussed…

  15. Counseling Families in Poverty: Moving from Paralyzing to Revitalizing (United States)

    Cholewa, Blaire; Smith-Adcock, Sondra


    Counseling families in poverty can be a daunting process if one only focuses on what is lacking. Taking such a deficit approach is limiting not only to the counselor but also can serve to disempower the clients. This paper presents a strengths-based approach for counseling families living in poverty that emphasizes relational processes and the…

  16. Counseling Families in Poverty: Moving from Paralyzing to Revitalizing (United States)

    Cholewa, Blaire; Smith-Adcock, Sondra


    Counseling families in poverty can be a daunting process if one only focuses on what is lacking. Taking such a deficit approach is limiting not only to the counselor but also can serve to disempower the clients. This paper presents a strengths-based approach for counseling families living in poverty that emphasizes relational processes and the…

  17. 5. Natural Family Planning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    influencing utilization of Natural Family Planning .... Because of the potential benefits of FP, it is important to any community ... Data was collected over a period of 4 months after approval ..... The DHMT to educate parents on the importance of.

  18. Family planning Indonesia. (United States)

    Singarimbun, M


    The growth of family planning activities in Indonesia in the Postwar period is traced; and future prospects for family planning are assessed. Transmigration projects initiated by the Dutch and supported by President Sukarno after Indonesian independence as a means of decreasing population pressure on the island of Java, are identified as the only official response to the population problem until 1965. In the face of the government's opposition to the idea of birth control as a population control measure, the activities of the Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association (IPPA) after its founding in 1957 were limited to advising mothers on spacing of their children for health reasons. Statements made in support of a national family planning program by government officials at a 1967 IPPA Congress and on other occasions are noted. The major components of an approved national family planning program to start in 1969 are described. However, the government's policy as of late 1967 and early 1968 is characterized as one of mainly benevolent encouragement and help to voluntary organizations. The chief impediment to family planning in Indonesia is said to be a lack of motivation and the force of traditional values that favor large families. On the positive side are: 1) Studies showing considerable interest in birth control by the rural population; 2) A long history of traditional birth control practices; 3) The absence of outright opposition by religious groups to the principle of family planning. However, financial costs, the need for the training of personnel, and a general unawareness of the magnitude of the task lying ahead constitute other formidable obstacles.

  19. Using the Reproductive Life Plan in contraceptive counselling (United States)

    Verbiest, Sarah; Van Achterberg, Theo; Larsson, Margareta; Stern, Jenny


    Having children or not is one of the most important decisions that a person will make in his or her lifetime. The Reproductive Life Plan (RLP) is a protocol that aims to encourage both women and men to reflect on their reproductive intentions and to find strategies for successful family planning, for example to have the wanted number of children and to avoid unwanted pregnancies as well as ill-health that may threaten reproduction. The RLP was developed in an American context for promotion of reproductive health in a life cycle perspective. Few studies have systematically evaluated the effectiveness of using an RLP protocol in clinical practice. This article describes the application of using the RLP protocol in contraceptive counselling in Sweden. PMID:27646817

  20. Using the Reproductive Life Plan in contraceptive counselling. (United States)

    Tydén, Tanja; Verbiest, Sarah; Van Achterberg, Theo; Larsson, Margareta; Stern, Jenny


    Having children or not is one of the most important decisions that a person will make in his or her lifetime. The Reproductive Life Plan (RLP) is a protocol that aims to encourage both women and men to reflect on their reproductive intentions and to find strategies for successful family planning, for example to have the wanted number of children and to avoid unwanted pregnancies as well as ill-health that may threaten reproduction. The RLP was developed in an American context for promotion of reproductive health in a life cycle perspective. Few studies have systematically evaluated the effectiveness of using an RLP protocol in clinical practice. This article describes the application of using the RLP protocol in contraceptive counselling in Sweden.

  1. Futurism Plus Counseling Equals Life Planning. (United States)

    John, Gary G.


    The principles of futurism have already affected the counseling profession. Their use in the student services sector indicates not only a new orientation, but a distinct new-model for the twenty-first century. It reveals that the counseling profession is becoming devoted to human potential, not human development. (Author)

  2. STD services in family planning programs. (United States)

    Cole, L; Finger, W R


    Few family planning programs provide sexually transmitted disease (STD) services. Yet, more and more policymakers and program managers are thinking of ways that family planning programs can address reproductive health needs, including STDs. Family planning programs that have already added STD services now operate in Botswana, Kenya, Malawi, India, Sri Lanka, Brazil, Colombia, El Salvador, and Jamaica. Most of them concentrate on STD/AIDS preventive services: providing information, counseling, and promoting condom use. Some programs also provide STD management services. A family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya, gradually integrated STD services into its program. It first provided clients with information about STDs, then nurses were trained to diagnose and treat STDs, and last the clinic began receiving STD drugs. This clinic targets low-income workers and groups at high risk for HIV infection. It has 60 outreach volunteers working in bars, brothels, and small shops. During September 1991-March 1994, 57% of clients used condoms. The nurses use a syndromic approach to decide on what treatment to use for STD patients. Since some women do not have obvious STD symptoms, laboratories and microscopes are used to make an accurate diagnosis. A considerable outlay of funds is needed for extensive training in STD diagnosis and treatment, but ending the cycle of infection saves money. Concerns about contraceptive effectiveness of barrier methods keep family planning programs from promoting condom use. Another obstacle to integrating STD services into family planning programs is that most programs focus on women. Clinics should encourage couples to be together for family planning and STD counseling. They can also direct educational materials to men. Other challenges include the difficulty of diagnosing STDs in women, expensive and often unavailable STD drugs, reinfection by partners who do not receive treatment, and lack of power to insist on condom use.

  3. A decade of genetic counseling in frontotemporal dementia affected families: few counseling requests and much familial opposition to testing. (United States)

    Riedijk, S R; Niermeijer, M F N; Dooijes, D; Tibben, A


    A decade of genetic counseling of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) affected families has generated two important observations. First, the uptake rate for presymptomatic testing for FTD is low in our department of Clinical Genetics at the Erasmus Medical Center in the Netherlands. Second, FTD at-risk counselees reported substantial familial opposition to genetic testing, which is distinct from the attitude in Huntington Disease affected families. We hypothesize that the low acceptance for FTD genetic counseling is consequential to the familial opposition and explain this within the theoretical framework of separation-individuation. Furthermore, we hypothesize that separation-individuation problems do not similarly influence the acceptance of HD genetic counseling, due to the educative role of the well-organised patient organization for HD in the Netherlands. We offer counseling recommendations that serve to facilitate the individuation of the counselee with respect to the FTD genetic test.

  4. Confidentiality Issues when Minor Children Disclose Family Secrets in Family Counseling (United States)

    McCurdy, Kenneth G.; Murray, Kenneth C.


    The literature addressing ethical issues involved in the disclosure of family secrets in counseling has typically focused on secrets disclosed by adults, ignoring the ethical issues surrounding individual disclosure by minor children and confidentiality within the family counseling context. This article explores family secrets, confidentiality…

  5. Office of General Counsel Total Quality Management Plan (United States)


    Total Quality Management Plan 6. AUTHOR(S) 7...of General Counsel. - r DTIC 65 LE- E CTEn’" SEP291 989 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES TQM ( Total Quality Management ), Office of General...89) Pra-ifcr~bed ANSI Sid 139-1S ""-"’- ", ~ mmmmmu10n S S OFFICE OF GENERAL COUNSEL TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT PLAN Acc’, ’ 7or. .?:" t ’_7 Codes K

  6. The Experiences and Perceptions of Five Elementary School Counselors: Providing Family Counseling to Families of Children with Learning Disabilities


    Granato, Laura A,


    Family systems counseling is a powerful and beneficial counseling technique that has been effective in treating families of children with learning disabilities. Family counseling has been effective in many settings, but has not been explored as a school counselor intervention. This research is a qualitative study exploring school counselorsâ experiences and perceptions while providing family counseling to families of children with learning disabilities. This counseling included a minimum...

  7. Family planning: where now? (United States)

    Saunders, L


    The focus is in terms of family planning as an exercise in induced social change; the objective is to alter the reproductive patterns of societies sufficiently to bring about a significant reduction in fertility. The year 1974 emerges as the year in which family planning as a social movement achieved maturity and was confirmed as a legitimate area for national policy and programming, a year of determined and varied efforts to reduce population growth. In affirming the rights and responsibilities of people and the obligations of governments in population concerns, the Bucharest Conference conferred its seal of approval on a movement that had made considerable progress since it began early in the 19th century. The evolution of birth control as a social movement which began with Francis Place's printing and distributing contraceptive bills in 1820 was encouraged by other writings in England and the U.S. over the next 50 years. Several overlapping phases can be distinguished in the global response to a new sense of urgence regarding population concerns following World War 2. Moving from a global perspective to consideration of family planning as it exists in the programs of individual countries, the achievement is not so great and the prospects are less hopeful. Although it has had success as a social movement and is now accepted as a government responsibility, family planning programs still have a long way to go before they develop the scope, vigor, and versatility that is required for there to be widespread demographic change. 1 change that is needed is for a stronger and more visible political commitment and commitment on the basis of demographic rather than health or welfare reasons.

  8. Family Planning Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    According to the China national programme of economic and social development, by 2000 the standard of living of Chinese people will have been fairly welloff. In order to accomplish the goal, the government has comprised the population development in the national social economic development programme. Family planning (FP) work will contribute to the general goal of social economy and development. Reform and open policy and establishment of socialist market economy sys

  9. Family Planning in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    China is a developing country with vast territory, numerous population and relatively poor economic foundation. The basic features of China's population are of great quantity and considerable annual increase of population as well as its uneven distribution in different regions. For improvement of living standard of the people,Chinese Government began to advocate family planning throughout this country in the beginning of the 1970s while a strenuous effort was made to develop economy.

  10. Family planning for women with learning disabilities. (United States)

    Taylor, G; Pearson, J; Cook, H

    An outreach program developed in England by the Merton and Sutton Community and Family Planning Services is effectively addressing the unmet reproductive health needs of women with learning disabilities. A specially trained community health nurse visits prospective clients at their residence and, through use of teaching aids, demonstrates breast self-examination and condom use and explains what will take place at the upcoming clinic visit. Of the 125 learning disabled women who used this program during its first 18 months of operation, only three had previously accessed the community's family planning services. 50% of services provided to this population were annual well-woman checks, 20% related to contraception, and 30% were for counseling on concerns such as domestic violence. Most of these women required a specialized approach that would not have been forthcoming from a generic family planning service or a general practitioner.

  11. Disequilibrium and Development: The Family Counseling Internship Experience (United States)

    Kaiser, Donna H.; McAdams, Charles R.; Foster, Victoria A.


    This study explored the mechanisms at play as new family counselors are learning to apply a systems approach. A qualitative case study was used to investigate the experiences of nine family counseling interns over two semesters of internship through the lens of constructive developmental theory. The findings extend our understanding by providing…

  12. Family Counseling and Childhood Obesity: A Review of Approaches. (United States)

    Morrissette, Patrick J.; Taylor, Daniel


    Childhood obesity continues to be one of the most refractory and resistant problems encountered by children. This article provides a comprehensive review of the literature and addresses the presumed influence of family members in relation to childhood obesity. Directions for future family counseling research into childhood obesity are also…

  13. Proceedings of a Symposium on Family Counseling and Therapy. (United States)

    Gazda, G. M., Ed.

    The presentations of 3 top people in the field of family counseling and therapy were transcribed and slightly edited for this booklet. Three different but popular approaches are represented. Virginia Satir discusses and demonstrates the Conjoint Family Therapy approach which she pioneered. Dr. Oscar Christensen, a recognized leader in Adlerian…

  14. Family of Origin Addiction Patterns amongst Counseling and Psychology Students (United States)

    Ponder, Fred T.; Slate, John R.


    In this investigation, the authors surveyed graduate students (n = 129) in counseling and psychology regarding the extent to which addiction was present in their families. A high percentage of respondents, particularly females, reported that their families had alcoholism/drug addiction present. A statistically significant difference was yielded…

  15. Influence of Familial Spirituality: Implications for School Counseling Professionals (United States)

    Davis, Keith M.; Lambie, Glenn W.; Ieva, Kara P.


    This article (a) addresses the importance of familial spirituality on students' holistic development; (b) explores professional ethical codes, standards, and counseling competencies relating to students' familial spirituality; (c) introduces educational activities to assist school counselors in increasing their understanding and appreciation of…

  16. Unique Issues in Rural Couple and Family Counseling. (United States)

    Weigel, Daniel J.; Baker, Brad G.


    The purpose of this article is to review the available literature regarding rural couple and family counseling, in conjunction with the findings of research in closely related fields. This review is conducted in an effort to identify unique practice issues facing rural couple and family counselors. (Contains 77 references.) (GCP)

  17. Family Counseling and Childhood Obesity: A Review of Approaches. (United States)

    Morrissette, Patrick J.; Taylor, Daniel


    Childhood obesity continues to be one of the most refractory and resistant problems encountered by children. This article provides a comprehensive review of the literature and addresses the presumed influence of family members in relation to childhood obesity. Directions for future family counseling research into childhood obesity are also…

  18. Why family planning matters. (United States)

    Jensen, Jeffrey T


    Family planning is one of the principle tools of human development. Ensuring that all babies are wanted and planned reduces health care and social costs. Human numbers will increase to 11 billion by the end of this century, and human activities are the leading cause of environmental change that threaten our health and happiness. Therefore, the provision of highly effective contraceptive methods represents an important priority of primary medical care. Since women and men with complicated medical problems remain interested in sex, medical and surgical specialists need to understand how contraception and pregnancy will interact with the underlying condition. This paper discusses the interaction between population growth and the environment, and reviews modern methods of contraception.

  19. Development and testing of an iOS waiting room "app" for contraceptive counseling in a Title X family planning clinic. (United States)

    Gilliam, Melissa L; Martins, Summer L; Bartlett, Emily; Mistretta, Stephanie Q; Holl, Jane L


    Long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods, such as the intrauterine device and implant, are highly effective but used by less than 10% of US women. The objective of our study was to improve LARC interest by enhancing clinic counseling. A quality improvement methodology was used to evaluate intrauterine device service delivery in 3 Chicago Title X clinics. To address identified barriers, we developed a theory-based iOS application (app) for patients to use in the clinic waiting room using human-centered design. The final prototype was tested in a randomized controlled trial in a Title X clinic with sexually active females (79% African American) under age 30 years. Our sample of 60 was chosen to detect an increase from 10% (baseline) to 45% (app intervention) in the proportion of patients expressing interest in discussing a LARC method during their clinic visit with 80% power and two-sided α = 0.05. After completing demographic and baseline knowledge questionnaires, participants were randomized 1:1 to intervention (app) or standard care arms. App users also completed a posttest. Our primary outcome was expressed interest in discussing a LARC method during the clinic visit. Secondary outcomes were contraceptive knowledge and LARC selection. App testers (n = 17) preferred interactive, visually appealing design and video testimonials. In the pilot randomized controlled trial (n = 52), app users had a significantly higher knowledge of contraceptive effectiveness (P = .0001) and increased interest in the implant (7.1-32.1%, P = .02) after the intervention. Users were highly satisfied with the app. Staff reported no problems using the app in the clinic. Use of a theory-based counseling app offers a novel method to optimize wait time while minimizing clinic flow disruption. Preliminary data demonstrate that app use was associated with improvements in patients' contraceptive knowledge and interest in the implant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. General Counsel`s Office FY 1996 Site Support Program Plan: WBS 6.10.5. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, S.R.


    This is the General Counsel`s Office site support program plan for the US DOE Hanford site. The topics addressed in the program plan include a mission statement, description of activities, program objectives, planning assumptions, program constraints, work breakdown structure, milestone list, milestone description sheets, and activity detail.

  1. A Decade of Genetic Counseling in Frontotemporal Dementia Affected Families: Few Counseling Requests and much Familial Opposition to Testing


    Riedijk, S. R.; Niermeijer, M. F. N.; Dooijes, D.; Tibben, A.


    A decade of genetic counseling of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) affected families has generated two important observations. First, the uptake rate for presymptomatic testing for FTD is low in our department of Clinical Genetics at the Erasmus Medical Center in the Netherlands. Second, FTD at-risk counselees reported substantial familial opposition to genetic testing, which is distinct from the attitude in Huntington Disease affected families. We hypothesize that the low acceptance for FTD gen...

  2. Religion and family planning. (United States)

    Pinter, Bojana; Hakim, Marwan; Seidman, Daniel S; Kubba, Ali; Kishen, Meera; Di Carlo, Costantino


    Religion is embedded in the culture of all societies. It influences matters of morality, ideology and decision making, which concern every human being at some point in their life. Although the different religions often lack a united view on matters such contraception and abortion, there is sometimes some dogmatic overlap when general religious principles are subject to the influence of local customs. Immigration and population flow add further complexities to societal views on reproductive issues. For example, present day Europe has recently faced a dramatic increase in refugee influx, which raises questions about the health care of immigrants and the effects of cultural and religious differences on reproductive health. Religious beliefs on family planning in, for example, Christianity, Judaism, Islam and Hinduism have grown from different backgrounds and perspectives. Understanding these differences may result in more culturally competent delivery of care by health care providers. This paper presents the teachings of the most widespread religions in Europe with regard to contraception and reproduction.

  3. The Syndrome L Family: A Challenge for Family Counseling and Therapy. (United States)

    Sperry, Len; Duffy, Maureen


    Purports that because family counselors are not yet sufficiently adept at dealing with families that have a member with some sort of learning disability, they are less likely to diagnosis and address it in the treatment process. Briefly describes the "Syndrome-L Family," and discusses the challenges of this syndrome for family counseling practice.…

  4. Levity and Learning: Lessons from Life in a Family and Family Counseling. (United States)

    Gladding, Samuel T.


    In humorous moments, family counselors and families often learn a lot about themselves and their relationships. This article focuses on the importance of levity and learning within family life and family counseling through the use of a series of vignettes drawn from the author's own experiences. (Author)

  5. Improvisational Acting Exercises and Their Potential Use in Family Counseling (United States)

    Ruby, James R.; Ruby, Nanci Carol


    Expressive therapy interventions are a useful resource for counselors working with a wide range of presenting issues. This article illustrates a series of improvisational acting exercises that can be used within a family counseling context. Clear directions for specific exercises are provided, along with illustrative case examples.

  6. Integrating Religion and Spirituality in Marriage and Family Counseling. (United States)

    Wolf, Chelsea T.; Stevens, Patricia


    Examined integrating religion and spirituality with marriage and family counseling. Explored potential obstacles and negative consequences for this integration, as well as clinical implications. The positive impact of incorporating a religious or spiritual perspective into clinical practice is discussed. Ethical considerations, techniques, and…

  7. The Use of Family Therapy within a University Counseling Center (United States)

    Jackson, Kathryn


    As a counterpoint to the oftentimes adversarial way that parents are viewed when they appear to be overinvolved in the lives of their college-aged students, this article advocates for the use of a family therapy perspective in university counseling centers. Benefits of this perspective include a broadening of the lens through which individual…

  8. Brief Family Counseling Intervention: Cibola Cluster, 1997-98. (United States)

    Mearns, Curt

    This evaluation focuses on the effectiveness of the brief family counseling intervention component of a school-based comprehensive program. Assessment was based upon increased attendance rates; decreased suspension at secondary schools; decreased number of violent incidents; increased number of students receiving mental health services; and…

  9. Guiding the Family: Practical Counseling Techniques. Second Edition. (United States)

    Grunwald, Bernice Bronia; McAbee, Harold V.

    This text on principles of Adlerian Psychology is designed for use in family counseling. It begins with an overview of Alfred Adler and his basic philosophy on human relationships. Throughout the book, as the Adlerian theory is discussed, practical application of theory is explained for counselors. Counselors must have a firm theoretical basis for…

  10. Guiding the Family: Practical Counseling Techniques. Second Edition. (United States)

    Grunwald, Bernice Bronia; McAbee, Harold V.

    This text on principles of Adlerian Psychology is designed for use in family counseling. It begins with an overview of Alfred Adler and his basic philosophy on human relationships. Throughout the book, as the Adlerian theory is discussed, practical application of theory is explained for counselors. Counselors must have a firm theoretical basis for…

  11. Why Incorporate Family Counseling into Your Practice? (United States)

    Kaplan, David M.

    This chapter addresses questions about the utility of family work as a separate discipline distinct from other helping professions. Empirical evidence is presented that supports the effectiveness of family involvement in treating childhood and school problems, psychotic disorders, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, physical health problems,…

  12. A decade of genetic counseling in frontotemporal dementia affected families: Few counseling requests and much familial opposition to testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.R. Riedijk (Samantha); M.F. Niermeijer (Martinus); D. Dooijes (Dennis); A. Tibben (Arend)


    textabstractA decade of genetic counseling of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) affected families has generated two important observations. First, the uptake rate for presymptomatic testing for FTD is low in our department of Clinical Genetics at the Erasmus Medical Center in the Netherlands. Second, FT

  13. A decade of genetic counseling in frontotemporal dementia affected families: Few counseling requests and much familial opposition to testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.R. Riedijk (Samantha); M.F. Niermeijer (Martinus); D. Dooijes (Dennis); A. Tibben (Arend)


    textabstractA decade of genetic counseling of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) affected families has generated two important observations. First, the uptake rate for presymptomatic testing for FTD is low in our department of Clinical Genetics at the Erasmus Medical Center in the Netherlands. Second,

  14. Population Growth: Family Planning Programs. (United States)

    Doberenz, Alexander R., Ed.; Taylor, N. Burwell G., Ed.

    These proceedings of the second annual symposium on population growth bring together speeches and panel discussions on family planning programs. Titles of speeches delivered are: Communicating Family Planning (Mrs. Jean Hutchinson); Effects of New York's Abortion Law Change (Dr. Walter Rogers); The Law and Birth Control, Sterilization and Abortion…

  15. Videotaping as a Counseling Technique with Families. (United States)

    Getz, Hildy G.; Nininger, Kathleen


    Videotape and audiotape can be used very effectively to give counselees feedback, yet this method has received little attention in the literature. Describes a videotaping approach that can be used to enhance communication and resolve problems between troubled children and their families. Presents case example of a 10-year-old boy, threatening to…

  16. [Private enterprise and family planning]. (United States)


    In the city of Tebicuary, Paraguay, the main local private industry, a sugar refinery, has organized for its workers and their families a consultory for family planning and for materno-infant services. The consultory not only offers advice and services on prenatal diagnosis, medical assistance to infants and children and maternal health, but it sponsors lectures and distributes literature related to family planning problems.

  17. Observations concerning family planning education in China. (United States)

    Hamburg, M V


    In China, raising the age at marriage is an integral part of the family planning program. The new marriage law sets the minimum age at 22 for men and 20 for women. Marriage is a universal practice, and an unmarried person over 28 is a rarity. For economic purposes, the Central Committee of the People's Republic adopted the 1-child family policy in 1980. Childlessness is not encouraged. An extensive organizational network at the national, provincial, and local governmental levels conducts the family planning program. The media is widely used to publicize the message. Billboards, posters, state-run television, and other media tools regularly promote the virtues of the 1-child family, regardless of the sex of the child. Premarital sex is rare, and sex education, if any, is limited to adults--those about to be married. In Shanghai, physiology education in the middle school does include sex education and reproduction. All hospitals have family planning offices, and services include excellent maternal/child health care and family planning counseling. Family planning services are also found in the workplace. Permission must be obtained from the Production Brigade to marry and to have a child. Inspite of this, the family planning program is not viewed as coercive. When certain segments of the working population want to have more children than have been allocated, adjustments (e.g., delays in marriage or in pregnancy) are made. A unique feature of the program is its use of reward and punishment which varies from province to province, and between rural and urban populations. Economic incentives (monetary subsidies, free education for the children, housing priorities, and pension benefits) are given to those who have 1 child and withheld from those who have 2 children. In some areas, additional economic penalties (payment to state) are required from families with 2 children. Another unique feature is the trend toward later marriage, with 25 or 26 becoming the norm. It appears

  18. Using the Reproductive Life Plan in contraceptive counselling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tydén, Tanja; Verbiest, Sarah; Van Achterberg, Theo; Larsson, Margareta; Stern, Jenny


    ... her lifetime. The Reproductive Life Plan (RLP) is a protocol that aims to encourage both women and men to reflect on their reproductive intentions and to find strategies for successful family planning, for example to have the wanted number...

  19. Family planning and the Malawian male. (United States)

    Kishindo, P


    To curb the deleterious socioeconomic effects of rapid population growth, the Government of Malawi has adopted a National Child Spacing Program. Women who attend maternal health centers are counseled about the harmful effects of closely spaced childbearing, informed of contraceptive options, and urged to discuss family planning with their husband. This strategy fails to consider the control by Malawian men over women's reproductive capacities and family size decision making. If Malawi's child spacing program is to be successful in reducing fertility, the emphasis must be shifted to men. Needed is an educational campaign to convince men that large family size--currently considered a sign of virility--adversely affects the family's standard of living. Malawian men are more likely to be convinced by arguments based on economics than concerns about maternal-child health. For example, educational messages could focus on the inability of malnourished children to perform farm work, the higher incomes and ability to provide old age support of well-educated children, the high price of a large dwelling, and the debts incurred by providing food and clothing for many children. Specific target groups in need of such interventions include low-income skilled and semi-skilled urban workers, smallholder farmers, and small-scale businessmen. In rural areas, family planning messages can be incorporated into existing agricultural extension and functional literacy programs.

  20. [The press and family planning]. (United States)

    Abraham De D'ornellas, R


    The treatment in the press of family planning hinges on two fundamental factors: the taboo of the leftist groups and the taboo of the Catholic Church, whose head is against abortion under any circumstances. Leftist views insinuate that family planning is the genocidal plan of North American imperialists against the Third World and, in particular, against Latin America. This genocidal plan is supposed to subject poor populations to international schemes. In the press family planning is often treated in a sanctimonious fashion, lumping it together with topics like pornography, sex, and violence. In 1983 the daily newspaper Expreso published a supplement running every week for almost three months about the issue of population, which dealt fairly extensively with such topics as population and housing, education, employment, and urban proliferation, as well as responsible parenthood and child survival. In addition, there was a detailed description of contraceptive methods. In October 1986 another surprising thing happened: the President of Peru talked about the topic of family planning, which at the time was an act of courage. Since then much has changed; the whole world is interested in family planning and certain aspects of population. Since October 1986 more has been published in this domain than during the preceding 20 years. In contrast, the Church reacted differently to this issue: after some initial caution, the conference of Peruvian bishops attacked all methods of modern contraceptives and private institutions of family planning. The information boom in family planning will certainly continue. At the moment this flood of articles and editorials about the issue is an expression of the anxiety of families related to uncontrolled reproduction and the fear of overpopulation in large cities devoid of minimal services.

  1. Counseling and Family Therapy in India: Evolving Professions in a Rapidly Developing Nation (United States)

    Carson, David K.; Jain, Sachin; Ramirez, Sylvia


    Outpatient counseling is a relatively new concept and form of clinical practice in India. This article provides an overview of the need for and current status of counseling and family therapy in India. Examples of training programs are presented, and future prospects for the counseling and family therapy professions are highlighted. The authors…

  2. Communication and technology in genetic counseling for familial cancer. (United States)

    Lynch, H T; Snyder, C; Stacey, M; Olson, B; Peterson, S K; Buxbaum, S; Shaw, T; Lynch, P M


    When a cancer predisposing germline mutation is detected in an index case, the presence of the underlying syndrome is confirmed and the potential for predictive testing of at-risk relatives is established. However, the reporting of a positive family history does not routinely lead to communication of information about risk to close, much less distant relatives. This review summarizes information technology utilized to address penetration or 'reach' of knowledge of risk within extended families, including the use of telephone and video counseling to reach distant patients, and anticipate novel internet-based processes for communication between investigators and relatives.

  3. Birth control and family planning (United States)

    ... page: // Birth control and family planning To use the sharing features ... please enable JavaScript. Your choice of a birth control method depends on a number of factors, including ...

  4. EAMJ-March Family Plan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iMac User


    Mar 3, 2008 ... FAMILY PLANNING AMONG HIV POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE CLIENTS IN A RESOURCE ... Conclusion: High pregnancy desires, low contraceptive and condom use were found ... sexual partner's expectations for fertility.

  5. Improving the quality of care in Chinese family planning programme. (United States)

    Jiang, Y; Geng, Q; Haffey, J; Douglas, E


    The Chinese State Family Planning Commission (SFPC) is the government department responsible for coordinating and implementing the national population and family planning programs. The commission includes about 300,000 family planning workers and 50 million volunteers. Community workers provide IEC and technical services to couples of reproductive age. In July 1991, SFPC began a five year project to train rural family planning workers in contraceptive technology and interpersonal communication and counseling. These workers were important because of their service to a population of 800 million or 75% of total population. The training program was part of an effort to standardize training and institutionalize it throughout the country. The project involved 20 pilot training stations in 19 provinces. The primary task was to train family planning workers at the grassroots level. 80,000 persons were expected to be trained during the five years. Activities included a training needs assessment, development of training curricula and programs, training of workers, and monitoring and evaluation. Training techniques and topics will include participatory training methods, interpersonal communication and counseling, development of audience based training methods, issues of contraceptive choice and quality of care, and counseling issues such as sexually transmitted disease and HIV infection prevention. About 40,000 family planning workers and volunteers were trained by 1992 in counties, townships, and villages. Trainees learned about "informed choice" and the importance of counseling. Feedback from training activities focused on the appreciation for the participatory training methods such as brainstorming, case study, and role play. Workers appreciated the process involved in training as well as the information received. Evaluation showed that clients improved their knowledge and had positive interactions with workers.

  6. Genetic counseling issues in predictive genetic testing for familial adult-onset neurologic diseases. (United States)

    Burson, C M; Markey, K R


    Genetic counseling is important in any genetic testing situation in order to address the various issues related to obtaining a genetic diagnosis. Presymptomatic testing for adult-onset neurodegenerative disease, in particular, presents a complex counseling scenario. It is imperative to discuss the potential impact of test results on patients' family dynamics, insurability and employability, family planning, and future health in addition to ascertaining a complete understanding of recurrence, inheritance, and testing parameters. The Huntington disease presymptomatic testing protocol is well-defined and has been used for more than 10 years. These guidelines, which protect both patient and provider, can now be applied to other diseases as further presymptomatic testing capabilities are realized.

  7. Preparing School Counseling Students to Aid Families: Integrating a Family Systems Perspective (United States)

    Paylo, Matthew John


    In this article, the value of integrating family systems theory into a school counseling curriculum is explored. Some programs have historically placed school counselors in a difficult position by not adequately preparing them for the demands of incorporating family systems and community collaboration into clinical practice. The rationale for…

  8. [Familial hypercholesterolemia: why screening, counselling and treatment should be integrated]. (United States)

    Roeters van Lennep, Jeanine E; Visseren, Frank L J; Jira, Petr E


    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a monogenic autosomal dominant disorder. FH is the most common hereditary cause of raised serum cholesterol levels and is associated with an increased risk of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). This disorder is known to have a genetic cause, and effective drug therapies exist for patients with FH. Successful cascade screening, within the framework of a national screening programme, gave the Netherlands an international role as model and pioneer as far as FH detection is concerned. With the ending of this screening programme as of 1 January 2014 the care for FH patients, including screening and counselling has had to be incorporated within the basic Dutch healthcare insurance system. It is essential that detection of FH should continue in as efficient and cost-effective a manner as possible. Our proposal is that this detection should be performed and co-ordinated by those treating patients with FH so that FH screening, counselling and treatment are integrated.

  9. Family planning costs and benefits. (United States)


    Government sponsored family planning programs have had major success in declining birth rates in Barbados, China, Cuba, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Korea, Mexico, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, and Thailand. Non- government programs have had similar success in Brazil and Colombia. These programs have been estimated as preventing over 100 million births in China and 80 million in India. Research indicates that family planning programs can produce a 30-50% drop in fertility. Family planning information and some contraceptives can be best distributed through community organizations. Research also indicates male opposition has been a major factor in wider acceptance of family planning. Surveys indicate that 50% of the woman who want no additional children are not using any birth control. Many governments do not have the resource and money to implement programs. In the developing countries if those who were able to prevent the unwanted births had birth control, the population increases in those countries would have been 1.3% versus 2.2%. In earlier family planning programs foreign assistance paid over 80% of the cost, and national governments 20%; today this is reversed. The World Bank estimates that for major improvements in population growth and women's health, $7 billion will be needed yearly by the year 2000. The countries that have had the similar goals in development of human resources, social services, health, and education. They have attended to the status of women, female employment, and maternal and child health. Estimates are that 1.3 billion couples and individuals will need family planning services by the year 2000, and this will be a formidable task. This key elements of successful family planning programs are community participation, decentralization, and training.

  10. Core competency model for the family planning public health nurse. (United States)

    Hewitt, Caroline M; Roye, Carol; Gebbie, Kristine M


    A core competency model for family planning public health nurses has been developed, using a three stage Delphi Method with an expert panel of 40 family planning senior administrators, community/public health nursing faculty and seasoned family planning public health nurses. The initial survey was developed from the 2011 Title X Family Planning program priorities. The 32-item survey was distributed electronically via SurveyMonkey(®). Panelist attrition was low, and participation robust resulting in the final 28-item model, suggesting that the Delphi Method was a successful technique through which to achieve consensus. Competencies with at least 75% consensus were included in the model and those competencies were primarily related to education/counseling and administration of medications and contraceptives. The competencies identified have implications for education/training, certification and workplace performance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. [The challenges of the family planning program]. (United States)

    Alarcon, F; Mojarro, O


    Mexican family planning officials used date from the 1990 population census to revise population growth estimates and determine program needs for different family planning institutions during 1990-94. Total fertility rates were used to estimate fertility, using information from sociodemographic surveys taken over the past 10 years. Total fertility rates were estimated at 3.29 in 1987, 2.8 in 1990, and projected at 2.5 in 1994. These rates correspond to a crude birth rate of 24-25/1000 in 1990 and 22-23 in 1994 and natural increase rates of 1.87% and 1.67%. In obtaining these estimates, the structure of fertility of the 1987 National Survey of Fertility and Health and the program projections of women by ages of the National Population Council and the National Institute of Statistics, Geography, and were considered. The TARGET model was used to estimate the numbers of women in union using different modern methods who would need to be served by family planning programs in order to meet the proposed total fertility rates. The prevalence of sterilization, IUDS, and oral contraceptives (OCs) in women in union would be 59% in 1990 and 62% in 1994, or in absolute terms 7.8 million women in 1990 and 9.3 million in 1994. The public sector has replaced the private as the major source of family planning services. The Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) share is expected to increase from 48.3% of users in 1990 to 56.5% in 1994. The other 3 public sector institutions will maintain their current level of coverage. The private sector has played a smaller role in family planning in Mexico than in many other countries, and the state will thus have the major responsibility for service provision, including family planning education, promotion, and counseling of prospective clients. Existing services should be made more accessible as far as physical access and hours of operation, and the methods available should be increased beyond OCs and condoms. Traditional midwives in rural

  12. USA aborts international family planning. (United States)

    Potts, M


    The US Agency for International Development (USAID) has been a leader in international family planning for almost 30 years, accounting for 46% of all funds in international family planning provided by OECD countries during 1991. Moreover, relative to other donor countries, the US supplies worldwide a disproportionate amount of contraceptives. While international family planning activities received $546 million in 1995, the budget was slashed in 1996 to $72 million. This unprecedented cut will have a profound effect upon the reproductive health and family planning choices of tens of millions of people in developing countries. Millions of additional unintended pregnancies and maternal and child deaths may result. 1996 began with the White House and Congress in political gridlock, with negotiations on foreign aid stalled on the issue of abortion. The Republican-led House of Representatives wanted to bar support of any nongovernmental organization (NGO) which also provided information on abortion, while Democratic President Bill Clinton affirmed that he would veto such legislation. At the end of January, the House passed the Balanced Budget and Down Payment Act (HR 2880) containing clauses which cut the aid budget by 35% and barring new money in the area of family planning until July 1. Spending was limited to the allocation of 6.5% of the total budget each month. Some social marketing programmers who distribute condoms and oral contraceptives are already feeling the pinch, and some programs will simply run out of contraceptives. This cut in funding also bodes ill for achieving the goals of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. There is, however, hope that the cuts will be reversed for the next fiscal year. The author notes survey findings which indicate that US citizens support higher budgets for family planning.

  13. Techniques in Marriage and Family Counseling, Volume Two. The Family Psychology and Counseling Series. (United States)

    Watts, Richard E., Ed.

    This volume presents a collection of practical strategies for enhancing communication between couples and families. Experts in the field outline proven techniques from cognitive and constructivist/constructionist frameworks, structural and strategic orientations, and couple/family play therapy. Chapters are: (1) "Letter for a Change: Using Letter…

  14. Value Analysis: A Model of Personal and Professional Ethics in Marriage and Family Counseling. (United States)

    Thomas, Volker


    Presents Ethics Model of Marriage and Family Counseling and its underlying assumptions. Analyzes six basic counseling values in relation to microsystems of counselor and client, mesosystem of counseling process, and societal value context as the macrosystem. Utilizes discussion of suicide to apply these values to the model. Includes 17 references.…

  15. Introducing reproductive life plan-based information in contraceptive counselling: an RCT

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stern, J; Larsson, M; Kristiansson, P; Tydén, T


    Can reproductive life plan (RLP)-based information in contraceptive counselling before pregnancy increase women's knowledge of reproduction, and of the importance of folic acid intake in particular...

  16. Counseling Exceptional Individuals and Their Families: A Systems Perspective (United States)

    Thomas, Volker; Ray, Karen E.


    This article presents three models of counseling exceptional students from a systems perspective. The authors present their definition of counseling, the goals of counseling, and the counseling relationship from a systems perspective. Each model is described, including assessment and intervention techniques appropriate for working with children,…

  17. Effectiveness of Family Planning Methods (United States)

    ... of Public Health/Center for Communication Programs (CCP). Knowledge for health project. Family planning: a global handbook for providers (2011 update). Baltimore, MD; Geneva, Switzerland: CCP and WHO; 2011; and Trussell J. Contraceptive failure in the United States. Contraception 2011;83:397–404.

  18. A family planning program that pays for itself. (United States)

    Kon, Y


    Most family planning programs are characterized by the objective of controlling population growth to enable people to have a fair share of the fruits of national development and they are usually partly or even entirely dependent on government or on international funding agencies. The program conducted by the Japan Family Planning Association (JFPA) has always paid for itself. Since its establishment in 1954, the JFPA has adopted a self-support policy. 94% of its income comes largely from its business activities, 89% from the distribution of information, education and communication (IEC) materials and contraceptives. Subsidies from the government and other sources make up the remaining 6% of the total income. At present, there are 4 private organizations that promote family planning in Japan. Of these, the major ones are the Family Planning Federation of Japan (FPFJ) and the Japan Family Planning Association. The JFPA's policy of self-reliance stems from the belief of its president that financial independence is indispensable in promoting the association's movement to promote family planning in the country. JFPA's 4 basic strategies are: the development and promotion of the concept of family planning; training and upgrading the quality of family planning workers; development and dissemination of effective IEC materials; and community-based distribution of contraceptives. These strategies are implemented by the following activities: generating support and cooperation for programs of family planning and maternal and child health at the grassroots; education and training of family planning workers; publication and distribution of a monthly health newsletter; development, production and distribution of educational materials; supplying contraceptives; promoting and supporting MCH centers; running a health consultation center and clinics for adolescents; and managing a genetic counseling service.

  19. [Psychological and familial aspects of the familial breast and ovarian cancer genetic counseling process]. (United States)

    Flugelman, Anath; Rennert, Gad; Eidelman, Shmuel


    Breast cancer is the most prevalent malignancy among women, whilst ovarian cancer is less common but carries a graver prognosis. Carriers of the BRCA mutations have a few-fold higher risk for those diseases. Genetic counseling for the families at risk has been available for almost two decades, since the definition of the mutation. The existence of the deleterious mutation has implications beyond the individual level and touches the lives and future of many other family members. Being part of a BRCA family has medical as well as psychosocial implications. Various barriers and facilitators must be dealt with during the process of sharing the information with kins. Most families cope well with those issues, while some require the guidance of professionals. Special subpopulations, i.e. non-carrier women in BRCA families, young carriers and men who are under minimal personal threat but might transfer the mutation to their off springs, have special needs which should be addressed. The desired outcome of the counseling process is achievement of normal adaptation which balances life in the shadow of uncertainty and threat with the ability to lead a normal life. The process of counseling is multidisciplinary, and along with the advances in scientific and medical aspects, the ethical, legal and social implications (ELSI) have also been developed. The professional personnel escorting those families need to develop and maintain specific skills.

  20. [Focus on Siblings of Children with Chronic Illness or Disability - A Family Oriented Counselling Program]. (United States)

    Möller, Birgit; Schepper, Florian; Herrmann, Jessy; Gude, Marlies


    In the psychosocial support of families with a chronically ill or disabled child siblings are increasingly addressed as a target group for prevention and rehabilitation projects intending to reduce the risk for adverse health consequences. The following article presents a childfocused approach to family counselling as a short-term intervention. Ten flexibly applicable counselling core points covering commonly reported problems of affected siblings and their families are available - including the communication about the disease within the family or the expression of the sibling's feelings and needs. For this purpose an approach in specific counselling sessions has been determined which is used similarly by adept child and youth psychotherapists. The counselling approach is founded theoretically. Furthermore, the counselling approach provides guidance for the structured approach in the diagnosis of potential difficulties, the choice of core points and setting, the closure of counseling sessions as well as the recommendation of additional programs.

  1. The Psychohistorical Approach in Family Counseling with Mestizo/Latino Immigrants: A Continuum and Synergy of Worldviews (United States)

    Arredondo, Patricia; Aviles, Robert M. Davison; Zalaquett, Carlos P.; Grazioso, Maria del Pilar; Bordes, Veronica; Hita, Liza; Lopez, Belinda J.


    In April 2005, the International Association for Marriage and Family Counseling's yearly Distinguished Speakers series at the American Counseling Association Conference featured a presentation on family counseling with Mestizo/Latino immigrants. A panel composed of Latino counseling professionals representing varied Mestizo backgrounds discussed…

  2. Intentional Practices in Supervision of Family Counseling: The Use of Supervisory Letters (United States)

    Desmond, Kimberly J.; Kindsvatter, Aaron


    Supervisors perform various roles in helping to guide the supervisee through the challenging process of family counseling. The use of letters in supervision helps to focus the supervisory processes in family counseling. Following the discrimination model of supervision, three types of supervisory letters are suggested for intentional supervision…

  3. Perceptions of Effectiveness among College Students: Toward Marriage and Family Counseling and Therapy (United States)

    Tse, Luke M.; Wantz, Richard A.; Firmin, Michael


    Unlike perceptions toward professional counseling, public opinions do not typically associate marriage and family counseling or therapy with treatments of mental disorders. The current survey of college students in this sample confirmed that most would not recommend, specifically, marriage and family therapists (MFTs) for mental health…

  4. [Psychotherapeutically-Systemic Acting in the Integrated Family Counseling Presented by the Example of Child-Centered Educational Counseling]. (United States)

    Herrmann, Ines


    The article gives an insight into the practice of Integrated Family Counseling and identifies their interfaces with psychotherapeutic approaches. The example of the child-centered educational counseling shows how consultancy, systemic and psychotherapeutic interventions interact in order to meet the parents educational needs defined by the parents. The first part of the article explains the term of Integrated Family Counseling, differentiates the various substantive areas of work and outlines the systematic attitude. The second part describes the psychotherapy-systemic action in the child-centered educational counseling from the perspective of the practice. Main priorities in the course of counseling, including cause-related behavioral and developmental diagnostics, play therapy intervention and parental involvement are presented. Here the systemic approach, major methodological elements as well as their effects are pointed up. The third part is devoted to the reflection of the relationship between counseling and psychotherapy. It becomes clear that in particular the intended effectiveness of an intervention determines their methodological design to a large extent.

  5. The "planned" families of Tunisia. (United States)

    Habchi, M


    30 years ago Tunisia achieved independence, and 20 years ago it adopted a family planning policy designed to bring about a balance between demographic and economic growth. Birth control and family planning continue to be a major concern, and services now are provided in over 800 public sector centers -- dispensaries, hospitals, family planning clinics, and mobile teams. 4 out of 10 married women use some form of contraception, and some 30,000 abortions are performed per year by services of the National Office for Family Planning and Population. 2/3 of Tunisians believe that religion has a favorable view of birth control, but there are other sources of resistance to birth control -- sources related to a woman's level of education, her status, and socioeconomic level. The average number of children/woman decreases according to her level of education, from 6.9 among illiterate women to 2.6 among women with a university education. The proportion of illiterate women in Tunisia is close to 50%; the level is as high as 75% among women over age 30. These figures provide the explanation as to why the decline in the birthrate has been so slow. Another major determinant of reproduction rates among Tunisian women is access to employment. Women with jobs have an average of 2 children in contract to women without jobs who normally have more than 4 children. A marked decline occurred in the birthrate between 1966-76, and about 2/3 of Tunisian women now subscribe to the modern family model, i.e., a smaller family oriented toward consumption and comfort. Yet, despite improvements, under the best-case scenario the reproduction rate would be 3.8 children/family at 2000, and a rate of 2.9 would not be achieved until 2020, which is still higher than the rate necessary for simple population replacement -- 2.1. This downward trend would be realized under the combined effects of socioeconomic and cultural changes, i.e., better education, urbanization, declining infant mortality, the

  6. Service Locator - Family Planning Title X (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This locator tool will help you find Title X family planning centers that provide high quality and cost-effective family planning and related preventive health...

  7. [Sichuan adopts family planning measures]. (United States)


    The revolutionary committee of Sichuan Province recently issued a series of measures on family planning, which came into effect on a trial basis from March 1. Sichuan is the province with the biggest population in China, accounting for 10% of the country's total. The trial measures provide for working parents who have only 1 child and who guarantee not to have a 2nd to receive 5 yuan a month in child welfare subsidies till the child is 14 years old. Such 1 child families will also be entitled to an equal amount of living space as a family of 4 and the child will have priority of admission to schools and factories provided they meet the entrance requirements. Peasant families which have only 1 child and guarantee not to have a 2nd are eligible for the following: Production teams give a sum of money equal to 3 workdays/month till the child is 14 years old and the child received an adult's grain ration and counts as 1.5 persons in distributions of plots of private use. If a child becomes disabled or dies, parents may have another child and enjoy the same treatment. In addition, the new regulations state that the "state and the people's communes guarantee that the standard of living of old widows and widowers will be a little higher than that of other commune peasants in the locality. People of the province in every walk of life warmly support the publication of the new measures. It is estimated that about 24% of the families with only 1 child in a Chongqing District will not have the 2nd. 86 1-child families in 1 rural people's commune have taken birth control measures. Women cadres and medical workers throughout the province have been very active in carrying out educational programs on family planning. Population growth in the province was 3.11% in 1970 and 0.867 in 1977. It dropped to 0.606 last year. The figure is slightly higher than for Beijing, Shanghai, and Tianjin. Speaking about the importance of the new economic measures, Liu Haiquan, vice-chairman of the

  8. Comparison of Families with and without a Suicide Prevention Plan Following a Suicidal Attempt by a Family Member. (United States)

    Cho, Heung-Don; Kim, Nam-Young; Gil, Hyo-wook; Jeong, Du-shin; Hong, Sae-yong


    The frequency and extent of the existence of a familial suicide prevention plan may differ across cultures. The aim of this work was, therefore, to determine how common it was for families to develop a suicide prevention plan and to compare the main measures used by families with and without such a plan, after an attempt to commit suicide was made by a member of a family living in a rural area of Korea. On the basis of the presence or absence of a familial suicide prevention plan, we compared 50 recruited families that were divided into 2 groups, with Group A (31 families) employing a familial suicide prevention plan after a suicide attempt by a family member, and Group B (19 families) not doing so. The strategy that was employed most frequently to prevent a reoccurrence among both populations was promoting communication among family members, followed by seeking psychological counseling and/or psychiatric treatment. Contrary to our expectation, the economic burden from medical treatment after a suicide attempt did not influence the establishment of a familial suicide prevention plan. It is a pressing social issue that 38% (19 of 50) of families in this study did not employ a familial suicide prevention plan, even after a family member had attempted suicide. Regional suicide prevention centers and/or health authorities should pay particular attention to these patients and their families.

  9. Family planning and family vision in mothers after diagnosis of a child with autism spectrum disorder. (United States)

    Navot, Noa; Jorgenson, Alicia Grattan; Vander Stoep, Ann; Toth, Karen; Webb, Sara Jane


    The diagnosis of a child with autism has short- and long-term impacts on family functioning. With early diagnosis, the diagnostic process is likely to co-occur with family planning decisions, yet little is known about how parents navigate this process. This study explores family planning decision making process among mothers of young children with autism spectrum disorder in the United States, by understanding the transformation in family vision before and after the diagnosis. A total of 22 mothers of first born children, diagnosed with autism between 2 and 4 years of age, were interviewed about family vision prior to and after their child's diagnosis. Grounded Theory method was used for data analysis. Findings indicated that coherence of early family vision, maternal cognitive flexibility, and maternal responses to diagnosis were highly influential in future family planning decisions. The decision to have additional children reflected a high level of adaptability built upon a solid internalized family model and a flexible approach to life. Decision to stop childrearing reflected a relatively less coherent family model and more rigid cognitive style followed by ongoing hardship managing life after the diagnosis. This report may be useful for health-care providers in enhancing therapeutic alliance and guiding family planning counseling.

  10. Integrating reproductive health services into family planning programs. (United States)


    A recent Population Council publication, Reproductive Health Approach to Family Planning, discusses integration of reproductive health into family planning programs in a series of edited presentations that Council staff and colleagues gave at a 1994 meeting of the US Agency for International Development (USAID) cooperating agencies. The presentations reflect the Council's view that family planning programs ought to help individuals achieve their own reproductive goals in a healthful manner. The report discusses four areas of reproductive health: reproductive tract infections (RTIs), including sexually transmitted diseases; prevention and treatment of unsafe abortion; pregnancy, labor, and delivery care; and postpartum care. Christopher Elias (Senior Associate, Programs Division) argued that family planning programs ought to provide services that target RTIs, given that these illnesses afflict a significant proportion of reproductive-age women. The family planning community has an ethical responsibility to provide services to women who experience an unwanted pregnancy. They must have access to high-quality postabortion care, including family planning services. Professional midwives are ideally suited to serve as integrated reproductive health workers trained to combat the five major maternal killers: hemorrhage, sepsis, pregnancy-induced hypertension, obstructed labor, and unsafe abortion. This was demonstrated in a highly successful Life-Saving Skills for Midwives program undertaken in Ghana, Nigeria, and Uganda, and soon to start in Vietnam in conjunction with the Council's Safe Motherhood research program. Family planning services should be viewed as part of a comprehensive set of health services needed by postpartum women, which include appropriate contraception, maternal health checks, well-baby care, and information about breastfeeding, infant care, and nutrition. Family planning programs should incorporate breastfeeding counseling into their services. When

  11. Colorectal Cancer in the Family: Psychosocial Distress and Social Issues in the Years Following Genetic Counselling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bleiker Eveline MA


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined: (1 levels of cancer-specific distress more than one year after genetic counselling for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC; (2 associations between sociodemographic, clinical and psychosocial factors and levels of distress; (3 the impact of genetic counselling on family relationships, and (4 social consequences of genetic counselling. Methods In this cross-sectional study, individuals who had received genetic counselling for HNPCC during 1986–1998 completed a self-report questionnaire by mail. Results 116 individuals (81% response rate completed the questionnaire, on average 4 years after the last counselling session. Of all respondents, 6% had clinically significant levels of cancer-specific distress (Impact of Event Scale, IES. Having had contact with a professional psychosocial worker for cancer risk in the past 10 years was significantly associated with higher levels of current cancer specific distress. Only a minority of the counselees reported any adverse effects of genetic counselling on: communication about genetic counselling with their children (9%, family relationships (5%, obtaining life insurance (8%, choice or change of jobs (2%, and obtaining a mortgage (2%. Conclusion On average, four years after genetic counselling for HNPCC, only a small minority of counselled individuals reports clinically significant levels of distress, or significant family or social problems.

