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Sample records for families pr-10 ltp

  1. Identification of european allergy patterns to the allergen families PR-10, LTP, and profilin from Rosaceae fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Maj-Britt Schmidt; Hall, Sharon; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2011-08-01

    High fruit intakes are associated with significant health benefits but fruit allergy sufferers may be discouraged from eating fruit due to the symptoms they experience. Knowledge about allergens involved in fruit allergy and the frequent cross-reactions to other allergens is essential to (a) design the best strategy for fruit allergy testing (b) prescribe optimal avoidance diets, and (c) design technological solutions for development of hypoallergenic fruits. The objective of this review was to investigate whether some characteristic disease entities could be identified in Europe for allergy to Rosaceae fruits. Five allergy patterns were found involving the allergen families PR-10, LTP, and profilin. In the Western Mediterranean area allergies to Rosaceae fruits are caused by monosensitization to LTP, monosensitization to profilin, or co-sensitization to both these allergens. On the contrary, monosensitization to PR-10 and, to a lesser degree, co-sensitization to profilin and PR-10 is dominant in Northern and Central Europe. LTP sensitization is present both in pollinosis and non-pollinosis patients and is associated with peach allergy in particular. The disease pattern for patients sensitized to profilin is characterized by several concomitant allergies including grass and other pollens, Rosaceae and non-Rosaceae fruits. Finally, PR-10 sensitization is primarily associated to concomitant birch pollen and apple allergy.

  2. Characterisation of the Vitis vinifera PR10 multigene family

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Genes belonging to the pathogenesis related 10 (PR10) group have been studied in several plant species, where they form multigene families. Until now, such an analysis has not been performed in Vitis vinifera, although three different PR10 genes were found to be expressed under pathogen attack or abiotic stress, and during somatic embryogenesis induction. We used the complete genome sequence for characterising the whole V. vinifera PR10 gene family. The expression of candidate genes was studied in various non-treated tissues and following somatic embryogenesis induction by the auxin 2,4-D. Results In addition to the three V. vinifera PR10 genes already described, namely VvPR10.1, VvPR10.2 and VvPR10.3, fourteen different PR10 related sequences were identified. Showing high similarity, they form a single cluster on the chromosome 5 comprising three pseudogenes. The expression of nine different genes was detected in various tissues. Although differentially expressed in non-treated plant organs, several genes were up-regulated in tissues treated with 2,4-D, as expected for PR genes. Conclusions PR10 genes form a multigene family in V. vinifera, as found in birch, apple or peach. Seventeen closely related PR10 sequences are arranged in a tandem array on the chromosome 5, probably reflecting small-scale duplications during evolution. Various expression patterns were found for nine studied genes, highlighting functional diversification. A phylogenetic comparison of deduced proteins with PR10 proteins of other plants showed a characteristic low intraspecific variability. Particularly, a group of seven close tandem duplicates including VvPR10.1, VvPR10.2 and VvPR10.3 showed a very high similarity, suggesting concerted evolution or/and recent duplications. PMID:20727162

  3. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of hyp-1 type PR-10 family genes in Hypericum perforatum

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    Katja eKarppinen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypericum perforatum L. is an important medicinal plant for the treatment of depression. The plant contains bioactive hypericins that accumulate in dark glands present especially in reproductive parts of the plant. In this study, pathogenesis-related class 10 (PR-10 family genes were identified in H. perforatum, including three previously unidentified members with sequence homology to hyp-1, a phenolic coupling protein that has earlier been suggested to participate in hypericin biosynthesis and binding/transportation. The PR-10 genes showed constitutive but variable expression patterns in different H. perforatum tissues. They were all expressed at relatively high levels in leaves, variably in roots and low levels in stem and reproductive parts of the plant with no association with dark glands. The gene expression was up-regulated in leaves after salicylic acid, abscisic acid and wounding treatments but with variable levels. To study exact location of the gene expression, in situ hybridization of hyp-1 transcripts was performed and the accumulation of the Hyp-1 protein was examined in various tissues. The presence of Hyp-1 protein in H. perforatum tissues mostly paralleled with the mRNA levels. In situ RNA hybridization localized the hyp-1 transcripts predominantly in vascular tissues in root and stem, while in leaf the mRNA levels were high also in mesophyll cells in addition to vasculature. Our results indicate that the studied PR-10 genes are likely to contribute to the defence responses in H. perforatum. Furthermore, despite the location of the hyp-1 transcripts in vasculature, no support for the transportation of the Hyp-1 protein to dark glands was found in the current study. The present results together with earlier data question the role of the hyp-1 as a key gene responsible for the hypericin biosynthesis in dark glands of H. perforatum.

  4. Molecular Cloning and Expression Analysis of hyp-1 Type PR-10 Family Genes in Hypericum perforatum.

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    Karppinen, Katja; Derzsó, Emese; Jaakola, Laura; Hohtola, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Hypericum perforatum L. is an important medicinal plant for the treatment of depression. The plant contains bioactive hypericins that accumulate in dark glands present especially in reproductive parts of the plant. In this study, pathogenesis-related class 10 (PR-10) family genes were identified in H. perforatum, including three previously unidentified members with sequence homology to hyp-1, a phenolic coupling protein that has earlier been suggested to participate in biosynthesis and binding/transportation of hypericin. The PR-10 genes showed constitutive but variable expression patterns in different H. perforatum tissues. They were all expressed at relatively high levels in leaves, variably in roots and low levels in stem and reproductive parts of the plant with no specific association with dark glands. The gene expression was up-regulated in leaves after salicylic acid, abscisic acid and wounding treatments but with variable levels. To study exact location of the gene expression, in situ hybridization of hyp-1 transcripts was performed and the accumulation of the Hyp-1 protein was examined in various tissues. The presence of Hyp-1 protein in H. perforatum tissues mostly paralleled with the mRNA levels. In situ RNA hybridization localized the hyp-1 transcripts predominantly in vascular tissues in root and stem, while in leaf the mRNA levels were high also in mesophyll cells in addition to vasculature. Our results indicate that the studied PR-10 genes are likely to contribute to the defense responses in H. perforatum. Furthermore, despite the location of the hyp-1 transcripts in vasculature, no support for the transportation of the Hyp-1 protein to dark glands was found in the current study. The present results together with earlier data question the role of the hyp-1 as a key gene responsible for the hypericin biosynthesis in dark glands of H. perforatum.

  5. Primary structures of two ribonucleases from ginseng calluses - New members of the PR-10 family of intracellular pathogenesis-related plant proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moiseyev, GP; Fedoreyeva, LI; Zhuravlev, YN; Yasnetskaya, E; Jekel, PA; Beintema, JJ

    1997-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of two ribonucleases from a callus cell culture of Panax ginseng were determined, The two sequences differ at 26% of the amino acid positions, Homology was found with a large family of intracellular pathogenesis-related proteins, food allergens and tree pollen allergens from

  6. Primary structures of two ribonucleases from ginseng calluses - New members of the PR-10 family of intracellular pathogenesis-related plant proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moiseyev, GP; Fedoreyeva, LI; Zhuravlev, YN; Yasnetskaya, E; Jekel, PA; Beintema, JJ

    1997-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of two ribonucleases from a callus cell culture of Panax ginseng were determined, The two sequences differ at 26% of the amino acid positions, Homology was found with a large family of intracellular pathogenesis-related proteins, food allergens and tree pollen allergens from

  7. Cutin monomer induces expression of the rice OsLTP5 lipid transfer protein gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Park, Jong Ho; Kim, Moon Chul; Cho, Sung Ho

    2008-01-01

    Treatment with the cutin monomer 16-hydroxypalmitic acid (HPA), a major component of cutin, elicited the synthesis of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in rice leaves and induced the expression of the lipid transfer protein gene OsLTP5. Treatment with HPA also induced expression of OsLTP1, OsLTP2, and the pathogen-related PR-10 genes to a lesser extent. The OsLTP5 transcript was expressed prominently in stems and flowers, but was barely detectable in leaves. Expression of OsLTP5 was induced in shoots in response to ABA and salicylic acid. It is proposed that HPA is perceived by rice as a signal, inducing defense reactions.

  8. Structural and functional aspects of PR-10 proteins.

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    Fernandes, Humberto; Michalska, Karolina; Sikorski, Michal; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2013-03-01

    Physical, chemical and biological stress factors, such as microbial infection, upregulate the transcription levels of a number of plant genes, coding for the so-called pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. For PR proteins of class-10 (PR-10), the biological function remains unclear, despite two decades of scientific research. PR-10 proteins have a wide distribution throughout the plant kingdom and the class members share size and secondary structure organization. Throughout the years, we and other groups have determined the structures of a number of PR-10 proteins, both in the crystalline state by X-ray diffraction and in solution by NMR spectroscopy. Despite the accumulating structural information, our understanding of PR-10 function is still limited. PR-10 proteins are rather small (~ 160 amino acids) with a fold consisting of three α helices and seven antiparallel β strands. These structural elements enclose a large hydrophobic cavity that is most probably the key to their functional relevance. Also, the outer surface of these proteins is of extreme interest, as epitopes from a PR-10 subclass cause allergic reactions in humans. © 2013 The Authors Journal compilation © 2013 FEBS.

  9. LISA and the LTP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennrich, O.

    The primary objective of the LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna mission is the detection and observation of gravitational waves from massive black holes (MBH) and galactic binaries in the frequency range 10 -4 Hz … 10 -1 Hz. This low-frequency range is inaccessible to ground-based interferometers due to the background of local gravitational noise and because ground-based interferometers are limited in length to a few kilometres. LISA is envisaged as an ESA/NASA collaborative project, selected an ESA cornerstone mission and included in NASA's strategic plan and with a nominal launch date in 2011. SMART-2 is primarily intended to demonstrate the key technologies for the ESA/NASA collaborative LISA cornerstone mission. The synergy with the technology being used for Darwin motivates the utilization of SMART-2 for both missions. To this end, SMART-2 will accommodate a LISA technology package (LTP), provided by European institutes and industry and possibly also a Disturbance Reduction System (DRS) that is very similar to the LTP and has the same goals but is provided by US institutes and industry.

  10. Pathogenesis-related gene, JcPR-10a from Jatropha curcas exhibit RNase and antifungal activity.

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    Agarwal, Parinita; Bhatt, Vacha; Singh, Rekha; Das, Mamali; Sopory, Sudhir K; Chikara, Jitendra

    2013-06-01

    The pathogenesis-related proteins have a broad spectrum of roles, ranging from seed germination, development to resistance. The PR-10 is a multigene family differing from other PR proteins in being intracellular, small and acidic with similar 3D structures. We have isolated JcPR-10a cDNA with an ORF of 483 bp from J. curcas, an important biofuel crop grown in the wastelands of India. JcPR-10a gets clustered with dicots in phylogenetic tree. The genomic organisation analysis of JcPR-10a revealed the presence of an intron at conserved 185 bp position. Transcript expression of JcPR-10a was upregulated in response to different stimuli such as NaCl, salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate and M. phaseolina. In response to SA and Macrophomina the transcript was found increased at 48 h, however, in case of NaCl and MeJa a strong induction was observed at 12 h which decreased at 48 h. We first time report the transcript up regulation of PR-10 gene by Macrophomina, a pathogen causing collar rot in Jatropha. The recombinant E. coli cells showed better growth in LB medium supplemented with NaCl, whereas growth of recombinant cells was inhibited in LB medium supplemented with KCl, mannitol, sorbitol, methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid. The JcPR-10a protein was overexpressed in E. coli cells, and was purified to homogeneity, the purified protein exhibited RNase and DNase activity. Furthermore, the protein also showed antifungal activity against Macrophomina, indicating that JcPR-10a can serve as an important candidate to engineer stress tolerance in Jatropha as well as other plants susceptible to collar rot by Macrophomina.

  11. Improved shoot regeneration, salinity tolerance and reduced fungal susceptibility in transgenic tobacco constitutively expressing PR-10a gene

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    Parinita eAgarwal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants in ecosystems are simultaneously exposed to abiotic and biotic stresses, which restrict plant growth and development. The complex responses to these stresses are largely regulated by plant hormones, which in turn, orchestrate the different biochemical and molecular pathways to manoeuvre stress tolerance. The PR-10 protein family is reported to be involved in defence regulation, stress response and plant growth and development. The JcPR-10a overexpression resulted in increased number of shoot buds in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, which could be due to high cytokinin to auxin ratio in the transgenics. The docking analysis shows the binding of three BAP molecules at the active sites of JcPR-10a protein. JcPR-10a transgenics showed enhanced salt tolerance, as was evident by increased germination rate, shoot and root length, relative water content, proline, soluble sugar and amino acid content under salinity. Interestingly, the transgenics also showed enhanced endogenous cytokinin level as compared to WT, which, further increased with salinity. Exposure of gradual salinity resulted in increased stomatal conductance, water use efficiency, photosynthesis rate and reduced transpiration rate. Furthermore, the transgenics also showed enhanced resistance against Macrophomina fungus. Thus, JcPR-10a might be working in co-ordination with cytokinin signalling in mitigating the stress induced damage by regulating different stress signalling pathways, leading to enhanced stress tolerance.

  12. Plant pathogenesis-related proteins PR-10 and PR-14 as components of innate immunity system and ubiquitous allergens.

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    Ovchinnikova, Tatiana V; Finkina, Ekaterina I; Melnikova, Daria N; Bogdanov, Ivan V

    2016-10-26

    Pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins are components of innate immunity system in plants. They play an important role in plant defense against pathogens. Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) and Bet v 1 homologues comprise two separate families of PR-proteins. Both LTPs (PR-14) and Bet v 1 homologues (PR-10) are multifunctional small proteins involving in plant response to abiotic and biotic stress conditions. The representatives of these PR-protein families do not show any sequence similarity but have other common biochemical features such as low molecular masses, the presence of hydrophobic cavities, ligand binding properties, and antimicrobial activities. Besides, many members of PR-10 and PR-14 families are ubiquitous plant panallergens which are able to cause sensitization of human immune system and cross-reactive allergic reactions to plant food and pollen. This review is aimed at comparative analysis of structure-functional and allergenic properties of the PR-10 and PR-14 families, as well as prospects for their medicinal application.

  13. LTP after Stress: Up or Down?

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    Marian Joëls

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available When an organism is exposed to a stressful situation, corticosteroid levels in the brain rise. This rise has consequences for behavioral performance, including memory formation. Over the past decades, it has become clear that a rise in corticosteroid level is also accompanied by a reduction in hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP. Recent studies, however, indicate that stress does not lead to a universal suppression of LTP. Many factors, including the type of stress, the phase of the stress response, the area of investigation, type of LTP, and the life history of the organism determine in which direction LTP will be changed.

  14. Bioinformatics and Expression Pathogenesis-related Protein 10 Gene(SmPR-10) from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge%丹参病程相关蛋白基因(SmPR-10)的生物信息学及表达模式分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    生华; 刘梅; 化文平; 王喆之

    2011-01-01

    After analysis of Salvia miltiorrhiza EST sequences, one sequence was found had high homology with pathogenesis-related protein 10. The cDNA and DNA sequence of the gene were cloned and named as SmPR-10 (GenBank accession number: HM439764). SmPR10 without intron contained a single opening reading frame of 486 bp encoding 161 amino acid-peptides. SmPR-10 had a Bet v1 domain and was classed into the pathogenesis-related protein 10 family according to its sequence. Bioinformatics showed that the putative protein was a stable acidic protein with a predicted molecular weight of 17.47 kD. There were no signal peptides and transmembrane domains in SmPR-10. The Quantitative RT-PCR results revealed that SmPR-10 was expressed in different organs of S. miltiorrhiza,and could be induced by methyl jasmonate and pathogen. This suggested that SmPR-10 may be involved in plant defenses.%对丹参EST序列进行Blast分析,获得了一条病程相关蛋白10 (Pathogenesis-related protein 10,PR-10)基因,命名为:SmPR-10(GenBank注册号:HM439764).分别从cDNA和gDNA水平克隆得到该基因,其序列无内含子,包含一个长为486 bp的完整开放读码框,编码161个氨基酸残基.生物信息学分析显示,SmPR-10所编码的蛋白SmPR-10具有Bet v1结构域,属于病程相关蛋白10家族,其相对分子量为17.47 kD,为稳定的酸蛋白;无信号肽、膜锚定或跨膜结构域,为亲水性蛋白.实时定量PCR结果分析表明,SmPR-10基因主要在丹参茎中表达,其表达受到病原菌和茉莉酸甲酯逆境信号的诱导,显示SmPR-10基因可能在植物防御反应中发挥作用.

  15. Reinforcement of Rat Hippocampal LTP by Holeboard Training

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    Frey, Julietta U.; Korz, Volker; Uzakov, Shukhrat

    2005-01-01

    Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) can be dissociated in early-LTP lasting 4-5 h and late-LTP with a duration of more than 8 h, the latter of which requires protein synthesis and heterosynaptic activity during its induction. Previous studies in vivo have shown that early-LTP in the dentate gyrus can protein synthesis-dependently be…

  16. Genome sequencing and annotation of multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB PR10 strain

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    Mohd Zakihalani A. Halim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report the draft genome sequence and annotation of a multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain PR10 (MDR-TB PR10 isolated from a patient diagnosed with tuberculosis. The size of the draft genome MDR-TB PR10 is 4.34 Mbp with 65.6% of G + C content and consists of 4637 predicted genes. The determinants were categorized by RAST into 400 subsystems with 4286 coding sequences and 50 RNAs. The whole genome shotgun project has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession number CP010968.

  17. Evaluation of the Allergenicity Potential of TcPR-10 Protein from Theobroma cacao

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    Cardoso, Thyago Hermylly Santana; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho; Micheli, Fabienne; Noronha, Fátima Soares Motta; Alves, Andréa Catão; Faria, Ana Maria Caetano; da Silva Gesteira, Abelmon

    2012-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis related protein PR10 (TcPR-10), obtained from the Theobroma cacao-Moniliophthora perniciosa interaction library, presents antifungal activity against M. perniciosa and acts in vitro as a ribonuclease. However, despite its biotechnological potential, the TcPR-10 has the P-loop motif similar to those of some allergenic proteins such as Bet v 1 (Betula verrucosa) and Pru av 1 (Prunus avium). The insertion of mutations in this motif can produce proteins with reduced allergenic power. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the allergenic potential of the wild type and mutant recombinant TcPR-10 using bioinformatics tools and immunological assays. Methodology/Principal Findings Mutant substitutions (T10P, I30V, H45S) were inserted in the TcPR-10 gene by site-directed mutagenesis, cloned into pET28a and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells. Changes in molecular surface caused by the mutant substitutions was evaluated by comparative protein modeling using the three-dimensional structure of the major cherry allergen, Pru av 1 as a template. The immunological assays were carried out in 8–12 week old female BALB/c mice. The mice were sensitized with the proteins (wild type and mutants) via subcutaneous and challenged intranasal for induction of allergic airway inflammation. Conclusions/Significance We showed that the wild TcPR-10 protein has allergenic potential, whereas the insertion of mutations produced proteins with reduced capacity of IgE production and cellular infiltration in the lungs. On the other hand, in vitro assays show that the TcPR-10 mutants still present antifungal and ribonuclease activity against M. perniciosa RNA. In conclusion, the mutant proteins present less allergenic potential than the wild TcPR-10, without the loss of interesting biotechnological properties. PMID:22768037

  18. Evaluation of the allergenicity potential of TcPR-10 protein from Theobroma cacao.

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    Sara Pereira Menezes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis related protein PR10 (TcPR-10, obtained from the Theobroma cacao-Moniliophthora perniciosa interaction library, presents antifungal activity against M. perniciosa and acts in vitro as a ribonuclease. However, despite its biotechnological potential, the TcPR-10 has the P-loop motif similar to those of some allergenic proteins such as Bet v 1 (Betula verrucosa and Pru av 1 (Prunus avium. The insertion of mutations in this motif can produce proteins with reduced allergenic power. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the allergenic potential of the wild type and mutant recombinant TcPR-10 using bioinformatics tools and immunological assays. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mutant substitutions (T10P, I30V, H45S were inserted in the TcPR-10 gene by site-directed mutagenesis, cloned into pET28a and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3 cells. Changes in molecular surface caused by the mutant substitutions was evaluated by comparative protein modeling using the three-dimensional structure of the major cherry allergen, Pru av 1 as a template. The immunological assays were carried out in 8-12 week old female BALB/c mice. The mice were sensitized with the proteins (wild type and mutants via subcutaneous and challenged intranasal for induction of allergic airway inflammation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We showed that the wild TcPR-10 protein has allergenic potential, whereas the insertion of mutations produced proteins with reduced capacity of IgE production and cellular infiltration in the lungs. On the other hand, in vitro assays show that the TcPR-10 mutants still present antifungal and ribonuclease activity against M. perniciosa RNA. In conclusion, the mutant proteins present less allergenic potential than the wild TcPR-10, without the loss of interesting biotechnological properties.

  19. The roles of STP and LTP in synaptic encoding

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    Arturas Volianskis

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Long-term potentiation (LTP, a cellular model of learning and memory, is generally regarded as a unitary phenomenon that alters the strength of synaptic transmission by increasing the postsynaptic response to the release of a quantum of neurotransmitter. LTP, at CA3-CA1 synapses in the hippocampus, contains a stimulation-labile phase of short-term potentiation (STP, or transient LTP, t-LTP that decays into stable LTP. By studying the responses of populations of neurons to brief bursts of high-frequency afferent stimulation before and after the induction of LTP, we found that synaptic responses during bursts are potentiated equally during LTP but not during STP. We show that STP modulates the frequency response of synaptic transmission whereas LTP preserves the fidelity. Thus, STP and LTP have different functional consequences for the transfer of synaptic information.

  20. Studies in Optimal Configuration of the LTP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinney, Wayne R.; Anders, Mark; Barber, Samuel K.; Domning, Edward E.; Lou, Yunian; Morrison, Gregory Y.; Salmassi, Farhad; Smith, Brian V.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2010-08-10

    Brightness preservation requirements for ever brighter synchrotron radiation and free electron laser beamlines require surface slope tolerances of x-ray optics on the order of 0.2 mu rad, or better. Hence, the accuracy of dedicated surface slope metrology must be 0.1 mu rad, or even less. Achieving this level of measurement accuracy with the flagship instrument at synchrotron radiation metrology laboratories, the Long Trace Profiler (LTP), requires all significant sources of systematic, random, and instrumental drift errors to be identified, and reduced or eliminated. In this respect, the performance of certain components of the Advanced Light Source LTP-II design [Kirschman, et al., Proc. SPIE, 7077, 70770A-12 (2008)] is analyzed, considering the principal justification for inclusion of each component, possible systematic error due to the quality of its optical material, and drift effects due to generated heat, etc. We investigate the effects of replacement of the existing diode laser with a fiber-coupled laser light source, and demonstrate that reducing the number of components by using a single beam on the surface under test (SUT), rather than an original double beam maintains, or even improves the accuracy of measurement with our LTP. Based on the performance of the upgraded LTP, we trace the further steps for improving of the LTP optical system.

  1. Surprisingly high stability of barley lipid transfer protein, LTP1, towards denaturant, heat and proteases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Winther, J R

    2001-01-01

    Barley LTP1 belongs to a large family of plant proteins termed non-specific lipid transfer proteins. The in vivo function of these proteins is unknown, but it has been suggested that they are involved in responses towards stresses such as pathogens, drought, heat, cold and salt. Also, the proteins...... have been suggested as transporters of monomers for cutin synthesis. We have analysed the stability of LTP1 towards denaturant, heat and proteases and found it to be a highly stable protein, which apparently does not denature at temperatures up to 100 degrees C. This high stability may be important...

  2. LTP Induction Modifies Functional Relationship among Hippocampal Neurons

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    Yun, Sung H.; Lee, Deok S.; Lee, Hyunjung; Baeg, Eun H.; Kim, Yun B.; Jung, Min W.

    2007-01-01

    To obtain evidence linking long-term potentiation (LTP) and memory, we examined whether LTP induction modifies functional relationship among neurons in the rat hippocampus. In contrast to neurons in low-frequency stimulated or AP5-treated slices, LTP induction altered "functional connectivity," as defined by the degree of synchronous firing, among…

  3. BraLTP1, a lipid transfer protein gene involved in epicuticular wax deposition, cell proliferation and flower development in Brassica napus.

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    Fang Liu

    Full Text Available Plant non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs constitute large multigene families that possess complex physiological functions, many of which remain unclear. This study isolated and characterized the function of a lipid transfer protein gene, BraLTP1 from Brassica rapa, in the important oilseed crops Brassica napus. BraLTP1 encodes a predicted secretory protein, in the little known VI Class of nsLTP families. Overexpression of BnaLTP1 in B. napus caused abnormal green coloration and reduced wax deposition on leaves and detailed wax analysis revealed 17-80% reduction in various major wax components, which resulted in significant water-loss relative to wild type. BnaLTP1 overexpressing leaves exhibited morphological disfiguration and abaxially curled leaf edges, and leaf cross-sections revealed cell overproliferation that was correlated to increased cytokinin levels (tZ, tZR, iP, and iPR in leaves and high expression of the cytokinin biosynthsis gene IPT3. BnaLTP1-overexpressing plants also displayed morphological disfiguration of flowers, with early-onset and elongated carpel development and outwardly curled stamen. This was consistent with altered expression of a a number of ABC model genes related to flower development. Together, these results suggest that BraLTP1 is a new nsLTP gene involved in wax production or deposition, with additional direct or indirect effects on cell division and flower development.

  4. Clonning and Expression of RgPR-10 Gene from Rehmannia glutinosa%地黄RgPR-10基因的克隆与表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙鹏; 郭玉海; 祁建军; 周丽莉; 张苗苗; 李先恩

    2009-01-01

    为研究地黄块根的发育机制,通过抑制消减杂交方法从地黄块根中克隆到一个多拷贝、含有完整阅读框编码154个氨基酸的RgPR-10基因(GenBank登录号为EU526395).表达分析发现地黄RgPR-10基因主要在根、茎中表达,尤其是块根中具有较高的表达量.序列分析发现该基因序列与其他物种相似性较低,可能具有不同的功能.为进一步研究该基因在地黄块根发育中的作用,对该基因进行了原核表达,并对融合蛋白进行了初步纯化,电泳检测纯化蛋白具有较高的纯度,可以用于下一步制备抗体和生化功能分析.

  5. LTP data analysis software and infrastructure

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    Nofrarias Serra, Miquel

    The LTP (LISA Technology Package) is the core part of the LISA Pathfinder mission. The main goal of the mission is to study the sources of any disturbances that perturb the motion of the freely-falling test masses from their geodesic trajectories as well as to test various technologies needed for LISA. The LTP experiment is designed as a sequence of experimental runs in which the performance of the instrument is studied and characterised under different operating conditions. In order to best optimise subsequent experimental runs, each run must be promptly analysed to ensure that the following ones make best use of the available knowledge of the instrument. In order to do this, a robust and flexible data analysis software package is required. The software developed for the LTP Data Analysis is a comprehensive data analysis tool based on MATLAB. The environment provides an object-oriented approach to data analysis which allows the user to design and run data analysis pipelines, either graphically or via scripts. The output objects of the analyses contain a full history of the processing that took place; this history tree can be inspected and used to rebuild the objects. This poster introduces the analysis environment and the concepts that have gone in to its design.

  6. Effects of calcineurin on LTP of rats in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Calcineurin (CN) is thought to play a role in the synaptic plastivity and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus. Based on two LTP models in vivo, a specific inhibitor cyclosporin A (CsA) of CN was observed, which affected LTP in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of the rats. The results indicated that CsA blocked LTP induced by high frequency stimulation (HFS) partly, but it had no effect on the decrease of the onset and peak latency of population spikes (PS) except that it reduced the increase of the amplitude after HFS. On the other hand, CsA blocked LTP induced by ginsenosides (GSS) completely. It suppressed the GSS-enhanced amplitude of PS reversibly and blocked the decrease of the peak latency of PS induced by the GSS. These results suggest that the postsynaptic CN plays a role in the induction of LTP in the hippocampus of the rats.

  7. Impacts of pr-10a Overexpression at the Molecular and the Phenotypic Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Göker

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnological approaches using genetic modifications such as homologous gene overexpression can be used to decode gene functions under well-defined circumstances. However, only the recording of the resulting phenotypes allows inferences about the impact of the modification on the organisms’ evolutionary, ecological or economic performance. We here compare a potato wild-type cell line with two genetically engineered cell cultures homologously overexpressing Pathogenesis Related Protein 10a (pr-10a. A detailed analysis of the relative gene-expression patterns of pr-10a and its regulators sebf and pti4 over time provides insights into the molecular response of heterotrophic cells to distinct osmotic and salt-stress conditions. Furthermore, this system serves as an exemplar for the tracing of respiration kinetics as a faster and more sensitive alternative to the laborious and time-consuming recording of growth curves. The utility and characteristics of the resulting data type and the requirements for its appropriate analysis are figured out. It is demonstrated how this novel type of phenotypic information together with the gene-expression-data provides valuable insights into the effect of genetic modifications on the behaviour of cells on both the molecular and the macroscopic level.

  8. Molecular cloning and characterisation of a pathogenesis-related protein CsPR10 from Crocus sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gómez, L; Rubio-Moraga, A; Ahrazem, O

    2011-03-01

    Plants have developed many mechanisms to protect themselves against most potential microbial pathogens and diseases. Among these mechanisms, pathogenesis-related proteins are produced as part of the active defence to prevent attack. In this study, a full-length cDNA encoding the CsPR10 protein was identified in fresh saffron stigmas (Crocus sativus). The deduced amino acid sequence from the nucleotide sequence of the coding region showed homology with PR10 proteins. The clone expressed as a protein in fusion with a GST tag produced a 47-kDa protein in E. coli. CsPR10 had ribonuclease activity, with features common to class II-type ribonucleases; its specific activity was quantified as 68.8 U·mg(-1) protein, thus falling within the range of most PR10 proteins exhibiting RNase activity. Antifungal activity of CsPR10 was assayed against Verticillium dahliae, Penicillium sp. and Fusarium oxysporum. CsPR10 inhibited only F. oxysporum growth, and antifungal potency was reflected in a IC(50) of 8.3 μm. Expression analysis showed the presence of high transcript levels in anther and tepal tissues, low levels in stigmas and roots, and no signal detected in leaves. This protein seems to be involved in the active defence response through activation of the jasmonic acid pathway.

  9. Crystal Structure of Hyp-1, a Hypericum perforatum PR-10 Protein, in Complex with Melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwiak, Joanna; Dauter, Zbigniew; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    Hyp-1, a PR-10-fold protein from Hypericum perforatum, was crystallized in complex with melatonin (MEL). The structure confirms the conserved protein fold and the presence of three unusual ligand binding sites, two of which are internal chambers (1,2), while the third one (3) is formed as an invagination of the protein surface. The MEL ligand in site 1 is well defined while that in site 3 seems to be rotating between the side chains of Lys33 and Tyr150 that act as a molecular vise. The patch of electron density in site 2 does not allow unambiguous modeling of a melatonin molecule but suggests a possible presence of its degradation product. This pattern of ligand occupation is reproducible in repeated crystallization/structure determination experiments. Although the binding of melatonin by Hyp-1 does not appear to be very strong (for example, MEL cannot displace the artificial fluorescence probe ANS), it is strong enough to suggest a physiological role of this interaction. For example, trans-zeatin, which is a common ligand of PR-10 proteins, does not overcompete melatonin for binding to Hyp-1 as it does not affect the crystallization process of the Hyp-1/MEL complex, and among a number of potential natural mediators tested, melatonin was the only one to form a crystalline complex with Hyp-1 with the use of standard crystallization screens. Hyp-1 is the second protein in the Protein Data Bank for which melatonin binding has been demonstrated crystallographically, the first one being human quinone reductase.

  10. Crystal structure of Hyp-1, a Hypericum perforatum PR-10 protein, in complex with melatonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna eSliwiak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hyp-1, a PR-10-fold protein from H. perforatum, was crystallized in complex with melatonin (MEL. The structure confirms the conserved protein fold and the presence of three unusual ligand binding sites, two of which are internal chambers (1, 2, while the third one (3 is formed as an invagination of the protein surface. The MEL ligand in site 1 is well defined while that in site 3 seems to be rotating between the side chains of Lys33 and Tyr150 that act as a molecular vise. The patch of electron density in site 2 does not allow unambiguous modeling of a melatonin molecule but suggests a possible presence of its degradation product. This pattern of ligand occupation is reproducible in repeated crystallization/structure determination experiments. Although the binding of melatonin by Hyp-1 does not appear to be very strong (for example, MEL cannot displace the artificial fluorescence probe ANS, it is strong enough to suggest a physiological role of this interaction. For example, trans-zeatin, which is a common ligand of PR-10 proteins, does not overcompete melatonin for binding to Hyp-1 as it does not affect the crystallization process of the Hyp-1/MEL complex, and among a number of potential natural mediators tested, melatonin was the only one to form a crystalline complex with Hyp-1 with the use of standard crystallization screens. Hyp-1 is the second protein in the Protein Data Bank (PDB for which melatonin binding has been demonstrated crystallographically, the first one being human quinone reductase.

  11. Leaf-specific pathogenesis-related 10 homolog, PgPR-10.3, shows in silico binding affinity with several biologically important molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Haeng Han

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Although ginseng PR-10.3 gene is expressed in all organs of 3-wk-old plantlets, its expression is restricted to leaves in mature 2-yr-old ginseng plants. The putative binding property of PgPR-10.3 with Re is intriguing. Further verification of binding affinity with other biologically important molecules in the large hydrophobic cavity of PgPR-10.3 may provide an insight into the biological features of PR-10 proteins.

  12. Isolation and full characterisation of a potentially allergenic lipid transfer protein (LTP) in almond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhler, Sofie; Tedeschi, Tullia; Faccini, Andrea; Garino, Cristiano; Arlorio, Marco; Dossena, Arnaldo; Sforza, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTP) were shown to be among the most significant allergens, in particular in several fruits belonging to the Rosaceae family. The molecular features of LTPs, such as the presence of eight cysteine residues forming four disulfide bridges, confer a compact structure, decreasing the probability of degradation due to cooking or digestion, thereby increasing the chance of systemic absorption and severe allergic reactions. Few studies on LTP-induced allergies regarding almond (Prunus dulcis L) are available in the literature. In the present work, we describe for the first time the extraction and purification of an almond LTP, achieving its full characterisation by using liquid chromatography and exact mass spectrometry; the full sequence was identified by means of LC-ESI-Orbitrap-MS applying a bottom-up approach. The characterised protein consists of 92 amino acids and has a calculated exact MW of 9579.0. The presence of four disulfide bridges was confirmed after reduction, as shown by a mass increment of 8 Da. Finally, its potential allergenicity was confirmed via an in silico approach. The results presented here demonstrate the enormous potential of advanced MS techniques for obtaining high-quality structural and functional data of allergenic proteins in a short time.

  13. CYLINDER LENS ALIGNMENT IN THE LTP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TAKACS, P.Z.

    2005-07-26

    The Long Trace Profiler (LTP), is well-suited for the measurement of the axial figure of cylindrical mirrors that usually have a long radius of curvature in the axial direction but have a short radius of curvature in the sagittal direction. The sagittal curvature causes the probe beam to diverge in the transverse direction without coming to a focus on the detector, resulting in a very weak signal. It is useful to place a cylinder lens into the optical system above the mirror under test to refocus the sagittal divergence and increase the signal level. A positive cylinder lens can be placed at two positions above the surface: the Cat's Eye reflection position and the Wavefront-Matching position. The Cat's Eye position, is very tolerant to mirror misalignment, which is not good if absolute axial radius of curvature is to be measured. Lateral positioning and rotational misalignments of lens and the mirror combine to produce unusual profile results. This paper looks at various alignment issues with measurements and by raytrace simulations to determine the best strategy to minimize radius of curvature errors in the measurement of cylindrical aspheres.

  14. Optimised purification and characterisation of lipid transfer protein 1 (LTP1) and its lipid-bound isoform LTP1b from barley malt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwoudt, Melanie; Lombard, Nicolaas; Rautenbach, Marina

    2014-08-15

    In beer brewing, brewers worldwide strive to obtain product consistency in terms of flavour, colour and foam. Important proteins contributing to beer foam are lipid transfer proteins (LTPs), in particular LTP1 and its lipid-bound isoform LTP1b, which are known to transport lipids in vivo and prevent lipids from destabilising the beer foam. LTP1 and LTP1b were successfully purified using only five purification steps with a high purified protein yield (160 mg LTP1 and LTP1b from 200 g barley). Circular dichroism of LTP1 and LTP1b confirmed that both proteins are highly tolerant to high temperatures (>90 °C) and are pH stable, particularly at a neutral to a more basic pH. Only LTP1 exhibited antiyeast and thermo-stable lytic activity, while LTP1b was inactive, indicating that the fatty acid moiety compromised the antimicrobial activity of LTP1. This lack in antiyeast activity and the positive foam properties of LTP1b would benefit beer fermentation and quality.

  15. Characterization of PR-10 genes from eight Betula species and detection of Bet v 1 isoforms in birch pollen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, M.F.; Cordewener, J.H.G.; America, A.H.P.; Westende, van 't W.P.C.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background - Bet v 1 is an important cause of hay fever in northern Europe. Bet v 1 isoforms from the European white birch (Betula pendula) have been investigated extensively, but the allergenic potency of other birch species is unknown. The presence of Bet v 1 and closely related PR-10 genes in the

  16. Characterization of PR-10 genes from eight Betula species and detection of Bet v 1 isoforms in birch pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Martijn F; Cordewener, Jan H G; America, Antoine H P; Van't Westende, Wendy P C; Smulders, Marinus J M; Gilissen, Luud J W J

    2009-03-03

    Bet v 1 is an important cause of hay fever in northern Europe. Bet v 1 isoforms from the European white birch (Betula pendula) have been investigated extensively, but the allergenic potency of other birch species is unknown. The presence of Bet v 1 and closely related PR-10 genes in the genome was established by amplification and sequencing of alleles from eight birch species that represent the four subgenera within the genus Betula. Q-TOF LC-MSE was applied to identify which PR-10/Bet v 1 genes are actually expressed in pollen and to determine the relative abundances of individual isoforms in the pollen proteome. All examined birch species contained several PR-10 genes. In total, 134 unique sequences were recovered. Sequences were attributed to different genes or pseudogenes that were, in turn, ordered into seven subfamilies. Five subfamilies were common to all birch species. Genes of two subfamilies were expressed in pollen, while each birch species expressed a mixture of isoforms with at least four different isoforms. Isoforms that were similar to isoforms with a high IgE-reactivity (Bet v 1a = PR-10.01A01) were abundant in all species except B. lenta, while the hypoallergenic isoform Bet v 1d (= PR-10.01B01) was only found in B. pendula and its closest relatives. Q-TOF LC-MSE allows efficient screening of Bet v 1 isoforms by determining the presence and relative abundance of these isoforms in pollen. B. pendula contains a Bet v 1-mixture in which isoforms with a high and low IgE-reactivity are both abundant. With the possible exception of B. lenta, isoforms identical or very similar to those with a high IgE-reactivity were found in the pollen proteome of all examined birch species. Consequently, these species are also predicted to be allergenic with regard to Bet v 1 related allergies.

  17. Application of Electrostatic Probe in Wool Fabric LTP Finishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Liu, Binghong

    2009-12-01

    By using a double electron probe the electron density and electron temperature were measured during the low temperature plasma (LTP) treatment of wool fabrics. The dependences of the electron density upon the power, pressure and the plasma-treating time was studied. The effects on the wool fabrics' shrinkage were studied. The results showed that the angle of the double electrostatic probe and the area of the treated fabrics had a strong impact on the density measurement. The felt-proof property of wool fabrics treated with an argon plasma was better than that with a nitrogen plasma. The gas, power and pressure of the LTP treatment all affected the electron density. The electron density increased with the increase in power and pressure. The electron density did not change significantly with treating time, in a certain range of both power and pressure of the LTP treatment.

  18. Genomic cloning and linkage mapping of the Mal d 1 (PR-10) gene family in apple (Malus domestica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao Zhongshan,; Weg, van de W.E.; Schaart, J.G.; Schouten, H.J.; Tran, D.H.; Kodde, L.P.; Meer, van der I.M.; Geest, van der A.H.M.; Kodde, J.; Breiteneder, H.; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K.; Bosch, H.J.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.

    2005-01-01

    Fresh apples can cause birch pollen-related food allergy in northern and central European populations, primarily because of the presence of Mal d 1, the major apple allergen that is cross-reactive to the homologous and sensitizing allergen Bet v 1 from birch. Apple cultivars differ significantly in

  19. Assessment of Lipid Transfer Protein (LTP1) Gene in Wheat Powdery Mildew Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ai-li; MENG Cheng-sheng; ZHOU Rong-hua; MA Zhi-ying; JIA Ji-zeng

    2006-01-01

    This study is to investigate the role of lipid transfer protein (LTP1) gene of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, Bgt) resistance. A pair of primers based on the full length cDNA of wheat LTP1was used for amplifying the coding regions of LTP in hexaploid (AABBDD) wheat and its diploid donors T. urartu (AA),Ae. speltoides ssp speltoide (SS) and Ae. tauchii ssp strangulate (DD). LTP1 and LTP2 of wheat were isolated from the tested two hexaploid (ABD) materials: powdery mildew resistance near isogenic line (NIL) Mardler/7 x B ainong 3217 and its susceptible parent Bainong 3217 at the same time, while only one kind of LTP gene was found in the tested three diploid materials respectively by using the above PCR primer pairs. Two peaks of the expression of LTP1 and LTP2 induced by powdery mildew were observed [one occurred at 3 h after inoculation (hai); the other occurred at 10 hai] in resistant NIL Mardler/7 x Bainong3217 in comparison with a steady transcript level of LTP1 and LTP2 in susceptible Bainong3217.Transient over-expression result showed that LTP1 reduced the penetration efficiency (PE) of powdery mildew in susceptible cultivar by about 28.3%. This result indicated an obvious effectiveness of LTP1 in powdery mildew resistance. Expression analysis also showed that LTP1 and LTP2 of wheat are generally involved in salt/drought, but not in low temperature stress early responses.

  20. Dopamine Induces LTP Differentially in Apical and Basal Dendrites through BDNF and Voltage-Dependent Calcium Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navakkode, Sheeja; Sajikumar, Sreedharan; Korte, Martin; Soong, Tuck Wah

    2012-01-01

    The dopaminergic modulation of long-term potentiation (LTP) has been studied well, but the mechanism by which dopamine induces LTP (DA-LTP) in CA1 pyramidal neurons is unknown. Here, we report that DA-LTP in basal dendrites is dependent while in apical dendrites it is independent of activation of L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VDCC).…

  1. Dopamine Induces LTP Differentially in Apical and Basal Dendrites through BDNF and Voltage-Dependent Calcium Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navakkode, Sheeja; Sajikumar, Sreedharan; Korte, Martin; Soong, Tuck Wah

    2012-01-01

    The dopaminergic modulation of long-term potentiation (LTP) has been studied well, but the mechanism by which dopamine induces LTP (DA-LTP) in CA1 pyramidal neurons is unknown. Here, we report that DA-LTP in basal dendrites is dependent while in apical dendrites it is independent of activation of L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VDCC).…

  2. Distinct Single but Not Necessarily Repeated Tetanization Is Required to Induce Hippocampal Late-LTP in the Rat CA1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajikumar, Sreedharan; Navakkode, Sheeja; Frey, Julietta U.

    2008-01-01

    The protein synthesis-dependent form of hippocampal long-term potentiation (late-LTP) is thought to underlie memory. Its induction requires a distinct stimulation strength, and the common opinion is that only repeated tetani result in late-LTP whereas as single tetanus only reveals a transient early-LTP. Properties of LTP induction were compared…

  3. Heater induced thermal effects on the LTP dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Gibert, Ferran; Lobo, Alberto; Díaz-Aguiló, Marc; Mateos, Ignacio; Karnesis, Nikolaos; Sanjuán, Josep; Gesa, Lluís; lloro, Ivan; Martín, Víctor

    2013-01-01

    The STOC (Science and Technology Operations Centre) simulator of the LPF (LISA PathFinder) mission is intended to provide a validation tool for the mission operations tele-commanding chain, as well as for a deeper understanding of the underlying physical processes happening in the LTP (LISA Technology Package). Amongst the different physical effects that will appear onboard, temperature fluctuations in the Electrode Housing (EH) could generate disturbances on the interferometer (IFO) readouts, therefore they must be known and controlled. In this article we report on the latest progress in the analysis at IEEC of the LTP response to thermal signals injected by means of heaters. More specifically, we determine the transfer functions relating heat input signals to forces on the Test Masses (TMs) in the LTP frequency band, from 1 mHz to 30 mHz. A complete thermal model of the entire LPF spacecraft plus payload, elaborated and maintained at European Space Technology Center (ESTEC), was used to obtain temperature d...

  4. Vasopressin inhibits LTP in the CA2 mouse hippocampal area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Chafai

    Full Text Available Growing evidence points to vasopressin (AVP as a social behavior regulator modulating various memory processes and involved in pathologies such as mood disorders, anxiety and depression. Accordingly, AVP antagonists are actually envisaged as putative treatments. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly characterized, in particular the influence of AVP on cellular or synaptic activities in limbic brain areas involved in social behavior. In the present study, we investigated AVP action on the synapse between the entorhinal cortex and CA2 hippocampal pyramidal neurons, by using both field potential and whole-cell recordings in mice brain acute slices. Short application (1 min of AVP transiently reduced the synaptic response, only following induction of long-term potentiation (LTP by high frequency stimulation (HFS of afferent fibers. The basal synaptic response, measured in the absence of HFS, was not affected. The Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse was not affected by AVP, even after LTP, while the Schaffer collateral-CA2 synapse was inhibited. Although investigated only recently, this CA2 hippocampal area appears to have a distinctive circuitry and a peculiar role in controlling episodic memory. Accordingly, AVP action on LTP-increased synaptic responses in this limbic structure may contribute to the role of this neuropeptide in controlling memory and social behavior.

  5. Optical quantal analysis reveals a presynaptic component of LTP at hippocampal Schaffer-associational synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emptage, Nigel J; Reid, Christopher A; Fine, Alan; Bliss, Timothy V P

    2003-06-01

    The mechanisms by which long-term potentiation (LTP) is expressed are controversial, with evidence for both presynaptic and postsynaptic involvement. We have used confocal microscopy and Ca(2+)-sensitive dyes to study LTP at individual visualized synapses. Synaptically evoked Ca(2+) transients were imaged in distal dendritic spines of pyramidal cells in cultured hippocampal slices, before and after the induction of LTP. At most synapses, from as early as 10 min to at least 60 min after induction, LTP was associated with an increase in the probability of a single stimulus evoking a postsynaptic Ca(2+) response. These observations provide compelling evidence of a presynaptic component to the expression of early LTP at Schaffer-associational synapses. In most cases, the store-dependent evoked Ca(2+) transient in the spine was also increased after induction, a novel postsynaptic aspect of LTP.

  6. State-dependent mechanisms of LTP expression revealed by optical quantal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Bonnie; McGuinness, Lindsay; Akerman, Colin J; Fine, Alan; Bliss, Tim V P; Emptage, Nigel J

    2006-11-22

    The expression mechanism of long-term potentiation (LTP) remains controversial. Here we combine electrophysiology and Ca(2+) imaging to examine the role of silent synapses in LTP expression. Induction of LTP fails to change p(r) at these synapses but instead mediates an unmasking process that is sensitive to the inhibition of postsynaptic membrane fusion. Once unmasked, however, further potentiation of formerly silent synapses leads to an increase in p(r). The state of the synapse thus determines how LTP is expressed.

  7. NsLTP1 and NsLTP2 isoforms in soft wheat (Triticum aestivum Cv. Centauro) and farro (Triticum dicoccon Schrank) bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capocchi, Antonella; Fontanini, Debora; Muccilli, Vera; Cunsolo, Vincenzo; Saviozzi, Franco; Saletti, Rosaria; Lorenzi, Roberto; Foti, Salvatore; Galleschi, Luciano

    2005-10-05

    Isoforms of nonspecific lipid-transfer protein 1 (nsLTP1) and nonspecific lipid-transfer protein 2 (nsLTP2) were investigated in bran tissues isolated from caryopses of two cereal crops quite relevant for the Italian market, the cultivar Centauro of soft wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Italian emmer or farro (Triticum dicoccon Schrank). By sequential separation of the bran extracts on cation-exchange and gel filtration chromatographies, fractions containing only proteins belonging to the nsLTP1 and nsLTP2 classes were obtained. The proteins were roughly identified by SDS-PAGE and by immunoreactions in Western blotting experiments. By MALDI-MS and RP-HPLC/ESI-MS analyses we were able to show the presence of several LTP1 and LTP2 isoforms in the investigated species. Bioinformatic searches based on the determined Mr indicated that (i) two nsLTP1s already identified in T. aestivum have Mr and number of Cys residues identical to that of a 9.6 kDa protein present both in soft wheat cv. Centauro and in farro; (ii) two isoforms of nsLTP2 detected in T. aestivum have the same Mr and number of Cys residues of two 7 kDa proteins found in Centauro; and (iii) a nsLTP1 detected in Ambrosia artemisiifolia has Mr and number of Cys residues coincident to that of a 9.9 kDa protein found both in soft wheat cv. Centauro and in farro.

  8. Learning, memory and hippocampal LTP in genetically obese rodents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    We have found that leptin, at physiological concentrations of 10-12 mol/L, facilitates learning and memory and LTP maintenance in Wistar rats. To explore the role of leptin recepors in learning, memory and synaptic plasticity, experiments were carried out using Zucker rats (Z), db/db mice (db), and ob/ob mice(ob). The former two have defects in leptin receptors and the latter cannot produce normal leptin. Unlike the effects observed in normal rats, high or low frequency stimulation of Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in hippocampal slices prepared from Z, db and ob animals failed to induce the learning and memory relevant long-term potentiation or depression in CA1 neurons. However, LTP in ob CA1 synapses was facilitated by leptin at 10-12 mol/L concentration. Moreover, the paired-pulse facilitation of CA1 synaptic potentials and intracellularly recorded postsynaptic responses to the neurotransmitters AMPA, NMDA and GABA, applied electrophoretically to the apical dendrites of CA1 neurons, were approximately the same compared to the control lean animals. In addition, unlike the second messenger responses observed in Wistar rats, calmodulin kinase Ⅱ activity in the CA1 area of Z and db animals was not activated after tetanic stimulation of the Schaffer collaterals. It has been shown that all three strains, Z, db and ob display impaired spatial learning and memory when tested in the Morris water maze. The results of these experiments indicate a close relationship between spatial learning and memory, facilitation of LTP, and calmodulin kinase Ⅱ activity.

  9. A novel PR10 promoter from Erianthus arundinaceus directs high constitutive transgene expression and is enhanced upon wounding in heterologous plant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthi, M; Syamaladevi, Divya P; Harunipriya, P; Augustine, Sruthy Maria; Subramonian, N

    2016-01-01

    In genetic engineering, inducible promoters play an important role as the expression of genes driven by them can be turned on or off under situations like biotic or abiotic factors. There are few reports on inducible promoters that can be employed in the development of transgenic plants, particularly in sugarcane. In the present study, four wound inducible genes (Chitinase, PR1A, PR10 and HRGP) were selected and were amplified from Erianthus arundinaceus, a distant relative of sugarcane. In order to determine the gene that is highly induced upon wounding, RT-qPCR was performed, which showed that PR10 gene expression was instantaneous and higher upon wounding when compared to the other three genes. Using the random amplification of genomic ends technique, a 592 bp promoter sequence was obtained and in silico analysis of the upstream regulatory region revealed a 469 bp promoter and 123 bp of 5' untranslated region (UTR). Functional analyses of the promoter sequence (with and without 5' UTR) in tobacco, rice and sugarcane using β-glucuronidase (GUS) as the reporter gene revealed the constitutive and inducible nature of the PR10 promoter. Our studies have demonstrated that the PR10 promoter, though highly constitutive, was quickly induced upon wounding as well as on treatment with abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate hormones. This is the first report on the isolation and characterization of a PR10 promoter from a wild grass and is expected to have application for development of transgenic plants.

  10. A mathematical model for astrocytes mediated LTP at single hippocampal synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Shivendra; Majumdar, Kaushik

    2012-10-01

    Many contemporary studies have shown that astrocytes play a significant role in modulating both short and long form of synaptic plasticity. There are very few experimental models which elucidate the role of astrocyte over Long-term Potentiation (LTP). Recently, Perea and Araque (Science 317:1083-1086, 2007) demonstrated a role of astrocytes in induction of LTP at single hippocampal synapses. They suggested a purely pre-synaptic basis for induction of this N-methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) Receptor-independent LTP. Also, the mechanisms underlying this pre-synaptic induction were not investigated. Here, in this article, we propose a mathematical model for astrocyte modulated LTP which successfully imitates the experimental findings of Perea and Araque (Science 317:1083-1086, 2007). Our study suggests the role of retrograde messengers, possibly Nitric Oxide (NO), for this pre-synaptically modulated LTP.

  11. The late maintenance of hippocampal LTP: requirements, phases, 'synaptic tagging', 'late-associativity' and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reymann, Klaus G; Frey, Julietta U

    2007-01-01

    Our review focuses on the mechanisms which enable the late maintenance of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP; >3h), a phenomenon which is thought to underlie prolonged memory. About 20 years ago we showed for the first time that the maintenance of LTP - like memory storage--depends on intact protein synthesis and thus, consists of at least two temporal phases. Here we concentrate on mechanisms required for the induction of the transient early-LTP and of the protein synthesis-dependent late-LTP. Our group has shown that the induction of late-LTP requires the associative activation of heterosynaptic inputs, i.e. the synergistic activation of glutamatergic and modulatory, reinforcing inputs within specific, effective time windows. The induction of late-LTP is characterized by novel, late-associative properties such as 'synaptic tagging' and 'late-associative reinforcement'. Both phenomena require the associative setting of synaptic tags as well as the availability of plasticity-related proteins (PRPs) and they are restricted to functional dendritic compartments, in general. 'Synaptic tagging' guarantees input specificity and thus the specific processing of afferent signals for the establishment of late-LTP. 'Late-associative reinforcement' describes a process where early-LTP by the co-activation of modulatory inputs can be transformed into late-LTP in activated synapses where a tag is set. Recent evidence from behavioral experiments, which studied processes of emotional and cognitive reinforcement of LTP, point to the physiological relevance of the above mechanisms during cellular and system's memory formation.

  12. Early postnatal nicotine exposure causes hippocampus-dependent memory impairments in adolescent mice: Association with altered nicotinic cholinergic modulation of LTP, but not impaired LTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakauchi, Sakura; Malvaez, Melissa; Su, Hailing; Kleeman, Elise; Dang, Richard; Wood, Marcelo A; Sumikawa, Katumi

    2015-02-01

    Fetal nicotine exposure from smoking during pregnancy causes long-lasting cognitive impairments in offspring, yet little is known about the mechanisms that underlie this effect. Here we demonstrate that early postnatal exposure of mouse pups to nicotine via maternal milk impairs long-term, but not short-term, hippocampus-dependent memory during adolescence. At the Schaffer collateral (SC) pathway, the most widely studied synapses for a cellular correlate of hippocampus-dependent memory, the induction of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-dependent transient long-term potentiation (LTP) and protein synthesis-dependent long-lasting LTP are not diminished by nicotine exposure, but rather unexpectedly the threshold for LTP induction becomes lower after nicotine treatment. Using voltage sensitive dye to visualize hippocampal activity, we found that early postnatal nicotine exposure also results in enhanced CA1 depolarization and hyperpolarization after SC stimulation. Furthermore, we show that postnatal nicotine exposure induces pervasive changes to the nicotinic modulation of CA1 activity: activation of nicotinic receptors no longer increases CA1 network depolarization, acute nicotine inhibits rather than facilitates the induction of LTP at the SC pathway by recruiting an additional nicotinic receptor subtype, and acute nicotine no longer blocks LTP induction at the temporoammonic pathway. These findings reflect the pervasive impact of nicotine exposure during hippocampal development, and demonstrate an association of hippocampal memory impairments with altered nicotinic cholinergic modulation of LTP, but not impaired LTP. The implication of our results is that nicotinic cholinergic-dependent plasticity is required for long-term memory formation and that postnatal nicotine exposure disrupts this form of plasticity.

  13. Drosophila Lipophorin Receptors Recruit the Lipoprotein LTP to the Plasma Membrane to Mediate Lipid Uptake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Míriam Rodríguez-Vázquez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipophorin, the main Drosophila lipoprotein, circulates in the hemolymph transporting lipids between organs following routes that must adapt to changing physiological requirements. Lipophorin receptors expressed in developmentally dynamic patterns in tissues such as imaginal discs, oenocytes and ovaries control the timing and tissular distribution of lipid uptake. Using an affinity purification strategy, we identified a novel ligand for the lipophorin receptors, the circulating lipoprotein Lipid Transfer Particle (LTP. We show that specific isoforms of the lipophorin receptors mediate the extracellular accumulation of LTP in imaginal discs and ovaries. The interaction requires the LA-1 module in the lipophorin receptors and is strengthened by a contiguous region of 16 conserved amino acids. Lipophorin receptor variants that do not interact with LTP cannot mediate lipid uptake, revealing an essential role of LTP in the process. In addition, we show that lipophorin associates with the lipophorin receptors and with the extracellular matrix through weak interactions. However, during lipophorin receptor-mediated lipid uptake, LTP is required for a transient stabilization of lipophorin in the basolateral plasma membrane of imaginal disc cells. Together, our data suggests a molecular mechanism by which the lipophorin receptors tether LTP to the plasma membrane in lipid acceptor tissues. LTP would interact with lipophorin particles adsorbed to the extracellular matrix and with the plasma membrane, catalyzing the exchange of lipids between them.

  14. Environmental enrichment modifies the PKA-dependence of hippocampal LTP and improves hippocampus-dependent memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, S N; Craddock, K J; Abel, T; Nguyen, P V

    2001-01-01

    cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is critical for the expression of some forms of long-term potentiation (LTP) in area CA1 of the mouse hippocampus and for hippocampus-dependent memory. Exposure to spatially enriched environments can modify LTP and improve behavioral memory in rodents, but the molecular bases for the enhanced memory performance seen in enriched animals are undefined. We tested the hypothesis that exposure to a spatially enriched environment may alter the PKA dependence of hippocampal LTP. Hippocampal slices from enriched mice showed enhanced LTP following a single burst of 100-Hz stimulation in the Schaffer collateral pathway of area CA1. In slices from nonenriched mice, this single-burst form of LTP was less robust and was unaffected by Rp-cAMPS, an inhibitor of PKA. In contrast, the enhanced LTP in enriched mice was attenuated by Rp-cAMPS. Enriched slices expressed greater forskolin-induced, cAMP-dependent synaptic facilitation than did slices from nonenriched mice. Enriched mice showed improved memory for contextual fear conditioning, whereas memory for cued fear conditioning was unaffected following enrichment. Our data indicate that exposure of mice to spatial enrichment alters the PKA dependence of LTP and enhances one type of hippocampus-dependent memory. Environmental enrichment can transform the pharmacological profile of hippocampal LTP, possibly by altering the threshold for activity-dependent recruitment of the cAMP-PKA signaling pathway following electrical and chemical stimulation. We suggest that experience-dependent plasticity of the PKA dependence of hippocampal LTP may be important for regulating the efficacy of hippocampus-based memory.

  15. Chronic psychosocial stress impairs early LTP but not late LTP in the dentate gyrus of at-risk rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkadhi, Karim A; Tran, Trinh T

    2014-11-07

    The CA1 and dentate gyrus regions of the hippocampus are physically and functionally closely related but they react differently to insults. This study examined the effect of chronic psychosocial stress on the dentate gyrus of an at-risk (preclinical) rat model of Alzheimer's disease (subAβ rats). Chronic psychosocial stress was produced using a rat intruder model. The at-risk rat model of Alzheimer's disease was created by osmotic pump infusion of sub-pathological dose of Aβ (160 pmol Aβ1-42/day i.c.v) for 14 days. Electrophysiological methods were used to evoke and record early and late phase LTP in the dentate gyrus of anesthetized rats, and immunoblotting was used to measure levels of memory-related signaling molecules in the same region. Electrophysiological and molecular tests in the dentate gyrus showed that subAβ rats or stressed rats were not different from control rats. However, when the subAβ rats were chronically stressed, the combined treatments severely suppressed early phase LTP without affecting the late phase LTP of dentate gyrus. Additionally, in the chronically stressed subAβ rats the expected elevation of levels of phosphorylated CaMKII did not materialize after expression of early phase LTP suggesting impaired phosphorylation, which may explain the severely blocked early phase LTP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of antiepileptic drugs on associative LTP-like plasticity in human motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidegger, Tonio; Krakow, Karsten; Ziemann, Ulf

    2010-10-01

    Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are used extensively in clinical practice but relatively little is known on their specific effects at the systems level of human cortex. Here we tested, using a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled crossover design in healthy subjects, the effects of a single therapeutic oral dose of seven AEDs with different modes of action (tiagabine, diazepam, gabapentin, lamotrigine, topiramate, levetiracetam and piracetam) on long-term potentiation (LTP)-like motor cortical plasticity induced by paired associative transcranial magnetic stimulation (PAS). PAS-induced LTP-like plasticity was assessed from the increase in motor evoked potential amplitude in a hand muscle contralateral to the stimulated motor cortex. Levetiracetam significantly reduced LTP-like plasticity when compared to the placebo condition. Tiagabine, diazepam, lamotrigine and piracetam resulted in nonsignificant trends towards reduction of LTP-like plasticity while gabapentin and topiramate had no effect. The particularly depressant effect of levetiracetam is probably explained by its unique mode of action through binding at the vesicle membrane protein SV2A. Enhancement of gamma-amino butyric acid-dependent cortical inhibition by tiagabine, diazepam and possibly levetiracetam, and blockage of voltage-gated sodium channels by lamotrigine, may also depress PAS-induced LTP-like plasticity but these mechanisms appear to be less relevant. Findings may inform about AED-related adverse effects on important LTP-dependent central nervous systems processes such as learning or memory formation. The particular depressant effect of levetiracetam on LTP-like plasticity may also relate to the unique properties of this drug to inhibit epileptogenesis, a potentially LTP-associated process.

  17. Augmenting LTP-Like Plasticity in Human Motor Cortex by Spaced Paired Associative Stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Müller-Dahlhaus

    Full Text Available Paired associative stimulation (PASLTP of the human primary motor cortex (M1 can induce LTP-like plasticity by increasing corticospinal excitability beyond the stimulation period. Previous studies showed that two consecutive PASLTP protocols interact by homeostatic metaplasticity, but animal experiments provided evidence that LTP can be augmented by repeated stimulation protocols spaced by ~30 min. Here we tested in twelve healthy selected PASLTP responders the possibility that LTP-like plasticity can be augmented in the human M1 by systematically varying the interval between two consecutive PASLTP protocols. The first PASLTP protocol (PAS1 induced strong LTP-like plasticity lasting for 30-60 min. The effect of a second identical PASLTP protocol (PAS2 critically depended on the time between PAS1 and PAS2. At 10 min, PAS2 prolonged the PAS1-induced LTP-like plasticity. At 30 min, PAS2 augmented the LTP-like plasticity induced by PAS1, by increasing both magnitude and duration. At 60 min and 180 min, PAS2 had no effect on corticospinal excitability. The cumulative LTP-like plasticity after PAS1 and PAS2 at 30 min exceeded significantly the effect of PAS1 alone, and the cumulative PAS1 and PAS2 effects at 60 min and 180 min. In summary, consecutive PASLTP protocols interact in human M1 in a time-dependent manner. If spaced by 30 min, two consecutive PASLTP sessions can augment LTP-like plasticity in human M1. Findings may inspire further research on optimized therapeutic applications of non-invasive brain stimulation in neurological and psychiatric diseases.

  18. Environmental Enrichment Modifies the PKA-Dependence of Hippocampal LTP and Improves Hippocampus-Dependent Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Duffy, Steven N.; Craddock, Kenneth J.; Abel, Ted; Nguyen, Peter V.

    2001-01-01

    cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is critical for the expression of some forms of long-term potentiation (LTP) in area CA1 of the mouse hippocampus and for hippocampus-dependent memory. Exposure to spatially enriched environments can modify LTP and improve behavioral memory in rodents, but the molecular bases for the enhanced memory performance seen in enriched animals are undefined. We tested the hypothesis that exposure to a spatially enriched environment may alter the PKA dependence of h...

  19. Synapse-specific compartmentalization of signaling cascades for LTP induction in CA3 interneurons

    OpenAIRE

    Galván, Emilio J; Pérez-Rosello, Tamara; Gómez-Lira, Gisela; Lara, Erika; Gutiérrez, Rafael; Barrionuevo, Germán

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitory interneurons with somata in strata radiatum and lacunosun-moleculare (SR/L-M) of hippocampal area CA3 receive excitatory input from pyramidal cells via the recurrent collaterals (RC), and the dentate gyrus granule cells via the mossy fibers (MFs). Here we demonstrate that Hebbian long-term potentiation (LTP) at RC synapses on SR/L-M interneurons requires the concomitant activation of calcium-impermeable AMPARs (CI- AMPARs) and NMDARs. RC LTP was prevented by voltage clamping the po...

  20. Augmenting LTP-Like Plasticity in Human Motor Cortex by Spaced Paired Associative Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Dahlhaus, Florian; Lücke, Caroline; Lu, Ming-Kuei; Arai, Noritoshi; Fuhl, Anna; Herrmann, Eva; Ziemann, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Paired associative stimulation (PASLTP) of the human primary motor cortex (M1) can induce LTP-like plasticity by increasing corticospinal excitability beyond the stimulation period. Previous studies showed that two consecutive PASLTP protocols interact by homeostatic metaplasticity, but animal experiments provided evidence that LTP can be augmented by repeated stimulation protocols spaced by ~30 min. Here we tested in twelve healthy selected PASLTP responders the possibility that LTP-like plasticity can be augmented in the human M1 by systematically varying the interval between two consecutive PASLTP protocols. The first PASLTP protocol (PAS1) induced strong LTP-like plasticity lasting for 30-60 min. The effect of a second identical PASLTP protocol (PAS2) critically depended on the time between PAS1 and PAS2. At 10 min, PAS2 prolonged the PAS1-induced LTP-like plasticity. At 30 min, PAS2 augmented the LTP-like plasticity induced by PAS1, by increasing both magnitude and duration. At 60 min and 180 min, PAS2 had no effect on corticospinal excitability. The cumulative LTP-like plasticity after PAS1 and PAS2 at 30 min exceeded significantly the effect of PAS1 alone, and the cumulative PAS1 and PAS2 effects at 60 min and 180 min. In summary, consecutive PASLTP protocols interact in human M1 in a time-dependent manner. If spaced by 30 min, two consecutive PASLTP sessions can augment LTP-like plasticity in human M1. Findings may inspire further research on optimized therapeutic applications of non-invasive brain stimulation in neurological and psychiatric diseases.

  1. REM sleep deprivation inhibits LTP in vivo in area CA1 of rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Young; Mahmoud, Ghada S; Grover, Lawrence M

    2005-11-18

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation has previously been shown to interfere with normal learning and memory and to inhibit long-term potentiation (LTP) in vitro. Previous studies on REM sleep deprivation and LTP have relied on in vitro analysis in isolated brain slices taken from animals following several days of sleep deprivation. LTP in the hippocampus in situ may differ from LTP in vitro due to modulatory inputs from other brain regions, which are altered after REM sleep deprivation. Here, we examined LTP in unanesthetized, behaving animals on the first and second recovery days following REM sleep deprivation to determine if similar effects are seen in vivo as previously reported in vitro. We found that LTP was significantly impaired in REM sleep-deprived animals on the second recovery day but not the first recovery day. Our results extend previous findings by showing that REM sleep deprivation continues to affect hippocampal function for more than 24h following the end of deprivation. Our results also suggest the presence of a modulatory process not present in vitro. Our findings are not explained by stress during REM sleep deprivation because equivalent circulating corticosterone levels (an index of stress) were found during both REM sleep deprivation and control treatment.

  2. The Role of Monosialoganglioside GM1 in LTP-Induction in Rat Hippocampal Slices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永新; 梅镇彤

    1994-01-01

    The effect of monosialoganglioside GM1 of different doses on the long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission has been studied in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices, and the possible role that calcium ion and NMDA receptor play has also been investigated. The results reveal that larger magnitude of LTP is induced in hippocampal slices pre-incubated with GM1. The dose-response curve appears in diphase, and the largest magnitude of LTP has been obtained at the GM1 concentration of 50 mg/L in incubation ACSF. Moreover, the magnitude of LTP induced from the slices pre-incubated with GM1 at lower calcium ion concentration is similar to that obtained from the control slices at normal calcium ion concentration. Under higher calcium ion concentration, the enhancing effect of GM1 on LTP seems relatively feeble. After NMDA receptors were blocked, no enhancing effect of GM1 was observed. The mechanism of GM1 action on LTP is discussed.

  3. LTP requires a reserve pool of glutamate receptors independent of subunit type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, Adam J; Shi, Yun; Lu, Wei; Cerpas, Manuel; Nicoll, Roger A

    2013-01-24

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission is thought to be an important cellular mechanism underlying memory formation. A widely accepted model posits that LTP requires the cytoplasmic carboxyl tail (C-tail) of the AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid) receptor subunit GluA1. To find the minimum necessary requirement of the GluA1 C-tail for LTP in mouse CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons, we used a single-cell molecular replacement strategy to replace all endogenous AMPA receptors with transfected subunits. In contrast to the prevailing model, we found no requirement of the GluA1 C-tail for LTP. In fact, replacement with the GluA2 subunit showed normal LTP, as did an artificially expressed kainate receptor not normally found at these synapses. The only conditions under which LTP was impaired were those with markedly decreased AMPA receptor surface expression, indicating a requirement for a reserve pool of receptors. These results demonstrate the synapse's remarkable flexibility to potentiate with a variety of glutamate receptor subtypes, requiring a fundamental change in our thinking with regard to the core molecular events underlying synaptic plasticity.

  4. Late-associativity, synaptic tagging, and the role of dopamine during LTP and LTD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajikumar, Sreedharan; Frey, Julietta U

    2004-07-01

    Protein synthesis-dependent, synapse input-specific late phases of long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD) may underlie memory formation at the cellular level. Recently, it was described that the induction of LTP can mark a specifically activated synapse by a synaptic tag to capture synapse non-specific plasticity-related proteins (PRPs) and thus maintaining input-specific LTP for prolonged periods. Here we show in rat hippocampal slices in vitro, that the induction of protein synthesis-dependent late-LTD is also characterized by synaptic tagging and that heterosynaptic induction of either LTD or LTP on two sets of independent synaptic inputs S1 and S2 can lead to late-associative interactions: early-LTD in S2 was transformed into a late-LTD, if late-LTP was induced in S1. The synthesis of process-independent PRPs by late-LTP in S1 was sufficient to transform early- into late-LTD in S2 when process-specific synaptic tags were set. We name this new associative property of cellular information processing 'cross-tagging.'

  5. An IgE epitope of Bet v 1 and fagales PR10 proteins as defined by a human monoclonal IgE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hecker, J.; Diethers, A.; Schulz, D.;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Analyses of the molecular basis underlying allergenicity and allergen cross-reactivity, as well as improvement of allergy diagnostics and therapeutics, are hampered by the lack of human monoclonal IgE antibodies and knowledge about their epitopes. Here, we addressed the consecutive...... generation and epitope delineation of a human monoclonal IgE against the prototypic allergen Bet v 1. METHODS: Phage-display scFv hybrid libraries of allergic donor-derived VH epsilon and synthetic VL were established from 107 mononuclear cells. An obtained scFv was converted into human immunoglobulin...... formats including IgE. Using variants of Bet v 1, the epitope of the antibody was mapped and extrapolated to other PR10 proteins. RESULTS: The obtained antibodies exhibited pronounced reactivity with Bet v 1, but were not reactive with the homologous PR10 protein Mal d 1. The epitope as defined by the IgE...

  6. Capsicum annuum WRKYb transcription factor that binds to the CaPR-10 promoter functions as a positive regulator in innate immunity upon TMV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jee Hyuck; Park, Chang-Jin; Huh, Sung Un; Choi, La Mee; Lee, Gil Je; Kim, Young Jin; Paek, Kyung-Hee

    2011-08-05

    In plant, some WRKY transcription factors are known to play an important role in the transcriptional reprogramming associated with the immune response. By using WRKY-domain-specific differential display procedure, we isolated CaWRKYb gene, which is rapidly induced during an incompatible interaction between hot pepper and Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) pathotype P(0) infection. The recombinant CaWRKYb bound to the W box-containing CaPR-10 promoter probes efficiently and the specificity of binding was confirmed by mutant study and competition with cold oligonucleotides. Also, in GUS reporter activity assay using Arabidopsis protoplasts with the CaPR-10 promoter, GUS activity was increased in the presence of CaWRKYb. And CaWRKYb-knockdown plant showed reduced number of hypersensitive response local lesions upon TMV-P(0) infection. Furthermore, CaWRKYb-knockdown plant exhibited compromised resistance to TMV-P(0) by accumulating more TMV, apparently through decreased expression of CaPR-10, CaPR-1, and CaPR-5. These results suggest that CaWRKYb is involved as a positive transcription factor in defense-related signal transduction pathways in hot pepper. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of a new antifungal non-specific lipid transfer protein (nsLTP) from sugar beet leaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, A K; Brunstedt, J; Madsen, M T

    2000-01-01

    A novel protein (IWF5) comprising 92 amino acids has been purified from the intercellular washing fluid of sugar beet leaves using cation exchange chromatography and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography. Based on amino acid sequence homology, including the presence of eight...... cysteines at conserved positions, the protein can be classified as a member of the plant family of non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs). The protein is 47% identical to IWF1, an antifungal nsLTP previously isolated from leaves of sugar beet. A potential site for N-linked glycosylation present...... sequence of 26 amino acid residues. The protein shows a strong in vitro antifungal activity against Cercospora beticola (causal agent of leaf spot disease in sugar beet) and inhibits fungal growth at concentrations below 10 µg ml(-1)....

  8. Synapse-specific compartmentalization of signaling cascades for LTP induction in CA3 interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, E J; Pérez-Rosello, T; Gómez-Lira, G; Lara, E; Gutiérrez, R; Barrionuevo, G

    2015-04-02

    Inhibitory interneurons with somata in strata radiatum and lacunosum-molecular (SR/L-M) of hippocampal area CA3 receive excitatory input from pyramidal cells via the recurrent collaterals (RCs), and the dentate gyrus granule cells via the mossy fibers (MFs). Here we demonstrate that Hebbian long-term potentiation (LTP) at RC synapses on SR/L-M interneurons requires the concomitant activation of calcium-impermeable AMPARs (CI-AMPARs) and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). RC LTP was prevented by voltage clamping the postsynaptic cell during high-frequency stimulation (HFS; 3 trains of 100 pulses delivered at 100 Hz every 10s), with intracellular injections of the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA (20mM), and with the NMDAR antagonist D-AP5. In separate experiments, RC and MF inputs converging onto the same interneuron were sequentially activated. We found that RC LTP induction was blocked by inhibitors of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII; KN-62, 10 μM or KN-93, 10 μM) but MF LTP was CaMKII independent. Conversely, the application of the protein kinase A (PKA) activators forskolin/IBMX (50 μM/25 μM) potentiated MF EPSPs but not RC EPSPs. Together these data indicate that the aspiny dendrites of SR/L-M interneurons compartmentalize synapse-specific Ca(2+) signaling required for LTP induction at RC and MF synapses. We also show that the two signal transduction cascades converge to activate a common effector, protein kinase C (PKC). Specifically, LTP at RC and MF synapses on the same SR/LM interneuron was blocked by postsynaptic injections of chelerythrine (10 μM). These data indicate that both forms of LTP share a common mechanism involving PKC-dependent signaling modulation.

  9. Critical involvement of postsynaptic protein kinase activation in LTP at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses on CA3 interneurons

    OpenAIRE

    Galván, Emilio J; Cosgrove, Kathleen E.; Mauna, Jocelyn C.; Card, J. Patrick; Thiels, Edda; Meriney, Stephen D.; Barrionuevo, Germán

    2010-01-01

    Hippocampal mossy fiber (MF) synapses on area CA3 lacunosum-moleculare (L-M) interneurons are capable of undergoing a Hebbian form of NMDAR-independent LTP induced by the same type of high-frequency stimulation (HFS) that induces LTP at MF synapses on pyramidal cells. LTP of MF input to L-M interneurons occurs only at synapses containing mostly calcium impermeable (CI)-AMPARs. Here, we demonstrate that HFS-induced LTP at these MF-interneuron synapses requires postsynaptic activation of protei...

  10. Calcium-stimulated adenylyl cyclase subtype 1 (AC1 contributes to LTP in the insular cortex of adult mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Yamanaka

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Long-term potentiation (LTP of synaptic transmission in the central nervous system is a key form of cortical plasticity. The insular cortex (IC is known to play important roles in pain perception, aversive memory and mood disorders. LTP has been recently reported in the IC, however, the signaling pathway for IC LTP remains unknown. Here, we investigated the synaptic mechanism of IC LTP. We found that IC LTP induced by the pairing protocol was N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs dependent, and expressed postsynaptically, since paired-pulse ratio (PPR was not affected. Postsynaptic calcium is important for the induction of post-LTP, since the postsynaptic application of BAPTA completely blocked the induction of LTP. Calcium-activated adenylyl cyclase subtype 1 (AC1 is required for potentiation. By contrast, AC8 is not required. Inhibition of Ca2+ permeable α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (CP-AMPARs or protein kinase M zeta (PKMζ reduced the expression of LTP. Our results suggest that calcium-stimulated AC1, but not AC8, can be a trigger of the induction and maintenance of LTP in the IC.

  11. MGluR5 mediates the interaction between late-LTP, network activity, and learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Bikbaev

    Full Text Available Hippocampal synaptic plasticity and learning are strongly regulated by metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs and particularly by mGluR5. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying mGluR5-modulation of these phenomena. Prolonged pharmacological blockade of mGluR5 with MPEP produced a profound impairment of spatial memory. Effects were associated with 1 a reduction of mGluR1a-expression in the dentate gyrus; 2 impaired dentate gyrus LTP; 3 enhanced CA1-LTP and 4 suppressed theta (5-10 Hz and gamma (30-100 Hz oscillations in the dentate gyrus. Allosteric potentiation of mGluR1 after mGluR5 blockade significantly ameliorated dentate gyrus LTP, as well as suppression of gamma oscillatory activity. CA3-lesioning prevented MPEP effects on CA1-LTP, suggesting that plasticity levels in CA1 are driven by mGluR5-dependent synaptic and network activity in the dentate gyrus. These data support the hypothesis that prolonged mGluR5-inactivation causes altered hippocampal LTP levels and network activity, which is mediated in part by impaired mGluR1-expression in the dentate gyrus. The consequence is impairment of long-term learning.

  12. Mechanisms of NMDA Receptor- and Voltage-Gated L-Type Calcium Channel-Dependent Hippocampal LTP Critically Rely on Proteolysis That Is Mediated by Distinct Metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiera, Grzegorz; Nowak, Daria; van Hove, Inge; Dziegiel, Piotr; Moons, Lieve; Mozrzymas, Jerzy W

    2017-02-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) is widely perceived as a memory substrate and in the hippocampal CA3-CA1 pathway, distinct forms of LTP depend on NMDA receptors (nmdaLTP) or L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (vdccLTP). LTP is also known to be effectively regulated by extracellular proteolysis that is mediated by various enzymes. Herein, we investigated whether in mice hippocampal slices these distinct forms of LTP are specifically regulated by different metalloproteinases (MMPs). We found that MMP-3 inhibition or knock-out impaired late-phase LTP in the CA3-CA1 pathway. Interestingly, late-phase LTP was also decreased by MMP-9 blockade. When both MMP-3 and MMP-9 were inhibited, both early- and late-phase LTP was impaired. Using immunoblotting, in situ zymography, and immunofluorescence, we found that LTP induction was associated with an increase in MMP-3 expression and activity in CA1 stratum radiatum. MMP-3 inhibition and knock-out prevented the induction of vdccLTP, with no effect on nmdaLTP. L-type channel-dependent LTP is known to be impaired by hyaluronic acid digestion. We found that slice treatment with hyaluronidase occluded the effect of MMP-3 blockade on LTP, further confirming a critical role for MMP-3 in this form of LTP. In contrast to the CA3-CA1 pathway, LTP in the mossy fiber-CA3 projection did not depend on MMP-3, indicating the pathway specificity of the actions of MMPs. Overall, our study indicates that the activation of perisynaptic MMP-3 supports L-type channel-dependent LTP in the CA1 region, whereas nmdaLTP depends solely on MMP-9. Various types of long-term potentiation (LTP) are correlated with distinct phases of memory formation and retrieval, but the underlying molecular signaling pathways remain poorly understood. Extracellular proteases have emerged as key players in neuroplasticity phenomena. The present study found that L-type calcium channel-dependent LTP in the CA3-CA1 hippocampal projection is critically regulated by the activity

  13. Allergy to beer in LTP-sensitized patients: beers are not all the same.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quercia, O; Zoccatelli, G; Stefanini, G F; Mistrello, G; Amato, S; Bolla, M; Emiliani, F; Asero, R

    2012-09-01

    Most cases of beer allergy reported so far have been associated with hypersensitivity to the non-specific lipid transfer protein (LTP). In view of the marked differences in brewing processes we assessed IgE reactivity as well as tolerance to many different beers in an allergic patient. A 45 year-old man hypersensitive to grass pollen, cat dander and Alternaria tenuis with a history of urticaria and dyspnoea after drinking beer and a weak skin reactivity to commercial corn extract was studied. The patient underwent SPT with 36 different brands of beer and an open challenge with those scoring negative was performed. An immunoblot analysis was carried out using 2 SPT-positive beers, 2 SPT-negative beers, and barley, wheat, and maize extracts using both patient's serum and a maize LTP-specific in-house developed polyclonal antibody from rabbit. Further, the immune reactive LTP of one beer was separated by HPLC and the chromatogram was compared to that of purified maize LTP. Beer SPT scored positive in 30/36 cases. The immunoblot analysis showed IgE reactivity at about 10 kDa against the two SPT-positive beers and against maize with both patient's serum and the polyclonal anti-LTP rabbit serum, whereas the two SPT-negative beers, and barley extract scored negative. The immunodetected protein co-migrated with maize LTP. In beer-allergic patients the diagnostic workup may point to the detection of some tolerated products that can be consumed risk-free. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Systemic injection of kainic acid differently affects LTP magnitude depending on its epileptogenic efficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz M Suárez

    Full Text Available Seizures have profound impact on synaptic function and plasticity. While kainic acid is a popular method to induce seizures and to potentially affect synaptic plasticity, it can also produce physiological-like oscillations and trigger some forms of long-term potentiation (LTP. Here, we examine whether induction of LTP is altered in hippocampal slices prepared from rats with different sensitivity to develop status epilepticus (SE by systemic injection of kainic acid. Rats were treated with multiple low doses of kainic acid (5 mg/kg; i.p. to develop SE in a majority of animals (72-85% rats. A group of rats were resistant to develop SE (15-28% after several accumulated doses. Animals were subsequently tested using chronic recordings and object recognition tasks before brain slices were prepared for histological studies and to examine basic features of hippocampal synaptic function and plasticity, including input/output curves, paired-pulse facilitation and theta-burst induced LTP. Consistent with previous reports in kindling and pilocapine models, LTP was reduced in rats that developed SE after kainic acid injection. These animals exhibited signs of hippocampal sclerosis and developed spontaneous seizures. In contrast, resistant rats did not become epileptic and had no signs of cell loss and mossy fiber sprouting. In slices from resistant rats, theta-burst stimulation induced LTP of higher magnitude when compared with control and epileptic rats. Variations on LTP magnitude correlate with animals' performance in a hippocampal-dependent spatial memory task. Our results suggest dissociable long-term effects of treatment with kainic acid on synaptic function and plasticity depending on its epileptogenic efficiency.

  15. Strain-dependent differences in LTP and hippocampus-dependent memory in inbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, P V; Abel, T; Kandel, E R; Bourtchouladze, R

    2000-01-01

    Many studies have used "reverse" genetics to produce "knock-out" and transgenic mice to explore the roles of various molecules in long-term potentiation (LTP) and spatial memory. The existence of a variety of inbred strains of mice provides an additional way of exploring the genetic bases of learning and memory. We examined behavioral memory and LTP expression in area CA1 of hippocampal slices prepared from four different inbred strains of mice: C57BL/6J, CBA/J, DBA/2J, and 129/SvEms-+(Ter?)/J. We found that LTP induced by four 100-Hz trains of stimulation was robust and long-lasting in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice but decayed in CBA/J and 129/SvEms-+(Ter?)/J mice. LTP induced by one 100-Hz train was significantly smaller after 1 hr in the 129/SvEms-+(Ter?)/J mice than in the other three strains. Theta-burst LTP was shorter lasting in CBA/J, DBA/2J, and 129/SvEms-+(Ter?)/J mice than in C57BL/6J mice. We also observed specific memory deficits, among particular mouse strains, in spatial and nonspatial tests of hippocampus-dependent memory. CBA/J mice showed defective learning in the Morris water maze, and both DBA/2J and CBA/J strains displayed deficient long-term memory in contextual and cued fear conditioning tests. Our findings provide strong support for a genetic basis for some forms of synaptic plasticity that are linked to behavioral long-term memory and suggest that genetic background can influence the electrophysiological and behavioral phenotypes observed in genetically modified mice generated for elucidating the molecular bases of learning, memory, and LTP.