  12. Market research and family planning. (United States)

    Smith, W


    Market research into contraceptive distribution (especially condoms) has been carried out in Britain by private manufacturers, but the results of this research are generally unavailable. Academics have not used the techniques of market research, preferring their own forms of sociological research and being hampered by limited resources. Attempts to design programs to introduce the provision of free family planning services proved unsuccessful, even though the programs offered supplies, sympathetic personnel, and publicity. Part of this failure is attributed to the lack of any baseline research on the demand for and acceptability of these services in the project areas. These failures are contrasted to a very successful commercial marketing campaign for a brand of condom, and with a commercially designed Dutch program aimed at teenagers. The author urges that those who have a message of social importance to deliver look into the techniques of market research used by industry to alter people's attitudes and buying habits. This will require the provision by local and central government of adequate funds for research into attitudes and needs, which ought to be essential before any family planning campaigns are launched.

  13. Examining multicultural counseling competence and race-related attitudes among white marital and family therapists. (United States)

    Constantine, M G; Juby, H L; Liang, J J


    This study investigates the relative contributions of social desirability attitudes, previous number of multicultural counseling courses taken, and racism and White racial identity attitudes together in predicting marital and family therapists' self-reported multicultural counseling competence. Results revealed that, when controlling for social desirability attitudes and the number of multicultural courses taken, racism and White racial identity attitudes in consort accounted for a significant amount of the variance in self-perceived multicultural counseling competence. Implications for marital and family therapy training, practice, and research are discussed.

  14. Intervention Fidelity in Family-Based Prevention Counseling for Adolescent Problem Behaviors (United States)

    Hogue, Aaron; Liddle, Howard A.; Singer, Alisa; Leckrone, Jodi


    This study examined fidelity in multidimensional family prevention (MDFP), a family-based prevention counseling model for adolescents at high risk for substance abuse and related behavior problems, in comparison to two empirically based treatments for adolescent drug abuse: multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) and cognitive-behavioral therapy…

  15. A new participative, family-oriented health counseling approach for children and their families: a comparative qualitative analysis. (United States)

    Siltanen, Marjo; Aromaa, Minna; Hakulinen-Viitanen, Tuovi; Junnila, Riina; Laaksonen, Camilla; Parisod, Heidi; Salanterä, Sanna


    Health counseling is an essential part of health promotion and there is a need for new, family-oriented health counseling methods. The objective of this study was to describe the differences in physical activity conversations from the perspective of family-oriented care between child health visits using the Weighty Matter Toolkit and those using normal protocol. In total, 35 health visits were analyzed. The results indicate that the Weighty Matter Toolkit offers the child, and other family members, a better opportunity to participate to conversations, and the focus of the conversation is more diverse and based on the family's perception regarding physical activity compared to the normal protocol. Thus, the Weighty Matter Toolkit is a promising method for family-oriented health counseling.

  16. Introducing reproductive life plan-based information in contraceptive counselling: an RCT. (United States)

    Stern, J; Larsson, M; Kristiansson, P; Tydén, T


    Can reproductive life plan (RLP)-based information in contraceptive counselling before pregnancy increase women's knowledge of reproduction, and of the importance of folic acid intake in particular? The RLP-based information increased women's knowledge of reproduction including knowledge of folic acid intake. Many women have insufficient knowledge of reproduction, including a health-promoting lifestyle prior to conception, and highly educated women in particular postpone childbearing until an age when their fertile capacity has started to decrease. The study was an randomized controlled trial with one intervention group (IG) and two control groups (CG1, CG2). A sample size calculation indicated that 82 women per group would be adequate. Recruitment took place during 3 months in 2012 and 299 women were included. The women were randomized in blocks of three. All groups received standard care (contraceptive counselling, Chlamydia testing, cervical screening). In addition, women in the IG were given oral and written RLP-based information about reproduction. A total of 299 out of 338 (88%) Swedish-speaking women visiting a Student Health Centre were included (mean age 23 years); response rate was 88%. Before the counselling, women in the IG and the CG1 completed a baseline questionnaire, including questions about lifestyle changes in connection to pregnancy planning, family planning intentions and knowledge of reproduction (e.g. the fecundity of an ovum). At follow-up 2 months after inclusion, a structured telephone interview was performed in all groups (n = 262, 88% participation rate). There was no difference between the groups regarding the mean knowledge score at baseline. The IG scored higher at follow-up than at baseline (P planning to get pregnant. At follow-up, 22% in the IG, 3% in CG1 and 1% in CG2 mentioned folic acid intake (P life (P < 0.001) than at baseline, while there was no difference in the CG1. As the study sample consisted of university students, it

  17. Family Planning: Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, Nuer. (United States)

    Anoka County Community Health and Environmental Services, Coon Rapids, MN.

    This guide provides information in English, Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, and Nuer on family planning. Topics covered include a variety of birth control methods: abstinence, condoms, contraceptive foam, birth control pills, the Depo-Provera shot, the Norplant implant, diaphragms, intrauterine devices, natural family planning, sterilization, and the…

  18. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Family Planning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge and approval of family planning was high, 81.7% and 86.2% respectiveljï, but the practice of ... the regional average of 2.8"/cz.1 The effects of .... Method Number Perccntage .... In fact some people have pictured family planning.

  19. and Family Planning in Kaduna State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    planning familial et du planning familial dans Pétat de Kaduna, Nigéria. Ce travail étudie à la fois les .... unmarried Atyap women (two urban and three ru- ral FGDs). ..... Johnstone P. Operaiion [Ver/d Australia: Crossroad Dis- tributors, 1993.

  20. Family Planning Associations Educate by Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    LI Zuomin has been engaged in family planning for 26 years. During the first 16 years, she was a cadre with the public health department in Chongqing, Sichuan Province. There she worked to teach the masses how to carry out the state family planning policy. For the past ten years, after

  1. Family Planning: Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, Nuer. (United States)

    Anoka County Community Health and Environmental Services, Coon Rapids, MN.

    This guide provides information in English, Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, and Nuer on family planning. Topics covered include a variety of birth control methods: abstinence, condoms, contraceptive foam, birth control pills, the Depo-Provera shot, the Norplant implant, diaphragms, intrauterine devices, natural family planning, sterilization, and the…

  2. Meeting the family planning needs of women living with HIV in US government global health programs. (United States)

    Johnston, Beverly; Ligiero, Daniela; DeSilva, Shyami; Medley, Amy; Nightingale, Vienna; Sripipatana, Tabitha; Bachanas, Pamela; Abutu, Andrew; Brewinski-Isaacs, Margaret; Bathily, Fatoumata; Grillo, Michael; Bertz, Lilly; Mani, Nithya


    The integration of health programs, including HIV and voluntary family planning, is a priority for US government foreign assistance. One critical component of family planning and HIV integration that has significant positive health outcomes is ensuring that all women living with HIV have access to both a full range of contraceptives and safe pregnancy counseling. This article outlines the US government global health strategy to meet the family planning needs of women living with HIV based on three key principles: a focus on reproductive rights through voluntarism and informed choice, quality service provision through evidence-based programming, and development of partnerships.

  3. A genetic counseling intervention to facilitate family communication about inherited conditions. (United States)

    Gaff, Clara; Hodgson, Jan


    This paper describes the development and implementation of the first intervention to facilitate family communication of genetic information based on a genetic counseling model of practice. The intervention is telephone-based and therefore designed to complement face-to-face genetic counseling consultations. It was developed by firstly reviewing the literature and a model of genetic counseling practice, leading to definition of seven core principles underpinning the intervention. A counseling framework based on these principles was developed through iterative role playing and review, tested for consistency with good practice and piloted on ten study participants. It was found to be feasible to implement and consistent with good genetic counseling practice. Implementation included training of the genetic counselors who would deliver the intervention as part of a randomized controlled trial. Noteworthy deviations from good genetic counseling practice were observed, with unexpected additional insights into the 'black box' of genetic counseling that may have wider implications and would benefit from further investigation. The intervention is currently being evaluated in a randomized controlled trial, to assess its impact on the number of family members attending genetic services.

  4. Population Control, Family Planning and Planned Parenthood. (United States)

    Hilmar, Norman A.

    Remarks in this article were made as part of a panel discussion presented at the Planned Parenthood-World Population combined Southeast Council and National Board Meeting, Savannah, Georgia, in May 1970. The problems and consequences of an increasing birth rate are indicated along with the need for reducing present rates of population growth and…

  5. Legal Issues in Marriage and Family Counseling. The ACA Legal Series. Volume 7. (United States)

    Stevens-Smith, Patricia; Hughes, Marcia M.

    This monograph focuses on practical information and offers guidelines for professional counselors who practice marriage and family counseling. It discusses the importance of specialized training for professional counselors to ensure working ethically with couples and families, and it reviews divorce, child custody, and child abuse and neglect,…

  6. Counseling Family Members of Addicts/Alcoholics: The Stages of Change Model (United States)

    van Wormer, Katherine


    This article adapts the stages of change model, a model in which specific interventions of harm reduction are directed toward the client's readiness for treatment, as a guiding framework for counseling family members of alcoholics/addicts. Interventions at each stage of the family's readiness for change, from precontemplation to action, are…

  7. Feminism Lives On: Incorporating Contemporary Feminism into Counseling Practice with Families and Youth (United States)

    Bordeau, Wendy Charkow; Briggs, Michele Kielty; Staton, A. Renee; Wasik, Suzan Zuljani


    Feminist contributions to counseling practice with families and children are reviewed, with a focus on the Third Wave feminist movement and its implications for family development and intervention. Recommendations for empowering young clients and their support systems as well as current challenges and research needs are also considered.

  8. The Effectiveness of Transactional Analysis Group-counseling on the Improvement of Couples’ Family Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorban Ali Yahyaee


    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Family functioning is among the most important factors ensuring the mental health of family members. Disorder or disturbance in family functioning would cause many psychological problems for family members. Current study intended to examine the effectiveness of transactional analysis group counseling on the improvement of couple's family functioning. Materials & Methods: The design of the study is as semi experimental research with pretest and posttest with follow up and control group. Statistical population consists all couples referring to the psychological and counseling centers of Rasht city in 2012. Samples were selected at first by available sampling method and after completing family assessment  device, and obtaining score for enter to research, were placement using random sampling method in two experimental and control groups (N = 8 couples per group. The experimental group participated in 12 sessions of group counseling based on transactional analysis and control group received no intervention. The gathered data were analyzed using covariance analysis. Results: The results show that there are significant differences between the pre-test and post test scores of the experimental group. This difference is significant at the level of 0.05. Therefore it seems that transactional group therapy improved the dimensions of family functioning in couples. Conclusions: The results indicated that transactional analysis group counseling can improve the family functioning and use this approach to working with couples is recommended.

  9. Internet and Computer Technology Hazards: Perspectives for Family Counselling. (United States)

    Oravec, Jo Ann


    Explores the social construction of the various computer hazards that households are encountering, such as computer addiction and children's access to on-line pornography. Discusses these issues in terms of constructivist counseling perspectives that are sensitive to cultural and environmental contexts. Outlines specific strategies for countering…

  10. The Use of Safety Plans with Children and Adolescents Living in Violent Families (United States)

    Kress, Victoria E.; Adamson, Nicole A.; Paylo, Matthew J.; DeMarco, Carrie; Bradley, Nicole


    Counselors are regularly confronted with children and adolescents who reside in violent or potentially violent living environments. In this article, safety plans are presented as a tool that counselors can use to promote the safety of children living in unsafe family situations. Ethics-related counseling issues that should be considered when…

  11. Family matters: examining a multi-family group intervention for women with BRCA mutations in the scope of genetic counselling. (United States)

    Mendes, Alvaro; Chiquelho, Raquel; Santos, Teresa Almeida; Sousa, Liliana


    The availability of family-centred services for women genetically at-risk for breast and ovarian cancer (BRCA) due to deleterious genetic mutations is still scarce, despite the distress that these women and their families may experience. This study describes a multi-family group intervention for women who tested positive for BRCA mutations and their families. Methods include a time-limited psycho-educational programme involving educational and support components and consisting of four semi-structured multi-family sessions. Three families (a total of nine people) attended the programme in genetic counselling for hereditary cancers at a Portuguese public hospital. A focus group interview was performed 1 month after the last session to assess both the practical and the psychosocial impacts and to collect suggestions from participants. The present paper focuses on the practical aspects of the intervention, its development and its evaluation. Participants reported that the programme is well-structured and that responds to the needs of patients and their families by improving coping skills and medical awareness in the adaptation to genetic illness. Results reinforce the need to integrate psychosocial and family-oriented interventions in genetic counselling, addressing the holistic experience of hereditary disease. Recommendations for enhancing the services available are provided. The multi-family discussion group, combining educative and supportive services with a family focus, can be successfully adapted in genetic counselling protocols.

  12. 社区计划生育和卫生工作人员对联合开展艾滋病自愿咨询检测的态度分析%Investigation about attitude of conducting HIV voluntary counseling,referral,and testing combined family planning and medical departments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉艳; 李娜; 凌建春; 赵瑞; 罗迈; 武俊青


    Objective To understand the knowledge and attitude about HIV/AIDS voluntary counseling referral (VCR) and Voluntary Counseling Testing ( VCT) among the community service providers in population and family planning, and medical departments. Methods Quantitative questionnaire survey was conducted among 437 service providers in family planning and medical departments in 3 districts of Shanghai. Results The subjects had some, but not enough, knowledge of VCT and VCR, and 58. 6% of them agreed to conduct HIV VCT and VCR combined population and family planning, and medical departments. The multi-logistic analysis showed male providers had low desire (OR = 0.47, 95%CI: 0.25-0.87) of combined conducting VCT and VCR, while the university educated people were in favor of combined VCT and VCR service (OR=4. 89, 95 % CI: 1.28-8. 71). Conclusions In community, the service providers in population and family planning and medical departments are willing to do the VCT and VCR service jointly. However, they need the training about VCT and VCR knowledge.%目的 了解社区的人口和计划生育工作人员及卫生部门工作人员对联合开展艾滋病自愿咨询检测(VCT)与自愿咨询转诊(VCR)的认识、态度,并探讨其影响因素.方法 采用定量问卷调查的方法,对上海市3个社区的计生、卫生服务中心的所有管理人员和技术人员共437人进行调查.结果 调查对象具有一定的VCT和VCR知识,但对于“求询者不需提供真实姓名”知晓率仅为37.1%.有58.6%的调查对象赞同计卫联合开展VCT和VCR.多分类logistic回归分析显示:与女性相比,男性赞成计卫联合开展VCT和VCR的比例较低(OR=0.47,95%CI:0.25~0.87);与初中的对象相比,大学文化程度的服务人员更倾向于持赞同态度,OR值为4.89(95%CI:1.28~8.71).结论 社区人口计生和卫生工作人员赞同联合开展艾滋病VCT和VCR服务,但需要一定的VCT和VCR知识培训.

  13. Communication Counseling as Part of a Treatment Plan for Depression (United States)

    Puterbaugh, Dolores T.


    It has been estimated that 1 in 4 persons will experience a depressive episode over his or her lifetime (G. Gintner, 2001). The author discusses various etiologies of depression, interpersonal factors related to depression, and research on various communication-focused counseling interventions. The author maintains that published literature…

  14. Brainstorming: an application for programme planning in family welfare planning. (United States)

    Kumaran, T V


    There have been many participatory devices developed and applied for programme planning in a variety of fields by the social scientists in the recent past, of which brainstorming is one. This device has been widely used in interpretive structural modelling to higher education programme planning, programme planning for housing in urban development, etc. Following these studies, application of brainstorming to develop a preliminary operational value system as a structural model for programme planning in Family planning was attempted. The products of a sequence of three sessions of approximately 5 hours each generated 39 needs, 28 alterables, and 22 constraints, all of which were used to set Family Planning objectives /34/. The objectives thus derived were used in building an intent structure to understand their priorities in plan formulation and eventual implementation.

  15. Reproductive Life Plan Counseling and Effective Contraceptive Use among Urban Women Utilizing Title X Services. (United States)

    Bommaraju, Aalap; Malat, Jennifer; Mooney, Jennifer L


    Although the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the U.S. Office of Population Affairs recommend inclusion of reproductive life plan counseling (RLPC) in all well-woman health care visits, no studies have examined the effect of RLPC sessions on the decision to use effective contraception at publicly funded family planning sites. RLPC could be a particularly impactful intervention for disadvantaged social groups who are less likely to use the most effective contraceptive methods. Using data from 771 nonpregnant, non-pregnancy-seeking women receiving gynecological services in the Cincinnati-Hamilton County Reproductive Health and Wellness Program, multinomial logistic regression models compared users of nonmedical/no method with users of 1) the pill, patch, or ring, 2) depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, and 3) long-acting reversible contraception (LARC). The effect of RLPC on the use of each form of contraception, and whether it mediated the effect of race/ethnicity and education on contraceptive use, was examined while controlling for age, insurance status, and birth history. The interaction between RLPC and race/ethnicity and the interaction between RLPC and educational attainment was also assessed. RLPC was not associated with contraceptive use. The data suggested that RLPC may increase LARC use over nonmedical/no method use. RLPC did not mediate or moderate the effect of race/ethnicity or educational attainment on contraceptive use in any comparison. In this system of publicly funded family planning clinics, RLPC seems not to encourage effective method use, providing no support for the efficacy of the RLPC intervention. The results suggest that this intervention requires further development and evaluation. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Communication, knowledge, social network and family planning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    demographic variables, social networks, knowledge and communication among the ... Information, education and communication materials and to promote family planning in Tanzania should ..... Every day after field work the researcher and.

  17. Systemic-Developmental Supervision: Clinical Supervisory Approach for Family Counseling Student Interns (United States)

    Carlson, Ryan G.; Lambie, Glenn W.


    Supervision models for marriage and family counseling student interns primarily focus on the use of traditional systemic techniques. In addition, a supervisee's level of development may not be considered when utilizing systemic tools. Furthermore, the supervisory relationship has been identified as a significant indicator of quality supervision,…

  18. Retrofitting: Learning Theory and Instructional Design in Marriage and Family Counseling Curricula. (United States)

    Bourdeau, Beth; Mooney, Matthew E.


    Many current marriage and family trainers focus on issues related to counseling theory, special issues, and techniques. This article proposes an integrative, comprehensive model of instructional design, using concepts based in learning theory and development. When implemented, this model can provide a consistent, developmentally sensitive training…

  19. Transformative Learning through International Immersion: Building Multicultural Competence in Family Therapy and Counseling (United States)

    McDowell, Teresa; Goessling, Kristen; Melendez, Tatiana


    This study explores the experiences of graduate students who completed one of two international courses facilitated by family therapy faculty in a U.S. master's-level counseling psychology department. Participants reported that international courses were personally and professionally transformative. Spending time in a foreign country gave them…

  20. Population policy and family planning. (United States)


    The secret of success of India's population policy is the multipronged approach. Conflicts between public beliefs, customs, and public interests in regard to family size must be resolved through effective educational measures. The state should avoid legal compulsion and rely on volumtary choice by married couples influenced by logical judgment, information, and persuasion. Instead of using coercion, research in specific regions, sub-regions, and local areas should assess feasibility in light of knowledge, attitude, and practice of birth control, and rational goals should be set. Health conditions, particularly of mother and child, are an important approach to fertility and family size. As long as the morbidity of infants is high, the motivation for small family size will be low. Women's education generally should be improved. Later age at marriage also contributed to small family size. Present population policy should be expanded to include a broad-based socioeconomic approach with a social security program. Development through improved agricultural and marketing conditions will distribute the economic benefits for and improve the welfare of the most backward people. Voluntary organizations must be involved in population programs because a wholly state-sponsored program will meet with apathy and disinterest.

  1. The Use of Phototherapy in Couples and Family Counseling (United States)

    Star, Katharina L.; Cox, Jane A.


    Couples and family counselors have a long history of using creative techniques with their clients. Counselors can use creative arts to help clients express deep emotions, gain self-awareness, and move toward individual and family goals. There are numerous ways in which counselors can incorporate creative strategies in their work with couples and…

  2. Career Paths of Professional Leaders in Counseling: Plans, Opportunities, and Happenstance. (United States)

    Magnuson, Sandy; Wilcoxon, S. Allen; Norem, Ken


    The authors conducted qualitative analyses of 10 counseling leaders' accounts of turning points in their professional development, turning points that led them to become leaders. The participants' explanations provided support for applying the planned happenstance theory of career development to leadership development. (Contains 11 references and…

  3. Applying Customer Satisfaction Theory to Community College Planning of Counseling Services. (United States)

    Hom, Willard C.


    This article discusses a framework in which a researcher may apply a customer satisfaction model to the planning of counseling services at the community college level. It also reviews some historical work on satisfaction research with the unique environment of student services in two-year colleges. The article suggests that readers could benefit…

  4. An Overview of the Third National Conference for Counseling Psychology: Planning the Future. (United States)

    Weissberg, Michael; And Others


    Describes the issues and planning processes that led up to the Third National Conference for Counseling Psychology. Identifies five general areas of the conference: professional practice, public image, training and accreditation, research, and organizational and political issues. Summarizes the background and characteristics of the conference…

  5. Family planning programs and fertility decline. (United States)

    Cuca, R


    A recently completed World Bank statistical study of family planning in 63 developing countries indicated that countries which experienced a large decline in birth rates between 1960-1977 were more likely to have a family planning program, an official population policy aimed at decreasing the birth rate, and a relatively high level of development than countries which experienced smaller or no decline in birth rates. The 65 countries represented 95% of the population of the developing world. Birth rate declines of 10% or more between 1960-1977 were experienced by: 1) 10 of the 26 countries which had a family planning program and a policy aimed at reducing the birth rate; 2) 6 of the 19 countries which had a family planning program but lacked clearly defined population objectives; and 3) 2 of the 18 countries without any population policy or program. Furthermore, the implementation of a family planning program and the adoption of a population policy were directly related to the development level of the country. This finding suggested that countries need to reach a certain level of development before they have the capacity to develop population programs and policies. When a country is sufficiently advanced to collect population data, awareness of population problems increases and they are more likely to adopt a population policy. In addition, government efficiency increases as development proceeds and governments must have a certain level of efficiency before they can implement effective programs.

  6. Introducing reproductive life plan-based information in contraceptive counselling: an RCT (United States)

    Stern, J.; Larsson, M.; Kristiansson, P.; Tydén, T.


    STUDY QUESTION Can reproductive life plan (RLP)-based information in contraceptive counselling before pregnancy increase women's knowledge of reproduction, and of the importance of folic acid intake in particular? SUMMARY ANSWER The RLP-based information increased women's knowledge of reproduction including knowledge of folic acid intake. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Many women have insufficient knowledge of reproduction, including a health-promoting lifestyle prior to conception, and highly educated women in particular postpone childbearing until an age when their fertile capacity has started to decrease. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION The study was an randomized controlled trial with one intervention group (IG) and two control groups (CG1, CG2). A sample size calculation indicated that 82 women per group would be adequate. Recruitment took place during 3 months in 2012 and 299 women were included. The women were randomized in blocks of three. All groups received standard care (contraceptive counselling, Chlamydia testing, cervical screening). In addition, women in the IG were given oral and written RLP-based information about reproduction. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS A total of 299 out of 338 (88%) Swedish-speaking women visiting a Student Health Centre were included (mean age 23 years); response rate was 88%. Before the counselling, women in the IG and the CG1 completed a baseline questionnaire, including questions about lifestyle changes in connection to pregnancy planning, family planning intentions and knowledge of reproduction (e.g. the fecundity of an ovum). At follow-up 2 months after inclusion, a structured telephone interview was performed in all groups (n = 262, 88% participation rate). MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE There was no difference between the groups regarding the mean knowledge score at baseline. The IG scored higher at follow-up than at baseline (P < 0.001); the mean increased from 6.4 to 9.0 out of a maximum 20 points. The women in

  7. Genetic Counseling (United States)

    Genetic counseling provides information and support to people who have, or may be at risk for, genetic disorders. A ... meets with you to discuss genetic risks. The counseling may be for yourself or a family member. ...

  8. Social marketing: the family planning experience. (United States)

    El-ansary, A I; Kramer Oe, J


    The authors explore social marketing applications in the Louisiana model of statewide program for family planning. The marketing concept has 4 major elements: 1) consumer orientation; 2) social process; 3) integrated effort; 4) profitable operation. Success of program and continued growth are the results of defining services needed by consumer; determining market target; taking services to customer; and emphasizing concept of selling family planning rather than giving free birth control method. Another important facet is the recognition of many participants--community agencies, the church, the American Medical Association, funding sources, and hospitals. This project used anyaltical marketing tools and defined services as human services rather than the narrow family planning services. It also extended activities to multinational environment and adapted the product offering to meet these needs.

  9. Familiy Planning and Pregnancy (United States)

    ... Storage Pool Deficiencies Home About Bleeding Disorders Family planning and pregnancy Carriers should receive genetic counselling about ... Diagnosis When to Test for Carrier Status Family Planning and Pregnancy Conception Options Prenatal Diagnosis Fetal Sex ...

  10. Family planning uses traditional theater in Mali. (United States)

    Schubert, J


    Mali's branch of the International Planned Parenthood Federation has found a vehicle that effectively conveys the idea of family planning through the use of contraception, a method that blends the country's cultural heritage and modern technology. Despite becoming the first sub-Saharan francophone country to promote family planning, Mali only counted 1% of its population using a modern method of contraception. So with the aid of The Johns Hopkins University/Population COmmunication Services (JHU/PCS), the Association Malienne pour la Protection et la Promotion de la Famille (AMPPF) developed several programs to promote contraception, but none were more successful than the Koteba Project, which used Mali's traditional theater form to communicate the message. While comical, the Koteba generally deals with social issues -- it informs and entertains. This particular Koteba told the story of two government employees, one with two wives and many children, the other with one wife and few children. The first one sees nothing but family problems: fighting wives and delinquent children. The second one, who had used family planning, enjoys a peaceful home. Upon hearing of his friend's successes with family planning, the tormented government employee becomes convinced of its needs, and persuades his wives to accompany him to a family planning clinic. Developed at a cost of approximately US $3000 and televised nationwide, the Koteba proved effective. A survey of 500 people attending an AMPPF clinic revealed that 1/4 of them remembered the program. With the success of the Koteba, JHU/PCS and AMPPF are now exploring other traditional channels of communication.

  11. Systems effects on family planning innovativeness. (United States)

    Lee, S B


    Data from Korea were used to explore the importance of community level variables in explaining family planning adoption at the individual level. An open system concept was applied, assuming that individual family planning behavior is influenced by both environmental and individual factors. The environmental factors were measured at the village level and designated as community characteristics. The dimension of communication network variables was introduced. Each individual was characterized in terms of the degree of her involvement in family planning communication with others in her village. It was assumed that the nature of the communication network linking individuals with each other effects family planning adoption at the individual level. Specific objectives were to determine 1) the relative importance of the specific independent variables in explaining family planning adoption and 2) the relative importance of the community level variables in comparison with the individual level variables in explaining family planning adoption at the individual level. The data were originally gathered in a 1973 research project on Korea's mothers' clubs. 1047 respondents were interviewed, comprising all married women in 25 sample villages having mothers' clubs. The dependent variable was family planning adoption behavior, defined as current use of any of the modern methods of family planning. The independent variables were defined at 3 levels: individual, community, and at a level intermediate between them involving communication links between individuals. More of the individual level independent variables were significantly correlated with the dependent variables than the community level variables. Among those variables with statistically significant correlations, the correlation coefficients were consistently higher for the individual level than for the community level variables. More of the variance in the dependent variable was explained by individual level than by

  12. [Family members' experiences of caring for persons with dementia and outreach counseling--an interpretative phenomenological study]. (United States)

    Vögeli, Samuel; Frei, Irena Anna; Spichiger, Elisabeth


    Almost two-thirds of the 110,000 people living with dementia in Switzerland receive home care from family members. Outreach counselling can reduce the burden for family caregivers and delay nursing home placement. However, little is known of how this works and how caregivers experience the counselling. The Canton of Aargau Alzheimer's Association has been conducting a pilot project to demonstrate the necessity, effectiveness and practicability of outreach counselling in (their canton). As a part of the evaluation of the project this study explored how family members experience the process of caring for a relative with dementia and outreach counselling. Interpretive phenomenology–a qualitative approach–was used to analyse data from interviews with twelve family caregivers. Most family members felt supported in caregiving by outreach counselling. Three aspects of the counselling were especially important to the participants: being understood and taken seriously by the counsellor; receiving answers to their most pressing questions concerning the illness and being supported when difficult decision had to be taken; regaining personal time and learning how to better interact with the person with dementia. Two participants would have wished for more help by the counsellor. To meet the needs of the family members, consultants should have sufficient experience in dementia patient care and should be strongly networked across the local health and welfare system. This study shows that family members can experience outreach counselling as a great support in their caregiving roles.

  13. Family planning services for incarcerated women: models for filling an unmet need. (United States)

    Sufrin, Carolyn; Baird, Sara; Clarke, Jennifer; Feldman, Elizabeth


    Purpose Incarcerated women around the globe are predominantly of reproductive age. Most of these women have been pregnant before, and many want to be sexually active and avoid pregnancy upon release. Yet few of these women are on a regular method of contraception. Providing contraceptive services for women in custody benefits individual and public health goals of reducing unintended pregnancy. This policy briefing reviews evidence for an unmet need for family planning in the correctional setting, and policy implications for expanding services. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach The authors describe four model programs in the USA with established contraceptive services on site, highlighting practical steps other facilities can implement. Findings Correctional facilities health administrators, providers, advocates, and legislators should advance policies which should counsel women on family planning and should make a range of contraceptive methods available before release, while remaining sensitive to the potential pressure these women may feel to use birth control in this unique environment. Practical implications Family planning services for incarcerated women benefits individuals, facilities, and the community. Social implications Policies which enable correctional facilities to provide comprehensive family planning to incarcerated women - including reproductive life goals counseling and contraceptive method provision - promote equity in access to critical reproductive health services and also provide broad scale population level benefits in preventing unintended pregnancy or enabling counseling for healthy pregnancies for a group of women who often have limited access to such services. Originality/value This policy briefing highlights an area of health care in prisons and jails which gets little attention in research and in policy circles: family planning services for incarcerated women. In addition to reviewing the importance of

  14. Moses and Superman Come Home: Counseling Adoptees and Adoptive Families. (United States)

    Saiz, Stephen G.

    This paper looks at three parties impacted by adoption: the adoptive parents, the adopted child, and the adoptive family. When working with adoptive parents, counselors should respect the strength of the couple, their commitment to parenthood, and the closeness that may develop from weathering the issue of childlessness. Adoptive parents are…

  15. [Is family planning beneficial for our society?]. (United States)

    Noudjalbaye, K


    Family planning comprises a group of activities that permit couples to decide freely the spacing and number of their children. Its other goals are to identify high risk pregnancies and treat infertility. Family planning improves the health of mothers, children, and entire families. Women understanding the benefits of family planning can space pregnancies at least 2 years apart to allow time to care for the new baby and to recuperate after the birth. Women and children in Chad and throughout Africa are the most vulnerable population groups with the greatest need for high quality nutrition, but they usually are relegated the food left over after men and other family members have eaten. Too frequent and too numerous pregnancies are likely to lead to maternal death from hemorrhage, toxemia, or septicemia. Chronic malnutrition reduces the defenses of the woman's body. Couples who plan their births for the times when the mother is best prepared avoid high risk pregnancies. Young infants whose mothers become pregnant too soon are subjected to abrupt weaning and sometimes physically separated from their mothers. The baby is at risk of infection and malnutrition because of its lack of adjustment to its new diet, and high rates of mortality are 1 result. The 2nd baby often is low birth weight and receives less milk because his malnourished, anemic, and chronically fatigued mother is unable to produce more. The infant is prey to infections, which his undernourished body is less able to fight. Traditional African societies recognized the importance of spacing and achieved it by abstinence until the child would walk. Family planning programs provide contraception, treatment and advice on sexually transmitted diseases, and alternatives to illegal abortion. Adolescents in particular should be provided with information on the consequences of too early sexual activity.

  16. [What can be expected of family planning?]. (United States)

    Tallon, F


    Growing concern over Rwanda's rapid demographic growth and the development of a family planning program beginning around 1981 have so far had little practical effect on the number of births. Significant mortality reductions resulting from vaccination programs and other development projects may mean that population growth has actually accelerated instead of slowing. Most Rwandans still have the strongly pronatalist attitudes appropriate to an environment with high infant and general mortality rates, small populations, abundant land resources, and a need for manpower and old age security. Lack of services, fear of side effects, and rumors have also hampered acceptance of family planning. Rwanda is 95% rural, but rapid population growth is outstripping agricultural resources. Already in 1984 the average family plot was only .88 hectare, and by the year 2000 it will be half that size. Young people denied employment in agriculture will seek jobs in industry and commerce, but there too the possibilities of absorption are limited. The best employment opportunities will probably be available to the best educated. Between 1962-85, the rate of school enrollment of children aged 7-14 increased from 55-60%, but the total enrollment increased by 150% because of the increased number of children. Acceptance of family planning by substantial numbers of couples will mean significant savings in education. The savings in primary education alone would significantly offset expenditures for family planning. A large part of the funding for family planning in Rwanda is contributed as foreign aid, which could not easily be converted to other development projects, as some critics demand. A more moderate rate of population growth would also mean less expenditure on imports of food and other goods, on health care, on housing, and in all areas where population size is a factor in determining needs. Less reliance on imported food will enable Rwanda to preserve its autonomy. The rising pregnancy

  17. [Familial colorectal and breast carcinoma--genetic counseling and presymptomatic diagnosis]. (United States)

    Müller, H; Scott, R J


    Several types of hereditary cancer can be prevented from progressing to advanced stages by regular surveillance of the person at risk and hence by the early treatment of a developing neoplasia. Genetic counselling of such patients and their relatives is therefore an important task whose value often remains unrecognized. This is especially true for the common forms of hereditary cancer such as breast and colorectal cancer, which aggregate in up to 5% of all patients according to the rules of autosomal-dominant inheritance. Preventive measures are particularly promising in the case of familial cancer because persons at risk are motivated to seek medical help. Genetic counselling is a multifaceted process and involves more than an accurate diagnosis and risk estimate. The counseled patient expects and deserves an open and reasonable answer to his questions about the implications of his/her cancer predisposition or his family history. Accurate diagnosis of the underlying susceptibility is the cornerstone of genetic counselling because most cancers seem to have multiple causes. Different genes located on different chromosomes can independently give rise to the same malignancy. Besides heterogeneity, presymptomatic testing for inherited susceptibilities to cancer raises many issues including therapy, access, intense anxiety, and discrimination.

  18. An Invitation to between-Session Change: The Use of Therapeutic Letters in Couples and Family Counseling (United States)

    Kindsvatter, Aaron; Nelson, Jill R.; Desmond, Kimberly J.


    Therapeutic letters (i.e., brief therapeutic messages that are sent to clients between counseling sessions) have been used since the days of Freud and have been shown to have beneficial therapeutic impacts. This article describes the use of therapeutic letters in couples and family counseling. The use of three types of therapeutic letter (letters…

  19. An Invitation to between-Session Change: The Use of Therapeutic Letters in Couples and Family Counseling (United States)

    Kindsvatter, Aaron; Nelson, Jill R.; Desmond, Kimberly J.


    Therapeutic letters (i.e., brief therapeutic messages that are sent to clients between counseling sessions) have been used since the days of Freud and have been shown to have beneficial therapeutic impacts. This article describes the use of therapeutic letters in couples and family counseling. The use of three types of therapeutic letter (letters…

  20. Postpartum family planning: current evidence on successful interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blazer C


    Full Text Available Cassandra Blazer, Ndola Prata Bixby Center for Population, Health, and Sustainability, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA Abstract: We reviewed existing evidence of the efficacy of postpartum family planning interventions targeting women in the 12 months postpartum period in low- and middle-income countries. We searched for studies from January 1, 2004 to September 19, 2015, using the US Preventive Services Task Force recommendations to assess evidence quality. Our search resulted in 26 studies: 11 based in sub-Saharan Africa, six in the Middle East and North Africa, and nine in Asia. Twenty of the included studies assessed health facility-based interventions. Three were focused on community interventions, two had community and facility components, and one was a workplace program. Overall quality of the evidence was moderate, including evidence for counseling interventions. Male partner involvement, integration with other service delivery platforms, such as prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and immunization, and innovative product delivery programs may increase knowledge and use during the postpartum period. Community-based and workplace strategies need a much stronger base of evidence to prompt recommendations. Keywords: postpartum period, family planning, birth spacing, interventions, systematic review, contraception, less developed countries

  1. The role of family planning in achieving safe pregnancy for serodiscordant couples: commentary from the United States government's interagency task force on family planning and HIV service integration. (United States)

    Mason, Jennifer; Medley, Amy; Yeiser, Sarah; Nightingale, Vienna R; Mani, Nithya; Sripipatana, Tabitha; Abutu, Andrew; Johnston, Beverly; Watts, D Heather


    People living with HIV (PLHIV) have the right to exercise voluntary choices about their health, including their reproductive health. This commentary discusses the integral role that family planning (FP) plays in helping PLHIV, including those in serodiscordant relationships, achieve conception safely. The United States (US) President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) is committed to meeting the reproductive health needs of PLHIV by improving their access to voluntary FP counselling and services, including prevention of unintended pregnancy and counselling for safer conception. Inclusion of preconception care and counselling (PCC) as part of routine HIV services is critical to preventing unintended pregnancies and perinatal infections among PLHIV. PLHIV not desiring a current pregnancy should be provided with information and counselling on all available FP methods and then either given the method onsite or through a facilitated referral process. PLHIV, who desire children should be offered risk reduction counselling, support for HIV status disclosure and partner testing, information on safer conception options to reduce the risk of HIV transmission to the partner and the importance of adhering to antiretroviral treatment during pregnancy and breastfeeding to reduce the risk of vertical transmission to the infant. Integration of PCC, HIV and FP services at the same location is recommended to improve access to these services for PLHIV. Other considerations to be addressed include the social and structural context, the health system capacity to offer these services, and stigma and discrimination of providers. Evaluation of innovative service delivery models for delivering PCC services is needed, including provision in community-based settings. The US Government will continue to partner with local organizations, Ministries of Health, the private sector, civil society, multilateral and bilateral donors, and other key stakeholders to strengthen both the policy and

  2. Product Family Modelling for Manufacturing Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn; Petersen, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Kjeld


    of the product family model, however, the model should be enriched with data for planning and execution of the manufacturing processes. The idea is that, when any individual product is specified using the product configurator, a product model can be extracted with all data necessary for planning...... of the manufacturing processes. Obviously, data for identification of all used modules and components are included in the product model but also for instance data for processing and assembly operations must be available. These data are not always related entirely to the modules and components but are sometimes also...... dependent on the specific assembly structure of the configured product, i.e. the combination of modules. In this paper, issues of how to create manufacturing structures and related planning data in product family models are presented. Primarily, the more complicated multi-level manufacturing structures...

  3. Integration of family planning with poverty alleviation. (United States)

    Peng, P


    The Chinese Communist Central Committee and the State Council aim to solve food and clothing problems among impoverished rural people by the year 2000. This goal was a priority on the agenda of the recent October 1996 National Conference on Poverty Alleviation and Development and the 1996 National Conference of the State Family Planning Commission. Poverty is attributed to rapid population growth and underdevelopment. Poverty is concentrated in parts of 18 large provinces. These provinces are characterized by Family Planning Minister Peng as having high birth rates, early marriage and childbearing, unplanned births, and multiple births. Overpopulation is tied to overconsumption, depletion of resources, deforestation, soil erosion, pollution, shortages of water, decreases in shares of cultivated land, degraded grasslands, and general destruction of the environment. Illiteracy in poor areas is over 20%, compared to the national average of 15%. Mortality and morbidity are higher. Family planning is harder to enforce in poor areas. Pilot programs in Sichuan and Guizhou provinces are promoting integration of family planning with poverty alleviation. Several conferences have addressed the integrated program strategies. Experience has shown that poverty alleviation occurs by controlled population growth and improved quality of life. Departments should "consolidate" their development efforts under Communist Party leadership at all levels. Approaches should emphasize self-reliance and public mobilization. The emphasis should be on women's participation in development. Women's income should be increased. Family planning networks at the grassroots level need to be strengthened simultaneously with increased poverty alleviation and development. The government strategy is to strengthen leadership, mobilize the public, and implement integrated programs.

  4. The Application of the Theory of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior to Prevention Science in Counseling Psychology (United States)

    Romano, John L.; Netland, Jason D.


    The theory of reasoned action and planned behavior (TRA/PB) is a model of behavior change that has been extensively studied in the health sciences but has had limited exposure in the counseling psychology literature. The model offers counseling psychologists a framework to conceptualize prevention research and practice. The model is important to…

  5. Family planning knowledge and practice among people living with HIV in Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Raj Mishra

    Full Text Available Unsafe sexual behavior is common among the HIV infected. This exposes them to the risks of unintended pregnancy, HIV transmission to uninfected partners and super-infection. Studies on the use of family planning measures among People Living with HIV (PLHIV are scarce in Nepal. The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge and practice of family planning (FP in PLHIV. A cross sectional survey was conducted during July-December 2012 in Kaski district of Nepal. A total of 120 PLHIVs were recruited using snowball sampling from three HIV clinics within the Pokhara sub-metropolitan city area. This study found that nine in ten PLHIV had heard about family planning. Two thirds of respondents were using at least one FP method. The majority (65.8% used condoms and had received FP counseling (67.5%. Less than one percent used condoms in addition to another contraceptive. Being single, being female and having received the counselling sessions were associated with the use of FP. The individuals who received FP counseling were more likely [OR 4.522; 95% CI (1.410-14.504] to use FP. Females were more likely [OR 4.808; 95% CI (1.396-16.556] to use FP than males. The individuals who were single/de-facto widowed were more likely [OR 7.330; 95% CI (2.064-26.028] to use FP than the married individuals. Our findings suggest that there is a need to focus on FP counseling if the HIV prevention program is to increase FP use among the PLHIV population. Use of dual contraceptives need to be promoted through counseling sessions and other health promotion programs focusing in HIV prevention.

  6. The Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior of HIV/AIDS Patients’ Family toward Their Patients before and after Counseling

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    Behnam Honarvar


    Full Text Available Background: Acquired immunodeficiency may impose considerableconsequences on patients’ family behaviors towardthem. The objective of the present study was to investigatewhether a counseling program at Behavioral Counseling Centerin the city of Shiraz, Iran could change the attitude, knowledgeand behavior of patients' family members.Methods: 125 HIV/AIDS patients’ family members were interviewed,using a valid and reliable questionnaire before andafter performing counseling sessions at Behavioral CounselingCenter. The findings were analyzed using nonparametric tests.Results: The age of the participants was 40±13 years. Sixty fivepercent were female, 63% married and 79% educated. Forty fourpercent of participants had spousal relationships with their patients.Their knowledge about the main routes of HIV transmissionwere 9.76 ± 2.59 and10.64±0.88 before and after counseling,respectively (P=0.028. Supportive behaviors of families towardtheir patients reached to 79% after counseling compared with 44% before that (P=0.004. Belief to isolate the patients and thepractice of this approach at home dropped from 71% to 15% andfrom 29% to 7% after counseling, respectively (P0.05.Conclusion: Ongoing counseling for HIV/AIDS patients’ familiesat Behavioral Counseling Center of Shiraz did advance theirknowledge about AIDS and improved their attitude and behaviortoward their patients However, the counseling program didnot show remarkable success in some aspects such as the removalof fear about HIV spread in the family or the change ofthe patients’ wives attitude to have protected sex with their HIVinfected husbands.Iran J Med Sci 2010; 35(4: 287-292.

  7. Comparing the Efficacy of Arbitration and Family Counseling Process on

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    Sedegheh Alimardani


    Full Text Available AbstractThe purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of arbitration on decrease of matrimonial conflicts todivorce of married couple who asked for divorce and to compare it with the process of consultation.In this study, 15 pairs for arbitration and 15 pairs for consultation are selected among married couple fromsocial services of "adoption institution" in Isfahan, who had come to the interfering in family center, todecrease the divorce.The research procedure was consisted of two methods:1 Descriptive (survey2 Quasi experimental with pre-test and post –test.To collect datum, Sanaei and Barati matrimonial conflicts questionaire and Ghalili andFatehizadeh.matrimonial conflicts questionnaire have been used. To analyze the results SPSS software hasbeen used.The results show that the process of arbitration doesn’t have influence on decrease of matrimonialconflicts and its dimensions in married couple who ask for divorce (p>0.05, whereas the process ofconsultation has influence on decease of matrimonial conflicts and its dimensions in married couple who askfor divorce (p0.05.

  8. China's first family planning publicity month. (United States)

    Shen, G


    China conducted its 1st nationwide Family Planning Publicity Month in 1983, from New Year's Day to Spring Festival (February 13). The campaign emphasized the rural areas and focused on explaining why family planning is a state policy. The most noticeable achievements of this campaign were that every household became familiar with the fact that family planning is a basic state policy. The majority of the population take this policy seriously, realizing that strict control of population growth is both a good and imperative policy. More than 1,830,000 propaganda columns and photo exhibitions were displayed, 5,900,000 radio and television programs broadcast, 2,010,000 theatrical performances, movie and slide showings presented, and 97,000,000 copies of materials published for public dissemination. The activities were varied and interesting, vivid and lively, and purposeful and persuasive. 1 of the most effective methods of publicizing population control has been the presentation of comparative statistics. This aspect of the campaign was a specific and lively form of education in population theory and practice. The presentation of statistics that show the relationship among population, land use, grain produce, and income enabled the population to reason out why population growth needs to match economic and social development. Another important accomplishment of the publicity month was that a large number of couples of reproductive age became convinced of the need to use contraception. According to the incomplete statistics, 8,860,000 people had surgical operations for birth control. The universal promotion of ligations by either partner of a reproductive couple who already had given birth to a 2nd child was an important development of family planning technique promoted simultaneously with the promotion of IUDs. The increase in the number of people doing family planning work was another achievement of the publicity month. More than 15,240,000 publicity personnel and 760

  9. Transformative learning through international immersion: building multicultural competence in family therapy and counseling. (United States)

    McDowell, Teresa; Goessling, Kristen; Melendez, Tatiana


    This study explores the experiences of graduate students who completed one of two international courses facilitated by family therapy faculty in a U.S. master's-level counseling psychology department. Participants reported that international courses were personally and professionally transformative. Spending time in a foreign country gave them opportunities to learn from cultural differences, ultimately increasing the social and global awareness required for multicultural sensitivity. Experiential learning, reflection, and dialogue resulted in raised critical consciousness among participants. In this article, we discuss the transformational learning processes embedded in international courses and the potential benefits of these experiences on the development of multicultural sensitivity in family therapists and counselors in training.

  10. Improving Access to Quality Care in Family Planning: WHO's Four Cornerstones of Evidence-based Guidance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang-chun WU; Yan ZOU; K Church; O Meirik


    The four cornerstones of guidance in technique service of family planning are established by WHO based on high quality evidences. They have been updated according to the appearing new evidences, and the consensuses were reached by the international experts in this field. The four documents include Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use, Decision-making Tool for Family Planning Clients and Providers and The Global Handbook for Family Planning Providers. The first two documents mainlyface to the policy-makers and programme managers and were treated as the important references for creating the local guideline. The other two documents were developed for the front-line health-care and family planning providers at different levels, which include plenty of essential technical information to help providers improve their ability in service delivery and counselling. China paid great attention to the introduction and application of WHO guidelines. As soon as the newer editions of these documents were available, the Chinese version would be followed. WHO guidelines have been primarily adapted with the newly issued national guideline, The Clinical Practical Skill Guidelines- Family Planning Part, which was established by China Medical Association. At the same time, the WHO guidelines have been introduced to some of the linicians and family planning providers at different levels. In the future, more special training courses will be introduced to the township level based on the needs of grassroot providers.

  11. The Participation of a Brazilian Family in Psychosocial Counseling of Obese Children and Adolescents*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Regarded by the World Health Organization as a public health matter, an analysis of the statistics shows a significant increase of obesity in children, adolescents, and adults in many parts of the world. Family inclusion in childhood obesity treatment has been recommended in many scientific studies, and an intervention including families presupposes knowledge of their dynamics and influence on disease onset and maintenance. In this sense, the present work aims to present data of research with one family that is part of psychosocial counseling of families with obese children and adolescents. The sample family is composed of the father, 43 years old, the mother, 36, and their obese daughter, 10, currently weighing 178 pounds and 1.25 meters in height. The data were collected through an interview focusing on the family life cycle, from the new couple stage through the present. Data analysis revealed that the following features interfere with child obesity treatment: parental omission in the daughter's diet; the mother's illness complicating fulfillment of parental functions; parents' marital difficulties; lack of marital harmony between parents endangering their complicity in the child's protection and education; and family resistance in accepting and adhering to child obesity treatment. The data reinforce the need for understanding dynamics of families with obese children and for family inclusion in childhood obesity treatment.

  12. Behavioral family counseling for substance abuse: a treatment development pilot study. (United States)

    O'Farrell, Timothy J; Murphy, Marie; Alter, Jane; Fals-Stewart, William


    Substance-dependent patients (N=29) living with a family member other than a spouse were randomly assigned to equally intensive treatments consisting of either (a) Behavioral Family Counseling (BFC) plus Individual-Based Treatment (IBT) or (b) IBT alone. Outcome data were collected at baseline, post-treatment, and at 3- and 6-month follow-up. BFC patients remained in treatment significantly longer than IBT patients. BFC patients improved significantly from baseline at all time periods on all outcomes studied, and had a medium effect size reflecting better primary outcomes of increased abstinence and reduced substance use than IBT patients. For secondary outcomes of reduced negative consequences and improved relationship adjustment, both BFC and IBT patients improved significantly and to an equivalent extent. The present results show BFC is a promising method for retaining patients in treatment, increasing abstinence, and reducing substance use. These results also provide support for larger scale, randomized trials examining the efficacy of behavioral family counseling for patients living with family members beyond spouses.

  13. New family planning center serves 60,000 Nicaraguans. (United States)


    In Nicaragua, the recently opened Regional Family Planning (FP) Center in the capital of Chontales Province provides a variety of FP services to the 60,000 citizens of Juigalpa. These services include counseling, laboratory exams, gynecologic exams, and voluntary sterilization. the Asociacion Pro Bienestar de la Familia Nicaraguense (PROFAMILIA) opened the center, since FP services have been neglected in this province as compared to access to these services in the large population centers of Managua and Leon. A recent contraceptive prevalence survey shows that contraceptive prevalence in urban areas of Nicaragua is 62%, while it is just between 13-15% in rural regions, like Chontales and Zelaya. The center will also run a community distribution program for Chontales. As of May 1993, it had 25 community distribution posts in the region, providing contraceptives and training volunteers. PROFAMILIA hopes to open another regional center in Chinandega in the western part of Nicaragua in 1993. It plans on opening a central clinic in Grenada, the third largest city, to serve 120,000 people from Grenada and the small communities surrounding Grenada.

  14. Effect of center-based counseling for veterans and veterans' families on long-term mental health outcomes. (United States)

    O'Donnell, Meaghan; Varker, Tracey; Perry, Desmond; Phelps, Andrea


    The Veterans and Veterans Families Counselling Service (VVCS), established by the Australian government, plays a pivotal role in providing mental health services to veterans and their families. This research explored the impact of center-based psychological counseling on depression, anxiety, stress, and alcohol use severity. A stratified sample of VVCS clients were invited to participate in this study. Data were collected on intake to the program, at the fifth counseling session, and 12 months after the commencement of counseling. Repeated-measures general linear model analyses were conducted to examine the impact of center-based counseling on depression, anxiety, stress, and alcohol severity over time. VVCS center-based counseling resulted in a significant reduction in depression, anxiety, stress, and alcohol use severity after five sessions, and these improvements were maintained over the next 12 months. Despite these improvements, however, participants continued to report moderate-to-severe levels of mental health problems. VVCS center-based counseling successfully reduced depression, anxiety, stress, and alcohol use symptom severity of veterans and their families. However, the clinical profiles of this population are often complex and challenges remain in terms of addressing the mental health needs of this group.

  15. Indonesia's family planning story: success and challenge. (United States)

    Hull, T H; Hull, V J; Singarimbun, M


    A historical overview and descriptions of family planning programs in Indonesia are presented. 85 million of the 135 million inhabitants of the Indonesian archipelago are concentrated on the island of Java, which comprises about 7% of the Indonesian land mass. The Dutch colonial government preferred a policy ("transmigration") which advocated the redistribution of population from Java to the other islands to relieve overpopulation. This policy was also advocated by President Sukarno after the Indonesian Revolution of 1940. The need for family planning was recognized by small groups, and official policy supported national family planning programs to replace transmigration programs only after Sukarno became president in 1966. The focus of the program was on Java and Bali, the 2 most populous islands. Local clinics became the locus for birth control efforts. Fieldworkers affiliated with the clinics were given the job of advocating birth control use door-to-door. Fieldworkers "incentive programs," area "target" (quota) programs, and "special drives" were organized to create new contraceptive "acceptors." A data reporting system and a research program increase the effectiveness of the family planning drive by ascertaining trends in contraceptive use which can determine where and how money and effort can best be applied. "Village Contraception Distribution Centers" bring the contraceptive means closer to the people than do the clinics. Figures from the years 1969-1977 show the great increase in acceptance of contraceptives by the inhabitants of the Java-Bali area. Steps are now being taken to alleviate the large monthly variations in the number of (often temporary) acceptors caused by the "target programs" and "special drives." The average acceptor is 27-years-old, has 2.6 children, has not finished primary school, and has a husband of low social status. Bali has shown the greatest success in family planning. It is a small island with a highly developed system of local

  16. Using a Systems Framework for Organizing Family Financial Planning. (United States)

    Edwards, Kay P.


    Systems concepts are applied to family financial planning using a functional interpretation of systems analyses. The framework can help professionals researching family financial behavior and its outcomes, planning programs, and offering financial services. It can also be used by families in their own financial planning. (Author/JOW)

  17. Tay Sachs and Related Storage Diseases: Family Planning (United States)

    Schneiderman, Gerald; And Others


    Based on interviews with 24 families, the article discusses family planning and the choices available to those families in which a child has previously died from Tay-Sachs or related lipid storage diseases. (IM)

  18. Tay Sachs and Related Storage Diseases: Family Planning (United States)

    Schneiderman, Gerald; And Others


    Based on interviews with 24 families, the article discusses family planning and the choices available to those families in which a child has previously died from Tay-Sachs or related lipid storage diseases. (IM)

  19. Why some family planning program fail. (United States)


    40 experts representing Nepal, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, Korea, and the Philippines participated in a 3-day workshop in Manila in March 1976 for the purpose of discussing and proposing ways of dealing with the financial problems confronting the population programs of the individual countries. The Inter-Governmental Coordinating Committee for Southeast Asia Family/Population Planning sponsored the workshop. The recommendations made at the meeting were: 1) standardization of financing reporting procedures by the region's country programs on family planning; 2) closer coordination between donor agencies and policy-making bodies of country programs in the disbursement of funds; 3) frequent exchanges of experiences, ideas, technicaL knowledge, and other matters pertaining to the financial management of such programs; and 4) inclusion of applicable financial management topics in the training of clinical staffs and those involved in follow-up operations. Additionally, a proposal was made that national population organizations or committees develop research and evaluation units. Workshop discussion sessions focused on financial planning and management, accounting and disbursement of funds, use and control of foreign aid, cost of effectiveness and benefit analysis, and financial reporting.

  20. Problem visits to a family planning clinic. (United States)

    Blumenthal, P D; Jacobson, J; Gaffikin, L


    In order to obtain information necessary for optimum delivery of services, data were collected on the nature of the services provided at a family planing clinic. Clinic visits were divided into initial, annual, routine, problem, supply, educational and unknown. An analysis of the "problem" visits was undertaken to assess various epidemiologic aspects of such visits and to identify areas of clinic efficiency that could be improved. Problem visits were defined as any visits for which the patient had a presenting complaint. Age, level of education, method of contraception and parity were statistically associated with problem visits. When compared to Pill users, diaphragm users, intrauterine device users and non-users had a higher-than-expected number of problem visits. Less educated women and teenagers had a lower-than-expected number of problem visits when compared to more educated and older women. Socioeconomic status and problem visits were not statistically associated. Problem visits required more time, utilized more medical services and resulted in more referrals to the gynecology clinic than did other visit types. As a result of this analysis, we have increased our educational efforts for patients at high risk of problem visits and have instituted a special problem-oriented family planning clinic in which a full complement of house staff and ancillary personnel are available. This arrangement makes the uncomplicated family planning clinic run more smoothly and efficiently and obviates the need for time-consuming and cost-ineffective referrals.

  1. A fresh look at family planning communication. (United States)

    Navarro, R C


    As a step toward development of a national information, education, and communication (IEC) plan, a reassessment of such efforts practiced by the agencies involved was undertaken. A paper published in 1978 by the Research Utilization Unit of the Population Information Division, Population Center Foundation, reviewed materials used and accounts of experience in conceptualizing and communicating family planning messages by 12 private and public sector agencies. The most common concepts employed by the agencies were small family size, responsible parenthood, family welfare, community and national development, birth spacing, delayed marriage, contraceptive use-effectiveness, "manliness," delayed 1st pregnancy, value and rights of children, human behavior and social environment, and population dynamics. Most of the messages were conceptualized and developed through formal and informal consultation with field staff. The need to consider the specific needs of target audiences was considered crucial, and thus decentralization of IEC production was recommended. Such decentralization has been a goal of the Philippine program since 1976, but the effort has been hampered by lack of local training and resources, and of studies to support successful implementation. Mass and mixed media approaches were found to be used by most of the agencies, although a reliance on interpersonal approaches was found to be most prevalent in rural areas. Among recommendations for policy makers were development of a systematized data base for IEC materials, regional capabilities in research and development, and studies of funding and existing resources.

  2. Improving Demand-oriented Quality Care in Family Planning--A Review of Practice and Experience in Family Planning Programme of Qianjiang, Hubei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-yuan LIAO; Meng-ye PENG; Er-sheng GAO


    @@ With the mainstreaming being the demand from the people at reproductive age, we systematically analyzed the ideas and ways to implement quality care (QC) in family planning (FP) in Qianjiang, including advocating the conception of quality care, carrying out health education and counseling, strengthening capacity building of service system and reforming measurement of the evaluation and other aspects. The demand-oriented QC in FP has met personalized and verified demands from people of reproductive age satisfactorily, and kept the fertility rate at a lower level while uplifting satisfaction of the public. The demand-oriented QC in FP in Qianjiang county proved to be a successful and great worth practice.

  3. Family planning services quality as a determinant of use of IUD in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montana Livia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both availability and quality of family planning services are believed to have contributed to increasing contraceptive use and declining fertility rates in developing countries. Yet, there is limited empirical evidence to show the relationship between the quality of family planning services and the population based prevalence of contraceptive methods. This study examined the relationship between quality of family planning services and use of intrauterine devices (IUD in Egypt. Methods The analysis used data from the 2003 Egypt Interim Demographic and Health Survey (EIDHS that included 8,445 married women aged 15–49, and the 2002 Egypt Service Provision Assessment (ESPA survey that included 602 facilities offering family planning services. The EIDHS collected latitude and longitude coordinates of all sampled clusters, and the ESPA collected these coordinates for all sampled facilities. Using Geographic Information System (GIS methods, individual women were linked to a facility located within 10 km of their community. A facility-level index was constructed to reflect the quality of family planning services. Four dimensions of quality of care were examined: counseling, examination room, supply of contraceptive methods, and management. Effects of quality of family planning services on the use of IUD and other contraceptive methods were estimated using multinomial logistic regression. Results are presented as relative risk ratios (RRR with significance levels (p-values. Results IUD use among women who obtained their method from public sources was significantly positively associated with quality of family planning services (RRR = 1.36, p Conclusion This study is one among the few that used geographic information to link data from a population-based survey with an independently sampled health facility survey. The findings demonstrate that service quality is an important determinant of use of clinical contraceptive methods in Egypt

  4. Li Xiuying’s Family Planning Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    PEOPLE in Yinan County refer to Li Xiuying, a doctor highly respected for her gynecological and obstetrics surgical skills, as "Magic Scalpel Li." Li Xiuying assumed the post as vice director of the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in the People’s Hospital in Yinan County at the young age of 27. She held the post for 12 years until 1988 when she was became director of the county’s Family Planning Service Center. Li had never pursued the new position, and was unable to accept the unexpected transfer, preferring instead to continue working in the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics throughout her career.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Kishore


    Full Text Available Objectives: 1. To evaluate the role of Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM as a spacing method. 2. To assess knowledge attitude and practices regarding breastfeeding. 3. To bring awareness regarding importance of breastfeeding on child health and as a method of family planning so that exclusive breast feeding is promoted. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: In rural village of district Wardha. Study Universe : All the lactating mothers who had2 children (one of which was less than 3 years. Study Variables: Duration of Breast Feeding, LAM, Importance of Breast Feeding. Knowledge of Colostrum, Awareness of Breast Feeding, etc. Statistical analysis used: Percentages and proportions. Result: A total 42 families were included in the survey of which 26 (61.9% belongs to nuclear families with majority of the women 19(45.2% in the age group of 20-25 yrs, 20 (47.6% were illiterate and 18(42.8% families were of lower Socio Economic Status. A directly proportional relationship was found between duration of Breastfeeding & LAM and period of LAM & age of youngest child when the mother delivered again. Only 31% knew about the importance of breastfeeding. 16.6% of woman initiated Breast Feeding within 1/2 hr.

  6. Introducing the World Health Organization Postpartum Family Planning Compendium. (United States)

    Sonalkar, Sarita; Gaffield, Mary E


    The postpartum period offers multiple opportunities for healthcare providers to assist with family planning decision making. However, there are also many changing factors during the first year after delivery that can affect family planning choices. Given that several different documents have addressed WHO guidance on postpartum family planning, the electronic WHO Postpartum Family Planning Compendium ( has been introduced. This resource integrates essential guidance on postpartum family planning for clinicians, program managers, and policy makers. The development of the Compendium included consultations with family planning experts, key international stakeholders, and web developers. Once the website had been created, user testing by family planning experts allowed for improvements to be made before the official launch. Future directions are adaptation of the website into a mobile application that can be more easily integrated to low-resource settings, and translation of the content into French and Spanish.

  7. Li Xiuzhen Recalls the History of Family Planning in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    FAMILY planning and population control has been the basic State policy of China since 1972. The 25th Article of the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China promulgated in 1978 stipulates, "The state promotes family planning so that population growth may fit the plans for economic and social development." The 49th Article stipulates, "Both husband and wife have the duty to practice family planning."

  8. [As index patient into therapeutic alternatives?--Children in systemic family therapy and counseling]. (United States)

    Vossler, A


    Since systemic therapy and counseling approaches have become established in child guidance, and children and adolescent psychiatry the understanding for children in the therapeutic context has also changed. They are part of the family system who, with their symptoms, point to restricting reality constructions and interaction patterns which create suffering (index patients). They are often treated correspondingly in the family setting. On this background this article investigates the special situation of children in the practice of systemic family therapy. The few results from studies from practice research dealing with this subject are compared with system-theoretical basic assumptions. The results indicate that the children are only insufficiently integrated into the therapy sessions and are excluded partly. They often experience the family discussions as being adult-oriented and feel that their needs and views are considered only slightly. Possible causes for this may be expecting too much emotionally and/or cognitively especially from younger children with family-oriented methods (such as circular questioning) as well as deficits in the training of family therapists. The closing thoughts on the therapeutic implications from the presented results include suggestions on methodical approaches more suitable for children and a reflected therapeutic attitude (transparency, participation, respect) towards children.

  9. Improving the urban family planning programme. (United States)


    This report presents the directives on improving urban family planning (FP) programs issued by various Chinese departments in March 1997. The departments included the State Family Planning Commission, State Economic and Trade Commission, Ministry of Public Security, Ministry of Personnel, Ministry of Labor, Ministry of Public Health, and the National Industrial and Commercial Administration. The directives related to time frame, objectives, management, local level operations, IEC, the floating population's needs, the responsibility system, and a well-trained staff. It was stated that urban FP improvements will take some time, due to expansion of urban population, the increase in floating population, and the demand for quality services. The guiding principles support Deng Xiaoping's theory of building socialism with Chinese characteristics and balancing population with socioeconomic and sustainable development. The aim is to improve IEC and services and achieve low fertility as a way of creating favorable demographics for modernization. Leaders must be held responsible for the practice of FP in their unit. Subdistrict offices are a key link for managing FP in all units and neighborhood committees in their territory. Efforts need to be increased to spread IEC on population and FP and to reduce abortion. Every department registry should make an effort to provide comprehensive FP to floating populations. Urban centers should concentrate on improving the quality of FP services. Staff should be carefully chosen.

  10. Priority strategies for India's family planning programme. (United States)

    Pachauri, Saroj


    Strategies to accelerate progress of India's family planning programme are discussed and the importance of improving the quality and reach of services to address unmet contraceptive need by providing method choice is emphasized. Although there is a growing demand for both limiting and spacing births, female sterilisation, is the dominant method in the national programme and use of spacing methods remains very limited. Fertility decline has been slower in the empowered action group (EAG) states which contribute about 40 per cent of population growth to the country and also depict gloomy statistics for other socio-development indicators. It is, therefore, important to intensify efforts to reduce both fertility and mortality in these states. arationale has been provided for implementing integrated programmes using a gender lens because the lack of women's autonomy in reproductive decision-making, compounded by poor male involvement in sexual and reproductive health matters, is a fundamental issue yet to be addressed. The need for collaboration between scientists developing contraceptive technologies and those implementing family planning services is underscored. If contraceptive technologies are developed with an understanding of the contexts in which they will be delivered and an appreciation of end-users' needs and perspectives, they are more likely to be accepted by service providers and used by clients.

  11. Midwives' adoption of the reproductive life plan in contraceptive counselling: a mixed methods study (United States)

    Stern, J.; Bodin, M.; Grandahl, M.; Segeblad, B.; Axén, L.; Larsson, M.; Tydén, T.


    STUDY QUESTION How is the reproductive life plan (RLP) adopted in midwifery contraceptive counselling? SUMMARY ANSWER A majority of midwives adopted the RLP in their counselling, had predominantly positive experiences and considered it a feasible tool for promoting reproductive health. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The RLP is a health-promoting tool recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the USA for improving preconception health. It was recently used in a clinical setting in Sweden and was found to increase women's knowledge about fertility and to influence women's wishes to have their last child earlier in life. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION An exploratory mixed methods study among 68 midwives who provided contraceptive counselling in primary health care to at least 20 women each during the study period. Midwives received an introduction and materials for using the RLP in contraceptive counselling. Three months later, in the spring of 2014, they were invited to complete a questionnaire and participate in a focus group interview about their adoption of the RLP. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Data collection was through a questionnaire (n = 53 out of 68; participation rate 78%) and five focus group interviews (n = 22). Participants included both younger and older midwives with longer and shorter experiences of contraceptive counselling in public and private health care in one Swedish county. Quantitative data were analysed for differences between users and non-users, and qualitative data were analysed by qualitative content analysis to explore the midwives experiences and opinions of using the RLP. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Sixty-eight per cent of midwives had used the RLP in their contraceptive counselling. Four categories emerged through the focus group interviews: (i) A predominantly positive experience; (ii) The RLP—a health-promoting tool; (iii) individual and societal factors influence the RLP counselling; and (4) long

  12. Midwives' adoption of the reproductive life plan in contraceptive counselling: a mixed methods study. (United States)

    Stern, J; Bodin, M; Grandahl, M; Segeblad, B; Axén, L; Larsson, M; Tydén, T


    How is the reproductive life plan (RLP) adopted in midwifery contraceptive counselling? A majority of midwives adopted the RLP in their counselling, had predominantly positive experiences and considered it a feasible tool for promoting reproductive health. The RLP is a health-promoting tool recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the USA for improving preconception health. It was recently used in a clinical setting in Sweden and was found to increase women's knowledge about fertility and to influence women's wishes to have their last child earlier in life. An exploratory mixed methods study among 68 midwives who provided contraceptive counselling in primary health care to at least 20 women each during the study period. Midwives received an introduction and materials for using the RLP in contraceptive counselling. Three months later, in the spring of 2014, they were invited to complete a questionnaire and participate in a focus group interview about their adoption of the RLP. Data collection was through a questionnaire (n = 53 out of 68; participation rate 78%) and five focus group interviews (n = 22). Participants included both younger and older midwives with longer and shorter experiences of contraceptive counselling in public and private health care in one Swedish county. Quantitative data were analysed for differences between users and non-users, and qualitative data were analysed by qualitative content analysis to explore the midwives experiences and opinions of using the RLP. Sixty-eight per cent of midwives had used the RLP in their contraceptive counselling. Four categories emerged through the focus group interviews: (i) A predominantly positive experience; (ii) The RLP-a health-promoting tool; (iii) individual and societal factors influence the RLP counselling; and (4) long-term implementation comprises opportunities, risks and needs. The most common reason for not using the RLP was lack of information. There was general lack of

  13. Expanding human immunodeficiency virus testing and counseling to reach tuberculosis clients' partners and families. (United States)

    Courtenay-Quirk, C; Date, A; Bachanas, P; Baggaley, R; Getahun, H; Nelson, L; Granich, R


    Recent years have shown important increases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing and counseling (HTC), diagnosis, and coverage of antiretroviral therapy (ART) among HIV-infected tuberculosis (TB) patients. Expansion of HTC for partners and families are critical next steps to increase earlier HIV diagnoses and access to ART, and to achieve international goals for reduced TB and HIV-related morbidity, mortality, transmission and costs. TB and HIV programs should develop and evaluate feasible and effective strategies to increase access to HTC among the partners and families of TB patients, and ensure that newly diagnosed people living with HIV and HIV-infected TB patients who complete anti-tuberculosis treatment are successfully linked to ongoing HIV clinical care.

  14. Marketing family planning services in New Orleans. (United States)

    Bertrand, J T; Proffitt, B J; Bartlett, T L


    The health care profession is witnessing a shift in focus from the interests and needs of the service provider to those of the potential consumer in an effort to attract and maintain clients. This study illustrates the role that marketing research can play in the development of program strategies, even for relatively small organizations. The study was conducted for Planned Parenthood of Louisiana, a recently organized affiliate that began offering clinical services in May 1984, to provide information on the four Ps of marketing: product, price, place, and promotion. Data from telephone interviews among a random sample of 1,000 women 15-35 years old in New Orleans before the clinic opened confirmed that the need for family planning services was not entirely satisfied by existing service providers. Moreover, it indicated that clinic hours and the cost of services were in line with client interests. The most useful findings for developing the promotional strategy were the relatively low name recognition of Planned Parenthood and a higher-than-expected level of interest that young, low income blacks expressed in using the service. PMID:3112854

  15. Marketing family planning services in New Orleans. (United States)

    Bertrand, J T; Proffitt, B J; Bartlett, T L


    The health care profession is witnessing a shift in focus from the interests and needs of the service provider to those of the potential consumer in an effort to attract and maintain clients. This study illustrates the role that marketing research can play in the development of program strategies, even for relatively small organizations. The study was conducted for Planned Parenthood of Louisiana, a recently organized affiliate that began offering clinical services in May 1984, to provide information on the four Ps of marketing: product, price, place, and promotion. Data from telephone interviews among a random sample of 1,000 women 15-35 years old in New Orleans before the clinic opened confirmed that the need for family planning services was not entirely satisfied by existing service providers. Moreover, it indicated that clinic hours and the cost of services were in line with client interests. The most useful findings for developing the promotional strategy were the relatively low name recognition of Planned Parenthood and a higher-than-expected level of interest that young, low income blacks expressed in using the service.

  16. Overcoming Barriers to Family Planning through Integration: Perspectives of HIV-Positive Men in Nyanza Province, Kenya

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    Rachel L. Steinfeld


    Full Text Available This study explored barriers to and facilitators of using family planning services among HIV-positive men in Nyanza Province, Kenya. From May to June 2010, in-depth interviews were conducted with 30 men receiving care at 15 HIV clinics. The key barriers to the use of family planning included concerns about side effects of contraceptives, lack of knowledge about contraceptive methods, myths and misconceptions including fear of infertility, structural barriers such as staffing shortages at HIV clinics, and a lack of male focus in family planning methods and service delivery. The integration of family planning into HIV clinics including family planning counseling and education was cited as an important strategy to improve family planning receptivity among men. Integrating family planning into HIV services is a promising strategy to facilitate male involvement in family planning. Integration needs to be rigorously evaluated in order to measure its impact on unmet need for contraception among HIV-positive women and their partners and assure that it is implemented in a manner that engages both men and women.

  17. Quality of Care in Family Planning Program in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-ming XIE; Hong-yan LIU


    Objective To sum up the theory of quality care according to the experience of F.P. program in China.Methods The author summarized the QOC theory and draw on its experiences and strength in family planning program in China.Results The theory facilitated the earnest program of the population and family planning program during the tenth five-year plan period, benefited the realization of the innovation of system and mechanism in population and family planning work, and the creation of a nice population environment for the healthy social and economic development in China.Conclusion The development of QOC has displayed a conspicuous theory in China's family planning program.

  18. Main points for 1991 family planning work. (United States)


    The main points for 1991 Family Planning (FP) Work in China are discussed as follows: 1) strengthen leadership, 2) strengthen grass roots buildup, 3 intensify population plan management and improve the responsibility system, 4) strengthen publicity and promote population and FP education in rural areas, 5) strengthen and establish the legal system for FP management, 6) provide excellent contraceptive and birth control services, 7 perform inservice training conscientiously and technical secondary education earnestly, and 8) coordinate efforts among related departments. Leadership changes involve the 2 top leaders of the Communist Party Committees and governments at each level taking personal responsibility for the implementation of their local population plans and FP work. FP work must have a prominent place on all agendas. The FP service network needs to be accelerated in countries, townships, and villages and grass roots units strengthened in urban areas. Provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities must work out their local population plans for 1991-95 and 1991-99 according to the national population target. Rational apportionment needs to be considered for prefectures and counties. The emphasis should be on timely and accurate feedback and statistical supervision. The 1990 national population census data should be used to inform everyone about the current population situation. Legal needs entail standardizing documentation and developing local laws and regulations within a comprehensive system. Improvements are needed in such areas as rules and regulations pertaining to the administration of charges for unplanned births, identification of disabled children and approval of the birth quota. Abortion and unplanned births are to be averted through prepregnancy management. The emphasis is on voluntary use of contraception by couples of childbearing age. Inservice training should improve the political, ideological, professional proficiency, and ability to

  19. Perceptions of preconception counselling among women planning a pregnancy: a qualitative study. (United States)

    van der Zee, Boukje; de Beaufort, Inez D; Steegers, Eric A P; Denktas, Semiha


    Preconception care is a promising new approach to improve the health of future children through primary intervention. Although most women have a positive attitude towards preconception care, women often do not seek preconception care for themselves. To explore women's hesitancy to seek preconception counselling. An empirical-analytic approach was used to explore women's hesitation to seek preconception counselling. In-depth, semi-structured, face-to-face interviews (n = 16) of women desiring to conceive were conducted, and responses were analysed using the determinants 'attitude' and 'subjective norms' of the Theory of Planned Behaviour of Ajzen. The interviewed women expressed a positive attitude towards preconception care in general but were hesitant about seeking preconception care themselves. Women seemed to regard themselves as not being in the target group for preconception care. Additionally, we identified the following four subthemes of subjective norms around the process of becoming pregnant: planning, publicity, information on fertility and artificiality. Women do not consider themselves to be part of the target group for preconception care. In some aspects, subjective norms around the process of becoming pregnant may conflict with the current practice of preconception care. Recommendations are provided.

  20. Family-planning services in a low-performing rural area of Bangladesh: insights from field observations. (United States)

    Hanifi, S M; Bhuiya, A


    This paper mainly reports the results of an observational study carried out during 1994-1995 in five rural unions of Bangladesh to identify the barriers to adoption of family-planning methods. At the time of the survey, one-fifth of 1,889 mothers with a living child, aged less than five years, were practising modern family-planning methods. Of the methods used, oral pill was the most common (50%), followed by injectables (20%), female sterilization (13%), IUD (11%), and condom (4%). Various factors that were responsible for the low performance of the family-planning programme included: inadequacy of motivational work by the field workers, poor counselling on the management of contraceptive-related side-effects, inadequate response to the needs of clients, irregular field visits, and poor supervision and monitoring. The efficiency of the programme needs to be improved to meet the demand for family-planning methods in Chakaria, Bangladesh.

  1. Action now in family planning: the role of nurse. (United States)

    Malhotra, A K; Kapur, S


    In India, nurses at all organizational levels can play a vital role in the national family planning program. Family planning is an integral component of family welfare, and the control of population growth is crucial for the economic and social development of the country. The goals of the family planning program are to promote the small family ideal, to disseminate family planning information, and to ensure that contraceptive supplies and services are available to all couples. Administrative nurses at the national level can further these goals by 1) advocating appropriate policies and influencing budget allocations, 2) preparing family planning guidelines for state directors of nursing, and 3) ensuring that all senior nurses are provided with in-service family planning education. Administrators in training facilities can ensure that an effective and up-to-date family planning component is a part of all nurses' training programs and that students receive clinical experience in family planning. In hospitals, nursing superintendents can develop family planning seminars and discussion sessions for the nursing staff and provide incentives for nurses to motivate couples toward family planning. Nurses working in pediatric and gynecology wards are in an ideal position to alert mothers to the health problems associated with repeated and closely spaced pregnancies. They can arrange to show family planning films to the mothers, display posters on the ward halls, and organize family planning discussion groups among the patients. Nurses working in prenatal and postpartum clinics can inform the mothers, as well as the factors who frequently accompany their wives to the clinics, about the advantages of family planning. School nurses can familiarize students with the advantages of small family size. Children can sometimes motivate their parents to limit family size. Community health nurses generally play a major role in disseminating contraceptive information and in providing

  2. Medicaid Family Planning Waivers in 3 States

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    E. Kathleen Adams PhD


    Full Text Available Effects of Medicaid family planning waivers on unintended births and contraceptive use postpartum were examined in Illinois, New York, and Oregon using the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System. Estimates for women who would be Medicaid eligible “if” pregnant in the waiver states and states without expansions were derived using a difference-in-differences approach. Waivers in New York and Illinois were associated with almost a 5.0 percentage point reduction in unwanted births among adults and with a 7 to 8.0 percentage point reduction, among youth less than 21 years of age. Oregon’s waiver was associated with an almost 13 percentage point reduction in unintended, mostly mistimed, births. No statistically significant effects were found on contraceptive use.

  3. Charging fees for family planning services. (United States)


    As the demand for family planning services expands, governments and international donor agencies are finding it increasingly difficult to subsidize the costs of these services and are examining the feasibility of client fees. This issue of "The Family Planning Manager" evaluates the pros and cons of charging for services and outlines steps for instituting such a program. This process should be preceded by an assessment of the objective in introducing user fees, the ability and willingness of clients to pay for services, client perceptions of the quality of services, possible regulatory and political restrictions to charging fees, and the actual cost of each service provided. Registration, membership, service, and contraception fees are among the approaches to revenue generation. Fee determination can be based on ability to pay, fees charged for comparable services at benchmark clinics, in relation to the price of common household commodities (e.g., annual membership equivalent to the cost of 12 soft drinks), or specific cost recovery objectives (e.g., 25% of operating costs). The introduction of client fees requires a system for collecting and checking fees at service sites, exemption policies or waivers for those not able to afford the cost of services, internal financial controls, and regular financial reporting procedures. The community has a right to be informed about the fees that will be charged for each service, how the fees are being used, and whether the organization is making a profit. It is important to emphasize that revenue from fees will be used to enhance the quality of clinic services.

  4. Outcomes of a randomised controlled trial of a complex genetic counselling intervention to improve family communication. (United States)

    Hodgson, Jan; Metcalfe, Sylvia; Gaff, Clara; Donath, Susan; Delatycki, Martin B; Winship, Ingrid; Skene, Loane; Aitken, MaryAnne; Halliday, Jane


    When an inherited genetic condition is diagnosed in an individual it has implications for other family members. Privacy legislation and ethical considerations can restrict health professionals from communicating directly with other family members, and so it is frequently the responsibility of the first person in a family to receive the diagnosis (the proband) to share this news. Communication of genetic information is challenging and many at-risk family members remain unaware of important information that may be relevant to their or their children's health. We conducted a randomised controlled trial in six public hospitals to assess whether a specifically designed telephone counselling intervention improved family communication about a new genetic diagnosis. Ninety-five probands/parents of probands were recruited from genetics clinics and randomised to the intervention or control group. The primary outcome measure was the difference between the proportion of at-risk relatives who contacted genetics services for information and/or genetic testing. Audit of the family genetic file after 18 months revealed that 25.6% of intervention group relatives compared with 20.9% of control group relatives made contact with genetic services (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.30, 95% confidence interval 0.70-2.42, P=0.40). Although no major difference was detected overall between the intervention and control groups, there was more contact in the intervention group where the genetic condition conferred a high risk to offspring (adjusted OR 24.0, 95% confidence interval 3.4-168.5, P=0.001). The increasing sophistication and scope of genetic testing makes it imperative for health professionals to consider additional ways of supporting families in communicating genetic information.

  5. Theoretical Foundation of Family Health Promotion—the Orientation of Family Planning Development in Urban Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Er-sheng GAO; Jie YANG; Li-feng ZHOU; Mao-hua MIAO


    Objective To make a theoretical exploration of the function of family-based health promotion in family planning development.Methods Given the notion of reproductive health and the function of family in society,the author bring forward a new mode of family planning service, that was "healthy,happy household promotion" based on the principle of health education and health promotion.Results The mode of "healthy, happy household promotion" reflected the new F.P.service mode, and was the direction of family planning service. It might benefit both service provider and clients to make the family as the entrance point of quality care of reproductive health in communities, to develop health education and health promotion,and promote family health and family happiness.Conclusion Family health and family happiness should be the final goal of family planning.

  6. The Effect of Family Counseling on Parental Rearing Behavior to Middle School Students%家庭咨询对改善中学生父母养育方式的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭代林; 李薇; 吴银杰; 李大林; 刘丁洪; 尹万森; 刘国清


    Objective: To explore the effect of family counseling to correct the parental unheathy rearing behavior on middle school students. Methods: The parental rearing style was assessed with EMBU. Collective and individual family counseling are conducted to the student's family. Results: The effect of family counseling was significant and was related to education degree of parents. Conclusion:Family counseling was effective to improve parent's rearing behavior.

  7. Using mass transit public service advertising to market family planning. (United States)

    Blonna, R; McNally, K; Grasso, C


    To increase public awareness of family planning services in New Jersey, the Family Planning Program of the State Department of Health conducted an intermediary marketing campaign using free public service advertising on mass transit. In 1986, the year of the campaign, 237 calls were made to the advertised hotline, resulting in a like number of referrals to family planning service providers. Also, 2664 new patients examined in the state's family planning agencies in 1986 cited exposure to the media campaign as the reason for their visits. The results of the campaign and their implications for other public service agencies are discussed.

  8. A family planning study in Kuala Pilah, Peninsular Malaysia. (United States)

    Vimala Thambypillai


    Realizing that family planning is not making a sufficient impact on the rural people as it is on the urban population, it was decided that the authors would study the attitude and knowledge of a rural community towards family planning. The study sample consisted of 200 Malay married women--100 acceptors and 100 nonacceptors from the Kuala Pilah District. The study went from December 4-22, 1978. A healthy climate of knowledge and attitude exist among rural Malay women. Only 2% of the nonacceptors had not heard of any family planning method; 99% of acceptors and 85% of nonacceptors had discussed family planning with their husbands. There was also evidence to show that the birthrate does decrease as literacy increases. On the other hand, however, only 19% of the respondents approved of family planning practices prior to the birth of the 1st child. Also, there is a dearth of information on family planning in the rural areas and not much has been done in utilizing the 2 popular forms of mass media--radio and television as a means of disseminating information on family planning. The study concludes with a recommendation that there is a need for a sustained effort at improving knowledge and disseminating information as well as for developing the proper attitude towards family planning. It is suggested that community leaders, women's clubs, and private organizations be mobilized to participate more fully in the promotion of family planning.

  9. Work-Family Planning Attitudes among Emerging Adults (United States)

    Basuil, Dynah A.; Casper, Wendy J.


    Using social learning theory as a framework, we explore two sets of antecedents to work and family role planning attitudes among emerging adults: their work-family balance self-efficacy and their perceptions of their parents' work-to-family conflict. A total of 187 college students completed a questionnaire concerning their work-family balance…

  10. Family planning providers' perspectives on family planning service delivery in Ibadan and Kaduna, Nigeria: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Hebert, Luciana Estelle; Schwandt, Hilary Megan; Boulay, Marc; Skinner, Joanna


    In Nigeria, fertility continues to be high and contraceptive prevalence remains low. This study was conducted in order to understand the perceptions of, experiences with and challenges of delivering family planning services in two urban areas of Nigeria from the perspectives of family planning service providers. A qualitative study using 59 in-depth interviews was conducted among family planning providers working in hospitals, primary health centres, clinics, pharmacies and patent medicine vendors in Ibadan and Kaduna, Nigeria. Providers support a mix of individuals and organisations involved in family planning provision, including the government of Nigeria. The Nigerian government's role can take a variety of forms, including providing promotional materials for family planning facilities as well as facilitating training and educational opportunities for providers, since many providers lack basic training in family planning provision. Providers often describe their motivation to provide in terms of the health benefits offered by family planning methods. Few providers engage in any marketing of their services and many providers exclude youth and unmarried individuals from their services. The family planning provider community supports a diverse network of providers, but needs further training and support in order to improve the quality of care and market their services. Adolescents, unmarried individuals and women seeking post-abortion care are vulnerable populations that providers need to be better educated about and trained in how to serve. The perspectives of providers should be considered when designing family planning interventions in urban areas of Nigeria.

  11. Expert Group Meeting on Family Planning, Health and Family Well-Being. (United States)


    As part of the preparations for the 1994 UN International Conference on Population and Development, an expert group meeting on family planning (FP), health, and family well-being was held in India on October 26-30, 1992. The group focused on the following issues: 1) society and FP, a review of existing FP programs, and the implementation of FP programs (including quality of services and human resources development, unreached populations, adolescent fertility, diffusion of innovative activities, community-based distribution systems and social marketing, and future contraceptive requirements and logistics management needs); 2) FP and health (including safe motherhood and child survival, the interdependence of services, sexually transmitted diseases [STDs], and AIDS); 3) FP and family well-being (including family size, family structure, child development, fertility decline, and family support systems); and 4) the involvement of people in FP programs (community participation, cost of supplies and service, contraceptive research and development, and a reexamination of the roles of various agencies). Both developed and developing countries were considered, with an emphasis on the latter. After reviewing the progress made in implementing the World Population Plan of Action adopted in Bucharest in 1974, the expert group drafted 35 recommendations to governments, donors, and other agencies. Governments are asked to support FP programs as a cost-effective component of a development strategy, to provide opportunities for women to participate in public policy processes, to support the family through public policies and programs, to increase investments in FP and reproductive and maternal and child health, to increase support to the health and education sectors to achieve basic human rights, to provide safe access to counseling and abortion services, and to include STD/HIV education and prevention in the work of FP programs. FP programs should receive support and funding and

  12. Choices on contraceptive methods in post-abortion family planning clinic in the northeast Brazil

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    Braga Cynthia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Brazil, a Ministry of Health report revealed women who underwent an abortion were predominantly in the use of contraceptive methods, but mentioned inconsistent or erroneously contraceptive use. Promoting the use of contraceptive methods to prevent unwanted pregnancies is one of the most effective strategies to reduce abortion rates and maternal morbidity and mortality. Therefore, providing post-abortion family planning services that include structured contraceptive counseling with free and easy access to contraceptive methods can be suitable. So the objective of this study is to determine the acceptance and selection of contraceptive methods followed by a post-abortion family planning counseling. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out from July to October 2008, enrolling 150 low income women to receive post-abortion care at a family planning clinic in a public hospital located in Recife, Brazil. The subjects were invited to take part of the study before receiving hospital leave from five different public maternities. An appointment was made for them at a family planning clinic at IMIP from the 8th to the 15th day after they had undergone an abortion. Every woman received information on contraceptive methods, side effects and fertility. Counseling was individualized and addressed them about feelings, expectations and motivations regarding contraception as well as pregnancy intention. Results Of all women enrolled in this study, 97.4% accepted at least one contraceptive method. Most of them (73.4% had no previous abortion history. Forty of the women who had undergone a previous abortion, 47.5% reported undergoing unsafe abortion. Slightly more than half of the pregnancies (52% were unwanted. All women had knowledge of the use of condoms, oral contraceptives and injectables. The most chosen method was injectables, followed by oral contraceptives and condoms. Only one woman chose an intrauterine device. Conclusion The

  13. Family planning knowledge, attitude and practice among married couples in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia.

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    Tizta Tilahun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding why people do not use family planning is critical to address unmet needs and to increase contraceptive use. According to the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey 2011, most women and men had knowledge on some family planning methods but only about 29% of married women were using contraceptives. 20% women had an unmet need for family planning. We examined knowledge, attitudes and contraceptive practice as well as factors related to contraceptive use in Jimma zone, Ethiopia. METHODS: Data were collected from March to May 2010 among 854 married couples using a multi-stage sampling design. Quantitative data based on semi-structured questionnaires was triangulated with qualitative data collected during focus group discussions. We compared proportions and performed logistic regression analysis. RESULT: The concept of family planning was well known in the studied population. Sex-stratified analysis showed pills and injectables were commonly known by both sexes, while long-term contraceptive methods were better known by women, and traditional methods as well as emergency contraception by men. Formal education was the most important factor associated with better knowledge about contraceptive methods (aOR = 2.07, p<0.001, in particular among women (aOR(women = 2.77 vs. aOR(men = 1.49; p<0.001. In general only 4 out of 811 men ever used contraception, while 64% and 43% females ever used and were currently using contraception respectively. CONCLUSION: The high knowledge on contraceptives did not match with the high contraceptive practice in the study area. The study demonstrates that mere physical access (proximity to clinics for family planning and awareness of contraceptives are not sufficient to ensure that contraceptive needs are met. Thus, projects aiming at increasing contraceptive use should contemplate and establish better counseling about contraceptive side effects and method switch. Furthermore in all family planning

  14. Contraceptive discontinuation and switching among couples receiving integrated HIV and family planning services in Lusaka, Zambia (United States)

    Haddad, Lisa; Wall, Kristin M; Vwalika, Bellington; Htee Khu, Naw; Brill, Ilene; Kilembe, William; Stephenson, Rob; Chomba, Elwyn; Vwalika, Cheswa; Tichacek, Amanda; Allen, Susan


    Objective To describe predictors of contraceptive method discontinuation and switching behaviors among HIV positive couples receiving couples' voluntary HIV counseling and testing services in Lusaka, Zambia. Design Couples were randomized in a factorial design to two family planning educational intervention videos, received comprehensive family planning services, and were assessed every 3-months for contraceptive initiation, discontinuation and switching. Methods We modeled factors associated with contraceptive method upgrading and downgrading via multivariate Andersen-Gill models. Results Most women continued the initial method selected after randomization. The highest rates of discontinuation/switching were observed for injectable contraceptive and intrauterine device users. Time to discontinuing the more effective contraceptive methods or downgrading to oral contraceptives or condoms was associated with the women's younger age, desire for more children within the next year, heavy menstrual bleeding, bleeding between periods, and cystitis/dysuria. Health concerns among women about contraceptive implants and male partners not wanting more children were associated with upgrading from oral contraceptives or condoms. HIV status of the woman or the couple was not predictive of switching or stopping. Conclusions We found complicated patterns of contraceptive use. The predictors of contraception switching indicate that interventions targeted to younger couples that address common contraception-related misconceptions could improve effective family planning utilization. We recommend these findings be used to increase the uptake and continuation of contraception, especially long acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods, and that fertility-goal based, LARC-focused family planning be offered as an integral part of HIV prevention services. PMID:24088689

  15. Family Planning Providers' Experiences and Perceptions of Long ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    sectional study with concurrent triangulation in which the ... support and validate the challenges and practices discussed in a ... specific family planning methods at the clinic, and for each ... We also assessed providers' family planning ... relationships among themes11. ..... the world where popular understanding of anatomy.

  16. Use of family planning methods in Kassala, Eastern Sudan

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    Mamoun Mona


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigating use and determinants of family planning methods may be instructive in the design of interventions to improve reproductive health services. Findings Across sectional community-based study was conducted during the period February-April 2010 to investigate the use of family planning in Kassala, eastern Sudan. Structured questionnaires were used to gather socio-demographic data and use of family planning. The mean ± SD of the age and parity of 613 enrolled women was 31.1 ± 7 years and 3.4 ± 1.9, respectively. Only 44.0% of these women had previously or currently used one or more of the family planning methods. Combined pills (46.7% and progesterone injection (17.8% were the predominant method used by the investigated women. While age, residence were not associated with the use of family planning, parity (> five, couple education (≥ secondary level were significantly associated with the use of family planning. Husband objection and religious beliefs were the main reasons of non-use of family planning. Conclusion Education, encouragement of health education programs and involvement of the religious persons might promote family planning in eastern Sudan.

  17. Quality of family planning services in Northwest Ethiopia | Fantahun ...

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    Ethiopian Journal of Health Development ... Background: The unmet need for family planning services in Ethiopia is believed to ... It is thus expected that an assessment and improvement of the quality of family planning services could enhance ... About 98.5% of the clients were not asked about STD risk and only 3.0% of the ...

  18. Achievements of the Iranian family planning programmes 1956-2006. (United States)

    Simbar, M


    Family planning programmes initiated in the Islamic Republic of Iran from 1966 met with limited success. Following the 1986 census family planning was considered a priority and was supported by the country's leaders. Appropriate strategies based on the principles of health promotion led to an increase in the contraceptive prevalence rate among married women from 49.0% in 1989 to 73.8% in 2006. This paper reviews the family planning programmes in the Islamic Republic of Iran and their achievements during the last 4 decades and discusses the principles of health promotion and theories of behaviour change which may explain these achievements. Successful strategies included: creation of a supportive environment, reorientation of family planning services, expanding of coverage of family planning services, training skilled personnel, providing free contraceptives as well as vasectomy and tubectomy services, involvement of volunteers and nongovernmental organizations and promotion of male participation.

  19. HIV is always with me: men living with perinatally acquired HIV and planning their families

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    Echenique MI


    Full Text Available Marisa I Echenique,1 Rachel S Bookman,1 Violeta J Rodriguez,1 Richard P LaCabe,1 JoNell Efantis Potter,2 Deborah L Jones1 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA Abstract: Once expected to not survive childhood, youth with perinatally acquired HIV (YPHIV have now reached young adulthood and are of reproductive age and sexually active. Given the health impact of pregnancy among YPHIV, understanding reproductive decision making may inform preconception counseling strategies. Most literature regarding reproductive health among YPHIV focuses on women, overlooking one of the most important factors influencing the reproductive decision-making process, male sexual partners. This study examined attitudes, perceptions, and experiences of young men with perinatally acquired HIV (YMPHIV regarding family planning and relationships, safer sex, disclosure, stigma, and psychological health. Participants (n=21 were YMPHIV aged 18–24 years recruited in Miami, Florida. Focus groups (n=4 were conducted; qualitative data were analyzed using grounded theory. HIV disclosure, stigma, fertility intentions, safer preconception knowledge, attitudes and practices, family planning communication with medical providers and family, and mental health emerged as themes. Results suggest that despite accurate knowledge regarding healthy preconception practices, psychopathology, substance use, and stigma impact the uptake of HIV health care interventions. Effective interventions on preconception counseling may require more tailored approaches than knowledge-based psychoeducation alone, such as inclusion of psychological treatment, which could be offered in HIV health care settings to optimize health outcomes. Keywords: preconception counseling, fertility decision making, young adults, HIV risk reduction, HIV knowledge

  20. Changes in contraceptive use following integration of family planning into ART Services in Cross River State, Nigeria. (United States)

    McCarraher, Donna R; Vance, Gwyneth; Gwarzo, Usman; Taylor, Douglas; Chabikuli, Otto Nzapfurundi


    One strategy for meeting the contraceptive needs of HIV-positive women is to integrate family planning into HIV services. In 2008 in Cross River State, Nigeria,family planning was integrated into antiretroviral (ART) services in five local government areas. A basic family planning/HIV integration model was implemented in three of these areas, and an enhanced model in the other two. We conducted baseline interviews in 2008 and follow-up interviews 12-14 months later with 274 female ART clients aged 18-45 in 2009 across the five areas. Unmet need for contraception was high at baseline (28-35 percent). We found that modern contraceptive use rose in the enhanced and basic groups; most of the increase was in consistent condom use. Despite an increase in family planning counseling by ART providers, referrals to family planning services for noncondom methods were low. We conclude by presenting alternative strategies for family planning/HIV integration in settings where large families and low contraceptive use are normative.

  1. Impact of Genetic Counseling in Women with a Family History of Breast Cancer in Italy. (United States)

    Godino, Lea; Razzaboni, Elisabetta; Bianconi, Margherita; Turchetti, Daniela


    As the impact of breast cancer (BC) risk assessment in asymptomatic women with a family history of BC had never been explored in Italy, we performed a study on a retrospective series of women who had undergone BC risk assessment. To this aim, a semi-structured telephone interview was administered to 82 women. Most participants considered the information received as clear (96.2 %) and helpful (76.8 %). Thirty-eight (46.3 %) stated that their perceived risk of BC had changed after the counseling: for 40.2 % it had decreased, for 6.1 % increased; however, women highly overestimating their risk at the baseline (≥ 4-fold) failed to show improvements in risk perception accuracy. Sixty-six women (80.5 %) stated they had followed the recommended surveillance, while 19.5 % had not, mainly due to difficulties in arranging examinations. Most women (89.0 %) had shared the information with their relatives, with 57.3 % reporting other family members had undertaken the recommended surveillance. BC risk assessment was associated with high rates of satisfaction and had a favorable impact on risk perception in a subgroup of women. The impact on surveillance adhesion extended to relatives. Organized programs for identification and surveillance may help identify a larger fraction of at-risk women and overcome the reported difficulties in arranging surveillance.

  2. Contraception and family planning among HIV-seroconcordant and -serodiscordant couples in the US and Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah L Jones


    Full Text Available Deborah L Jones1, Olga Villar-Loubet1, Chipepo Kankasa2, Ndashi Chitalu2, Miriam Mumbi2, Stephen M Weiss11Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; 2Department of Paediatrics, University of Zambia School of Medicine, Lusaka, ZambiaAbstract: With the advent of antiretroviral therapy, remarkable progress has been made in the reduction of morbidity and mortality associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. As a result, in both the developed and developing world, reproductive decision-making and family planning has re-emerged as an important health issue among HIV-seroconcordant and -serodiscordant couples. This study sought to explore contraceptive attitudes and practices among HIV-seropositive and -serodiscordant couples in the US and Zambia and to compare contraceptive decision-making between seroconcordant and discordant couples. Study results suggest that while most participants expressed a willingness to use protection to prevent pregnancy, the majority were not using protection consistently. Similarly, among seropositive younger men in both the US and Zambia, more men expressed a desire to have children than women of either serostatus group. Study outcomes also suggest that male and female condom use to reduce HIV transmission within couples is limited. Thus, as males are largely the sexual decision makers regarding condom use, women’s attitudes or plans regarding child bearing may be eclipsed by those of their male partners, and recent reductions in provision of female condoms in the developing world may further reduce women’s options to protect themselves and prevent pregnancy. Education and counseling on vertical and horizontal transmission of HIV among both seropositive and serodiscordant couples should be an element of family planning efforts. Conversely, family planning should be a critical element of HIV counseling and testing strategies to

  3. [World population, family planning and development]. (United States)

    Van Roosmalen, J


    The 1991 world population report of the UNFPA projects a world population of 8.504 billion by 2025. The prevalence of the use of modern contraceptives increased from 9% in previous years to an average of 51% at the present time: to 70% in East Asia, to 60% in Latin America, but only to 17% in Africa. 20% of pregnancies are unwanted, the prevention of which would reduce the expected population by 2.2 billion people in 2100. Without birth control programs today there would be 412 million more people in Asia, Latin America, and Africa; and in 2100 1.48 billion would live on Earth instead of 10 billion forecast by the World Bank. The aim of UNFPA is to increase contraceptive prevalence form 51% to 59% by 2000: from 381 million users in 1991 to 567 million acceptors. Only 15% of men use contraceptives, although the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases especially AIDS makes the use of condoms highly advisable. In the report scant mention is made of breast feeding as a family planning method, although the Bellagio Consensus of 1988 states that if a woman almost exclusively breast feeds during lactation amenorrhea a more than 98% protection against pregnancy is offered during the 1st 6 months postpartum. During this period no additional contraception is necessary until the 1st menstruation occurs. Women in Bangladesh taking an oral contraceptive after delivery had shorter birth intervals than women exclusively relying on breast feeding. The Working Group of Medical Development Association issued guidelines concerning contraceptive methods including subdermal implant of levonorgestrel, although excessively strict standards can foil the contraceptive needs of the Third World. Their reproductive mortality is mainly determined by an extremely high maternal mortality rather than by complications from contraceptive use.