  16. Screening of agrochemicals in foodstuffs using low-temperature plasma (LTP) ambient ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Joshua S; García-Reyes, Juan F; Harper, Jason D; Charipar, Nicholas A; Ouyang, Zheng; Cooks, R Graham

    2010-05-01

    Low-temperature plasma (LTP) permits direct ambient ionization and mass analysis of samples in their native environment with minimal or no prior preparation. LTP utilizes dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) to create a low power plasma which is guided by gas flow onto the sample from which analytes are desorbed and ionized. In this study, the potential of LTP-MS for the detection of pesticide residues in food is demonstrated. Thirteen multi-class agricultural chemicals were studied (ametryn, amitraz, atrazine, buprofezin, DEET, diphenylamine, ethoxyquin, imazalil, isofenphos-methyl, isoproturon, malathion, parathion-ethyl and terbuthylazine). To evaluate the potential of the proposed approach, LTP-MS experiments were performed directly on fruit peels as well as on fruit/vegetable extracts. Most of the agrochemicals examined displayed remarkable sensitivity in the positive ion mode, giving limits of detection (LOD) for the direct measurement in the low picogram range. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was used to confirm identification of selected pesticides by using for these experiments spiked fruit/vegetable extracts (QuEChERS, a standard sample treatment protocol) at levels as low as 1 pg, absolute, for some of the analytes. Comparisons of the data obtained by direct LTP-MS were made with the slower but more accurate conventional LC-MS/MS procedure. Herbicides spiked in aqueous solutions were detectable at LODs as low as 0.5 microg L(-1) without the need for any sample preparation. The results demonstrate that ambient LTP-MS can be applied for the detection and confirmation of traces of agrochemicals in actual market-purchased produce and in natural water samples. Quantitative analysis was also performed in a few selected cases and displayed a relatively high degree of linearity over four orders of magnitude.

  17. Strain-dependent Differences in LTP and Hippocampus-dependent Memory in Inbred Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Peter V.; Abel, Ted; Eric R Kandel; Bourtchouladze, Roussoudan

    2000-01-01

    Many studies have used “reverse” genetics to produce “knock-out” and transgenic mice to explore the roles of various molecules in long-term potentiation (LTP) and spatial memory. The existence of a variety of inbred strains of mice provides an additional way of exploring the genetic bases of learning and memory. We examined behavioral memory and LTP expression in area CA1 of hippocampal slices prepared from four different inbred strains of mice: C57BL/6J, CBA/J, DBA/2J, and 129/SvEms-+Ter?/J....

  18. Crystallization of DIR1, a LTP2-like resistance signalling protein from Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascombe, Marie-Bernard, E-mail: marie-bernard.lascombe@univ-paris5.fr [UMR 8015 CNRS, Faculté de Pharmacie, 4 Avenue de l’Observatoire, 75006 Paris (France); Buhot, Nathalie [John Innes Centre, Norwich NR4 7UH (United Kingdom); Bakan, Bénédicte; Marion, Didier [Unité de Recherches Biopolymères, Interactions, Assemblages, INRA, La Géraudière, BP 71627 (France); Blein, Jean Pierre [Phytopharmacie et Biochimie des Interactions Cellulaires, UMR 692 CNRS, INRA, BP 86510, Dijon CEDEX (France); Lamb, Chris J. [John Innes Centre, Norwich NR4 7UH (United Kingdom); Prangé, Thierry [UMR 8015 CNRS, Faculté de Pharmacie, 4 Avenue de l’Observatoire, 75006 Paris (France)

    2006-07-01

    DIR1, a putative LTP2 protein from Arabidopsis thaliana implicated in systemic acquired resistance in planta, has been crystallized in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} with one molecule per asymmetric unit. DIR1, a putative LTP2 protein from Arabidopsis thaliana implicated in systemic acquired resistance in planta, has been crystallized in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} with one molecule per asymmetric unit. The crystals diffract to a resolution of 1.6 Å.

  19. ANS complex of St John’s wort PR-10 protein with 28 copies in the asymmetric unit: a fiendish combination of pseudosymmetry with tetartohedral twinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sliwiak, Joanna [Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznan (Poland); Dauter, Zbigniew [National Cancer Institute, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Kowiel, Marcin [Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan (Poland); McCoy, Airlie J.; Read, Randy J. [University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0XY (United Kingdom); Jaskolski, Mariusz, E-mail: mariuszj@amu.edu.pl [Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznan (Poland); A. Mickiewicz University, Poznan (Poland)

    2015-04-01

    Hyp-1, a pathogenesis-related class 10 (PR-10) protein from H. perforatum, was crystallized in complex with the fluorescent probe 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS). The asymmetric unit of the tetartohedrally twinned crystal contains 28 copies of the protein arranged in columns with noncrystallographic sevenfold translational symmetry and with additional pseudotetragonal rotational NCS. Hyp-1, a pathogenesis-related class 10 (PR-10) protein from St John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum), was crystallized in complex with the fluorescent probe 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS). The highly pseudosymmetric crystal has 28 unique protein molecules arranged in columns with sevenfold translational noncrystallographic symmetry (tNCS) along c and modulated X-ray diffraction with intensity crests at l = 7n and l = 7n ± 3. The translational NCS is combined with pseudotetragonal rotational NCS. The crystal was a perfect tetartohedral twin, although detection of twinning was severely hindered by the pseudosymmetry. The structure determined at 2.4 Å resolution reveals that the Hyp-1 molecules (packed as β-sheet dimers) have three novel ligand-binding sites (two internal and one in a surface pocket), which was confirmed by solution studies. In addition to 60 Hyp-1-docked ligands, there are 29 interstitial ANS molecules distributed in a pattern that violates the arrangement of the protein molecules and is likely to be the generator of the structural modulation. In particular, whenever the stacked Hyp-1 molecules are found closer together there is an ANS molecule bridging them.

  20. Afferent Input Selects NMDA Receptor Subtype to Determine the Persistency of Hippocampal LTP in Freely Behaving Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Jesús J.; Buschler, Arne; Köhr, Georg; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2016-01-01

    The glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is critically involved in many forms of hippocampus-dependent memory that may be enabled by synaptic plasticity. Behavioral studies with NMDAR antagonists and NMDAR subunit (GluN2) mutants revealed distinct contributions from GluN2A- and GluN2B-containing NMDARs to rapidly and slowly acquired memory performance. Furthermore, studies of synaptic plasticity, in genetically modified mice in vitro, suggest that GluN2A and GluN2B may contribute in different ways to the induction and longevity of synaptic plasticity. In contrast to the hippocampal slice preparation, in behaving mice, the afferent frequencies that induce synaptic plasticity are very restricted and specific. In fact, it is the stimulus pattern and not variations in afferent frequency that determine the longevity of long-term potentiation (LTP) in vivo. Here, we explored the contribution of GluN2A and GluN2B to LTP of differing magnitudes and persistence in freely behaving mice. We applied differing high-frequency stimulation (HFS) patterns at 100 Hz to the hippocampal CA1 region, to induce NMDAR-dependent LTP in wild-type (WT) mice, that endured for 24 h (late (L)-LTP). In GluN2A-knockout (KO) mice, E-LTP (HFS, 50 pulses) was significantly reduced in magnitude and duration, whereas LTP (HFS, 2 × 50 pulses) and L-LTP (HFS, 4 × 50 pulses) were unaffected compared to responses in WT animals. By contrast, pharmacological antagonism of GluN2B in WT had no effect on E-LTP but significantly prevented LTP. E-LTP and LTP were significantly impaired by GluN2B antagonism in GluN2A-KO mice. These data indicate that the pattern of afferent stimulation is decisive for the recruitment of distinct GluN2A and GluN2B signaling pathways that in turn determine the persistency of hippocampal LTP. Whereas brief bursts of patterned stimulation preferentially recruit GluN2A and lead to weak and short-lived forms of LTP, prolonged, more intense, afferent activation recruits

  1. Afferent input selects NMDA receptor subtype to determine the persistency of hippocampal LTP in freely behaving mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Javier Ballesteros

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR is critically involved in many forms of hippocampus-dependent memory that may be enabled by synaptic plasticity. Behavioral studies with NMDAR antagonists and NMDAR subunit (GluN2 mutants revealed distinct contributions from GluN2A- and GluN2B-containing NMDARs to rapidly and slowly acquired memory performance. Furthermore, studies of synaptic plasticity, in genetically modified mice in vitro, suggest that GluN2A and GluN2B may contribute in different ways to the induction and longevity of synaptic plasticity. In contrast to the hippocampal slice preparation, in behaving mice, the afferent frequencies that induce synaptic plasticity are very restricted and specific. In fact, it is the stimulus pattern, and not variations in afferent frequency that determine the longevity of long-term potentiation (LTP. Here, we explored the contribution of GluN2A and GluN2B to LTP of differing magnitudes and persistencies in freely behaving mice. We applied differing high-frequency stimulation (HFS patterns at 100 Hz to the hippocampal CA1 region, to induce NMDAR-dependent LTP in wild-type (WT mice, that endured for 24h (late (L-LTP. In GluN2A-KO mice, E-LTP (HFS, 50 pulses was significantly reduced in magnitude and duration, whereas LTP (HFS, 2 x 50 pulses and L-LTP (HFS, 4 x 50 pulses were unaffected compared to responses in WT animals. By contrast, pharmacological antagonism of GluN2B in WT had no effect on E-LTP but significantly prevented LTP. E- LTP and LTP were significantly impaired by GluN2B antagonism in GluN2A-KO mice. These data indicate that the pattern of afferent stimulation is decisive for the recruitment of distinct GluN2A and GluN2B signaling pathways that in turn determine the persistency of hippocampal LTP. Whereas brief bursts of patterned stimulation preferentially recruit GluN2A and lead to weak and short-lived forms of LTP, prolonged, more intense, afferent activation recruits GluN2B

  2. Induction of Anti-Hebbian LTP in CA1 Stratum Oriens Interneurons: Interactions between Group I Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors and M1 Muscarinic Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Le Duigou, C.; Savary, E.; Kullmann, D M.; Miles, R.

    2015-01-01

    An anti-Hebbian form of LTP is observed at excitatory synapses made with some hippocampal interneurons. LTP induction is facilitated when postsynaptic interneurons are hyperpolarized, presumably because Ca(2+) entry through Ca(2+)-permeable glutamate receptors is enhanced. The contribution of modulatory transmitters to anti-Hebbian LTP induction remains to be established. Activation of group I metabotropic receptors (mGluRs) is required for anti-Hebbian LTP induction in interneurons with cell...

  3. Age-Related Enhancement of a Protein Synthesis-Dependent Late Phase of LTP Induced by Low Frequency Paired-Pulse Stimulation in Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-You; Kandel, Eric R.

    2006-01-01

    Protein synthesis-dependent late phase of LTP (L-LTP) is typically induced by repeated high-frequency stimulation (HFS). This form of L-LTP is reduced in the aged animal and is positively correlated with age-related memory loss. Here we report a novel form of protein synthesis-dependent late phase of LTP in the CA1 region of hippocampus induced by…

  4. Methamphetamine reduces LTP and increases baseline synaptic transmission in the CA1 region of mouse hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarod Swant

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (METH is an addictive psychostimulant whose societal impact is on the rise. Emerging evidence suggests that psychostimulants alter synaptic plasticity in the brain--which may partly account for their adverse effects. While it is known that METH increases the extracellular concentration of monoamines dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine, it is not clear how METH alters glutamatergic transmission. Within this context, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute and systemic METH on basal synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTP; an activity-induced increase in synaptic efficacy in CA1 sub-field in the hippocampus. Both the acute ex vivo application of METH to hippocampal slices and systemic administration of METH decreased LTP. Interestingly, the acute ex vivo application of METH at a concentration of 30 or 60 microM increased baseline synaptic transmission as well as decreased LTP. Pretreatment with eticlopride (D2-like receptor antagonist did not alter the effects of METH on synaptic transmission or LTP. In contrast, pretreatment with D1/D5 dopamine receptor antagonist SCH23390 or 5-HT1A receptor antagonist NAN-190 abrogated the effect of METH on synaptic transmission. Furthermore, METH did not increase baseline synaptic transmission in D1 dopamine receptor haploinsufficient mice. Our findings suggest that METH affects excitatory synaptic transmission via activation of dopamine and serotonin receptor systems in the hippocampus. This modulation may contribute to synaptic maladaption induced by METH addiction and/or METH-mediated cognitive dysfunction.

  5. REM Sleep-Dependent Bidirectional Regulation of Hippocampal-Based Emotional Memory and LTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravassard, Pascal; Hamieh, Al Mahdy; Joseph, Mickaël Antoine; Fraize, Nicolas; Libourel, Paul-Antoine; Lebarillier, Léa; Arthaud, Sébastien; Meissirel, Claire; Touret, Monique; Malleret, Gaël; Salin, Paul-Antoine

    2016-04-01

    Prolonged rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep deprivation has long been used to study the role of REM sleep in learning and memory processes. However, this method potentially induces stress and fatigue that may directly affect cognitive functions. Here, by using a short-term and nonstressful REM sleep deprivation (RSD) method we assessed in rats the bidirectional influence of reduced and increased REM sleep amount on hippocampal-dependent emotional memory and plasticity. Our results indicate that 4 h RSD impaired consolidation of contextual fear conditioning (CFC) and induction of long-term potentiation (LTP), while decreasing density of Egr1/Zif268-expressing neurons in the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus. LTP and Egr1 expression were not affected in ventral CA1. Conversely, an increase in REM sleep restores and further facilitates CFC consolidation and LTP induction, and also increases Egr1 expression in dorsal CA1. Moreover, CFC consolidation, Egr1 neuron density, and LTP amplitude in dorsal CA1 show a positive correlation with REM sleep amount. Altogether, these results indicate that mild changes in REM sleep amount bidirectionally affect memory and synaptic plasticity mechanisms occurring in the CA1 area of the dorsal hippocampus.

  6. Occlusion of LTP-like plasticity in human primary motor cortex by action observation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Lepage

    Full Text Available Passive observation of motor actions induces cortical activity in the primary motor cortex (M1 of the onlooker, which could potentially contribute to motor learning. While recent studies report modulation of motor performance following action observation, the neurophysiological mechanism supporting these behavioral changes remains to be specifically defined. Here, we assessed whether the observation of a repetitive thumb movement--similarly to active motor practice--would inhibit subsequent long-term potentiation-like (LTP plasticity induced by paired-associative stimulation (PAS. Before undergoing PAS, participants were asked to either 1 perform abductions of the right thumb as fast as possible; 2 passively observe someone else perform thumb abductions; or 3 passively observe a moving dot mimicking thumb movements. Motor evoked potentials (MEP were used to assess cortical excitability before and after motor practice (or observation and at two time points following PAS. Results show that, similarly to participants in the motor practice group, individuals observing repeated motor actions showed marked inhibition of PAS-induced LTP, while the "moving dot" group displayed the expected increase in MEP amplitude, despite differences in baseline excitability. Interestingly, LTP occlusion in the action-observation group was present even if no increase in cortical excitability or movement speed was observed following observation. These results suggest that mere observation of repeated hand actions is sufficient to induce LTP, despite the absence of motor learning.

  7. LTP and memory impairment caused by extracellular Aβ and Tau oligomers is APP-dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzzo, Daniela; Piacentini, Roberto; Fá, Mauro; Gulisano, Walter; Li Puma, Domenica D; Staniszewski, Agnes; Zhang, Hong; Tropea, Maria Rosaria; Cocco, Sara; Palmeri, Agostino; Fraser, Paul; D'Adamio, Luciano; Grassi, Claudio; Arancio, Ottavio

    2017-01-01

    The concurrent application of subtoxic doses of soluble oligomeric forms of human amyloid-beta (oAβ) and Tau (oTau) proteins impairs memory and its electrophysiological surrogate long-term potentiation (LTP), effects that may be mediated by intra-neuronal oligomers uptake. Intrigued by these findings, we investigated whether oAβ and oTau share a common mechanism when they impair memory and LTP in mice. We found that as already shown for oAβ, also oTau can bind to amyloid precursor protein (APP). Moreover, efficient intra-neuronal uptake of oAβ and oTau requires expression of APP. Finally, the toxic effect of both extracellular oAβ and oTau on memory and LTP is dependent upon APP since APP-KO mice were resistant to oAβ- and oTau-induced defects in spatial/associative memory and LTP. Thus, APP might serve as a common therapeutic target against Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and a host of other neurodegenerative diseases characterized by abnormal levels of Aβ and/or Tau. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.26991.001 PMID:28696204

  8. IgE recognition patterns of profilin, PR-10, and tropomyosin panallergens tested in 3,113 allergic patients by allergen microarray-based technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Scala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: IgE recognition of panallergens having highly conserved sequence regions, structure, and function and shared by inhalant and food allergen sources is often observed. METHODS: We evaluated the IgE recognition profile of profilins (Bet v 2, Cyn d 12, Hel a 2, Hev b 8, Mer a 1, Ole e 2, Par j 3, Phl p 12, Pho d 2, PR-10 proteins (Aln g 1, Api g 1, Bet v 1.0101, Bet v 1.0401, Cor a 1, Dau c 1 and Mal d 1.0108 and tropomyosins (Ani s 3, Der p 10, Hel as 1, Pen i 1, Pen m 1, Per a 7 using the Immuno-Solid phase Allergen Chip (ISAC microarray system. The three panallergen groups were well represented among the allergenic molecules immobilized on the ISAC. Moreover, they are distributed in several taxonomical allergenic sources, either close or distant, and have a route of exposure being either inhalation or ingestion. RESULTS: 3,113 individuals (49.9% female were selected on the basis of their reactivity to profilins, PR-10 or tropomyosins. 1,521 (48.8% patients were reactive to profilins (77.6% Mer a 1 IgE(+, 1,420 (45.6% to PR-10 (92.5% Bet v 1 IgE(+ and 632 (20.3% to tropomyosins (68% Der p 10 IgE(+. A significant direct relationship between different representative molecules within each group of panallergens was found. 2,688 patients (86.4% recognized only one out of the three distinct groups of molecules as confirmed also by hierarchical clustering analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Unless exposed to most of the allergens in the same or related allergenic sources, a preferential IgE response to distinct panallergens has been recorded. Allergen microarray IgE testing increases our knowledge of the IgE immune response and related epidemiological features within and between homologous molecules better describing the patients' immunological phenotypes.

  9. Capsaicin-induced changes in LTP in the lateral amygdala are mediated by TRPV1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Zschenderlein

    Full Text Available The transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1 channel is a well recognized polymodal signal detector that is activated by painful stimuli such as capsaicin. Here, we show that TRPV1 is expressed in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA. Despite the fact that the central amygdala displays the highest neuronal density, the highest density of TRPV1 labeled neurons was found within the nuclei of the basolateral complex of the amygdala. Capsaicin specifically changed the magnitude of long-term potentiation (LTP in the LA in brain slices of mice depending on the anesthetic (ether, isoflurane used before euthanasia. After ether anesthesia, capsaicin had a suppressive effect on LA-LTP both in patch clamp and in extracellular recordings. The capsaicin-induced reduction of LTP was completely blocked by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor L-NAME and was absent in neuronal NOS as well as in TRPV1 deficient mice. The specific antagonist of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1, AM 251, was also able to reduce the inhibitory effect of capsaicin on LA-LTP, suggesting that stimulation of TRPV1 provokes the generation of anandamide in the brain which seems to inhibit NO synthesis. After isoflurane anesthesia before euthanasia capsaicin caused a TRPV1-mediated increase in the magnitude of LA-LTP. Therefore, our results also indicate that the appropriate choice of the anesthetics used is an important consideration when brain plasticity and the action of endovanilloids will be evaluated. In summary, our results demonstrate that TRPV1 may be involved in the amygdala control of learning mechanisms.

  10. Differing presynaptic contributions to LTP and associative learning in behaving mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Madroñal

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapse is an excellent experimental model for studying the interactions between short- and long-term plastic changes taking place following high-frequency stimulation (HFS of Schaffer collaterals and during the acquisition and extinction of a classical eyeblink conditioning in behaving mice. Input/output curves and a full-range paired-pulse study enabled determining the optimal intensities and inter-stimulus intervals for evoking paired-pulse facilitation (PPF or depression (PPD at the CA3-CA1 synapse. Long-term potentiation (LTP induced by HFS lasted ≈ 10 days. HFS-induced LTP evoked an initial depression of basal PPF. Recovery of PPF baseline values was a steady and progressive process lasting ≈ 20 days, i.e., longer than the total duration of the LTP. In a subsequent series of experiments, we checked whether PPF was affected similarly during activity-dependent synaptic changes. Animals were conditioned using a trace paradigm, with a tone as a conditioned stimulus (CS and an electrical shock to the trigeminal nerve as an unconditioned stimulus (US. A pair of pulses (40 ms interval was presented to the Schaffer collateral-commissural pathway to evoke field EPSPs (fEPSPs during the CS-US interval. Basal PPF decreased steadily across conditioning sessions (i.e., in the opposite direction to that during LTP, reaching a minimum value during the 10th conditioning session. Thus, LTP and classical eyeblink conditioning share some presynaptic mechanisms, but with an opposite evolution. Furthermore, PPF and PPD might play a homeostatic role during long-term plastic changes at the CA3-CA1 synapse.

  11. Acute intracerebral treatment with amyloid-beta (1–42) alters the profile of neuronal oscillations that accompany LTP induction and results in impaired LTP in freely behaving rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalweit, Alexander Nikolai; Yang, Honghong; Colitti-Klausnitzer, Jens; Fülöp, Livia; Bozsó, Zsolt; Penke, Botond; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of amyloid plaques comprises one of the major hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In rodents, acute treatment with amyloid-beta (Aβ; 1–42) elicits immediate debilitating effects on hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). Whereas LTP contributes to synaptic information storage, information is transferred across neurons by means of neuronal oscillations. Furthermore, changes in theta-gamma oscillations, that appear during high-frequency stimulation (HFS) to induce LTP, predict whether successful LTP will occur. Here, we explored if intra-cerebral treatment with Aβ(1–42), that prevents LTP, also results in alterations of hippocampal oscillations that occur during HFS of the perforant path-dentate gyrus synapse in 6-month-old behaving rats. HFS resulted in LTP that lasted for over 24 h. In Aβ-treated animals, LTP was significantly prevented. During HFS, spectral power for oscillations below 100 Hz (δ, θ, α, β and γ) was significantly higher in Aβ-treated animals compared to controls. In addition, the trough-to-peak amplitudes of theta and gamma cycles were higher during HFS in Aβ-treated animals. We also observed a lower amount of envelope-to-signal correlations during HFS in Aβ-treated animals. Overall, the characteristic profile of theta-gamma oscillations that accompany successful LTP induction was disrupted. These data indicate that alterations in network oscillations accompany Aβ-effects on hippocampal LTP. This may comprise an underlying mechanism through which disturbances in synaptic information storage and hippocampus-dependent memory occurs in AD. PMID:25999827

  12. 漾濞大泡核桃病程相关蛋白10基因JsPR10-1的克隆与表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何华; 陈朝银; 韩青; 张南南; 葛锋; 刘迪秋

    2014-01-01

    病程相关蛋白(pathogenesisrelated protein, PR) 10的激活与积累在植物抗逆境胁迫中有非常重要的作用。根据漾濞大泡核桃(Juglans sigillata)编码PR10的EST(expressed sequence tag)序列设计引物,利用快速扩增cDNA末端技术,克隆得到PR10基因的全长cDNA序列,并命名为JsPR10-1。JsPR10-1全长cDNA为776 bp,含有483 bp的开放阅读框、74 bp 5′-非编码区以及219 bp 3′-非编码区,编码含有160个氨基酸的蛋白质。全长基因序列中含有1个124 bp的内含子。JsPR10-1编码的蛋白质与栎树(Quercus suber)、欧洲山毛榉(Fagus sylvatica)以及欧洲板栗(Castanea sativa)的PR10相似性较高,并且在PR10的系统进化树中与双子叶植物聚为一支。qRT-PCR分析结果表明,植物信号分子水杨酸、茉莉酸、乙烯以及过氧化氢处理均可诱导JsPR10-1表达。在接种胶孢炭疽菌(Colletotrichum gloeosporioides)后,JsPR10-1的表达量迅速上升并在接种8 h时达到最大值,表明JsPR10-1参与漾濞大泡核桃对胶孢炭疽菌的防卫反应。本研究为揭示漾濞大泡核桃抗性机制奠定了理论依据。

  13. The Project for a Scientific Psychology (1895): a Freudian anticipation of LTP-memory connection theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centonze, Diego; Siracusano, Alberto; Calabresi, Paolo; Bernardi, Giorgio

    2004-11-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission is considered a reliable cellular model of several forms of learning and memory. Described for the first time in 1973, this synaptic phenomenon consists in the enduring facilitation of the communication between two neurons in response to the sustained activation of the synapses by which they are interconnected. In a book of 1895 entitled Project for a Scientific Psychology, Sigmund Freud theorized about the possibility of representing memory at the synaptic level as "a permanent alteration following an event", and anticipated several crucial physiological properties of LTP. In the present article we aim at presenting Freudian theory on the functional organization of the nervous system developed in the Project, with particular respect to his ideas of the cellular bases of memory.

  14. Comparison of LTI and LTP Models for Stability Analysis of Grid Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Jun Bum; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede;

    2016-01-01

    The stability analysis of grid-connected converters have attracted increasing attentions, due to the oscillations arising in wind power plants, micro-grids, and other emerging power electronics based power systems. The modeling tool of converters thus becomes essential to faithfully reveal...... oscillations without any hidden regions. This paper presents a detailed comparison of two linearized modeling methods, which are, respectively, developed in the Linear Time-Invariant (LTI) and the Linear Time-Periodic (LTP) frameworks. The LTP model can consider the effect of frequency-coupling dynamics, which...... are occurred by the time-varying behavior, while the conventional LTI model can not capture this behavior. The advantages and limits of two models are then illustrated with examples. The compared results are verified in the frequency domain and time domain as well....

  15. Combined LTP and LTD of modulatory inputs controls neuronal processing of primary sensory inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, Brent; Zhao, Yanjun; Tzounopoulos, Thanos

    2011-07-20

    A hallmark of brain organization is the integration of primary and modulatory pathways by principal neurons. However, the pathway interactions that shape primary input processing remain unknown. We investigated this problem in mouse dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) where principal cells integrate primary, auditory nerve input with modulatory, parallel fiber input. Using a combined experimental and computational approach, we show that combined LTP and LTD of parallel fiber inputs to DCN principal cells and interneurons, respectively, broaden the time window within which synaptic inputs summate. Enhanced summation depolarizes the resting membrane potential and thus lowers the response threshold to auditory nerve inputs. Combined LTP and LTD, by preserving the variance of membrane potential fluctuations and the membrane time constant, fixes response gain and spike latency as threshold is lowered. Our data reveal a novel mechanism mediating adaptive and concomitant homeostatic regulation of distinct features of neuronal processing of sensory inputs.

  16. Isolated NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic responses express both LTP and LTD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, X; Berger, T W; Barrionuevo, G

    1992-04-01

    1. The possibility of use-dependent, long-lasting modifications of pharmacologically isolated N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated synaptic transmission was examined by intracellular recordings from granule cells of the hippocampal dentate gyrus in vitro. In the presence of the non-NMDA receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinaxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX, 10 microM) robust, long-term potentiation (LTP) of NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic potentials was induced by brief, high (50 Hz) and lower (10 Hz) frequency tetanic stimuli of glutamatergic afferents (60 +/- 6%, n = 8, P less than 0.001 and 43 +/- 12%, n = 3, P less than 0.05, respectively). 2. Hyperpolarization of granule cell membrane potential to -100 mV during 50-Hz tetanic stimuli reversibly blocked the induction of LTP (-6 +/- 2%, n = 6, P greater than 0.05) indicating that simultaneous activation of pre- and postsynaptic elements is a prerequisite for potentiation of NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission. In contrast, hyperpolarization of the granule cell membrane potential to -100 mV during 10-Hz tetanic stimuli resulted in long-term depression (LTD) of NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic potentials (-34 +/- 8%, n = 8, P less than 0.01). 3. We also studied the role of [Ca2+]i in the induction of LTP and LTD of NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic responses. Before tetanization, [Ca2+]i was buffered by iontophoretic injections of bis-(o-aminophenoxy)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA). BAPTA completely blocked the induction of LTP (3 +/- 5%, n = 13) and partially blocked LTD (-14.8 +/- 6%, n = 10).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. The Cdk5 Inhibitor Roscovitine Increases LTP Induction in Corticostriatal Synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Miranda-Barrientos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In corticostriatal synapses, LTD (long-term depression and LTP (long-term potentiation are modulated by the activation of DA (dopamine receptors, with LTD being the most common type of long-term plasticity induced using the standard stimulation protocols. In particular, activation of the D1 signaling pathway increases cAMP/PKA (protein kinase A phosphorylation activity and promotes an increase in the amplitude of glutamatergic corticostriatal synapses. However, if the Cdk5 (cyclin-dependent kinase 5 phosphorylates the DARPP-32 (dopamine and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa at Thr75, DARPP-32 becomes a strong inhibitor of PKA activity. Roscovitine is a potent Cdk5 inhibitor; it has been previously shown that acute application of Roscovitine increases striatal transmission via Cdk5/DARPP-32. Since DARPP-32 controls long-term plasticity in the striatum, we wondered whether switching off CdK5 activity with Roscovitine contributes to the induction of LTP in corticostriatal synapses. For this purpose, excitatory population spikes and whole cell EPSC (excitatory postsynaptic currents were recorded in striatal slices from C57/BL6 mice. Experiments were carried out in the presence of Roscovitine (20 μM in the recording bath. Roscovitine increased the amplitude of excitatory population spikes and the percentage of population spikes that exhibited LTP after HFS (high-frequency stimulation; 100Hz. Results obtained showed that the mechanisms responsible for LTP induction after Cdk5 inhibition involved the PKA pathway, DA and NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation, L-type calcium channels activation and the presynaptic modulation of neurotransmitter release.

  18. The Cdk5 inhibitor Roscovitine increases LTP induction in corticostriatal synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Barrientos, Jorge; Nieto-Mendoza, Elizabeth; Hernández-Echeagaray, Elizabeth

    2014-03-19

    In corticostriatal synapses, LTD (long-term depression) and LTP (long-term potentiation) are modulated by the activation of DA (dopamine) receptors, with LTD being the most common type of long-term plasticity induced using the standard stimulation protocols. In particular, activation of the D1 signaling pathway increases cAMP/PKA (protein kinase A) phosphorylation activity and promotes an increase in the amplitude of glutamatergic corticostriatal synapses. However, if the Cdk5 (cyclin-dependent kinase 5) phosphorylates the DARPP-32 (dopamine and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa) at Thr75, DARPP-32 becomes a strong inhibitor of PKA activity. Roscovitine is a potent Cdk5 inhibitor; it has been previously shown that acute application of Roscovitine increases striatal transmission via Cdk5/DARPP-32. Since DARPP-32 controls long-term plasticity in the striatum, we wondered whether switching off CdK5 activity with Roscovitine contributes to the induction of LTP in corticostriatal synapses. For this purpose, excitatory population spikes and whole cell EPSC (excitatory postsynaptic currents) were recorded in striatal slices from C57/BL6 mice. Experiments were carried out in the presence of Roscovitine (20 μM) in the recording bath. Roscovitine increased the amplitude of excitatory population spikes and the percentage of population spikes that exhibited LTP after HFS (high-frequency stimulation; 100Hz). Results obtained showed that the mechanisms responsible for LTP induction after Cdk5 inhibition involved the PKA pathway, DA and NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor activation, L-type calcium channels activation and the presynaptic modulation of neurotransmitter release.

  19. The Cdk5 inhibitor Roscovitine increases LTP induction in corticostriatal synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Miranda‑Barrientos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In corticostriatal synapses, LTD (long-term depression and LTP (long-term potentiation are modulated by the activation of DA (dopamine receptors, with LTD being the most common type of long-term plasticity induced using the standard stimulation protocols. In particular, activation of the D1 signaling pathway increases cAMP/PKA (protein kinase A phosphorylation activity and promotes an increase in the amplitude of glutamatergic corticostriatal synapses. However, if the Cdk5 (cyclin-dependent kinase 5 phosphorylates the DARPP-32 (dopamine and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa at Thr75, DARPP-32 becomes a strong inhibitor of PKA activity. Roscovitine is a potent Cdk5 inhibitor; it has been previously shown that acute application of Roscovitine increases striatal transmission via Cdk5/DARPP-32. Since DARPP-32 controls long-term plasticity in the striatum, we wondered whether switching off CdK5 activity with Roscovitine contributes to the induction of LTP in corticostriatal synapses. For this purpose, excitatory population spikes and whole cell EPSC (excitatory postsynaptic currents were recorded in striatal slices from C57/BL6 mice. Experiments were carried out in the presence of Roscovitine (20 μM in the recording bath. Roscovitine increased the amplitude of excitatory population spikes and the percentage of population spikes that exhibited LTP after HFS (high-frequency stimulation; 100Hz. Results obtained showed that the mechanisms responsible for LTP induction after Cdk5 inhibition involved the PKA pathway, DA and NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation, L-type calcium channels activation and the presynaptic modulation of neurotransmitter release.

  20. Entorhinal theta-frequency input to the dentate gyrus trisynaptically evokes hippocampal CA1 LTP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens eStepan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available There exists substantial evidence that some forms of explicit learning in mammals require long-term potentiation (LTP at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses. While CA1 LTP has been well characterized at the monosynaptic level, it still remains unclear how the afferent systems to the hippocampus can initiate formation of this neuroplastic phenomenon. Using voltage-sensitive dye imaging in a mouse brain slice preparation, we show that evoked entorhinal cortical (EC theta-frequency input to the dentate gyrus highly effectively generates waves of neuronal activity which propagate through the entire trisynaptic circuit of the hippocampus (‘HTC-Waves’. This flow of activity, which we also demonstrate in vivo, critically depends on frequency facilitation of mossy fiber to CA3 synaptic transmission. The HTC-Waves are rapidly boosted by the cognitive enhancer caffeine (5 µM and the stress hormone corticosterone (100 nM. They precisely follow the rhythm of the EC input, involve high-frequency firing (>100 Hz of CA3 pyramidal neurons, and induce NMDA receptor-dependent CA1 LTP within a few seconds. Our study provides the first experimental evidence that synchronous theta-rhythmical spiking of EC stellate cells, as occurring during EC theta oscillations, has the capacity to drive induction of CA1 LTP via the hippocampal trisynaptic pathway. Moreover, we present data pointing to a basic filter mechanism of the hippocampus regarding EC inputs and describe a methodology to reveal alterations in the ‘input-output relationship’ of the hippocampal trisynaptic circuit.

  1. mGluR5 positive allosteric modulators facilitate both hippocampal LTP and LTD and enhance spatial learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Jennifer E; Chen, Yelin; Banko, Jessica L; Sheffler, Douglas J; Williams, Richard; Telk, Alexandra N; Watson, Noreen L; Xiang, Zixiu; Zhang, Yongqin; Jones, Paulianda J; Lindsley, Craig W; Olive, M Foster; Conn, P Jeffrey

    2009-08-01

    Highly selective positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) have emerged as a potential approach to treat positive symptoms associated with schizophrenia. mGluR5 plays an important role in both long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), suggesting that mGluR5 PAMs may also have utility in improving impaired cognitive function. However, if mGluR5 PAMs shift the balance of LTP and LTD or induce a state in which afferent activity induces lasting changes in synaptic function that are not appropriate for a given pattern of activity, this could disrupt rather than enhance cognitive function. We determined the effect of selective mGluR5 PAMs on the induction of LTP and LTD at the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse in the hippocampus. mGluR5-selective PAMs significantly enhanced threshold theta-burst stimulation (TBS)-induced LTP. In addition, mGluR5 PAMs enhanced both DHPG-induced LTD and LTD induced by the delivery of paired-pulse low-frequency stimulation. Selective potentiation of mGluR5 had no effect on LTP induced by suprathreshold TBS or saturated LTP. The finding that potentiation of mGluR5-mediated responses to stimulation of glutamatergic afferents enhances both LTP and LTD and supports the hypothesis that the activation of mGluR5 by endogenous glutamate contributes to both forms of plasticity. Furthermore, two systemically active mGluR5 PAMs enhanced performance in the Morris water maze, a measure of hippocampus-dependent spatial learning. Discovery of small molecules that enhance both LTP and LTD in an activity-appropriate manner shows a unique action on synaptic plasticity that may provide a novel approach for the treatment of impaired cognitive function.

  2. The expression mechanism of the residual LTP in the CA1 region of BDNF k.o. mice is insensitive to NO synthase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessmann, Volkmar; Stroh-Kaffei, Sigrid; Steinbrecher, Violetta; Edelmann, Elke; Brigadski, Tanja; Kilb, Werner; Luhmann, Heiko J

    2011-05-19

    BDNF and nitric oxide signaling both contribute to long-term potentiation (LTP) at glutamatergic synapses, but to date, few studies analyzed the interaction of both signaling cascades in the same synaptic pathway. Here we addressed the question whether the residual LTP in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices from heterozygous BDNF knockout mice (BDNF⁺/⁻) is dependent on nitric oxide (NO) signaling. Extracellular recording of synaptic field potentials elicited by presynaptic Schaffer collateral stimulation was performed in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices of 4- to 6-week-old mice, and LTP was induced by a theta burst stimulation protocol. Application of the nitric oxide inhibitor L-NAME (200 μM) strongly inhibited LTP by 70% in wildtype animals. This inhibition of LTP was not a consequence of altered basal synaptic properties. In CA1 of BDNF⁺/⁻ mice, stimulated with the same theta burst protocol, LTP was reduced by 50% as compared to wildtype animals. This impairment in the expression of LTP in BDNF⁺/⁻ mice did not result from an increased synaptic fatigue. The residual LTP in BDNF⁺/⁻ was not further reduced by preincubation of slices with L-NAME. These results suggest that BDNF and NO share overlapping intracellular signaling cascades to mediate LTP in CA1, and part of their signaling cascades are most likely arranged consecutively in the signaling pathway mediating LTP.

  3. Automated suppression of errors in LTP-II slope measurements with x-ray optics. Part1: Review of LTP errors and methods for the error reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Zulfiqar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yashchuk, Valeriy V. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-05-11

    Systematic error and instrumental drift are the major limiting factors of sub-microradian slope metrology with state-of-the-art x-ray optics. Significant suppression of the errors can be achieved by using an optimal measurement strategy suggested in [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 115101 (2009)]. With this series of LSBL Notes, we report on development of an automated, kinematic, rotational system that provides fully controlled flipping, tilting, and shifting of a surface under test. The system is integrated into the Advanced Light Source long trace profiler, LTP-II, allowing for complete realization of the advantages of the optimal measurement strategy method. We provide details of the system’s design, operational control and data acquisition. The high performance of the system is demonstrated via the results of high precision measurements with a spherical test mirror.

  4. The spatial-temporal interaction in the LTP induction between layer IV to layer II/III and layer II/III to layer II/III connections in rats' visual cortex during the development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Da-Ke; Zhang, Chao; Gu, Yu; Zhang, She-Hong; Shi, Jian; Chen, Xian-Hua

    2017-03-20

    During the early developmental period, long-term potentiation (LTP) can be induced in both vertical and horizontal connections in the rat visual cortex. However, the temporal difference in LTP change between the two pathways during animal development remains unclear. In this study, LTP in vertical (from layer IV to layer II/III) and horizontal (from layer II/III to layer II/III) synaptic connections were recorded in brain slices from the same rats, and the developmental changes of LTP in both directions were compared within the animals' eye-opening period. The results showed that the LTP amplitudes declined to unobservable levels on P16 in the horizontal connections and on P20 in the vertical synaptic connections. Meanwhile, V-LTP (LTP induced in the vertical direction) was always stronger than H-LTP (LTP induced in the horizontal direction) under the same conditions of pairing stimulus (PS). Next, H-LTP and V-LTP were induced from the same neuron in layer II/III to determine the spatiotemporal interactions between layer II/III horizontal inputs and ascending synaptic inputs during the maturation of rat visual cortex. The data show that the weak PS, which failed to induce H-LTP alone, was able to induce H-LTP effectively while V-LTP was performed on P10. Our results suggest that V-LTP can strengthen H-LTP induction in the visual cortex during the early developmental period. In contrast, the regulatory effect of H-LTP on V-LTP was much weaker.

  5. Elevation of endogenous anandamide impairs LTP, learning, and memory through CB1 receptor signaling in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavarajappa, Balapal S; Nagre, Nagaraja N; Xie, Shan; Subbanna, Shivakumar

    2014-07-01

    In rodents, many exogenous and endogenous cannabinoids, such as anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonyl glycerol (2-AG), have been shown to play an important role in certain hippocampal memory processes. However, the mechanisms by which endogenous AEA regulate this processes are not well understood. Here the effects of AEA on long-term potentiation (LTP), hippocampal-dependent learning and memory tasks, pERK1/2, pCaMKIV, and pCREB signaling events in both cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R) wild-type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice were assessed following administration of URB597, an inhibitor of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Acute administration of URB597 enhanced AEA levels without affecting the levels of 2-AG or CB1R in the hippocampus and neocortex as compared to vehicle. In hippocampal slices, URB597 impaired LTP in CB1R WT but not in KO littermates. URB597 impaired object recognition, spontaneous alternation and spatial memory in the Y-maze test in CB1R WT mice but not in KO mice. Furthermore, URB597 enhanced ERK phosphorylation in WT without affecting total ERK levels in WT or KO mice. URB597 impaired CaMKIV and CREB phosphorylation in WT but not in KO mice. CB1R KO mice have a lower pCaMKIV/CaMKIV ratio and higher pCREB/CREB ratio as compared to WT littermates. Our results indicate that pharmacologically elevated AEA impair LTP, learning and memory and inhibit CaMKIV and CREB phosphorylation, via the activation of CB1Rs. Collectively, these findings also suggest that pharmacological elevation of AEA beyond normal concentrations is also detrimental for the underlying physiological responses.

  6. LTP-like plasticity in the visual system and in the motor system appear related in young and healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eKlöppel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available LTP-like plasticity measured by visual evoked potentials (VEP can be induced in the intact human brain by presenting checkerboard reversals. Also associated with LTP-like plasticity, around two third of participants respond to transcranial magnetic stimulation with a paired-associate stimulation (PAS protocol with a potentiation of their motor evoked potentials. LTP-like processes are also required for verbal and motor learning tasks. We compared effect sizes, responder rates and intercorrelations as well as the potential influence of attention between these four assessments in a group of 37 young and healthy volunteers. We observed a potentiation effect of the N75 and P100 VEP component which positively correlated with plasticity induced by PAS. Subjects with a better subjective alertness were more likely to show PAS and VEP potentiation. No correlation was found between the other assessments. Effect sizes and responder rates of VEP potentiation were higher compared to PAS. Our results indicate a high variability of LTP-like effects and no evidence for a system-specific nature. As a consequence, studies wishing to assess individual levels of LTP-like plasticity should employ a combination of multiple assessments.

  7. Peri-Synaptic Glia Recycles Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor for LTP Stabilization and Memory Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignoli, Beatrice; Battistini, Giulia; Melani, Riccardo; Blum, Robert; Santi, Spartaco; Berardi, Nicoletta; Canossa, Marco

    2016-11-23

    Glial cells respond to neuronal activation and release neuroactive molecules (termed "gliotransmitters") that can affect synaptic activity and modulate plasticity. In this study, we used molecular genetic tools, ultra-structural microscopy, and electrophysiology to assess the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on cortical gliotransmission in vivo. We find that glial cells recycle BDNF that was previously secreted by neurons as pro-neurotrophin following long-term potentiation (LTP)-inducing electrical stimulation. Upon BDNF glial recycling, we observed tight, temporal, highly localized TrkB phosphorylation on adjacent neurons, a process required to sustain LTP. Engagement of BDNF recycling by astrocytes represents a novel mechanism by which cortical synapses can expand BDNF action and provide synaptic changes that are relevant for the acquisition of new memories. Accordingly, mice deficient in BDNF glial recycling fail to recognize familiar from novel objects, indicating a physiological requirement for this process in memory consolidation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. LTP is accompanied by an enhanced local excitability of pyramidal neuron dendrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Andreas; Magee, Jeffrey; Johnston, Daniel

    2004-02-01

    The propagation and integration of signals in the dendrites of pyramidal neurons is regulated, in part, by the distribution and biophysical properties of voltage-gated ion channels. It is thus possible that any modification of these channels in a specific part of the dendritic tree might locally alter these signaling processes. Using dendritic and somatic whole-cell recordings, combined with calcium imaging in rat hippocampal slices, we found that the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) was accompanied by a local increase in dendritic excitability that was dependent on the activation of NMDA receptors. These changes favored the back-propagation of action potentials into this dendritic region with a subsequent boost in the Ca(2+) influx. Dendritic cell-attached patch recordings revealed a hyperpolarized shift in the inactivation curve of transient, A-type K(+) currents that can account for the enhanced excitability. These results suggest an important mechanism associated with LTP for shaping signal processing and controlling dendritic function.

  9. Performance of the upgraded LTP-II at the ALS Optical Metrology Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Advanced Light Source; Yashchuk, Valeriy V; Kirschman, Jonathan L.; Domning, Edward E.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Morrison, Gregory Y.; Smith, Brian V.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2008-07-14

    The next generation of synchrotrons and free electron laser facilities requires x-ray optical systems with extremely high performance, generally of diffraction limited quality. Fabrication and use of such optics requires adequate, highly accurate metrology and dedicated instrumentation. Previously, we suggested ways to improve the performance of the Long Trace Profiler (LTP), a slope measuring instrument widely used to characterize x-ray optics at long spatial wavelengths. The main way is use of a CCD detector and corresponding technique for calibration of photo-response non-uniformity [J. L. Kirschman, et al., Proceedings of SPIE 6704, 67040J (2007)]. The present work focuses on the performance and characteristics of the upgraded LTP-II at the ALS Optical Metrology Laboratory. This includes a review of the overall aspects of the design, control system, the movement and measurement regimes for the stage, and analysis of the performance by a slope measurement of a highly curved super-quality substrate with less than 0.3 microradian (rms)slope variation.

  10. Non-linear parameter estimation for the LTP experiment: analysis of an operational exercise

    CERN Document Server

    Congedo, G; Ferraioli, L; Hueller, M; Vitale, S; Hewitson, M; Nofrarias, M; Monsky, A; Armano, M; Grynagier, A; Diaz-Aguilo, M; Plagnol, E; Rais, B

    2011-01-01

    The precursor ESA mission LISA-Pathfinder, to be flown in 2013, aims at demonstrating the feasibility of the free-fall, necessary for LISA, the upcoming space-born gravitational wave observatory. LISA Technology Package (LTP) is planned to carry out a number of experiments, whose main targets are to identify and measure the disturbances on each test-mass, in order to reach an unprecedented low-level residual force noise. To fulfill this plan, it is then necessary to correctly design, set-up and optimize the experiments to be performed on-flight and do a full system parameter estimation. Here we describe the progress on the non-linear analysis using the methods developed in the framework of the \\textit{LTPDA Toolbox}, an object-oriented MATLAB Data Analysis environment: the effort is to identify the critical parameters and remove the degeneracy by properly combining the results of different experiments coming from a closed-loop system like LTP.

  11. The LTP Experiment on LISA Pathfinder: Operational Definition of TT Gauge in Space

    CERN Document Server

    Armano, Michele

    2011-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are planning the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission in order to detect GW. The need of accurate testing of free-fall and knowledge of noise in a space environment similar to LISA's is considered mandatory a pre-phase for the project. Therefore the LISA Pathfinder mission has been designed by ESA to fly the LISA Technology Package (LTP), aiming at testing free-fall by measuring the residual acceleration between two test-bodies in the dynamical scheme we address as "drag-free". The spectral map of the residual acceleration as function of frequency will convey information on the local noise level, thus producing a picture of the environmental working conditions for LISA itself. The thesis contains abundant material on the problem of compensating static gravity, the development of a theory of orthogonalization of reference and cross-talk for the LTP experiment. The construction of the laser detection proced...

  12. Dynamic Arc SUMOylation and Selective Interaction with F-Actin-Binding Protein Drebrin A in LTP Consolidation In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Rajeevkumar R.; Patil, Sudarshan; Tiron, Adrian; Kanhema, Tambudzai; Panja, Debabrata; Schiro, Lars; Parobczak, Kamil; Wilczynski, Grzegorz; Bramham, Clive R.

    2017-01-01

    Activity-regulatedcytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) protein is implicated as a master regulator of long-term forms of synaptic plasticity and memory formation, but the mechanisms controlling Arc protein function are little known. Post-translation modification by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteins has emerged as a major mechanism for regulating protein-protein interactions and function. We first show in cell lines that ectopically expressed Arc undergoes mono-SUMOylation. The covalent addition of a single SUMO1 protein was confirmed by in vitro SUMOylation of immunoprecipitated Arc. To explore regulation of endogenous Arc during synaptic plasticity, we induced long-term potentiation (LTP) in the dentate gyrus of live anesthetized rats. Using coimmunoprecipitation of native proteins, we show that Arc synthesized during the maintenance phase of LTP undergoes dynamic mono-SUMO1-ylation. Levels of unmodified Arc increase in multiple subcellular fractions (cytosol, membrane, nuclear and cytoskeletal), whereas enhanced Arc SUMOylation was specific to the synaptoneurosomal and the cytoskeletal fractions. Dentate gyrus LTP consolidation requires a period of sustained Arc synthesis driven by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling. Local infusion of the BDNF scavenger, TrkB-Fc, during LTP maintenance resulted in rapid reversion of LTP, inhibition of Arc synthesis and loss of enhanced Arc SUMO1ylation. Furthermore, coimmunoprecipitation analysis showed that SUMO1-ylated Arc forms a complex with the F-actin-binding protein drebrin A, a major regulator of cytoskeletal dynamics in dendritic spines. Although Arc also interacted with dynamin 2, calcium/calmodulindependentprotein kinase II-beta (CaMKIIβ), and postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95), these complexes lacked SUMOylated Arc. The results support a model in which newly synthesized Arc is SUMOylated and targeted for actin cytoskeletal regulation during in vivo LTP. PMID:28553222

  13. Dopamine Transporter Blockade Increases LTP in the CA1 Region of the Rat Hippocampus via Activation of the D3 Dopamine Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swant, Jarod; Wagner, John J.

    2006-01-01

    Dopamine has been demonstrated to be involved in the modulation of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. As monoamine transporter blockade will increase the actions of endogenous monoamine neurotransmitters, the effect of a dopamine transporter (DAT) antagonist on LTP was assessed using field excitatory postsynaptic…

  14. Acute and chronic interference with BDNF/TrkB-signaling impair LTP selectively at mossy fiber synapses in the CA3 region of mouse hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildt, Sandra; Endres, Thomas; Lessmann, Volkmar; Edelmann, Elke

    2013-08-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling via TrkB crucially regulates synaptic plasticity in the brain. Although BDNF is abundant at hippocampal mossy fiber (MF) synapses, which critically contribute to hippocampus dependent memory, its role in MF synaptic plasticity (long-term potentiation, LTP) remained largely unclear. Using field potential recordings in CA3 of adult heterozygous BDNF knockout (ko, BDNF+/-) mice we observed impaired (∼50%) NMDAR-independent MF-LTP. In contrast to MF synapses, LTP at neighboring associative/commissural (A/C) fiber synapses remained unaffected. To exclude that impaired MF-LTP in BDNF+/- mice was due to developmental changes in response to chronically reduced BDNF levels, and to prove the importance of acute availability of BDNF in MF-LTP, we also tested effects of acute interference with BDNF/TrkB signaling. Inhibition of TrkB tyrosine kinase signaling with k252a, or with the selective BDNF scavenger TrkB-Fc, both inhibited MF-LTP to the same extent as observed in BDNF+/- mice. Basal synaptic transmission, short-term plasticity, and synaptic fatigue during LTP induction were not significantly altered by treatment with k252a or TrkB-Fc, or by chronic BDNF reduction in BDNF+/- mice. Since the acute interference with BDNF-signaling did not completely block MF-LTP, our results provide evidence that an additional mechanism besides BDNF induced TrkB signaling contributes to this type of LTP. Our results prove for the first time a mechanistic action of acute BDNF/TrkB signaling in presynaptic expression of MF-LTP in adult hippocampus.

  15. D1/D5 Receptors and Histone Deacetylation Mediate the Gateway Effect of LTP in Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-You; Lavine, Amir; Kandel, Denise B.; Yin, Deqi; Colnaghi, Luca; Drisaldi, Bettina; Kandel, Eric R.

    2014-01-01

    The dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus is critical for spatial memory and is also thought to be involved in the formation of drug-related associative memory. Here, we attempt to test an aspect of the Gateway Hypothesis, by studying the effect of consecutive exposure to nicotine and cocaine on long-term synaptic potentiation (LTP) in the DG. We…

  16. Coordinate High-Frequency Pattern of Stimulation and Calcium Levels Control the Induction of LTP in Striatal Cholinergic Interneurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsi, Paola; De Persis, Cristiano; Calabresi, Paolo; Bernardi, Giorgio; Pisani, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    Current evidence appoints a central role to cholinergic interneurons in modulating striatal function. Recently, a long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission has been reported to occur in these neurons. The relationship between the pattern of cortico/thalamostriatal fibers stimulation, the consequent changes in the intracellular calcium…

  17. Extracellular and intracellular cleavages of proBDNF required at two distinct stages of late-phase LTP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Petti T.; Nagappan, Guhan; Guo, Wei; Lu, Bai

    2016-05-01

    Although late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) is implicated in long-term memory, its molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we provide evidence that L-LTP can be divided into two stages: an induction stage (I) and a maintenance stage (II). Both stages require mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (mBDNF), but involve distinct underlying mechanisms. Stage I requires secretion of existing proBDNF followed by extracellular cleavage by tPA/plasmin. Stage II depends on newly synthesized BDNF. Surprisingly, mBDNF at stage II is derived from intracellular cleavage of proBDNF by furin/PC1. Moreover, stage I involves BDNF-TrkB signaling mainly through MAP kinase, whereas all three signaling pathways (phospholipase C-γ, PI3 kinase, and MAP kinase) are required for the maintenance of L-LTP at stage II. These results reveal the molecular basis for two temporally distinct stages in L-LTP, and provide insights on how BDNF modulates this long-lasting synaptic alternation at two critical time windows.

  18. Switching off LTP: mGlu and NMDA receptor-dependent novelty exploration-induced depotentiation in the rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yingjie; Hu, Neng-Wei; Rowan, Michael J

    2013-04-01

    Both electrically induced synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression have been extensively studied as models of the cellular basis of learning and memory mechanisms. Recently, considerable interest has been generated by the possibility that the activity-dependent persistent reversal of previously established synaptic LTP (depotentiation) may play a role in the time- and state-dependent erasure of memory. Here, we examined the requirement for glutamate receptor activation in experience-induced reversal of previously established LTP in the CA1 area of the hippocampus of freely behaving rats. Continuous exploration of non-aversive novelty for ~30 min, which was associated with hippocampal activation as measured by increased theta power in the electroencephalogram, triggered a rapid and persistent reversal of high frequency stimulation-induced LTP both at apical and basal synapses. Blockade of metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors with mGlu5 subtype-selective antagonists, or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors with GluN2B subunit-selective antagonists, prevented novelty-induced depotentiation. These findings strongly indicate that activation of both mGlu5 receptors and GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors is required for experience-triggered induction of depotentiation at CA3-CA1 synapses. The mechanistic concordance of the present and previous studies of experience-induced and electrically induced synaptic depotentiation helps to integrate our understanding of the neurophysiological underpinnings of learning and memory.

  19. D1/D5 Receptors and Histone Deacetylation Mediate the Gateway Effect of LTP in Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-You; Lavine, Amir; Kandel, Denise B.; Yin, Deqi; Colnaghi, Luca; Drisaldi, Bettina; Kandel, Eric R.

    2014-01-01

    The dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus is critical for spatial memory and is also thought to be involved in the formation of drug-related associative memory. Here, we attempt to test an aspect of the Gateway Hypothesis, by studying the effect of consecutive exposure to nicotine and cocaine on long-term synaptic potentiation (LTP) in the DG. We…

  20. Blockade of intracellular Zn2+ signaling in the dentate gyrus erases recognition memory via impairment of maintained LTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamano, Haruna; Minamino, Tatsuya; Fujii, Hiroaki; Takada, Shunsuke; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Ando, Masaki; Takeda, Atsushi

    2015-08-01

    There is no evidence on the precise role of synaptic Zn2+ signaling on the retention and recall of recognition memory. On the basis of the findings that intracellular Zn2+ signaling in the dentate gyrus is required for object recognition, short-term memory, the present study deals with the effect of spatiotemporally blocking Zn2+ signaling in the dentate gyrus after LTP induction and learning. Three-day-maintained LTP was impaired 1 day after injection of clioquinol into the dentate gyrus, which transiently reduced intracellular Zn2+ signaling in the dentate gyrus. The irreversible impairment was rescued not only by co-injection of ZnCl2 , which ameliorated the loss of Zn2+ signaling, but also by pre-injection of Jasplakinolide, a stabilizer of F-actin, prior to clioquinol injection. Simultaneously, 3-day-old space recognition memory was impaired 1 day after injection of clioquinol into the dentate gyrus, but not by pre-injection of Jasplakinolide. Jasplakinolide also rescued both impairments of 3-day-maintained LTP and 3-day-old memory after injection of ZnAF-2DA into the dentate gyrus, which blocked intracellular Zn2+ signaling in the dentate gyrus. The present paper indicates that the blockade and/or loss of intracellular Zn2+ signaling in the dentate gyrus coincidently impair maintained LTP and recognition memory. The mechanism maintaining LTP via intracellular Zn2+ signaling in dentate granule cells, which may be involved in the formation of F-actin, may retain space recognition memory. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Chronic nicotine treatment reverses hypothyroidism-induced impairment of L-LTP induction phase: critical role of CREB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, K H; Alkadhi, K A

    2014-06-01

    We have previously shown that adult onset hypothyroidism impairs late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) and reduces basal protein levels of cyclic-AMP response element binding protein (CREB), mutagen-activated protein kinase (MAPKp42/44), and calcium calmodulin kinase IV (CaMKIV) in area Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA1) of the hippocampus. These changes were reversed by chronic nicotine treatment. In the present study, levels of signaling molecules important for L-LTP were determined in CA1 area of the hippocampus during the induction phase. Standard multiple high-frequency stimulation (MHFS) was used to evoke L-LTP in the CA1 area of the hippocampus of hypothyroid, nicotine-treated hypothyroid, nicotine, and sham control anaesthetized adult rats. Chronic nicotine treatment reversed hypothyroidism-induced impairment of L-LTP at the induction phase. Five minutes after MHFS, Western blotting showed an increase in the levels of P-CREB, and P-MAPKp42/44 in sham-operated control, nicotine, and nicotine-treated hypothyroid animals, but not in hypothyroid animals. The protein levels of total CREB, total MAPK p42/44, BDNF, and CaMKIV were not altered in all groups 5 min after MHFS. Therefore, normalized phosphorylation of essential kinases such as P-CREB and P-MAPK p42/44 in the CA1 area of nicotine-treated hypothyroid animals plays a crucial role in nicotine-induced rescue of L-LTP induction during hypothyroidism.

  2. Redistribution of ionotropic glutamate receptors detected by laser microdissection of the rat dentate gyrus 48 h following LTP induction in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T T Kennard

    Full Text Available The persistence and input specificity of long-term potentiation (LTP make it attractive as a mechanism of information storage. In its initial phase, both in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that LTP is associated with increased membrane localization of AMPA receptor subunits, but the molecular basis of LTP maintenance over the long-term is still unclear. We have previously shown that expression of AMPA and NMDA receptor subunits is elevated in whole homogenates prepared from dentate gyrus 48 h after LTP induction in vivo. In the present study, we utilized laser microdissection (LMD techniques to determine whether AMPA and NMDA receptor upregulation occurs specifically in the stimulated regions of the dentate gyrus dendritic arbor. Receptor proteins GluN1, GluA1 and GluA2, as well as postsynaptic density protein of 95 kDa and tubulin were detected by Western blot analysis in microdissected samples. Gradients of expression were observed for GluN1 and GluA2, decreasing from the inner to the outer zones of the molecular layer, and were independent of LTP. When induced at medial perforant path synapses, LTP was associated with an apparent specific redistribution of GluA1 and GluN1 to the middle molecular layer that contains these synapses. These data indicate that glutamate receptor proteins are delivered specifically to dendritic regions possessing LTP-expressing synapses, and that these changes are preserved for at least 48 h.

  3. Enhanced tolerance of transgenic potato plants over-expressing non-specific lipid transfer protein-1 (StnsLTP1 against multiple abiotic stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baniekal Hiremath Gangadhar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses such as heat, drought and salinity are major environmental constraints that limit potato (Solanum tuberosum L. production worldwide. Previously, we found a potential thermo-tolerance gene, named StnsLTP1 from potato using yeast functional screening. Here, we report the functional characterization of StnsLTP1 and its role in multiple abiotic stresses in potato plants. Computational analysis of StnsLTP1 with other plant LTPs showed eight conserved cysteine residues, and four α-helices stabilized by four disulfide bridges. Expression analysis of StnsLTP1 gene showed differential expression under heat, water-deficit and salt stresses. Transgenic potato lines over-expressing StnsLTP1 gene displayed enhanced cell membrane integrity under stress conditions, as indicated by reduced membrane lipid per-oxidation, and hydrogen peroxide content relative to untransformed (UT control plants. In addition, transgenic lines over-expressing StLTP1 also exhibited increased antioxidant enzyme activity with enhanced accumulation of ascorbates, and up-regulation of stress-related genes including StAPX, StCAT, StSOD, StHsfA3, StHSP70, and StsHSP20 compared with the UT plants. These results suggests that StnsLTP1 transgenic plants acquired improved tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses through enhanced activation of antioxidative defense mechanisms via cyclic scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS and regulated expression of stress-related genes.

  4. Differential effects of strain, circadian cycle, and stimulation pattern on LTP and concurrent LTD in the dentate gyrus of freely moving rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Jared B; Abraham, Wickliffe C; Harris, Kristen M

    2012-06-01

    Because long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) are thought to be involved in learning and memory, it is important to delineate factors that modulate their induction and persistence, especially as studied in freely moving animals. Here, we investigated the effects of rat strain, circadian cycle, and high-frequency stimulation (HFS) pattern on LTP and concurrently induced LTD in the dentate gyrus (DG). Comparison of two commonly used rat strains revealed that medial perforant path field EPSP-population spike (E-S) coupling and LTP were greater in Long-Evans than Sprague-Dawley rats. Circadian cycle experiments conducted in Long-Evans rats revealed greater E-S coupling and enhanced LTP during the dark phase. Interestingly, concurrent LTD in the lateral perforant path did not significantly differ across strains or circadian cycle. Testing HFS protocols during the dark phase revealed that theta burst stimulation (100 Hz bursts at 5 Hz intervals) was ineffective in eliciting either LTP or concurrent LTD in DG, whereas 400 Hz bursts delivered at theta (5 Hz) or delta (1 Hz) frequencies produced substantial LTP and concurrent LTD. Thus, these natural and experimental factors regulate granule cell excitability, and differentially affect LTP and concurrent LTD in the DG of freely moving rats. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. LTP与PTSD发病机制的相关性及研究进展%The relationship and research progress of the LTP with the pathogenesis of PTSD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨姝; 石玉秀

    2011-01-01

    创伤后应激障碍(Post-traumatic stress disorder,PTSD)是由于异常威胁性或灾难性心理创伤导致延迟出现和长期持续的精神障碍.长时程增强(Long term potentiation,LTP)是目前公认的代表学习记忆功能的电生理指标.LTP受体主要分为NMDA型和非NMDA型,LTP相关酶类及营养物质在LTP的形成及维持过程中起重要作用.在恐惧条件反射的形成过程中,其神经网络内(如杏仁核等)发生LTP,表明LTP是反应PTSD发生机制的重要指标.因此,通过研究影响LTP发生及维持的因素,可能进而推测出治疗PTSD的方法.%Post-traumatic stress disorder(PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that can develop after exposure to one or more traumatic events threatened or caused grave physical harm. Long term potentiation (LTP) is widely recognized as the electrophysiological parameter which represents learning and memory function. The receptors of LTP are divided into NMDA receptor type and non-NMDA-type, LTP-related enzymes and nutrients may play an important role in the formation and maintenance of LTP in the process. In fear conditioning, the formation of LTP in the neural network (such as the amygdala,etc.) indicates that LTP is an important indicator for the occurrence of PTSD. Therefore, study of the impact of the occurrence and maintenance factors of LTP may thus speculate ways to treat PTSD.

  6. The lipid transfer proteins (LTP) essentially concentrate in the skin of Rosaceae fruits as cell surface exposed allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, J-P; Jauneau, A; Brulé, C; Culerrier, R; Barre, A; Didier, A; Rougé, P

    2006-10-01

    The localization and distribution of non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTP) allergens in the skin and pulp of Rosaceae fruits (apple, peach, apricot, plum) has been investigated. nsLTP essentially concentrate in the pericarp of the fruits whereas the pulp contains lower amounts of allergens. Immunolocalization showed they are primarily located in the cytosol but are subsequently excreted and finally accumulate at the plasmalemma-cell wall interface and in the cell wall. However, high discrepancies were observed in the content of allergens among, e.g. different cultivars of apple. As a consequence, the consumption of peeled-off fruits is recommended to reduce the risk of severe allergic reactions (anaphylactic shock) in individuals sensitized to Rosaceae fruits.

  7. Barley lipid transfer protein, LTP1, contains a new type of lipid-like post-translational modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Lerche, Mathilde H.; Poulsen, Flemming Martin

    2001-01-01

    the formation of cutin and involvement in stress and pathogen responses, but there is yet no direct demonstration of an in vivo function. We have found and characterized a novel post-translational modification of the barley nonspecific lipid transfer protein, LTP1. The protein-modification bond is of a new type...... in which an aspartic acid in LTP1 is bound to the modification through what most likely is an ester bond. The chemical structure of the modification has been characterized by means of two-dimensional homo- and heteronuclear nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as well as mass spectrometry and is found...... to be lipid-like in nature. The modification does not resemble any standard lipid post-translational modification but is similar to a compound with known antimicrobial activity....

  8. Weakened Intracellular Zn(2+)-Buffering in the Aged Dentate Gyrus and Its Involvement in Erasure of Maintained LTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Atsushi; Tamano, Haruna; Murakami, Taku; Nakada, Hiroyuki; Minamino, Tatsuya; Koike, Yuta

    2017-05-25

    Memory is lost by the increased influx of extracellular Zn(2+) into neurons. It is possible that intracellular Zn(2+) dynamics is modified even at non-zincergic medial perforant pathway-dentate granule cell synapses along with aging and that vulnerability to the modification is linked to age-related cognitive decline. To examine these possibilities, vulnerability of long-term potentiation (LTP) maintenance, which underlies memory retention, to modification of synaptic Zn(2+) dynamics was compared between young and aged rats. The influx of extracellular Zn(2+) into dentate granule cells was increased in aged rats after injection of high K(+) into the dentate gyrus, but not in young rats. This increase impaired maintained LTP in aged rats. However, the impairment was rescued by co-injection of CaEDTA, an extracellular Zn(2+) chelator, or CNQX, an AMPA receptor antagonist, which suppressed the Zn(2+) influx. Maintained LTP was also impaired in aged rats after injection of ZnAF-2DA into the dentate gyrus that chelates intracellular Zn(2+), but not in young rats. Interestingly, the capacity of chelating intracellular Zn(2+) with intracellular ZnAF-2 was almost lost in the aged dentate gyrus 2 h after injection of ZnAF-2DA into the dentate gyrus, suggesting that intracellular Zn(2+)-buffering is weakened in the aged dentate gyrus, compared to the young dentate gyrus. In the dentate gyrus of aged rats, maintained LTP is more vulnerable to modification of intracellular Zn(2+) dynamics than in young rats, probably due to weakened intracellular Zn(2+)-buffering.

  9. Identification of a 49-bp fragment of the HvLTP2 promoter directing aleurone cell specific expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opsahl-Sorteberg, Hilde-Gunn; Divon, Hege Hvattum; Nielsen, Peter Stein; Kalla, Roger; Hammond-Kosack, Michael; Shimamoto, Ko; Kohli, Ajay

    2004-10-27

    Identification of regulatory elements directing definite and specific spatiotemporal expression patterns is a prerequisite to the next generation of transgenic plants with commercial and ethical feasibility for producing plantibodies or other pharmaceutically important compounds. Here we describe the functional dissection of the barley nonspecific lipid transfer protein gene promoter, HvLTP2. The gene is specifically expressed in aleurone cells of cereals and used as an aleurone marker in maize and rice. The transcript is uniformly localised in the barley aleurone cells from around 10 DAP. Patchy expression in aleurone cells of transgenic rice has been reported and explained by silencing of transgenes. We have performed deletion analyses of the 801-bp HvLTP2 promoter to gain insight into the molecular basis of its regulation and the presence of putative regulatory elements. From the deletion studies, a 49-bp promoter region directing aleurone-specific expression was identified. Simultaneously, in vivo footprinting was carried out to identify promoter elements bound by putative regulatory proteins. Within the 49-bp fragment, the most promising candidate for a minimal cis-acting regulatory region directing aleurone specificity is the ds-sequence. Based on our results, we hypothesise that the ds-sequence directs aleurone specificity, possibly through a concerted action with elements directing general expression in the seed. Moreover, we present an overview of LTP2 elements putatively involved in directing seed, endosperm, and aleurone expression. Additionally, we report HvLTP2 expression in the embryo, not previously detected. The regulatory element(s) directing expression in embryo is located downstream of the 49-bp fragment directing aleurone specificity, thus demonstrating independent control of aleurone and embryo-localised expression. Finally, we discuss the existence of several endosperm-specific boxes and whether alternative promoter elements and combinations

  10. LTP at Hilar Mossy Cell-Dentate Granule Cell Synapses Modulates Dentate Gyrus Output by Increasing Excitation/Inhibition Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimotodani, Yuki; Nasrallah, Kaoutsar; Jensen, Kyle R; Chávez, Andrés E; Carrera, Daniel; Castillo, Pablo E

    2017-08-16

    Excitatory hilar mossy cells (MCs) in the dentate gyrus receive inputs from dentate granule cells (GCs) and project back to GCs locally, contralaterally, and along the longitudinal axis of the hippocampus, thereby establishing an associative positive-feedback loop and connecting functionally diverse hippocampal areas. MCs also synapse with GABAergic interneurons that mediate feed-forward inhibition onto GCs. Surprisingly, although these circuits have been implicated in both memory formation (e.g., pattern separation) and temporal lobe epilepsy, little is known about activity-dependent plasticity of their synaptic connections. Here, we report that MC-GC synapses undergo a presynaptic, NMDA-receptor-independent form of long-term potentiation (LTP) that requires postsynaptic brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/TrkB and presynaptic cyclic AMP (cAMP)/PKA signaling. This LTP is input specific and selectively expressed at MC-GC synapses, but not at the disynaptic inhibitory loop. By increasing the excitation/inhibition balance, MC-GC LTP enhances GC output at the associative MC-GC recurrent circuit and may contribute to dentate-dependent forms of learning and epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Autonomous CaMKII Mediates Both LTP and LTD Using a Mechanism for Differential Substrate Site Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Coultrap

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP of synaptic strength requires Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII and other kinases, whereas long-term depression (LTD requires phosphatases. Here, we found that LTD also requires CaMKII and its phospho-T286-induced “autonomous” (Ca2+-independent activity. However, whereas LTP is known to induce phosphorylation of the AMPA-type glutamate receptor (AMPAR subunit GluA1 at S831, LTD instead induced CaMKII-mediated phosphorylation at S567, a site known to reduce synaptic GluA1 localization. GluA1 S831 phosphorylation by “autonomous” CaMKII was further stimulated by Ca2+/CaM, as expected for traditional substrates. By contrast, GluA1 S567 represents a distinct substrate class that is unaffected by such stimulation. This differential regulation caused GluA1 S831 to be favored by LTP-type stimuli (strong but brief, whereas GluA1 S567 was favored by LTD-type stimuli (weak but prolonged. Thus, requirement of autonomous CaMKII in opposing forms of plasticity involves distinct substrate classes that are differentially regulated to enable stimulus-dependent substrate-site preference.

  12. Removal of FKBP12 enhances mTOR-Raptor interactions, LTP, memory, and perseverative/repetitive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeffer, Charles A; Tang, Wei; Wong, Helen; Santillan, Arturo; Patterson, Richard J; Martinez, Luis A; Tejada-Simon, Maria V; Paylor, Richard; Hamilton, Susan L; Klann, Eric

    2008-12-10

    FK506-binding protein 12 (FKBP12) binds the immunosuppressant drugs FK506 and rapamycin and regulates several signaling pathways, including mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. We determined whether the brain-specific disruption of the FKBP12 gene in mice altered mTOR signaling, synaptic plasticity, and memory. Biochemically, the FKBP12-deficient mice displayed increases in basal mTOR phosphorylation, mTOR-Raptor interactions, and p70 S6 kinase (S6K) phosphorylation. Electrophysiological experiments revealed that FKBP12 deficiency was associated with an enhancement in long-lasting hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). The LTP enhancement was resistant to rapamycin, but not anisomycin, suggesting that altered translation control is involved in the enhanced synaptic plasticity. Behaviorally, FKBP12 conditional knockout (cKO) mice displayed enhanced contextual fear memory and autistic/obsessive-compulsive-like perseveration in several assays including the water maze, Y-maze reversal task, and the novel object recognition test. Our results indicate that FKBP12 plays a critical role in the regulation of mTOR-Raptor interactions, LTP, memory, and perseverative behaviors.

  13. Wild-Type, but Not Mutant N296H, Human Tau Restores Aβ-Mediated Inhibition of LTP in Tau−/− mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Vargas-Caballero

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Microtubule associated protein tau (MAPT is involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and many forms of frontotemporal dementia (FTD. We recently reported that Aβ-mediated inhibition of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP in mice requires tau. Here, we asked whether expression of human MAPT can restore Aβ-mediated inhibition on a mouse Tau−/− background and whether human tau with an FTD-causing mutation (N296H can interfere with Aβ-mediated inhibition of LTP. We used transgenic mouse lines each expressing the full human MAPT locus using bacterial artificial chromosome technology. These lines expressed all six human tau protein isoforms on a Tau−/− background. We found that the human wild-type MAPT H1 locus was able to restore Aβ42-mediated impairment of LTP. In contrast, Aβ42 did not reduce LTP in slices in two independently generated transgenic lines expressing tau protein with the mutation N296H associated with frontotemporal dementia (FTD. Basal phosphorylation of tau measured as the ratio of AT8/Tau5 immunoreactivity was significantly reduced in N296H mutant hippocampal slices. Our data show that human MAPT is able to restore Aβ42-mediated inhibition of LTP in Tau−/− mice. These results provide further evidence that tau protein is central to Aβ-induced LTP impairment and provide a valuable tool for further analysis of the links between Aβ, human tau and impairment of synaptic function.

  14. Changes in Neuronal Oscillations Accompany the Loss of Hippocampal LTP that Occurs in an Animal Model of Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalweit, Alexander N.; Amanpour-Gharaei, Bezhad; Colitti-Klausnitzer, Jens; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2017-01-01

    The first-episode of psychosis is followed by a transient time-window of ca. 60 days during which therapeutic interventions have a higher likelihood of being effective than interventions that are started with a greater latency. This suggests that, in the immediate time-period after first-episode psychosis, functional changes occur in the brain that render it increasingly resistant to intervention. The precise mechanistic nature of these changes is unclear, but at the cognitive level, sensory and hippocampus-based dysfunctions become increasingly manifest. In an animal model of first-episode psychosis that comprises acute treatment of rats with the irreversible N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-antagonist, MK801, acute but also chronic deficits in long-term potentiation (LTP) and spatial memory occur. Neuronal oscillations, especially in the form of information transfer through θ and γ frequency oscillations are an intrinsic component of normal information processing in the hippocampus. Changes in θ-γ coupling and power are known to accompany deficits in hippocampal plasticity. Here, we examined whether changes in δ, θ, α, β and γ oscillations, or θ-γ coupling accompany the chronic loss of LTP that is observed in the MK801-animal model of psychosis. One and 4 weeks after acute systemic treatment of adult rats with MK801, a potent loss of hippocampal in vivo LTP was evident compared to vehicle-treated controls. Overall, the typical pattern of θ-γ oscillations that are characteristic for the successful induction of LTP was altered. In particular, θ-power was lower and an uncoupling of θ-γ oscillations was evident in MK801-treated rats. The alterations in network oscillations that accompany LTP deficits in this animal model may comprise a mechanism through which disturbances in sensory information processing and hippocampal function occur in psychosis. These data suggest that the hippocampus is likely to comprise a very early locus of functional

  15. 抗全蚀病的转PvPGIP2-TaLTP5双价基因小麦的创制及鉴定%Development and Characterization of Both PvPGIP2 and TaLTP5 Transgenic Wheat Lines with Resistance to Take-all

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣玮; 王金凤; 李钊; 王爱云; 杜丽璞; 叶兴国; 魏学宁; 张增艳

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] Take-all is a destructive disease of wheat production worldwide. The aim of this study is to develop and select stable PvPGIP2 and TaLTP5 transgenic wheat lines with resistance to take-all pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis.[Method]Gene recombination technology was used to prepare the transformation vector pA25-PvPGIP2-TaLTP5 expressing both PvPGIP2 and TaLTP5. Particle bombardment method was used to introduce both PvPGIP2 and TaLTP5 into wheat cultivar Yangmai 18. PCR, RT-PCR and qRT-PCR methods were used to detect the presence and transcript levels of PvPGIP2 and TaLTP5 in the transgenic wheat plants of T0-T4 generations. G. graminis mycelia plug inoculation and take-all severity and the disease index were used to score the resistance degrees of these transgenic wheat lines and non-transgenic wheat Yangmai 18 at young seedling-stage.[Result]The results indicated that the introduced PvPGIP2 and TaLTP5 genes were stably inherited, and could be highly expressed in six transgenic wheat lines. The transgenic wheat plants expressing PvPGIP2 and TaLTP5 showed significantly enhanced resistance to G. graminis compared with non-transgenic wheat Yangmai 18. [Conclusion] These results suggested that the introduced PvPGIP2 and TaLTP5 genes can be used for improving wheat resistance to take-all.%[目的]全蚀病是小麦的毁灭性病害。创制转PvPGIP2和TaLTP5双价基因小麦,分析外源PvPGIP2和TaLTP5在转基因小麦中的遗传与表达情况,选育抗全蚀病的转基因小麦新种质。[方法]采用基因重组技术构建了PvPGIP2和TaLTP5双价表达转基因载体pA25-PvPGIP2-TaLTP5,利用基因枪介导法将该载体转入小麦品种扬麦18,采用PCR、RT-PCR与qRT-PCR方法分析转基因小麦T 0-T 4植株中目的基因及其表达量,并对T 3和T 4逐株进行全蚀病接种与抗性鉴定。[结果]创制并选育出稳定的抗全蚀病转PvPGIP2和TaLTP5小麦株系6个。PvPGIP2和TaLTP5能够在这6个转基因小麦

  16. 漾濞大泡核桃病程相关蛋白10基因JsPR10-1的克隆与表达分析%Cloning and Expression Analysis of a Pathogenesis-related Protein 10 Gene from Juglans sigillata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何华; 陈朝银; 韩青; 张南南; 葛锋; 刘迪秋

    2014-01-01

    The activation and accumulation of pathogenesis-related protein (PR) 10 play predominant roles in the defense response against pathogens.Based on a Juglans sigillata expressed sequence tag (EST) encoding PR10,gene-specific primers were designed and used to amplify the full-length cDNA of a novel PR10 gene by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE).This gene was named as JsPR10-1.JsPR10-1 was 776 bp in length with an open reading frame (ORF) of 483 bp,a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 74 bp,and a 3'-UTR of 219 bp,and the ORF encoded a protein with 160 amino acid residues.There was an intron of 124 bp in the genomic sequence of JsPR10-1.Homology analysis indicated that JsPR10-1 was homologous with PR10s from Quercus suber,Fagus sylvatica and Castanea sativa;moreover,JsPR10-1 clustered together with the PR10s from dicots in the phylogenetic tree.qRT-PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of JsPR10-1 were induced by four different plant signaling molecules,including salicylic acid,jasmonic acid,ethylene,and H2O2.In addition,after inoculation with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides,JsPR10-1 was sharply up-regulated with the highest expression level at 8 h.The JsPR10-1 gene was involved in the defense response against C.gloeosporioides.This experiment lays a theoretical foundation for revealing the mechanism of resistance in J.sigillata.%病程相关蛋白(pathogenesis-related protein,PR) 10的激活与积累在植物抗逆境胁迫中有非常重要的作用.根据漾濞大泡核桃(Juglans sigillata)编码PR10的EST (expressed sequence tag)序列设计引物,利用快速扩增cDNA末端技术,克隆得到PR10基因的全长cDNA序列,并命名为JsPR10-1.JsPR10-1全长cDNA为776 bp,含有483 bp的开放阅读框、74 bp 5'-非编码区以及219 bp 3'-非编码区,编码含有160个氨基酸的蛋白质.全长基因序列中含有1个124 bp的内含子.JsPR10-1编码的蛋白质与栎树(Quercus suber)、欧洲山毛榉(Fagus sylvatica

  17. The facilitating effect of systemic administration of Kv7/M channel blocker XE991 on LTP induction in the hippocampal CA1 area independent of muscarinic activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ming-Ke; Cui, Yong-Yao; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Zhu, Liang; Lu, Yang; Chen, Hong-Zhuan

    2009-09-11

    A large amount of in vitro studies demonstrate suppression of M-current in hippocampal neurons by Kv7/M channel blocker results in depolarization of membrane potential and release of neurotransmitters, such as acetylcholine and glutamate, suggesting that Kv7/M channel may play important roles in regulating synaptic plasticity. In the present study, we examined the in vivo effect of Kv7/M channel inhibition on the long-term potentiation (LTP) induction at basal dendrites in hippocampal CA1 area of urethane-anaesthetized rats. The Kv7/M channel was inhibited by intraperitoneal injection of XE991 (10mg/kg) and the LTP of field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) was induced by supra-threshold high frequency stimulation (S1 HFS). A weak protocol which was just below the threshold for evoking LTP was used as sub-threshold high frequency stimulation (S2 HFS). XE991 did not significantly alter the slope of fEPSP and the magnitude of LTP induced by S1 HFS, suggesting that Kv7/M channel inhibition had little or no effect on glutamatergic transmission under basal conditions. However, XE991 could make S2 HFS evoke LTP even after the application of the muscarinic cholinergic (mACh) receptor antagonist scopolamine, suggesting that Kv7/M channel inhibition lowered the threshold for LTP induction and the effect was independent of muscarinic activation. Based on the above findings, we concluded that the facilitating effect of XE991 on LTP induction is not mediated by its ability to enhance the release of acetylcholine; therefore, Kv7/M channel blockers may provide a therapeutic benefit to cholinergic deficiency-related cognitive impairment, e.g., Alzheimer's disease.

  18. The effect of acute swim stress and training in the water maze on hippocampal synaptic activity as well as plasticity in the dentate gyrus of freely moving rats: revisiting swim-induced LTP reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Heena; Frey, Julietta U

    2013-12-01

    Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) is a cellular model of learning and memory. An early form of LTP (E-LTP) can be reinforced into its late form (L-LTP) by various behavioral interactions within a specific time window ("behavioral LTP-reinforcement"). Depending on the type and procedure used, various studies have shown that stress differentially affects synaptic plasticity. Under low stress, such as novelty detection or mild foot shocks, E-LTP can be transformed into L-LTP in the rat dentate gyrus (DG). A reinforcing effect of a 2-min swim, however, has only been shown in (Korz and Frey (2003) J Neurosci 23:7281-7287; Korz and Frey (2005) J Neurosci 25:7393-7400; Ahmed et al. (2006) J Neurosci 26:3951-3958; Sajikumar et al., (2007) J Physiol 584.2:389-400) so far. We have reinvestigated these studies using the same as well as an improved recording technique which allowed the recording of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSP) and the population spike amplitude (PSA) at their places of generation in freely moving rats. We show that acute swim stress led to a long-term depression (LTD) in baseline values of PSA and partially fEPSP. In contrast to earlier studies a LTP-reinforcement by swimming could never be reproduced. Our results indicate that 2-min swim stress influenced synaptic potentials as well as E-LTP negatively.

  19. Deficits in LTP induction by 5-HT2A receptor antagonist in a mouse model for fragile X syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-hui Xu

    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome is a common inherited form of mental retardation caused by the lack of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP because of Fmr1 gene silencing. Serotonin (5-HT is significantly increased in the null mutants of Drosophila Fmr1, and elevated 5-HT brain levels result in cognitive and behavioral deficits in human patients. The serotonin type 2A receptor (5-HT2AR is highly expressed in the cerebral cortex; it acts on pyramidal cells and GABAergic interneurons to modulate cortical functions. 5-HT2AR and FMRP both regulate synaptic plasticity. Therefore, the lack of FMRP may affect serotoninergic activity. In this study, we determined the involvement of FMRP in the 5-HT modulation of synaptic potentiation with the use of primary cortical neuron culture and brain slice recording. Pharmacological inhibition of 5-HT2AR by R-96544 or ketanserin facilitated long-term potentiation (LTP in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC of WT mice. The prefrontal LTP induction was dependent on the activation of NMDARs and elevation of postsynaptic Ca(2+ concentrations. By contrast, inhibition of 5-HT2AR could not restore the induction of LTP in the ACC of Fmr1 knock-out mice. Furthermore, 5-HT2AR inhibition induced AMPA receptor GluR1 subtype surface insertion in the cultured ACC neurons of Fmr1 WT mice, however, GluR1 surface insertion by inhibition of 5-HT2AR was impaired in the neurons of Fmr1KO mice. These findings suggested that FMRP was involved in serotonin receptor signaling and contributed in GluR1 surface expression induced by 5-HT2AR inactivation.