  4. Understanding Personal and Family Financial Planning Education. (United States)

    American Council of Life Insurance, Washington, DC. Education and Community Services.

    This publication for teachers focuses on one specific content area of consumer education--financial planning. The first major section begins by identifying eight competencies in financial planning education. It describes the financial planning process used to anticipate changes in moving from one stage of life to another, choosing the options, and…

  5. The Filipino male as a target audience in family planning. (United States)

    Vitug, W


    Since the official launching of the Philippine Population Program in 1970, family planning campaigns have substantially addressed themselves to women. The suggestion to devote equal, if not more, attention to men as family planning targets had been raised by Dr. Mercado as early as 1971. It was not until 1978, that the deliberate inclusion of males as a target audience in family planning became a matter of policy. The Population Center Foundation (PCF), from 1979 to 1982, carried out research projects to determine the most suitable approaches and strategies to reach Filipino men. The objectives of the PCF's Male Specific Program are: 1) to test alternative schemes in promoting male family planning methods through pilot-testing of family planning clinics for men, 2) to develop teaching materials geared toward specific segments of the male population, 3) to undertake skills training in male-specific motivational approaches for program professionals, and 4) to assess the extent of the husband's role in family planning. An important finding of 1 study was that most outreach workers were female stood in the way of the motivation process, thus hampering the campaign. While the consultative motivational skills training improved knowledge, attitudes, and skills of outreach workers with regard to vasectomy and the motivation process, there were certain predispositions that were hindering the fieldworkers' effectiveness in motivating target clients. Overall, in-depth, 1-to-1 motivation in dealing with men is needed to strengthen internalization of family planning values.

  6. Contraceptive use following spontaneous and induced abortion and its association with family planning services in primary health care: results from a Brazilian longitudinal study. (United States)

    Borges, Ana Luiza Vilela; OlaOlorun, Funmilola; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Hoga, Luiza Akiko Komura; Tsui, Amy Ong


    Although it is well known that post-abortion contraceptive use is high when family planning services are provided following spontaneous or induced abortions, this relationship remains unclear in Brazil and similar settings with restrictive abortion laws. Our study aims to assess whether contraceptive use is associated with access to family planning services in the six-month period post-abortion, in a setting where laws towards abortion are highly restrictive. This prospective cohort study recruited 147 women hospitalized for emergency treatment following spontaneous or induced abortion in Brazil. These women were then followed up for six months (761 observations). Women responded to monthly telephone interviews about contraceptive use and the utilization of family planning services (measured by the utilization of medical consultation and receipt of contraceptive counseling). Generalized Estimating Equations were used to analyze the effect of family planning services and other covariates on contraceptive use over the six-month period post-abortion. Women who reported utilization of both medical consultation and contraceptive counseling in the same month had higher odds of reporting contraceptive use during the six-month period post-abortion, when compared with those who did not use these family planning services [adjusted aOR = 1.93, 95 % Confidence Interval: 1.13-3.30]. Accessing either service alone did not contribute to contraceptive use. Age (25-34 vs. 15-24 years) was also statistically associated with contraceptive use. Pregnancy planning status, desire to have more children and education did not contribute to contraceptive use. In restrictive abortion settings, family planning services offered in the six-month post-abortion period contribute to contraceptive use, if not restricted to simple counseling. Medical consultation, in the absence of contraceptive counseling, makes no difference. Immediate initiation of a contraceptive that suits women's pregnancy

  7. Postabortion Care: 20 Years of Strong Evidence on Emergency Treatment, Family Planning, and Other Programming Components (United States)

    Huber, Douglas; Curtis, Carolyn; Irani, Laili; Pappa, Sara; Arrington, Lauren


    family planning counseling and services before leaving the facility, especially because fertility returns rapidly (within 2 to 3 weeks); postabortion family planning services can be quickly replicated to multiple sites with high acceptance rates. Voluntary family planning uptake by method should always be monitored to document program and provider performance. In addition, vacuum aspiration and misoprostol should replace sharp curettage to treat incomplete abortion for women who meet eligibility criteria. PMID:27571343

  8. Postabortion Care: 20 Years of Strong Evidence on Emergency Treatment, Family Planning, and Other Programming Components. (United States)

    Huber, Douglas; Curtis, Carolyn; Irani, Laili; Pappa, Sara; Arrington, Lauren


    counseling and services before leaving the facility, especially because fertility returns rapidly (within 2 to 3 weeks); postabortion family planning services can be quickly replicated to multiple sites with high acceptance rates. Voluntary family planning uptake by method should always be monitored to document program and provider performance. In addition, vacuum aspiration and misoprostol should replace sharp curettage to treat incomplete abortion for women who meet eligibility criteria.

  9. Income-generating activities for family planning acceptors. (United States)


    The Income Generating Activities program for Family Planning Acceptors was introduced in Indonesia in 1979. Capital input by the Indonesian National Family Planning Coordination Board and the UN Fund for Population Activities was used to set up small businesses by family planning acceptors. In 2 years, when the businesses become self-sufficient, the loans are repaid, and the money is used to set up new family planning acceptors in business. The program strengthens family planning acceptance, improves the status of women, and enhances community self-reliance. The increase in household income generated by the program raises the standards of child nutrition, encourages reliance on the survival of children, and decreases the value of large families. Approximately 18,000 Family Planning-Income Generating Activities groups are now functioning all over Indonesia, with financial assistance from the central and local governments, the World Bank, the US Agency for International Development, the UN Population Fund, the Government of the Netherlands, and the Government of Australia through the Association of South East Asian Nations.

  10. Psychometric Properties of Disaster Event Reaction Items From the Crisis Counseling Individual/Family Encounter Log. (United States)

    Uekawa, Kazuaki; Higgins, William Bryan; Golenbock, Samuel; Mack, Amy R; Bellamy, Nikki D


    The purpose of this article was to examine the psychometric properties of the Crisis Counseling Assistance and Training Program (CCP) data collection instrument, the Individual/Family Encounter Log (IFEL). Data collected from disaster survivors included how they reacted to events in emotional, behavioral, physical, and cognitive domains. These domains are based on conceptual categorization of event reactions and allow CCP staff to provide survivors with referrals to appropriate behavioral health support resources, if warranted. This study explored the factor structure of these survey items to determine how best to use the available information as a screen of disaster-related behavioral health indicators. Specifically, our first research question explored and confirmed the optimal factor structure of the event reaction items, and our second question examined whether the new factor structure was similar across disaster types: hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, and wildfires. Using a factor analytic technique, we tested whether our event reaction outcomes achieved consistent and reliable measurement across different disaster situations. Finally, we assessed how the new subscales were correlated with the type of risk to which CCP disaster survivors were exposed. Our analyses revealed 3 factors: (1) depressive-like, (2) anxiety-like, and (3) somatic. In addition, we found that these factors were coherent for hurricanes, floods, and wildfires, although the basic factor structure was not equivalent for tornadoes. Implications for use of the IFEL in disaster preparedness, response, and recovery are discussed. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:822-831).

  11. Objective necessity of socialist family planning: a trial discussion. (United States)

    Li, R


    On the basis of Marx and Engels' prediction and thesis of scientific socialism, socialist China, the most populous nation in the world, is the 1st to have realized the planned management of population reproductive in the history of mankind, thus giving an answer to the problem in practice. This paper makes a tentative exploration of such a necessity in socialist family planning. Engels points out that 1) under private ownership, population reproduction takes class antagonism as the basis, while public ownership of the means of production eradicates it; 2) in capitalist society, the reproduction of the labor force is commodity reproduction--public ownership of the means of production can be divorced from the domain of commodity; and 3) under private ownership, population reproduction is purely the private business of an individual or a family whose economic benefit forms the motive force of population reproduction--public ownership liberates it from one's personal gains making it a public affair. The great significance of family planning to economic development can be recognized as production, consumption, and accumulation. Taking family planning as the basis for the reproduction plan of the labor force is the guarantee of realizing the material production plan. Family planning reflects the trend of the structure and change of consumer requirements and provides the direct and indirect objectives of various items of material production planning; it provides the objective basis for social accumulation and the arrangement of expanding reproduction. 3 conclusions are derived: 1) the building up of the public ownership of the means of production affords man the possibility to regulate the production of matter as well as man, 2) the characteristics of the planned development of a socialist national economy demands the planned production of man, and 3) family planning and the development of a socialist economy demand their mutual congruence.

  12. Planned gay father families in kinship arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.H.M.W.


    The current study examined whether there are differences between gay father families (n = 36) and heterosexual families (n = 36) on father-child relationship, fathers' experiences of parental stress and children's wellbeing. The gay fathers in this study all became parents while in same-sex relation

  13. Intentions to Participate in Counselling among Front-Line, At-Risk Irish Government Employees: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (United States)

    Hyland, Philip E.; McLaughlin, Christopher G.; Boduszek, Daniel; Prentice, Garry R.


    The study set out to examine intentions to engage in counselling among at-risk Irish government employees and the differential utility of two alternative theory of planned behaviour (TPB) models of behaviour to explain intentions to participate in counselling. Individuals (N = 259) employed in a front-line, at-risk occupation for the Irish…

  14. Intentions to Participate in Counselling among Front-Line, At-Risk Irish Government Employees: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (United States)

    Hyland, Philip E.; McLaughlin, Christopher G.; Boduszek, Daniel; Prentice, Garry R.


    The study set out to examine intentions to engage in counselling among at-risk Irish government employees and the differential utility of two alternative theory of planned behaviour (TPB) models of behaviour to explain intentions to participate in counselling. Individuals (N = 259) employed in a front-line, at-risk occupation for the Irish…

  15. Pattern of Family Planning Methods used by Antenatal Patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pattern of Family Planning Methods used by Antenatal Patients in Owo,Nigeria. ... Information obtained from the respondents with the aid of the study instrument ... The reasons for getting pregnant were desire to have more children (79%), and ...

  16. Hospital Discharge Planning: A Guide for Families and Caregivers (United States)

    ... FCA - A A + A You are here Home Hospital Discharge Planning: A Guide for Families and Caregivers ... publication Printer-friendly version A trip to the hospital can be an intimidating event for patients and ...

  17. Awareness, Practice, and Predictors of Family Planning by Pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KEY WORDS: Awareness, family planning, Nigeria, North-West, practice, predictor ... urban area and according to socioeconomic groups. ..... bibliographic elements should be 100% accurate, to help get the references verified from the system.

  18. Integrating Family Planning and HIV Services at the Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Level: Formative Assessment with Village Health Teams in Uganda. Aurélie Brunie. 1 ... Little is known on integrating HIV and family planning (FP) services in community settings. Using a cluster ..... the risk of unplanned pregnancy and HIV.

  19. Awareness, Practice, and Predictors of Family Planning by Pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Awareness, Practice, and Predictors of Family Planning by Pregnant Women Attending a Tertiary Hospital in a Semi-rural Community of North-West Nigeria. ... Background: Nigeria's maternal and perinatal health status is still among the ...

  20. Family planning methods among women in a vaginal microbicide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    use among married vs. engaged/unmarried women (aOR 1.64), multiparous vs. nulliparous (aOR 4.45) and women who ... KEY WORDS: Family planning, contraception, South Africa, microbicides ...... use: a systematic literature review.

  1. Awareness and use of and barriers to family planning services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa.5,6 In Lesotho almost one-third of currently married ... Levels of awareness and utilisation of family planning services are high among female ..... use among young women in developing countries: a systematic review of qualitative.

  2. Factors influencing utilization of Natural Family Planning among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing utilization of Natural Family Planning among Child Bearing Women in Chilonga ... Medical Journal of Zambia ... The literature review was mainly obtained from studies conducted globally, regionally and Zambia inclusively.

  3. Attitude of Women towards Family Planning in Selected Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attitude of Women towards Family Planning in Selected Rural Communities of Ibadan. ... African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues ... what ever method will be used to space or limit the number of children they will have.

  4. Family of Origin and Career Counseling: An Interview with Robert Chope (United States)

    Lara, Tracy


    Robert Chope is a professor of counseling at San Francisco State University, where he coordinates the Career Counseling Program. He is also the founder of the Career and Personal Development Institute in San Francisco, a practice that he has had for more than 25 years. Dr. Chope received his PhD from the University of Minnesota, Department of…

  5. A Joint Venture in Counselor Education: The Clovis Family Counseling Center. (United States)

    Smith, H. Dan


    Describes a cooperative counseling center operated by California State University, Fresno, and the Clovis local school district which has provided each with substantial benefits. Concludes that the counseling center has emerged as important service provider in the community. (Author/ABL)

  6. Constructing a Life That Works: Part 1, Blending Postmodern Family Therapy and Career Counseling (United States)

    Campbell, Cathy; Ungar, Michael


    Postmodern approaches to career counseling are well suited to addressing the challenges a postindustrial world poses to career development and overall life design. In this, the 1st of 2 articles exploring theory and practice, the authors examine the differences between traditional trait and factor models of career counseling and postmodern…

  7. Contraception. Family planning: by whom and for whom? (United States)

    Stemerding, B


    Many people consider family planning to be the cure for population growth and its consequences (poverty, child mortality, morbidity, depletion of natural resources, and environmental degradation). International organizations support family planning programs and population-political strategies control their operations. Other key players in family planning are the pharmaceutical industry, the churches, and governments. Women tend not be involved in developing population and family planning policies, however, but instead implement the policies. Population planners are generally not interested in family planning methods which give women control over their own bodies, e.g., female-controlled barrier methods. In fact, they distrust them because the planners consider women to be unreliable. Besides, the low effectiveness of these methods means women need to rely on abortion, which is a problem in many developing countries, e.g., Latin America. Further, family planning programs must meet predetermined goals, so their service is lacking, e.g., limited supply of contraceptives and not enough time to provide information to clients. Family planning revolves around women. For example, they encourage them to talk their partners into approving the women's use of contraception, but this is almost always difficult for women in developing countries. Provision of family planning cannot be successful without society accepting and treating women as full citizens. In addition, society needs to realize that women have a sexuality separate from men. Political will is needed for these changes in attitude. The international women's movement does not agree on the degree which women can control contraceptives themselves. Women's groups are working to improve the position and independence of women and contraception is just 1 factor which can help them achieve this goal. The Women's Sexuality and Health Feminist Collective in Sao Paulo, Brazil, is an example of a coalition of women's health

  8. Theory of planned behaviour and the family business


    Kuiken, Andrea


    The theory of planned behaviour is a theory originating from psychology. Over time, the theory has been applied to a variety of research areas. In business administration, the theory is used to gain insight into the ethical behaviour of managers, the adoption of new products and entrepreneurship. The family business context is a specific context, in which the family has a strong influence on the strategic decisions of the business. Current application of the theory of planned behaviour in fam...

  9. Restructuring family planning in the health service: the case of young people's clinics. (United States)

    West, J


    A review of the experience of adolescent reproductive health clinics in Liverpool and Bristol highlights the potentially disruptive impact of new National Health Service (NHS) policies and competing professional interests on the attempt to provide integrated, high-quality services. In particular, responsiveness to client needs often collides with NHS demands for efficiency. UK health authorities accept, in principle, the need for separate, informal family planning centers for young people. The 34 Brook Advisory Centers, which deliver confidential contraceptive and counseling services to adolescents, face pressure to become population rather than client-based and to reduce time spent on individual sessions. Moreover, new NHS contracting arrangements have greatly increased the role of general practitioners (GPs) in contraceptive provision, with serious implications for family planning clinics. At present, about 70% of UK women obtain contraceptive and sexual health services from a GP. This encroachment has further increased the marginalization of family planning practitioners, the majority of whom are female, within the medical profession. Concerns have been expressed, however, that GPs are not able to offer the comprehensive services available in clinics and lack sufficient female staff.

  10. Impact of family planning health education on the knowledge and attitude among Yasoujian women. (United States)

    Mahamed, Fariba; Parhizkar, Saadat; Raygan Shirazi, Alireza


    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of health education on the knowledge and attitude regarding family planning and contraception's method among the women who obligatory attended the Premarital Counseling Center in Yasouj city, Iran. An experimental study was carried out and a total of 200 women were selected for the study using convenience sampling method among women who attended in the health centre in order to utilize the necessary premarital actions. Respondents were divided by two experimental and control groups randomly. A pre-evaluation was done on the knowledge and attitude on family planning using a structured questionnaire. After which, the health education for experimental group was done within four educational sessions during 4 consecutive weeks and control group underwent traditional education method. Post evaluation was utilized for any changes regarding their knowledge and attitude among the respondents immediately after the intervention. Independent and paired t-test was used to evaluate the mean knowledge and attitude scores differences among both groups. RESULTS showed that there was a significant improvement in respondents' knowledge and attitude after educational program in experimental group (peducational method. In conclusion, the educational method is effective in increasing the knowledge and improving the attitude of women regarding family planning in Yasouj compared to current used educational method. Future educational programs need to incorporate the features that have been associated with successful interventions in the past, as well as including their own evaluation procedures.

  11. Population and family planning in developing countries: the employer's role. (United States)

    Tata, N H


    The overall population problem of the world is discussed briefly. The author asserts that rapid population growth has serious social and political implications and imposes serious restraints on economic progress. It is also linked to problems of urbanization. Family planning is a way out. The state alone is not enough to make family planning successful, it must be supported by the different segments of society. Employers have a major social responsibility in this respect. After this general introduction, and the assertion of the basic role of the employer in family planning programs, the author deals with the specific situation in India in terms of 1) its population problem, 2) progress and impact of the Indian family planning program, and 3) the role of employers in the promotion of family planning in India; a detailed section is devoted to the family planning centers of the Tata group of companies (Tata textile units, chemicals, iron and steel, engineering and locomotive, etc.). The author enumerates the measures to promote effective participation by employers, which include 1) an organized framework, 2) assistance to employers, and 3) removal of disincentives. The author concludes by saying that the efforts of employers to limit population growth need to be supplemented by international cooperation and action.

  12. Confidentiality in Family Planning Services for Young People (United States)

    Brittain, Anna W.; Williams, Jessica R.; Zapata, Lauren B.; Moskosky, Susan B.; Weik, Tasmeen S.


    Context Family planning services are essential for reducing high rates of unintended pregnancies among young people, yet a perception that providers will not preserve confidentiality may deter youth from accessing these services. This systematic review, conducted in 2011, summarizes the evidence on the effect of assuring confidentiality in family planning services to young people on reproductive health outcomes. The review was used to inform national recommendations on providing quality family planning services. Evidence acquisition Multiple databases were searched to identify articles addressing confidentiality in family planning services to youth aged 10–24 years. Included studies were published from January 1985 through February 2011. Studies conducted outside the U.S., Canada, Europe, Australia, or New Zealand, and those that focused exclusively on HIV or sexually transmitted diseases, were excluded. Evidence synthesis The search strategy identified 19,332 articles, nine of which met the inclusion criteria. Four studies examined outcomes. Examined outcomes included use of clinical services and intention to use services. Of the four outcome studies, three found a positive association between assurance of confidentiality and at least one outcome of interest. Five studies provided information on youth perspectives and underscored the idea that young people greatly value confidentiality when receiving family planning services. Conclusions This review demonstrates that there is limited research examining whether confidentiality in family planning services to young people affects reproductive health outcomes. A robust research agenda is needed, given the importance young people place on confidentiality. PMID:26190851

  13. A second look at natural family planning. (United States)

    Lolarga, E


    There is renewed interest in natural family planning (NFP) as the Philippine Population Program enters the 1980s. Much of this interest is due to the realization that, properly practiced, NFP can be a highly effective means of birth spacing. In 1978 the Special Committee to Review the Philippine Population Program recommended that more efforts be made to promote NFP. The different methods of NFP are reviewed. Sex without intercourse, coitus interruptus, and prolonged nursing are not officially recognized as NFP methods by the Program. The rhythm method was first described independently by Drs. Hermann Knaus of Austria and Kyusaku Ogino of Japan in the 1930s. Ogino's method of calculating a woman's fertile period is based on the lengths of the last 12 menstrual cycles which she recorded on a calendar. The advantages of rhythm are that it is inexpensive, it requires only the cost of charts which may be homemade, there are no physical side effects, control is in the woman's hands, and it is acceptable to people who consider it their duty to follow religious teachings. Disadvantages include: keeping constant, accurate records of cycles for long periods of time; the need for perseverance and correct interpretation of the chart; the possible need for medical advice and help; and the fear that something might upset a woman's cycle and change the time of ovulation. The continuation rates of rhythm acceptors in the Philippines are unimpressive. A study of 142 women revealed a high pregnancy/failure rate--25% for a 12-month period compared to 0 with oral contraception (OC) and the IUD's 2%. The basal body temperature method helps determine the unsafe period with some accuracy. Its premise is that there are slight but detectable changes in a woman's body temperature during her cycle. These changes herald ovulation. A special thermometer must record temperature changes of 0.1 degree Farenheit. This instrument and the charts are the only expenses involved. The reviewers of the

  14. Financial Therapy and Planning for Families with Special Needs Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitzi Lauderdale


    Full Text Available This study examines factors associated with the likelihood of having a plan that includes a special needs trust among families that have disabled minor children. Descriptive analyses indicate that the top two reasons families provide for not having a plan are the inability to save and no perceived need. Among families that do indicate having a plan, most do not include a special needs trust. Multivariate analyses reveal that professional involvement (financial, legal, and mental health professionals is a key factor to increasing the likelihood of having a plan with a special needs trust. Families that have met with a financial advisor are 23 times more likely, and families who are encouraged to create a plan by a mental health professional are almost three times more likely, to have a plan that includes a special needs trust. Results from this study suggest that financial therapists are uniquely positioned to educate and ensure that appropriate plans are in place to provide for the future of children with special needs.

  15. Study of Families of Curves in the Euclidian Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belaib Lekhmissi


    Full Text Available Non-standard analysis techniques are more considered in approaching complex mathematical domains. By using some concepts of non-standard analysis methods such as regionalization method, we deal with a family of curves in an Euclidian plan. The solutions of the algebraic equations representing these curves in a plan have an hyperbolic forms.

  16. Impact of the World Health Organization's Decision-Making Tool for Family Planning Clients and Providers on the quality of family planning services in Iran. (United States)

    Farrokh-Eslamlou, Hamidreza; Aghlmand, Siamak; Eslami, Mohammad; Homer, Caroline S E


    We investigated whether use of the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Decision-Making Tool (DMT) for Family Planning Clients and Providers would improve the process and outcome quality indicators of family planning (FP) services in Iran. The DMT was adapted for the Iranian setting. The study evaluated 24 FP quality key indicators grouped into two main areas, namely process and outcome. The tool was implemented in 52 urban and rural public health facilities in four selected and representative provinces of Iran. A pre-post methodology was undertaken to examine whether use of the tool improved the quality of FP services and client satisfaction with the services. Quantitative data were collected through observations of counselling and exit interviews with clients using structured questionnaires. Different numbers of FP clients were recruited during the baseline and the post-intervention rounds (n=448 vs 547, respectively). The DMT improved many client-provider interaction indicators, including verbal and non-verbal communication (p<0.05). The tool also impacted positively on the client's choice of contraceptive method, providers' technical competence, and quality of information provided to clients (p<0.05). Use of the tool improved the clients' satisfaction with FP services (from 72% to 99%; p<0.05). The adapted WHO's DMT has the potential to improve the quality of FP services.

  17. Health Seeking Behavior and Family Planning Services Accessibility in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niniek Lely Pratiwi


    Full Text Available Background: The MDG target to increase maternal health will be achieved when 50% of maternal deaths can be prevented through improvment the coverage of K1, K4, to make sure that midwife stay in the village improve the delivery by health workers in health facilities, increase coverage long-term contraceptive methods participant as well as family and community empowerment in health. Methods: This study is a further analysis of Riskesdas in 2010 to assess how big the accessibility of services in family planning in Indonesia. Results: Women of 3–4 children in rural greater and prevalence (27.1% compared to women who live in urban areas (25.0%. The main reason of not using contraception mostly because they want to have children 27.0% in urban, 28.2% rural whereas, the second reason is the fear of side effects 23.1% in urban, 16.5% rural. There is 10% of respondent did not use contraceptives, because they did not need it. Health seeking behavior of pregnant women with family planning work status has a significant relationship (prevalence ratio 1.073. The jobless mothers has better access to family planning services compared to working mother. Conclusions: Accessibility of family planning services is inadequate, because not all rural ‘Poskesdes’ equipped with infrastructure and family planning devices, a lack of knowledge of family planning in rural areas. Health seeking behavior of family planning services is mostly to the midwives, the scond is to community health centers and than polindes, ‘poskesdes’ as the ranks third.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazish Rasheed


    Full Text Available Context: Inter-spouse communication majorly influences the decision making process of couples for adopting family planning measures. This factor is especially important in male dominated cultures, where, it is thought unnecessary for men to discuss family planning as child bearing and contraception are presumed to be female matters. Aims: The present study was conducted with the aim to know the extent of inter spouse communication among couples and its impact on use of family planning measures and family size. Settings and Design: The study was conducted among ever married women in the reproductive age group of 15-49 years (n=718 residing in Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. The study was a community based cross-sectional study. Methods and Material: A community based household survey was conducted in the registered areas of urban and rural health training centres of Department of Community Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh,Uttar Pradesh. Participants were enquired on various parameters related to their conversations on family planning with their husband, ever use of contraception and their family size. Statistical analysis used: Chi square was applied to test the association. Results: A sizeable portion (18.1% of women had never conversed with their husbands on family planning matters. Communicators were observed to have lesser number of living children (p<0.001. Current use of contraceptives was significantly associated with inter spouse discussion (p<0.05. 43% women from the study sample had never discussed the choice of a contraceptive method with their husbands. Conclusions: Husband-wife communication plays an important role in family planning acceptance as well as in deciding the final family size.

  19. Phase Transitions in Planning Problems: Design and Analysis of Parameterized Families of Hard Planning Problems (United States)

    Hen, Itay; Rieffel, Eleanor G.; Do, Minh; Venturelli, Davide


    There are two common ways to evaluate algorithms: performance on benchmark problems derived from real applications and analysis of performance on parametrized families of problems. The two approaches complement each other, each having its advantages and disadvantages. The planning community has concentrated on the first approach, with few ways of generating parametrized families of hard problems known prior to this work. Our group's main interest is in comparing approaches to solving planning problems using a novel type of computational device - a quantum annealer - to existing state-of-the-art planning algorithms. Because only small-scale quantum annealers are available, we must compare on small problem sizes. Small problems are primarily useful for comparison only if they are instances of parametrized families of problems for which scaling analysis can be done. In this technical report, we discuss our approach to the generation of hard planning problems from classes of well-studied NP-complete problems that map naturally to planning problems or to aspects of planning problems that many practical planning problems share. These problem classes exhibit a phase transition between easy-to-solve and easy-to-show-unsolvable planning problems. The parametrized families of hard planning problems lie at the phase transition. The exponential scaling of hardness with problem size is apparent in these families even at very small problem sizes, thus enabling us to characterize even very small problems as hard. The families we developed will prove generally useful to the planning community in analyzing the performance of planning algorithms, providing a complementary approach to existing evaluation methods. We illustrate the hardness of these problems and their scaling with results on four state-of-the-art planners, observing significant differences between these planners on these problem families. Finally, we describe two general, and quite different, mappings of planning

  20. Family Planning: Implications for Marital Stability. (United States)

    Johnson, Frank C.; Johnson, May R.


    In the past two decades, several fertility variables have been shown to have an effect on marital stability: presence or absence of children, child spacing, birth timing, and total number of children. This paper studies the effect on marital stability of the planning of fertility. (Author)

  1. The feminist position on family planning in Spain. (United States)

    Navarro, M V


    The Spanish feminist movement had its origins in the early 1970; in 1975 the first offical feminist conference made the following demands on the public authorities; 1) to abolish all sections of the Criminal Code which restrict women's freedom to control of their own bodies through making illegal information on and the purchase of contraceptives, 2) to decriminalize abortion, 3) to create family planning centers and to legalize contraceptives and provide them through the social security system, and 4) to include sex information in study courses. The distribution and sale of contraceptives was not legalized until 1978 and induced abortion is still a criminal offense. Nevertheless, after the 1975 meetins, a Coordinating Organization was established for the family planning committees that were functioning in the different feminist organizations. The problem of where to obtain contraceptives was solved by a group of feminist women which opened the 1st family planning center in Spain in 19779 This center was managed directly by members of the group. This and similar efforts culminated in the origin of the Movement for Movement for Family Planning that demanded in 1978; 1) the provision of sex information confronting the dominant sexual ideology and which is made a ccompulsory subject from school age, for both sexes; 2) free access to contraception for everyone; 3) the legalization of abortion, 4) the development of extensive information campaign on the problems of conception and contraception; and 5) the creation of independent, self-managed, family planning centers. There is now a Coordinating Organization of Family Planning Centers that was established in 1982. The socialist government is determined to create a public network of family planning centers.

  2. Psychosocial correlates of patient–provider family planning discussions among HIV-infected pregnant women in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez VJ


    Full Text Available Violeta J Rodriguez,1 Ryan R Cook,1 Stephen M Weiss,1 Karl Peltzer,2–4 Deborah L Jones1 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; 2HIV/AIDS/STIs and TB (HAST Research Programme, Human Sciences Research Council, Pretoria, South Africa; 3ASEAN Institute for Health Development, Mahidol University, Salaya, Thailand; 4Department of Psychology, University of Limpopo, Turfloop, South Africa Abstract: Patient–provider family planning discussions and preconception counseling can reduce maternal and neonatal risks by increasing adherence to provider recommendations and antiretroviral medication. However, HIV-infected women may not discuss reproductive intentions with providers due to anticipation of negative reactions and stigma. This study aimed to identify correlates of patient–provider family planning discussions among HIV-infected women in rural South Africa, an area with high rates of antenatal HIV and suboptimal rates of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT of HIV. Participants were N=673 pregnant HIV-infected women who completed measures of family planning discussions and knowledge, depression, stigma, intimate partner violence, and male involvement. Participants were, on average, 28 ± 6 years old, and half of them had completed at least 10–11 years of education. Most women were unemployed and had a monthly income of less than ~US$76. Fewer than half of the women reported having family planning discussions with providers. Correlates of patient–provider family planning discussions included younger age, discussions about PMTCT of HIV, male involvement, and decreased stigma (p < 0.05. Depression was indirectly associated with patient–provider family planning discussions through male involvement (b = −0.010, bias-corrected 95% confidence interval [bCI] [−0.019, −0.005]. That is, depression decreased male involvement, and in turn, male involvement

  3. Contraceptive security, information flow, and local adaptations: family planning Morocco. (United States)

    Chandani, Y; Breton, G


    Many developing countries increasingly recognize and acknowledge family planning as a critical part of socio-economic development. However, with few health dollars to go around, countries tend to provide essential drugs for curative care, rather than for family planning products. Donors have historically provided free contraceptives for family planning services. Whether products are donated or purchased by the country, a successful family planning program depends on an uninterrupted supply of products, beginning with the manufacturer and ending with the customer. Any break in the supply chain may cause a family planning program to fail. A well-functioning logistics system can manage the supply chain and ensure that the customers have the products they need, when they need them. Morocco was selected for the case study. The researchers had ready access to key informants and information about the Logistics Management Information System. Because the study had time and resource constraints, research included desktop reviews and interview, rather than data collection in the field. The case study showed that even in a challenging environment an LMIS can be successfully deployed and fully supported by the users. It is critical to customize the system to a country-specific situation to ensure buy-in for the implementation. Significant external support funding and technical expertise are critical components to ensure the initial success of the system. Nonetheless, evidence from the case study shows that, after a system has been implemented, the benefits may not ensure its institutionalization. Other support, including local funding and technical expertise, is required.

  4. [The pharmacist should play an active role in family planning]. (United States)

    Portes, M


    Although pharmacies now dispense primarily modern products originating in large multinational corporations, the community pharmacist has not been replaced by any ultramodern technological advance. Many thousand persons acquire family planning products in pharmacies. The pharmacist works many hours a day, is always available, and provides free advice to his clients. Pharmacists are consulted daily on numerous topics, especially on family planning. Many prsons in rural areas are without the services of a physician and rely on pharmacists all the more. Pharmacists could orient the public on family planning in general, help in choosing the most appropriate of available methods, and refer patients to physicians in case of problems. Participants at the recent International Conference on the Role of Retail Pharmacists in Family Planning, held in Alexandria, Egypt, concluded that pharmacists should cooperate with physicians and other health professionals to provide family planning services and should participate in elaboration of laws regulating the manufacture, storage, prices, and distribution of contraceptives. The prices of contraceptive supplies to the consumer could be reduced if taxes and import duties were removed, if supplies were produced locally, or if supplies were subsidized by some donor organization.

  5. Is family planning an economic decision? (United States)

    Wunderink, S R


    This study examines economic models of household choice and the role of economic factors in determining the timing of births. A static economic model is presented and tested with data from the Netherlands. After the availability of contraceptives, the family size variable shifted from being an exogenous to an endogenous one, because births could be regulated. Costs of childbearing were construed to have maintenance costs for parents and society, attendance costs of care, and intangible costs such as anxiety or personal freedom. Benefits were intangible ones, such as joy and happiness; income; public benefits; and attendance benefits. Intangible benefits enlarged the utility of children, but maintenance costs diminished resources available for consumption. Child quality was a product of market goods purchased by parents and others and household labor. Household time allocation varied with child's age. Private responsibility for children varied by country. Quality of child care varied between countries and over time. Quality was dependent upon economies of scale, variable costs by the age of the child, variable time commitments by age of the child, and market substitutes for private child care. Higher income families spent more money but less time on children. It is pointed out that Becker's model explained number of children, but not timing of births. Postponement of birth was unlikely for those with a limited education, an unpleasant job, and low wages. When the advantages and disadvantages of having a baby were positive, spouses or single women with a high subjective preference were expected to bear a child as soon as possible. Government policy can affect the average family size by increasing or decreasing the financial and/or time burden of children. Postponement may be chosen based on long term analysis of a couple's future, the formation and use of capital, and/or high subjective time preference. Before and after first birth are different frames of reference

  6. Empowerment and family planning in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Schuler, S R


    A 1992 survey of 1500 women (1300 married and under age 50 years) was conducted in Bangladesh. Women who participated in 1 of 2 nongovernmental programs which provide small business loans for women (the Grameen Bank and the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee) were compared with women who were not members but lived in villages served by the programs and with women who were eligible but lived in villages where the loans were not available. It was found that Grameen Bank membership had a significant positive effect on the use of contraceptives and on the rate in which the level of contraceptive use increased. The greater economic independence enjoyed by the Grameen Bank members is a factor in the increased contraceptive usage as is the promotion by the Bank of a small family norm. Empowerment indicators for women in Bangladesh include mobility, economic security, the ability to make purchases, freedom from domination and violence within the family, political and legal awareness, and participation in political activities. Women are able to achieve their fertility goals by participating in programs that decrease their social isolation and their economic dependence on men.

  7. Experimentation in family planning delivery systems: an overview. (United States)

    Cuca, R; Pierce, C S


    Experiments in the delivery of family planning services are an important means of testing new approaches on a relatively small scale. Over the past 20 years, extensive experimental efforts have explored such key aspects of service delivery as personnel, the use of mass media, integration of family planning with other services, intensive efforts and camps, incentive payments to acceptors, and inudation or community-based distribution. Approaches that proved successful have often been incorporated into regular programs. An examination of the methodology and findings of family planning experiments, based on a survey of 96 projects testing various approaches, highlights successes, failures, and continuing problems. The discussion of past experience halps point to criteria that might be followed in formulating future experimental projects.

  8. Comparison of family planning in Cuba and Ireland. (United States)

    Smyth, Suzie; Stronge, Shirley


    Family planning gives individuals and couples control and choice over the number of children they have and the timing of their births. Developments in reproductive health have resulted in major changes in the options for family planning, providing more choice and control over fertility. This article explores reproductive health in the Republic of Cuba and the Republic of Ireland, with a focus on contraceptive use and termination of pregnancy as methods of family planning. The predominant religion in both countries is Catholicism, which promotes the right to life of the unborn child. The two countries have adopted different approaches to the availability of both contraception and termination of pregnancy. Cuba has offered free access to contraception and termination of pregnancy since the 1960s to reduce maternal mortality. In Ireland, contraception was not widely available until 1995 and termination of pregnancy is available only in extremely limited circumstances.

  9. Cultivating men's interest in family planning in rural El Salvador. (United States)

    Lundgren, Rebecka I; Gribble, James N; Greene, Margaret E; Emrick, Gail E; de Monroy, Margarita


    A pilot project in rural El Salvador tested the integration of family planning into a water and sanitation program as a strategy for increasing male involvement in family planning decison making and use. The organizations involved posited that integrating family planning into a resource management and community development project would facilitate male involvement by diffusing information, by referring men and women to services, and by expanding method choice to include the new Standard Days Method through networks established around issues men cared about and were already involved in. This article examines data from a community-based household survey to assess the impact of the intervention and finds significant changes in contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and behavior from baseline to endline. Because the differences between baseline and endline are greater than the differences between participants and nonparticipants at endline, the study demonstrates the power of informal networks for spreading information.

  10. [Implementation and expansion of family planning services: questions and controversies]. (United States)

    Canesqui, A M


    Even though the Brazilian government's position on birth control in the last few years has been ambiguous, it is moving away from the pro-life attitude that was prevalent in the 1960s and through the mid-1970s. The economic conditions during this period created a sense of urgency in establishing family planning programs to divert possible economic and social repercussions. The creation and expansion of family planning services in the last 2 decades have improved the distribution of contraceptives, related health care, and research. The problems of birth control and family planning are the same in Brazil as in the rest of the world. There is and always will be a moral, ethical, religious, or political question from the groups that traditionally oppose these concepts. The theme of responsible birth control is 1 of the tools used in the attempt to get the message across. Some results of irresponsible birth control are abortions, poverty, and misery. Proposals for integrating the various family planning services have not been implemented due to a lack of priorities in spending the available funds. Most of these health groups place responsibility for providing these methods of family planning upon the State. The groups say the State needs to consider women's freedom, sexuality and personal preferences in providing the family planning programs. A few groups prefer private sector sponsorship in order to preserve the woman's options concerning health care. The need for health care and the question of democracy both need to be taken into consideration when dealing with human reproduction. Attention should also be paid to the quality of health service, in order to guarantee less distortion of the issue and provide better medical care for all.

  11. [Family intervention according to Roy. Planning, execution and evaluation]. (United States)

    de Montigny, F


    Last month, the author presented the first two steps necessary in the development of a nursing care plan. This care plan utilized Sister Callista Roy's conceptual model and was designed to evaluate the family system. The readers became familiar with the Joly family, whose family system was evaluated (this included Diane and Jessie). Analysis of the collected data identified two nursing diagnoses and the author explained the way that nursing diagnosis is derived. The first identified nursing diagnosis revealed a threat to the beneficiary, the second diagnosis revealed a threat to the family system. This second article is devoted to the three other steps involved in the development of a nursing care plan that will assist the nurse in developing a systematic strategy in caring for this type of family. The planning step consists of the identification of objectives for care. These objectives must be specific, measurable and realistic as well as able to answer the question: "What changes are intended for this family?" Suggestions are offered for objective development. Once the objectives are finalized, the nurse chooses pertinent and realistic interventions that permit her/him, as well as Diane, to attain the identified objectives. The nurse's interventions are centred around stimuli that are increased, decreased or maintained by the goal of modifying or reinforcing observed behaviors. In the care plan example developed for the Joly family, the identified interventions are not all inclusive and serve as suggestions. During the course of the interventions the nurse must constantly readjust and adapt the interventions to fit with changing needs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Factors determining family planning in Catalonia. Sources of inequity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurina Carme


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In recent decades, the foreign population in Spain has increased significantly, particularly for Catalonia, an autonomous region of Spain (2.90% in 2000 and 15.95% in 2010 and in particular Girona province (6.18% in 2000 and 21.55% in 2010. Several studies have shown a lower use of family planning methods by immigrants. This same trend is observed in Spain. The objective of this paper is to determine the existence of differences and possible sources of inequity in the use of family planning methods among health service users in Catalonia (Spain by sex, health status, place of birth and socioeconomic conditions. Methods Data were taken from an ad-hoc questionnaire which was compiled following a qualitative stage of individual interviews. Said questionnaire was administered to 1094 Catalan public health service users during 2007. A complete descriptive analysis was carried out for variables related to public health service users’ sociodemographic characteristics and variables indicating knowledge and use of family planning methods, and bivariate relationships were analysed by means of chi-square contrasts. Considering the use (or non-use of family planning methods as a dependent variable and a set of demographic, socioeconomic and health status variables as explanatory factors, the relationship was modelled using mixed models. Results The analysed sample is comprised of 54.3% women and 45.7% men, with 74.3% natives (or from the EU and 25.7% economic immigrants. 54.8% use some method of family planning, the condom (46.7% and the pill (28.0% being the two most frequently used methods. Statistical modelling indicates that those factors which most influence the use of family planning methods are level of education (30.59% and 39.29% more likelihood and having children over 14 (35.35% more likelihood. With regard to the origin of the user, we observe that patients from North Africa,sub. Saharan Africa and Asia are less likely to

  13. Natural family planning works in a Bukidnon town. (United States)

    Toledo, R


    Natural family planning is being actively promoted in a pineapple plantation of the Philippine Packing Corporation (PPC) located in northern Bukidnon province. Prospective acceptors attend 4 seminars which cover sex education and instruction on natural family planning methods. The goal of the program is family life and marriage enrichment rather than family size limitation. Thus, there is no target number of acceptors. Early acceptors used the basal body temperature method, but this was subsequently replaced by the sympto-thermal method. Participants report that the close observation of physical changes required by the natural family planning method has enabled them to be more aware of their bodies and more appreciative of themselves. Laypersons work closely with acceptor couples. There are 6 fulltime grassroots motivators and 23 camp motivators. Affiliated with the Family Life Commission of the Catholic Bishops Conference of the Philippines, the program is also supported by the Phillips Memorial Hospital and is part of the PPC's barrio assistance program. The corporation actively supports self-help projects in the plantation areas.

  14. Family Planning Supply Environment in Kinshasa, DRC: Survey Findings and Their Value in Advancing Family Planning Programming (United States)

    Kayembe, Patrick; Babazadeh, Saleh; Dikamba, Nelly; Akilimali, Pierre; Hernandez, Julie; Binanga, Arsene; Bertrand, Jane T


    Background: Modern contraceptive prevalence was 14.1% in 2007 in Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Yet virtually nothing was known about the family planning supply environment. Methods: Three surveys of health facilities were conducted in 2012, 2013, and 2014 to determine the number, spatial distribution, and attributes of sites providing family planning services. The 2012 and 2013 surveys aimed to identify the universe of family planning facilities while obtaining a limited set of data on “readiness” to provide family planning services (defined as having at least 3 modern methods, at least 1 person training in family planning in the last 3 years, and an information system to track distribution of products to clients) and output (measured by couple-years of protection, or CYP). In contrast, the 2014 survey, conducted under the umbrella of the Performance Monitoring and Accountability 2020 (PMA2020) project, was based on 2-stage cluster sampling. This article provides detailed analysis of the 2012 and 2013 surveys, including bivariate and multivariate analysis of correlates of readiness to provide services and of output. Results: We identified 184 health facilities that reported providing at least 1 contraceptive method in 2012 and 395 facilities in 2013. The percentage of sites defined as “ready” to provide services increased from 44.1% in 2012 to 63.3% in 2013. For the 3-month period between January and March 2013, facilities distributed between 0 and 879.2 CYP (mean, 39.7). Nearly half (49%) of the CYP was attributable to implants, followed by IUDs (24%), CycleBeads (11%), and injectables (8%). In 2013, facilities supported by PEPFAR (n = 121) were more likely than other facilities to be rated as ready to provide services (Pplanning implementing agencies (Pplanning in the DRC in many ways, including mobilizing partners to increase contraceptive access and increasing donor investment in family planning in the DRC

  15. The National Family Planning Program: its impact on perinatal mortality. (United States)

    Arshat, H; Kader, H A; Ali, J; Noor Laily Abu Bakar


    The aim of this investigation is to study the effect of family planning on declining maternal and infant mortality rates in Malaysia since the National Family Planning Program began operation in May, 1967. Data were derived from the registration of vital events and reports from the Malaysian Family Life Survey conducted in 1978, and demonstrate declines in maternal and infant mortality rates. Although this is a result of a combination of factors (e.g., socioeconomic development, high quality health and medical services) the contribution of family planning is significant. Between 1957 and 1980 the maternal mortality rate declined by 80%. High risk births declined from 10.2% to 8.2% for mothers under age 20, and from 15% to 13.7% for mothers over age 35 during the 1967-1977 decade. From 1955 - 1980 the infant mortality rate declined by 68.2% to a level of 24.9/1000 live births; this may be partly due to the shift to lower order births (and therefore low risk) as a result of better family planning. Perinatal mortality declined 6.7% in the pre-implementation years (1957 - 1967) and 19.8% in the post-implementation years (1967 - 1977). Low birthweight is a significant correlate of infant survival, and data from this study indicate that birthweights increase with maternal age up to 30-34 years, then begin to decrease. Birthweights are also lower (and infant mortality higher) for babies born at birth intervals of less than 15 months. Therefore, concerted efforts in family planning education need to be directed to vulnerable groups such as young mothers (under 19) and older mothers (over 40).

  16. Dr. Haryono Suyono, National Family Planning Coordinating Board, Indonesia. (United States)


    The goal of the Indonesian family planning program has been to institutionalize both the concept and the norm of a small, happy and prosperous family in a manner that is acceptable to all. To this end, a larger role for the private sector in family planning (FP) has been promoted. While the government program has been very effective in the villages, it was not as effective in the urban areas where there are more diverse populations. Several meetings were held to develop a strategy for FP programs in the urban areas involving both the nongovernment organizations (NGOs) and commercial enterprises. It was agreed that several model programs would be developed through the NGOs with funds coming from both international health organizations and the National Family Planning Coordinating Board. It was hoped that the NGOs would develop into self-sufficient organizations. 1 urban activity that has just started is a specially designed social marketing project aimed at increasing the involvement and commitment of males through a condom distribution scheme. Another promising development is the shifting of the management and implementation of FP programs from the government to the community itself. A primary emphasis is to activate the private sector to expand its role in providing FP information and services. The overall strategy is to create a climate that will make it easier for people to increase their role in family planning service delivery and acceptance through mobilization of resources, funds, facilities and infrastructure so that acceptors will gradually pay for family planning services by themselves according to their needs.

  17. [Child survival, fertility, and family planning in Africa. Uncertain prospects]. (United States)

    Mbacke, C


    This work summarizes a paper by Cynthia B. Lloyd and Serguey Ivanov entitled "The Effects of Improved Child Survival on Family Planning Practice and Fertility" that was presented at the October 1987 conference in Nairobi on the health benefits of family planning for women and children. The paper presented results of a systematic literature review that sought to answer 2 questions: 1) do improved prospects of child survival reduce fertility, and 2) if so, what role does family planning play in the process. The 4 parts of the study defined the theoretical framework of the analysis, examined socioeconomic factors that could influence family building strategies, reviewed empiric research on the subject, and discussed policy implications. Improved survival prospects for children have 4 different effects which promote fertility decline. The transition effect refers to the parents' growing awareness that they can influence future events. The physiologic effect results when lactation is uninterrupted by early death of the child. When fertility behavior becomes more calculated and less fatalistic, demand and supply effects enter into play. The relationship between fertility and mortality is 2-directional. Socioeconomic factors determine the number of surviving children desired by a couple. In the traditionally agricultural societies of sub-Saharan Africa, the economic value of children far exceeds their costs, which at any rate are shared by the extended family and the community at large. The age distribution of death largely determines the predictability of child survival. High mortality after the 1st year as in Sahel countries which have the highest child morality rates in the world is unfavorable to family planning. The distribution of causes of death is also important because parents are more likely to notice improved survival prospects and change their fertility expectations accordingly if they themselves helped improve conditions rather than merely benefitting from

  18. With All My Relations: Counseling American Indians and Alaska Natives within a Familial Context (United States)

    Harper, Faith G.


    Statistics show that two thirds of American Indians and Alaska Natives (AIs/ANs) live outside of tribal areas, and 50% of those individuals who seek counseling services will not use tribal resources. There is a strong likelihood that counselors will have the opportunity to provide services to AI/AN clients. The review of the academic literature…

  19. [Analysis of the demand for family planning]. (United States)

    Mostajo, P; Foreit, K


    Fertility intentions and reproductive risk were used to segment Peru's potential market for contraceptives using data from the 1991-92 Demographic and Health Survey. The four programmatic groups of fertile-aged women in union included 41.4% not wanting more children and at high risk, 30.5% not wanting more children and at moderate or low risk, 12.8% wanting to space, and 15.4% wanting a child in the near future. 84.6% of fertile-aged married women thus needed a contraceptive method to avoid unwanted pregnancy or high risk pregnancy. A range of appropriate methods was identified for each of the four programmatic groups based on method efficacy, clinical contraindications, and legal restrictions. Projections of the prevalence, method mix, and sources of service took into account the range of appropriate methods, local preferences for particular methods, local availability of health posts and infrastructure, and the rational use of limited resources. The four programmatic groups were disaggregated by age to take into account recommendations for use of oral contraceptives, surgical sterilization, and IUDs. The segmentation by source of supply was done separately for type of method and rural or urban residence. Marital status, proportion of fertile-aged women, socioeconomic status and other factors were heterogeneously distributed within and between the 13 planning regions. An estimated 7% of women were infertile, 23.9% were at low reproductive risk, 25.6% at medium risk, and 50.5% at high risk because of age, parity, or a history of abortion, neonatal death, prematurity, or cesarean delivery. Among women not wanting more children at high and medium or at low risk, respectively, 66.6% and 65.1% were using a method, but only 30.0% and 32.0% were using an appropriate method. The projected method mix and sources of supply are presented for Lima as an illustration of application of the methodology. The projected method mix for Lima eliminates use of natural methods

  20. Partner Support for Family Planning and Modern Contraceptive Use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    factors, couple communication about family planning, and fertility preferences are ... between the meaning of approval and encouragement should be explored. ... pour étudier la relation entre l'approbation perçue du mari /du partenaire et ...

  1. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Family Planning Services Offered by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Keywords: Mobile clinics; Staic clinic; Family planning; Cost-effectiveness. Résumé ... revealed surprisingly low use of mobile clinic services ... provider point of view. Cost data ..... this is an even more attractive strategy than tying free IUDs to ...

  2. Knowledge, sources and use of family planning methods among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -49 years in Uganda: a ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... of where to obtain correct family planning (FP) information and methods can be a ... methods is almost universal and that six in ten women use any FP method.

  3. Filling the Family Planning Gap. Worldwatch Paper 12. (United States)

    Stokes, Bruce

    The author provides a global review of family planning techniques and their impact on national birth rates. Sterilization, the pill, and intrauterine devices are the most popular methods of contraception worldwide. Abortion, where it is legal, is also extremely popular. In countries such as the United States where population control is not an…

  4. Awareness, Use, and Unmet Need for Family Planning in Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Awareness, Use, and Unmet Need for Family Planning in Rural ... India in the number of maternal deaths1,2. In ... for International Development of the United .... households within each selected community were ..... preaching sessions, radio jingles, and television ... stakeholders on the challenges documented here.

  5. Motivations for Adolescents' First Visit to a Family Planning Clinic. (United States)

    Schwartz, Dana Belmonte; Darabi, Katherine F.


    New adolescent patients (N=150) at a large urban clinic were interviewed to determine what events or advice led to their decision to approach a family planning clinic for the first time. The roles of pregnancy scares, advice from significant others, and situational factors in motivating service use are presented. Program implications of these…

  6. Family Planning for Inner-City Adolescent Males: Pilot Study. (United States)

    Reis, Janet; And Others


    Describes a pilot family planning program in an inner-city pediatric practice. Male adolescents were more likely to accept contraceptives if the provider first raised the topic of birth control to them. Identified a desire for anonymity/confidentiality and embarrassment or discomfort as the key reasons for not seeking contraceptives. Emphasizes…

  7. Assessment of Family Planning Services at Community Pharmacies in San Diego, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Rafie


    Full Text Available Levonorgestrel emergency contraception and other contraceptive methods are available over-the-counter (OTC; however youth continue to face a number of barriers in accessing healthcare services, including lack of knowledge of the method, fear of loss of privacy, difficulties in finding a provider, and cost. A descriptive, nonexperimental, cross-sectional study of a sample of 112 community pharmacies in San Diego, California was conducted between December 2009 and January 2010 to assess community pharmacy practices related to the availability and accessibility of family planning health pharmacy services and products, particularly to youth. A majority (n = 79/112, 70.5% of the pharmacies carried a wide selection of male condoms; however, the other OTC nonhormonal contraceptive products were either not available or available with limited selection. A majority of the pharmacies sold emergency contraception (n = 88/111, 78.6%. Most patient counseling areas consisted of either a public or a semi-private area. A majority of the pharmacy sites did not provide materials or services targeting youth. Significant gaps exist in providing family planning products and services in the majority of community pharmacies in San Diego, California. Education and outreach efforts are needed to promote provision of products and services, particularly to the adolescent population.

  8. Functional hoarseness in children: short-term play therapy with family dynamic counseling as therapy of choice. (United States)

    Kollbrunner, Jürg; Seifert, Eberhard


    Children with nonorganic voice disorders (NVDs) are treated mainly using direct voice therapy techniques such as the accent method or glottal attack changes and indirect methods such as vocal hygiene and voice education. However, both approaches tackle only the symptoms and not etiological factors in the family dynamics and therefore often enjoy little success. The aim of the "Bernese Brief Dynamic Intervention" (BBDI) for children with NVD was to extend the effectiveness of pediatric voice therapies with a psychosomatic concept combining short-term play therapy with the child and family dynamic counseling of the parents. This study compares the therapeutic changes in three groups where different procedures were used, before intervention and 1 year afterward: counseling of parents (one to two consultations; n = 24), Brief Dynamic Intervention on the lines of the BBDI (three to five play therapy sessions with the child plus two to four sessions with the parents; n = 20), and traditional voice therapy (n = 22). A Voice Questionnaire for Parents developed by us with 59 questions to be answered on a four-point Likert scale was used to measure the change. According to the parents' assessment, a significant improvement in voice quality was achieved in all three methods. Counseling of parents (A) appears to have led parents to give their child more latitude, for example, they stopped nagging the child or demanding that he/she should behave strictly by the rules. After BBDI (B), the mothers were more responsive to their children's wishes and the children were more relaxed and their speech became livelier. At home, they called out to them less often at a distance, which probably improved parent-child dialog. Traditional voice therapy (C) seems to have had a positive effect on the children's social competence. BBDI seems to have the deepest, widest, and therefore probably the most enduring therapeutic effect on children with NVD.

  9. Male attitudes to family planning education in Santiago, Chile. (United States)

    Hall, M F


    Male attitudes toward family planning education were assessed through a study of 720 men in Santiago and 240 men in a nearby rural area of Chile. Interviews were conducted by male students at the University of Chile School of Public Health. A large majority of the men were using or planned to use contraception in the future. There was a near consensus that adults should be informed regarding family planning. More than a majority of the respondents favored provision of contraceptive information for unmarried women, but most did not approve of premarital sexual activity for females. Most respondents favored the teaching of sex education in schools "according to the age of the children." Younger and higher class males tended to hold the most liberal attitudes.

  10. Federal Republic of Germany: family planning, family policy and demographic policy. (United States)

    Zuhlke, W


    Decades of social change in West Germany and the emergence of an ideology that stresses individualism have altered dramatically procreative behavioral patterns. At present, West Germany is characterized by a low marriage rate (6.1/1000 in 1986), declining fertility (10.3 birth/1000), rising divorce rates (20.1/1000), and increases in the proportion of single-person households (34%). The relationship between family planning, family policy, and demographic policy is unclear and changing. Family planning practice is viewed as a part of comprehensive life planning and is based on factors such as partnership or marital status, sex roles, the conflict between working in the home and having a career, consumer aspirations, and housing conditions. The Government's family policy includes the following components: child benefits, tax relief on children, tax splitting arrangements for married couples, childcare allowance, parental leave, student grants, tax deductions for domiciliary professional help and nursing assistance, and the provision of daycare. Thus, West Germany's family policy is directed more at encouraging and facilitating parenthood and family life than at a setting demographic goals. There is no evidence, however, that such measures will be successful and divergent influences of other policy areas are often more compelling. Nor is there any way to quantify the fertility-costing impact of individual family policy measures. The indistinct nature of family planning policy in West Germany mirrors political differences between the current coalition government, which maintains a traditional view of the family, and the opposition Social-Democratic and Green Parties, which question whether the equality of men and women can be achieved in the context of old family structures.

  11. Factors affecting unmet need for family planning in Eastern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abdel Aziem A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the developing countries millions of women in the reproductive age who don’t use contraceptives prefer to postpone or limit their birth. This indicates their failure to take necessary decision to prevent and avoid unwanted pregnancy. Methods A community-based cross sectional household survey was conducted to investigate unmet need for family planning and associated factors and total demand for family planning in Kassala, Eastern Sudan between 1st May and 31st July 2012. Results A total of 812 married women were enrolled in this study. Their mean age and parity was 31.8 (7.3 and 3.4 (1.8 respectively. Ever use of contraception was 25.4% (206/812 and 26.2% (213/812 were currently using contraception. Unmet need for spacing was 15.1% while unmet need for limiting was 0.7%. The pregnant and amenorrheic women whose the pregnancy or birth was unwanted and mistimed were 105 (13% and 130 (16% respectively. Using Westoff model the total unmet need was estimated as 44.8%. The total demand for family planning was 71%. In logistic regression model, while age, age at marriage, parity, residence and experience of child death were not associated with total unmet need for family planning, women education P=0.00, husband education P = 0.00 and woman’s occupation; housewife (OR=4.3; CI=2.5-7.2; P=0.00 were associated with the total unmet need. Conclusions Unmet need for family planning in Eastern Sudan was significantly higher among women with less than secondary education. Also; it is influenced by couple’s educational status and woman’s occupation. The results of this study necessitate the need for the programme managers to take into account the concept of reproductive health education.

  12. Planning parenthood: Health care providers' perspectives on pregnancy intention, readiness, and family planning. (United States)

    Stevens, Lindsay M


    A major health care goal in the United States is increasing the proportion of pregnancies that are planned. While many studies examine family planning from the perspective of individual women or couples, few investigate the perceptions and practices of health care providers, who are gatekeepers to medicalized fertility control. In this paper, I draw on 24 in-depth interviews with providers to investigate how they interpret and enact the objective to "plan parenthood" and analyze their perspectives in the context of broader discourses about reproduction, family planning, and motherhood. Interviews reveal two central discourses: one defines pregnancy planning as an individual choice, that is as patients setting their own pregnancy intentions; the second incorporates normative expectations about what it means to be ready to have a baby that exclude poor, single, and young women. In the latter discourse, planning is a broader process of achieving middle-class life markers like a long-term relationship, a good job, and financial stability, before having children. Especially illuminating are cases where a patient's pregnancy intention and the normative expectations of "readiness" do not align. With these, I demonstrate that providers may prioritize normative notions of readiness over a patient's own intentions. I argue that these negotiations of intention and readiness reflect broader tensions in family planning and demonstrate that at times the seemingly neutral notion of "planned parenthood" can mask a source of stratification in reproductive health care.

  13. Integration of routine rapid HIV screening in an urban family planning clinic. (United States)

    Criniti, Shannon M; Aaron, Erika; Hilley, Amy; Wolf, Sandra


    Family planning centers can play an important role in HIV screening, education, and risk-reduction counseling for women who are sexually active. This article describes how 1 urban Title X-funded family planning clinic transitioned from using a designated HIV counselor for targeted testing to a model that uses clinic staff to provide integrated, routine, nontargeted, rapid HIV testing as standard of care. Representative clinic staff members developed an integrated testing model that would work within the existing clinic flow. Education sessions were provided to all staff, signs promoting routine HIV testing were posted, and patient and clinician information materials were developed. A review of HIV testing documentation in medical charts was performed after the new model of routine, nontargeted, rapid HIV testing was integrated, to determine any changes in patient testing rates. A survey was given to all staff members 6 months after the transition to full integration of HIV testing to evaluate the systems change process. Two years after the transition, the rate of patients with an HIV test in the medical chart within the last 12 months increased 25.5%. The testing acceptance rate increased 17%. Sixteen HIV seropositive individuals were identified and linked into medical care. All surveyed clinic staff agreed that offering routine HIV screening to all patients is very important, and 78% rated the integration efforts as successful. Integrating routine HIV screening into a family planning clinic can be critical to identifying new HIV infections in women. This initiative demonstrated that routine, nontargeted, rapid HIV screening can be offered successfully as a standard of care in a high-volume, urban, reproductive health care setting. This description and evaluation of the process of changing the model of HIV testing in a clinic setting is useful for clinicians who are interested in expanding routine HIV testing in their clinics. © 2011 by the American College of

  14. [Encouragement of the national family planning program in Rwanda]. (United States)

    Weis, P


    Pronatalist attitudes are traditional in Rwanda, a country in which more than 90% of the population lives by peasant agriculture and the Catholic church is strong. A rapid change in thinking will be inevitable if the country is to attain its goal of food self-sufficiency and to improve the health of its mothers and infants. Population densities were already high in Rwanda in the early 20th century, and they have become much higher. The total population increased from an estimated 2 million around 1940 to 4 million in 1970 and about 6 million in 1984. If the current rate of growth of 3.7% is maintained, the population will exceed 10 million before the year 2000. Already the size of the average farm is only .4 hectare. The health situation is equally alarming. Infant and child mortality rates are each about 125/1000 live births. The high death rate among mothers is partly due to too many births, too closely spaced. At age 49 a Rwandan woman will have given birth to an average of 8.5 children. Prematurity, malnutrition, and diarrhea and other diseases take their toll on the children of chronically exhausted mothers. Family planning alone will not solve the problems; better prenatal care, medical surveillance of infants and young children, improved obstetrical facilities, vaccination programs, oral rehydration programs and a range of other services are needed. The government of Rwanda created the Scientific Consultative Council for Sociodemographic Problems in 1974 and the National Office of Population (ONAPO) in 1981. ONAPO is responsible for promotion and provision of family planning services. A project to increase acceptance of family planning in the 2 prefectures of Butare and Gikongoro and to integrate family planning into maternal-child health services has received support from the German government since 1986. The 1st phase of the project, in 1986-87, involved informing the population and political-administrative authorities of Gikongoro of the benefits of

  15. The politics of Latin American family-planning policy. (United States)

    Weaver, J L


    In population planning in Latin America the programs are as successful as the government's support of family planning. Colombia is one of the few Latin American countries which has actively exhorted its populace to birth control. If the propensity for large families reflects a belief in the economic or social utility of children, instead of machismo, birthrates will fall with expanded social security and economic welfare programs. If birthrates are the result of machismo, new gender models stressing the positive rewards and social esteem to be gained through responsible parenthood would have to be taught to both adults and children. The position profamily planning in most Latin American countries is generally supported by the ministers, technocrats, corporations, businessmen, middle-class women, doctors, mass media, protestant congregations, and working-class women. Family planning is usually opposed by members of the armed forces, Catholic hierarchy, Catholic lay organizations, oligarchy, university students, leftist intellectuals, Marxist insurgents, Indian communities, and peasants. The portion of the total national populations encompassed by the groups composing the core combination, ideological bias, and stability group ranges from 50-60% in Argentina, Uruguay, and Venezuela to 10-20% in Central America, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Paraguay. Most groups are outside the policy-making process.

  16. Planning for the succession process among Galician family businesses. Brief comparison with Portuguese family businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Barbeito Roibal


    Full Text Available A research project on Galician family owned businesses, financed by the University of A Coruña from 2004 to 2005, analyzed results from 57 of these companies that earned a profit of more than 5 million euro in 2003. One of the aspects examined in this project, which is the aim of this article, shows the importance that Galician family business owners pay to the planning for the succession process. Literature on family owned businesses emphasizes the importance of planning in successful occurrences. The obtained results increasingly show changes in the significance that the Galician family business owners give to our focus of study, almost reaching the level of importance that literature has given to the succession process in the last decade.

  17. Helping Couples Fulfill the "Highest of Life's Goals": Mate Selection, Marriage Counselling, and Genetic Counseling in United States. (United States)

    Stillwell, Devon


    This article traces the history of modern genetic counseling to mate selection and marriage counselling practices of the early-20th century. Mate selection revolved around a belief that human heredity could be improved and genetic diseases eradicated through better breeding. Marriage counselling, though interested in reproduction, was also concerned with the emotional and psychological well-being of couples. These two practices coalesced most obviously in the work of well-known geneticist Sheldon Reed. Even as marriage and genetic counselling diverged in the post-WWII period, vestiges of these practices remain in contemporary counseling experiences with family planning and genetic screening programs. Emphasizing points of continuity between "positive" eugenic ideologies and modern genetic practices elaborates the diverse origins of genetic counseling. It also exposes how genetic counselors have become involved in genetic enterprises beyond standard clinical settings, and prods at key issues in the interaction between genetic science and social values.

  18. Group Counseling in the Schools: Considerations for Child and Family Issues (United States)

    Crespi, Tony D.; Gustafson, Amy L.; Borges, Silvia M.


    School psychologists are increasingly being confronted with a wide spectrum of psychological, psychosocial, familial, and home-school issues impacting child development. With one in six children raised in alcoholic families, with divorce impacting approximately 60% of families, and with such issues as teenage pregnancy, parental neglect, as well…

  19. Career Planning in Harmony with Family Values and Needs (United States)

    Dubey, Archana


    Balancing career and family! Balancing what you love and who you love!! It is such an attention getting topic. And yet, if you really think about it, people have been doing it for ages. What makes it challenging in today's world is the dual income families that throw off-balance of traditional style of balancing family and profession. Balancing family and career is not as difficult. The question is more meaningful when you ask how do you find the right balance, and in fact, what is the right balance? How do you know you are there? Happiness at home and self esteem due to work is genderless issue however, it is essentially talked more in the context of women. Some of the things that could be helpful in achieving the right balance, are time management, proper prioritization, asking for help, a caring family, friends, and most importantly colleagues. In the portfolio of professional passions, it is important to identify the areas that are conducive to possibilities of changing family needs, international families, spouse's career and job relocation, etc. So, the bottom line question is whether it is possible to find a right balance between family and career? I would submit to you that with passion, courage, open- mindedness, and proper career planning, it is definitely possible. We just need to utilize the same techniques in choosing and sustaining the right balance that we use in identifying research topics and executing it. This discussion will look into further details of the challenges of balancing family and career from the perspective of also an immigrant, and possible ways of overcoming them.

  20. Family medicine residents' practice intentions: Theory of planned behaviour evaluation. (United States)

    Grierson, Lawrence E M; Fowler, Nancy; Kwan, Matthew Y W


    To assess residents' practice intentions since the introduction of the College of Family Physicians of Canada's Triple C curriculum, which focuses on graduating family physicians who will provide comprehensive care within traditional and newer models of family practice. A survey based on Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour was administered on 2 occasions. McMaster University in Hamilton, Ont. Residents (n = 135) who were enrolled in the Department of Family Medicine Postgraduate Residency Program at McMaster University in July 2012 and July 2013; 54 of the 60 first-year residents who completed the survey in 2012 completed it again in 2013. The survey was modeled so as to measure the respondents' intentions to practise with a comprehensive scope; determine the degree to which their attitudes, subjective norms, and perceptions of control about comprehensive practice influence those intentions; and investigate how these relationships change as residents progress through the curriculum. The survey also queried the respondents about their intentions with respect to particular medical services that underpin comprehensive practice. The responses indicate that the factors modeled by the theory of planned behaviour survey account for 60% of the variance in the residents' intentions to adopt a comprehensive scope of practice upon graduation, that there is room for curricular improvement with respect to encouraging residents to practise comprehensive care, and that targeting subjective norms about comprehensive practice might have the greatest influence on improving resident intentions. The theory of planned behaviour presents an effective approach to assessing curricular effects on resident practice intentions while also providing meaningful information for guiding further program evaluation efforts in the Department of Family Medicine at McMaster University.

  1. Publicity and education are fundamental to China's family planning programme. (United States)

    Zou, P


    This article summarizes and discusses the documents concerning family planning promulgated by the Communist Party, National People's Congress and the Government of China since the start of China's family planning program. In 1955 a document was issued entitled the Directive Concerning Population Control pointing out that the public should be made aware of birth control. In 1965 the summary of the 2nd Conference on Urban Work discussed ways of explaining the significance of family planning, to make it a voluntary action of the people. In 1980 the necessity of 1 child per couple was pointed out and policies were formulated regarding ideological and political education. During the 80's several documents were issued which stressed the voluntariness and initiative of the people in practicing birth control, and that any type of coercion was prohibited. For 30 years the fundamental practice of strengthening publicity and education and opposing coercion has remained unchanged no matter how birth policies have been scored in population control since 1979.

  2. Participation by clients and nurse midwives in family planning decision making in Indonesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Y.; Kols, A.; Putjuk, F.; Heerey, M.; Rinehart, W.; Elwyn, G.; Edwards, A.


    In order to enhance understanding of the quality of decision making during family planning consultations in developing countries, provider competencies and client behaviors during 179 randomly selected consultations in Indonesia were assessed. Results show that family planning clients make a

  3. Family planning in Guinea: a need for better public commitment. (United States)

    Delamou, Alexandre; Koivogui, Akoi; Dubourg, Dominique; Delvaux, Thérèse


    To describe the evolution of family planning (FP) in Guinea and to identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the current FP programme. Descriptive study of the evolution of FP in Guinea between 1992 and 2010. First, national laws as well as health policies and strategic plans related to reproductive health and family planning were reviewed. Second, FP indicators were extracted from the Guinean Demographic and Health Surveys (1992, 1999 and 2005). Third, FP services, sources of supply and data on FP funding were analysed. Laws, policies and strategic plans in Guinea are supportive of FP programme and services. Public and private actors are not sufficiently coordinated. The general government expenditure on health has remained stable at 6-7% between 2005 and 2011 despite a doubling of total expenditures on health, and contraceptives are supplied by foreign aid. Modern contraceptive prevalence slightly increased from 1.5% in 1992 to 6.8% in 2005 among women aged 15-49. A stronger national engagement in favour of repositioning FP should result in improved government funding of the FP programme and the promotion of long-acting and permanent methods. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. 计划生育和卫生部门联合开展艾滋病自愿咨询检测和自愿咨询转诊的定性研究%A qualitative study on voluntary counseling, testing and referral for HIV/AIDS conducted by family planning and health providers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武俊青; 李玉艳; 罗迈; 赵瑞; 李娜; 王潞; 仇丽霞


    目的 了解社区计划生育部门和卫生部门的服务人员对艾滋病自愿咨询检测(HIV voluntary counseling and testing, VCT)和自愿咨询转诊(HIV voluntary counseling & referral, VCR)的知识、态度及服务开展情况,探讨社区开展VCT & VCR服务对策.方法 采取方便抽样的方法,对上海市3个社区的60名社区计划生育部门和卫生部门服务人员,进行小组访谈.结果 社区服务人员的艾滋病防治知识的知晓率高,但不全面.超过70%的对象不知道转诊服务,一半的人不知道免费的VCT & VCR服务.大部分人对艾滋病存有畏惧心理,但愿意提供VCT & VCR服务.现阶段开展的VCT & VCR服务主要是宣传教育服务,其次为咨询服务,技术检测服务提供率只有21.66%.服务可及性、服务质量以及社会支持环境是影响VCT & VCR服务开展的重要因素.部门合作是社区更好地开展VCT & VCR服务的重要手段.结论 应进一步开展对计划生育、卫生服务人员的全面培训;同时加强部门合作,为社区提供更好的VCT & VCR服务开展环境.

  5. Implications of conflicting definitions of probability to health risk communication: a case study of familial cancer and genetic counselling. (United States)

    O'Doherty, Kieran C


    The question of what probability actually is has long been debated in philosophy and statistics. Although the concept of probability is fundamental to many applications in the health sciences, these debates are generally not well known to health professionals. This paper begins with an outline of some of the different interpretations of probability. Examples are provided of how each interpretation manifests in clinical practice. The discipline of genetic counselling (familial cancer) is used to ground the discussion. In the second part of the paper, some of the implications that different interpretations of probability may have in practice are examined. The main purpose of the paper is to draw attention to the fact that there is much contention as to the nature of the concept of probability. In practice, this creates the potential for ambiguity and confusion. This paper constitutes a call for deeper engagement with the ways in which probability and risk are understood in health research and practice.

  6. Screening family planning needs: an operations research project in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhart Marianne


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public sector health care providers in rural Guatemala have infrequently offered family planning information and services in routine visits. This operations research project tested a strategy to modify certain practices that prevent health workers from proactively screening clients' needs and meeting them. Methods The research design was quasi-experimental with a pretest-posttest-follow-up comparison group design. Health districts, which comprise health centers and posts, were purposively assigned to intervention or comparison groups to assure comparability of the two groups. The strategy was based on a job-aid designed to guide health workers in screening clients' reproductive intentions and family planning needs, help them to offer contraceptive methods if the woman expressed interest, and facilitate the provision of the method chosen at the time of the visit. The strategy was implemented at intervention sites during a period of six months. Upon completion of post-intervention measurements, the strategy was scaled up to the comparison sites, and a follow-up assessment was conducted nine months later. Results were evaluated by conducting three rounds of exit interviews with women exposed to the risk of unwanted pregnancy. Results Study results showed a two to five-fold increase in providers' screening of clients' reproductive intentions. The proportion of clients who received information about contraceptives increased from 8% at the baseline to 42% immediately post-intervention, and 36% at the follow-up survey. The intervention also proved successful in improving the role service providers play in offering women a chance to ask questions and assisting women in making a selection. The proportion of women who received a method, referral or appointment increased and remained high in the intervention group, although no change was seen in the comparison group after their participation in the strategy. Conclusion The easy

  7. Improving mental health in families with autistic children: benefits of using video feedback in parent counselling sessions offered alongside music therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura K. Blauth


    Full Text Available Background This paper explores benefits of parent counselling offered alongside music therapy with children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Research studies have shown that the stress levels of primary caregivers of children with ASD are not only higher than in the general population but also higher than in parents of children with other developmental disabilities. It is therefore recommended that music therapists working with children with ASD also engage and support their parents. Participants and procedure In the international randomised controlled trial TIME-A, which investigates the effects of music therapy on the social communicative skills of autistic children, participating families are offered three parent counselling sessions. For this paper, 68 counselling sessions with 25 families were evaluated; 14 sessions were transcribed and subjected to a content analysis. Case examples illustrate the impact of concomitant parent counselling sessions on the families. Results The analysis generated emerging themes that were grouped into two categories: 1 Non-music therapy specific themes, and 2 Music therapy specific themes. The first category comprised four sub-groups: Exchange of information, Experiences with professionals/friends/society, Worries about the future, Personal/matrimonial problems. Music therapy specific themes were subdivided into the following groups: Working in a partnership, Empowering parents, Celebrating strengths, Rejoicing in child’s enjoyment. Challenges caused by the dual roles of music therapist and parent counsellor were outweighed by the benefits. In addition to the therapeutic effect of counselling, video material from the music therapy sessions helped carers to see their children’s strengths, to gain new ideas, and to develop a more positive outlook. Conclusions The findings support the provision of parent counselling sessions alongside music therapy for children with ASD. This study highlights that

  8. Planning Development for a Family Planning Centre in Nursing Unit of the General Hospital of Argolida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koukoufilippou J


    Full Text Available Introduction: The family planning centres must be upgraded to a cornerstone of primary health care, and prevent, advise and protect the citizen's health while reducing hospitalization costs for hospitals. Aim: The purpose of this literature review is the family planning centre development in general hospital of Argolida that has a similar clinic. Material and Methods: Literature review was conducted of published English and Greek Articles from bibliographic databases Medline, Google Scholar and Scopus for the period 2001-2014, using keywords like: "Family Planning», «SWOT analysis", "functional design" "prevention", "health promotion", "economic cost". The option of creating inpatient center was made after analysis SWOT, by defining objectives, performance indicators and existing alternatives. Also the timing of implementation and functional design, provide the springboard effort for effective operation. Conclusions: The development of family planning centres in the country and abroad is designed to address very important problems in the bud, in order to improve the quality of citizens' health, then reduce the financial burden on the health system as a result of prevention, and contribute indirectly to the mental balance of citizens.

  9. Predicting intended use of voluntary HIV counselling and testing services among Tanzanian teachers using the theory of planned behaviour. (United States)

    Kakoko, Deodatus Conatus; Astrøm, A N; Lugoe, Wycliffe L; Lie, Gro T


    The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) provides a conceptual model for understanding individual cognitions that influence behavioural intentions and enactment of the actual behaviours. This study examined the applicability of the TPB and the additional predictive role of perceived risk in predicting intended use of voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT) services. We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire survey among 918 primary school teachers in the Mwanza region, Tanzania between September 2003 and November 2003. Analysis was based on 737 teachers (mean age 38.9) who had never tested for HIV. Results of the hierarchical regression analysis indicate that perceived behavioural control and attitude toward using VCT services were significant predictors of intention to use VCT services in the TPB model. Perceived behavioural control added 12% of variance to intention over and above attitudes and subjective norms, while perceived risk added 3% of variance. Socio-economic status did not moderate the predictive value of the TPB components. The present study demonstrates that the TPB is a useful conceptual framework for predicting intended use of HIV counselling and testing services among Tanzanian teachers. A theory-based VCT intervention programme among Tanzanian teachers should mainly focus on reducing social and psychological barriers related to the use of VCT services.

  10. World population growth, family planning, and American foreign policy. (United States)

    Sharpless, J


    The US decision since the 1960s to link foreign policy with family planning and population control is noteworthy for its intention to change the demographic structure of foreign countries and the magnitude of the initiative. The current population ideologies are part of the legacy of 19th century views on science, morality, and political economy. Strong constraints were placed on US foreign policy since World War II, particularly due to presumptions about the role of developing countries in Cold War ideology. Domestic debates revolved around issues of feminism, birth control, abortion, and family political issues. Since the 1960s, environmental degradation and resource depletion were an added global dimension of US population issues. Between 1935 and 1958 birth control movements evolved from the ideologies of utopian socialists, Malthusians, women's rights activists, civil libertarians, and advocates of sexual freedom. There was a shift from acceptance of birth control to questions about the role of national government in supporting distribution of birth control. Immediately postwar the debates over birth control were outside political circles. The concept of family planning as a middle class family issue shifted the focus from freeing women from the burdens of housework to making women more efficient housewives. Family planning could not be taken as a national policy concern without justification as a major issue, a link to national security, belief in the success of intervention, and a justifiable means of inclusion in public policy. US government involvement began with agricultural education, technological assistance, and economic development that would satisfy the world's growing population. Cold War politics forced population growth as an issue to be considered within the realm of foreign policy and diplomacy. US government sponsored family planning was enthusiastic during 1967-74 but restrained during the 1980s. The 1990s has been an era of redefinition of

  11. Discontinuity of Family Planning in Nigeria: A Geo-Additive Model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    West African Journal of Industrial & Academic Research Vol.14 No.1 June 2015. 61. Discontinuity of Family Planning in ... Keywords: Bayesian inference, family planning, Nigeria, spatial analysis .... newspaper/magazine), number of children, reasons for .... Studies in Family Planning 45(2): 247 - 262. 6. Ezegwui, H.U. ...

  12. 38 CFR 21.3102 - Required counseling. (United States)


    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Required counseling. 21.... Chapter 35 Counseling § 21.3102 Required counseling. (a) Child. The VA counseling psychologist will provide counseling and assist in preparing the educational plan only if the eligible child or his or...

  13. Examining the family-centred approach to genetic testing and counselling among UK Pakistanis: a community perspective. (United States)

    Darr, A; Small, N; Ahmad, W I U; Atkin, K; Corry, P; Benson, J; Morton, R; Modell, B


    WHO advice suggests a family-centred approach for managing the elevated risk of recessively inherited disorders in consanguineous communities, whilst emerging policy recommends community engagement as an integral component of genetic service development. This paper explores the feasibility of the family-centred approach in the UK Pakistani origin community. The study took place within a context of debate in the media, professional and lay circles about cousin marriage causing disability in children. Using qualitative methods, a total of six single-sex focus group discussions (n = 50) were conducted in three UK cities with a high settlement of people of Pakistani origin. Tape-recorded transcripts were analysed using framework analysis. Kinship networks within Pakistani origin communities are being sustained and marriage between close blood relatives continues to take place alongside other marriage options. Study participants were critical of what was perceived as a prevalent notion that cousin marriage causes disability in children. They were willing to discuss cousin marriage and disability, share genetic information and engage with genetic issues. A desire for accurate information and a public informed about genetic issues was articulated whilst ineffective communication of genetic risk information undermined professionals in their support role. This study suggests a community that is embracing change, one in which kinship networks are still active and genetic information exchange is taking place. At the community level, these are conditions supportive of the family-centred approach to genetic testing and counselling.

  14. How communication of genetic information within the family is addressed in genetic counselling: a systematic review of research evidence. (United States)

    Mendes, Álvaro; Paneque, Milena; Sousa, Liliana; Clarke, Angus; Sequeiros, Jorge


    Supporting consultands to communicate risk information with their relatives is key to obtaining the full benefits of genetic health care. To understand how health-care professionals address this issue in clinical practice and what interventions are used specifically to assist consultands in their communication of genetic information to appropriate relatives, we conducted a systematic review. Four electronic databases and four subject-specific journals were searched for papers published, in English, between January 1997 and May 2014. Of 2926 papers identified initially, 14 papers met the inclusion criteria for the review and were heterogeneous in design, setting and methods. Thematic data analysis has shown that dissemination of information within families is actively encouraged and supported by professionals. Three overarching themes emerged: (1) direct contact from genetic services: sending letters to relatives of mutation carriers; (2) professionals' encouragement of initially reluctant consultands to share relevant information with at-risk relatives and (3) assisting consultands in communicating genetic information to their at-risk relatives, which included as subthemes (i) psychoeducational guidance and (ii) written information aids. Findings suggest that professionals' practice and interventions are predicated on the need to proactively encourage family communication. We discuss this in the context of what guidance of consultands by professionals might be appropriate, as best practices to facilitate family communication, and of the limits to non-directiveness in genetic counselling.

  15. The Use of DSM-IV in Family Counseling: Ethical Considerations. (United States)

    Beamish, Patricia M.

    This paper describes the ethical dilemmas encountered by family counselors using the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM). Numerous authors have emphasized that the DSM system does not contribute in an effective or efficient manner in the conduct of family therapy. The ethical issues of misrepresentation; trust; malfeasance;…

  16. Assessing Competencies in Couples and Family Therapy/Counseling: A Call to the Profession (United States)

    Perosa, Linda M.; Perosa, Sandra L.


    Psychometrically sound measures of family therapy competencies are necessary to assess the effectiveness of training on student performance. This article critiques the self-report and observer rating measures developed to date to assess the clinical skills of trainees in the individual and in the family therapy fields. Suggestions are made to…

  17. Offering extended use of the combined contraceptive pill: a survey of specialist family planning services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauer U


    Full Text Available Ulrike Sauer,1 Sue Mann,2 Nataliya Brima,3 Judith Stephenson21Reproductive and Sexual Health, Enfield Community Service, Enfield, 2Sexual and Reproductive Health Research Group, Institute for Women’s Health, 3Research Department of Infection and Population Health, University College London, London, UKBackground: The purpose of this study was to determine attitudes to, and provision of, extended regimens for taking the combined oral contraceptive pill (COC by specialist contraception practitioners from three contrasting specialist contraception services in London.Methods: An online cross-sectional survey was administered to all doctors and nurses, who counsel, provide, or prescribe the oral contraceptive pill at each clinic.Results: A total of 105 clinicians received the questionnaire and 67 (64% responded. Only one of three clinics initiated and maintained guidelines for extended COC use. In that service, 60% of staff prescribing COC advised more than 50% of patients regarding alternative COC regimens. In the other two services, this was discussed with 20% and 6% of patients, respectively (P < 0.001. The reasons for prescribing extended use included cyclic headaches, menorrhagia, patient request, menstrual-related cramps, and endometriosis, and did not differ between the three different settings. The most common extended regimens were 63 pills or continuous use until bleeding occurs, followed by a hormone-free interval. Concerns highlighted by providers and patients were “unhealthy not to have a monthly bleed”, “future fertility”, and “breakthrough bleeding”. Such comments highlight the need for further information for providers and patients.Conclusion: There is growing evidence, backed by national guidance, about extended COC use, but routine provision of this information is patchy and varies ten-fold, even within specialist family planning services. Targeted training, use of service guidelines, and implementation research will be

  18. Family and population strategies for screening and counselling of inherited cardiac arrhythmias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Langen, I.M.; Hofman, N.; Tan, H.L.; Wilde, A.A.M.


    Family screening in inherited cardiac arrhythmias has been performed in The Netherlands since 1996, when diagnostic DNA testing in long QT syndrome (LOTS) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) became technically possible. In multidisciplinary outpatient academic clinics, an adjusted protocol for gen

  19. Provider barriers to family planning access in urban Kenya. (United States)

    Tumlinson, Katherine; Okigbo, Chinelo C; Speizer, Ilene S


    A better understanding of the prevalence of service provider-imposed barriers to family planning can inform programs intended to increase contraceptive use. This study, based on data from urban Kenya, describes the frequency of provider self-reported restrictions related to clients' age, parity, marital status, and third-party consent, and considers the impact of facility type and training on restrictive practices. Trained data collectors interviewed 676 service providers at 273 health care facilities in five Kenyan cities. Service providers were asked questions about their background and training and were also asked about age, marital, parity, or consent requirements for providing family planning services. More than half of providers (58%) reported imposing minimum age restrictions on one or more methods. These restrictions were commonly imposed on clients seeking injectables, a popular method in urban Kenya, with large numbers refusing to offer injectables to women younger than 20 years. Forty-one percent of providers reported that they would not offer one or more methods to nulliparous women and more than one in four providers reported that they would not offer the injectable to women without at least one child. Providers at private facilities were significantly more likely to impose barriers, across all method types, and those without in-service training on family planning provision had a significantly higher prevalence of imposing parity, marital, and consent barriers across most methods. Programs need to address provider-imposed barriers that reduce access to contraceptive methods particularly among young, lower parity, and single women. Promising strategies include targeting private facility providers and increasing the prevalence of in-service training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationship between Social Media for Social Marketing in Family Planning

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    Full Text Available This research aims to examine the influence of marketing mix carried out media performance social media portal on attitude towards a social marketing program,and its relationship with source credibility of the portal. This study was focused on "Generasi Berencana" Program (Generation with Plan Program, a program aimed at educating the youth on family planning The Research employed Structural Equations Modeling (SEM. Based on data from 150 respondents it can be concluded that in social marketing programs, source credibility, engagement, word of mouth have positive influence on the formation of behavior, but awareness of a program is not found to influence formation of behavior. This research also obtained findings that attitudes influence behavioral intention, but subjective norms is not positively influence the formation of behavioral intentions.

  1. A sensitive approach to family planning motivation in Malaysia. (United States)


    The goals of the Malaysian Family Planning Program are not only to reduce population growth from 3% to 2% by 1985 and to bring the crude birth rate to 28.2 from 30.3, but to generally improve the health of the family, and to enhance the government's efforts to raise the per capita income. The work program is divided into the Creative Unit, the Media Unit, the Production Unit, and the Field Diffusion Unit. The objectives are to build up strong support from political, community, and opinion leaders, and to run educational campaigns aimed at motivating potential acceptors. The program also runs centers training medical and paramedical personnel. The program is combined with development programs for women, especially useful among the rural population.

  2. Sewing machines and bank loans, farming and family planning. (United States)

    Sai, F A; Nsarkoh, J D


    Half of a $10,000 grant was given by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) to finance the rural development project activities of Danfa, a village of about 835 people in Ghana. In this community the women are hard working but doubly disadvantaged. Along with a high illiteracy rate, the women are limited by inadequate income due to underemployment, under productivity, unfavorable farming conditions, and a lack of resources. Large families, frequent pregnancies, poor mother and child health, and high infant mortality all make matters worse for both the rural farm wife and her family. The project began with a nucleus of women that soon grew to between 24-30. Members soon formed small groups according to their occupational interests. The women grasped the self-help idea immediately. Once or twice a month there were demonstrations and the group worked together in such activities as making soap and pomade, preparing meals, and sewing. Meetings generally ended with a general group brainstorming and then members gathered in smaller groups to review their activities and plan for the future. During the 1st year of the project the men in the group rarely attended meetings. The group gave priority attention to their community's urgent need for working capital. 15 women farmers who met the criteria determined by the group received loans in the 1st round; only 8 satisfied the criteria in the 2nd round. At the beginning of the small loans scheme, the group decided to seek bigger loans from the bank if members proved credit worthy. This requirement was satisfied, and the group began negotiations for a loan with the Agricultural Development Bank. The group received the total group loan. The Ghana Home Science Association considers the project to be successful in several respects. Team spirit has developed the group, and the women play important and respected roles. Family planning problems are regularly presented for discussion, but it is difficult to correlate

  3. Impact of Group Counseling on Self and Other Acceptance and Persistence with Rural Disadvantaged Student Families. Counseling Services Report No. 15. (United States)

    Schwager, Herbert A.; Conrad, Rowan W.

    The current study examined the effectiveness of a theme-centered developmental group model focusing on communications and on the differential effects of two group settings for counseling delivery. The subjects were 32 young, disadvantaged adults, consisting of 15 married couples and two divorced females, who were randomly assigned to spouse…

  4. Counseling needs and attitudes toward prenatal diagnosis and abortion in fragile-X families. (United States)

    Meryash, D L; Abuelo, D


    The genetic counseling need of 32 women of normal intelligence at-risk for having children with the fragile-X syndrome (FXS) were determined by a questionnaire study which included assessment of their attitudes toward prenatal diagnosis and the option of pregnancy termination. Eighteen (56%) of the women had one or more children with the FXS and 14 (44%) had no affected children. Twenty-six (81%) of the subjects stated that they would choose to have prenatal diagnosis and 9 (28%) indicated they would terminate an affected pregnancy. There was no significant difference between women who had affected children and those who did not have affected children, nor between Catholics and non-Catholics regarding acceptance of prenatal diagnosis. Catholic women were less likely to consider pregnancy termination than non-Catholics, but the majority of subjects (56%) were unsure what they would do if a fetus they were carrying was found to be affected. Issues the subjects considered most important for discussion with a genetic counselor included: 1) availability of treatment, 2) risk for having an affected grand child, 3) expectations for future functioning of affected children, and 4) availability of prenatal diagnosis.

  5. Not contradicting the religion. Islam has been putting on emphasis on family planning for 14 centuries. (United States)

    Berker, F


    Family planning did not historically and does not in modern times contradict the cultural and religious beliefs of Islamic nations. Family planning services should therefore be made available to people who need them. Family planning should not, however, be forced. It is imperative that couples' fundamental right to freely decide the number and spacing of their children is respected. Couples must be informed and educated to exercise that freedom consciously. The Turkish Family Health and Planning Foundation, a 10-year-old private social organization, actively promotes family planning projects with the goal of reducing the demand for abortion and the related maternal and child mortality. Family remains at the heart of both Turkey and Islam. The Turkish Family Health and Planning Foundation hopes that future generations of families will be happy in their work, well-fed, well-clothed, and well-sheltered, with high levels of educational achievement and ethical and moral values.

  6. Value of Family and Group Counseling Models where Grandparents Function as Parents to Their Grandchildren (United States)

    Edwards, Oliver W.; Ray, Shannon L.


    Those involved in circumstances in which children are raised by their grandparents often encounter serious problems that require assistance from counselors. Research suggests that grandparents and parents in these families typically experience heightened stress and psychosocial distress. Additionally, the children often encounter behavioral,…

  7. Ethnic Identity and Parenting Stress in South Asian Families: Implications for Culturally Sensitive Counselling (United States)

    Shariff, Aneesa


    The South Asian culture is one in which family obligation and loyalty, as well as self-sacrifice and obedience toward one's elders, are paramount. These values can be different from those of the more individualistically oriented Euro-Canadian dominant culture, and can prompt challenges of cultural adjustment among Canadian-born South Asian youth…

  8. The impact of a male or female thrombotic family history on contraceptive counseling : a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vlijmen, E. F. W.; Veeger, N. J. G. M.; Middeldorp, S.; Hamulyak, K.; Prins, M. H.; Kluin-Nelemans, H. C.; Meijer, K.


    Background: Women from thrombophilic families have increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), which increases further during oral contraceptive (COC) use and pregnancy-postpartum. Whether this additional risk differs between relatives of male and female patients, or is different when that femal

  9. A Bold Perspective on Counseling with Couples and Families: An Interview with Arnold A. Lazarus. (United States)

    Christensen, Teresa M.


    Illuminates a collaborative effort between the author and Dr. Arnold A. Lazarus, an internationally known presenter, author, and therapist. Many consider Lazarus to be a pioneer of behavior therapy and brief psychotherapy. Presents details about his unique perspective regarding therapy with couples and families. Provides case examples that…

  10. Social desirability bias in family planning studies: a neglected problem. (United States)

    Stuart, Gretchen S; Grimes, David A


    Studies on family planning methods traditionally have relied on self-reports of unknown validity and reproducibility. Social desirability bias, a type of information bias, occurs when study participants respond inaccurately - but in ways that will be viewed favorably by others. Several lines of evidence reveal that this bias can be powerful in sexual matters, including reports of coitus, use of contraceptives and induced abortion. For example, studies using vaginal prostate-specific antigen testing reveal underreporting of unprotected coitus and overreporting of barrier contraceptive use. Medication Event Monitoring System studies, which electronically record the time of pill dispensing from a bottle or pack, indicate widespread exaggeration of adherence to pill-taking regimens, including oral contraceptives. Comparisons of provider data and self-reports of induced abortions reveal extensive underreporting of induced abortion. Reliance on self-reported data underestimates contraceptive efficacy. Although techniques to minimize this bias exist, they are infrequently used in family planning studies. Greater skepticism about self-reports and more objective means of documenting coitus and contraceptive use are needed if contraceptive efficacy is to be accurately measured.

  11. "Family planning and population programs" a book review article. (United States)

    Hauser, P M


    RESUMEN: El volumen Planeamiento Familiar y Programas de Poblacion es un libro indispensable tanto para demógrafos como para otras personas interesadas en el control de población. Tiene sus limitaciones dodo su caracter heterogéneo, su falta de autocrítica, el no tratar sobre la validez y confiabilidad de las encuestas de conocimientos, attitudes y prácticas (KAP), su injustificado tono optimista, y su fracaso al no explorar y considerar alternativas para las presunciones y premisas sobre las cuales se basan los actuates programas de planeamiento familiar. Es sin embargo un importante hito que resume las contribuciones de las ciencias sociales y biomédicas al campo de la demografía.SummaryThe volume Family Planning and Population Programs is an indispensable book to demographers as well as to others concerned with population control. It is not without limitations because of its heterogeneous character, its lack of self-criticism, its failure to deal with the reliability and validity of KAP surveys, its unwarranted optimistic aura, and its failure to explore and consider alternatives to the basic assumptions and premises on which present family planning programs are based. It is, nevertheless, a landmark in its summarization of the contribution of the social and biomedical sciences to demographic engineering.

  12. Development of a Mobile App for Family Planning Providers. (United States)

    Halsall, Viannella; Rogers, Jennifer; Witt, Jacki; Song, Sejun; Nguyen, Hoang Duc Huy; Kelly, Patricia

    To provide an overview of lessons learned during the development process of an app for iOS and Android based on national recommendations for providing quality family planning services. After a review of existing apps was conducted to determine whether an app of clinical recommendations for family planning existed, a team of clinicians, training specialists, and app developers created a resource app by first drafting a comprehensive content map. A prototype of the app was then pilot tested using smart tablets by a volunteer convenience sample of women's healthcare professionals. Outcomes measured included usability, acceptability, download analytics, and satisfaction by clinicians as reported through an investigator-developed tool. Sixty-nine professionals tested a prototype of the app, and completed a user satisfaction tool. Overall, user feedback was positive, and a zoom function was added to the final version as a result of the pilot test. Within 3 months of being publicly available, the app was downloaded 677 times, with 97% of downloads occurring on smart phones, 76% downloads occurring on iOS devices, and 24% on Android devices. This trend persisted throughout the following 3 months. Clinicians with an interest in developing an app should consider a team approach to development, pilot test the app prior to wider distribution, and develop a web-based version of the app to be used by clinicians who are unable to access smart devices in their practice setting.

  13. Male Involvement in Family Planning: Challenges and Way Forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademola Adelekan


    Full Text Available Public health officials have advocated the involvement of men as a strategy for addressing the dismal performance of family planning (FP programmes. This study was therefore designed to explore the challenges and determine way forward to male involvement in FP in Olorunda Local Government Area, Osogbo, Nigeria. This cross-sectional study involved the use of a four-stage sampling technique to select 500 married men and interviewed them using semistructured questionnaire. In addition, four focus group discussions (FGDs were also conducted. Mean age of respondents was 28.5 ± 10.3 years. Some (37.9% of the respondents’ spouse had ever used FP and out of which 19.0% were currently using FP. Only 4.8% of the respondents had ever been involved in FP. Identified barriers to male involvement included the perception that FP is woman’s activity and was not their custom to participate in FP programme. More than half of the FGD discussants were of the view that men should provide their wives with transport fare and other resources they may need for FP. The majority of the respondents had never been involved in family planning with their wives. Community sensitization programmes aimed at improving male involvement in FP should be provided by government and nongovernmental agencies.

  14. Priority strategies for India′s family planning programme

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    Saroj Pachauri


    Full Text Available Strategies to accelerate progress of India′s family planning programme are discussed and the importance of improving the quality and reach of services to address unmet contraceptive need by providing method choice is emphasized. Although there is a growing demand for both limiting and spacing births, female sterilisation, is the dominant method in the national programme and use of spacing methods remains very limited. Fertility decline has been slower in the empowered action group (EAG s0 tates which contribute about 40 per cent of population growth to the country and also depict gloomy statistics for other socio-development indicators. It is, therefore, important to intensify efforts to reduce both fertility and mortality in these s0 tates. a0 rationale has been provided for implementing integrated programmes using a gender lens because the lack of women′s autonomy in reproductive decision-making, compounded by poor male involvement in sexual and reproductive health matters, is a fundamental issue yet to be addressed. The need for collaboration between scientists developing contraceptive technologies and those implementing family planning services is underscored. If contraceptive technologies are developed with an understanding of the contexts in which they will be delivered and an appreciation of end-users′ needs and perspectives, they are more likely to be accepted by service providers and used by clients.

  15. Experimental plan for the Single-Family Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, L.G.; Brown, M.A.; Wright, T.; White, D.L.


    The national evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) consists of five separate studies. The Single-Family Study is one of three studies that will estimate program energy savings and cost effectiveness in principal WAP submarkets. This report presents the experimental plan for the Single-Family Study, which will be implemented over the next three years (1991--1993). The Single-Family Study will directly estimate energy savings for a nationally representative sample of single-family and small multifamily homes weatherized in the 1989 program year. Savings will be estimated from gas and electric utility billing records using the Princeton Scorekeeping Method (PRISM). The study will also assess nonenergy impacts (e.g., health, comfort, safety, and housing affordability), estimate cost effectiveness, and analyze factors influencing these outcomes. For homes using fuels such as wood, coal, fuel oil, kerosene, and propane as the primary source of space conditioning, energy savings will be studied indirectly. The study will assemble a large nationally representative data base. A cluster sampling approach will be used, in which about 400 subgrantees are selected in a first stage and weatherized homes are selected in a second range. To ensure that the Single-Family Study is able to identify promising opportunities for future program development, two purposively selected groups of subgrantees will be included: (1) subgrantees that install cooling measures (such as more efficient air conditioning equipment or radiant barriers), and (2) exemplary subgrantees that use state-of-the-art technologies and service delivery procedures (such as advanced audit techniques, blower door tests, infrared scanners, extensive client education, etc.). These two groups of subgrantees will be analyzed to identify the most effective program elements in specific circumstances. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Family Interaction Patterns, Career Planning Attitudes, and Vocational Identity of High School Adolescents (United States)

    Hargrove, Byron K.; Inman, Arpana G.; Crane, Randy L.


    The purpose of the current study was to examine how perceptions of family interaction patterns as defined along three dimensions of family environment (quality of family relationships, family goal-orientations, and degree of organization and control within the family system) predict vocational identity and career planning attitudes among male and…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Mohan Dixit


    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the knowledge of contraceptive methods and intended family size among the men of urban slum.Material and Method: Present study conducted in urban slum area of Jaipur. Information from 400 married men of age group 18-49 years collected on semi structured schedule during June to October 2012.House to house survey conducted to achieve defined sample size. Data were analyzed by using SPSS 12 soft ware. Chi square, t test and ANOVA were used for interpretation.Result and Conclusion: Most commonly known methods of family planning were female sterilization (95.2%, condom (94.7% and Male sterilization (93.5%.  IUCD (57% was still not popularly known method of contraception. Emergency contraceptive pills (12.2% and Injectables (25.7% were least known methods among men. Knowledge of different contraceptive differs according to educational status and caste of men.  TV and radio were main source of information. Only 16% men said that they got information from health personnel. On analysis present family size was 3.125 while desired family size was 2.63, it shows that two child norm is not ideal to all. Men who had already two children 53 % of them still want to expand their family. Approximately half of the men feel that they have larger family size and the main reasons were inappropriate knowledge (37% and ignorance (21%. Those men who want to expand their family size, son preference was the major reason. Only 3% men show the intention of one child as ideal in family, which indicate that one child norm is too far to reach.