  20. NF-κB p50 subunit knockout impairs late LTP and alters long term memory in the mouse hippocampus

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    Oikawa Kensuke

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB is a transcription factor typically expressed with two specific subunits (p50, p65. Investigators have reported that NF-κB is activated during the induction of in vitro long term potentiation (LTP, a paradigm of synaptic plasticity and correlate of memory, suggesting that NF-κB may be necessary for some aspects of memory encoding. Furthermore, NF-κB has been implicated as a potential requirement in behavioral tests of memory. Unfortunately, very little work has been done to explore the effects of deleting specific NF-κB subunits on memory. Studies have shown that NF-κB p50 subunit deletion (p50−/− leads to memory deficits, however some recent studies suggest the contrary where p50−/− mice show enhanced memory in the Morris water maze (MWM. To more critically explore the role of the NF-κB p50 subunit in synaptic plasticity and memory, we assessed long term spatial memory in vivo using the MWM, and synaptic plasticity in vitro utilizing high frequency stimuli capable of eliciting LTP in slices from the hippocampus of NF-κB p50−/− versus their controls (p50+/+. Results We found that the lack of the NF-κB p50 subunit led to significant decreases in late LTP and in selective but significant alterations in MWM tests (i.e., some improvements during acquisition, but deficits during retention. Conclusions These results support the hypothesis that the NF-κ p50 subunit is required in long term spatial memory in the hippocampus.

  1. Ischemic long-term-potentiation (iLTP: perspectives to set the threshold of neural plasticity toward therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Lenz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The precise role of neural plasticity under pathological conditions remains not well understood. It appears to be well accepted, however, that changes in the ability of neurons to express plasticity accompany neurological diseases. Here, we discuss recent experimental evidence, which suggests that synaptic plasticity induced by a pathological stimulus, i.e., ischemic long-term-potentiation (iLTP of excitatory synapses, could play an important role for post-stroke recovery by influencing the post-lesional reorganization of surviving neuronal networks.

  2. Characteristic of Extracellular Zn(2+) Influx in the Middle-Aged Dentate Gyrus and Its Involvement in Attenuation of LTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Atsushi; Koike, Yuta; Osaw, Misa; Tamano, Haruna

    2017-03-13

    An increased influx of extracellular Zn(2+) into neurons is a cause of cognitive decline. The influx of extracellular Zn(2+) into dentate granule cells was compared between young and middle-aged rats because of vulnerability of the dentate gyrus to aging. The influx of extracellular Zn(2+) into dentate granule cells was increased in middle-aged rats after injection of AMPA and high K(+) into the dentate gyrus, but not in young rats. Simultaneously, high K(+)-induced attenuation of LTP was observed in middle-aged rats, but not in young rats. The attenuation was rescued by co-injection of CaEDTA, an extracellular Zn(2+) chelator. Intracellular Zn(2+) in dentate granule cells was also increased in middle-aged slices with high K(+), in which the increase in extracellular Zn(2+) was the same as young slices with high K(+), suggesting that ability of extracellular Zn(2+) influx into dentate granule cells is greater in middle-aged rats. Furthermore, extracellular zinc concentration in the hippocampus was increased age-dependently. The present study suggests that the influx of extracellular Zn(2+) into dentate granule cells is more readily increased in middle-aged rats and that its increase is a cause of age-related attenuation of LTP in the dentate gyrus.

  3. Study of nsLTPs in Lotus japonicus genome reveal a specific epidermal cell member (LjLTP10) regulated by drought stress in aerial organs with a putative role in cutin formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, G; Morales-Quintana, L; Parra, C; Berbel, A; Alcorta, M

    2013-07-01

    The cuticle is the first defense against pathogens and the second way water is lost in plants. Hydrophobic layers covering aerial plant organs from primary stages of development form cuticle, including major classes of aliphatic wax components and cutin. Extensive research has been conducted to understand cuticle formation mechanisms in plants. However, many questions remain unresolved in the transport of lipid components to form cuticle. Database studies of the Lotus japonicus genome have revealed the presence of 24 sequences classified as putative non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs), which were classified in seven groups; four groups were selected because of their expression in aerial organs. LjLTP8 forms a cluster with DIR1 in Arabidopsis thaliana while LjLTP6, LjLTP9, and LjLTP10 were grouped as type I LTPs. In silico studies showed a high level of structural conservation, and substrate affinity studies revealed palmitoyl-CoA as the most likely ligand for these LTPs, although the Lyso-Myristoyl Phosphatidyl Choline, Lyso-myristoyl phosphatidyl glycerol, and Lyso-stearyl phosphatidyl choline ligands also showed a high affinity with the proteins. The LjLTP6 and LjLTP10 genes were expressed in both the stems and the leaves under normal conditions and were highly induced during drought stress. LjLTP10 was the most induced gene in shoots during drought. The gene was only expressed in the epidermal cells of stems, primordial leaves, and young leaflets. LjLTP10 was positively regulated by MeJA but repressed by abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene, and H2O2, while LjLTP6 was weakly induced by MeJA, repressed by H2O2, and not affected by ABA and ethylene. We suggest that LjLTP10 is involved in plant development of stem and leaf cuticle, but also in acclimation to tolerate drought stress in L. japonicus.

  4. Ischemic-LTP in striatal spiny neurons of both direct and indirect pathway requires the activation of D1-like receptors and NO/soluble guanylate cyclase/cGMP transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcangeli, Sara; Tozzi, Alessandro; Tantucci, Michela; Spaccatini, Cristiano; de Iure, Antonio; Costa, Cinzia; Di Filippo, Massimiliano; Picconi, Barbara; Giampà, Carmen; Fusco, Francesca Romana; Amoroso, Salvatore; Calabresi, Paolo

    2013-02-01

    Striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) are highly vulnerable to ischemia. A brief ischemic insult, produced by oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD), can induce ischemic long-term potentiation (i-LTP) of corticostriatal excitatory postsynaptic response. Since nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the pathophysiology of brain ischemia and the dopamine D1/D5-receptors (D1-like-R) are expressed in striatal NOS-positive interneurons, we hypothesized a relation between NOS-positive interneurons and striatal i-LTP, involving D1R activation and NO production. We investigated the mechanisms involved in i-LTP induced by OGD in corticostriatal slices and found that the D1-like-R antagonist SCH-23390 prevented i-LTP in all recorded MSNs. Immunofluorescence analysis confirmed the induction of i-LTP in both substance P-positive, (putative D1R-expressing) and adenosine A2A-receptor-positive (putative D2R-expressing) MSNs. Furthermore, i-LTP was dependent on a NOS/cGMP pathway since pharmacological blockade of NOS, guanylate-cyclase, or PKG prevented i-LTP. However, these compounds failed to prevent i-LTP in the presence of a NO donor or cGMP analog, respectively. Interestingly, the D1-like-R antagonism failed to prevent i-LTP when intracellular cGMP was pharmacologically increased. We propose that NO, produced by striatal NOS-positive interneurons via the stimulation of D1-like-R located on these cells, is critical for i-LTP induction in the entire population of MSNs involving a cGMP-dependent pathway.

  5. DEVELOPMENTAL LEAD (PB) EXPOSURE REDUCES THE ABILITY OF THE NNDA ANTAGONIST MK801 TO SUPPRESS LONG-TERM POTENTIATION (LTP) IN THE RAT DENTATE GYRUS, IN VIVO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic developmental lead (Pb) exposure increases the threshold and enhances decay of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation. MK-801 and other antagonists of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor subtype impair induction of LT...

  6. Alzheimer's Disease Brain-Derived Amyloid-{beta}-Mediated Inhibition of LTP In Vivo Is Prevented by Immunotargeting Cellular Prion Protein.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barry, Andrew E

    2011-05-18

    Synthetic amyloid-β protein (Aβ) oligomers bind with high affinity to cellular prion protein (PrP(C)), but the role of this interaction in mediating the disruption of synaptic plasticity by such soluble Aβ in vitro is controversial. Here we report that intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ-containing aqueous extracts of Alzheimer\\'s disease (AD) brain robustly inhibits long-term potentiation (LTP) without significantly affecting baseline excitatory synaptic transmission in the rat hippocampus in vivo. Moreover, the disruption of LTP was abrogated by immunodepletion of Aβ. Importantly, intracerebroventricular administration of antigen-binding antibody fragment D13, directed to a putative Aβ-binding site on PrP(C), prevented the inhibition of LTP by AD brain-derived Aβ. In contrast, R1, a Fab directed to the C terminus of PrP(C), a region not implicated in binding of Aβ, did not significantly affect the Aβ-mediated inhibition of LTP. These data support the pathophysiological significance of SDS-stable Aβ dimer and the role of PrP(C) in mediating synaptic plasticity disruption by soluble Aβ.

  7. Conditional ablation of neuroligin-1 in CA1 pyramidal neurons blocks LTP by a cell-autonomous NMDA receptor-independent mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Man; Polepalli, Jai; Chen, Lulu Y.; Zhang, Bo; Südhof, Thomas C.; Malenka, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroligins are postsynaptic cell-adhesion molecules implicated in autism and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Despite extensive work, the role of neuroligins in synapse function and plasticity, especially NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-dependent LTP, remains unclear. To establish which synaptic functions unequivocally require neuroligins, we analyzed single and triple conditional knockout (cKO) mice for all three major neuroligin isoforms (NL1-NL3). We inactivated neuroligins by stereotactic viral expression of Cre-recombinase in hippocampal CA1 region pyramidal neurons at postnatal day 0 (P0) or day 21 (P21), and measured synaptic function, synaptic plasticity, and spine numbers in acute hippocampal slices 2–3 weeks later. Surprisingly, we find that ablation of neuroligins in newborn or juvenile mice only modestly impaired basal synaptic function in hippocampus, and caused no alteration in postsynaptic spine numbers. However, triple cKO of NL1-NL3 or single cKO of NL1 impaired NMDAR-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (NMDAR EPSCs), and abolished NMDAR-dependent LTP. Strikingly, the NL1 cKO also abolished LTP elicited by activation of L-type Ca2+-channels during blockade of NMDARs. These findings demonstrate that neuroligins are generally not essential for synapse formation in CA1 pyramidal neurons but shape synaptic properties and that NL1 specifically is required for LTP induced by postsynaptic Ca2+-elevations, a function which may contribute to the pathophysiological role of neuroligins in brain disorders. PMID:27217145

  8. Image matching using SIFT and rotation invariant uniform LTP%基于SIFT和LTP的图像匹配方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金颂; 张庆阳; 原思聪

    2014-01-01

    针对SIFT算法计算复杂度高,提出了一种SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform)和旋转不变LTP(Local Ternary Pattern)特征相结合的图像匹配方法,以提高SIFT算法的速度.首先利用SIFT算法在两幅需要匹配的图像上分别检测出关键点;然后计算每个关键点周围的旋转不变LTP特征,并作为该关键点的描述子;最后找出两个关键点对之间的匹配点对.实验结果表明,本方法对于图像的匹配性能与SIFT算法相当,运算速度比SIFT算法较快.

  9. Enhanced intrinsic excitability and EPSP-spike coupling accompany enriched environment-induced facilitation of LTP in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Ruchi; Chattarji, Sumantra

    2012-03-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is a well-established paradigm for studying naturally occurring changes in synaptic efficacy in the hippocampus that underlie experience-induced modulation of learning and memory in rodents. Earlier research on the effects of EE on hippocampal plasticity focused on long-term potentiation (LTP). Whereas many of these studies investigated changes in synaptic weight, little is known about potential contributions of neuronal excitability to EE-induced plasticity. Here, using whole-cell recordings in hippocampal slices, we address this gap by analyzing the impact of EE on both synaptic plasticity and intrinsic excitability of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Consistent with earlier reports, EE increased contextual fear memory and dendritic spine density on CA1 cells. Furthermore, EE facilitated LTP at Schaffer collateral inputs to CA1 pyramidal neurons. Analysis of the underlying causes for enhanced LTP shows EE to increase the frequency but not amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents. However, presynaptic release probability, assayed using paired-pulse ratios and use-dependent block of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor currents, was not affected. Furthermore, CA1 neurons fired more action potentials (APs) in response to somatic depolarization, as well as during the induction of LTP. EE also reduced spiking threshold and after-hyperpolarization amplitude. Strikingly, this EE-induced increase in excitability caused the same-sized excitatory postsynaptic potential to fire more APs. Together, these findings suggest that EE may enhance the capacity for plasticity in CA1 neurons, not only by strengthening synapses but also by enhancing their efficacy to fire spikes-and the two combine to act as an effective substrate for amplifying LTP.

  10. Effects of the ephedra alkaloid methylephedrine on the basal evoked potential transportation and the long-term potentiation (LTP) in the rat hippocampal dentate granule cells in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Xiao-dong

    2008-01-01

    Objective The effect of the ephedra/ephedrine alkaloid methylephedrine (dl-methylephedrine hydrochloride for testing in this paper) on cognitive related synaptic plasticity was investigated by recording extracellular field evoked potentials and its LTP in hippocampal dentate granule cells in urethane-anaesthetized rats in vivo. Methods Single pathway recording of evoked field potentials was made from the dentate granule cells of hippocampal hemisphere in response to stimulation of the ipsilateral medial perforant path (MPP). Two parameters, the amplitude of population spike (PS amplitude) and the latency of the PS, were employed to evaluate the effects of drug on the overall changes in cellular responses. Results The present study show that methylephedrine 90 mg·kg-1 intraperitoneally, about 1/3 LD50, could increase the latency of the PS in hippocampal dentate granule cells by constant single stimulation of the MPP as the basal ransportation. However, the 30 mg·kg-1 and 10 mg·kg-1 dosage had no effect on the latency, and there are no influences of PS amplitude for all examinational groups. The methylephedrine 90 mg·kg-1 group significant enhanced the development of amplitude LTP in hippocampal dentate granule cells that induced by 60 Hz, 60 pulses conditional tetanus in medial perforant path area. Also, the 30 mg·kg-1 group can promoted the maintenance of LTP induced by this tetanus, but no promotion on PS amplitude LTP appeared in this dosage and no any changes been found in 10 mg·kg-1 dosage group. Conclusions The ephedra/ephedrine alkaloid methylephedrine can modulate the synaptic plasticity in the lateral perforant path. A possible mechanism of methylephedrine on hippocampal LTP is been discussed.

  11. Perceived benefits and psychosocial outcomes of a brief existential family intervention for cancer patients/survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlan, Robert W; Butler, Lisa D; Rosenbaum, Ernest; Siegel, Alison; Spiegel, David

    This study assessed a range of benefits from participation in a brief existential intervention consisting of a semi-structured videotaped interview with cancer patients and their families designed to illuminate a life legacy for the family (the Life Tape Project [LTP]). Results indicated the majority reported intervention-specific benefits, especially in the areas of symbolic immortality (passing on personal values and philosophy), self-reflection and growth, and improved family cohesion and communication. Participants, particularly those who had perceived their cancer as a threat of death, serious injury, or threat to their physical integrity, and responded with intense fear or helplessness, also reported more general reductions in mood disturbance, improvements in aspects of well-being (including overall quality of life), satisfaction with the understanding they received, and enhanced cancer-related posttraumatic growth. In short, the LTP is a brief, inexpensive, existential intervention that can yield broad positive psychosocial changes for a majority of participants.

  12. Automated multi-slice extracellular and patch-clamp experiments using the WinLTP data acquisition system with automated perfusion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William W.; Fitzjohn, Stephen M.; Collingridge, Graham L.

    2012-01-01

    WinLTP is a data acquisition program for studying long-term potentiation (LTP) and other aspects of synaptic function. Earlier versions of WinLTP (J. Neurosci. Methods, 162:346–356, 2007) provided automated electrical stimulation and data acquisition capable of running nearly an entire synaptic plasticity experiment, with the primary exception that perfusion solutions had to be changed manually. This automated stimulation and acquisition was done by using ‘Sweep’, ‘Loop’ and ‘Delay’ events to build scripts using the ‘Protocol Builder’. However, this did not allow automatic changing of many solutions while running multiple slice experiments, or solution changing when this had to be performed rapidly and with accurate timing during patch-clamp experiments. We report here the addition of automated perfusion control to WinLTP. First, perfusion change between sweeps is enabled by adding the ‘Perfuse’ event to Protocol Builder scripting and is used in slice experiments. Second, fast perfusion changes during as well as between sweeps is enabled by using the Perfuse event in the protocol scripts to control changes between sweeps, and also by changing digital or analog output during a sweep and is used for single cell single-line perfusion patch-clamp experiments. The addition of stepper control of tube placement allows dual- or triple-line perfusion patch-clamp experiments for up to 48 solutions. The ability to automate perfusion changes and fully integrate them with the already automated stimulation and data acquisition goes a long way toward complete automation of multi-slice extracellularly recorded and single cell patch-clamp experiments. PMID:22524994

  13. Long-term inhibition of Rho-kinase restores the LTP impaired in chronic forebrain ischemia rats by regulating GABAA and GABAB receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L; Zhao, L B; Yu, Z Y; He, X J; Ma, L P; Li, N; Guo, L J; Feng, W Y

    2014-09-26

    We previously demonstrated that inactivation of Rho-kinase by hydroxyfasudil could impact N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) excitatory interneurons in the hippocampus and attenuate the spatial learning and memory dysfunction of rats caused by chronic forebrain hypoperfusion ischemia. Complementary interactions between the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate and the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA form the molecular basis of synaptic plasticity and cognitive performance. However, whether the GABAergic inhibitory interneurons are involved in the mechanisms underlying these processes remains unclear. Here, we further examined the role of GABAergic interneurons in the neuroprotective effect of the Rho-kinase inhibitor. Chronic forebrain ischemia was induced in Wistar rats by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCAO). The general synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTP) of hippocampal CA3 neurons were evaluated at 30 days after sham surgery or BCAO. Real-time PCR and Western blot analyses were conducted to determine the effect of the Rho-kinase inhibitor hydroxyfasudil on GABAergic inhibitory interneuron expression and function after ischemia. Hydroxyfasudil showed no significant effect on general synaptic transmission, but it could abolish the inhibition of LTP induced by chronic forebrain ischemia. Moreover, the mRNA and protein levels of GABAA and GABAB in three brain regions after ischemia were markedly decreased, and hydroxyfasudil could up-regulate all mRNA and protein expression levels in these areas except for GABAA mRNA in the cerebral cortex and striatum. Using phosphorylation antibodies against specific sites on the GABAA and GABAB receptors, we further demonstrated that hydroxyfasudil could inhibit GABAergic interneuron phosphorylation triggered by the theta burst stimulation. In summary, our results indicated that the inactivation of Rho-kinase could enhance GABAA and GABAB expressions by different mechanisms to guarantee the induction of

  14. NMDA receptor subunits in the adult rat hippocampus undergo similar changes after 5 minutes in an open field and after LTP induction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Veronica Baez

    Full Text Available NMDA receptor subunits change during development and their synaptic expression is modified rapidly after synaptic plasticity induction in hippocampal slices. However, there is scarce information on subunits expression after synaptic plasticity induction or memory acquisition, particularly in adults. GluN1, GluN2A and GluN2B NMDA receptor subunits were assessed by western blot in 1 adult rats that had explored an open field (OF for 5 minutes, a time sufficient to induce habituation, 2 mature rat hippocampal neuron cultures depolarized by KCl and 3 hippocampal slices from adult rats where long term potentiation (LTP was induced by theta-burst stimulation (TBS. GluN1 and GluN2A, though not GluN2B, were significantly higher 70 minutes--but not 30 minutes--after a 5 minutes session in an OF. GluN1 and GluN2A total immunofluorescence and puncta in neurites increased in cultures, as evaluated 70 minutes after KCl stimulation. Similar changes were found in hippocampal slices 70 minutes after LTP induction. To start to explore underlying mechanisms, hippocampal slices were treated either with cycloheximide (a translation inhibitor or actinomycin D (a transcription inhibitor during electrophysiological assays. It was corroborated that translation was necessary for LTP induction and expression. The rise in GluN1 depends on transcription and translation, while the increase in GluN2A appears to mainly depend on translation, though a contribution of some remaining transcriptional activity during actinomycin D treatment could not be rouled out. LTP effective induction was required for the subunits to increase. Although in the three models same subunits suffered modifications in the same direction, within an apparently similar temporal course, further investigation is required to reveal if they are related processes and to find out whether they are causally related with synaptic plasticity, learning and memory.

  15. Impact of contextual cues in the expression of the memory associated with diazepam withdrawal: involvement of hippocampal PKMζ in vivo, and Arc expression and LTP in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Maria C; Gabach, Laura A; Perez, Mariela F; Ramírez, Oscar A

    2012-10-01

    Hippocampal synaptic plasticity has been related to learning and adaptive processes developed during chronic drug administration, suggesting the existence of a common neurobiological mechanism mediating drug addiction and memory. Moreover, protein kinase M zeta (PKMζ) is critical for the maintenance of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and spatial conditioned long-term memories. Also, a link between activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc), PKMζ and LTP has been proposed. Our previous results demonstrated that re-exposure to the withdrawal environment was able to evoke the memory acquired when the anxiety measured as a diazepam (DZ) withdrawal sign was experienced. In the present work we evaluated if the memory associated with DZ withdrawal could be affected by changes in the contextual cues presented during withdrawal and by intrahippocampal administration of a PKMζ inhibitor. We found that the context was relevant for the expression of withdrawal signs as changes in contextual cues prevented the expression of the anxiety-like behavior observed during plus-maze (PM) re-exposure, the associated enhanced synaptic plasticity and the increase in Arc expression. Furthermore, intrahippocampal administration of PKMζ inhibitor previous to re-exposure to the PM test also impaired expression of anxiety-like behavior and the facilitated LTP. These results support the relevance of the hippocampal synaptic plasticity in the maintenance of the memory trace during benzodiazepines withdrawal, adding new evidences for common mechanisms between memory and drug addiction that can be intervened for treatment or prevention of this pathology.

  16. Environmental novelty activates β2-adrenergic signaling to prevent the impairment of hippocampal LTP by Aβ oligomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaomin; Jin, Ming; Zhang, Dainan; Yang, Ting; Koeglsperger, Thomas; Fu, Hongjun; Selkoe, Dennis J

    2013-03-06

    A central question about human brain aging is whether cognitive enrichment slows the development of Alzheimer changes. Here, we show that prolonged exposure to an enriched environment (EE) facilitated signaling in the hippocampus of wild-type mice that promoted long-term potentiation. A key feature of the EE effect was activation of β2-adrenergic receptors and downstream cAMP/PKA signaling. This EE pathway prevented LTP inhibition by soluble oligomers of amyloid β-protein (Aβ) isolated from AD cortex. Protection by EE occurred in both young and middle-aged wild-type mice. Exposure to novelty afforded greater protection than did aerobic exercise. Mice chronically fed a β-adrenergic agonist without EE were protected from hippocampal impairment by Aβ oligomers. Thus, EE enhances hippocampal synaptic plasticity by activating β-adrenoceptor signaling and mitigating synaptotoxicity of human Aβ oligomers. These mechanistic insights support using prolonged exposure to cognitive novelty and/or oral β-adrenergic agonists to lessen the effects of Aβ accumulation during aging.

  17. Conditional knockout of tumor overexpressed gene in mouse neurons affects RNA granule assembly, granule translation, LTP and short term habituation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Barbarese

    Full Text Available In neurons, specific RNAs are assembled into granules, which are translated in dendrites, however the functional consequences of granule assembly are not known. Tumor overexpressed gene (TOG is a granule-associated protein containing multiple binding sites for heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP A2, another granule component that recognizes cis-acting sequences called hnRNP A2 response elements (A2REs present in several granule RNAs. Translation in granules is sporadic, which is believed to reflect monosomal translation, with occasional bursts, which are believed to reflect polysomal translation. In this study, TOG expression was conditionally knocked out (TOG cKO in mouse hippocampal neurons using cre/lox technology. In TOG cKO cultured neurons granule assembly and bursty translation of activity-regulated cytoskeletal associated (ARC mRNA, an A2RE RNA, are disrupted. In TOG cKO brain slices synaptic sensitivity and long term potentiation (LTP are reduced. TOG cKO mice exhibit hyperactivity, perseveration and impaired short term habituation. These results suggest that in hippocampal neurons TOG is required for granule assembly, granule translation and synaptic plasticity, and affects behavior.

  18. The age-related deficit in LTP is associated with changes in perfusion and blood-brain barrier permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Christoph W; Cowley, Thelma R; O'Sullivan, Joan; Grehan, Belinda; Browne, Tara C; Kelly, Laura; Birch, Amy; Murphy, Niamh; Kelly, Aine M; Kerskens, Christian M; Lynch, Marina A

    2012-05-01

    In view of the increase in the aging population and the unavoidable parallel increase in the incidence of age-related neurodegenerative diseases, a key challenge in neuroscience is the identification of clinical signatures which change with age and impact on neuronal and cognitive function. Early diagnosis offers the possibility of early therapeutic intervention, thus magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is potentially a powerful diagnostic tool. We evaluated age-related changes in relaxometry, blood flow, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in the rat by magnetic resonance imaging and assessed these changes in the context of the age-related decrease in synaptic plasticity. We report that T2 relaxation time was decreased with age; this was coupled with a decrease in gray matter perfusion, suggesting that the observed microglial activation, as identified by increased expression of CD11b, MHCII, and CD68 by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, or polymerase chain reaction (PCR), might be a downstream consequence of these changes. Increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier was observed in the perivascular area and the hippocampus of aged, compared with young, rats. Similarly there was an age-related increase in CD45-positive cells by flow cytometry, which are most likely infiltrating macrophages, with a parallel increase in the messenger mRNA expression of chemokines IP-10 and MCP-1. These combined changes may contribute to the deficit in long-term potentiation (LTP) in perforant path-granule cell synapses of aged animals.

  19. Enhanced sensitivity to ethanol-induced inhibition of LTP in CA1 pyramidal neurons of socially isolated C57BL/6J mice: role of neurosteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe eTalani

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol (EtOH–induced impairment of long-term potentiation (LTP in the rat hippocampus is prevented by the 5α-reductase inhibitor finasteride, suggesting that this effect of EtOH is dependent on the increased local release of neurosteroids such as 3α,5α-THP that promote GABA–mediated transmission. Given that social isolation (SI in rodents is associated with altered plasma and brain levels of such neurosteroids as well as with an enhanced neurosteroidogenic action of EtOH, we examined whether the inhibitory effect of EtOH on LTP at CA3-CA1 hippocampal excitatory synapses is altered in C57BL/6J mice subjected to SI for 6 weeks in comparison with group-housed (GH animals. Extracellular recording of fEPSPs as well as patch-clamp analysis were performed in hippocampal slices prepared from both SI and GH mice. Consistent with previous observations, recording of fEPSPs revealed that the extent of LTP induced in the CA1 region of SI mice was significantly reduced compared with that in GH animals. EtOH (40 mM inhibited LTP in slices from SI mice but not in those from GH mice, and this effect of EtOH was abolished by co-application of 1 µM finasteride. Current-clamp analysis of CA1 pyramidal neurons revealed a decrease in action potential frequency and an increase in the intensity of injected current required to evoke the first action potential in SI mice compared with GH mice, indicative of a decrease in neuronal excitability associated with SI. Together, our data suggest that SI results in reduced levels of neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Furthermore, the increased sensitivity to the neurosteroidogenic effect of EtOH associated with SI likely accounts for the greater inhibitory effect of EtOH on LTP in SI mice. The increase in EtOH sensitivity induced by SI may be important for the changes in the effects of EtOH on anxiety and on learning and memory associated with the prolonged stress attributable to social

  20. 基于改进 LTP 算子和稀疏表示的人脸表情识别%Facial Expression Recognition Based on Improved LTP and Sparse Representation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李立赛; 应自炉

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the facial expression recognition rate in practical application, an improved local ternary patterns (ILTP) algorithm was proposed on the basis of the local ternary patterns (LTP) algorithm,and was combined with sparse representation-based classifier (SRC) to form a new algorithm to be applied to human facial expression recognition. Then facial expression features are extracted by ILTP algorithm, and the features are treated as the input of the SRC to complete facial expressions recognition. Experimental results based on JAFFE database prove that the new algorithm can get a facial expression recognition rate of 70.48% and is highly feasible.%为了提高实际应用中的人脸表情识别率,本文提出了改进局部三值模式算法(ILTP),并结合稀疏表达分类器(SRC)组成新的算法应用于人脸表情识别.该算法首先利用 ILTP 算法对人脸表情图像进行特征提取,然后将得到的图像顶层特征数据和图像底层特征数据作为SRC 的输入,从而完成人脸表情分类.基于 JAFFE 数据的实验结果表明:改进算法的人脸表情识别率达70.48%,具有较高的可行性.

  1. Silent synapses, LTP, and the indirect parallel-fibre pathway: computational consequences of optimal cerebellar noise-processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Porrill

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Computational analysis of neural systems is at its most useful when it uncovers principles that provide a unified account of phenomena across multiple scales and levels of description. Here we analyse a widely used model of the cerebellar contribution to sensori-motor learning to demonstrate both that its response to intrinsic and sensor noise is optimal, and that the unexpected synaptic and behavioural consequences of this optimality can explain a wide range of experimental data. The response of the Marr-Albus adaptive-filter model of the cerebellar microcircuit to noise was examined in the context of vestibulo-ocular reflex calibration. We found that, when appropriately connected, an adaptive-filter model using the covariance learning rule to adjust the weights of synapses between parallel fibres and Purkinje cells learns weight values that are optimal given the relative amount of signal and noise carried by each parallel fibre. This optimality principle is consistent with data on the cerebellar role in smooth pursuit eye movements, and predicts that many synaptic weights must be very small, providing an explanation for the experimentally observed preponderance of silent synapses. Such a preponderance has in its turn two further consequences. First, an additional inhibitory pathway from parallel fibre to Purkinje cell is required if Purkinje cell activity is to be altered in either direction from a starting point of silent synapses. Second, cerebellar learning tasks must often proceed via LTP, rather than LTD as is widely assumed. Taken together, these considerations have profound behavioural consequences, including the optimal combination of sensori-motor information, and asymmetry and hysteresis of sensori-motor learning rates.

  2. Active Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II (CaMKII Regulates NMDA Receptor Mediated Postischemic Long-Term Potentiation (i-LTP by Promoting the Interaction between CaMKII and NMDA Receptors in Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Active calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII has been reported to take a critical role in the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP. Changes in CaMKII activity were detected in various ischemia models. It is tempting to know whether and how CaMKII takes a role in NMDA receptor (NMDAR-mediated postischemic long-term potentiation (NMDA i-LTP. Here, we monitored changes in NMDAR-mediated field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (NMDA fEPSPs at different time points following ischemia onset in vitro oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD ischemia model. We found that 10 min OGD treatment induced significant i-LTP in NMDA fEPSPs, whereas shorter (3 min or longer (25 min OGD treatment failed to induce prominent NMDA i-LTP. CaMKII activity or CaMKII autophosphorylation displays a similar bifurcated trend at different time points following onset of ischemia both in vitro OGD or in vivo photothrombotic lesion (PT models, suggesting a correlation of increased CaMKII activity or CaMKII autophosphorylation with NMDA i-LTP. Disturbing the association between CaMKII and GluN2B subunit of NMDARs with short cell-permeable peptides Tat-GluN2B reversed NMDA i-LTP induced by OGD treatment. The results provide support to a notion that increased interaction between NMDAR and CaMKII following ischemia-induced increased CaMKII activity and autophosphorylation is essential for induction of NMDA i-LTP.

  3. Long-term fluoxetine treatment induces input-specific LTP and LTD impairment and structural plasticity in the CA1 hippocampal subfield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Rubio

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Antidepressant drugs are usually administered for long time for the treatment of major depressive disorder. However, they are also prescribed in several additional psychiatric conditions as well as during long term maintenance treatments. Antidepressants induce adaptive changes in several forebrain structures which include modifications at glutamatergic synapses. We recently found that repetitive administration of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine to naϊve adult male rats induced an increase of mature, mushroom-type dendritic spines in several forebrain regions. This was associated with an increase of GluA2-containing α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptors (AMPA-Rs in telencephalic postsynaptic densities. To unravel the functional significance of such a synaptic re-arrangement, we focused on glutamate neurotransmission in the hippocampus. We evaluated the effect of four weeks of treatment with 0.7 mg/kg of fluoxetine on long-term potentiation (LTP and long-term depression (LTD in the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses and the perforant path-CA1 synapses. Recordings in hippocampal slices revealed profound deficits in LTP and LTD at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses associated to increased spine density and enhanced presence of mushroom-type spines, as revealed by Golgi staining. However, the same treatment had neither an effect on spine morphology, nor on LTP and LTD at perforant path-CA1 synapses. Cobalt staining experiments revealed decreased AMPA-R Ca2+ permeability in the stratum radiatum together with increased GluA2-containing, Ca2+-impermeable AMPA-Rs. Therefore, 4 weeks of fluoxetine treatment promoted structural and functional adaptations in CA1 neurons in a pathway-specific manner that were selectively associated with impairment of activity-dependent plasticity at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses.

  4. Modulation of intestinal microbiota by the probiotic VSL#3 resets brain gene expression and ameliorates the age-related deficit in LTP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Distrutti

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota is increasingly recognized as a complex signaling network that impacts on many systems beyond the enteric system modulating, among others, cognitive functions including learning, memory and decision-making processes. This has led to the concept of a microbiota-driven gut-brain axis, reflecting a bidirectional interaction between the central nervous system and the intestine. A deficit in synaptic plasticity is one of the many changes that occurs with age. Specifically, the archetypal model of plasticity, long-term potentiation (LTP, is reduced in hippocampus of middle-aged and aged rats. Because the intestinal microbiota might change with age, we have investigated whether the age-related deficit in LTP might be attenuated by changing the composition of intestinal microbiota with VSL#3, a probiotic mixture comprising 8 Gram-positive bacterial strains. Here, we report that treatment of aged rats with VSL#3 induced a robust change in the composition of intestinal microbiota with an increase in the abundance of Actinobacteria and Bacterioidetes, which was reduced in control-treated aged rats. VSL#3 administration modulated the expression of a large group of genes in brain tissue as assessed by whole gene expression, with evidence of a change in genes that impact on inflammatory and neuronal plasticity processes. The age-related deficit in LTP was attenuated in VSL#3-treated aged rats and this was accompanied by a modest decrease in markers of microglial activation and an increase in expression of BDNF and synapsin. The data support the notion that intestinal microbiota can be manipulated to positively impact on neuronal function.

  5. Modulation of intestinal microbiota by the probiotic VSL#3 resets brain gene expression and ameliorates the age-related deficit in LTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distrutti, Eleonora; O'Reilly, Julie-Ann; McDonald, Claire; Cipriani, Sabrina; Renga, Barbara; Lynch, Marina A; Fiorucci, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota is increasingly recognized as a complex signaling network that impacts on many systems beyond the enteric system modulating, among others, cognitive functions including learning, memory and decision-making processes. This has led to the concept of a microbiota-driven gut-brain axis, reflecting a bidirectional interaction between the central nervous system and the intestine. A deficit in synaptic plasticity is one of the many changes that occurs with age. Specifically, the archetypal model of plasticity, long-term potentiation (LTP), is reduced in hippocampus of middle-aged and aged rats. Because the intestinal microbiota might change with age, we have investigated whether the age-related deficit in LTP might be attenuated by changing the composition of intestinal microbiota with VSL#3, a probiotic mixture comprising 8 Gram-positive bacterial strains. Here, we report that treatment of aged rats with VSL#3 induced a robust change in the composition of intestinal microbiota with an increase in the abundance of Actinobacteria and Bacterioidetes, which was reduced in control-treated aged rats. VSL#3 administration modulated the expression of a large group of genes in brain tissue as assessed by whole gene expression, with evidence of a change in genes that impact on inflammatory and neuronal plasticity processes. The age-related deficit in LTP was attenuated in VSL#3-treated aged rats and this was accompanied by a modest decrease in markers of microglial activation and an increase in expression of BDNF and synapsin. The data support the notion that intestinal microbiota can be manipulated to positively impact on neuronal function.

  6. Long-term fluoxetine treatment induces input-specific LTP and LTD impairment and structural plasticity in the CA1 hippocampal subfield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Francisco J; Ampuero, Estíbaliz; Sandoval, Rodrigo; Toledo, Jorge; Pancetti, Floria; Wyneken, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    Antidepressant drugs are usually administered for several weeks for the treatment of major depressive disorder. However, they are also prescribed in several additional psychiatric conditions as well as during long-term maintenance treatments. Antidepressants induce adaptive changes in several forebrain structures which include modifications at glutamatergic synapses. We recently found that repetitive administration of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine to naïve adult male rats induced an increase of mature, mushroom-type dendritic spines in several forebrain regions. This was associated with an increase of GluA2-containing α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptors (AMPA-Rs) in telencephalic postsynaptic densities. To unravel the functional significance of such a synaptic re-arrangement, we focused on glutamate neurotransmission in the hippocampus. We evaluated the effect of four weeks of 0.7 mg/kg fluoxetine on long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) in the CA1 hippocampal subfield. Recordings in hippocampal slices revealed profound deficits in LTP and LTD at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses associated to increased spine density and enhanced presence of mushroom-type spines, as revealed by Golgi staining. However, the same treatment had neither an effect on spine morphology, nor on LTP and LTD at perforant path-CA1 synapses. Cobalt staining and immunohistochemical experiments revealed decreased AMPA-R Ca(2+) permeability in the stratum radiatum (s.r.) together with increased GluA2-containing Ca(2+) impermeable AMPA-Rs. Therefore, 4 weeks of fluoxetine treatment promoted structural and functional adaptations in CA1 neurons in a pathway-specific manner that were selectively associated with impairment of activity-dependent plasticity at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses.

  7. KCNQ/Kv7 channel activator flupirtine protects against acute stress-induced impairments of spatial memory retrieval and hippocampal LTP in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Huang, P; Lu, Q; Zhou, M; Guo, L; Xu, X

    2014-11-07

    Spatial memory retrieval and hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) are impaired by stress. KCNQ/Kv7 channels are closely associated with memory and the KCNQ/Kv7 channel activator flupirtine represents neuroprotective effects. This study aims to test whether KCNQ/Kv7 channel activation prevents acute stress-induced impairments of spatial memory retrieval and hippocampal LTP. Rats were placed on an elevated platform in the middle of a bright room for 30 min to evoke acute stress. The expression of KCNQ/Kv7 subunits was analyzed at 1, 3 and 12 h after stress by Western blotting. Spatial memory was examined by the Morris water maze (MWM) and the field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) in the hippocampal CA1 area was recorded in vivo. Acute stress transiently decreased the expression of KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 in the hippocampus. Acute stress impaired the spatial memory retrieval and hippocampal LTP, the KCNQ/Kv7 channel activator flupirtine prevented the impairments, and the protective effects of flupirtine were blocked by XE-991 (10,10-bis(4-Pyridinylmethyl)-9(10H)-anthracenone), a selective KCNQ channel blocker. Furthermore, acute stress decreased the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) at Ser9 in the hippocampus, and flupirtine inhibited the reduction. These results suggest that the KCNQ/Kv7 channels may be a potential target for protecting both hippocampal synaptic plasticity and spatial memory retrieval from acute stress influences. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A pre-docking source for the power-law behavior of spontaneous quantal release: application to the analysis of LTP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo eLamanna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In neurons, power-law behavior with different scaling exponents has been reported at many different levels, including fluctuations in membrane potentials, synaptic transmission up to neuronal network dynamics. Unfortunately in most cases the source of this non-linear feature remains controversial. Here we have analyzed the dynamics of spontaneous quantal release at hippocampal synapses and characterized their power-law behavior. While in control conditions a fractal exponent greater than zero was rarely observed, its value was greatly increased by α-latrotoxin (α-LTX, a potent stimulator of spontaneous release, known to act at the very last step of vesicle fusion. Based on computer modeling, we confirmed that at an increase in fusion probability would unmask a pre-docking phenomenon with 1/f structure, where α estimated from the release series appears to sense the increase in release probability independently from the number of active sites. In the simplest scenario the pre-docking 1/f process could coincide with the Brownian diffusion of synaptic vesicles. Interestingly, when the effect of long-term potentiation (LTP was tested, a ~200% long-lasting increase in quantal frequency was accompanied by a significant increase in the scaling exponent. The similarity between the action of LTP and of α-LTX suggests an increased contribution of high release probability sites following the induction of LTP. In conclusion, our results indicate that the source of the synaptic power-law behavior arises before synaptic vesicles dock to the active zone and that the fractal exponent α is capable of sensing a change in release probability independently from the number of active sites or synapses.