  18. Partnerships for Policy Development: A Case Study From Uganda's Costed Implementation Plan for Family Planning. (United States)

    Lipsky, Alyson B; Gribble, James N; Cahaelen, Linda; Sharma, Suneeta


    In global health, partnerships between practitioners and policy makers facilitate stakeholders in jointly addressing those issues that require multiple perspectives for developing, implementing, and evaluating plans, strategies, and programs. For family planning, costed implementation plans (CIPs) are developed through a strategic government-led consultative process that results in a detailed plan for program activities and an estimate of the funding required to achieve an established set of goals. Since 2009, many countries have developed CIPs. Conventionally, the CIP approach has not been defined with partnerships as a focal point; nevertheless, cooperation between key stakeholders is vital to CIP development and execution. Uganda launched a CIP in November 2014, thus providing an opportunity to examine the process through a partnership lens. This article describes Uganda's CIP development process in detail, grounded in a framework for assessing partnerships, and provides the findings from 22 key informant interviews. Findings reveal strengths in Uganda's CIP development process, such as willingness to adapt and strong senior management support. However, the evaluation also highlighted challenges, including district health officers (DHOs), who are a key group of implementers, feeling excluded from the development process. There was also a lack of planning around long-term partnership practices that could help address anticipated execution challenges. The authors recommend that future CIP development efforts use a long-term partnership strategy that fosters accountability by encompassing both the short-term goal of developing the CIP and the longer-term goal of achieving the CIP objectives. Although this study focused on Uganda's CIP for family planning, its lessons have implications for any policy or strategy development efforts that require multiple stakeholders to ensure successful execution.

  19. Counseling Services for Women in Marriage Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frischa Meivilona Yendi


    Full Text Available Marriage is a bond between the outer and inner man as a husband who has not aged 25 years and women 21 years old wife is not with the purpose of achieving happiness. Marriage and family counseling is a profession that will be developed in Indonesia. Counseling emphasizes on changes contained in the family system. Stages counseling, theory and dynamics as well as the use of counseling skills in marriage and family counseling has similarities with individual counseling and group counseling.

  20. Quality Assessment of Family Planning Sterilization Services at Health Care Facilities: Case Record Audit. (United States)

    Mathur, Medha; Goyal, Ram Chandra; Mathur, Navgeet


    Quality of sterilization services is a matter of concern in India because population control is a necessity. Family Planning Sterilization (FPS) services provided at public health care facilities need to be as per Standard Operating Procedures. To assess the quality of FPS services by audit of case records at selected health care facilities. This cross-sectional study was conducted for two and a half year duration at selected public health care facilities of central India by simple random sampling where FPS services were provided. As per the standards of Government of India, case records were audited and compliance was calculated to assess the quality of services. Results of record audit were satisfactory but important criteria like previous contraceptive history and postoperative counselling were found to be deviated from standards. At Primary Health Centres (PHCs) only 89.5% and at Community Health Centres (CHCs) 58.7% of records were having details of previous contraceptive history. Other criteria like mental illness (only 70% at CHCs) assessment were also inadequate. Although informed consent was found to be having 100% compliance in all records. Quality of care in FPS services is the matter of concern in present scenario for better quality of services. This study may enlighten the policy makers regarding improvements needed for providing quality care.

  1. Impact of Integrated Services on HIV Testing: A Nonrandomized Trial among Kenyan Family Planning Clients. (United States)

    Church, Kathryn; Warren, Charlotte E; Birdthistle, Isolde; Ploubidis, George B; Tomlin, Keith; Zhou, Weiwei; Kimani, James; Abuya, Timothy; Ndwiga, Charity; Sweeney, Sedona; Mayhew, Susannah H


    The impact of integrated reproductive health and HIV services on HIV testing and counseling (HTC) uptake was assessed among 882 Kenyan family planning clients using a nonrandomized cohort design within six intervention and six "comparison" facilities. The effect of integration on HTC goals (two tests over two years) was assessed using conditional logistic regression to test four "integration" exposures: a training and reorganization intervention; receipt of reproductive health and HIV services at recruitment; a functional measure of facility integration at recruitment; and a woman's cumulative exposure to functionally integrated care across different facilities over time. While recent receipt of HTC increased rapidly at intervention facilities, achievement of HTC goals was higher at comparison facilities. Only high cumulative exposure to integrated care over two years had a significant effect on HTC goals after adjustment (aOR 2.94, 95%CI 1.73-4.98), and programs should therefore make efforts to roll out integrated services to ensure repeated contact over time. © 2017 The Population Council, Inc.

  2. Teaching Families To Collaborate: From a Mad Hatter's Tea Party to Effective Program Planning. (United States)

    Schnieders, Christine A.; Tafoya, Anne T.


    Examines the roles, perceptions, and expectations of parents, families, and professionals relating to program planning for persons with disabilities. Guidelines and checklists are provided for families and service providers to improve participation and collaboration in conferences and program-planning meetings. Engaging families in active…

  3. Family-Centered Early Intervention Visual Impairment Services through Matrix Session Planning (United States)

    Ely, Mindy S.; Gullifor, Kateri; Hollinshead, Tara


    Early intervention visual impairment services are built on a model that values family. Matrix session planning pulls together parent priorities, family routines, and identified strategies in a way that helps families and early intervention professionals outline a plan that can both highlight long-term goals and focus on what can be done today.…

  4. Advertising family planning in the press: direct response results from Bangladesh. (United States)

    Harvey, P D


    In 1977 and again in 1982, a series of couponed ads were run in three major Bangladeshi newspapers to test the relative effectiveness of different family planning themes. The ads offered a free booklet about methods of family planning (1977) or "detailed information on contraceptives" (1982) in the context of family health, the wife's happiness, the children's future, and family economics. The most effective ads, by a highly significant margin, were those stressing the importance of family economics (food and shelter) and the children's (sons') future. The least effective ads stressed the benefits of family planning for the wife.

  5. COUNSELING PRACTICES. (United States)



  6. Innovations in counseling: do they make a difference? (United States)

    Kim, Y M; Meyer, R


    The Ministry of Health (MOH) in Ogun State, Nigeria added counseling training to the family planning curriculum for nurses to improve the quality of service delivery in its clinics. MOH and 2 US based organizations evaluated the counseling component by comparing the counseling skills of trained and untrained nurses. The evaluation showed that nurses trained in counseling surpassed the untrained nurses in almost every area concerning quality of care. For example, they exhibited better listening skills (97% vs. 66%), explained things more clearly (95% vs. 75%), treated clients with more courtesy (89% vs. 53%), and made the clients feel more at ease )95% vs. 76%) than untrained nurses. The MOH in Ghana also provided counseling training to its 5000 health care providers. It did this as a part of its 3-year multimedia campaign which reached 94% of adults with at least 1 media channel to improve the image of trained counselors. The MOH even sent women posing as clients to family planning clinics to observe trained and untrained nurses' counseling skills. The pseudoclients found the trained nurses performed better than the untrained nurses. Nevertheless even after training and being equipped with manuals, flipcharts, posters, and brochures, the public still regarded them as insensitive and discourteous. Thus the MOH engaged radio and TV operators to air ads promoting the Talk to Your Family Planning Advisors--They Care campaign. Further the counselors wore I Care buttons in the clinics and in public. As a result of the multimedia campaign, contraceptive sales increased 2-fold. In April 1992, participants from Nigeria, Bangladesh, Kenya, the Philippines, Egypt, and Zimbabwe attended the Population Communication Services project's 4-day workshop on improving evaluations of counseling training programs. It centered around counseling training's ability to improve quality of care and the image of health care providers. It also stressed that evaluation enhances training

  7. Institutional Formation of Family Planning in the District Sukabumi and the Bitung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Ilham A. Hamudy


    Full Text Available This study is about the implementation of family planning (KB in regional affairs. Nevertheless, this study focuses on the establishment of institutional care and family planning in the area set up. The purpose of this study is to get a complete picture of the role of family planning agencies that had stood alone in implementing family planning matters that have been handed over to the local government. By using the methods of descriptive and qualitative approach, this study found several things. First, there is impression of conflicts of interest (sectoral ego between Ministry of Home Affairs (MoHA and National Population and Family Planning Board (BKKBN on forming a population and family planning (BKKBD institutions in province, county and city. Second, the two regions, Sukabumi County and Bitung City that have shaped BKKBD has focused attention in supporting the success of family planning programs. Third, the integration of family planning into the regional medium-term development plan, as did the City of Bitung and Sukabumi County, ensure the sustainability of the program and budgeted in the regional budget revenue and expenditure (APBD. Finally, this study concludes, coordination and synchronization policies on family planning should be done by the BKKBN and MoHA.

  8. The role of family planning communications--an agent of reinforcement or change. (United States)

    Chen, E C


    Results are presented of a multiple classification analysis of responses to a 1972 KAP survey in Taiwan of 2013 married women aged 18-34 designed to determine whether family planning communication is primarily a reinforcement agent or a change agent. 2 types of independent variables, social demographic variables including age, number of children, residence, education, employment status, and duration of marriage; and social climate variables including ever receiving family planning information from mass media and ever discussing family planning with others, were used. KAP levels, the dependent variables, were measured by 2 variables each: awareness of effective methods and awareness of government supply of contraceptives for knowledge, wish for additional children and approve of 2-child family for attitude, and never use contraception and neither want children nor use contraception for practice. Social demographic and attitudinal variables were found to be the critical ones, while social climate and knowledge variables had only negligible effects on various stages of family planning adoption, indicating that family planning communications functioned primarily as a reinforcement agent. The effects of social demographic variables were prominent in all stages of contraceptive adoption. Examination of effects of individual variables on various stages of family planning adoption still supported the argument that family planning communications played a reinforcement role. Family planning communications functioned well in diffusing family planning knowledge and accessibility, but social demographic variables and desire for additional children were the most decisive influences on use of contraception.

  9. China's Experience of Quality Care in Family Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Er-sheng GAO; Wei YUAN; Ning LIU


    Objective To evaluate and overview the experience of quality care of family planning of China.Methods The framework of quality care of China was summarized and analyzed, that was clients, technology and management triangle program system.Results The 8 fundamental elements of quality care in China were presented:1) policy environment of QoC, 2) comprehensive services, 3) choice of method, 4) IEC to policy-makers and providers, 5) technical competence, 6) interpersonal communications, 7) institutional guideline and regulation, 8) appropriate constellation of service.Conclusion FP sectors should prepare different constellations of service to meet their individual reproductive health need for different clients and develop institutional guideline and regulation for FP service to follow up in practice. QoC should be a kind of standardized service process.

  10. f-treeGC: a questionnaire-based family tree-creation software for genetic counseling and genome cohort studies. (United States)

    Tokutomi, Tomoharu; Fukushima, Akimune; Yamamoto, Kayono; Bansho, Yasushi; Hachiya, Tsuyoshi; Shimizu, Atsushi


    ) Alternatively, family histories are collected using a completed foldable interview paper sheet named "f-sheet", which is identical to the questionnaire in f-treeGC. We developed a questionnaire-based family tree-creation software, named f-treeGC, which is fully compliant with international recommendations for standardized human pedigree nomenclature. The present software simplifies the process of collecting family histories and pedigrees, and has a variety of uses, from genome cohort studies or primary care to genetic counseling.

  11. Misconceptions about family planning of women in Turkey

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    Meltem Demirgöz Bal


    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study is to investigate the myths of women about contraceptive methods.Method: This study was planned as a cross-sectional research. The study population consisted of 1335 women aged between 16 and 56 years, who attended to a family planning clinic of a state hospital in Karaman City in the southwest part of Turkey.Findings: The mean age of women has been 32,79±8,8. While 6.2% (n=84 of the women used no contraceptive method, 70.4% (n=945 of them used an effective method and 23.4% (n=312 used a traditional method. The 40.2% of women have believed in that the oral contraceptive method caused weight gain, infertility, bleeding disorders, hirsutism, cancer, irritability, malformed baby and premature menopause.  The 24,2% of women have thought of that the intrauterine devices caused bleeding disorder, moving in the body, cancer, decreased sexual desire, genital infection and  infertility.Conclusions: There are many myths and misconceptions surrounding contraception, and they can sometimes prevent a woman from making an informed choice.

  12. Learning about population problem: children's attitudes toward family planning in India. (United States)

    Iyengar, S


    To determine the attitudes of Indian children and adolescents toward family planning, a sample of 863 high school students (aged 10-18 years) from the state of Andhra Pradesh was asked 2 operational questions ("have you heard about family planning" and "why does India need family planning?") to measure levels of family planning awareness, and 2 additional questions to measure approval of family planning ("do you think family planning is a good thing" and "which is better, a big family or a small family?"). Other variables considered were religion, socioeconomic status, education, political knowledge, and media exposure. 70% of the respondents had heard of family planning. 49% were able to state a reason for family planning (FP), while 32% were able to grasp the causal connection between population growth and economic development. Of the students who had heard of FP, 85% believed that FP was good, while 14% favored large families. The findings reflected the higher level of approval of the Andhra Pradesh youth towards FP compared with their adults; this was attributed to generational differences, and possibly to the lower level of education of Indian adults. Religion exhibited a strong effect on youth's attitudes toward FP, with Hindu children exhibiting a more favorable attitude compared with their Muslim counterparts who felt that family planning was bad and large families were good. Although education appears to be the critical determinant of family planning awareness, the results suggest that overall, the integral element of the socialization process is exposure to a modernizing environment. Nevertheless, reduction of population growth rate still largely depends on the Indian government's provision of educational opportunities to its youth.

  13. Concomitant contraceptive implant and efavirenz use in women living with HIV: perspectives on current evidence and policy implications for family planning and HIV treatment guidelines

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    Rena C. Patel


    Conclusion: This controversy underlines the importance of integrating family planning services into routine HIV care, counselling women appropriately on increased risk of pregnancy with concomitant implant and efavirenz use, and expanding contraceptive method mix for all women. As global access to ART expands, greater research is needed to explore implant effectiveness when used concomitantly with newer ART regimens. Data on how HIV-positive women and their partners choose contraceptives, as well as information from providers on how they present and counsel patients on contraceptive options are needed to help guide policy and service delivery. Lastly, greater collaboration between HIV and reproductive health experts at all levels are needed to develop successful strategies to ensure the best HIV and reproductive health outcomes for women living with HIV.

  14. Specialized vs. combined clinics: patterns of delivery of family planning services. (United States)

    Weintraub, D R; Wald, S B


    Recently it has been asserted that family planning should be offered primarily through maternal and child health (MCH) programs. Others have argued that family planning should be provided only in a comprehensive medical services setting. A pilot study was made during 1968 and 1969 of 12 family planning clinics in New York City with the finding that clinics with a specialized family planning staff provided the same or better quality service and saw significantly more women. In 1971, the National Center for Family Planning Services sponsored a national county-by-county study to obtain information for assessing progress toward providing subsidized family planning services to all persons in need. Results showed that as of 1971, 60% of the 1.9 million patients who received family planning services received them in specialized clinics. Even in hospitals, more than 3 in 10 family planning patients received care in specialized clinics. The conclusion reached is that whatever the advantages of combined or specialized services, neither the MCH system nor general medical care facilities could integrate the current specialized family planning caseload without massive reorganization of the health delivery system and its financing.

  15. Is family planning already accepted by the present generation? Freshmen's view on family planning at University of North Sumatera, Medan. (Third report). (United States)

    Syarifuddin, A; Thahir, I; Hasibuan, B; Siregar, Z; Siregar, H


    A survey of 1997 freshmen entering the University of North Sumatera, Medan, on their attitude toward family planning was conducted in July 1985, and compared to results of 2 prior surveys taken in 1982 and 1977. The most common sources of knowledge about family planning were newspapers (14.5%), TV (11.5%) and health workers (4.1%). 41% of the students were 1st or 2nd born. Most expected to marry at 25-29 years of age, or after graduation, in line with the government family planning campaign. The average desired family size was 2.83 children, compared to 3.05 and 3.37 in prior surveys. 31.3% wanted 2 boys and 1 girl, 26.6% wanted 1 boy and 1 girl and 12.6% wanted 2 boys and 2 girls. The most popular single reason chosen for the expected family size was good family life, by 27.2%, according to the government slogan. Virtually no one chose future security or tradition as their primary reason. 97.8% expressed readiness to accept family planning, up from 72.7% in the 1st survey. Methods chosen were IUD by 35.0%, followed by pills and periodic abstinence. The survey demonstrates the effectiveness of government family planning education.

  16. Male involvement in family planning decision making in Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. (United States)

    Ijadunola, Macellina Y; Abiona, Titilayo C; Ijadunola, Kayode T; Afolabi, Olusegun T; Esimai, Olapeju A; OlaOlorun, Funmilola M


    This study assessed men's awareness, attitude, and practice of modern contraceptive methods, determined the level of spousal communication, and investigated the correlates of men's opinion in family planning decision making in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Quantitative methodology was employed in this cross-sectional descriptive design using a structured household questionnaire to collect information from 402 male study participants. A multistage sampling procedure was employed. Eighty-nine percent of men approved of the use of family planning while only about 11 percent disapproved of it. Eighty percent of men had ever used contraception while 56 percent of them were current users. Spousal communication about family planning and other family reproductive goals was quite poor. The socio-demographic correlates of men's opinions included religion, marriage type, educational attainment, and occupation (p < 0.05). The study concluded that male involvement in family planning decision making was poor and their patronage of family planning services was low.

  17. Family planning is the first and most important step for rural development. (United States)

    Mokarapong, T


    Mahasarakham province in Thailand has adopted family planning as its primary development policy. Although not a new issue, family planning until now has been largely ignored by most government sectors. Most consider family planning to be the sole responsibility of the Ministry of Public Ealth (MOPH), and this is why family planning has not been as successful as it should be. Discussion covers the general problem (rapid population increase, limited arable land, productivity, social and economic development, and deforestation), problems of family planning in the past (trained personnel and accessibility and government sectors ignoring or hindering family planning programs), integrated rural development (motivation, mobilizing teamwork, the integrated approach, mobile medical team, family planning for both the rich and the poor, and emphasis on vasectomy and IUD), objectives of the family planning program, and implementation. Mahasarakham uses an integrated rural development approach that emphasizes 9 development components: family planning, fisheries development, vegetable growing, water purification, rice banks, soy beans, using anchovies for natural fish sauce, insect extermination by electricity, and fuel from rice banks. All of these components contribute to the development of a better quality of rural life. The major problem is population growth, which at 1.8% remains high. Mahasarakham will promote the family planning program as the top priority, and this service will be brought to the people. The objectives of the family planning program are: to reduce the population growth rate Mahasarakham to zero growth within 2-3 years: to provide access to family planning services to all people in Mahasarakham; to educate people about family planning to increase its acceptance: to initiate a proper rural development program in Mahasarakham; and to promote intergovernmental cooperation by means of the integrated approach, which will have good results in later rural

  18. Effect of Family Wealth and Attitudes toward Unmet Need for Family Planning Among Fertile Couples in Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmawati Azis


    Full Text Available One of the problems generated by unmet need for family planning is the occurrence of unwanted pregnancies, that could impact on abortion. Unmet need for family planning affected by various factors, both from within and from outside the woman. This study aimed to analyze the influence of socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge and attitudes towards family planning unmet need in women of childbearing age couple in Makassar, South Sulawesi. This study is analytic observational research. Cross-sectional design was applied to take sample from a total of 246 spouses of fertile age of respondents, with Systematic Random Sampling technique. For bivariate test, analysis chi-square was applied and logistic regression analysis for multivariate analysis. Studies show that there is no correlation characteristics of socio-demographic variables, only the level of wealthy significantly related to the unmet need for family planning. poorest respondents and poorer levels of prosperity, risk unmet need for family planning is almost 3 times more than respondents with wealthy ≥middle level (OR = 2.451; 95% CI 1.302, 4.615. The tendency of mothers who have a negative attitude, unmet need for family planning is almost 22 time than mothers who have a positive attitude (OR = 21.934; 95%CI = 8.812, 54.596. To increase the awareness and participation of all government institutions and community agencies, including the cooperation and support of religious leaders. In an effort to disseminate family planning information in the context of religion, so that misconceptions about contraceptive use can be improved. Service increase and competence of health workers planning to create awareness and empower women, especially mothers of poor families, to make choices appropriate contraception.

  19. A facility birth can be the time to start family planning: postpartum intrauterine device experiences from six countries. (United States)

    Pfitzer, Anne; Mackenzie, Devon; Blanchard, Holly; Hyjazi, Yolande; Kumar, Somesh; Lisanework Kassa, Serawit; Marinduque, Bernabe; Mateo, Marie Grace; Mukarugwiro, Beata; Ngabo, Fidele; Zaeem, Shabana; Zafar, Zonobia; Smith, Jeffrey Michael


    Initiation of family planning at the time of birth is opportune, since few women in low-resource settings who give birth in a facility return for further care. Postpartum family planning (PPFP) and postpartum intrauterine device (PPIUD) services were integrated into maternal care in six low- and middle-income countries, applying an insertion technique developed in Paraguay. Facilities with high delivery volume were selected to integrate PPFP/PPIUD services into routine care. Effective PPFP/PPIUD integration requires training and mentoring those providers assisting women at the time of birth. Ongoing monitoring generated data for advocacy. The percentages of PPIUD acceptors ranged from 2.3% of women counseled in Pakistan to 5.8% in the Philippines. Rates of complications among women returning for follow-up were low. Expulsion rates were 3.7% in Pakistan, 3.6% in Ethiopia, and 1.7% in Guinea and the Philippines. Infection rates did not exceed 1.3%, and three countries recorded no cases. Offering PPFP/PPIUD at birth improves access to contraception.

  20. Family planning impact evaluation: the evolution of techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermalin, Albert I.


    Full Text Available This paper is a slightly revised version of a paper prepared for the seminar on methods for inpact evaluation of family planning programs held in Jaco, Costa Rica, May 14-16, 1997. The seminar was sponsored by the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID, the Carolina Population Center of the University of North Carolina, and the Central American Population Program of the University of Costa Rica. The goal of the seminar was to look at current methodological problems facing careful evaluation of the impact of programs, to examine some of the new methods that have been developed to address persistent issues, and to assess the methodological challenges posed by the expanded goals of many programs following the 1994 Cairo International Conference on Population and Development. This paper was designed to serve as the background to discussions of current methodologies and issues by tracing the development and nature of methods for assessing impact that started soon after the first programs were initiated in the 1950s. The techniques discussed include standardization and trend analysis, the analyses of acceptor data, experimental designs, multivariate areal analysis, population-based surveys, and multilevel strategies. The intent of the program sponsors and coordinators was to publish the collected papers but various contingencies intervened to make this infeasible. A description of the seminar and many of the papers are maintained on the University of Costa Rica website: As a background chapter, the original version contained references to many of the other chapters planned for the volume. As many of these papers appear on the website, relevant references are given to the authors and this website throughout the paper.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivin Vincent


    Full Text Available The family planning programme in the world was first launched by India in 1952 in order to reduce the population growth in the country. India currently faces a vicious cycle of population explosion and poverty. In the above context, this study was conducted so as to learn about the different family planning methods practicing in a rural area of Chidambaram and also to find out any unmet need of family planning which is one of the most important factor that causes hindrance in the success of national family planning programme. OBJECTIVES To find out the proportion of eligible couples practicing any of the family planning methods, both temporary and permanent, the different types and the unmet needs of family planning practices along with the factors associated with unwillingness of acceptance of family planning methods among these eligible couples. MATERIAL AND METHODS It is a cross-sectional study done in 125 eligible couples of 700 families of Omakkulam and Sengattan areas of Chidambaram. Data collected were coded and entered in Microsoft Excel sheet and was analysed using Epi info statistical software. RESULTS The proportion of eligible couples in this study population of 700 families was 18% (125. The proportion of eligible couples practicing family planning methods were 42% and 58% had not adopted any methods. Different types of family planning methods adopted by the eligible couples in this study were Vasectomy (1.89%, PPS (15.09%, CuT (18.87%, OCP (20.76% and Condoms (43.39%. Reasons for non-acceptance of family planning methods among the eligible couples were Hysterectomy (2.78%, Infertility (6.95%, Infection and bleeding (11.11%, Recently married (13.89%, No specific reason (29.16% and Family not complete (36.11%. In this study, 20% of eligible couples had unmet needs of family planning methods. CONCLUSION This study shows there is still a gap in the acceptance of family planning methods by the eligible couples of this study population

  2. Effect of screening for cystic-fibrosis on the influence of genetic-counseling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankert-Roelse, J E; te Meerman, G J; Knol, K; ten Kate, L P


    We studied the influence of genetic counseling for cystic fibrosis on family planning, using neonatal screening, family size at time of diagnosis, and maternal age as possible determinants for reproductive behaviour. The expected number of children born to mothers of equal age and parity in the same

  3. Measuring interprofessional competencies and attitudes among health professional students creating family planning virtual patient cases. (United States)

    Wong, Eric; Leslie, Jasmine J; Soon, Judith A; Norman, Wendy V


    The Virtual Interprofessional Patients-Computer-Assisted Reproductive Health Education for Students (VIP-CARES) Project took place during the summers of 2010-2012 for eight weeks each year at the University of British Columbia (UBC). Undergraduate health care students worked collaboratively to develop virtual patient case-based learning modules on the topic of family planning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in perception towards interprofessional collaboration (IPC) among the participants, before and after the project. This study utilized a mixed methods evaluation using self-assessment survey instruments, semi-structured interviews, and reflective essays. Pre- and post- project surveys were adapted from the Canadian Medical Education Determinants (CanMEDS) and Canadian Interprofessional Health Collaborative (CIHC) frameworks, as well as the Memorial University Interprofessional Attitudes (IPA) questionnaire. The survey results were analyzed as mean (M) and standard deviation (SD) on Likert scales. The non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to determine if any significant changes were measured between each participant's differences in score (p ≤ 0.05). Post-project interview transcripts and essays were analyzed using recursive abstraction to elicit any themes. Altogether, 26 students in medicine, pharmacy, nursing, midwifery, dentistry, counselling psychology, and computer science participated in VIP-CARES, during the three years. Student attitudes toward IPC were positive before and after the project. At the project's conclusion, there was a statistically significant increase in the participants' self-assessment competency scores in the CanMEDS roles of health advocate (p = 0.05), manager (p = 0.02), and medical expert (p = 0.03), as well as the CIHC domains of interprofessional communication (p = 0.04), role clarification (p = 0.01), team functioning (p = 0.05), and collaborative leadership (p

  4. Invisible and Visible Language Planning: Ideological Factors in the Family Language Policy of Chinese Immigrant Families in Quebec (United States)

    Curdt-Christiansen, Xiao Lan


    This ethnographic inquiry examines how family languages policies are planned and developed in ten Chinese immigrant families in Quebec, Canada, with regard to their children's language and literacy education in three languages, Chinese, English, and French. The focus is on how multilingualism is perceived and valued, and how these three languages…

  5. It's about time: WHO and partners release programming strategies for postpartum family planning. (United States)

    Gaffield, Mary Eluned; Egan, Shannon; Temmerman, Marleen


    The postpartum period is a critical time to address high unmet family planning need and to reduce the risks of closely spaced pregnancies. Practical tools are included in the new resource for integrating postpartum family planning at points when women have frequent health system contact, including during antenatal care, labor and delivery, postnatal care, immunization, and child health care.

  6. A methodology integrating Petri nets and knowledge-based systems to support process family planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Linda L.; Xu, Qianli; Helo, Petri


    Planning production processes for product families have been well recognised as an effective means of achieving successful product family development. However, most existing approaches do not lend themselves to planning production processes with focus on the optimality of the cohort of a product fam

  7. Perceived Benefits and Barriers to Family Planning Education among Third Year Medical Students

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    Kimberly G. Smith, MD, MS


    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the current study is to explore third- year medical students’ interest in learning about family planning, exposure to family planning (contraception and abortion and perceived barriers and benefits to family planning education in their obstetrics and gynecology rotation.Method: We conducted four focus groups with 27 third-year medical students near the end of their rotation in obstetrics and gynecology.Results: Students desired education in family planning but perceived limited exposure during their rotation. Most students were aware of abortion but lacked factual information and abortion procedural skills. They felt systemic and faculty-related barriers contributed to limited exposure. Students discussed issues such as lack of time for coverage of contraception and abortion in the curricula and rotation itself. Perceived benefits of clinical instruction in family planning included increased knowledge of contraceptive management and abortion the ability to care for and relate to patients, opportunity for values clarification, and positive changes in attitudes towards family planning.Conclusions: Medical students who desire full education in family planning during their obstetrics and gynecology rotation may face barriers to obtaining that education. Given that many medical students will eventually care for reproductive-age women, greater promotion of opportunities for exposure to family planning within obstetrics and gynecology rotations is warranted.

  8. A methodology integrating Petri nets and knowledge-based systems to support process family planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Linda L.; Xu, Qianli; Helo, Petri


    Planning production processes for product families have been well recognised as an effective means of achieving successful product family development. However, most existing approaches do not lend themselves to planning production processes with focus on the optimality of the cohort of a product

  9. A methodology integrating Petri nets and knowledge-based systems to support process family planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Linda L.; Xu, Qianli; Helo, Petri


    Planning production processes for product families have been well recognised as an effective means of achieving successful product family development. However, most existing approaches do not lend themselves to planning production processes with focus on the optimality of the cohort of a product fam

  10. Population and Family Planning Education, Report of a Seminar (Holte, Denmark, July 3-28, 1972). (United States)


    In July 1972, DANIDA and the Danish Family Planning Association provided delegations from selected countries the opportunity to devise teaching programs on population and family planning topics for 9-to 11-year-olds. Participants from the Arab Republic of Egypt, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, and the Philippines attended the meeting with Danish…

  11. Does Family Planning Reduce Infant Mortality? Evidence from Surveillance Data in Matlab, Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soest, A.H.O.; Saha, U.R.


    Abstract: Analyzing the effect of family planning on child survival remains an important issue but is not straightforward because of several mechanisms linking family planning, birth intervals, total fertility, and child survival. This study uses a dynamic model jointly explaining infant mortality,

  12. Economic evaluation of family planning interventions in low and middle income countries; A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zakiyah, Neily; Van Asselt, Antoinette D. I.; Roijmans, Frank; Postma, Maarten J.


    Background: A significant number of women in low and middle income countries (L-MICs) who need any family planning, experience a lack in access to modern effective methods. This study was conducted to review potential cost effectiveness of scaling up family planning interventions in these regions fr

  13. Economic Evaluation of Family Planning Interventions in Low and Middle Income Countries : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zakiyah, Neily; van Asselt, Antoinette D. I.; Roijmans, Frank; Postma, Maarten J.


    Background A significant number of women in low and middle income countries (L-MICs) who need any family planning, experience a lack in access to modern effective methods. This study was conducted to review potential cost effectiveness of scaling up family planning interventions in these regions fro

  14. Economic Evaluation of Family Planning Interventions in Low and Middle Income Countries : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zakiyah, Neily; van Asselt, Antoinette D. I.; Roijmans, Frank; Postma, Maarten J.


    Background A significant number of women in low and middle income countries (L-MICs) who need any family planning, experience a lack in access to modern effective methods. This study was conducted to review potential cost effectiveness of scaling up family planning interventions in these regions fro

  15. Family and Consumer Sciences: A Facility Planning and Design Guide for School Systems. (United States)

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    This document presents design concepts and considerations for planning and developing middle and high school family and consumer sciences education facilities. It includes discussions on family and consumer sciences education trends and the facility planning process. Design concepts explore multipurpose laboratories and spaces for food/nutrition…

  16. Satisfaction with family planning services - interpersonal and organisational dimensions

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    M.S. Westaway


    Full Text Available In South Africa, client satisfaction with the quality of health care has received minimal attention; probably due to the lack of locally developed and tested measures. Therefore, we developed and tested a 20-item attitude scale to determine satisfaction with Family Planning (FP services. The objectives of this study were to: ascertain reliability of the scale and confirm, through factor analysis, that satisfaction with the FP service was based on interpersonal and organisational dimensions. The sample comprised 199 black adult interviewees (158 women and 41 men, who had previously used or were currently using contraception, from an informal settlement in Gauteng, South Africa. Three items were removed from the scale due to unacceptable communality estimates. The reliability coefficient of 0.76 for the 17-item scale was satisfactory. The principal components analysis, with orthogonal and oblique rotations, extracted two factors; accounting for 51.8% of the variance. The highest loadings on Factor I involved an interpersonal dimension (friendly, encouraging, competent, informative and communicative. Factor II tended to focus on the organisational elements of the system, such as different methods, choice of methods, service availability and length of waiting time. It was concluded that this scale was a reliable, easily administered and scored measure of satisfaction, with underlying interpersonal and organisational dimensions.

  17. Cycle Monitors and Devices in Natural Family Planning

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    Freundl G


    Full Text Available For fertility awareness based methods- (FAB- users charting and checking of menstrual cycle symptoms may be supported by different instruments and devices. These cycle monitors promise to detect the fertile and infertile days by using direct and indirect markers of fertility in a woman´s menstrual cycle. In this article we use data of our own studies, data out of the literature research in Medline and PubMed and from our own German NFP (natural family planning database. We tried to rate the efficacy of the tested monitors. We figured out that only for one hormone- and for one temperature-computer reasonable prospective studies exist. To get more comparable results we have performed in 2000 a small pilot study on 6 devices and the symptothermal method of NFP (NFP-DAG together with “Stiftung Warentest”. The efficacy of the various devices differed significantly. We therefore urgently need more clinical studies on menstrual cycle monitors for reliable information of users.

  18. The Timmons Savings Plan: A Working Document on a Plan to Encourage Families to Save for College. (United States)

    Tierney, Michael L.

    The Timmons Savings Plan, which encourages families to save toward college costs, is analyzed. This plan allows for periodic (non-tax deductible) contributions to an account administered by the U.S. Department of the Treasury. The amount deposited would be matched by the federal government in exchange for the government's earning the interest on…

  19. Family planning practices of rural community dwellers in cross River State, Nigeria. (United States)

    Etokidem, A J; Ndifon, W; Etowa, J; Asuquo, E F


    Nigeria is the most populous nation in Africa and the seventh most populous in the world. Despite a high fertility rate of 5.5 per woman and a high population growth rate of 3.2%, Nigeria's contraceptive prevalence is 15%, which is one of the lowest in the world. The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge of family planning and family planning preferences and practices of rural community women in Cross River State of Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study involving 291 rural women. Convenience sampling method was used. The women were assembled in a hall and a semi-structured questionnaire was administered to every consenting woman until the sample size was attained. Data obtained from the study were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 and presented in tables as frequencies and percentages as well as figures. Association between categorical variables was explored using chi-square test. Binary logistic regression was also performed to determine predictors of use of at least one family planning method at some point in time. Fifty (17.2%) respondents were using at least one family planning method. One hundred and ninety-eight (68.3%) respondents had used at least one family planning method at some point in time. Reasons given for not using any family planning method included "Family planning is against my religious beliefs" (56%); "it is against our culture" (43.8%); "I need more children" (64.9%); "my partner would not agree" (35.3%); "family planning does not work" (42.9%); "it reduces sexual enjoyment" (76%); and "it promotes unfaithfulness/infidelity" (59%). Binary logistic regression conducted to predict the use of at least one family planning method at some point in time using some independent variables showed that who makes the decision regarding family planning use was the strongest predictor of family planning use (OR = 0.567; 95% CI = 0.391-0.821). This suggests that family planning uptake is more

  20. Parental palliative cancer: psychosocial adjustment and health-related quality of life in adolescents participating in a German family counselling service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kühne Franziska


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parental palliative disease is a family affair, however adolescent's well-being and coping are still rarely considered. The objectives of this paper were a to identify differences in psychosocial adjustment and health-related quality of life (HRQoL among adolescents and young adults with parents suffering from palliative cancer or cancers in other disease stages, b to relate psychosocial adjustment and health-related quality of life to adolescent coping, and c to explore significant mediator and predictor variables. Methods Cross-sectional data were derived from a multi-site research study of families before child-centered counselling. N=86 adolescents and young adults were included, their mean age 13.78 years (sd 2.45, 56% being female. Performed analyses included ANCOVA, multiple linear regression, and mediation analysis. Results Adolescents with parents suffering from palliative cancers reported significantly less total psychosocial problems, and better overall HRQoL. There were no significant group differences regarding coping frequency and efficacy. Our set of coping items significantly mediated the effect of parental disease stage on psychosocial problems and HRQoL. Further, parental disease status and general family functioning predicted psychosocial problems (R2adj =.390 and HRQoL (R2adj =.239 best. Conclusion The study indicates distress among adolescents throughout the entire parental disease process. Our analysis suggests that counselling services could offer supportive interventions which focus particularly on adolescent coping as well as family functioning.

  1. Genetic Counseling and Evaluation for BRCA1/2 Testing (United States)

    ... to Family Family Stories Diseases Genomic Resources Genetic Counseling for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Recommend on ... mutation, your doctor may refer you for genetic counseling. Understanding and dealing with a strong family health ...

  2. Personal and Family Financial Planning. A Staff Development Workshop for Secondary School Trainers and Teachers. (United States)

    Bannister, Rosella; And Others

    This manual for teacher trainers and staff development specialists contains information and materials for an 18-hour personal and financial planning workshop for secondary teachers. Part A is a guide for workshop directors. It defines personal and family financial planning, provides background information on financial planning education, and…

  3. Family Perceptions of Participation in Educational Planning for Children Receiving Mental Health Services (United States)

    Jivanjee, Pauline; Kruzich, Jean M.; Friesen, Barbara J.; Robinson, Adjoa


    Family participation in educational planning for children with disabilities is believed to result in plans that are more responsive to the child's needs and that lead to better social, emotional, and educational outcomes. Participation in educational planning is also a fundamental right of parents and a cornerstone of special education…

  4. On the socioeconomic benefits of family planning work. (United States)

    Yang, D


    The focus of this article is on 1) the intended socioeconomic benefit of Chinese family planning (FP) versus the benefit of the maternal production sector, 2) the estimated costs of FP work, 3) and the principal ways to lower FP costs. Marxian population theory, which is ascribed to in socialist China, states that population and socioeconomic development are interconnected and must adapt to each other and that an excessively large or small population will upset the balance and retard development. Malthusians believe that large populations reduce income, and Adam Smith believed that more people meant a larger market and more income. It is believed that FP will bring socioeconomic benefits to China. The socioeconomic benefit of material production is the linkage between labor consumption and the amount of labor usage with the fruits and benefits of labor. FP invests in human, material, and financial resources to reduce the birth rate and the absolute number of births. The investment is recouped in population. The increased national income generated from a small outlay to produce an ideal population would be used to improve material and cultural lives. FP brings economic benefits and accelerates social development (ecological balances women's emancipation and improvement in the physical and mental health of women and children, improvement in cultural learning and employment, cultivation of socialist morality and new practices, and stability). In computing FP cost, consideration is given to total cost and unit cost. Cost is dependent on the state budget allocation, which was 445.76 million yuan in 1982 and was doubled by 1989. World Bank figures for 1984 affixed the FP budget in China at 979.6 million US dollars, of which 80% was provided by China. Per person, this means 21 cents for central, provincial, prefecture, and country spending, 34 cents for rural collective set-ups, 25 cents for child awards, and various subsidies, 15 cents for sterilization, and 5 cents for

  5. Increasing Use of Postpartum Family Planning and the Postpartum IUD: Early Experiences in West and Central Africa. (United States)

    Pleah, Tsigue; Hyjazi, Yolande; Austin, Suzanne; Diallo, Abdoulaye; Dao, Blami; Waxman, Rachel; Karna, Priya


    A global resurgence of interest in the intrauterine device (IUD) as an effective long-acting reversible contraceptive and in improving access to a wide range of contraceptive methods, as well as an emphasis on encouraging women to give birth in health care facilities, has led programs to introduce postpartum IUD (PPIUD) services into postpartum family planning (PPFP) programs. We describe strategic, organizational, and technical elements that contributed to early successes of a regional initiative in West and Central Africa to train antenatal, maternity, and postnatal care providers in PPFP counseling for the full range of available methods and in PPIUD service delivery. In November 2013, the initiative provided competency-based training in Guinea for providers from the main public teaching hospital in 5 selected countries (Benin, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Niger, and Senegal) with no prior PPFP counseling or PPIUD capacity. The training was followed by a transfer-of-learning visit and monitoring to support the trained providers. One additional country, Togo, replicated the initiative's model in 2014. Although nascent, this initiative has introduced high-quality PPFP and PPIUD services to the region, where less than 1% of married women of reproductive age use the IUD. In total, 21 providers were trained in PPFP counseling, 18 of whom were also trained in PPIUD insertion. From 2014 to 2015, more than 15,000 women were counseled about PPFP, and 2,269 women chose and received the PPIUD in Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Niger, Senegal, and Togo. (Introduction of PPIUD services in Chad has been delayed.) South-South collaboration has been central to the initiative's accomplishments: Guinea's clinical centers of excellence and qualified trainers provided a culturally resonant example of a PPFP/PPIUD program, and trainings are creating a network of regional trainers to facilitate expansion. Two of the selected countries (Benin and Niger) have expanded their PPFP/PPUID training

  6. Perioperative counseling in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Koutelekos


    Full Text Available Counseling is a part of professional role of nurses and a prerequisite for holistic care. Aim: The aim of the present study was to review the literature about Counseling of children that undergo surgery. Material and method: The methodology οf this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research literature, between 2005-2009 mainly in the pubmed data base which referred to Counseling of children that undergo surgery, using the key words: Counseling, perioperative treatment, holistic care . Results: In the literature it is cited that counseling is provided by well trained and balanced individuals that have communication skills. Prerequisite of effective counseling is Conversation, where the nurse-consultant after elaborate listening proposes remarks, proposals, in order to enhance self-image, self-knowledge and self-esteem of the child and improve its’ personal emotional state. Perioperative counseling procedure as a part of the holistic care of children should follow and individualized approach either on preoperative and postoperative stage. Conclusion: Ultimate goal of effective counseling to children that undergo surgery is to improve the quality of provided care and increase the degree of satisfaction of hospitalized children and their families.

  7. "If I have only two children and they die… who will take care of me?" -a qualitative study exploring knowledge, attitudes and practices about family planning among Mozambican female and male adults. (United States)

    Capurchande, Rehana; Coene, Gily; Roelens, Kristien; Meulemans, Herman


    By focusing upon family planning counselling services, the Mozambican government has significantly enhanced the general health of female and male clients. However, little is known about the experiences of family planning by female and male adults. This article focuses on knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding contraceptive methods and fertility intentions. An in-depth qualitative study of female and male clients was conducted in two settings in Maputo province - Ndlavela and Boane. A total of sixteen in-depth interviews, four informal conversations, and observations were equally divided between both study sites. The analysis followed a constructionist approach. Three steps were considered in the analysis: examining commonalities, differences and relationships. Although there was a high level of family planning knowledge, there were discrepancies in clients' everyday practices. Male and female clients are confronted with a variety of expectations concerning fertility intentions and family size, and are under pressure in numerous ways. Social pressures include traditional expectations and meanings connected to having children, as well as religious factors. Short interaction time between clients and health workers is a problem. Additionally, imposed contraceptive methods, and typically brief conversations about birth control between couples only adds to the burden. Because family planning is largely viewed as a woman's concern, most clients have never attended counselling sessions with their partners. Attitudes towards responsibility for contraceptive use and risk-taking are strongly gendered. Female and male clients have differing expectations about contraceptive use and fertility intentions. They participate differently in family planning programs leading to their inconsistent and ambivalent practices as well as vague perceptions of risk-taking. Therefore, policymakers must address the reasons behind ambivalence and inconsistency regarding contraceptives and

  8. Letter Writing as an Intervention in Family Therapy with Adolescents Who Engage in Nonsuicidal Self-Injury (United States)

    Hoffman, Rachel; Hinkle, Michelle Gimenez; Kress, Victoria White


    Family therapy can be an important component of a comprehensive treatment plan when counseling adolescents who engage in nonsuicidal self-injury. The authors provide a rationale for the use of letter writing as a therapeutic intervention when counseling families in which an adolescent engages in nonsuicidal self-injury. Descriptions of types of…

  9. [Family planning programs and birth control in the third world]. (United States)

    Wohlschlagl, H


    The population explosion has been abating since the 2nd half of the 1960s. The birth rate of the 3rd World dropped from 45/1000 during 1950-55 to 31/1000 during 1985-90. From the 1st half of the 1960s to the 1st half of the 1980s the total fertility of such countries dropped from 6.1 to 4.2 children/woman. In Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, and Malaysia living standards improved as a result of industrialization, and fertility decreased significantly. In Sri Lanka, China, North Vietnam, and Thailand the drop of fertility is explained by cultural and religious factors. In 1982 about 78% of the population of developing countries lived in 39 states that followed an official policy aimed at reducing the population. Another 16% lived in countries supporting the concept of a desired family size. However, World Bank data showed that in the mid-1980s in 27 developing countries no state family planning (FP) programs existed. India adopted an official FP program in 1952, Pakistan followed suit in 1960, South Korea in 1961, and China in 1962. In Latin America a split policy manifested itself: in Brazil birth control was rejected, only Colombia had a FP policy. In 1986 the governments of 68 of 131 developing countries representing 3.1 billion people considered the number of children per woman too high. 31 of these countries followed concrete population control policies. On the other hand, in 1986 24 countries of Africa with 40% of the continent's population took no measures to influence population growth. In Latin America and the Caribbean 18 of 33 countries were idle, except for Mexico that had a massive state FP program. These programs also improve maternal and child health with birth spacing of at least 2 years, and the prevention of pregnancies of too young women or those over 40. The evaluation of rapidly spreading FP programs in the 1970s was carried out by the World Fertility Survey in 41 countries. The impact of FP programs was more substantial than

  10. Family planning services in a tertiary hospital in a semi-urban area of south-western Nigeria: Uptake and determinants of contraceptive use. (United States)

    Adebayo, Ayodeji Matthew; Ojo, Temitope Olumuyiwa; Omotoso, Bridget Ama; Ayodeji, Oladele Olufemi


    An audit of 954 family planning clinic attendees, who received counselling from 2006 to 2010, was conducted at the only federal government owned tertiary hospital in Ondo state, Nigeria. Of these, 637 (66.8%) accepted a family planning method: 47.6% chose injectables, 23.2% intrauterine device, 19.5% oral contraceptive pills, 4.4% barrier methods, 3.3% implants and 2% tubal ligation. Clients who had some primary education [OR: 2.79; (95% CI: 1.14-6.84; p < 0.05] had statistically significant higher odds of accepting any contraceptive method while those with elevated blood pressure at first visit [OR: 0.23; 95% CI: 0.12-0.45; p < 0.001] and those with previous episode(s) of induced abortion OR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.43-0.76; p < 0.001] had statistically significant lower odds of using any method. Concerted efforts at increasing uptake is advocated to bridge the gap between client counselling and uptake.

  11. [The family planning program in Rwanda: assessment of ten years (1981-1991) and prospects]. (United States)

    Munyakazi, A


    Rwanda's official family planning policy dates back to 1981 and creation of the National Office of Population (ONAPO). Among its other function, ONAPO monitors proper use of family planning methods and studies the integration of family planning services into public health. Pilot family planning programs began in the prefectures of Butare, Kigali, and Ruhengeri and were extended to the other 7 around 1985. The development of family planning services in Rwanda is based on their integration into existing services, especially those devoted to maternal-child health. In 1989, 277 of the 350 health centers of all kinds in Rwanda and 12 secondary posts offered family planning services. The rate of integration was 79.4%. 185 of the 277 health services with family planning services were in the public sector. As of December 1989, the rate of integration in different prefectures varied from a high of 95.5% in Kibungo to a low of 64.9% in Gisenyi. Integration is particularly weak in health facilities administered by the Catholic Church. The 2 strategies to confront this situation are continuing dialogue with Catholic Church officials and creation of secondary family planning posts to improve accessibility to family planning for populations served by Church health services. The number of new and continuing family planning users increased from 1178 and 1368 respectively in 1982 to 66,950 and 104,604 through September 1990. There is wide variation from 1 prefecture to another in recruitment of new acceptors and in the number of acceptors per health facility. Recruitment of new acceptors is greatest in Ruhengeri, followed by Kigali and Byumba. As of September 1990, 28,943 women used pills, 2037 used IUDs, 66,515 used injectables, 3051 used barrier methods, 2888 used auto-observation methods, 343 used implants, and 588 were sterilized. The overall rate of contraceptive prevalence increased from .9% in 1983 to 6.2% in 1989 and 10% in 1990. The strategy for promoting family planning

  12. Linking population, fertility, and family planning with adaptation to climate change: perspectives from Ethiopia. (United States)

    Rovin, Kimberly; Hardee, Karen; Kidanu, Aklilu


    Global climate change is felt disproportionately in the world's most economically disadvantaged countries. As adaption to an evolving climate becomes increasingly salient on national and global scales, it is important to assess how people at the local-level are already coping with changes. Understanding local responses to climate change is essential for helping countries to construct strategies to bolster resilience to current and future effects. This qualitative research investigated responses to climate change in Ethiopia; specifically, how communities react to and cope with climate variation, which groups are most vulnerable, and the role of family planning in increasing resilience. Participants were highly aware of changing climate effects, impacts of rapid population growth, and the need for increased access to voluntary family planning. Identification of family planning as an important adaptation strategy supports the inclusion of rights-based voluntary family planning and reproductive health into local and national climate change adaptation plans.

  13. Knowledge and Attitude about Reproductive Health and Family Planning among Young Adults in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed S. A. Masood


    Full Text Available Background. The Yemeni government is focusing more attention on the needs of youth to ensure a healthy transition to adulthood. This is critical because adolescent population (ages 15–24 of 3.35 million will double in just 20 years. Young adults often lack basic knowledge about reproductive health and family planning. Objectives. To determine reproductive health and family planning knowledge and attitude among young adults aged 15 to 25+ years. Method. Sample study was taken from Marie Stopes International in Yemen which was conducted from March to July 2013 on the reproductive health age 15–49 years. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were employed. Results. Majority had heard about reproductive health and family planning and encouraged its methods. Television, relatives, and radio were major sources of information. Adults with higher education tend to have more awareness about health services. Knowledge about health services and family planning methods among older adults was significant, and adults in Belqees Club were more likely to have high empowerment scores for family planning methods. Conclusion. The level of knowledge about health services for reproductive health and family planning and its methods was low to moderate. The introduction of contraceptives remains a challenge in Yemen because the educational reproductive health is weak in Yemeni schools or health institutes or universities. Information about reproductive health and family planning should be provided to adolescents through medical schools curricula.