  9. INHIBITIVE EFFECTS OF ELECTROACUPUNCTUROACUPUNCTURE ON LTP OF SYNAPIIC IRRANSMIS-SION TO FACILITATED BY EXCITOMOTOR OF IGLURS INTRATHECAL ADMINISTRA-TION IN SPINAL DORSAL HORN OF RATS%电针抑制iGluRs激动剂鞘内给药易化的大鼠脊髓背角突触传递LTP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马骋; 冯克辉; 闰丽萍

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To observe the inhibitive effects of electroacupuncture(EA)on long-term potentia- tion(LTP)of C-fiber evoked potentials in the spinal dorsal horn facilitated by excitomotor of NMDA or AMPA receptors,and explore the analgesia mechanism of acupuncture in neuropathic pain.Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 7 groups:control,NMDA(NMDA)IntratheCal administration(i. t.),AMPA([±]-AMPA HBr)i.t.,EA+NMDA i.t.,EA+AMPA i.t.,NMDA i.t.+EA,and AMPA i.t+EA.The rats were fixed on stereotaxic instrument after anesthesia.C-fiber evoked field potentials in the spinal dorsal horn(L4/L5)were recorded by extracellular recording.The test stimulus was given in single pulse with 2mA,0.5ms,100Hz,5min each once on the sciatic nerve.The lower intensity high- frequency train plus stimulus(HFS)wag given in 4 trains of 1 S duration at 10s intervals with 2mA,0. 5ms,lOOHz on same place.The NMDA or[±]-AMPA HBr(40pg)was injected with i.t.,to excite the related receptor.On GB30 and BL40,EA Wag acupunctured with 1mA,2Hz,30min.Results:In the con- trol,the variation rate of evoked potentials showed no significant differences compared with before or after HFS.After excitomotor i.t then lower intensity HFS.the LTP was induced significantly and com- pared with control(P<0.01).The exeitomotor i.t.and HFS after EA,the LTP was inhibited markedly (P<0.01).After the LTP was steady kept lhr induced by the excitomotor i.t.and HFS,the EA was operated.In NMDA i.t.+EA,LTP was inhibited markedly(P<0.01);In AMPA i.t.+EA,the LTP was step down significantly(PLTP on spinal dorsal hom to facilitated by excitomotor of iGluRs WaS inhibited by EA.The results indi- cate that the abnormal excitability of neuron in the spinal dorsal horn with neuropathic pain Was inhibited by EA,which might be the postsynaptic mecharism underlying EA analgesia.%目的:观察电针对离子型谷氨酸受体(iGluRs)激动剂易化脊髓背角神经元

  10. Cloning and Characterization of a Genic Male Sterility-related Gene BrLTP1 in Chinese Cabbage%大白菜核雄性不育相关基因BrLTP1的克隆及特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志勇; 叶雪凌; 李承彧; 冯辉

    2011-01-01

    利用cDNA-AFLP技术分析大白菜核雄性不育两用系'AB02'可育株(msms)和不育株(Msms)花蕾的基因表达谱,在可育株混合花蕾cDNA中扩增出1条特异条带TDF-25,通过RACE和RT-PCR技术克隆了该基因的全长cDNA序列.序列分析表明,该基因编码脂质转移蛋白,命名为BrLTP1.BrLTP1全长cDNA序列为750 bp,推测编码1个包含183个氨基酸残基的前体蛋白.BrLTP1蛋白含有典型的脂质转移蛋白N端信号肽,保守的AAI结构域和半胱氨酸位点.预测BrLTP1蛋白含有多种修饰性位点,包括1个PKC磷酸化位点,2个N-糖基化位点和10个N-端豆蔻酰基化位点.基因表达模式表明,BrLTP1在两用系不育株花蕾中受到强烈抑制,在可育株的大花蕾、成熟花药以及花瓣中高水平表达.%The gene differential expression analysis was performed by cDNA-AFLP in the genic male sterile line ‘AB02' of Chinese cabbage, and a differentially expressed cDNA fragment, TDF-25, was only found in fertile plants. The full-length cDNA of BrLTPl, coding lipid transfer protein in Chinese cabbage, was amplified by RACE and RT-PCR. The BrLTPl gene was 750 bp long in cDNA and hypothetical protein BrLTPl included 183 amino acids with a signal peptide of 22 amino acids. Sequence analysis revealed that the BrLTPl protein has ten N-myristoylation sites, two N-myristoylation sites, and one PKC phosphorylation site. Gene expression characteristics indicated that BrLTPl was highly expressed in big flower buds and mature anthers of fertile plants, with a extremely low expression level in sterile buds.

  11. Two-Stage Translational Control of Dentate Gyrus LTP Consolidation Is Mediated by Sustained BDNF-TrkB Signaling to MNK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debabrata Panja

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BDNF signaling contributes to protein-synthesis-dependent synaptic plasticity, but the dynamics of TrkB signaling and mechanisms of translation have not been defined. Here, we show that long-term potentiation (LTP consolidation in the dentate gyrus of live rodents requires sustained (hours BDNF-TrkB signaling. Surprisingly, this sustained activation maintains an otherwise labile signaling pathway from TrkB to MAP-kinase-interacting kinase (MNK. MNK activity promotes eIF4F translation initiation complex formation and protein synthesis in mechanistically distinct early and late stages. In early-stage translation, MNK triggers release of the CYFIP1/FMRP repressor complex from the 5′-mRNA cap. In late-stage translation, MNK regulates the canonical translational repressor 4E-BP2 in a synapse-compartment-specific manner. This late stage is coupled to MNK-dependent enhanced dendritic mRNA translation. We conclude that LTP consolidation in the dentate gyrus is mediated by sustained BDNF signaling to MNK and MNK-dependent regulation of translation in two functionally and mechanistically distinct stages.

  12. Structural and functional characteristics of two novel members of pathogensis-related multigene family of class 10 from yellow lupine+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Luiza; Femiak, Iwona; Kasperska, Alina; Figlerowicz, Marek; Sikorski, Michał M

    2007-01-01

    PR-10 proteins (pathogensis-related), ubiquitous within the plant kingdom, are usually encoded by multigene families. To date we have identified 10 homologous pr-10 genes in a yellow lupine cDNA library. Here, the structure and expression of two newly identified yellow lupine pr-10 genes (LlYpr10-2b and LlYpr10-2f) are presented. Many potential regulatory sites were found in both gene promoters including common ones as well as those unique for each gene. However, promoter deletion analysis in transgenic tobacco plants revealed similar patterns of reporter gene (gus) expression. Shortened fragments of both gene promoters studied caused high GUS activity in leaves (along vascular bundles), stamen stigma, anthers and pollen grains. When conjugated with longer LlYpr-10.2 promoter fragments, GUS was additionally present in petal edges. Only a long fragment of the LlYpr10-2b gene promoter caused GUS expression in the stem. In yellow lupine the pr-10.2 genes are present in all studied organs, but their level of expression depends on the stage of development and is affected by wounding, oxidative stress and salicylic acid treatment. Silencing of the Llpr-10.2b gene in 4-week-old yellow lupine plants did not lead to any visible symptoms, which suggests that the function of the silenced gene is supplemented by its close homologues, still present in the studied plants.

  13. 8-Br-cAMP对脊髓背角C-纤维诱发电位LTP的影响%The effects of 8-Br-Camp on LTP of C-fiber evoked field potentials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨红卫; 张红梅; 信文君; 张彤; 刘先国

    2005-01-01

    目的探讨cAMP类似物8-Br-cAMP对脊髓长时程增强(LTP)的诱导和维持的影响.方法采用SD大鼠,常规细胞外记录技术记录脊髓背角腰膨大部位浅层C-纤维诱发电位.结果①8-Br-cAMP(1 mmol/L)可诱发脊髓背角C-纤维诱发电位的LTP.②强直刺激坐骨神经可诱导脊髓LTP.③8-Br-cAMP诱发的脊髓突触增强未能咬合强直刺激诱导的脊髓LTP.④强直刺激诱导的脊髓LTP后30 min,脊髓表面加入8-Br-cAMP(1 mmol/L)可使C-纤维诱发电位显著增大.结论强直电刺激诱导的LTP与8-Br-cAMP诱导的LTP可能是通过不同的机制实现的;8-Br-cAMP诱导的LTP可能是通过cAMP信号转导途径起作用.

  14. Acquisition of contextual discrimination involves the appearance of a RAS-GRF1/p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-mediated signaling pathway that promotes long term potentiation (LTP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shan-Xue; Arai, Junko; Tian, Xuejun; Kumar-Singh, Rajendra; Feig, Larry A

    2013-07-26

    RAS-GRF1 is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor with the ability to activate RAS and RAC GTPases in response to elevated calcium levels. We previously showed that beginning at 1 month of age, RAS-GRF1 mediates NMDA-type glutamate receptor (NMDAR)-induction of long term depression in the CA1 region of the hippocampus of mice. Here we show that beginning at 2 months of age, when mice first acquire the ability to discriminate between closely related contexts, RAS-GRF1 begins to contribute to the induction of long term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 hippocampus by mediating the action of calcium-permeable, AMPA-type glutamate receptors (CP-AMPARs). Surprisingly, LTP induction by CP-AMPARs through RAS-GRF1 occurs via activation of p38 MAP kinase rather than ERK MAP kinase, which has more frequently been linked to LTP. Moreover, contextual discrimination is blocked by knockdown of Ras-Grf1 expression specifically in the CA1 hippocampus, infusion of a p38 MAP kinase inhibitor into the CA1 hippocampus, or the injection of an inhibitor of CP-AMPARs. These findings implicate the CA1 hippocampus in the developmentally dependent capacity to distinguish closely related contexts through the appearance of a novel LTP-supporting signaling pathway.

  15. LTP研究进展(Ⅲ)——LTP和神经趋向因子%Recent advances in the study of long-term potentiation( part Ⅲ) -LTP and Neurotrophin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 叶桂兰

    2002-01-01

    长时程增强(LTP)是学习和记忆过程的分子水平现象.参与LTP机制的因素很多,最近研究发现神经趋向因子,特别是其中的脑衍生的神经趋向因子(BDNF)对LTP起着重要的调节作用,而且对短时程及长时程突触可塑性均有影响.已经明确的神经趋向因子的功能包括调节神经分化,神经元轴突和树突的生长和修复,以及突触形成.本文综述了BDNF与LTP相关性的实验性根据.总结了BDNF通过突触前以及突触后机制影响LTP的引发和后期维持.BDNF的直接作用机制是作用于突触前后膜上的受体,导致突触前递质小泡增多从而增加递质释放.在突触后引起突触后膜去极化,从而打开电压依赖性钙通道、钙离子浓度增高,最终导致AMPA受体数目增多,功能强化,产生LTP.%Long-term potentiation (LTP) is believed underlined learning and memory. Recent research has attracted to brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) that may affect synaptic plasticity in both short- and long-term actions at the synapse. In vitro, neurotrophin regulate neuronal differentiation, axonal and dendritic growth and repair, synaptic formation, and synaptic plasticity. Here we summarized the experimental evidence linking BDNF to LTP. BDNF plays a role in LTP induction and late phase maintenance. The actions of BDNF are mediated by the TrkB receptor tyrosine kinase. BDNF potentiate LTP by modulating the number of docked vesicles and the level of vesicle protein on pre-synapse to increase neurotransmitter release, and by inducing postsynaptic depolarization to open voltage dependent Ca2+ channels. We also introduced the effects of LTP on the secretion of the neurotrophin. The experimental evidence strongly supports a role for BDNF in synaptic plasticity and should prompt further exploration of their functions at the synapse.

  16. Automated suppression of errors in LTP-II slope measurements of x-ray optics. Part 2: Specification for automated rotating/flipping/aligning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Zulfiqar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yashchuk, Valeriy V. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-07-11

    Systematic error and instrumental drift are the major limiting factors of sub-microradian slope metrology with state-of-the-art x-ray optics. Significant suppression of the errors can be achieved by using an optimal measurement strategy suggested in [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 115101 (2009)]. With this series of LSBL Notes, we report on development of an automated, kinematic, rotational system that provides fully controlled flipping, tilting, and shifting of a surface under test. The system is integrated into the Advanced Light Source long trace profiler, LTP-II, allowing for complete realization of the advantages of the optimal measurement strategy method. We provide details of the system?s design, operational control and data acquisition. The high performance of the system is demonstrated via the results of high precision measurements with a spherical test mirror.

  17. How Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors, the kinase PKA, and the phosphatase PP2B are intertwined in synaptic LTP and LTD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hell, Johannes W

    2016-04-26

    Both synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) are thought to be critical for memory formation. Dell'Acqua and co-workers now demonstrate that transient postsynaptic incorporation of Ca(2+)-permeable (CP) α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) is required for LTD in the exemplary hippocampal CA1 region in 2-week-old mice. Mechanistically, LTD depends on AKAP150-anchored protein kinase A (PKA) to promote the initial functional recruitment of CP-AMPARs during LTD induction and on AKAP150-anchored protein phosphatase 2B (PP2B) to trigger their subsequent removal as part of the lasting depression of synaptic transmission.

  18. Allergenic lipid transfer proteins from plant-derived foods do not immunologically and clinically behave homogeneously: the kiwifruit LTP as a model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Livia Bernardi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Food allergy is increasingly common worldwide. Tools for allergy diagnosis measuring IgE improved much since allergenic molecules and microarrays started to be used. IgE response toward allergens belonging to the same group of molecules has not been comprehensively explored using such approach yet. OBJECTIVE: Using the model of lipid transfer proteins (LTPs from plants as allergens, including two new structures, we sought to define how heterogeneous is the behavior of homologous proteins. METHODS: Two new allergenic LTPs, Act d 10 and Act c 10, have been identified in green (Actinidia deliciosa and gold (Actinidia chinensis kiwifruit (KF, respectively, using clinically characterized allergic patients, and their biochemical features comparatively evaluated by means of amino acid sequence alignments. Along with other five LTPs from peach, mulberry, hazelnut, peanut, mugwort, KF LTPs, preliminary tested positive for IgE, have been immobilized on a microarray, used for IgE testing 1,003 allergic subjects. Comparative analysis has been carried out. RESULTS: Alignment of Act d 10 primary structure with the other allergenic LTPs shows amino acid identities to be in a narrow range between 40 and 55%, with a number of substitutions making the sequences quite different from each other. Although peach LTP dominates the IgE immune response in terms of prevalence, epitope recognition driven by sequence heterogeneity has been recorded to be distributed in a wide range of behaviors. KF LTPs IgE positive results were obtained in a patient subset IgE positive for the peach LTP. Anyhow, the negative results on homologous molecules allowed us to reintroduce KF in patients' diet. CONCLUSION: The biochemical nature of allergenic molecule belonging to a group of homologous ones should not be taken as proof of immunological recognition as well. The availability of panels of homologous molecules to be tested using microarrays is valuable to address the

  19. Test-Retest Reliability of 10 Hz Conditioning Electrical Stimulation Inducing Long-Term Potentiation (LTP)-Like Pain Amplification in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Weiwei; Mørch, Carsten Dahl; Andersen, Ole Kæseler

    2016-01-01

    Background 10 Hz conditioning electrical stimulation (CES) has been shown to induce long-term potentiation (LTP)-like pain amplification similar to traditional 100 Hz CES in healthy humans. The aim of this study was to assess the test-retest reliability and to estimate sample sizes required for future crossover and parallel study designs. Methods The 10 Hz paradigm (500 rectangular pulses lasting 50 s) was repeated on two separate days with one week interval in twenty volunteers. Perceptual intensities to single electrical stimulation (SES) at the conditioned skin site and to mechanical stimuli (pinprick and light stroking) in immediate vicinity to the conditioned skin site were recorded. Superficial blood flow (SBF) was assessed as indicator of neurogenic inflammation. All outcome measures were assessed with 10 min interval three times before and six times after the CES. The coefficient of variation and intra-class correlation coefficient were calculated within session and between sessions. Sample sizes were estimated for future crossover (Ncr) and parallel (Np) drug testing studies expected to detect a 30% decrease for the individual outcome measure following 10 Hz CES. Results Perceptual intensity ratings to light stroking (Ncr = 2, Np = 33) and pinprick stimulation (491 mN) (Ncr = 6, Np = 54) increased after CES and showed better reliability in crossover than parallel design. The SBF increased after CES, and then declined until reaching a plateau 20 minutes postCES. SBF showed acceptable reliability both in crossover and parallel designs (Ncr = 3, Np = 13). Pain ratings to SES were reliable, but with large estimated sample sizes (Ncr = 634, Np = 11310) due to the minor pain amplification. Conclusions The reliability of 10 Hz CES was acceptable in inducing LTP-like effects in the assessments of superficial blood flow, heterotopic mechanical hyperalgesia, and dysesthesia in terms of sample sizes for future crossover study designs. PMID:27529175

  20. Chronic nicotine restores normal Aβ levels and prevents short-term memory and E-LTP impairment in Aβ rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivareerat, Marisa; Tran, Trinh T; Salim, Samina; Aleisa, Abdulaziz M; Alkadhi, Karim A

    2011-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by increased deposition of beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptides and progressive cholinergic dysfunction in regions of the brain involved in learning and memory processing. In AD, progressive accumulation of Aβ peptide impairs nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) function by an unknown mechanism believed to involve α(7)- and α(4)β(2)-nAChR blockade. The three approaches of the current study evaluated the effects of chronic nicotine treatment in the prevention of Aβ-induced impairment of learning and short-term memory. Rat AD model was induced by 14-day i.c.v. osmotic pump infusion of a 1:1 mixture of 300 pmol/day Aβ(1-40)/Aβ(1-42) or Aβ(40-1) (inactive peptide, control). The effect of nicotine (2 mg/(kg day)) on Aβ-induced spatial learning and memory impairments was assessed by evaluation of performance in the radial arm water maze (RAWM), in vivo electrophysiological recordings of early-phase long-term potentiation (E-LTP) in urethane-anesthetized rats, and immunoblot analysis to determine changes in the levels of beta-site amyloid precursor protein (APP)-cleaving enzyme (BACE), Aβ and memory-related proteins. The results indicate that 6 weeks of nicotine treatment reduced the levels of Aβ(1-40) and BACE1 peptides in hippocampal area CA1 and prevented Aβ-induced impairment of learning and short-term memory. Chronic nicotine also prevented the Aβ-induced inhibition of basal synaptic transmission and LTP in hippocampal area CA1. Furthermore, chronic nicotine treatment prevented the Aβ-induced reduction of α(7)- and α(4)-nAChR. These effects of nicotine may be due, at least in part, to upregulation of brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF).

  1. MSI.R scripts reveal volatile and semi-volatile features in low-temperature plasma mass spectrometry imaging (LTP-MSI) of chilli (Capsicum annuum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa-Becerra, Roberto; Ramírez-Chávez, Enrique; Molina-Torres, Jorge; Winkler, Robert

    2015-07-01

    In cartography, the combination of colour and contour lines is used to express a three-dimensional landscape on a two-dimensional map. We transferred this concept to the analysis of mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) data and developed a collection of R scripts for the efficient evaluation of .imzML archives in a four-step strategy: (1) calculation of the density distribution of mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) signals in the .imzML file and assembling of a pseudo-master spectrum with peak list, (2) automated generation of mass images for a defined scan range and subsequent visual inspection, (3) visualisation of individual ion distributions and export of relevant .mzML spectra and (4) creation of overlay graphics of ion images and photographies. The use of a Hue-Chroma-Luminance (HCL) colour model in MSI graphics takes into account the human perception for colours and supports the correct evaluation of signal intensities. Further, readers with colour blindness are supported. Contour maps promote the visual recognition of patterns in MSI data, which is particularly useful for noisy data sets. We demonstrate the scalability of MSI.R scripts by running them on different systems: on a personal computer, on Amazon Web Services (AWS) instances and on an institutional cluster. By implementing a parallel computing strategy, the execution speed for .imzML data scanning with image generation could be improved by more than an order of magnitude. Applying our MSI.R scripts ( http://www.bioprocess.org/MSI.R ) to low-temperature plasma (LTP)-MSI data shows the localisation of volatile and semi-volatile compounds in the cross-cut of a chilli (Capsicum annuum) fruit. The subsequent identification of compounds by gas and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS, LC-MS) proves that LTP-MSI enables the direct measurement of volatile organic compound (VOC) distributions from biological tissues.

  2. Triadic Interactions in Families of Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa and Families of Adolescents with Internalizing Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balottin, Laura; Mannarini, Stefania; Mensi, Martina M.; Chiappedi, Matteo; Gatta, Michela

    2017-01-01

    The latest studies and practice guidelines for the treatment of adolescent patients with anorexia nervosa agree in pointing out the key role played by parents in determining the young patients’ therapeutic possibilities and outcomes. Still family functioning has usually been studied using only self-reported instruments. The aim of the present study is therefore to investigate the triadic interactions within the families of adolescents with anorexia nervosa using a semi-standardized observational tool based on a recorded play session, the Lausanne Trilogue Play (LTP). Parents and adolescent daughters, consecutively referred to adolescent neuropsychiatric services, participated in the study and underwent the observational procedure (LTP). The 20 families of adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa (restricting type) were compared with 20 families of patients with internalizing disorders (anxiety and depression). The results showed different interactive patterns in the families of adolescents with anorexia nervosa: they had greater difficulties in respecting roles during the play, maintaining the joint attention and in sharing positive affect, especially in the three-together phase (third phase). The majority of these families (12) exhibited collusive alliances. The parental subsystem appeared frequently unable to maintain a structuring role, i.e., providing help, support and guidance to the daughters, while the girls in turn often found it hard to show independent ideas and develop personal projects. Parents experienced difficulty in carving out a couple-specific relational space, from which the ill daughter was at least temporarily excluded also when they were asked to continue to interact with each other, letting the daughter be simply present in a third-part position (fourth phase). The study of the triadic interactions in the families of adolescents with anorexia nervosa may help to shift the attention from the exclusive mother–daughter relation to the

  3. Triadic Interactions in Families of Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa and Families of Adolescents with Internalizing Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balottin, Laura; Mannarini, Stefania; Mensi, Martina M; Chiappedi, Matteo; Gatta, Michela

    2016-01-01

    The latest studies and practice guidelines for the treatment of adolescent patients with anorexia nervosa agree in pointing out the key role played by parents in determining the young patients' therapeutic possibilities and outcomes. Still family functioning has usually been studied using only self-reported instruments. The aim of the present study is therefore to investigate the triadic interactions within the families of adolescents with anorexia nervosa using a semi-standardized observational tool based on a recorded play session, the Lausanne Trilogue Play (LTP). Parents and adolescent daughters, consecutively referred to adolescent neuropsychiatric services, participated in the study and underwent the observational procedure (LTP). The 20 families of adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa (restricting type) were compared with 20 families of patients with internalizing disorders (anxiety and depression). The results showed different interactive patterns in the families of adolescents with anorexia nervosa: they had greater difficulties in respecting roles during the play, maintaining the joint attention and in sharing positive affect, especially in the three-together phase (third phase). The majority of these families (12) exhibited collusive alliances. The parental subsystem appeared frequently unable to maintain a structuring role, i.e., providing help, support and guidance to the daughters, while the girls in turn often found it hard to show independent ideas and develop personal projects. Parents experienced difficulty in carving out a couple-specific relational space, from which the ill daughter was at least temporarily excluded also when they were asked to continue to interact with each other, letting the daughter be simply present in a third-part position (fourth phase). The study of the triadic interactions in the families of adolescents with anorexia nervosa may help to shift the attention from the exclusive mother-daughter relation to the involvement

  4. Dissolved families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    The situation in the family preceding a family separation is studied here, to identify risk factors for family dissolution. Information registers covering prospective statistics about health aspects, demographic variables, family violence, self-destructive behaviour, unemployment, and the spousal...

  5. Dissolved families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    The situation in the family preceding a family separation is studied here, to identify risk factors for family dissolution. Information registers covering prospective statistics about health aspects, demographic variables, family violence, self-destructive behaviour, unemployment, and the spousal...

  6. Family Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Family and Friends > Family Life Request Permissions Family Life Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... your outlook on the future. Friends and adult family members The effects of cancer on your relationships ...

  7. LTP的研究进展(Ⅱ)--LTP的转基因研究%Recent advances in the study of long-term potentiation(part II)--transgenic study of LTP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张嘉伟; 叶桂兰

    2002-01-01

    LTP研究在近十余年来一直是热点课题.尽管LTP是否是学习和记忆的基础仍有争议,肯定性的研究结果日趋增加,所以LTP仍吸引着大量研究工作者.近年来随着分子生物学技术的进步,人们得以借助转基因手段研究疾病相关性基因及其蛋白质,以及不明功能的基因和蛋白.转基因动物模型更是给难以模拟的Alzheimer氏病的研究极大推动.2001年人类基因组序列研究结果报告对医学科学的发展影响深远.应用转基因模型的手段进一步深入各研究领域.近几年来神经工作者借助转基因手段,对LTP的分子机制有了进一步认识.本文概括性介绍了这方面的有趣研究,希望读者能大致了解LTP研究进展,同时领悟转基因技术的推动力.%There is more and more evidence showing long term potentiation (LTP) is underling learning and memory even though it is still controversy and the mechanism behind LTP has not yet been completely understood. It is known that memory processes and long-term potentiation (LTP) are blocked at the time of their initiation by antagonists of glutamate NMDA or metabotropic receptors, and GABA-A receptor agonists. Following initiation, memory and LTP are accompanied by an enhancement of the activity of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and of protein kinase C. At the time of expression, LTP is blocked by antagonists of glutamate AMPA receptors. In recent five years, with advanced molecular biology techniques, scientist could use transgenic and knock out mice to explore what happens to LTP and learning and memory when specific disease related or novel gene was overexpressed or deleted. Therefore cellular and molecular mechanisms of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity are understood in a new level. Here we introduced recent research work on LTP with transgenic approach in hope to inspire interest in genomic and protenomic technology. We will continue to discuss BDNF and LTP and

  8. Screening and identification of putative allergens in berry fruits of the Rosaceae family: technical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzban, Gorji; Maghuly, Fatemeh; Herndl, Anita; Katinger, Hermann; Laimer, Margit

    2008-01-01

    Cross-reactive proteins in small fruits of the Rosaceae family like strawberry, raspberry and blackberry revealed an unexpected complex IgE-reactivity pattern. Several copies of PR-10 and PR-14 proteins were detected by Southern blots in strawberry, raspberry and blackberry. In raspberry, the highest similarity at the DNA level for PR-10 and PR-14 (Rub i 1 and Rub i 3) was detected to strawberry sequences of Fra a 1 and Fra a 3. At the protein level, Rub i 1 and Rub i 3 showed more than 70% identity with homologous proteins of rosaceous fruits. Furthermore, raspberries contained additional putative allergens, e.g. class III acidic chitinases and cyclophilins. Blackberries were shown to share at least two well-known major fruit allergens with other rosaceous fruits, namely PR-10s and PR-14s homologous proteins. However the IgE-reactive proteins of small fruits are still not extensively investigated. The main challenges in studying small fruit allergens are the complexity of the fruit matrix, the diversity of physico-chemical properties of fruit proteins, the lack of appropriate protein extraction procedures and the missing information about the influence of processing treatments on food components.

  9. Group I mGluR antagonist rescues the deficit of D1-induced LTP in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhao-Hui

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fragile X syndrome (FXS is caused by the absence of the mRNA-binding protein Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP, encoded by the Fmr1 gene. Overactive signaling by group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor (Grp1 mGluR could contribute to slowed synaptic development and other symptoms of FXS. Our previous study has identified that facilitation of synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP by D1 receptor is impaired in Fmr1 knockout (KO mice. However, the contribution of Grp1 mGluR to the facilitation of synaptic plasticity by D1 receptor stimulation in the prefrontal cortex has been less extensively studied. Results Here we demonstrated that DL-AP3, a Grp1 mGluR antagonist, rescued LTP facilitation by D1 receptor agonist SKF81297 in Fmr1KO mice. Grp1 mGluR inhibition restored the GluR1-subtype AMPA receptors surface insertion by D1 activation in the cultured Fmr1KO neurons. Simultaneous treatment of Grp1 mGluR antagonist with D1 agonist recovered the D1 receptor signaling by reversing the subcellular redistribution of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2 in the Fmr1KO neurons. Treatment of SKF81297 alone failed to increase the phosphorylation of NR2B-containing N-methyl D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs at Tyr-1472 (p-NR2B-Tyr1472 in the cultures from KO mice. However, simultaneous treatment of DL-AP3 could rescue the level of p-NR2B-Tyr1472 by SKF81297 in the cultures from KO mice. Furthermore, behavioral tests indicated that simultaneous treatment of Grp1 mGluR antagonist with D1 agonist inhibited hyperactivity and improved the learning ability in the Fmr1KO mice. Conclusion The findings demonstrate that mGluR1 inhibition is a useful strategy to recover D1 receptor signaling in the Fmr1KO mice, and combination of Grp1 mGluR antagonist and D1 agonist is a potential drug therapy for the FXS.

  10. Family Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be credentialed by the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy (AAMFT). Family therapy is often short term. ... challenging situations in a more effective way. References Marriage and family therapists: The friendly mental health professionals. American Association ...

  11. Familial hypertriglyceridemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000397.htm Familial hypertriglyceridemia To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Familial hypertriglyceridemia is a common disorder passed down through families. ...

  12. Family Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Family Meals KidsHealth > For Parents > Family Meals Print A ... even more important as kids get older. Making Family Meals Happen It can be a big challenge ...

  13. Family Arguments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Family Arguments Page Content Article Body We seem to ...

  14. Family History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  15. Ischemic-LTP in striatal spiny neurons of both direct and indirect pathway requires the activation of D1-like receptors and NO/soluble guanylate cyclase/cGMP transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Arcangeli, Sara; Amoroso, Salvatore; Calabresi, Paolo; Costa, Cinzia; Fusco, Francesca Romana; Di Filippo, Massimiliano; Spaccatini, Cristiano; de Iure, Antonio; Picconi, Barbara; Giampa, Carmen; Tantucci, Michela; Tozzi, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) are highly vulnerable to ischemia. A brief ischemic insult, produced by oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD), can induce ischemic long-term potentiation (i-LTP) of corticostriatal excitatory postsynaptic response. Since nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the pathophysiology of brain ischemia and the dopamine D1/D5-receptors (D1-like-R) are expressed in striatal NOS-positive interneurons, we hypothesized a relation between NOS-positive interneurons and ...

  16. Melatonin Alleviates the Epilepsy-Associated Impairments in Hippocampal LTP and Spatial Learning Through Rescue of Surface GluR2 Expression at Hippocampal CA1 Synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yue; Sun, Xiaolong; Li, Juan; Jia, Ruihua; Yuan, Fang; Wei, Dong; Jiang, Wen

    2017-02-18

    Epilepsy-associated cognitive impairment is common, and negatively impacts patients' quality of life. However, most antiepileptic drugs focus on the suppression of seizures, and fewer emphasize treatment of cognitive dysfunction. Melatonin, an indolamine synthesized primarily in the pineal grand, is reported to be neuroprotective against several central nervous system disorders. In this study, we investigated whether melatonin could reverse cognitive dysfunction in lithium-pilocarpine treated rats. Chronic treatment with melatonin (8 mg/kg daily for 15 days) after induction of status epilepticus significantly alleviated seizure severity, reduced neuronal death in the CA1 region of the hippocampus, improved spatial learning (as measured by the Morris water maze test), and reversed LTP impairments, compared to vehicle treatment. Furthermore, we found that melatonin rescued the decreased surface levels of GluR2 in the CA1 region observed in epilepsy, which might be the underlying mechanism of the neuroprotective and synapse-modulating function of melatonin. Our study provides experimental evidence for the possible clinical utility of melatonin as an adjunctive therapy to prevent epilepsy-associated cognitive impairments.

  17. Family Privilege

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seita, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Family privilege is defined as "strengths and supports gained through primary caring relationships." A generation ago, the typical family included two parents and a bevy of kids living under one roof. Now, every variation of blended caregiving qualifies as family. But over the long arc of human history, a real family was a…

  18. Family Privilege

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seita, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Family privilege is defined as "strengths and supports gained through primary caring relationships." A generation ago, the typical family included two parents and a bevy of kids living under one roof. Now, every variation of blended caregiving qualifies as family. But over the long arc of human history, a real family was a…

  19. EphA4 Activation of c-Abl Mediates Synaptic Loss and LTP Blockade Caused by Amyloid-β Oligomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Vargas, Lina; Leal, Nancy; Estrada, Lisbell D.; González, Adrian; Serrano, Felipe; Araya, Katherine; Gysling, Katia; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.; Pasquale, Elena B.; Alvarez, Alejandra R.

    2014-01-01

    The early stages of Alzheimer's disease are characterised by impaired synaptic plasticity and synapse loss. Here, we show that amyloid-β oligomers (AβOs) activate the c-Abl kinase in dendritic spines of cultured hippocampal neurons and that c-Abl kinase activity is required for AβOs-induced synaptic loss. We also show that the EphA4 receptor tyrosine kinase is upstream of c-Abl activation by AβOs. EphA4 tyrosine phosphorylation (activation) is increased in cultured neurons and synaptoneurosomes exposed to AβOs, and in Alzheimer-transgenic mice brain. We do not detect c-Abl activation in EphA4-knockout neurons exposed to AβOs. More interestingly, we demonstrate EphA4/c-Abl activation is a key-signalling event that mediates the synaptic damage induced by AβOs. According to this results, the EphA4 antagonistic peptide KYL and c-Abl inhibitor STI prevented i) dendritic spine reduction, ii) the blocking of LTP induction and iii) neuronal apoptosis caused by AβOs. Moreover, EphA4-/- neurons or sh-EphA4-transfected neurons showed reduced synaptotoxicity by AβOs. Our results are consistent with EphA4 being a novel receptor that mediates synaptic damage induced by AβOs. EphA4/c-Abl signalling could be a relevant pathway involved in the early cognitive decline observed in Alzheimer's disease patients. PMID:24658113

  20. Reduction in LFP cross-frequency coupling between theta and gamma rhythms associated with impaired STP and LTP in a rat model of brain ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaxia; Zheng, Chenguang; Zhang, Tao

    2013-01-01

    The theta-gamma cross-frequency coupling (CFC) in hippocampus was reported to reflect memory process. In this study, we measured the CFC of hippocampal local field potentials (LFPs) in a two-vessel occlusion (2VO) rat model, combined with both amplitude and phase properties and associated with short and long-term plasticity indicating the memory function. Male Wistar rats were used and a 2VO model was established. STP and LTP were recorded in hippocampal CA3-CA1 pathway after LFPs were collected in both CA3 and CA1. Based on the data of relative power spectra and phase synchronization, it suggested that both the amplitude and phase coupling of either theta or gamma rhythm were involved in modulating the neural network in 2VO rats. In order to determine whether the CFC was also implicated in neural impairment in 2VO rats, the coupling of CA3 theta-CA1 gamma was measured by both phase-phase coupling (n:m phase synchronization) and phase-amplitude coupling. The attenuated CFC strength in 2VO rats implied the impaired neural communication in the coordination of theta-gamma entraining process. Moreover, compared with modulation index (MI) a novel algorithm named cross frequency conditional mutual information (CF-CMI), was developed to focus on the coupling between theta phase and the phase of gamma amplitude. The results suggest that the reduced CFC strength probably attributed to the disruption of the phase of CA1 gamma envelop. In conclusion, it implied that the phase coupling and CFC of hippocampal theta and gamma played an important role in supporting functions of neural network. Furthermore, synaptic plasticity on CA3-CA1 pathway was reduced in line with the decreased CFC strength from CA3 to CA1. It partly supported our hypothesis that directional CFC indicator might probably be used as a measure of synaptic plasticity.

  1. Reduction in LFP cross-frequency coupling between theta and gamma rhythms associated with impaired STP and LTP in a rat model of brain ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao eZhang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The theta-gamma cross-frequency coupling (CFC in hippocampus was reported to reflect memory process. In this study, we measured the CFC of hippocampal local field potentials (LFPs in a two-vessel occlusion (2VO rat model, combined with both amplitude and phase properties and associated with short and long-term plasticity indicating the memory function. Male Wistar rats were used and a 2VO model was established. STP and LTP were recorded in hippocampal CA3-CA1 pathway after LFPs were collected in both CA3 and CA1. Based on the data of relative power spectra and phase synchronization, it suggested that both the amplitude and phase coupling of either theta or gamma rhythm were involved in modulating the neural network in 2VO rats. In order to determine whether the CFC was also implicated in neural impairment in 2VO rats, the coupling of CA3 theta–CA1 gamma was measured by both phase-phase coupling (n:m phase synchronization and phase-amplitude coupling. The attenuated CFC strength in 2VO rats implied the impaired neural communication in the coordination of theta-gamma entraining process. Moreover, compared with modulation index (MI a novel algorithm named cross frequency conditional mutual information (CF-CMI, was developed to focus on the coupling between theta phase and the phase of gamma amplitude. The results suggest that the reduced CFC strength probably attributed to the disruption of the phase of CA1 gamma envelop. In conclusion, it implied that the phase coupling and CFC of hippocampal theta and gamma played an important role in supporting functions of neural network. Furthermore, synaptic plasticity on CA3-CA1 pathway was reduced in line with the decreased CFC strength from CA3 to CA1. It partly supported our hypothesis that directional CFC indicator might probably be used as a measure of synaptic plasticity.

  2. Familial gigantism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.W. de Herder (Wouter)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractFamilial GH-secreting tumors are seen in association with three separate hereditary clinical syndromes: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, Carney complex, and familial isolated pituitary adenomas.

  3. Familial gigantism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter W. de Herder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial GH-secreting tumors are seen in association with three separate hereditary clinical syndromes: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, Carney complex, and familial isolated pituitary adenomas.

  4. Familial dermographism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedele, K B; Michels, V V

    1991-05-01

    Urticaria in response to various physical stimuli has been reported in sporadic and familial patterns. The most common of these physical urticarias, dermographism, is a localized urticarial response to stroking or scratching of the skin and has not been reported previously to be familial. A four-generation family with dermographism, probably inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, is presented along with a discussion of sporadic dermographism and other types of familial physical urticarias.

  5. Family Polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2001-01-01

    safety and flexibility at the level of multi-object systems. We are granted the flexibility of using different families of kinds of objects, and we are guaranteed the safety of the combination. This paper highlights the inability of traditional polymorphism to handle multiple objects, and presents family...... polymorphism as a way to overcome this problem. Family polymorphism has been implemented in the programming language gbeta, a generalized version of Beta, and the source code of this implementation is available under GPL....

  6. My Family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Everyone has a family.We live in it and feel very warm.There are three persons in my family,my mother,father and I.We live together very happily and there are many interesting stories about my family. My father is a hard-working man.He works as a doctor.He always tries his best to help every,patient and make patients comfortable.But sonetimes he works so hard

  7. Family Polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2001-01-01

    safety and flexibility at the level of multi-object systems. We are granted the flexibility of using different families of kinds of objects, and we are guaranteed the safety of the combination. This paper highlights the inability of traditional polymorphism to handle multiple objects, and presents family...... polymorphism as a way to overcome this problem. Family polymorphism has been implemented in the programming language gbeta, a generalized version of Beta, and the source code of this implementation is available under GPL....

  8. Family literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    I Projekt familielæsning, der er et samarbejde mellem Nationalt Videncenter for Læsning og Hillerød Bibliotek, arbejder vi med at få kontakt til de familier, som biblioteket ellers aldrig ser som brugere og dermed også de børn, der vokser op i familier, for hvem bøger og oplæsningssituationer ikke...... er en selvfølgelig del af barndommen. Det, vi vil undersøge og ønsker at være med til at udvikle hos disse familier, er det, man kan kalde family literacy....

  9. Small Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... easier for both parents to combine careers with family life. The general stress level is lower because there often are fewer ... can help replace the missing ties. For many families, religious congregational ... such as youth and neighborhood activity centers also can fulfill these ...

  10. FAMILY PLATYSTOMATIDAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Lisiane Dilli

    2016-06-14

    Platystomatidae (Signal Flies) are one of the largest families of Tephritoidea, with about 1200 species and four subfamilies, worldwide distributed. However, Platystomatidae are not well represented in the New World, and in the Neotropical Region only four genera and 26 species, belonging to Platystomatinae, are recorded. The family is a group understudied in Colombia and only one species is recorded to the country.

  11. 雄性不育相关基因msLTP的反义RNA验证%Validation of a msLTP Gene Related to Male Sterility by Antisense RNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田爱梅

    2012-01-01

    Based on the cDNA sequence of msLTP related to male sterility of Chinese cabbage-pak-choi (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis var. communis,syn. B. rapa ssp. chinensis var. communis) , a pair of specific primers were designed and a 312 bp fragment was amplified from the cDNA of flower buds of Chinese cabbage-pak-choi. The fragment was introduced to binary vector pBI121,and the generated antisene RNA vector was then mobilized into Agrobacterium lumefaciens strain LBA4404. The A. tumefaciens harboring the msLTP fragment was transformed to flowering Chinese cabbage (B. campestris ssp. chinensis var. parachinensis) via tissue culture and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The transgenic plants were confirmed by PCR and Southern blot, and 25 independent transgenic plants were obtained. The pollen grains from transgenic plants exhibited abnormal shapes, and only 38. 56% of pollen grains from these plants germinated normally. The germination rate was reduced 37. 76 percentage points than that of pollen grains from nontransgenic plants (78. 32%). These results indicated that msLTP gene interrupted by anti-sense RNA resulted in partial pollen grains abortion in flowering Chinese cabbage,suggesting that msLTP gene possesses an important role in pollen development of Chinese cabbage crops such as Chinese cabbage-pak-choi and flowering Chinese cabbage.%根据普通白菜雄性不育相关的脂质转移蛋白基因(msLTP)的cDNA序列设计引物,从普通白菜花蕾的cDNA中扩增出312bp的片段,然后将该片段连接至双元载体pBI121中,得到反义RNA植物表达载体并导入农杆菌LBA4404菌株中,通过农杆菌介导法转化菜心;利用PCR和Southern blot分析检测得到了25株转基因植株,转基因植株的花粉部分畸形或空瘪,花粉离体萌发率为38.56%,较末转化植株的萌发率(76.32%)降低了37.76个百分点.研究表明,反义RNA技术使msLTP基因沉默而导致了菜心转基因植株的部分花粉发育不良,

  12. Family Disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stay angry, or avoid fights altogether? Your children model themselves on you. Departures and Returns Do you or your spouse frequently travel on business? These can be disruptive times for your child and for the family ...

  13. Familial hypercholesterolemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hypercholesterolemia or early heart attacks High level of LDL cholesterol in either or both parents People from families ... called fibroblasts to see how the body absorbs LDL cholesterol Genetic test for the defect associated with this ...

  14. Family matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kieffer-Kristensen, Rikke; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Teasdale, Thomas William

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To relate illness and family factors to emotional and behavioural problems in school-age children (7–14 years old) of parents with acquired brain injury and their healthy spouses. PARTICIPANTS, MATERIALS/METHODS: Members of 35 families in which a parent had been diagnosed with acquired...... brain injury participated. Family and brain injury characteristics were reported by the ill and healthy parents. Children self-reported post-traumatic stress symptoms (PSS) using the Child Impact of Events revised (CRIES). Emotional and behavioural problems among the children were also identified...... by the parents using the Achenbach’s Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). RESULTS: The family stress variables relating to the healthy spouse in all six comparisons were significant (p

  15. Families in the Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contents Facts For Families Guide - View by Topic Chinese Facts for Families Guide Facts For Families Guide - Search Spanish Facts for Families Guide Facts for Families - Vietnamese Military Families No. 88; updated March 2017 Global conflict ...

  16. Family Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livija Knaflič

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Research in child and adult literacy demonstrates that the achievement and the level of literacy that children attain at school is connected with the social and cultural characteristics and the level of literacy of the child's family. This intergenerational transfer of the level of literacy has motivated the search for different ways of improving the level of literacy.The concept of family literacy is based on the assumption that a higher level of parent literacy means that the children may achieve the same, and it also offers better schooling prospects. Family literacy programmes help fami­lies to develop different activities, in­cluding reading and writing skills, both in their community and in everyday life.

  17. Family Structure and Family Processes in Mexican American Families

    OpenAIRE

    Zeiders, Katharine H.; Roosa, Mark W.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2011-01-01

    Despite increases in single-parent families among Mexican Americans (MA), few studies have examined the association of family structure and family adjustment. Utilizing a diverse sample of 738 Mexican American families (21.7% single parent), the current study examined differences across family structure on early adolescent outcomes, family functioning, and parent-child relationship variables. Results revealed that early adolescents in single parent families reported greater school misconduct,...