  14. Family planning use among urban poor women from six cities of Uttar Pradesh, India. (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S; Nanda, Priya; Achyut, Pranita; Pillai, Gita; Guilkey, David K


    Family planning has widespread positive impacts for population health and well-being; contraceptive use not only decreases unintended pregnancies and reduces infant and maternal mortality and morbidity, but it is critical to the achievement of Millennium Development Goals. This study uses baseline, representative data from six cities in Uttar Pradesh, India to examine family planning use among the urban poor. Data were collected from about 3,000 currently married women in each city (Allahabad, Agra, Varanasi, Aligarh, Gorakhpur, and Moradabad) for a total sample size of 17,643 women. Participating women were asked about their fertility desires, family planning use, and reproductive health. The survey over-sampled slum residents; this permits in-depth analyses of the urban poor and their family planning use behaviors. Bivariate and multivariate analyses are used to examine the role of wealth and education on family planning use and unmet need for family planning. Across all of the cities, about 50% of women report modern method use. Women in slum areas generally report less family planning use and among those women who use, slum women are more likely to be sterilized than to use other methods, including condoms and hormonal methods. Across all cities, there is a higher unmet need for family planning to limit childbearing than for spacing births. Poorer women are more likely to have an unmet need than richer women in both the slum and non-slum samples; this effect is attenuated when education is included in the analysis. Programs seeking to target the urban poor in Uttar Pradesh and elsewhere in India may be better served to identify the less educated women and target these women with appropriate family planning messages and methods that meet their current and future fertility desire needs.

  15. Geographic access to family planning facilities and the risk of unintended and teenage pregnancy. (United States)

    Goodman, David C; Klerman, Lorraine V; Johnson, Kay A; Chang, Chiang-Hua; Marth, Nancy


    This study tested the hypotheses that greater geographic access to family planning facilities is associated with lower rates of unintended and teenage pregnancies. State Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) and natality files in four states were used to locate unintended and teenage births, respectively. Geographic availability was measured by cohort travel time to the nearest family planning facility, the presence of a family planning facility in a ZIP area, and the supply of primary care physicians and obstetric-gynecologists. 83% of the PRAMS cohort and 80% of teenagers lived within 15 min or less of a facility and virtually none lived more than 30 min. Adjusted odds ratios did not demonstrate a statistically significant trend to a higher risk of unintended pregnancies with longer travel time. Similarly there was no association with unintended pregnancy and the presence of a family planning facility within the ZIP area of maternal residence, or with the supply of physicians capable of providing family planning services. Both crude and adjusted relative rates of teenage pregnancies were significantly lower with further distance from family planning sites and with the absence of a facility in the ZIP area of residence. In adjusted models, the supply of obstetricians-gynecologists and primary care physicians was not significantly associated with decreased teen pregnancies. This study found no relationship between greater geographic availability of family planning facilities and a risk of unintended pregnancies. Greater geographic availability of family planning services was associated with a higher risk of teenage pregnancy, although these results may be confounded by facilities locating in areas with greater family planning needs.

  16. Marriage Counseling (United States)

    ... counseling can help couples in all types of intimate relationships — heterosexual or homosexual, married or not. Some ... marriage counseling to address many specific issues, including: Communication problems Sexual difficulties Conflicts about child rearing or ...

  17. Application of persuasion and health behavior theories for behavior change counseling: design of the ADAPT (Avoiding Diabetes Thru Action Plan Targeting) program. (United States)

    Lin, Jenny J; Mann, Devin M


    Diabetes incidence is increasing worldwide and providers often do not feel they can effectively counsel about preventive lifestyle changes. The goal of this paper is to describe the development and initial feasibility testing of the Avoiding Diabetes Thru Action Plan Targeting (ADAPT) program to enhance counseling about behavior change for patients with pre-diabetes. Primary care providers and patients were interviewed about their perspectives on lifestyle changes to prevent diabetes. A multidisciplinary design team incorporated this data to translate elements from behavior change theories to create the ADAPT program. The ADAPT program was pilot tested to evaluate feasibility. Leveraging elements from health behavior theories and persuasion literature, the ADAPT program comprises a shared goal-setting module, implementation intentions exercise, and tailored reminders to encourage behavior change. Feasibility data demonstrate that patients were able to use the program to achieve their behavior change goals. Initial findings show that the ADAPT program is feasible for helping improve primary care providers' counseling for behavior change in patients with pre-diabetes. If successful, the ADAPT program may represent an adaptable and scalable behavior change tool for providers to encourage lifestyle changes to prevent diabetes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Bailey, Martha J.; Malkova, Olga; Norling, Johannes


    This paper provides new evidence that family planning programs are associated with a decrease in the share of children and adults living in poverty. Our research design exploits the county roll-out of U.S. family planning programs in the late 1960s and early 1970s and examines their relationship with poverty rates in the short and longer-term in public census data. We find that cohorts born after federal family planning programs began were less likely to live in poverty in childhood and that these same cohorts were less likely to live in poverty as adults. PMID:25346655

  19. Induced abortion in China and the advances of post abortion family planning service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying; Cheng Yi-ming; Huang Na; Guo Xin; Wang Xian-mi


    This is a review of current situation of induced abortion and post abortion family planning service in China. Induced abortion is an important issue in reproductive health. This article reviewed the distribution of induced abortion in various time, areas, and population in China, and explored the character, reason, and harm to reproductive health of induced abortion.Furthermore, this article introduces the concept of Quality of Care Program in Family Planning,and discusses how important and necessary it is to introduce Quality of Care Program in Family Planning to China.

  20. Family planning in conflict: results of cross-sectional baseline surveys in three African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Jones Louise


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the serious consequences of conflict for reproductive health, populations affected by conflict and its aftermath face tremendous barriers to accessing reproductive health services, due to insecurity, inadequate numbers of trained personnel and lack of supplies. Family planning is often particularly neglected. Methods In six conflict-affected areas in Sudan, northern Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo, household surveys of married or in-union women of reproductive age were conducted to determine baseline measures of family planning knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding contraception. Health facility assessments were carried out to assess baseline measures of family planning services availability. Data were double-entered into CSPro 3.2 and exported to SAS 9.2, which was used to calculate descriptive statistics. The studies' purposes were to guide program activities and to serve as a baseline against which program accomplishments could be measured. Results Knowledge of modern contraceptive methods was low relative to other sub-Saharan African countries, and use of modern methods was under 4% in four sites; in two sites with prior family planning services it was 12% and 16.2%. From 30% to 40% of women reported they did not want a child within two years, however, and an additional 12% to 35% wanted no additional children, suggesting a clear need for family planning services. The health facilities assessment showed that at most only one-third of the facilities mandated to provide family planning had the necessary staff, equipment and supplies to do so adequately; in some areas, none of the facilities were prepared to offer such services. Conclusions Family planning services are desired by women living in crisis situations when offered in a manner appropriate to their needs, yet services are rarely adequate to meet these needs. Refugee and internally displaced women must be included in national and donors


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Own family is the essence of person’s life. Forming family is the most important life event, for the couples. Often, it’s planned precisely in details, as education or career. Failure in this plan causes variety of negative psychological consequences. That’s why infertility of one or both of the partners is a serious problem. In the treatment of biologically supported fertilization, negative emotions may affect the successfulness of the IVF treatment. Intending to overcome negative emotional reaction, this study aims to identify the efficiency of psychological counseling of candidates for IFV in stress, anxiety and depression decreasing, and the impact of counseling over the successfulness of the treatment. Method: Random sample of 64 candidates for IVF treatment in total are divided in two groups: control group without psychological counseling (32 candidates and intervention group of 32 candidates included in psychological counseling. DASS scale is used to measure stress, anxiety and depression, semi structured interview is used to collect demographic and fertility data. Study results support the implementation of psychological counseling for candidates of IVF treatment.

  2. Predicting College Women's Career Plans: Instrumentality, Work, and Family (United States)

    Savela, Alexandra E.; O'Brien, Karen M.


    This study examined how college women's instrumentality and expectations about combining work and family predicted early career development variables. Specifically, 177 undergraduate women completed measures of instrumentality (i.e., traits such as ambition, assertiveness, and risk taking), willingness to compromise career for family, anticipated…

  3. Family Planning in a Sub-district near Kumasi, Ghana: Side Effect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    women recognized at least one family planning method, half of all recent or current pregnancies were unintended and 20 percent .... through the use of community-based participatory ... Three communities (small peri-urban community,.

  4. Effects of an entertainment-education radio soap opera on family planning behavior in Tanzania. (United States)

    Rogers, E M; Vaughan, P W; Swalehe, R M; Rao, N; Svenkerud, P; Sood, S


    An entertainment-education radio soap opera introduced in Tanzania in 1993 was evaluated by means of a field experimental design in which the radio program was broadcast by seven mainland stations of Radio Tanzania. An eighth station broadcast alternative programming from 1993 to 1995, its listenership serving as a comparison area in which contemporaneous changes in family planning adoption were measured. The soap opera was subsequently broadcast nationwide from 1995 to 1997. Data about the effects of the radio soap opera were gathered in five annual surveys of about 2,750 households in the comparison and the treatment areas and from a sample of new family planning adopters in 79 health clinics. The soap opera had strong behavioral effects on family planning adoption; it increased listeners' self-efficacy regarding family planning adoption and influenced listeners to talk with their spouses and peers about contraception.

  5. Integration of poverty alleviation with family planning: an interview with SFPC Vice Minister Yang Kuifu. (United States)

    Zhu, H Z


    The Chinese Government, through its 1994-2000 National Program for Poverty Alleviation, plans to eradicate poverty for its 65 million impoverished citizens by 2000. Program strategies include providing tangible financial incentives to couples who accept the use of family planning. For example, family planning acceptors with per capita annual incomes of less than 530 yuan are given priority to obtain low-interest loans from local banks or credit cooperatives to launch and manage income-generating schemes. They also have priority over nonacceptors in being recruited to work in township and village enterprises, in purchasing farm supplies, and in obtaining land from village and township authorities upon which to build housing. Farm families need to be made to understand that family planning is in their own best interest. Providing children and adolescents in impoverished areas with more education is also important. The author notes how leaders in some impoverished areas do not understand the difference between poverty alleviation and poverty relief.

  6. Women, microcredit and family planning practices: a case study from rural Ghana. (United States)

    Norwood, Carolette


    This paper examines the influence of informal banking club participation on family planning practices in rural Ghana. Research from Asia suggests that family planning practices are improved by club participation. This study examines this thesis in an African context, using rural Ghana as a case study. A sample of 204 women (19 years and older) was drawn from Abokobi village, Ghana. Multivariate analyses of direct, mediating and moderating effects of women’s demographic background characteristics, membership status and length, and women’s empowerment status as predictors of family planning practices are assessed. Findings suggest that club membership and membership length is not associated with family planning practices; however, age, education level, number of children and empowerment status are.

  7. Family Planning in a Sub-district near Kumasi, Ghana: Side Effect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Family Planning in a Sub-district near Kumasi, Ghana: Side Effect Fears, Unintended Pregnancies and Misuse of a Medication as Emergency Contraception. ... having a fear of side effects for hormonal methods (particularly heart palpitations), ...

  8. Knowledge and attitude towards family planning practices among non-acceptors in a rural area in Bangalore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemavarneshwari S.


    Conclusions: Most common reason for non-acceptance of family planning was male child preference (26.8%. There is a need for behaviour change communication for eligible couples regarding family planning adoption among the non-acceptors highlighting the importance of small family, happy family. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(12.000: 3611-3613

  9. Search is on for most outstanding family planning workers and clinics. (United States)


    The JSI Research and Training Institute, Inc, sponsored a national wide search in the Philippines commencing March 15, 1994, and ending July 7, 1994, for commendable family planning workers. The winners of the competition were selected from five categories: the best family planning volunteer worker, government family planning service worker, nongovernment family planning service worker, a government family planning clinic or center, and a nongovernment family planning clinic or center. Winners in each category were selected at the provincial or chartered city level, regional level, and national level. Nomination forms were made available in Provincial Health Offices or City Health Offices. Nomination criteria involved a worker who must have worked for at least 18 months for a family planning service agency and a volunteer who must have worked at least a year a family planning service agency in referring cases. Clinics or centers must have been in operation for at least 18 months and preferably accredited by the government. Winner selection criteria was based on the number of clients served, the commitment to family planning, and the quality of their work. Nominations were disqualified if workers were involved with performing abortions, coercing clients to practice family planning, or discriminating against any legally acceptable methods of contraception. Provincial selection of the winner occurred on July 15, 1994, and these winners were entered in the regional competition, which was set for August 1 and September 15, 1994. Regional winners competed in the national competition in November 1994. The award for each provincial winner will be a certificate, an aneroid sphygmomanometer, and a stethoscope. Provincial clinics will receive a certificate and a wall clock. Regional winners will receive a certificate and wrist watches. Regional clinics will receive a certificate and an examining table or karaoke sound system. The five national winners will receive a plaque of

  10. Family Planning in the Context of Latin America's Universal Health Coverage Agenda. (United States)

    Fagan, Thomas; Dutta, Arin; Rosen, James; Olivetti, Agathe; Klein, Kate


    Countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have substantially improved access to family planning over the past 50 years. Many have also recently adopted explicit declarations of universal rights to health and universal health coverage (UHC) and have begun implementing UHC-oriented health financing schemes. These schemes will have important implications for the sustainability and further growth of family planning programs throughout the region. We examined the status of contraceptive methods in major health delivery and financing schemes in 9 LAC countries. Using a set of 37 indicators on family planning coverage, family planning financing, health financing, and family planning inclusion in UHC-oriented schemes, we conducted a desk review of secondary sources, including population surveys, health financing assessments, insurance enrollment reports, and unit cost estimates, and interviewed in-country experts.Findings: Although the modern contraceptive prevalence rate (mCPR) has continued to increase in the majority of LAC countries, substantial disparities in access for marginalized groups remain. On average, mCPR is 20% lower among indigenous women than the general population, 5% lower among uninsured women than insured, and 7% lower among the poorest women than the wealthiest. Among the poorest quintile of women, insured women had an mCPR 16.5 percentage points higher than that of uninsured women, suggesting that expansion of insurance coverage is associated with increased family planning access and use. In the high- and upper-middle-income countries we reviewed, all modern contraceptive methods are typically available through the social health insurance schemes that cover a majority of the population. However, in low- and lower-middle-income countries, despite free provision of most family planning services in public health facilities, stock-outs and implicit rationing present substantial barriers that prevent clients from accessing their preferred method

  11. Providing quality family planning and MCH services in the urban areas: the YKB experience. (United States)


    In Indonesia, the provision of family planning services to the community for a fee through a privately operated clinic is a relatively new concept. The idea to charge patients for family planning services came up during several meetings sponsored by the National Family Planning Coordinating Board (NFPCB) in its effort to increase family planning acceptance in urban areas. NFPCB realized that while the village family planning program was very effective, the urban family planning program was lagging behind for several reasons: while its services were free, most government-run clinics were open only in the morning, making it inconvenient for working mothers to avail themselves of the services; government operated clinics were crowded; since the services were free, they were perceived to be not of good quality; and there was a limited range of contraceptives and drugs available in the government operated clinics. In 1980, the Yayasan Kusuma Buana (YKB), a private nonprofit health and family planning organization in Jakarta, was asked by the Badan Koordenasi Keluarga Berencana Nasional (BKKBN) to set up a semi-commercial, urban family planning clinic as a pilot project. The clinic was established in an area where most of the residents belonged to the lower middle income group. After almost 3 years, the clinic became self-reliant and was used by the YKB as a basis for expanding the project. Currently, there are 9 such clinics in Jakarta and YKB is helping 10 other Indonesian cities to set up their own clinics. This paper considers the main components of YKB's strategy for planning and managing the clinic and and provides an analysis of the YKB experience in operating a successful family planning and maternal and child health program in the urban areas. To become self-reliant and at the same time have a successful family planning and health program, clinics should have the following characteristics: integrated services; competent and attractive clinic personnel; a

  12. Family Planning Behavior and Small Family Concept Acceptance in Two Different Geographical Characteristics Municipality of South Klaten, Klaten, Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Priyono


    Full Text Available The research aim to know the family planning behaviour, the acceptance small family norm and the influential factors in two villages that have different geographical aspect. The behaviour involve the knowledge, the attitude and the practice where as the influential factors involve education, accupation, values of children, income, children still born and family size desired. The research areas are chosen purposive in two villages that have different geographical aspect, social aspect and cultural aspect. The aspect are: 1 location and topography, 2 socialy  structure, and 3 the achievement of effective acceptor. Based on the three aspects, Ngalas village (developing and Sumberejo (developed are chosen as research areas. The recorded as ative acceptor (recordedin RI/PUS/1991 form. The respondents are chosen by cencus at two neighborhoord association at every village. There are six variables in this research are assumed influence the periode of the contraceptives use, such as education, occupation status, values of children, family income, children still born, and family size desired. There are three variables are assumed influence the small family norm, such as education, occupation status, and values of children. The data was analyzed by frequency table, crosee table, and statistical analysis (Q square and Regresion. The data was always compared between the two villages. The analysis use computer by Microsoft Program.  The research result showed that Sumberejo was better than Ngalas in the knowledge, the attitude, and the practice of family planning. Most of the people who live in Sumberejo understood the contraception device well (52,4%, where as in Ngalas (26,8%. Both of them agreed on using contraception device (more than 70%. The respondent who live in Sumberejo used IUD (40% and MOW/MOP (23,23%. They had used of the contraception device for 4.8 years on an average. Mean  while the respondents in Ngalas use IUD (23,68% and MOW/MOP (2

  13. [Socio-demographic impact of 15 years of family planning]. (United States)

    Rosales Aujang, Enrique; Felguérez Flores, Jesús Alberto


    Familiar planning is an important branch of the preventive medicine that can have a great impact on the health of the humanity. The present study is an evaluation by a cross section of the effects obtained by the program of familiar planning during a period of 15 years in the Aguascalientes Delegation of the Mexican Institute of the Social Security, establishing therefore a diagnosis and identifying elements that can contribute in the suitable planning of strategies to improve the quality of the attention and to respond to social and health necessities of the population.

  14. Family planning saves lives and P303 billion for the Philippine government. (United States)


    This pamphlet gives a description of how family planning benefits the population in the Philippines. Benefits are identified as lower child and maternal mortality, avoidance of unwanted pregnancies and illegal abortions, and savings in a variety of government sectors. The following predictions are based on the estimated population size if government expenditures for the Philippine family planning program continue to expand as projected, rather than remain at 1970 levels. In the education sector during 1970-2000, the total cumulative savings would amount to 229 billion pesos in 1991 prices. If family planning use continues in the expected direction, the savings would be greatest during 1990-2000. Total health expenditures rose from 3 billion pesos in 1970 to about 8 billion pesos in 1990. Expenditures are expected to rise to 12 billion pesos by 2000. The savings accrued through family planning would amount to about 31 billion pesos during 1970-2000. Social services expenditures are expected to increase to almost 15 billion pesos by the year 2000. The savings in social services expenditures would amount to about 43 billion pesos during 1970-2000. For each pesos spent on family planning there has been a savings of 9.6 pesos in education, health, and social services. Expected family planning costs to the year 2000 are about 16 billion pesos, which is handily covered by savings in the health sector of 31 billion. Total savings from all three sectors after deducting family planning expenditures would amount to 287 billion pesos. The investment in family planning is an excellent financial investment. A Social Weather Stations Survey of public opinion indicates that 76% desire a slowing of population growth (79% in urban and 73% in rural areas). 15% support an increase in growth, and 9% would do nothing about it. The lowest support for slowing population growth was recorded in the Visayas, particularly in rural areas (66%).

  15. The role of traditional birth attendants in family planning programs in Southeast Asia. (United States)

    Peng, J Y


    The training and utilization of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in maternal and child health and family planning programs in Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Malaysia are discussed. Special efforts to organize and train TBAs for family planning in Malaysia are examined in detail. Import factors for successful utilization of TBAs include: (a) definite assignment of functions and tasks, (b) organization of good operational steps and (c) implementation of good supervisory activities.

  16. Contraceptive Method Choice Among Women Attending at Amtullabhai Family Planning Clinic in Dar es salaam


    Mbando, Apaisaria Humphrey


    Contraceptive prevalence in Tanzania is low despite high knowledge of contraception. In order to understand the existing barriers, it is important to find out reasons affecting contraceptive method choices. The objective of this study was to assess contraceptive method choice among women attending at Amtullabhai family planning clinic in Dar es Salaam. A cross- sectional study was conducted between October and November, 2010 at Amtullabhai family planning clinic, Ilala District in Dar es Sala...

  17. Does human resource management improve family planning service quality? Analysis from the Kenya Service Provision Assessment 2010. (United States)

    Thatte, Nandita; Choi, Yoonjoung


    Human resource (HR) management is a priority for health systems strengthening in developing countries, yet few studies have empirically examined associations with service quality. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between HR management and family planning (FP) service quality. Data came from the 2010 Kenya Service Provision Assessment, a nationally representative health facility assessment. In total, 912 FP consultations from 301 facilities were analysed. Four indices were created to measure quality on reproductive history taking, physical examination, sexually transmitted infections prevention and pill/injectable specific counselling. HR management variables included training in the past year, any and supportive (i.e. with feedback, technical updates and discussion) in-person supervision in the past 6 months and having a written job description. Multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted to estimate coefficients of HR management variables on each of the four quality indices, adjusting for background characteristics of clients, provider and facilities. The level of service quality ranged from 16 to 53 out of a maximum score of 100 across the indices. Fifty-two per cent of consultations were done by providers who received supportive in-person supervision in the previous 6 months. In 23% and 38% of consultations, the provider was trained in the past year and had a written job description, respectively. Multivariate analyses indicated that having a written job description was associated with higher service quality in history taking, physical examination and the pill/injectable specific counselling. Other HR management variables were not significantly associated with service quality. Having a written job description was significantly associated with higher service quality and may be a useful tool for strengthening management practices. The details of such job descriptions and the quality of other management indicators should be

  18. How the Reproductive Health Needs of Unmarried Youth Be Concerned in Quality Services in Family Planning/ Reproductive Health?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nian CUI; Min-xiang LI; Xiao-wen TU


    Objective To understand the reproductive health needs of unmarried youth so as to provide them better quality services.Method Data were drawn from a baseline questionnaire survey of provision of reproductive health information and services for unmarried youth aged 16-20 years in rural areas of Chengdu, Southwest China in 2001-2002.Results The study comprised of 1 895 valid subjects. More than 70% subjects felt that the knowledge, information and services in relation to sexual and reproductive health provided by the society were rather insufficient. Near 95% thought that unmarried young people seeking sexual and reproductive health counseling and services were quite normal, although some of them had different misgivings. Their preferred services in reproductive health included: counseling in relation to sexual and reproductive health, how to cope with unexpected sex and unwanted pregnancy, how to select the appropriate contraceptives for unmarried youth, etc. About 2/3 subjects agreed to provide contraceptive services to unmarried youth actively by the society. And they thought the difficulties and obstacles in provision of contraceptive services for unmarried youth were in the following order: restriction of the traditional conceptions,shyness of unmarried youth in accept of such services, disapproval of parents/school teachers, and so forth.Conclusion To improve reproductive health status of unmarried youth and meet their needs is a challenge to quality service of family planning/reproductive health program in China. The related departments and service providers should pay attention to this matter and take the strategies and measures to provide appropriate, specific, friendly and accessibly services for unmarried young people.

  19. Confidentiality in Family Planning Services for Young People: A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Brittain, Anna W; Williams, Jessica R; Zapata, Lauren B; Moskosky, Susan B; Weik, Tasmeen S


    Family planning services are essential for reducing high rates of unintended pregnancies among young people, yet a perception that providers will not preserve confidentiality may deter youth from accessing these services. This systematic review, conducted in 2011, summarizes the evidence on the effect of assuring confidentiality in family planning services to young people on reproductive health outcomes. The review was used to inform national recommendations on providing quality family planning services. Multiple databases were searched to identify articles addressing confidentiality in family planning services to youth aged 10-24 years. Included studies were published from January 1985 through February 2011. Studies conducted outside the U.S., Canada, Europe, Australia, or New Zealand, and those that focused exclusively on HIV or sexually transmitted diseases, were excluded. The search strategy identified 19,332 articles, nine of which met the inclusion criteria. Four studies examined outcomes. Examined outcomes included use of clinical services and intention to use services. Of the four outcome studies, three found a positive association between assurance of confidentiality and at least one outcome of interest. Five studies provided information on youth perspectives and underscored the idea that young people greatly value confidentiality when receiving family planning services. This review demonstrates that there is limited research examining whether confidentiality in family planning services to young people affects reproductive health outcomes. A robust research agenda is needed, given the importance young people place on confidentiality. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Changes in couples' communication as a result of a male-involvement family planning intervention. (United States)

    Hartmann, Miriam; Gilles, Kate; Shattuck, Dominick; Kerner, Brad; Guest, Greg


    Research suggests that spousal communication and male involvement in decision making can positively influence family-planning use and continuation. However, few existing studies explore the dynamics of this communication and how they factor into family-planning decision making. Building upon a recent evaluation of a theory-based male-involvement intervention in Malawi, this study aimed to fill this gap by examining the role of communication in the intervention's success, through semi-structured in-depth interviews with male participants and female partners of study participants. Results support the idea that communication is an integral component of successful interventions to increase male involvement in family planning. Participants reported improvements in spousal communication, increased frequency of communication, and an increase in shared decision making as a result of the study, which directly contributed to their family-planning use. This effect was often mediated through increased knowledge or reduced male opposition to family planning. Further analysis of communication and decision-making dynamics revealed shifts in gendered communication norms, leading to improvements in spousal relationships in addition to contraceptive uptake. This study shows that interventions can and should encourage spousal communication and shared decision making, and it provides an effective model for involving men in family-planning use.

  1. Trial Regulations for strengthening family planning controls for the mobile population and individual entrepreneurs. (United States)


    In 1988 the Yunnan, China Family Planning Commission, the Public Security Department, and the Industrial and Commercial Administrative Bureau issued Trial Regulations aimed at getting a "good grasp of family planning controls" on individual entrepreneurs and the mobile population in the urban areas of Yunnan--groups in which there is a large number of excessive births. The Trial Regulations provide the following: "Individual entrepreneurs and the mobile population are great in number and work in a great variety of trades: their dwellings are scattered, and they are highly mobile. Thus the task of family planning regarding these people is heavy and difficult. Industrial and commercial administrative departments and public security and other departments must closely cooperate with family planning departments so as to strengthen family planning control over these people. At the same time, it is necessary to apply specific methods for strengthening family planning control when the mobile population, individual entrepreneurs, and temporary workers, forest workers, construction workers and so on apply for temporary residence permits, take out forestry licenses, and sign construction contracts."

  2. Pets: Your Plan Should Include All Family Members (United States)

    ... Cross Month Latest News Health and Safety Training & Education Mission & Values History National Celebrity Cabinet National Celebrity Cabinet Red Cross Stories Governance Career Opportunities Military Families Disaster Relief ... Training & Education Lifesaving Blood Get Assistance Types of Emergencies Be ...

  3. "Leaving before she leaves": considering future family when making career plans. (United States)

    Ganginis Del Pino, Heather V; O'Brien, Karen M; Mereish, Ethan; Miller, Matthew J


    An instrument was developed to measure the extent to which people consider future children and romantic partners when planning for a career (i.e., the PLAN scale). Two independent factor-analytic studies of a total of 726 college women were conducted to assess the factor structure and psychometric properties of this measure. Results suggested that the PLAN represents a general Considering Future Family When Making Career Plans factor and 2 domain-specific factors: Considering Children and Prioritizing and Compromising for Partner. Suggestions for future research and practice using the PLAN scale are provided.

  4. Parental influence on work and family plans of adolescents of different ethnic backgrounds in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Valk, H.A.G.


    This paper examined the work and family plans of adolescents from five different ethnic origins. The way in which parents influence these plans was studied by using a representative sample of secondary school pupils (N = 52,000) in The Netherlands. Results showed that substantial proportions of adol

  5. Family Planning Evaluation. Abortion Surveillance Report--Legal Abortions, United States, Annual Summary, 1970. (United States)

    Center for Disease Control (DHEW/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This report summarizes abortion information received by the Center for Disease Control from collaborators in state health departments, hospitals, and other pertinent sources. While it is intended primarily for use by the above sources, it may also interest those responsible for family planning evaluation and hospital abortion planning. Information…

  6. Variables of the Theory of Planned Behavior Are Associated with Family Meal Frequency among Adolescents (United States)

    Eto, Kumi; Koch, Pamela; Contento, Isobel R.; Adachi, Miyuki


    Objective: To examine associations between Theory of Planned Behavior variables and the family meal frequency. Methods: Fifth-through seventh-grade students (n = 236) completed a self-administered questionnaire in their classrooms. The relationships between Theory of Planned Behavior variables (intention, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived…

  7. Variables of the Theory of Planned Behavior Are Associated with Family Meal Frequency among Adolescents (United States)

    Eto, Kumi; Koch, Pamela; Contento, Isobel R.; Adachi, Miyuki


    Objective: To examine associations between Theory of Planned Behavior variables and the family meal frequency. Methods: Fifth-through seventh-grade students (n = 236) completed a self-administered questionnaire in their classrooms. The relationships between Theory of Planned Behavior variables (intention, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived…

  8. Parental influence on work and family plans of adolescents of different ethnic backgrounds in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Valk, H.A.G.


    This paper examined the work and family plans of adolescents from five different ethnic origins. The way in which parents influence these plans was studied by using a representative sample of secondary school pupils (N = 52,000) in The Netherlands. Results showed that substantial proportions of

  9. Using Radio To Promote Family Planning in Sub-Saharan Africa. (United States)

    Henry, Kathleen

    Family planning programs in sub-Saharan Africa (42 countries and 450 million population), the fastest growing and poorest region in the world, need effective communications campaigns to educate people about the benefits of contraception, help change attitudes about fertility control and family size, and provide information about available…

  10. Family participation in care plan meetings : Promoting a collaborative organizational culture in nursing homes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Ate

    In this study, the author evaluated a project in The Netherlands that aimed to promote family members' participation in care plan meetings at a psychogeriatric nursing home. The small-scale pilot project, which was conducted in four wards of the nursing home, was designed to involve families in

  11. Toward an Integrative Approach to Assessment and Treatment Planning in Family Therapy. (United States)

    Olsen, David C.

    The rapid increase in literature and modalities of family therapy has made it difficult for counselors working with families to find an integrative approach to assessment and treatment planning. As a result, many counselors move from one paradigm to another without attempting to integrate approaches. This paper attempts to integrate five paradigms…

  12. Children in planned lesbian families: Stigmatisation, psychological adjustment and protective factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.M.W.; van Balen, F.


    The study assessed the extent to which children between eight and 12 years old in planned lesbian families in the Netherlands experience stigmatization, as well as the influence of protective factors (relationship with parents, social acceptance by peers, contact with children from other families

  13. Counseling Japanese Men on Fathering (United States)

    Seto, Atsuko; Becker, Kent W.; Akutsu, Motoko


    The authors review an article (J. Yamamoto & F. Tagami, 2004) published in the "Japanese Journal of Counseling Science" that described changes in contemporary Japanese family structures and illustrated a therapy process with a father to enhance the father-son relationship. Implications for the counseling profession in working with…

  14. Physician extender services in family planning agencies: issues in Medicaid reimbursement. (United States)

    Mondy, L W; Lutz, D B; Heartwell, S F; Zetzman, M R


    The US Social Security Amendments of 1972 mandated the inclusion of family planning services in state Medicaid plans, authorized 90% of reimbursements for family planning care, and imposed financial penalties for failure to provide these services to Medicaid-eligible clients. On the other hand, many states have retrictive policies regarding Medicaid reimbursements to family planning agencies for services provided by physician extenders (e.g.s nurse practitioners and physician assistants). There is concern that such restrictions greatly reduce accessibility to family planning services. Reasons that hae been suggested as causes of such restrictive policies include physician concern over loss of income, the uncertain status of physician extenders in some states, a fear that this step will lead to a demand for reiimbursement for the services of other allied health care providers such as social workers, and concern that care for the indigent will lead to an expensive increase in state reimbursement for family planning services. However, a review of relevant federal law and regulations indicates that Medicaid reimbursement for services provided to eligible patients by physician extenders has never been prohibited or discouraged. Physician supervision is required in reimbursement cases, but this does not mean that a physician must be on the premises while services are delivered. The Medicaid program actually allows significant latitude in establishing administrative policies and procedures. Rather, problems faced by family planning agencies in receiving Medicaid reimbursements for physician extenders' services are due to restrictions in state laws and staff misinterpretations of policy. Research has demonstrated that physcian extenders can contribute significantly to cost effectiveness, while providing types of care in localities such as rural areas that physicians tend to avoid. Given the importance of family planning services to Medicaid-eligible clients, unwarranted

  15. Key Role of Drug Shops and Pharmacies for Family Planning in Urban Nigeria and Kenya (United States)

    Corroon, Meghan; Kebede, Essete; Spektor, Gean; Speizer, Ilene


    ABSTRACT Background: The Family Planning 2020 initiative aims to reach 120 million new family planning users by 2020. Drug shops and pharmacies are important private-sector sources of contraception in many contexts but are less well understood than public-sector sources, especially in urban environments. This article explores the role that drug shops and pharmacies play in the provision of contraceptive methods in selected urban areas of Nigeria and Kenya as well as factors associated with women's choice of where to obtain these methods. Methods: Using data collected in 2010/2011 from representative samples of women in selected urban areas of Nigeria and Kenya as well as a census of pharmacies and drug shops audited in 2011, we examine the role of drug shops and pharmacies in the provision of short-acting contraceptive methods and factors associated with a women's choice of family planning source. Results: In urban Nigeria and Kenya, drug shops and pharmacies were the major source for the family planning methods of oral contraceptive pills, emergency contraceptives, and condoms. The majority of injectable users obtained their method from public facilities in both countries, but 14% of women in Nigeria and 6% in Kenya obtained injectables from drug shops or pharmacies. Harder-to-reach populations were the most likely to choose these outlets to obtain their short-acting methods. For example, among users of these methods in Nigeria, younger women (<25 years old) were significantly more likely to obtain their method from a drug shop or pharmacy than another type of facility. In both countries, family planning users who had never been married were significantly more likely than married users to obtain these methods from a drug shop or a pharmacy than from a public-sector health facility. Low levels of family planning-related training (57% of providers in Kenya and 41% in Nigeria had received training) and lack of family planning promotional activities in pharmacies and

  16. Men and family planning in Africa. Les hommes et la planification familiale en Afrique. (United States)

    Diallo, A


    Male responsibility with regard to family planning and its practice is a major action focus of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. The campaign has been aimed at developing programs to educate men about family planning, encouraging men to practice contraception, and changing the attitudes of male opinion leaders. Since the African male's opinion is paramount within the family unit, the village, and the broader society, this approach is considered essential to the success of family planning efforts in Africa. Although a wide range of programs in Anglophone Africa are now oriented toward men, little progress has been made in the Francophone countries. Obstacles include traditionalism, pro-natalism, illiteracy, religion, and a hostility to Western concepts. Efforts have further been hindered by the way that family planning has been promoted in the region in the past: as a birth spacing method to improve maternal and child health. Medical and paramedical personnel in the region have been trained to treat only mothers and children, not couples or families. However, women's changing status and increased awareness of the connection between demography and development have created an atmosphere more favorable to well designed family welfare programs that are integrated with other development activities. If family planning is to become entrenched in the African region, attention must be given to 3 areas: information and education, integrated development, and research and training. Within the framework of educational activities, men can be made aware that they may practice contraception without any threat to their virility. Given the complexity of the task of introducing family planning on a broad scale in Africa, an integrated appraoch (social, cultural, health, economic, political, and legislative), involving both governments and voluntary organizations as well as the population, is required. Decision makers must be convinced to give family planning a central

  17. Impact of Genetic Testing and Family Health History Based Risk Counseling on Behavior Change and Cognitive Precursors for Type 2 Diabetes. (United States)

    Wu, R Ryanne; Myers, Rachel A; Hauser, Elizabeth R; Vorderstrasse, Allison; Cho, Alex; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Orlando, Lori A


    Family health history (FHH) in the context of risk assessment has been shown to positively impact risk perception and behavior change. The added value of genetic risk testing is less certain. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) FHH and genetic risk counseling on behavior and its cognitive precursors. Subjects were non-diabetic patients randomized to counseling that included FHH +/- T2D genetic testing. Measurements included weight, BMI, fasting glucose at baseline and 12 months and behavioral and cognitive precursor (T2D risk perception and control over disease development) surveys at baseline, 3, and 12 months. 391 subjects enrolled of which 312 completed the study. Behavioral and clinical outcomes did not differ across FHH or genetic risk but cognitive precursors did. Higher FHH risk was associated with a stronger perceived T2D risk (pKendall < 0.001) and with a perception of "serious" risk (pKendall < 0.001). Genetic risk did not influence risk perception, but was correlated with an increase in perception of "serious" risk for moderate (pKendall = 0.04) and average FHH risk subjects (pKendall = 0.01), though not for the high FHH risk group. Perceived control over T2D risk was high and not affected by FHH or genetic risk. FHH appears to have a strong impact on cognitive precursors of behavior change, suggesting it could be leveraged to enhance risk counseling, particularly when lifestyle change is desirable. Genetic risk was able to alter perceptions about the seriousness of T2D risk in those with moderate and average FHH risk, suggesting that FHH could be used to selectively identify individuals who may benefit from genetic risk testing.

  18. Understanding What an Individual Experiencing Work-Family Conflict Finds Helpful While in Counseling: A Case Study (United States)

    d'Argent, Julie


    According to Aryee, Fields, and Luk (1999), work-family conflict has become a prevalent problem in society. Past research in this area has focused primarily on outcomes and predictors of work-family conflict. Although research found that work-family conflict often leads to mental health concerns, few studies have focused on the area of work-family…

  19. Family Counseling and Ethical Challenges with Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgendered (GLBT) Clients: More Questions Than Answers. (United States)

    Janson, Gregory R.; Steigerwald, Fran J.


    Gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered (GLBT) persons and their families present unique ethical challenges for marriage and family counselors. A series of brief case vignettes touch on a range of ethical issues for couples and family counselors, including training, supervision, custody evaluation, ethical decision making, counselor bias,…

  20. Cost Efficiency of the Family Physician Plan in Fars Province, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Hatam


    Full Text Available Background: In recent years use of family physicians has been determined as a start point of health system reform to achieve more productive health services. In this study we aimed to assess the cost-efficiency of the implementation of this plan in Fars province, southern Iran.Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was done in 2007 in 18 provincial health centers as well as 224 rural health centers in Fars province. Data were collected using forms, statistics, and available evidence and analyzed by expert opinion and ratio techniques, control of process statistics, and multi indicator decision model.Results: Although in the family physician plan more attention is paid to patients and the level of health training, availability, and equity has improved and the best services are presented, it has not only decreased the costs, but also increased the referrals to pharmacies, laboratories, and radiology clinics and the costs of healthcare.Conclusion: Although the family physician plan has led to more regular service delivery, it has increased the patients’ referral to pharmacies, laboratories, and radiology centers and more referrals to family physicians. It seems that the possibility of setting regularity in health system can be gained in the following years of the family physician program mainly via planning, appropriate management and organizing correct health plans according to need assessments, and continual supervision on activities, which would happen according to current experiences in this plan.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Ciuhodaru


    Full Text Available Schizophrenia has a devastating effect on patient lives all together with their families, changing dramatically the day by day life, affecting thinking, feelings, knowledge and modifying the patient’s ability to adapt to society – establishing “boundaries” and “stigma” cause of desasperation, confusion or other symptoms. Objectives: This study wanted to the established an algorithm that concerns contraceptive methods specifically made for schizophrenic female patients according to their needs and to reality in which they live. Material and method: the study included 6200 patients at reproductive age that had been hospitalized in Socola Psychiatric unit during 2005 - 2010 and have been investigated by inquiry about age, provenience, marital status, education, number of children, knowledge and attitudes towards methods of contraception failure. Results The majority of the ones that knew about the contraception were from the urban area, age 30-35 having medium education, in a relationship or married. Unfortunately the help providers tend to neglect this “delicate subject” the fertility of schizophrenic patients being a real problem not only for the health care specialist but also costing highly the social assistance, their families, and their own children. Conclusions. While the Royal College of Obstetricians from Great Britain affirms that as a criteria for medical eligibility in using contraception in female schizophrenic patients it can be used any method as there are no longer contraindications for each specific case and under a correct counseling the best way is to solve ethical problems offering those patients the right access to family planning

  2. Empowering Families during the Early Intervention Planning Process (United States)

    Byington, Teresa A.; Whitby, Peggy J. S.


    Parents play important roles as advocates for their child with a disability. Advocacy is the process of striving to improve the quality of life for someone else. The Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requires parents and professionals to work together to design a service delivery plan for children with disabilities. An…

  3. Empowering Families during the Early Intervention Planning Process (United States)

    Byington, Teresa A.; Whitby, Peggy J. S.


    Parents play important roles as advocates for their child with a disability. Advocacy is the process of striving to improve the quality of life for someone else. The Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requires parents and professionals to work together to design a service delivery plan for children with disabilities. An…

  4. Teaching Couples Counseling: An Integrative Model (United States)

    Long, Lynn L.; Burnett, Judith A.


    Traditionally, training in couples counseling has not received equal status as other counseling modalities. Recently, there is renewed interest in specific training for couples counseling as more emphasis is placed on the stability of couple relationships as an important factor for helping families and children function in a society of frequent…

  5. Impact of partial participation in integrated family planning training on medical knowledge, patient communication and professionalism. (United States)

    Steinauer, Jody E; Turk, Jema K; Preskill, Felisa; Devaskar, Sangita; Freedman, Lori; Landy, Uta


    Obstetrics and gynecology residency programs are required to provide access to abortion training, but residents can opt out of participating for religious or moral reasons. Quantitative data suggest that most residents who opt out of doing abortions participate and gain skills in other aspects of the family planning training. However, little is known about their experience and perspective. Between June 2010 and June 2011, we conducted semistructured interviews with current and former residents who opted out of some or all of the family planning training at ob-gyn residency programs affiliated with the Kenneth J. Ryan Residency Training Program in Abortion and Family Planning. Residents were either self-identified or were identified by their Ryan Program directors as having opted out of some training. The interviews were transcribed and coded using modified grounded theory. Twenty-six physicians were interviewed by telephone. Interviewees were from geographically diverse programs (35% Midwest, 31% West, 19% South/Southeast and 15% North/Northeast). We identified four dominant themes about their experience: (a) skills valued in the family planning training, (b) improved patient-centered care, (c) changes in attitudes about abortion and (d) miscommunication as a source of negative feelings. Respondents valued the ability to partially participate in the family planning training and identified specific aspects of their training which will impact future patient care. Many of the effects described in the interviews address core competencies in medical knowledge, patient care, communication and professionalism. We recommend that programs offer a spectrum of partial participation in family planning training to all residents, including residents who choose to opt out of doing some or all abortions. Learners who morally object to abortion but participate in training in family planning and abortion, up to their level of comfort, gain clinical and professional skills. We


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    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Understanding of family planning scenario among different societies and communities, which by and large reside in urban slum areas, might prove useful in increasing family planning acceptance by them and decreasing population growth. Unmet need is a valuable indicator for assessing the achievements of national family planning programs. OBJECTIVES: The present study was undertaken with the objectives to estimate unmet need for family planning among the married women of reproductive age group (15 - 49 years in urban slums of Lucknow and to determine the various factors that influence the unmet need. METHODS: A community based cross - sectional study was conducted in slums of Lucknow City from February 2014 to September 2014. A total 452 married women in reproductive age group were interviewed through house to house survey with the help of a pre - designed, pre - tested and semi - structured questionnaire. RESULTS: The total unmet need for family planning was 69.0%. Multivariate logistic regression revealed socioeconomic status upper lower and below (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.5 - 5.1; p = 0.00; duration of marriage less than 1 year (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.1 - 2.9; p = 0.01; less number of live issues (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.1 - 2.5; p = 0.00; working status of women (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.1 - 2.9; p = 0.03; social class i.e. OBC and SC/ST (OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.1 - 4.6; p = 0.02 were found to be independent predictors of unmet need of family planning. CONCLUSION: The present study revealed that unmet need for family planning was quite high among women belonging to social class i.e. OBC and SC/ST, with low socioeconomic status, duration of marriage less than one year less number of live issues and working status of the women.

  7. Family planning education: working with target groups in the South Pacific. (United States)

    Winn, M


    Family planning education programs are commonly designed by expert educators who are far removed, in location and experience, from their target audiences. Educators operate on the premise that their job is simply to develop strategies to successfully transfer their knowledge to the target audience. Judgements are often colored by a determination not to offend local sensibilities, which can lead educators to uncritically adopt the local wisdom about what is and is not culturally acceptable. A proper exploration of sexuality is absent from most family planning programs. Usual features of expert-designed family planning programs are an admonishment about people having too many children (the stick), a clear rationale for having fewer children (the carrot), the provision of detailed contraceptive information (the means), and the encouragement of individuals to exercise some personal control over their fertility (the ends). This standard model, although widely used throughout the Pacific, was not adopted by the Family Planning Federation of Australia in its regional family planning education work. The Federation, in conjunction with the independent Family Planning Association in the South Pacific, has taken a more participatory, learner-focused approach that values the contribution of the audience in all phases of the program. There is a huge need to target men, particularly young, unmarried men. The Federation found that not only did Pacific men want to view and discuss the women's documentary video Taboo Talk about family planning issues, they wanted their own men's version. The Federation soon discovered that attempts to meet the requests can easily flounder on the issue of language. The Federation has worked with the target audience to develop a lexicon of acceptable words for reproductive health education.

  8. Use of a patient-entered family health history tool with decision support in primary care: impact of identification of increased risk patients on genetic counseling attendance. (United States)

    Buchanan, Adam H; Christianson, Carol A; Himmel, Tiffany; Powell, Karen P; Agbaje, Astrid; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Henrich, Vincent C; Orlando, Lori A


    Several barriers inhibit collection and use of detailed family health history (FHH) in primary care. MeTree, a computer-based FHH intake and risk assessment tool with clinical decision support, was developed to overcome these barriers. Here, we describe the impact of MeTree on genetic counseling (GC) referrals and attendance. Non-adopted, English speaking adults scheduled for a well-visit in two community-based primary-care clinics were invited to participate in an Implementation-Effectiveness study of MeTree. Participants' demographic characteristics and beliefs were assessed at baseline. Immediately after an appointment with a patient for whom GC was recommended, clinicians indicated whether they referred the patient and, if not, why. The study genetic counselor kept a database of patients with a GC recommendation and contacted those with a referral. Of 542 patients completing MeTree, 156 (29 %) received a GC recommendation. Of these, 46 % (n = 72) were referred and 21 % (n = 33) underwent counseling. Patient preferences, additional clinical information unavailable to MeTree, and an incomplete clinician evaluation of the FHH accounted for the 85 patients clinicians chose not to refer. Although MeTree identified a significant proportion of patients for whom GC was recommended, persistent barriers indicate the need for improved referral processes and patient and physician education about the benefits of GC.

  9. 43例耳聋家庭再生育前的遗传学分析与指导%Prenatal genetic counseling and instruction for deaf families by genetic test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩明昱; 黄莎莎; 王国建; 袁永一; 康东洋; 张昕; 戴朴


    Objective Analyzed the molecular pathogenesis of probands by means of genetic test and assisted the local Family Planning Institute by providing prenatal genetic counseling and instruction for deaf families who eager to have more baby.Methods Total of forty-three deaf families were recruited by two institutes for family planning from Guangzhou and Weifang.Forty-two families had one deaf child with normal hearing parents.One family was that parents and their child were all deaf.Genetic testing of GJB2,SLC26A4 and mitochondrial DNA(mtDNA) 12SrRNA were firstly performed in probands and their parents,following medical history,physical examination,auditory test and CT scan of temporal bone were completed.And then the genetic information and instruction were provided to each deaf family.Results Fifteen of these 43 families had positive results of genetic test.In fifteen families,one family was confirmed that the parents and their child all carried homozygous GJB2 mutations and the recurrence risk was 100%.Twelve families were confirmed that the probands carried homozygous/compound GJB2 or SLC26A4 mutations while their parents were GJB2 or SLC26A4 carriers,and the recurrence risk was 25%.One family was confirmed that the proband,diagnosed with enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndrome (EVAS) by CT scan,carried heterozygous SLC26A4 mutation from the mother,and the recurrence risk was still 25% based on the hereditary pattern of EVAS although another SLC26A4 mutation from the father was not found.One family was confirmed that the proband carried a heterozygous GJB2 mutation from the mother and the possibility to be GJB2 carrier for offsprings was 50%.The rest 28 families were that all probands and their parents did not carry GJB2,SLC26A4 and mtDNA 12SrRNA pathological mutation.Conclusions Genetic testing can provide more accurate and useful prenatal genetic counseling and instruction to deaf families.Meanwhile,it is an ideal way to develop a cooperative relationship


    Ouma, S; Turyasima, M; Acca, H; Nabbale, F; Obita, K O; Rama, M; Adong, C C; Openy, A; Beatrice, M O; Odongo-Aginya, E I; Awor, S

    Uganda's rapid population growth (3.2%) since 1948 has placed more demands on health sector and lowered living standard of Ugandans resulting into 49% of people living in acute poverty especially in post conflict Northern Uganda. The population rise was due to low use of contraceptive methods (21% in rural areas and 43% in urban areas) and coupled with high unmet need for family planning (41%). This indicated poor access to reproductive health services. Effective use of family planning could reduce the rapid population growth. To determine obstacles to family planning use among rural women in Northern Uganda. A descriptive cross-sectional analytical study. Atiak Health Centre IV, Amuru District, rural Northern Uganda. Four hundred and twenty four females of reproductive ages were selected from both Inpatient and Outpatient Departments of Atiak Health Centre IV. There was high level of awareness 418 (98.6%), positive attitude 333 (78.6%) and fair level of utilisation 230 (54.2%) of family planning. However, significant obstacles to family planning usage included; long distance to Health facility, unavailability of preferred contraceptive methods, absenteeism of family planning providers, high cost of managing side effects, desire for big family size, children dying less than five years old, husbands forbidding women from using family planning and lack of community leaders' involvement in family planning programme. In spites of the high level of awareness, positive attitude, and free family planning services, there were obstacles that hindered family planning usage among these rural women. However, taking services close to people, reducing number of children dying before their fifth birthday, educating men about family planning, making sure family planning providers and methods are available, reducing cost of managing side effects and involving community leaders will improve utilisation of family planning and thus reduce the rapid population growth and poverty.

  11. Preconception counseling and women's compliance with folic acid supplementation.


    Pastuszak, A.; Bhatia, D.; Okotore, B.; Koren, G.


    QUESTION: I am counseling patients to take folic acid when they plan pregnancy and during early pregnancy. Is there any proof that counseling really causes women to comply? ANSWER: A recent Motherisk study showed that counseling women who were planning pregnancy about folic acid use is very effective: 71% of those counseled took folic acid, compared with only 17% of those who were not counseled.