  18. Family Circle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Foster care is conducive to giving orphaned children a better life For most children living in orphanages, having a real home is just a pipe dream. Although they may be well looked after, receive a good education and proper nutrition, the love and care that come from being part of a real family just aren't there.

  19. My Family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘才来

    2002-01-01

    There are four people in my family. They are grandma, father,mother and I. Now we all live in Wuhan. They are from different places. My grandma comes from Sichuan. She likes hot(辣4的) meat very much. She doesn't like bread or noodles at all. She likes vegetables a little. My father is from Guang Zhou.

  20. My Family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梅

    2012-01-01

    There are four people in my family--my parents, my brother and I. My name is Li Mei. I'm fifteen years old. I am of medium height and build. I like English very much. It's very interesting. I can play the piano very well. It makes me feel very happy.

  1. Finding Family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU YUNYUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ It took 14 years--and just two min-utes-for an adopted Chinese girl to find her biological family. July 21 this year marked the first anniversary of Haley Butler's finding of her biological parents in Maanshan in east China's Anhui Province.

  2. FAMILY RICHARDIIDAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Lisiane Dilli; Ale-Rocha, Rosaly

    2016-06-14

    Richardiidae are a family of "acalyptrate" Diptera represented by ca. 180 species distributed in the New World, mostly in the Neotropical region. The species that occur in Colombia have received little attention from taxonomists, and the great majority of them are known only from their type localities. Currently, 14 genera and 23 species are known to occur in the country.

  3. Family Genericity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Type abstraction in object-oriented languages embody two techniques, each with its own strenghts and weaknesses. The first technique is extension, yielding abstraction mechanisms with good support for gradual specification. The prime example is inheritance. The second technique is functional abst...... the result as family genericity. The presented language design has been implemented....

  4. Finding Family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Discovering her birth parents was an exciting adventure for a 15-year-old girl It took 14 years-and just two minutes-for an adopted Chinese girl to find her biological family.July 21 this year marked the first

  5. Familial hypercholesterolaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versmissen, Jorie; Vongpromek, Ranitha; Yahya, Reyhana

    2016-01-01

    cholesterol efflux capacity between male familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) patients with and without CHD relative to their non-FH brothers, and examined HDL constituents including sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and its carrier apolipoprotein M (apoM). RESULTS: Seven FH patients were asymptomatic and six had...

  6. Family Genericity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Type abstraction in object-oriented languages embody two techniques, each with its own strenghts and weaknesses. The first technique is extension, yielding abstraction mechanisms with good support for gradual specification. The prime example is inheritance. The second technique is functional abst...... the result as family genericity. The presented language design has been implemented....

  7. Learning about Familial Hypercholesterolemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... terms used on this page Learning About Familial Hypercholesterolemia What is familial hypercholesterolemia? What are the symptoms ... Additional Resources About Familial Hypercholesterolemia What is familial hypercholesterolemia? Familial hypercholesterolemia is an inherited condition that causes ...

  8. Natural Family Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sex and Birth Control Birth Control Natural Family Planning Natural Family Planning Birth ControlPrevention and WellnessSex and Birth Control Share Natural Family Planning Natural Family PlanningWhat is natural family planning?Natural ...

  9. [Family violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoudi, F; Chagh, R; Es-soussi, M; Asri, F; Tazi, I

    2013-09-01

    Family violence is a serious public health problem, the scale of which is seriously increasing in Morocco. Although it has existed for a long time, we ignore the real characteristics of this plague in our country; our work consisted in an epidemiological approach of family violence in Marrakech during 2006. After elaborating a questionnaire, which allows the study of the demographic and social profile of the families, the study of violence exercised in the family and the evaluation of the depression in the women, we led an inquiry amongst 265 women. Analysis of the results obtained has allowed us to underline the following characteristics: 16.6% of the women in our sample had been physically beaten; the young age is a risk factor; the age range most affected by violence is in women between the ages of 30 and 40 and which represent 39% of the battered women; domestic violence touches all the social, economic and cultural classes: in our study, 63% of the women having undergone violence were housewives, 25% were managers and 3% senior executives; family problems were the most important cause of violence in our study, representing 32.32%. Requests for money was the cause in 11.3% of the cases, and imposed sexual relations were found in 6.8% of the cases; alcoholism is an aggravating factor of family violence; 27.3% of the spouses who assaulted their wives were drunk; 52% of the assaulted women were victims of violence in childhood and 36% had been witness to their father's violence; in 63.6% of the cases of violence, the children were witnesses, and in 25% of the cases the children were victims of violence at the same time as their mothers; 50% of the women victims of violence did not react, while 38.6% left home, and 9.1 filed for divorce. Thirty-two percent of the assaulted woman had been traumatised by the aggression; the association of depression and violence was very high, 343% of the battered women in our study suffered from severe depression. This work

  10. My family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈君怡

    2011-01-01

    I have a happy fam_ly.Lookthis is my family photo.This is mydad.He often wears a pair Ofglasses(戴着一副眼镜I_This ismy mum.She is very pretty.Sheloves me very much.The little girlin a red blouse is me.I’m smiling(微笑).I love my family.

  11. [Familial hypercholesterolemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, G; Bruckert, E

    1999-12-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia is characterized by a high plasma LDL-cholesterol level. The low-density particles are the end-product of the triglyceride-rich particles, i.e. VLDL, synthetized by the liver. These triglyceride-rich particles are subsequently transformed into intermediate density lipoprotein by the lipoprotein lipase and LDL after further triglyceride hydrolysis by the hepatic lipase. The LDL particles are taken up in all cells by the mean of the LDL receptor. A large body of evidence (including experimental, clinical, epidemiological data as well as the results of large trial with lipid lowering drugs) has accumulated to establish that these particles are one of the major causative factor of atherosclerosis and its complications. Two different mechanisms may be at work in the familial hypercholesterolemia: a mutation in the LDL receptor or a single mutation in the apolipoprotein B100. Specific therapeutic intervention should be undertaken to decrease the risk to develop cardiovascular disease, mainly coronary heart disease. The therapeutic intervention includes both a diet low in saturated fatty acids and cholesterol and statins which are now the first line therapy. Fibrates are proposed to those who do not tolerate statins and LDL-apheresis is associated to statin in the rare homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.

  12. Effect of aluminum on LTP and glutamate level in hippocampus of offsprings through exposure during pregnancy and lactation%孕哺期铝暴露对仔鼠海马LTP及Glu含量影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳翠红; 巫生文; 逯晓波; 刘秋芳; 唐秋实; 蔡原

    2011-01-01

    Objective lo study the effect of aluminum on long-term potential! LIP) and glutamate level in hippocampus in newborns through exposure during pregnancy and lactation and to explore the mechanism by which aluminum impairs central nervous system development. Methods Wistar pregnant rats were administrated with aluminium chloride at the doses of 0,0.2% ,and 0.4% for 6 weeks. Aluminum concentration in blood and brain was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer( AAS). Extracellular microelectrode recording was used to detect the effect of aluminum on LTP in hipp-ocampal CA1 area. Glutamate level was detected using immunohistochemical method. Results Blood aluminum and brain aluminum in 0.2% AlCl3-treated rats were 47.43 ± 14.38 mg/L, 13.86 ±6.60 mg/g and 55.56 ± 19.07 mg/L, 18.79 ±5.18 mg/g in 0.4% A1C13-treated rats, which all increased significantly compared with those in control rats (33. 89 ± 8. 74 mg/L and 7.61 ± 3.44 mg/g), (P < 0.05 for all). The induction and maintenance of LTP were suppressed in aluminum-exposed rats. The population spike (PS) enhancement rate decreased significantly compared with that of thecontrol (P <0.01). Aluminum exposure during pregnancy and lactation reduced glutamate level significantly in hippocampus (P < 0.05). Absorption and positive area ratio of glutamate of CA1 region in the control, 0.2% A1C13, and 0.4% A1C13 were 0.35 ±0.02,0. 33 ±0.02,0.29 ±0.03 and 5.06 ±1.36,4.70 ±0.56,1.71 ±0.23,respectively. Conclusion Aluminum exposure during pregnancy and lactation could inhibit the induction and maintenance of LTP in newborn rats and reduce the level of glutamate.%目的 研究孕哺期染铝对仔鼠长时程增强(LTP)和谷氨酸(Glu)含量影响,探讨铝对发育中中枢神经系统毒性作用及机制.方法 Wistar大鼠怀孕起染AlCl3至仔鼠哺乳期结束,共计6周,原子吸收石墨炉法测定血铝和脑铝含量;细胞外微电极技术测定LTP;免疫组化法测

  13. Roles within the Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Roles Within the Family Page Content Article Body Families ... family unit, and which rights, privileges, obligations, and roles are assigned to each family member. In most ...

  14. Integrating Family Resilience and Family Stress Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Joan M.

    2002-01-01

    The construct, family resilience, is defined differently by practitioners and researchers. This study tries to clarify the concept of family resilience. The foundation is family stress and coping theory, particularly the stress models that emphasize adaptation processes in families exposed to major adversities. (JDM)

  15. Simultaneous analysis of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 and ochratoxin A in breast milk by high-performance liquid chromatography/fluorescence after liquid-liquid extraction with low temperature purification (LLE-LTP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Patricia Diniz; Gomes da Silva, Julyane Laine; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2013-08-23

    The aims of this study were to optimize and validate a methodology for the simultaneous analysis of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2, AFM1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in breast milk, and to analyze these mycotoxins in samples obtained from human milk banks in the Federal District, Brazil. The optimized analytical method was based on liquid-liquid extraction with low temperature purification (3.25mL of acidified acetonitrile+0.75mL of ethyl acetate), followed by analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector (HPLC/FLD) and a photochemical post-column reactor. Limits of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.005 to 0.03ng/mL, recoveries from 73 to 99.5%, and relative standard deviations (RSD) from 1.8 to 17.3%. The LLE-LTP extraction method was shown to be simple and cost-effective, since no columns were needed for clean-up. Only 2 of the 224 breast milk samples analyzed were positive for the mycotoxins, both samples containing AFB2 at the LOQ level (0.005ng/mL). The identity of the mycotoxin detected was confirmed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). This result indicates that infants who are fed with breast milk from the milk banks are not at risk from aflatoxin and ochratoxin exposure.

  16. Liquid-Liquid Extraction/Low-Temperature Purification (LLE/LTP Followed by Dispersive Solid-Phase Extraction (d-SPE Cleanup for Multiresidue Analysis in Palm Oil by LC-QTOF-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Sobhanzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of the extraction of multiresidue pesticides from palm oil by liquid-liquid extraction/low-temperature purification (LLE/LTP coupled with dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE as the cleanup procedure with the determination by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry using electrospray as the ionization source (LC-ESI-MS was carried out. Optimization approaches were studied in terms of d-SPE to select efficiency of type and mass of adsorbents to obtain the highest recovery yield of pesticides and the lowest coextract fat residues in the final extract. The optimal conditions of d-SPE were obtained using 3 g of palm oil, 4 g anhydrous MgSO4, 150 mg of PSA, and 50 mg of GCB (PSA: GCB (3 : 1 w/w. Recovery study was performed at three concentration levels (25, 50, and 100 ng kg−1, yielding recovery rates between 71.8 and 112.4% except diuron with relative standard deviations of 3.2–15.1%. Detection and quantification limits were lower than 2.7 and 8.2 ng kg−1, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of market-purchased palm oil samples from two different brands collected in Kuala Lumpur, showing its potential applicability and revealing the presence of some of the target species in the ng g−1 range.

  17. Family Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel de Riquer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The scene is at the court of James I of Aragon in the mid-13th c., the place is the royal palace of Barcelona or any of the crown's other possessions, and the dramatis personae include the heir to the throne, prince Peire (future king Peire the Great, and the court's most famous troubadour, Cerverí de Girona (fl. 1259-85. Author of the largest corpus of any Occitan troubadour (114 poems, Cerverì distinguishes himself by the surprises and challenges he presents to his audience: an alba (the most openly erotic genre to the Virgin Mary, the Cobla in sis lengatges (Cobla in Six Languages, the apparently nonsensical Vers estrayn. Cerverì borrows equally from the folk-inspired Galician-Portuguese poetry and from the French tradition, including the chanson de malmariée, where a young woman bemoans being sold off by her family to an old man (gilos, "Jealous" and separated from her youthful doulz amis, some even praying for the death of their husband. Both within that tradition and among Cerverì's three chansons de malmariée, the Gelosesca stands out as "especially determined" to lose her husband, using every "solution" (prayer, black magic, potion or experimenta.

  18. Family and family therapy in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebtschuk, Marina; Smirnova, Daria; Khayretdinov, Oleg

    2012-04-01

    This article represents the information about family and family therapy in the context of culture, traditions and contemporary changes of social situations in Russia. The legislation of family rights are mentioned within items about marriage and family in the Constitution, Civil Code and Family Code of the Russian Federation which has changed during recent years. The definition of family and description of family structure are given through the prism of the current demographic situation, dynamics of statistics of marriage and divorce rates, mental disorders, disabilities and such phenomena as social abandonment. The actual curriculum, teaching of family therapy and its disadvantages, system of continuous education, supervision and initiatives of the Institute of Integrative Family Therapy in improvement of preparing of specialists who can provide qualified psychosocial assistance for the family according to the actual needs of society are noted. The directions of state and private practice of family counselling and therapy both for psychiatric patients and medical patients, for adults and children in a family systemic approach are highlighted with an indication of the spectrum of techniques and methods used by Russian professionals. The main obstacles and perspectives of development of family therapy in Russia are summarized.

  19. LTP of GABAergic synaptic transmission induced by hypoxia in mormy-rid cerebellum%缺氧使非洲电鱼小脑浦肯野细胞之间的GABA能突触传递长时程增强∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张月萍; 何海燕; 李凌; 晋芙丽; 成胜权

    2016-01-01

    目的::研究急性缺氧对非洲电鱼小脑浦肯野细胞( Pc)之间γ-氨基丁酸( GABA)能突触传递的影响。方法:采用配对全细胞膜片钳记录法,记录电鱼小脑Pc-Pc之间的抑制性突触后电流( IPSC),观察急性缺氧对Pc-Pc IPSC的影响,以及GABAA 受体拮抗剂和谷氨酸α-氨基-3-羟基-5-甲基-4-异噁唑丙酸( AMPA)受体拮抗剂对Pc-Pc IPSC缺氧反应的调节作用。结果:短暂缺氧使 Pc-Pc IPSC 的幅值显著增大,表现为长时程增强( LTP );GABAA 受体拮抗剂荷包牡丹碱逆转了Pc-Pc IPSC的 LTP,表现为长时程抑制;AMPA受体拮抗剂6-氰基-7-硝基喹喔啉-2,3-二酮(CNQX)阻断了Pc-Pc IPSC的 LTP,表现为短时程增强。结论:急性缺氧引起电鱼小脑Pc之间的GABA能突触活动持续增强,GABAA 受体和AMPA受体共同介导这种反应,提示GABA能和谷氨酸能突触活动的平衡可能是电鱼以及其他缺氧耐受动物缺氧保护反应的关键机制。%AIM:To study the effects of acute hypoxia on GABAergic synaptic transmission between Purkinje cell ( Pc) and Pc of mormyrid cerebellum. METHODS:The technique of dual whole-cell patch clamp was used to record the inhibitory postsynaptic current ( IPSC) between two Pcs. The responses of Pc-Pc IPSC to acute hypoxic episode were observed. The effects of GABAA receptor antagonist and glutamate AMPA receptor antagonist on the hypoxic responses of Pc-Pc IPSC were also investigated. RESULTS:Brief exposure to hypoxia led to long-term potentiation ( LTP) of Pc-Pc IP-SC. The GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline completely abolished this LTP, reversed to long-term depression, whereas an AMPA receptor inhibitor CNQX partially prevented the formation of the LTP induced by hypoxia, only displaying a short-term potentiation. CONCLUSION:Acute hypoxia induced LTP of Pc-Pc IPSC, which requires the contribution of both GABAA receptors and AMPA receptors, indicating that a balance between the GABAergic and

  20. Bequeathing Family Continuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanier, Graham B.

    1989-01-01

    Notes that many children who experience abuse, family disruption, or poverty reach adulthood with a strong commitment to family life. Questions whether changes in American families are indicators of pathology, deterioration, and instability; and asks how dysfunctional families transmit commitment to the concept of family to succeeding generations.…

  1. Family Reading Night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Darcy; Greenfeld, Marsha; Epstein, Joyce

    2007-01-01

    This book offers clear and practical guidelines to help engage families in student success. It shows families how to conduct a successful Family Reading Night at their school. Family Night themes include Scary Stories, Books We Love, Reading Olympics, Dr. Seuss, and other themes. Family reading nights invite parents to come to school with their…

  2. Family Factors in Small Family Business Growth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jim Cater; Marilyn Young

    2016-01-01

    .... We suggest that while all three patterns of small family business growth may lead to individual company success and sustainability, businesses with units in multiple trade areas may be most adept at managing the six family factors.

  3. Consuming Family Dinner Time

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kelli Gutierrez; Linda Price; Eric Arnould

    2008-01-01

      Our study examines whether and how family dinners are embedded in the centrifugal and centripetal dynamics of everyday family life, the diversity of meanings they have for families and the intentions...

  4. Family Adjustment to Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public / Speech, Language and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Family Adjustment to Aphasia Richard S. was a senior manager ... It also presents a great challenge to the family. There may be tension among family members and ...

  5. Improving Family Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Improving Family Communications Page Content Article Body How can I ...

  6. Normal Functioning Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Normal Functioning Family Page Content Article Body Is there any way ...

  7. Family Activities for Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  8. Branding a family business

    OpenAIRE

    Pohjola, Matti

    2016-01-01

    This master’s thesis main object was to understand better the very little researched topic: branding a family business. The main aim was to seek the values used behind family business that are the family values used in the brand and how the branding has been implemented in a family company. A qualitative method was chosen for this research for an interpretative analysis of the subject. Five family companies were chosen for the interviews. All these family companies are known Fi...

  9. Family Health History and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diabetes Diabetes Risk Test Family Health History Quiz Family Health History Quiz Family health history is an ... health problems. Four Questions You Should Ask Your Family About Diabetes & Family Health History Knowing your family ...

  10. Families and family therapy in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Samson; Ng, Roger M K; Tonsing, Kareen N; Ran, Maosheng

    2012-04-01

    Family therapy views humans not as separate entities, but as embedded in a network of relationships, highlighting the reciprocal influences of one's behaviours on one another. This article gives an overview of family demographics and the implementation of family therapy in Hong Kong. We start with a review of the family demographics in Hong Kong and brief notes on families in mainland China. Demographics show that the landscape has changed markedly in the past decade, with more cross-border marriages, an increased divorce rate, and an ageing overall population - all of which could mean that there is increasing demand for professional family therapy interventions. However, only a limited number of professionals are practising the systems-based approach in Hong Kong. Some possible reasons as to why family therapy is not well disseminated and practised are discussed. These reasons include a lack of mental health policy to support family therapy, a lack of systematic family therapy training, and a shortage of skilled professionals. Furthermore, challenges in applying the western model in Chinese culture are also outlined. We conclude that more future research is warranted to investigate how family therapy can be adapted for Chinese families.

  11. Family psychology and family therapy in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameguchi, K; Murphy-Shigematsu, S

    2001-01-01

    The development of family psychology and family therapy in Japan has occurred mostly since the 1980s. This development was originally activated by the major social issue in contemporary Japan of school refusal, in which more than 127,000 children either overtly refuse to or claim that they cannot go to school. From a family perspective, this problem is analyzed as it relates to the confusion that children experience from unbalanced and unclear boundaries in family relations or "membranes." An approach to family therapy that adapts systems theory and integrates a clay sculpting medium has been developed to work with Japanese families confronting this problem. The design and implementation of preventative family psychology programs applied at the community level are also an important part of the future development in these fields.

  12. Family doctors' involvement with families in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lember Margus

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family doctors should care for individuals in the context of their family. Family has a powerful influence on health and illness and family interventions have been shown to improve health outcomes for a variety of health problems. The aim of the study was to investigate the Estonian family doctors' (FD attitudes to the patients' family-related issues in their work: to explore the degree of FDs involvement in family matters, their preparedness for management of family-related issues and their self-assessment of the ability to manage different family-related problems. Methods A random sample (n = 236 of all FDs in Estonia was investigated using a postal questionnaire. Altogether 151 FDs responded to the questionnaire (response rate 64%, while five of them were excluded as they did not actually work as FDs. Results Of the respondents, 90% thought that in managing the health problems of patients FDs should communicate and cooperate with family members. Although most of the family doctors agreed that modifying of the health damaging risk factors (smoking, alcohol and drug abuse of their patients and families is their task, one third of them felt that dealing with these problems is ineffective, or perceived themselves as poorly prepared or having too little time for such activities. Of the respondents, 58% (n = 83 were of the opinion that they could modify also relationship problems. Conclusions Estonian family doctors are favourably disposed to involvement in family-related problems, however, they need some additional training, especially in the field of relationship management.

  13. Competitiveness of Family Businesses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.A.M. Leenders (Mark); E. Waarts (Eric)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this study is to systematically examine the advantages and disadvantages of different types of family businesses. We distinguish four different types of family businesses based on their family and business orientation: (1) House of Business, (2) Family Money Machine, (3) F

  14. Families in Transition .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, Michael L., Ed.; Gumaer, James, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Focuses on disrupted families and the role of the school counselor in helping children adjust. Describes characteristics of healthy families, and discusses the transition to the blended family, effects of divorce groups on children's classroom behavior, counseling children in stepfamilies, single-parent families, and parenting strengths of single…

  15. Competitiveness of Family Businesses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.A.M. Leenders (Mark); E. Waarts (Eric)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this study is to systematically examine the advantages and disadvantages of different types of family businesses. We distinguish four different types of family businesses based on their family and business orientation: (1) House of Business, (2) Family Money Machine, (3) F

  16. Effects of Acanthopanax on learning and memory and LTP in hippocampus of sleep deprived rats%刺五加对睡眠剥夺大鼠学习记忆及海马LTP的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张茹; 李廷利; 刘晓岩; 朱蕾

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究刺五加对睡眠剥夺大鼠学习记忆能力及海马长时程增强的影响.方法 采用小平台法建立快速眼动睡眠(REMS)剥夺大鼠模型,利用行为学及神经电生理学方法,观察刺五加对其学习记忆能力及海马突触长时程增强(LTP)的影响,探讨刺五加对睡眠剥夺造成的学习记忆损害的保护作用及作用机制.结果 与大平台对照组比较.睡眠剥夺组错误次数增多、认知率降低,且差异显著(P<0.01),但寻找时间缩短(P<0.05);在刺五加干预下,错误次数明显减少、认知率升高(P<0.01),寻找时间缩短(P<0.01).睡眠剥夺组大鼠LTP明显受到抑制,高频刺激(HFS)引起的群峰电位幅值及兴奋性突触后电位斜率的增大明显低于大平台对照组(P<0.01),各剂量给药组对睡眠剥夺引起的LTP抑制现象均有明显恢复作用(P<0.01).结论 睡眠剥夺能引起动物学习记忆能力的降低.刺五加可对抗此作用,其机制可能与改善神经突触可塑性有关.

  17. ESI-PR10, Vega Alta, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  18. Family Therapy for the "Truncated" Nuclear Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuk, Gerald H.

    1980-01-01

    The truncated nuclear family consists of a two-generation group in which conflict has produced a polarization of values. The single-parent family is at special risk. Go-between process enables the therapist to depolarize sharply conflicted values and reduce pathogenic relating. (Author)

  19. Strengthening Family Practices for Latino Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Karen G.; Negroni, Lirio K.; Hesselbrock, Michie N.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a culturally adapted Strengthening Families Program (SFP) for Latinos to reduce risks for alcohol and drug use in children. Latino families, predominantly Puerto Rican, with a 9- to 12-year-old child and a parent(s) with a substance abuse problem participated in the study. Pre- and post-tests were conducted…

  20. Putting the "family" back into family therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breunlin, Douglas C; Jacobsen, Elizabeth

    2014-09-01

    In this article, we examine the field of family therapy by drawing a distinction between two forms of practice: Whole Family Therapy (WFT), defined as treating the whole family, and Relational Family Therapy (RFT), defined as working with a subsystem of the family or an individual while retaining a systemic lens. Our thesis is that the practice of WFT has been in decline for some time and steps must be taken to keep it from becoming a defunct practice. We consider the trajectory of WFT and RFT throughout the development of family therapy through reference to the people, the literature, training, and practice patterns associated with family therapy. We remind the reader of the many benefits of WFT and suggest that today WFT is likely to be practiced in conjunction with RFT and individual therapy. Since training of family therapists today is largely located in degree-granting programs, we identify constraints to including WFT in such programs. We conclude by offering suggestions that can enhance a program's ability to train students in WFT. © 2014 FPI, Inc.

  1. Strengthening Family Practices for Latino Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Karen G.; Negroni, Lirio K.; Hesselbrock, Michie N.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a culturally adapted Strengthening Families Program (SFP) for Latinos to reduce risks for alcohol and drug use in children. Latino families, predominantly Puerto Rican, with a 9- to 12-year-old child and a parent(s) with a substance abuse problem participated in the study. Pre- and post-tests were conducted…

  2. Just in time for late-LTP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachos, Andreas; Maggio, Nicola

    2008-01-01

    It is a fundamental question in neuroscience how long-term memory formation is regulated at the molecular level. Although widely considered a highly complex process requiring numerous molecular players, it also has been speculated that a single protein could play a pivotal role. This “astonishing hypothesis” has made a significant impact on memory research and has led to a reevaluation of concepts regarding memory formation.1,2 PMID:19513256

  3. Choosing a Family Doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nav nav, .header-9#header-section #main-nav, #overlay-menu nav, #mobile-menu, #one-page-nav li . ... editorial staff Home Your Health Resources Doctor Visit Preparation Choosing a Family Doctor Choosing a Family Doctor ...

  4. Loosely coupled class families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2001-01-01

    are expressed using virtual classes seem to be very tightly coupled internally. While clients have achieved the freedom to dynamically use one or the other family, it seems that any given family contains a xed set of classes and we will need to create an entire family of its own just in order to replace one......Families of mutually dependent classes that may be accessed polymor- phically provide an advanced tool for separation of concerns, in that it enables client code to use a group of instances of related classes safely without depending on the exact classes involved. However, class families which...... of the members with another class. This paper shows how to express class families in such a manner that the classes in these families can be used in many dierent combinations, still enabling family polymorphism and ensuring type safety....

  5. Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000408.htm Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency is a group of rare genetic ...

  6. Familial Mediterranean fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000363.htm Familial Mediterranean fever To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a rare disorder passed down through ...

  7. Importance of Family Routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Structure Your Child's Nighttime Routine . Weekends: Weekends are good times for family togetherness. You might go grocery shopping as a family, visit museums and zoos, do chores​ that everyone participates in, go on ...

  8. Assessing postpartum family functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midmer, D; Talbot, Y

    1988-09-01

    The birth of a child requires adaptation and reorganization within the family system in order to accommodate the new family member and to allow the family to continue in its psychosocial development. Knowledge of the normative and transitional changes required at this stage of family life will enhance family practitioners' understanding of some of the common concerns and complaints related to them by various family members during the postpartum period. The Family FIRO model represents a helpful conceptual framework to increase the family physician's understanding of the issues of inclusion, control, and intimacy that are highlighted during the transition to parenthood. The authors briefly present this model and discuss its application to postpartum adjustment and its implications for health-care professionals.

  9. Family Practice Consultation.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gauge the patients' opin:on on the family doctors' role regardirg prayer ... family practice consultation arc presented. ... patients' expectation of prayer and ..... New developments and frequently asked questions covering - high and low BMI, ...

  10. MSUD Family Support Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Group The MSUD Family Support Group is a non-profit 501 (c)(3) organization for those with MSUD ... Family Support Group is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization with no paid staff. Funds are needed ...

  11. National Military Family Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 931.6632 info@MilitaryFamily.org © 2016 - National Military Family Association Twitter Facebook Pinterest Instagram Charity Navigator Four Star Charity GuideStar Exchange Better Business Bureau Charity Watch Independent Charity of America nonprofit ...

  12. Familial Episodic Amaurosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A family with a stereotyped unilateral or bilateral transient visual loss, that recurred many times daily and was associated with childhood epilepsy and familial hemiplegic migraine, is reported from University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland.

  13. IGSF9 Family Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maria; Walmod, Peter Schledermann

    2013-01-01

    The Drosophila protein Turtle and the vertebrate proteins immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), member 9 (IGSF9/Dasm1) and IGSF9B are members of an evolutionarily ancient protein family. A bioinformatics analysis of the protein family revealed that invertebrates contain only a single IGSF9 family gene......, the longest isoforms of the proteins have the same general organization as the neural cell adhesion molecule family of cell adhesion molecule proteins, and like this family of proteins, IGSF9 family members are expressed in the nervous system. A review of the literature revealed that Drosophila Turtle...... facilitates homophilic cell adhesion. Moreover, IGSF9 family proteins have been implicated in the outgrowth and branching of neurites, axon guidance, synapse maturation, self-avoidance, and tiling. However, despite the few published studies on IGSF9 family proteins, reports on the functions of both Turtle...

  14. Family Caregiver Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on your schedule. Look for our launch soon! FAMILY CARE NAVIGATOR ─ Click on Your State AL AK ... County Smart Patients Caregivers Community In partnership with Family Caregiver Alliance Learn more Caregiver Research Veterans suffer ...

  15. Family and Enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Fletcher, Denise Elaine

    2006-01-01

    This chapter provides a review of the different approaches that have been utilised to examine the link between family and enterprise. Definitional issues are addressed, as are rationalist and ‘systems’ ways of evaluating the relationship between family and enterprise. Criticism is made of the effects of rationalist thinking on studies of family businesses which have tended to create duality and polarity in our understanding of the family-enterprise relationship. It is argued that a developm...

  16. Family Obligations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch-Nielsen, Inger

    How is the balance in obligations between the Family and the Danish Welfare State? Can we observe a trend to shift the responsibility back to the family? This booklet intends to sketch the legal framework around the division of responsibilities between the Family and the state and to analyse...... to what extent and where the unit of rights and obliagations is the individual and where it is the family or household....

  17. Family Obligations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch-Nielsen, Inger

    How is the balance in obligations between the Family and the Danish Welfare State? Can we observe a trend to shift the responsibility back to the family? This booklet intends to sketch the legal framework around the division of responsibilities between the Family and the state and to analyse...... to what extent and where the unit of rights and obliagations is the individual and where it is the family or household....

  18. Strengths of Remarried Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaub, Patricia Kain; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Focuses on remarried families' (N=80) perceptions of family strengths, marital satisfaction, and adjustment to the remarried situation. Results indicated that although most would like to make some changes, scores on the measurements used were high. A supportive environment was the most important predictor of family strength and success. (JAC)

  19. Family systems and fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moenkediek, Bastian

    2016-01-01

    This thesis studies the role of regional family organization principles, so called family systems, for explaining fertility behaviours in different parts of Europe. Studying family systems and its impact on fertility is important, because many aspects of societal life, such as the organization of we

  20. Families in Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Patti O., Ed.; McGee, Michael, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    This issue of "Emphasis" deals with families in transition, providing some model programs for the new family and some historical perspectives on how families have developed over time. Articles include: (1) "Nostalgia on the Right" (Nancy Theriot); (2) "Heart to Heart" (Nancy Harrington-MacLennan); (3) "The Media Get the Message" (Janet Alyn); (4)…

  1. Books in the Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinger, Alice K.

    1989-01-01

    Opportunities for parents to encourage reading in the family are noted and ways to enhance the reading experience are discussed, including writing letters to book characters, singing combined with reading aloud, supplementing school subjects with enjoyable reading, sharing books at family gatherings, and using family experiences for book…

  2. Single Mothers "Do" Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Margaret K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores how single mothers both incorporate others into family life (e.g., when they ask others to care for their children) and simultaneously "do families" in a manner that holds out a vision of a "traditional" family structure. Drawing on research with White, rural single mothers, the author explores the manner in which these women…

  3. Family traditions and generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Gerald; Barrera, Maru

    2009-01-01

    Currently, traditional family values that have been passed down through generations appear to be at risk. This has significant implications for the stability and health of individuals, families, and communities. This article explores selected issues related to intergenerational transmission of family values and cultural beliefs, with particular reference to Western culture and values that are rooted in Jewish and Christian traditions. It also examines family values and parenting styles as they influence the developing perspective of children and the family's adaptation to a changing world.

  4. Asteroid family ages

    CERN Document Server

    Spoto, Federica; Knezevic, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    A new family classification, based on a catalog of proper elements with $\\sim 384,000$ numbered asteroids and on new methods is available. For the $45$ dynamical families with $>250$ members identified in this classification, we present an attempt to obtain statistically significant ages: we succeeded in computing ages for $37$ collisional families. We used a rigorous method, including a least squares fit of the two sides of a V-shape plot in the proper semimajor axis, inverse diameter plane to determine the corresponding slopes, an advanced error model for the uncertainties of asteroid diameters, an iterative outlier rejection scheme and quality control. The best available Yarkovsky measurement was used to estimate a calibration of the Yarkovsky effect for each family. The results are presented separately for the families originated in fragmentation or cratering events, for the young, compact families and for the truncated, one-sided families. For all the computed ages the corresponding uncertainties are pro...

  5. Inside the Family Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Morten; Nielsen, Kasper; Pérez-González, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses a unique dataset from Denmark to investigate (1) the role of family characteristics in corporate decision making, and (2) the consequences of these decisions on firm performance. We focus on the decision to appoint either a family or an external chief executive officer (CEO). We...... show that a departing CEO's family characteristics have a strong predictive power in explaining CEO succession decisions: family CEOs are more frequently selected the larger the size of the family, the higher the ratio of male children and when the departing CEOs had only had one spouse. We...... then analyze the impact of family successions on performance. We overcome endogeneity and omitted variables problems of previous papers in the literature by using the gender of a departing CEO's first-born child as an instrumental variable (IV) for family successions. This is a plausible IV as male first...

  6. Inside the Family Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Morten; Nielsen, Kasper; Pérez-González, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses a unique dataset from Denmark to investigate (1) the role of family characteristics in corporate decision making, and (2) the consequences of these decisions on firm performance. We focus on the decision to appoint either a family or an external chief executive officer (CEO). We...... show that a departing CEO's family characteristics have a strong predictive power in explaining CEO succession decisions: family CEOs are more frequently selected the larger the size of the family, the higher the ratio of male children and when the departing CEOs had only had one spouse. We...... then analyze the impact of family successions on performance. We overcome endogeneity and omitted variables problems of previous papers in the literature by using the gender of a departing CEO's first-born child as an instrumental variable (IV) for family successions. This is a plausible IV as male first...

  7. Family governance practices and teambuilding : Paradox of the enterprising family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berent-Braun, M.M.; Uhlaner, L.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between family governance practices and financial performance of the business and family assets of business-owning families. A business-owning family that shares a focus on preserving and growing wealth as a family is defined as the enterprising family. Results o

  8. 24 CFR 982.515 - Family share: Family responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Family share: Family responsibility... Assistance Payment § 982.515 Family share: Family responsibility. (a) The family share is calculated by subtracting the amount of the housing assistance payment from the gross rent. (b) The family rent to owner is...

  9. Opening Doors: Understanding School and Family Influences on Family Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Erin; Stanley, Lindsey; Kemple, Kristen Mary

    2005-01-01

    Family involvement in schooling can benefit young children, teachers, and families. Family involvement in schools can be influenced by both school-related and family-related factors. School-related factors include teachers' attitudes toward families, and school and teacher expectations. Family-related factors include ethnicity, prior school…

  10. Family governance practices and teambuilding : Paradox of the enterprising family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berent-Braun, M.M.; Uhlaner, L.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between family governance practices and financial performance of the business and family assets of business-owning families. A business-owning family that shares a focus on preserving and growing wealth as a family is defined as the enterprising family. Results o

  11. Family governance practices and teambuilding : Paradox of the enterprising family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berent-Braun, M.M.; Uhlaner, L.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between family governance practices and financial performance of the business and family assets of business-owning families. A business-owning family that shares a focus on preserving and growing wealth as a family is defined as the enterprising family. Results

  12. Family dynamics and family psychotherapy of psychosomatic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirsching, M; Stierlin, H

    1979-01-01

    Family therapy of psychosomatic disorders is oftern difficult and comparable to the therapy of psychotic patients. Nonetheless, the results published today by authors such as Minuchin and Selvini and our own experiences are promising indeed. We have found that what seemed to be a deep-rooted psychic structure changed rapidly and enduringly if the relationship field changed. Amelioration of symptoms is in many cases easily attained if they are understood in their function within a relational system. Also, we regard the system or family approach as a chance for medical practice. The general practioner who usually deals with family systems has, in our view, an ideal position to bring about change if he uses his authority and trust properly. He has to obtain a positive, not pathology-oriented view and should use family and social resources in spite of engaging in an often fruitless and endless contact with the designated patient, which only serves to maintain and even to increase the homeostatic lock of the family system.

  13. Familial pituitary tumor syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elston, Marianne S; McDonald, Kerrie L; Clifton-Bligh, Roderick J; Robinson, Bruce G

    2009-08-01

    The vast majority of pituitary tumors are benign and occur sporadically; however, they can still result in significant morbidity and even premature mortality through mass effects and hormone dysfunction. The etiology of sporadic tumors is still poorly understood; by contrast, advances have been made in our understanding of familial pituitary adenoma syndromes in the past decade. Currently, four genes are known to be associated with familial pituitary tumor syndromes: MEN1, CDKN1B, PRKAR1A and AIP. The first three genes are associated with a variety of extrapituitary pathologies, for example, primary hyperparathyroidism with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, which might aid identification of these syndromes. By contrast, AIP mutations seem to occur in the setting of isolated familial pituitary adenomas, particularly of the growth-hormone-secreting subtype. Awareness and identification of familial pituitary tumor syndromes is important because of potential associated pathologies and important implications for family members. Here, we review the current knowledge of familial pituitary tumor syndromes.

  14. Advancing family psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiese, Barbara H

    2016-02-01

    To realize the broad and complex nature of the field of family psychology, I have slightly revised the mission statement of the Journal of Family Psychology (JFP) to capture contemporary scholarship in family psychology and to advance systems perspectives in this top-tier scientific journal. Over the next 6 years, I hope that authors will consider JFP as an outlet for their best work in the following areas: (1) JFP addresses societal challenges faced by families today; (2) JFP publishes important studies on what makes couple and family relationships work; (3) JFP is a leader in publishing reports that use cutting-edge sophisticated approaches to research design and data analysis; and (4) JFP imparts knowledge about effective therapy and prevention programs relevant to couples and families. The journal is also expanding its publication rate to eight issues per year.

  15. KSF of family business

    OpenAIRE

    Boroš, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Family business is a business in which family members have a large stake in ownership and also a deciding vote on business operation. This thesis deals with what makes the family businesses thriving. The research is conducted using the Good to Great framework by Jim Collins. Based mainly on quantitative and qualitative survey of 8 Czech companies of various fields and sizes, it was discovered that there are some links between the companies' success. These findings yield a set of recommendatio...

  16. Family in contemporary society

    OpenAIRE

    Rabije Murati

    2016-01-01

    The family is part of social change and, as such changes and transform into steps with modern trends of society. Family function in a given society is structured according to the overall changes that occur in all areas of social life, not neglecting family life. The contemporary conditions impose requirements that must be met to move forward with the times that follow. In particular, should highlight the social changes that are related to the growth and advancement of the educational and prof...

  17. The Hoffmeister asteroid family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruba, V.; Novaković, B.; Aljbaae, S.

    2017-03-01

    The Hoffmeister family is a C-type group located in the central main belt. Dynamically, it is important because of its interaction with the ν1C nodal secular resonance with Ceres, which significantly increases the dispersion in inclination of family members at a lower semimajor axis. As an effect, the distribution of inclination values of the Hoffmeister family at a semimajor axis lower than its centre is significantly leptokurtic, and this can be used to set constraints on the terminal ejection velocity field of the family at the time it was produced. By performing an analysis of the time behaviour of the kurtosis of the vW component of the ejection velocity field [γ2(vW)], as obtained from Gauss' equations, for different fictitious Hoffmeister families with different values of the ejection velocity field, we were able to exclude that the Hoffmeister family should be older than 335 Myr. Constraints from the currently observed inclination distribution of the Hoffmeister family suggest that its terminal ejection velocity parameter VEJ should be lower than 25 m s-1. Results of a Yarko-YORP Monte Carlo method to family dating, combined with other constraints from inclinations and γ2(vW), indicate that the Hoffmeister family should be 220^{+60}_{-40} Myr old, with an ejection parameter VEJ = 20 ± 5 m s-1.

  18. Family in contemporary society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabije Murati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The family is part of social change and, as such changes and transform into steps with modern trends of society. Family function in a given society is structured according to the overall changes that occur in all areas of social life, not neglecting family life. The contemporary conditions impose requirements that must be met to move forward with the times that follow. In particular, should highlight the social changes that are related to the growth and advancement of the educational and professional standards, which will increase the overall impact on the family and its function. If you're looking for full responsibility of parents in the upbringing of children then it is necessary to see the conditions in which the family lives. For normal education and the rights of children with special meaning the number of members in the (quantity family. The tendency to a higher standard of economic life, a small number of children in the family and it is more than obvious that fewer family members or less have greater opportunity for parents to pay more attention to their children. One of the main roles of family, no matter where they are located in the city, village, developed or developing countries, by all means participate, intermediates and transfers the moral, social and other values in modern life.

  19. Saturating Sperner families

    CERN Document Server

    Gerbner, Dániel; Lemons, Nathan; Pálvölgyi, Dömötör; Palmer, Cory; Patkós, Balázs

    2011-01-01

    A family $\\cF \\subseteq 2^{[n]}$ saturates the monotone decreasing property $\\cP$ if $\\cF$ satisfies $\\cP$ and one cannot add any set to $\\cF$ such that property $\\cP$ is still satisfied by the resulting family. We address the problem of finding the minimum size of a family saturating the $k$-Sperner property and the minimum size of a family that saturates the Sperner property and that consists only of $l$-sets and $(l+1)$-sets.

  20. The DLGAP family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Andreas H; Rasmussen, Hanne B; Silahtaroglu, Asli

    2017-01-01

    downstream signalling in the neuron. The postsynaptic density, a highly specialized matrix, which is attached to the postsynaptic membrane, controls this downstream signalling. The postsynaptic density also resets the synapse after each synaptic firing. It is composed of numerous proteins including a family...... in the postsynapse, the DLGAP family seems to play a vital role in synaptic scaling by regulating the turnover of both ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors in response to synaptic activity. DLGAP family has been directly linked to a variety of psychological and neurological disorders. In this review we...... focus on the direct and indirect role of DLGAP family on schizophrenia as well as other brain diseases....