  12. Counseling Third Culture Kids. (United States)

    Barringer, Carolyn Fox

    Third Culture Kids (TCKs) represent a group of youth who have lived overseas with their families for business, service, or missionary work. The implications of living in multiple cultures, especially during the developmental and formative years of youth, warrant investigation. This study informs the US counseling community about the…

  13. Fresh impetus to family planning programmes planned in India. APPN interviews Mr. B. Shankaranand Union Minister for Health and Family Welfare, India. (United States)


    Mr. B. Shankaranand, Union Minister for Health and Family Welfare in India, speaking on new policy measures planned to give family planning a major boost, stated that programs related to population and family welfare should be interwoven with the minimum needs program so that the message of the small family norm becomes attractive to acceptors. The new incentive measures, outlined by Shankaranand, are based on the understanding that the existing infrastructure for service delivery must be fully utilized. The new package of incentives places equal emphasis on state level campaigns which will be suitably dovetailed with services and supplies. Monetary rewards in the form of community assets will be given to organized and identifiable groups actively engaged in the implementation of the Family Welfare Program. Cash awards will be given to the best performing states. A new incentive scheme will be introduced for industrial labor groups in the organized sector. Innovative publicity campaigns in selected areas will be conducted. Reorganization of the service delivery outreach system will include establishing health posts staffed by nurse midwives and health workers in urban slums and congested areas. A scheme is in preparation to issue green cards to acceptors of terminal methods after 2 children. The card holders will be entitled to priority attention and preferential treatment in schemes where such practices are feasible. Currently, there are 5000 Primary Health Centers and 50,000 subcenters offering integrated health services. Family planning statistics provide supportive evidence of programmatic response to the achievement of longterm goals of population stabilization. During the 1st 10 months of the current financial year 2,800,000 sterilizations were performed, a 43% higher achievement rate than the corresponding period last year. The number is likely to rise to 4,000,000 by the end of this financial year. Similarly, the number of IUD acceptors is 760,000, 35

  14. Key Role of Drug Shops and Pharmacies for Family Planning in Urban Nigeria and Kenya. (United States)

    Corroon, Meghan; Kebede, Essete; Spektor, Gean; Speizer, Ilene


    The Family Planning 2020 initiative aims to reach 120 million new family planning users by 2020. Drug shops and pharmacies are important private-sector sources of contraception in many contexts but are less well understood than public-sector sources, especially in urban environments. This article explores the role that drug shops and pharmacies play in the provision of contraceptive methods in selected urban areas of Nigeria and Kenya as well as factors associated with women's choice of where to obtain these methods. Using data collected in 2010/2011 from representative samples of women in selected urban areas of Nigeria and Kenya as well as a census of pharmacies and drug shops audited in 2011, we examine the role of drug shops and pharmacies in the provision of short-acting contraceptive methods and factors associated with a women's choice of family planning source. In urban Nigeria and Kenya, drug shops and pharmacies were the major source for the family planning methods of oral contraceptive pills, emergency contraceptives, and condoms. The majority of injectable users obtained their method from public facilities in both countries, but 14% of women in Nigeria and 6% in Kenya obtained injectables from drug shops or pharmacies. Harder-to-reach populations were the most likely to choose these outlets to obtain their short-acting methods. For example, among users of these methods in Nigeria, younger women (public-sector health facility. Low levels of family planning-related training (57% of providers in Kenya and 41% in Nigeria had received training) and lack of family planning promotional activities in pharmacies and drug shops in both countries indicate the need for additional support from family planning programs to leverage this important access point. Drug shops and pharmacies offer an important and under-leveraged mechanism for expanding family planning access to women in urban Nigeria and Kenya, and potentially elsewhere. Vulnerable and harder


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    Crsitian Tudose


    Full Text Available : Cleft lip and/or palate are the most frequent facial congenital malformations and represent a dramatic situation at birth, which involves important functional, aesthetic, psychological and social impairment that motivates the necessity of a thorough genetic study in the view of genetic counselling. We have studied the families of 100 children with clefts born during the years 1985-1996 in Suceava county and selected from the evidences of the Children Hospital Suceava. The recurrence risk was determined in accordance with the rules of calculation for multifactorial inheritance; it varied between 2 – 5% for the majority of cases (77% which corresponds to a small risk degree; only in 23% of cases the risk varied between 6 – 15% which corresponds to a medium risk degree

  16. The roles of men in family planning - a study of married men at the UKM primary care clinic. (United States)

    Ling, Jes; Tong, S F


    Traditionally, family planning initiatives were concentrated on women despite it being a family matter. As family dynamics evolved over the years, fathers' involvement in family planning has become crucial in enhancing the family well-being. This study aimed to identify the role played by men in family planning activities and the association of socio-economic characteristics with these roles. This was a cross-sectional study carried out in a university primary care clinic. All married male attendees to the clinic, aged 50 years and below, were approached to answer a set of self-administered questionnaires, asking for their involvement in family planning practices. The data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. There were 167 participants in the study. A high proportion of men participated in the discussions regarding previous pregnancies (60.42%), future child planning (89.76%) and desired family size (89.76%). However, the discussions on the usage of family planning methods (FPMs; 39.16%) were significantly low. Socio-economic factors associated with higher likelihood of men discussing family planning activities were older age (p planning activities. The roles taken by men in family planning were associated with older age and higher socio-economic class. The majority of men needs to be encouraged to play a more active role in the discussion of FPMs.

  17. Unmet need of contraception: a critical juncture toward family planning goals. (United States)

    Haldar, Dibakar; Saha, Indranil; Paul, Bobby; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Ray, Tapobrata Guha


    India is the first country in the world to implement a family planning program, and this program has succeeded in generating universal knowledge about family planning methods. In spite of this, there exists a wide gap between knowledge and acceptance of family planning methods reflecting an unmet need for contraception. Different communication channels used to disseminate knowledge like television, radio, and newspapers aim to change the family planning methods. Being a didactic method, these have the least potential to change the attitudes of the people. This article represents the tip of the iceberg of the fate arising out of incomplete information provided through mass media not supported by a formal family planning program. One primipara woman after getting pregnant took an emergency contraceptive pill and attended a clinic with vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, and pallor. Ultimately she underwent suction evacuation and survived. This indicates that mass media should not be a substitute, but rather a supplement to the routine program of the health worker to promote contraception.

  18. The San Pablo experiment: educational strategies in family planning for rural workers. (United States)

    Gatchalian, J; Aganon, M


    16 couples from each of 3 barrios in the Philippines - Barrio Santiago 1, Barrio Santiago 2, and Barrio Dolores - were randomly selected to make up homogeneous groups of young potential family planning acceptors. The objectives were 3-fold: 1) to increase the rural workers' knowledge and awareness of population issues and family planning in order to motivate them to adopt practices; 2) to assist a trade union in integrating population education into its workers' educational program; and 3) to test the effectiveness of 2 different population education strategies. Couples from Barrio Santiago 1 underwent the integrated approach, those from Barrio Dolores the conventional approach, and those from Barrio Santiago 2 served as the control group. Both strategies made use of the same teaching methods. The relative effectiveness of the 2 strategies was gauged through an evaluation of the respondents' knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning 3 months after the training course. The following were among the results: 1) both the conventional and integrated educational strategies worked toward a higher level of knowledge and a more favorable attitude toward family planning; 2) there was no statistical significant difference between the 2 educational strategies in terms of attitude change and increase in knowledge; and 3) the study demonstrates the benefits of integrating family planning into the overall effort of trade unions to educate and inform their members.

  19. The experiences and perceptions of family planning of female Chinese asylum seekers living in the UK. (United States)

    Verran, Alice; Evans, Sarah; Lin, Daniel J; Griffiths, Frances


    Chinese family planning policy is unique. There is limited sex education and the state is highly influential. This has resulted in extremely wide coverage of contraception with long-acting methods being favoured. The Chinese constitute a large proportion of asylum applicants to the UK. This study examines how their experiences and decisions about family planning in the UK are shaped by their cultural background. Data were drawn from 10 semi-structured qualitative interviews with female Chinese asylum seekers recruited through a family planning clinic in the UK. The increased autonomy provided by the UK system was appreciated by the participants. Choice of contraceptive method was influenced by traditional cultural beliefs and values, and the effect of hormonal contraception on menstruation was particularly concerning. Women arrived from China with little knowledge of contraception. Friends from a similar background were the most trusted source of advice. When transitioning from China to the UK unwanted pregnancies had occurred amongst unmarried women who had missed out on sex education while living in China. Chinese societal and cultural practices continue to influence family planning decisions made within the UK. Culturally competent health strategies are needed to ensure Chinese immigrant women fully benefit from family planning within the UK. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  20. Children in planned lesbian families: a cross-cultural comparison between the United States and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.M.W.; Gartrell, N.K.; van Balen, F.; Peyser, H.; Sandfort, T.G.M.


    A total of 78 planned lesbian families in the United States were compared with 74 planned lesbian families in the Netherlands. Children were interviewed about disclosure to peers about living in a lesbian family and about their experiences of homophobia; mothers filled out the Child Behavior

  1. The impact of Centering Pregnancy Group Prenatal Care on postpartum family planning. (United States)

    Hale, Nathan; Picklesimer, Amy H; Billings, Deborah L; Covington-Kolb, Sarah


    The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of group prenatal care (GPNC) on postpartum family-planning utilization. A retrospective cohort of women continuously enrolled in Medicaid for 12 months (n = 3637) was used to examine differences in postpartum family-planning service utilization among women participating in GPNC (n = 570) and those receiving individual prenatal care (IPNC; n = 3067). Propensity scoring methods were used to derive a matched cohort for additional analysis of selected outcomes. Utilization of postpartum family-planning services was higher among women participating in GPNC than among women receiving IPNC at 4 points in time: 3 (7.72% vs 5.15%, P planning visits were highest among non-Hispanic black women at each interval, peaking with 31.84% by 12 months postpartum. After propensity score matching, positive associations between GPNC and postpartum family-planning service utilization remained consistent by 6 (odds ratio [OR], 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.92), 9 (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.08-1.90), and 12 (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.10-1.90) months postpartum. These findings demonstrate the potential that GPNC has to positively influence women's health outcomes after pregnancy and to improve the utilization rate of preventive health services. Utilization of postpartum family-planning services was highest among non-Hispanic black women, further supporting evidence of the impact of GPNC in reducing health disparities. However, despite continuous Medicaid enrollment, postpartum utilization of family-planning services remained low among all women, regardless of the type of prenatal care they received. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Thinking about several problems of the research of our family planning strategy]. (United States)

    Shi, H


    On the basis of 1982 census data, it is estimated that from 1987-1997 13 million women will enter the age of marriage and child-bearing each year. The tasks of keeping the population size around 1.2 billion by the year 2000 is arduous. Great efforts have to be made to continue encouraging one child/couple, and to pursue the current plans and policies and maintain strict control over fertility. Keeping population growth in pace with economic growth, environment, ecological balance, availability of per capita resources, education programs, employment capability, health services, maternal and child care, social welfare and social security should be a component of the long term development strategy of the country. Family planning is a comprehensive program which involves long cycles and complicated factors, viewpoints of expediency in guiding policy and program formulation for short term benefits are inappropriate. The emphasis of family planning program strategy should be placed on the rural areas where the majority of population reside. Specifically, the major aspects of strategic thrusts should be the linkage between policy implementation and reception, between family planning publicity and changes of ideation on fertility; the integrated urban and rural program management relating to migration and differentiation of policy towards minority population and areas in different economic development stages. In order to achieve the above strategies, several measures are proposed. (1) strengthening family planning program and organization structure; (2) providing information on population and contraception; (3) establishing family planning program network for infiltration effects; (4) using government financing, taxation, loan, social welfare and penalty to regulate fertility motivations; (5) improving the system of target allocation and data reporting to facilitate program implementation; (6) strengthening population projection and policy research; (7) and strengthening

  3. An integration programme of poverty alleviation and development with family planning. (United States)


    The State Council (the central government) recently issued a Circular for Speeding Up the Integration of Poverty Alleviation and Development with the Family Planning Programme during the Ninth Five-year Plan (1996-2000). The Circular was jointly submitted by the State Family Planning Commission and the Leading Group for Poverty Alleviation and Development. The document sets the two major tasks as solving the basic needs for food and clothing of the rural destitute and the control of over-rapid growth of China's population. Practice indicates that a close Integration Programme is the best way for impoverished farmers to alleviate poverty and become better-off. Overpopulation and low educational attainments and poor health quality of population in backward areas are the major factors retarding socioeconomic development. Therefore, it is inevitable to integrate poverty alleviation with family planning. It is a path with Chinese characteristics for a balanced population and sustainable socioeconomic development. The targets of the Integration Programme are as follows: The first is that preferential policies should be worked out to guarantee family planning acceptors, especially households with an only daughter or two daughters, are the first to be helped to eradicate poverty and become well-off. They should become good examples for other rural poor in practicing fewer but healthier births, and generating family income. The second target is that the population plans for the poor counties identified by the central government and provincial governments must be fulfilled. This should contribute to breaking the vicious circle of poverty leading to more children, in turn generating more poverty. The circular demands that more efforts should focus on the training of cadres for the Integrated Programme and on services for poor family planning acceptors.

  4. Obesity and Family Systems: A Family FIRO Approach to Assessment and Treatment Planning. (United States)

    Doherty, William J.; Harkaway, Jill Elka


    Presents model for conceptualizing interactional patterns in families presenting for treatment of obesity and method for organizing assessment and for prioritizing treatment strategies. Uses the Family FIRO Model as a framework to organize complex assessment issues, to assign priorities for treatment of issues, and to select appropriate treatment…

  5. Watch out for the blue circle: a breakthrough in family planning promotional strategy. (United States)



    Realizing the potential of commercial marketing in changing the attitude and behavior of the target audience in the early years of the 4th 5-year development plan, the National Family Planning Program tried to develop new ventures in communicating the concept of the small family norm to the people. The condom was chosen as the 1st product to be sold through the social marketing project because male awareness about family planning was still low. Based on audience research, the pricing, packaging, and branding of the product was developed. The most accepted brand name was Dua Lima because it has a neutral meaning, is easily remembered, and can be described in sign language. The last reason is very important because most consumers have difficulty communicating about condoms in the sales outlet. Social marketing has proved effective because of strong public relations activities and the involvement of formal and informal leaders. This experiment has convinced family planning management that social marketing is workable for promoting the small family norm. In 1987, under the new program of self-sufficiency in family planning, the private sector is invited to participate by providing family planning services for target audiences, using the principles of self-sufficiency and self-support. There are 2 principal activities; 1) the IEC campaign, and 2) product (contraceptive) selling. IEC activities include a media campaign public relations work. Product selling is done through commercial channels such as pharmaceutical firms, drug stores, private doctors, and midwives. It was decided that the campaign would be aided by a name and logo. The blue circle was chosen because it is unique, communicative, and simple. The social marketing of contraceptives in Indonesia can be considered a breakthrough in communication strategy for a national development program.

  6. Impacts of Clinic-based Informed Choice Program on Quality of Individualized Counseling Service in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-qing WU; Xi-kuan CHEN; Er-sheng GAO


    Objective To evaluate the impacts of clinic-based informed choice program on quality of individualized service in family planning clinics in ChinaMethods During the program, family planning service staff in intervention clinics were trained on counseling skills and key points of individualized counseling service. Questionnaire surveys were conducted pre- and post-informed choice program to evaluate the impacts of the program.Results Informed choice program had significantly improved the quality of individualized counseling service. The multivariate regression analysis showed that clients of the clinic were more likely to give the better evaluation of the service, the OR of evaluation score of individualized service is 1.712 (95% CI is 1.146 to 2.564) in Experiment Group of post-program in contrast with pre-program. The program also could satisfy individual needs of clients and increase the satisfaction degree of the service.Conclusions Informed choice program is helpful for the improvement of the quality of individualized counseling service. It is necessary and imperative to improve the skills of counseling service provided in family planning clinics.

  7. Increasing efficacy of primary care-based counseling for diabetes prevention: Rationale and design of the ADAPT (Avoiding Diabetes Thru Action Plan Targeting trial

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    Mann Devin M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that lifestyle behavior changes are most effective to prevent onset of diabetes in high-risk patients. Primary care providers are charged with encouraging behavior change among their patients at risk for diabetes, yet the practice environment and training in primary care often do not support effective provider counseling. The goal of this study is to develop an electronic health record-embedded tool to facilitate shared patient-provider goal setting to promote behavioral change and prevent diabetes. Methods The ADAPT (Avoiding Diabetes Thru Action Plan Targeting trial leverages an innovative system that integrates evidence-based interventions for behavioral change with already-existing technology to enhance primary care providers' effectiveness to counsel about lifestyle behavior changes. Using principles of behavior change theory, the multidisciplinary design team utilized in-depth interviews and in vivo usability testing to produce a prototype diabetes prevention counseling system embedded in the electronic health record. Results The core element of the tool is a streamlined, shared goal-setting module within the electronic health record system. The team then conducted a series of innovative, "near-live" usability testing simulations to refine the tool and enhance workflow integration. The system also incorporates a pre-encounter survey to elicit patients' behavior-change goals to help tailor patient-provider goal setting during the clinical encounter and to encourage shared decision making. Lastly, the patients interact with a website that collects their longitudinal behavior data and allows them to visualize their progress over time and compare their progress with other study members. The finalized ADAPT system is now being piloted in a small randomized control trial of providers using the system with prediabetes patients over a six-month period. Conclusions The ADAPT system combines the influential

  8. Transition from the Lactational Amenorrhea Method to other modern family planning methods in rural Bangladesh: barrier analysis and implications for behavior change communication program intervention design. (United States)

    Kouyaté, Robin Anthony; Ahmed, Salahuddin; Haver, Jaime; McKaig, Catharine; Akter, Nargis; Nash-Mercado, Angela; Baqui, Abdullah


    The timely transition from Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM)(2) to another modern family planning method contributes to healthy spacing of pregnancies by increasing the adoption of family planning during the first year postpartum. Yet, literature suggests challenges in completing a timely LAM transition. To guide program implementation in Bangladesh, this study identified factors influencing women's transition decisions. Eighty postpartum women, comprising 40 who transitioned from LAM(3) and 40 who did not,(4) participated. Half of each group participated in in-depth interviews to explore the decision-making process. All participants responded to a "Barrier Analysis" questionnaire to identify differences in eight behavioral determinants. More than half of transitioners switched to another modern method before or within the same month that LAM ended. Of the 18 transitioners who delayed,(5) 15 waited for menses to return. For non-transitioners, key barriers included waiting for menses to return, misconceptions on return to fertility, and perceived lack of familial support. The LAM transition can help women prevent unintended pregnancy during the first year postpartum. Increased emphasis on counseling women about the risk of pregnancy, and misconceptions about personal fertility patterns are critical for facilitating the transition. Strategies should also include interventions that train health workers and improve social support. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Understanding the Complexity of Child Sexual Abuse: A Review of the Literature with Implications for Family Counseling (United States)

    Hunter, Sally V


    Working with families in which there have been incidences of child sexual abuse is one of the most challenging assignments for a family counselor. Beyond ethical and legal mandates for reporting such assaults, less is understood about the long-term effects on victims. After reviewing the literature on child sexual abuse and gender differences,…

  10. Adolescents' Views on Families as Metaphors in Hong Kong: Implications for Pre-Counselling Assessment (United States)

    Chan, Zenobia C. Y.


    This interpretative study aims to offer metaphors that describe family meanings from the adolescent's perspective by encouraging them to give a metaphor with their own explanation on a self-administering essay form. This study has three objectives: to explore the family meanings as a metaphor from the Hong Kong adolescent's perspective;…

  11. Assessment of Premutation in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1 Affected Family Members by TP-PCR and Genetic Counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar


    Full Text Available Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1 is caused by the expansion of an unstable CTG repeat located in the 3′-UTR of (DMPK the DM protein kinase gene. Patients with DM1 have expansions of greater than 50 repeats and up to many thousands. In the present study we aimed to evaluate the utility of TP-PCR in diagnostics as well as the assessment of premutation carriers in proband families. Twenty-seven DM1 cases were enrolled (from twenty-six families and the 13 families of these cases came forward for family screening. The patient group constitute 22 males and 5 females and the average age of onset was 32.8 years (range 17 to 52. All clinically diagnosed DM1 cases and their family members DNA samples were analyzed by TP-PCR. All the cases were found to be positive for the CTG repeat expansion. Among those five families, four had at least an asymptomatic carrier. In the remaining one family other than the proband none was found to be neither affected nor asymptomatic. We reconfirmed the utility of PCR based screening for DM1 as being reliable and rapid molecular test and it should be used as an initial screening test for all patients with DM and their family members for initial screening purpose.

  12. 7 CFR 1944.548 - Counseling consent by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 single family housing... (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Counseling consent by FmHA or its successor agency... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Technical and Supervisory Assistance Grants § 1944.548 Counseling consent by... will indicate the availability of the counseling services of the grantee and solicit the...

  13. The role of law in public health: the case of family planning in the Philippines. (United States)

    Mello, Michelle Marie; Powlowski, Marcus; Nañagas, Juan M P; Bossert, Thomas


    Compared to neighboring countries, the Philippines has high fertility rates and a low prevalence of modern-method contraception use. The Philippine government faces political and cultural barriers to addressing family planning needs, but also legal barriers erected by its own policies. We conducted a review of laws and policies relating to family planning in the Philippines in order to examine how the law may facilitate or constrain service provision. The methodology consisted of three phases. First, we collected and analyzed laws and regulations relating to the delivery of family planning services. Second, we conducted a qualitative interview study. Third, we synthesized findings to formulate policy recommendations. We present a conceptual model for understanding the impact of law on public health and discuss findings in relation to the roles of health care provider regulation, drug regulation, tax law, trade policies, insurance law, and other laws on access to modern-method contraceptives.

  14. Family planning among women in urban and rural areas in Serbia. (United States)

    Antić, Ljiljana; Djikanović, Bosiljka; Vuković, Dejana


    Family planning is an important aspect of population policy at the state level, because the demographic trends in Serbia are very unfavorable. The objective of this study was to examine the differences in family planning between the women in rural and urban areas of Serbia. This study represents the secondary analysis of the National Health Survey of the population in Serbia from 2006, which was conducted as a cross sectional study, on a representative sample of the population. The respondents who used condoms as a method of contraception, were often younger, better educated, had better financial status, lived in Vojvodina, and had no children. Our study showed that there were differences in terms of family planning between the women of urban and rural areas, however, these differences could be explained by differences in age and education.

  15. The psychological well-being of women of Menoufiya, Egypt. Relationships with family planning. (United States)

    Severy, Lawrence J; Waszak, Cynthia; Badawi, Isis; Kafafi, Laila


    Researchers surveyed the psychological well-being of 795 women of reproductive age from Menoufiya, Egypt. Five years earlier, these women had provided data relevant to their family planning behavior. This analysis links these data sets to investigate the impact of family planning on women's sense of well-being, within the context of beliefs about appropriate gender-related behaviors. Well-being measures are derived for trait and state dimensions. Use of family planning and number of children born within the preceding 5 years predicted state ratings of happiness, and number of children predicted anxious pride. Neither are related to any of the trait ratings. Further, 3 different gender-role attitudes are vital to the explanation of how women define and feel good about themselves.

  16. Family planning among women in urban and rural areas in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antić Ljiljana


    Full Text Available Introduction. Family planning is an important aspect of population policy at the state level, because the demographic trends in Serbia are very unfavorable. Objective. The objective of this study was to examine the differences in family planning between the women in rural and urban areas of Serbia. Methods. This study represents the secondary analysis of the National Health Survey of the population in Serbia from 2006, which was conducted as a cross sectional study, on a representative sample of the population. Results. The respondents who used condoms as a method of contraception, were often younger, better educated, had better financial status, lived in Vojvodina, and had no children. Conclusion. Our study showed that there were differences in terms of family planning between the women of urban and rural areas, however, these differences could be explained by differences in age and education. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175025: National Health Survey of the Population of Serbia

  17. Impediments to media communication of social change in family planning and reproductive health: experiences from East Africa. (United States)

    Kagurusi, Patrick T


    The media has been employed to increase uptake of Family Planning through behaviour change communication (BCC). Understanding the barriers encountered in effectively undertaking this function would increase the strategy's effectiveness. Sixty journalists from East Africa participated in trainings to enhance their BCC skills for Family Planning in which a qualitative study was nested to identify barriers to effective Family Planning BCC in the region's media. The barriers were observed to be insufficient BCC skills, journalists' conflict of interest, interests of media houses, inaccessible sources of family planning information, editorial ideologies and absence of commercially beneficial demand. Coupled with the historical ideologies of the media in the region, the observed barriers have precipitated ineffective family planning BCC in the regions media. Effective BCC for family planning in the regions media requires capacity building among practitioners and alignment of the concept to the media's and consumers' aspirations.

  18. Communication, knowledge, social network and family planning utilization among couples in Mwanza, Tanzania. (United States)

    Mosha, Idda H; Ruben, Ruerd


    Family planning utilization in Tanzania is low. This study was cross sectional. It examined family planning use and socio demographic variables, social networks, knowledge and communication among the couples, whereby a stratified sample of 440 women of reproductive age (18-49), married or cohabiting was studied in Mwanza, Tanzania. A structured questionnaire with questions on knowledge, communication among the couples and practice of family planning was used. Descriptive statistics and Logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with family planning (FP) use at four levels. The findings showed that majority (73.2%) of respondents have not used family planning. Wealth was positive related to FP use (p=.000, OR = 3.696, and 95% C.I = 1.936 lower and upper 7.055). Religion was associated with FP use (p=.002, OR =2.802, 95% C.I = 1.476 lower and 5.321 upper), communication and FP use were significantly associated, (p=.000, OR = 0.323 and 95% C.I = 0.215) lower and upper = 0.483), social network and FP use (p=.000, OR = 2.162 and 95% C.I = 1.495 lower and upper =3.125) and knowledge and FP use(p=.000, OR = 2.224 and 95% C.I = 1.509 lower and upper =3.278). Wealth showed a significant association with FP use (p=.001, OR = 1.897, 95% C.I = 0.817 lower and 4.404).Urban area was positively associated with FP use (p= .000, OR = 0.008 and 95% C.I = 0.001 lower and upper =0.09), semi urban was significant at (p= .004, OR = 3.733 and C.I = 1.513 lower and upper =9.211). Information, education and communication materials and to promote family planning in Tanzania should designed and promoted.

  19. Family planning in Tunisia and Morocco: a summary and evaluation of the recent record. (United States)

    Lapham, R


    Family planning activity during 1969-1970 in Morocco and Tunisia is discussed in terms of 12 criteria (such as leadership, educational services, availability) used to evaluate the programs in the 2 countries. Significant differences between family planning activity in the 2 countries can be seen in the nature of involvement of their governments through the open and public endorsement of family planning by Tunisia's president compared to the reserve of Morocco's king. Although family planning programs in both countries are organized within the Ministries of Health, the Tunisian program is conducted by a separate division, the Department of Family Planning and Maternal and Child Health, while Morocco's program is completely integrated within existing health services, a fusion which seems to create financial problems for the Moroccan family planning efforts. The Tunisian program, when compared to that of Morocco, is also characterized by a greater availability of contraceptives, more postpartum education and information activity, available induced-abortion and sterilization services, more widespread use of mass media and communication techniques and greater success in program evaluation. On a population basis, Tunisia (population of 5.2 million in 1970) has about 3 times the number of acceptors as Morocco (population of 15.4 million). Both programs have record-keeping systems which improved considerably during 1969 and 1970, but neither program has an effective field worker network. While Tunisia's program has demonstrated more success in meeting the criteria than Morocco's program and a slight decline has occurred in the crude birth rate in Tunisia in recent years, much of this decline can be attributed to a rising age at marriage resulting from the government's policies of social development. Evaluation indicated that both countries will have to increase availability of contraceptives and encourage effective use if substantial decreases in the crude birth rate are

  20. Ethnic Disparities in Contraceptive Use and Its Impact on Family Planning Program in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Mishra


    Full Text Available Objective: Regardless of three decades of implementation of family planning program in Nepal, need offamily planning services is largely unmet. Systematic studies, evaluating the impact of family program onseveral ethnic groups of Nepal has not been carried out in large scale. This study sheds light on theinvestigation of, whether the use of contraceptives varies among different ethnic groups in Nepal andwhat are the predictors of contraceptive variance in ethnic groups in Nepal.Materials and methods: The study is based on data collected from Nepal Demographic Health Survey(NDHS 2006. Multilevel logistic regression analyses of 10793 married women of reproductive agenested within 264 clusters from the surveys were considered as the sample size. Individual, household,and program variables were set and a multilevel logistic regression model was fitted to analyze thevariables, using GLLAMM command in STATA-9.Results: Multilevel logistic regression analysis indicated that Muslims, Dalits and Terai madheshi womenwere significantly less likely to use modern contraceptives compared to the Brahmins and Chhetries(Higher Castes. Women who were exposed to family planning information in radio were more likely touse modern contraceptives than women not exposed to radio information (OR=1.22, P> 0.01. An odd ofusing contraceptives by Newar was (OR 1.09, P>0.05, the highest among all ethnic groups. Exposure ofwomen to family planning messages through health facilities, family planning workers, and means ofcommunication, increased the odds of using modern contraceptives. However, impact of the familyplanning information on contraceptive use varied among ethnicity.Conclusion: Special attention need to be paid, in particular to the ethnicity, while formulating familyplanning policies in Nepal, for better success rate of family planning intervention programs.

  1. Student perceptions of reproductive health education in US medical schools: a qualitative analysis of students taking family planning electives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Veazey


    Full Text Available Background: Abortion services will be sought by an estimated one in three US women before they reach age 45. Despite the importance of family planning (FP care, many medical schools do not currently offer formal education in this area, and students are unable to meet associated competency standards prior to graduation. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore students’ motivations in pursuing FP electives throughout the United States, their experiences during these courses, and any impact of these rotations on their plans for future practice. Method: We conducted a qualitative study consisting of semi-structured interviews with medical students upon completing fourth-year FP electives at US medical schools. Thirty-seven LCME-accredited US medical schools offered fourth-year FP electives. Course directors at 21 of these institutions recruited study participants between June 2012 and June 2013. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed with ATLAS/ti software to identify salient themes. Results: We interviewed 29 students representing 14 institutions from all regions of the United States (East Coast, Midwest, South, and West Coast. Five central themes emerged. Medical students are using FP electives to fill gaps in the standard curriculum. Elective participation did not change students’ pre-elective stance on abortion. Many students intend to provide abortion in the future but identified possible limiting factors. Proficiency in contraception and options counseling were top competencies desired and gained. Students reported excellent satisfaction with FP electives and would recommend it to their peers, regardless of their personal beliefs. Conclusions: Interview data revealed that students are using FP electives to fill gaps within preclinical and clinical medical school curriculum. Future physicians will be unable to provide comprehensive care for their female patients if they are not provided with this education. Research

  2. Student perceptions of reproductive health education in US medical schools: a qualitative analysis of students taking family planning electives. (United States)

    Veazey, Kathryn; Nieuwoudt, Claudia; Gavito, Christina; Tocce, Kristina


    Abortion services will be sought by an estimated one in three US women before they reach age 45. Despite the importance of family planning (FP) care, many medical schools do not currently offer formal education in this area, and students are unable to meet associated competency standards prior to graduation. The purpose of this study was to explore students' motivations in pursuing FP electives throughout the United States, their experiences during these courses, and any impact of these rotations on their plans for future practice. We conducted a qualitative study consisting of semi-structured interviews with medical students upon completing fourth-year FP electives at US medical schools. Thirty-seven LCME-accredited US medical schools offered fourth-year FP electives. Course directors at 21 of these institutions recruited study participants between June 2012 and June 2013. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed with ATLAS/ti software to identify salient themes. We interviewed 29 students representing 14 institutions from all regions of the United States (East Coast, Midwest, South, and West Coast). Five central themes emerged. Medical students are using FP electives to fill gaps in the standard curriculum. Elective participation did not change students' pre-elective stance on abortion. Many students intend to provide abortion in the future but identified possible limiting factors. Proficiency in contraception and options counseling were top competencies desired and gained. Students reported excellent satisfaction with FP electives and would recommend it to their peers, regardless of their personal beliefs. Interview data revealed that students are using FP electives to fill gaps within preclinical and clinical medical school curriculum. Future physicians will be unable to provide comprehensive care for their female patients if they are not provided with this education. Research should be directed at development and analysis of comprehensive FP curricula

  3. Reproductive aspects and knowledge of family planning among women with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. (United States)

    Lima, Ivana Cristina Vieira de; Cunha, Maria da Conceição Dos Santos Oliveira; Cunha, Gilmara Holanda da; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz


    To analyze the reproductive aspects and knowledge of family planning among women with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Cross-sectional and descriptive study carried out from January to December, 2015, in the outpatient care of infectious disease unit in a hospital located in Fortaleza, Ceará. Data were collected through a form applied by interview in a private setting. 102 women participated in the study. Most were aware that they were serologically positive with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during prenatal care (96.1%) and did not intend to have more children (63.7%). Women who were less than 39 years of age, had a higher educational level, and a shorter time of antiretroviral therapy had better chances of having children (p≤0.05). Having a steady partner increased the chance of desiring to have children, while tubal ligation was higher among women that did not receive counseling on family planning. Knowledge of family planning was limited because of lack of assistance provided by health professionals. Analisar aspectos reprodutivos e conhecimento sobre planejamento familiar de mulheres com síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida (Aids). Estudo transversal, descritivo, realizado de janeiro a dezembro de 2015, no ambulatório de infectologia de um hospital em Fortaleza, Ceará. Os dados foram coletados por meio de formulário, aplicado por entrevista em ambiente privativo. Participaram do estudo 102 mulheres. A maioria delas teve conhecimento da sorologia positiva para vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV) durante o pré-natal (96,1%), e estas não pretendiam mais ter filhos (63,7%). Mulheres com idade menor que 39 anos, maior escolaridade e menor tempo de terapia antirretroviral tiveram maiores chances de ter filhos (p≤0,05). Mulheres com idade menor que 39 anos e maior escolaridade tiveram maiores chances de ter informações corretas sobre ter filhos na vigência do HIV (p≤0,05). Ter parceiro fixo aumentou a chance de desejar ter

  4. Implications for Counseling the Unemployed in a Recessionary Economy. (United States)

    Shifron, Rachel; And Others


    Addresses the implications of recessionary unemployment for the field of counseling, including family counseling, group counseling, and career education. Counseling should focus on maintaining the person's physical and psychological wellness, and teaching coping behavior to prevent temporary unemployment from becoming permanent. (JAC)

  5. [Some elements of evaluating the problem of family planning and the fight against abortions (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Beric, B M


    The author presents some elements indispensable for the comparative evaluation of the problem of abortions and family planning in both small and large territories. The past development of statutory and legal comprehensions of the interruption of pregnancy in our country, as well as the retrospective and prospective dynamic aspect of the development of this important socioeconomic and biological problem is pointed out. A special significance is attributed to the influence of socioeconomic, psychological, and statutory-legal comprehensions in the successful fight against abortions, in which family planning, based on the principles of contemporary medical science (particularly the application of methods and means of contraception) should play a decisive role. (author's)

  6. Motivations and Constraints to Family Planning: A Qualitative Study in Rwanda's Southern Kayonza District. (United States)

    Farmer, Didi Bertrand; Berman, Leslie; Ryan, Grace; Habumugisha, Lameck; Basinga, Paulin; Nutt, Cameron; Kamali, Francois; Ngizwenayo, Elias; St Fleur, Jacklin; Niyigena, Peter; Ngabo, Fidele; Farmer, Paul E; Rich, Michael L


    While Rwanda has achieved impressive gains in contraceptive coverage, unmet need for family planning is high, and barriers to accessing quality reproductive health services remain. Few studies in Rwanda have qualitatively investigated factors that contribute to family planning use, barriers to care, and quality of services from the community perspective. We undertook a qualitative study of community perceptions of reproductive health and family planning in Rwanda's southern Kayonza district, which has the country's highest total fertility rate. From October 2011 to December 2012, we conducted interviews with randomly selected male and female community members (n = 96), community health workers (n = 48), and health facility nurses (n = 15), representing all 8 health centers' catchment areas in the overall catchment area of the district's Rwinkwavu Hospital. We then carried out a directed content analysis to identify key themes and triangulate findings across methods and informant groups. Key themes emerged across interviews surrounding: (1) fertility beliefs: participants recognized the benefits of family planning but often desired larger families for cultural and historical reasons; (2) social pressures and gender roles: young and unmarried women faced significant stigma and husbands exerted decision-making power, but many husbands did not have a good understanding of family planning because they perceived it as a woman's matter; (3) barriers to accessing high-quality services: out-of-pocket costs, stock-outs, limited method choice, and long waiting times but short consultations at facilities were common complaints; (4) side effects: poor management and rumors and fears of side effects affected contraceptive use. These themes recurred throughout many participant narratives and influenced reproductive health decision making, including enrollment and retention in family planning programs. As Rwanda continues to refine its family planning policies and

  7. The determinants of mothers' knowledge of the Down syndrome before genetic counseling: part II. (United States)

    Seidenfeld, M J; Braitman, A; Antley, R M


    Mothers coming for genetic counseling because they have an infant with the Down syndrome (DS) vary in their amount of knowledge about the cause, recurrence risk, and options for dealing with the recurrence risk. The purpose of this work has been to determine some predictors of the variability in mothers' knowledge of the DS before coming to genetic counseling. Data were collected before counseling through a detailed interview concerning mothers' knowledge of the DS, their demographic background, fertility plan, and attitude toward family planing. These data were "reduced" by multiple-regression analysis, to 7 variables used in a prediction equation for mothers' level of pre-knowledge attainment. These variables were then used to construct a model which was tested by path analysis. Results of analyses showed that about 2/3 of the variance in mothers' pre-knowledge of the DS could be accounted for by 5 independent variables: 1) time from diagnosis to counseling session, 2) date of counseling session, 3) nonreporting of emotional upset, 4) education-occupational status (EOS), and 5) utilization of birth control methods. These findings led to the conclusion that what occurs before counseling is of importance for the outcome of genetic counseling, as measured by the genetic information acquired by the counselees. Some precounseling precedures are suggested on how genetic counselors might be able to gain more control over the important factors that occur before actual counseling.

  8. f-treeGC: a questionnaire-based family tree-creation software for genetic counseling and genome cohort studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tomoharu Tokutomi; Akimune Fukushima; Kayono Yamamoto; Yasushi Bansho; Tsuyoshi Hachiya; Atsushi Shimizu


    .... We designed a questionnaire-based pedigree-creation software program named “f-treeGC,” which enables even less experienced medical practitioners to accurately and rapidly collect family health history and create pedigree charts...

  9. An Assessment of Family Planning Decision Makers' and Advocates' Needs and Strategies in Three East African Countries. (United States)

    Smith, Ellen; Musila, Ruth; Murunga, Violet; Godbole, Ramona


    Despite decades of evidence-based advocacy for family planning in developing countries, research on how decision makers perceive and respond to such efforts is lacking. A literature review yielded 10 peer-reviewed journal articles published between 1999 and 2012 on decision makers' needs for and experiences with health advocacy and evidence. Two sets of questions about family planning research and advocacy-one for decision makers and another for advocates-were developed from emerging themes and used in structured interviews with 68 key informants in Ethiopia, Kenya and Malawi. Decision makers reported understanding family planning's value and confirmed that advocacy had helped to spur recent favorable shifts in government support of family planning. Key informants stressed that advocacy messages and formats must be tailored to the needs and interests of particular audiences to be effective. Messages must also consider barriers to decision makers' support for family planning: constituents' negative attitudes; fear that increased adherence to family planning will shrink the size and influence of specific voting blocs and ethnic groups; and competing economic, social, cultural, religious and political priorities. Decision makers reported valuing the contributions of international family planning organizations and donors, but were more comfortable receiving advocacy messages from local sources. According to decision makers, sustained and strategic family planning advocacy developed and delivered by culturally attuned national actors, with support from international actors, can diminish barriers to government support for family planning.

  10. Rural-Urban Differences in Awareness and Use of Family Planning Services Among Adolescent Women in California. (United States)

    Yarger, Jennifer; Decker, Martha J; Campa, Mary I; Brindis, Claire D


    The purpose of this study was to compare awareness and use of family planning services by rural and urban program site among a sample of adolescent women before participation in the federal Personal Responsibility Education Program in California. We conducted a secondary analysis of survey data collected from youth before participation in California's Personal Responsibility Education Program. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted for a sample of 4,614 females ages 14-18 years to compare awareness and use of family planning services between participants at rural and urban program sites, controlling for the program setting and participant demographic, sexual, and reproductive characteristics. Overall, 61% of participants had heard of a family planning provider in their community, and 24% had visited a family planning provider. Awareness and use of family planning services were lower among rural participants than urban participants. After adjusting for the program setting and participant characteristics, rural participants were less likely to know about a family planning provider in their community (odds ratio, .64; 95% confidence interval, .50-.81) or receive family planning services (odds ratio, .76; 95% confidence interval, .58-.99) than urban participants. Findings suggest that adolescents in rural areas face greater barriers to accessing family planning services than adolescents in urban areas. Targeted efforts to increase awareness and use of family planning services among adolescents in rural areas and among other underserved populations are needed. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Disparities in receipt of family planning services by disability status: New estimates from the National Survey of Family Growth. (United States)

    Mosher, William; Bloom, Tina; Hughes, Rosemary; Horton, Leah; Mojtabai, Ramin; Alhusen, Jeanne L


    A substantial and increasing population of US women of childbearing age live with disability. Disability-based disparities in access to family planning services have been previously documented, but few studies have used population-based data sources or evidence-based measures of disability. To determine population-based estimates of use of family planning services among women 15-44 years of age in the United States, and to examine differences by disability status. This is a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional survey, the 2011-2015 National Survey of Family Growth. These analyses include 11,300 female respondents between the ages of 15 and 44 who completed in-person interviews in respondents' homes. Approximately 17.8% of respondents reported at least one disability in at least one domain. Women with disabilities were less likely than those without disabilities to receive services; the largest differences by disability status were seen among women with low education, low income, and those who were not working. Logistic regression analysis suggests that women with physical disabilities and those with poorer general health are less likely to receive services. Women living with disabilities reported lower receipt of family planning services compared to women without disabilities, but the differences were small in some subgroups and larger among disadvantaged women. Physical disabilities and poor health may be among the factors underlying these patterns. Further research is needed on other factors that affect the ability of women with disabilities to obtain the services they need to prevent unintended pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Male involvement in family planning decision making in sub-Saharan Africa- what the evidence suggests. (United States)

    Vouking, Marius Zambou; Evina, Christine Danielle; Tadenfok, Carine Nouboudem


    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated in 2012 that 287,000 maternal deaths occurred in 2010; sub-Saharan Africa (56%) and Southern Asia (29%) accounted for the global burden of maternal deaths. Men are also recognized to be responsible for the large proportion of ill reproductive health suffered by their female partners. Male involvement helps not only in accepting a contraceptive but also in its effective use and continuation. The objectives were to assess men's knowledge, attitude, and practice of modern contraceptive methods; determine the level of spousal communication about family planning decision making; and investigate the correlates of men's opinion about their roles in family planning decision making. We searched the following electronic databases from January 1995 to December 2013: Medline, Embase, CINAHL, LILAS, International Bibliography of Social Sciences, Social Services Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts. Along with MeSH terms and relevant keywords, we used the Cochrane Highly Sensitive Search Strategy for identifying reports of articles in PubMed. There were no restrictions to language or publication status. Of 137 hits, 7 papers met the inclusion criteria. The concept of family planning was well known to men. In the Nigerian study, almost (99%) men were aware of the existence of modern contraceptives, and most of them were aware of at least two modern methods. Awareness of the condom was highest (98%). In the Malawi study, all of the participants reported that they were not using contraception before the intervention. In Ethiopia, above 90% of male respondents have supported and approved using and choosing family planning methods, but none of them practiced terminal methods. Generally, more male respondents disagreed than agreed that men should make decisions about selected family planning issues in the family. Decision-making dynamics around method choice followed a slightly different pattern. According to female participants

  13. Philippines. Church vs. state: Fidel Ramos and family planning face "Catholic Power". (United States)


    Catholic groups and individuals united in a public rally in Manila's Rizal Park to decry a "cultural dictatorship," which promotes abortion, homosexuality, lesbianism, sexual perversion, condoms, and artificial contraception. Government spokesmen responded that condoms and contraception were part of government policy to spread family planning knowledge and informed choices among the population. Cardinal Jaime Sin and former president Corazon Aquino joined forces to lead the movement against the national family planning program in the largest demonstration since the ouster of Ferdinand Marcos in 1986. Also criticized was the 85-page draft action plan for the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) scheduled for September 1994. Cardinal Sin accused President Clinton of using the action plan to promote worldwide abortion. Under the administration of President Fidel Ramos, family planning funding has quintupled and the number of family planning workers has increased from 200 to 8000. President Ramos has gone the farthest of any administration in opposing the Church's positions on contraception and abortion, although years ago Fidel Ramos and Cardinal Sin were allies in the effort to push out Ferdinand Marcos. The population of the Philippines is 85% Catholic, and laws reflect the Church's doctrine against divorce and abortion. The current growth rate is 2.3%, and the goal is to reduce growth to 2.0% by 1998, the end of Ramos's term in office. The population target is in accord with demographic goals proposed in the UN draft action plan. The Vatican has opposed the language in the plan and may have encouraged other religious leaders to join those opposed to the "war against our babies and children." Sin said that contraceptive distribution was "intrinsically evil" and should be stopped now. Ramos's administration stated that their policies and programs are not "in the hands of the devil" and there is support for the Church on family values and


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Both spacing and permanent birth control methods are the need of the hour. The popularity of male sterilization i.e. vasectomy is low compared to female sterilization ( T ubectomy. However, being safe, effective, cheap, and having less surgical complicatio ns no scalpel vasectomy (NSV is emerging as good option. AIMS: To study the various demographic and behavioural factors of NSV acceptors. SETTING & DESIGN: This is institution based retrospective study conducted in Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Medical College, Kolkata during the time period of 1 st April ‘ 2009 to 31 st March’ 2015. METHODS AND MATERIAL: The patients who accepted NSV for family pla nning were analysed with respect to their age, residence, occupation, literacy, number of issues and complications. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Data were represented as simple proportions or percentages and graphs by using micro soft excel . RESULTS: Out of 13, 0 48 sterilization operations, there were 3737(28.64% vasectomies and 9311(71.36% tubectomies. 67.08% of the couples selected sterilization for contraception. Tubectomies accounted for 2.5 times the vasectomies. The number of NSVs as a percentage of total sterilizations were 28.78% in 2009, rising to 36.96% in 2011 and gradually falling to 21.36% in 2015. Most of the clients (84% were ≥30 years of age. In 2009 - 10, only educated (71%, primary education accepted NSV. However, 74% were illiterate acceptors i n 2014 - 15 and 83% were labourers. In last 2 years the trend is NSV after the 3 rd child. CONCLUSION: NSV is emerging as a socially and culturally acceptable method of contraception in our society.

  15. The effect of family sex composition on fertility desires and family planning behaviors in urban Uttar Pradesh, India. (United States)

    Calhoun, Lisa M; Nanda, Priya; Speizer, Ilene S; Jain, Meenakshi


    A cultural preference for sons has been well documented in India, resulting in skewed sex ratios, especially exhibited in northwest India. Previous research has shown that family sex composition is associated with family planning (FP) use and couples' desire for more children. This study examines family sex composition and fertility and FP behaviors in urban Uttar Pradesh, India; little work has examined these issues in urban settings where family sizes are smaller and FP use is common. Data for this analysis comes from a 2010 representative survey of married, non-pregnant fecund women aged 15-49 from six cities in Uttar Pradesh, India. Multivariate analyses are used to examine the association between family sex composition and fertility desires and FP use. The multivariate results indicate that family sex composition is associated with fertility desires and FP use. Women without living children and without at least one child of each sex are significantly less likely to want no more children and women with both sons and daughters but more sons are significantly more likely to want no more children as compared to women that have both sons and daughters but more daughters. Women with no living children and women with daughters but no sons are less likely to be modern FP users than nonusers whereas women with both sons and daughters but more sons are more likely to be modern FP users than nonusers as compared to women with both sons and daughters but more daughters. These findings confirm that family sex composition affects fertility behavior and also reveals that preference for sons persists in urban Uttar Pradesh. These results underscore the importance of programs and policies that work to enhance the value of girl children.

  16. [Role of men in family planning decisions in Mali]. (United States)

    Maiga, O S; Poudiougou, B; Kéita, T F D; Ronse, I; Boundy, F; Bagayoko, D; Diallo, D


    The birth control program was in place and functional since 1970, and it was integrated with maternal and infant health activities in 1978: knowledge about contraception is increasing among women and men respectively 75.6% and 87.6% according to EDSM II, 2001. Nevertheless, only 5.7% of women and 10% of men reported the use of one of the modern contraceptive methods. This is a transversal descriptive and analytic study which included men of 14 years old and above residing in Kayes, Koulikoro, Mopti, Sikasso and Bamako. We used a random choice of 6 out of the 9 regions in Mali (Bamako and the 5 regions supported by partners funding the present study) followed by a non-random choice at different degrees. Data were uniformly collected from One thousand and four men. The mean age was 37.6 +/- 15.6 years, 44.7% of the men were monogamous whereas 23.1% were polygamous and 30.6% were either single or had a fiancé. Most of the men in the study group had more than 2 children compared to 34.2% without children and 19.9% with either one or two children. Among them, 89.1% reported to have heard about birth control program and 70.3% had listed Planned Parenthood as an objective of birth control. The most used methods of birth control the most used are contraceptives (66.7%), condoms (60.5%) and injections (30.8%). However, only 30.6% of men used one birth control method with their partners; among those studied in the cohort, 40.8% used birth control method with their wives. Condom was the main method used by 86% of the men compared to utilization of contraceptive pills and injections respectively 66.7% and 25.6%. Birth control methods were used mainly to protect against sexually transmitted diseases (20.7%), then maternal and infant health respectively 6.0% and 5.8%. 60.7% of men think that the decision to use birth control method should be made by them whereas 25.7% think that the decision should be made by the couples. Many strategies are being proposed to involve men in the

  17. Exploring Type and Amount of Parent Talk during Individualized Family Service Plan Meetings (United States)

    Ridgley, Robyn; Snyder, Patricia; McWilliam, R. A.


    We discuss the utility of a coding system designed to evaluate the amount and type of parent talk during individualized family service plan (IFSP) meetings. The iterative processes used to develop the "Parent Communication Coding System" (PCCS) and its associated codes are described. In addition, we explored whether PCCS codes could be…

  18. Family Planning Services Available to Migratory Farm Workers in the United States. (United States)

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, Austin, TX. Southwest Region.

    The directory is intended to serve those working at providing migrant workers with family planning services. Covering 46 states, it lists agencies and their addresses, schedules, appropriate contacts, and birth control methods available and fees charged (if any). The directory should be of particular help in providing a continuity of service to…

  19. Mothers- and Fathers-to-Be: The Next Generation of Planning and Career-Family Conflict (United States)

    Bush, Ruth; Mentzer, Danielle R.; Grisaffi, Danielle; Richter, Julie


    Newspaper reports of female college seniors modifying their career plans to opt out of work before they enter the workforce challenge the assumption that because many recent college graduates were raised in dual-income families, they would expect to have a substantial workforce role. Using a questionnaire format, this study examines postgraduation…

  20. Using COPE To Improve Quality of Care: The Experience of the Family Planning Association of Kenya. (United States)

    Bradley, Janet


    COPE (Client-Oriented, Provider-Efficient) methodology, a self-assessment tool that has been used in 35 countries around the world, was used to improve the quality of care in family planning clinics in Kenya. COPE involves a process that legitimately invests power with providers and clinic-level staff. It gives providers more control over their…