  1. Communication in family businesses : Relationships between family and non-family managers

    OpenAIRE

    Grytsaieva, Tetiana; Strandberg, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Problem: Family firms often comprise of a complex web of relationships between family and non-family managers that are active within the business. Family enterprises are also known for their closed communication and decision-making practices. It often occurs that families do not include non-family managers into important business-related discussions and do not consult their decisions with managers from outside of the family. At the same time, research in the area of family business defines th...

  2. The Rafita asteroid family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljbaae, S.; Carruba, V.; Masiero, J. R.; Domingos, R. C.; Huaman, M.

    2017-01-01

    The Rafita asteroid family is an S-type group located in the middle main belt, on the right side of the 3J:-1A mean-motion resonance. The proximity of this resonance to the family left side in semi-major axis caused many former family members to be lost. As a consequence, the family shape in the (a, 1/D) domain is quite asymmetrical, with a preponderance of objects on the right side of the distribution. The Rafita family is also characterized by a leptokurtic distribution in inclination, which allows the use of methods of family age estimation recently introduced for other leptokurtic families such as Astrid, Hansa, Gallia, and Barcelona. In this work we propose a new method based on the behavior of an asymmetry coefficient function of the distribution in the (a, 1/D) plane to date incomplete asteroid families such as Rafita. By monitoring the time behavior of this coefficient for asteroids simulating the initial conditions at the time of the family formation, we were able to estimate that the Rafita family should have an age of 490 ± 200 Myr, in good agreement with results from independent methods such as Monte Carlo simulations of Yarkovsky and Yorp dynamical induced evolution and the time behaviour of the kurtosis of the sin (i) distribution. Asteroids from the Rafita family can reach orbits similar to 8% of the currently known near Earth objects. ≃1% of the simulated objects are present in NEO-space during the final 10 Myr of the simulation, and thus would be comparable to objects in the present-day NEO population.

  3. Closure Issues with Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Steven E.; Bischof, Gary H.

    Closure of the counseling relationship constitutes both an ending and a beginning. Although closure signifies the ending of the present counseling relationship, many family counselors conceptualize closure as the start of a working relationship between counselor and family that may be summoned in future times of crisis or during a difficult life…

  4. Selecting Family Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Richard E.

    Just as counseling approaches designed for individuals have their theory-specific techniques, family counseling approaches also have theory-specific interventions and strategies. Whatever presenting problem the family brings to counseling, one or more of four essential components (communication, problem solving, roles and boundaries) is typically…

  5. Assessment of Troubled Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs-Orme, Terri; Thomas, Katherine H.

    1997-01-01

    Tests the utility of four standardized instruments used in assessing 105 families that sought services in a juvenile corrections setting for their teenage children. Results demonstrate that parents and adolescents can complete standardized assessment instruments and that the information provided can help in understanding distressed families. (RJM)

  6. Family Reunion Health Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be a sign of kidney disease. Encourage your family to keep their blood pressure at or below the number set by their ... Share NKDEP brochures about diabetes and high blood pressure. Encourage family members to take the information with them when ...

  7. Privacy in the family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newell, Bryce; Metoyer, Cheryl A.; Moore, Adam D.

    2015-01-01

    Popular access to increasingly sophisticated forms of electronic surveillance technologies has altered the dynamics of family relationships. Monitoring, mediated and facilitated by practices of both covert and overt electronic surveillance, has changed the nature of privacy within the family. In thi

  8. Narrative Family Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, William M.; Keenan, Robert

    1997-01-01

    States that narrative family therapy is informed by social constructionism and postmodern worldviews, and is a relatively significant departure from mainstream psychotherapy. Discusses the use of narrative family therapy. Uses the story of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden as an example. (MKA)

  9. Marriage or Family Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Jay

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the differences between family therapy and marriage counseling in terms of professional organization, theory, and practice. Suggests that training in marriage therapy does not appear adequate for family therapy. The goal of the therapy field should be more consensus in theory and a single profession of therapists. (JAC)

  10. Family Report 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freek Bucx

    2011-01-01

    Original title: Gezinsrapport 2011. Between 2007 and 2010 the Netherlands had its first ever Minister for Youth and Family. The position of the family in modern society is a subject of considerable debate, not just at political and policy level, but also in society itself. Voices are frequently hea

  11. Familie og arv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Linda

    1995-01-01

    Familie og arv, familie, arv, børn, ægteskab, ægtefælle, skilsmisse, formuefællesskab, forældremyndighed, fælleseje, særråden, særeje, død, uskiftet bo, underholdspligt, samliv, tvangsarv, deling...

  12. Golden Matrix Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Anne; Hurley, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This student research project explores the properties of a family of matrices of zeros and ones that arises from the study of the diagonal lengths in a regular polygon. There is one family for each n greater than 2. A series of exercises guides the student to discover the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the matrices, which leads in turn to…

  13. Internationalization of Family Businesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Hollensen, Svend; Goto, Toshio

    2010-01-01

    -depth qualitative interviews reveal the driving forces on both sides and show how the psychic distance can be reduced between the different parent firms including the joint venture (JV) child. The purpose of this study is to compare equal split or equity joint ventures of non-family and family firms regarding...

  14. America's Family Time Famine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, Jr., William R.

    1990-01-01

    Parents spend increasingly less time with their children because of the pressures of dual careers and single parenthood. Economic pressures and social values have affected sharing of family time. Studies show both parents and children consider spending time together the most important element in improving family life. (BC)

  15. Marriage or Family Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Jay

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the differences between family therapy and marriage counseling in terms of professional organization, theory, and practice. Suggests that training in marriage therapy does not appear adequate for family therapy. The goal of the therapy field should be more consensus in theory and a single profession of therapists. (JAC)

  16. The Family Victivallaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plugge, C.M.; Zoetendal, E.G.

    2014-01-01

    The family Victivallaceae is a member of the order Victivallales and holds only two cultured representatives: Victivallis vadensis strain CelloT and the uncharacterized strain NML 080035. They are Gram-negative, nonmotile, and anaerobic. Within the family as well as the order, cloned 16S rRNA gene s

  17. The family Cyclobacteriaceae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AnilKumar, P.; Srinivas, T.N.R.

    , Rhodonellum, and Shivajiella Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences clearly clustered all the genera into the family Cyclobacteriaceae Members of the family are known to have a wide range of morphological properties like cell shape, size...

  18. Why the Family?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferracioli, L.

    2015-01-01

    Among the most pressing philosophical questions occupying those interested in the ethics of the family is why should parents, as opposed to charity workers or state officials, raise children? In their recent Family Values, Brighouse and Swift have further articulated and strengthen their own

  19. Changing Families, Changing Workplaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Suzanne M.

    2011-01-01

    American families and workplaces have both changed dramatically over the past half-century. Paid work by women has increased sharply, as has family instability. Education-related inequality in work hours and income has grown. These changes, says Suzanne Bianchi, pose differing work-life issues for parents at different points along the income…

  20. Familial malignant melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopf, A.W.; Hellman, L.J.; Rogers, G.S.; Gross, D.F.; Rigel, D.S.; Friedman, R.J.; Levenstein, M.; Brown, J.; Golomb, F.M.; Roses, D.F.; Gumport, S.L.

    1986-10-10

    Characteristics associated with familial compared with nonfamilial malignant melanoma were assessed. These data were obtained from consecutive prospectively completed questionnaires on 1169 cases of cutaneous malignant melanoma. Of these, 69 patients indicated a positive family history for this cancer. Among the various clinical and histological variables compared, those that significantly correlated with the familial occurrence of malignant melanoma include younger age at first diagnosis, smaller diameter of the lesion, lower Clark level, decreased frequency of nonmelanoma skin cancer, and reduced prevalence of noncutaneous cancer. Increased awareness of malignant melanoma among family members could account for some of these observations. Identification of the familial variety of malignant melanoma has practical implications concerning early detection and prompt intervention.

  1. Genetics of familial melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aoude, Lauren G; Wadt, Karin A W; Pritchard, Antonia L

    2015-01-01

    Twenty years ago, the first familial melanoma susceptibility gene, CDKN2A, was identified. Two years later, another high-penetrance gene, CDK4, was found to be responsible for melanoma development in some families. Progress in identifying new familial melanoma genes was subsequently slow; however......, with the advent of next-generation sequencing, a small number of new high-penetrance genes have recently been uncovered. This approach has identified the lineage-specific oncogene MITF as a susceptibility gene both in melanoma families and in the general population, as well as the discovery of telomere...... maintenance as a key pathway underlying melanoma predisposition. Given these rapid recent advances, this approach seems likely to continue to pay dividends. Here, we review the currently known familial melanoma genes, providing evidence that most additionally confer risk to other cancers, indicating...

  2. Maintenance of family networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    marsico, giuseppina; Chaudhary, N; Valsiner, Jaan

    2015-01-01

    Families are social units that expand in time (across generations) and space (as a geographically distributed sub-structures of wider kinship networks). Understanding of intergenerational family relations thus requires conceptualization of communication processes that take place within a small...... collective of persons linked with one another by a flexible social network. Within such networks, Peripheral Communication Patterns set the stage for direct everyday life activities within the family context. Peripheral Communication Patterns are conditions where one family network member (A) communicates...... manifestly with another member (B) with the aim of bringing the communicative message to the third member (C) who is present but is not explicitly designated as the manifest addressee of the intended message. Inclusion of physically non-present members of the family network (elders living elsewhere, deceased...

  3. Negotiating Family Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne Damkjær, Maja; Albrechtslund, Anders; Bøge, Ask Risom

    This presentation explores the question: What motivates the use of tracking technologies in families, and how does the use transform the relations between parent and child? The purpose is to investigate why tracking technologies are used in families and how these technologies potentially change...... the relation between parents and children. The use of tracking technologies in families implicate negotiations about the boundaries of trust and intimacy in parent-child relations which can lead to strategies of resistance or modification (Fotel and Thomsen, 2004; Rooney, 2010; Steeves and Jones, 2010......). In the presentation, we report from a qualitative study that focuses on intergenerational relations. The study draws on empirical data from workshops with Danish families as well as individual and group interviews. We aim to gain insights about the sharing habits and negotiations in intimate family relations...

  4. Fighting for the family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Maj Hedegaard

    2016-01-01

    The article explores how military deployment affects the everyday lives of Danish soldiers’ families. By approaching the challenges faced by soldiers and their partners from an anthropological perspective of the family, the article provides new insights into the social consequences of military...... deployment and the processes of militarization at home. Drawing on ethnographic examples from recent fieldwork among women, children, and soldiers at different stages of deployment, the article demonstrates how soldiers and their families attempt to live up to ideals about parenthood and family by creating...... ‘relational spaces’ that allow them to preserve intimate relationships despite geographical distances. Besides dealing with the practical responsibilities of everyday life, soldiers’ partners also fight to maintain the sense of closeness associated with normative ideals about family relations and a ‘good...

  5. Family Reconstruction: The Family within-a Group Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satir, Virginia; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Presents Virginia Satir's Family Reconstruction, a group therapy experience that blends and extends her 1982 process therapy and 1983 conjoint family therapy approaches. Describes the family reconstruction process, the review of family reconstruction data in the pregroup interview, the family reconstruction process in the counseling group, and the…

  6. Family Reconstruction: The Family within-a Group Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satir, Virginia; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Presents Virginia Satir's Family Reconstruction, a group therapy experience that blends and extends her 1982 process therapy and 1983 conjoint family therapy approaches. Describes the family reconstruction process, the review of family reconstruction data in the pregroup interview, the family reconstruction process in the counseling group, and the…

  7. 75 FR 17946 - Family Report, MTW Family Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Family Report, MTW Family Report AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD... understand demographic, family profile, income, and housing information for participants in the Public... Following Information Title of Proposal: Family Report, MTW Family Report. OMB Approval Number: 2577-0083...

  8. Effect of Chinese Medical Prescription of Strengthening Spleen and Replenishing Qi on Neurogranin and LTP of Hypothyroidism Rats Hippocampus CA1 Region%益气健脾方对甲状腺功能减退大鼠海马CA1区神经颗粒素及LTP的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭建中; 韩颖萍

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effects of Chinese medical prescription of strengthening spleen and replenishing Qi on neurogranin and LTP of hypothyroidism rats hippocampus CA1 region.Method:To give SPF level adult rats antithyroid drugs (ATD) and produce hypothyroidism models.Drug administration:Tapazole suspension 2.7 mg · kg-1 per day for 45 days.On day 46,randomly group rats into 6 groups,the control group,the model group,the levothyroxine sodium tablets group,the small dosage strengthening spleen and replenishing Qi prescription group,the large dosage strengthening spleen and replenishing Qi prescription group,strengthening spleen and replenishing Qi prescription and thyroxine combination group.Given the control group and model group 10 mL · kg-1 deionized water every day,and given other groups different drugs,once per day for 15 days,and observed the effects on neurogranin and LTP of hypothyroidism rats hippocampus CA1 region.Results:The protein expression level of hypothyroidism rats CA1 region of every group was dramatically improved,and there was a significant difference between that of the model group (P < 0.01),meanwhile,there was no significant difference among the levothyroxine sodium tablets group,the large dosage strengthening spleen and replenishing Qi prescription group,and strengthening spleen and replenishing Qi prescription and the thyroxine combination group (P > 0.05);the effects of the levothyroxine sodium tablets group,the large dosage strengthening spleen and replenishing Qi prescription group,and strengthening spleen and replenishing Qi prescription and the thyroxine combination group was better than that of the small dosage strengthening spleen and replenishing Qi prescription group,there was a significant difference(P < 0.01).After the treatment of levothyroxine sodium tablets and strengthening spleen and replenishing Qi prescription,the LTP of pothyroidism rats was observably higher than that of the model group (P < 0.01),but LTP of

  9. [Family oriented nursing care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Rodríguez, Joaquin Salvador; Lima-Serrano, Marta; Sáez-Bueno, Africa

    2009-01-01

    Nursing has experienced an important methodological development, in which it gives priority to the individual, although at a socioeconomic level a marked interest is seen in the health care of the family unit and the NANDA (North American Nursing Diagnosis Association), NIC (Nursing Interventions Classification) and NOC (Nursing Outcomes Classification) nursing guidelines, using diagnoses, criteria of results and interventions orientated towards this aim. We consider to the family as an opened system consisted of human elements, with a common history, which they form a functional unit been ruled by own procedure. In this paper we look at those aspects that must be taken into account in nursing assessment of families from a systemic perspective, including some tools for data collection and analysis of information. In addition, we identify specific areas of intervention. We believe that the family must be studied from a nursing care point of view with its own characteristics as opposed to those possessed individually by each of its members. We also believe that, when assessment is centred on the Henderson unaided activities study or the Gordon functional health patterns, they are not useful in assessing the family unit. This work offers an assessment method centred on the family unit, which helps to identify the nursing diagnoses applicable to it. Our proposal, which has been successfully used by nursing students over the last few years, hopes to contribute to quality clinical practice with a tool orientated towards the family.

  10. Gender and family stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing trend of partnership disruption among families with children in recent decades has been accompanied by substantial changes in traditional gender roles in industrialized countries. Yet, relatively little is known about the effects of changing gender relations on family stability in the European context. In this paper, we study such gender influences at the familial and societal level in Sweden and Hungary between the mid-1960s and the early 1990s. We focus on the disruption of the first parental union (i.e. the union in which a couple's first child was born. Our analysis is based on data extracted from the Swedish and Hungarian Fertility and Family Surveys of 1992/93. We use the method of hazard regression. The results suggest (i that the establishment of the dual-earner family model influences family stability only if it is accompanied by some changes in traditional gender relations within the family, and (ii that women's and men's labor-market behavior have different effects in spite of the relatively long history of women's (also mothers' labor-force participation in both Sweden and Hungary.

  11. Ethnic family structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, P

    1989-04-01

    Using information from large-scale statistical collections and elaborations from ethnographic studies, this paper examines the underlying social processes and structures of migrant families in Australia. Migrants in Australia are often confronted by family values and behavior which run counter to their own. For some migrants, particularly those from the United Kingdom and Western European countries, there is little conflict as Australian family values and behavior approximate their own; the feminine conception of the family is not foreign to them. On the other hand, migrants from Mediterranean countries and from Asia are likely to face a clash between the masculine conception of the family and the dominant feminine conception they find in Australia. Economic structure also often forces an accommodation to the feminine conception of the family. For example, migrant women in Australia are heavily involved in the work force outside the family circle, and, in the main, have relatively low fertility. Age at marriage is increasing and many single women of migrant origin are being educated at the tertiary level and are working before marriage. These changes necessarily expose women and youths to the dominant social values and increase their economic independence, thus disrupting the conventional male family authority. There is evidence of a degree of accommodation to Australian patterns of behavior in migrant groups more inclined to a masculine conception of the family. In other areas, however, which are less directly related to economic pressure, migrant values have been far less accommodating. There is still a high level of endogamy, the 1st birth occurs soon after marriage, divorce rates are low, and the aged are very likely to live with their children. Large migrant groups have been able to maintain these patterns of behavior through the formation of ethnic substructures that form their principal social environment. In the longer term, however, their children are

  12. Family Structure and Social Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Dawn R.

    Regardless of family form, there is a universal belief that one's family is the most powerful agent of socialization. A sample of 38 junior high school students from single parent and nuclear families completed a questionnaire in order to examine the relative effects of peer influence and family influence in single parent and nuclear families.…

  13. Family Systems and Fertility Intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mönkediek, Bastian; Bras, Hilde

    2017-01-01

    Family systems, as normative frameworks in which family processes unfold, are believed to exert a major influence on fertility. While a number of studies have addressed family system effects on family size and the timing of births, the question of how family systems influence fertility intentions

  14. The contribution of familiness to the performance of family businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. P. Venter

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available While family businesses are known to consistently outperform non-family businesses in financial terms over the long run, family businesses have received comparatively little attention from researchers. In this article an explanation is offered for this superior performance in the form of the concept of "familiness" - the unique contribution that family involvement brings to any business (which is divided into founder capital and family capital. It is explained that family businesses possess no general competitive advantage over non-family businesses. The unique strength of successful family businesses does not lie in their espoused advantages, but in their ability to sustain and adapt, through family capital, the culture created by the founder. An evolutionary conceptual model of the creation and transmission of familiness is provided to explain how this unique strength influences family business performance over the long run.

  15. Family Background and Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindquist, Matthew J.; Sol, Joeri; Van Praag, Mirjam

    Vast amounts of money are currently being spent on policies aimed at promoting entrepreneurship. The success of such policies, however, rests in part on the assumption that individuals are not ‘born entrepreneurs’. In this paper, we assess the importance of family background and neighborhood...... treatment within families by gender and birth order does little to further increase our estimates of the importance of family-wide factors. We then go on to show that neighborhood effects, sibling peer effects, and parental income and education explain very little of these correlations. Parental...

  16. The Family Saprospiraceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2014-01-01

    The Saprospiraceae, a family within the order Sphingobacteriales and the phylum Bacteroidetes, embrace the genera Saprospira, Lewinella, Haliscomenobacter, Aureispira, ‘‘Rubidimonas,’’ and ‘‘Portibacter.’’ The composition of the family, and delineation of genera and species, is largely defined...... associated with predation of other bacteria and algae. Family members are likely important in the breakdown of complex organic compounds in the environment. Such a role is at least demonstrated in situ for activated sludge wastewater treatment systems where these organisms are frequently observed...

  17. Family Background and Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindquist, Matthew J.; Sol, Joeri; Van Praag, Mirjam

    Vast amounts of money are currently being spent on policies aimed at promoting entrepreneurship. The success of such policies, however, rests in part on the assumption that individuals are not ‘born entrepreneurs’. In this paper, we assess the importance of family background and neighborhood...... treatment within families by gender and birth order does little to further increase our estimates of the importance of family-wide factors. We then go on to show that neighborhood effects, sibling peer effects, and parental income and education explain very little of these correlations. Parental...

  18. Family and non-family business differences in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maret Kirsipuu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to identify differences between family enterprises and non-family enterprises. The concepts of entrepreneurship, entrepreneur and enterprise/business are clarified. The paper contains the results of research conducted by the author among family entrepreneurs in 2007–2012 that can be compared to the research results reached by Wahl (2011. This research demonstrates that there are differences between family entrepreneurs and non-family entrepreneurs, which are primarily caused by that family entrepreneurs value first of all their family members, family traditions and only then profit earning.

  19. Everyday Family Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerling, Allan

    2010-01-01

    project takes a social psychological approach, combining quantitative and qualitative methods in a longitudinal study of family life. The knowledge interest of the project is the constitution of communality and individuality in everyday family life. This article presents the theoretical framework...... and the conceptualization of everyday family life of the social psychological research agenda in this field. The main line of argument is that ongoing modernization is synonymous with accelerated processes of detraditionalization and individualization. This calls for a re-conceptualisation of ‘the family’ which enables...... researchers to grasp both continuity and change. The article refers to everyday life studies and social psychology and argues that the term ‘family life’ my serve as one stepping stone for transgressing the dichotomy. Furthermore the article unfolds the implications of this framework for the research design...

  20. The Family Startup Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trillingsgaard, Tea; Maimburg, Rikke Damkjær; Simonsen, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Background: Inadequate parenting is an important public health problem with possible severe and long-term consequences related to child development. We have solid theoretical and political arguments in favor of efforts enhancing the quality of the early family environment in the population at large....../design: Participants will be approximately 2500 pregnant women and partners. Inclusion criteria are parental age above 18 and the mother expecting first child. Families are recruited when attending routine pregnancy scans provided as a part of the publicly available prenatal care program at Aarhus University Hospital...... and community resources. The program consists of twelve group sessions, with nine families in each group, continuing from pregnancy until the child is 15 months old. TAU is the publicly available pre- and postnatal care available to families in both conditions. Analyses will employ survey data, administrative...

  1. Familial Mediterranean Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... don't use genetic tests as the sole method of diagnosing familial Mediterranean fever. There's no cure ... may be options, though these treatments are considered experimental. Other medications include rilonacept (Arcalyst) and anakinra (Kineret). ...

  2. Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have a de novo (new) mutation in the APC gene. Most colorectal cancer is sporadic, meaning it occurs by chance, and ... a mutation in the APC gene. If an APC gene mutation is found, other family members may be ... tumor ...

  3. Familial Periodic Paralyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and less severe than the hypokalemic form. Muscle spasms are common. × Definition Familial periodic paralyses are a ... and less severe than the hypokalemic form. Muscle spasms are common. View Full Definition Treatment Treatment of ...

  4. Children and Families: 1984?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie

    1981-01-01

    In order to develop normally, children need emotional involvement and shared activities with one or more adult(s). Public policy in the United States, unlike that of most industrialized societies, is not supportive of family life. (Author/GC)

  5. Unique Family Living Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be treated with medicine?ResourcesAmerican Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Divorce and Children Last Updated: January 2017 This article was contributed by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Tags: Adolescent, child, Psychiatric and Psychologic Emotional Well-Being, Family ...

  6. Familial Pompe Disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tecellioglu, Mehmet; Kamisli, Ozden

    2015-01-01

    .... We present a family with Pompe disease consisting of the asymptomatic mother and two siblings who presented with muscle weakness and respiratory failure and who had been followed-up with a diagnosis...

  7. Benign Familial Infantile Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The history, classification, clinical and EEG features, genetics, differential diagnosis, and outcome of “benign familial infantile seizures” (BFIS are reviewed from the Neurology Department, Bambino Gesu Children Hospital, Rome, Italy.

  8. Families talen en algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, P.R.J.

    1976-01-01

    Operaties op formele talen geven aanleiding tot bijbehorende operatoren op families talen. Bepaalde onderwerpen uit de algebra (universele algebra, tralies, partieel geordende monoiden) kunnen behulpzaam zijn in de studie van verzamelingen van dergelijke operatoren.

  9. Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogra A

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A boy with multiple xanthomatosis with deranged lipid profile consistent with homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia is reported for its rarity and exotic presentation and biochemical abnormalities of lipids in parents.

  10. Everyday Family Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerling, Allan

    2010-01-01

    What are the implications of ongoing processes of modernization and individualization for social relations in everyday life? This overall research question is the pivotal point in empirical studies at the Centre of Childhood-, Youth- and Family Life Research at Roskilde University. One research...... project takes a social psychological approach, combining quantitative and qualitative methods in a longitudinal study of family life. The knowledge interest of the project is the constitution of communality and individuality in everyday family life. This article presents the theoretical framework...... and the conceptualization of everyday family life of the social psychological research agenda in this field. The main line of argument is that ongoing modernization is synonymous with accelerated processes of detraditionalization and individualization. This calls for a re-conceptualisation of ‘the family’ which enables...

  11. Family Weight School treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nowicka, Paulina; Höglund, Peter; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate the efficacy of a Family Weight School treatment based on family therapy in group meetings with adolescents with a high degree of obesity. METHODS: Seventy-two obese adolescents aged 12-19 years old were referred to a childhood obesity center by pediatricians...... and school nurses and offered a Family Weight School therapy program in group meetings given by a multidisciplinary team. Intervention was compared with an untreated waiting list control group. Body mass index (BMI) and BMI z-scores were calculated before and after intervention. RESULTS: Ninety percent...... group with initial BMI z-score 3.5. CONCLUSIONS: Family Weight School treatment model might be suitable for adolescents with BMI z...

  12. Asbestos: Protect Your Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Related Topics: Asbestos Contact Us Share Protect Your Family How to Identify Materials That May Contain Asbestos ... Improper removal may actually increase your and your family’s exposure to asbestos fibers. Top of Page Asbestos ...

  13. 5. Natural Family Planning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sitwala

    influencing utilization of Natural Family Planning .... Because of the potential benefits of FP, it is important to any community ... Data was collected over a period of 4 months after approval ..... The DHMT to educate parents on the importance of.

  14. Family Demands, Social Support and Family Functioning in Taiwanese Families Rearing Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, C-Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Down syndrome (DS) affects not only children but also their families. Much remains to be learned about factors that influence how families of children with DS function, especially families in non-Western populations. The purpose of this cross-sectional, correlational study was to examine how family demographics, family demands and…

  15. Family Demands, Social Support and Family Functioning in Taiwanese Families Rearing Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, C-Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Down syndrome (DS) affects not only children but also their families. Much remains to be learned about factors that influence how families of children with DS function, especially families in non-Western populations. The purpose of this cross-sectional, correlational study was to examine how family demographics, family demands and…

  16. Familial adenomatous polyposis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Steffen

    1989-01-01

    of frequent occurrence of premalignant duodenal adenomas. The prognosis is good after prophylactic colectomy in patients without carcinoma. All first degree relatives of affected family members should be examined regularly with proctosigmoidoscopy from the age of ten, and prophylaxis should be organised using...... a national or regional polyposis register. The recent detection of a specific gene for familial adenomatous polyposis is a long step forward, and several problems may be solved by increasing international cooperation....

  17. WOMEN IN FAMILY BUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    Anshu,

    2012-01-01

    The role of women in family businesses is explored in the paper. Although recognized as generally very important players, the role of women is often defined as invisible in business decision-making, supportive in men’s traditional business domains and only rarelyadequately recognized and rewarded. The paper explores possible differences in the views of men and women who manage small family firms. Their attitudes opposing the traditional business roles ofwomen, different views on managerial, o...

  18. Fixpoints vs Moore Families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Fuyuan; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2012-01-01

    of a CTL formula can be described as the least element in a Moore family of acceptable sets of states for the static analysis. Turning the attention to the μ-calculus we are able to generalise this result to the alternation-free fragment whereas even for the fragment of alternation depth 2 we show...... that the fixed point characterisation cannot be recast as a Moore family property....

  19. Familial adenomatous polyposis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Steffen

    1989-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis is an autosomal dominant disease that includes early development of up to thousands of colorectal adenomas and several extracolonic manifestations. All untreated patients will develop colorectal adenocarcinoma. The treatment of choice is colectomy and ileorectal ana...... a national or regional polyposis register. The recent detection of a specific gene for familial adenomatous polyposis is a long step forward, and several problems may be solved by increasing international cooperation....

  20. Myth of the Perfect Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Español Text Size Email Print Share The "Perfect" Family Page Content Article Body Is there such a ...

  1. Familial gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bresciani Cláudio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Familial aggregation of gastric cancer has pointed out to a possible hereditary and genetic factor involved in the carcinogenesis of this disease. The diffuse type gastric cancer patients are frequently younger and the tumor has locally infiltrative growth pattern early in its development. Observation of families with frequent early onset gastric cancer has led to the identification of a novel gene implicated in gastric cancer susceptibility: CDH1/E-cadherin. Diffuse familiar gastric cancer is defined as any family presenting: two first-degree relatives with diffuse gastric cancer, one of them with age under 50 years or at least 3 first-degree relatives irrespective age of onset. CASE REPORT: The family reported by us does not fit in any of the classification proposed. The precise identification of these families by clinical and molecular tools is of great importance. The case reported is an example of a family that probably is a form of hereditary gastric cancer not yet fully understood. CONCLUSION: Soon there will be new criteria, possibly including genetic and molecular characteristics.

  2. [Family, Suicide and Mourning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garciandía Imaz, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Death is an event that always breaks into family life in a surprising way. Of all the deaths, suicide is the one which more strongly questions the functionality of a family and increases the risk of difficulties in the mourning process. Families in which a suicide has occurred are exposed to a greater possibility of disintegration, disorganization and pathological expressions in their members. To present a reduced and circumscribed narrative revision, restricted to examine the relationship between suicide and the mourning process in the family. The suicide of a loved one is an event that may contribute to pathological grief and mental dysfunctions in surviving relatives. Death in the family is a natural phenomenon. However, death by suicide is one of the phenomena that can generate more alterations in the structure and organization of the family, due to the difficulty related to the mourning process. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Familial Fahr disease in a Turkish family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotan, Dilcan; Aygul, Recep

    2009-01-01

    Fahr syndrome refers to a rare syndrome characterized by symmetrical and bilateral intracranial calcification. We present a 42-year-old woman with Fahr disease, but lacking extrapyramidal symptoms or a metabolic disorder. Her neurological examination was normal. Computed tomographic scans demonstrated symmetrical calcification over the basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum. No underlying cause for the bilateral calcification was found. When screening other family members, we detected Fahr syndrome in her two daughters and three brothers, revealing that the disease was an autosomal dominant trait. Fahr disease may be clinically asymptomatic, but have pronounced positive brain imaging findings. Computed tomographic scanning remains the most effective screening tool for adult relatives.

  4. The intersubjectivity of family consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jeppe Trolle

    This study of everyday consumption is based on an ethnographic fieldwork conducted among four Danish middle-class families in Copenhagen, from which an illustrative example of family car purchase is drawn. By introducing two new concepts to the study of family consumption; intra-family consumer...... identity and family scape, I analyze how family members negotiate purchase decisions, and relate to each other’s preferences and desires, as well as those of other families. I consider how family members' interrelations as consumers and long-term negotiations over symbolic meanings of consumption...

  5. Changing families, changing workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Suzanne M

    2011-01-01

    American families and workplaces have both changed dramatically over the past half-century. Paid work by women has increased sharply, as has family instability. Education-related inequality in work hours and income has grown. These changes, says Suzanne Bianchi, pose differing work-life issues for parents at different points along the income distribution. Between 1975 and 2009, the labor force rate of mothers with children under age eighteen increased from 47.4 percent to 71.6 percent. Mothers today also return to work much sooner after the birth of a child than did mothers half a century ago. High divorce rates and a sharp rise in the share of births to unmarried mothers mean that more children are being raised by a single parent, usually their mother. Workplaces too have changed, observes Bianchi. Today's employees increasingly work nonstandard hours. The well-being of highly skilled workers and less-skilled workers has been diverging. For the former, work hours may be long, but income has soared. For lower-skill workers, the lack of "good jobs" disconnects fathers from family obligations. Men who cannot find work or have low earnings potential are much less likely to marry. For low-income women, many of whom are single parents, the work-family dilemma is how to care adequately for children and work enough hours to support them financially. Jobs for working-class and lower middle-class workers are relatively stable, except in economic downturns, but pay is low, and both parents must work full time to make ends meet. Family income is too high to qualify for government subsidized child care, but too low to afford high-quality care in the private market. These families struggle to have a reasonable family life and provide for their family's economic well-being. Bianchi concludes that the "work and family" problem has no one solution because it is not one problem. Some workers need more work and more money. Some need to take time off around the birth of a child

  6. Family planning Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singarimbun, M

    1968-06-01

    The growth of family planning activities in Indonesia in the Postwar period is traced; and future prospects for family planning are assessed. Transmigration projects initiated by the Dutch and supported by President Sukarno after Indonesian independence as a means of decreasing population pressure on the island of Java, are identified as the only official response to the population problem until 1965. In the face of the government's opposition to the idea of birth control as a population control measure, the activities of the Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association (IPPA) after its founding in 1957 were limited to advising mothers on spacing of their children for health reasons. Statements made in support of a national family planning program by government officials at a 1967 IPPA Congress and on other occasions are noted. The major components of an approved national family planning program to start in 1969 are described. However, the government's policy as of late 1967 and early 1968 is characterized as one of mainly benevolent encouragement and help to voluntary organizations. The chief impediment to family planning in Indonesia is said to be a lack of motivation and the force of traditional values that favor large families. On the positive side are: 1) Studies showing considerable interest in birth control by the rural population; 2) A long history of traditional birth control practices; 3) The absence of outright opposition by religious groups to the principle of family planning. However, financial costs, the need for the training of personnel, and a general unawareness of the magnitude of the task lying ahead constitute other formidable obstacles.

  7. Cardiomyopathy, familial dilated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mestroni Luisa

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM is a heart muscle disease characterized by ventricular dilatation and impaired systolic function. Patients with DCM suffer from heart failure, arrhythmia, and are at risk of premature death. DCM has a prevalence of one case out of 2500 individuals with an incidence of 7/100,000/year (but may be under diagnosed. In many cases the disease is inherited and is termed familial DCM (FDC. FDC may account for 20–48% of DCM. FDC is principally caused by genetic mutations in FDC genes that encode for cytoskeletal and sarcomeric proteins in the cardiac myocyte. Family history analysis is an important tool for identifying families affected by FDC. Standard criteria for evaluating FDC families have been published and the use of such criteria is increasing. Clinical genetic testing has been developed for some FDC genes and will be increasingly utilized for evaluating FDC families. Through the use of family screening by pedigree analysis and/or genetic testing, it is possible to identify patients at earlier, or even presymptomatic stages of their disease. This presents an opportunity to invoke lifestyle changes and to provide pharmacological therapy earlier in the course of disease. Genetic counseling is used to identify additional asymptomatic family members who are at risk of developing symptoms, allowing for regular screening of these individuals. The management of FDC focuses on limiting the progression of heart failure and controlling arrhythmia, and is based on currently accepted treatment guidelines for DCM. It includes general measures (salt and fluid restriction, treatment of hypertension, limitation of alcohol intake, control of body weight, moderate exercise and pharmacotherapy. Cardiac resynchronization, implantable cardioverter defibrillators and left ventricular assist devices have progressively expanding usage. Patients with severe heart failure, severe reduction of the functional capacity and depressed

  8. Familial pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, A P; Hruban, R H; Brune, K A; Petersen, G M; Goggins, M

    2001-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in both men and women in the United States and will be responsible for an estimated 28,900 deaths in 2001. Relatively little is known of its etiology, and the only well-established risk factor is cigarette smoking. Studies over the past 3 decades have shown that 4%-16% of patients with pancreatic cancer have a family history of the disease. A small fraction of this aggregation can be accounted for in inherited cancer syndromes, including familial atypical multiple-mole melanoma, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, hereditary breast-ovarian cancer, hereditary pancreatitis, and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. These syndromes arise as a result of germline mutations in the BRCA2, pl6 (familial atypical multiple-mole melanoma), mismatch repair (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer), and STK11 (Peutz-Jeghers syndrome) genes. In addition, hereditary plays a role in predisposing certain patients with apparently sporadic pancreatic cancer. Many patients with pancreatic cancers caused by a germline mutation in a cancer-causing gene do not have a pedigree that is suggestive of a familial cancer syndrome. A recent prospective analysis of the pedigrees in the National Familial Pancreatic Tumor Registry found that individuals with a family history of pancreatic cancer in multiple first-degree relatives have a high risk of pancreatic cancer themselves. The identification of such high-risk individuals will help clinicians target screening programs and develop preventive interventions with the hope of reducing the mortality of pancreatic cancer in these families.

  9. Opportunity NYC--Family Rewards: Qualitative Study of Family Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraker, Carolyn A.; Greenberg, David

    2011-01-01

    Aimed at low-income families in six of New York City's highest-poverty communities, the Family Rewards program ties cash rewards to a pre-specified set of activities. This paper presents the qualitative findings from interviews with 77 families. It examines how families incorporated the program into their households, and specifically the…

  10. Engaging Families in In-Home Family Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ronald W.; Koley, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Boys Town has created a program called In-Home Family Services to deliver help to families in stress. In-home family intervention programs have become widely used to help more families who are at risk and experiencing difficulties with a wide range of problems including domestic violence, child behavior problems, parent-child and family…

  11. Acculturation gaps in Vietnamese immigrant families: Impact on family relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Joyce; Birman, Dina

    2010-01-01

    Vietnamese immigrants in the United States face acculturation challenges involving the individual, family, and community. Experts suggest that immigrant family members acculturate at different rates resulting in an acculturation gap, which negatively influences family adjustment. In this study we examined the degree and patterns of acculturation differences between 104 first generation immigrant Vietnamese adolescents and their parents, and whether acculturation gap affected family relationsh...

  12. Family environment patterns in families with bipolar children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belardinelli, Cecilia; Hatch, John P; Olvera, Rene L; Fonseca, Manoela; Caetano, Sheila C; Nicoletti, Mark; Pliszka, Steven; Soares, Jair C

    2008-04-01

    We studied the characteristics of family functioning in bipolar children and healthy comparison children. We hypothesized that the family environment of bipolar children would show greater levels of dysfunction as measured by the Family Environment Scale (FES). We compared the family functioning of 36 families that included a child with DSM-IV bipolar disorder versus 29 comparison families that included only healthy children. All subjects and their parents were assessed with the K-SADS-PL interview. The parents completed the FES to assess their current family functioning. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to compare the family environment of families with and without offspring with bipolar disorder. Parents of bipolar children reported lower levels of family cohesion (pparents with no bipolar children. Secondary analyses within the bipolar group revealed lower levels of organization (p=0.031) and cohesion (p=0.014) in families where a parent had a history of mood disorders compared to families where parents had no history of mood disorders. Length of illness in the affected child was inversely associated with family cohesion (r=-0.47, p=0.004). Due to the case-control design of the study, we cannot comment on the development of these family problems or attribute their cause specifically to child bipolar disorder. Families with bipolar children show dysfunctional patterns related to interpersonal interactions and personal growth. A distressed family environment should be addressed when treating children with bipolar disorder.

  13. Engaging Families in In-Home Family Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ronald W.; Koley, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Boys Town has created a program called In-Home Family Services to deliver help to families in stress. In-home family intervention programs have become widely used to help more families who are at risk and experiencing difficulties with a wide range of problems including domestic violence, child behavior problems, parent-child and family…

  14. Acculturation gaps in Vietnamese immigrant families: Impact on family relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Joyce; Birman, Dina

    2010-01-01

    Vietnamese immigrants in the United States face acculturation challenges involving the individual, family, and community. Experts suggest that immigrant family members acculturate at different rates resulting in an acculturation gap, which negatively influences family adjustment. In this study we examined the degree and patterns of acculturation differences between 104 first generation immigrant Vietnamese adolescents and their parents, and whether acculturation gap affected family relationsh...

  15. Use of family management styles in family intervention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderfer, Melissa A

    2006-01-01

    Family management styles (FMSs) explain some of the complexities embedded in a family with a child who has chronic illness. The FMS typologies provide descriptions of family adjustment and management of care. These 5 distinct patterns may be valuable in tailoring and evaluating family interventions in research.

  16. 75 FR 9247 - Single Family Mortgage Insurance Premium, Single Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Single Family Mortgage Insurance Premium, Single Family AGENCY: Office of the Chief... the Single Family Premium Collection Subsystem-Upfront (SFPCS-U) to remit the upfront premium to... manage and process upfront single family mortgage insurance premium collections and corrections to submit...

  17. Education, Parenting and Family: The Social Geographies of Family Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, Emma; Marandet, Elodie

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between education, parenting and family through the prism and particularities of family learning. Family learning is an example of an educational initiative, primarily aimed at parents and linked to wider policy concerns, which can be explored through a mapping of its social geographies; family learning is…

  18. Sustainability of Rural Family Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maret Kirsipuu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Family enterprises have been researched in traditional, stable market economies, to a lesser extent also in former socialist economies. A special focus has been on family enterprises’ sustainability and it has been discovered that one of the main pain spots is the change of generation related problems. Family enterprises can be sustainable only when they are prepared for a generation change. Family business culture and family traditions in Estonia have been broken. After Estonia regained independence in 1991, entrepreneurs started to restore previous farms and wished to continue family traditions of their ancestors; entrepreneurship started to develop and many people, especially in rural areas, started a family business. In 2012, these family entrepreneurs have a choice to make how to ensure that their family business will stay sustainable, how to pass family business over to their descendants so that the family business traditions won’t cease. This paper seeks to analyse factors that inhibit sustainability of family enterprises. The data sources are special scientific literature and the questionnaire surveys and interviews with family entrepreneurs conducted by the author over 2007−2011. It is possible to ensure that a family enterprise is sustainable only when the family entrepreneurs are prepared for the generation change. The present and future family entrepreneurs in Estonia can get information from this paper about the problems that may arise in connection with the generation change and knowledge to ensure sustainability of their family business.

  19. WOMEN IN FAMILY BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr Anshu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of women in family businesses is explored in the paper. Although recognized as generally very important players, the role of women is often defined as invisible in business decision-making, supportive in men’s traditional business domains and only rarelyadequately recognized and rewarded. The paper explores possible differences in the views of men and women who manage small family firms. Their attitudes opposing the traditional business roles ofwomen, different views on managerial, ownership and transition issues and possible gender discrimination are examined. The findings support the paradigm of a different, more feminine style of management, while signs of discrimination are not clearly revealed. This paper is based on a research intended to provide acomparative analysis of the status of women entrepreneurs and men entrepreneurs in Family Business in India. It first draws demographic & psychographic profiles of women and men entrepreneurs in family business, identifies & addresses operational problems faced by women and men entrepreneurs in family business, draws theirinclination for future plans for growth and expansion and also for the furtherance of research on women entrepreneurs in India.

  20. Familial pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeva, S; Vasilev, V; Vroonen, L; Naves, L; Jaffrain-Rea, M-L; Daly, A F; Zacharieva, S; Beckers, A

    2010-12-01

    Pituitary adenomas are benign intracranial neoplasms that present a major clinical concern because of hormonal overproduction or compression symptoms of adjacent structures. Most arise in a sporadic setting with a small percentage developing as a part of familial syndromes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), Carney complex (CNC), and the recently described familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) and MEN-4. While the genetic alterations responsible for the formation of sporadic adenomas remain largely unknown, considerable advances have been made in defining culprit genes in these familial syndromes. Mutations in MEN1 and PRKAR1A genes are found in the majority of MEN1 and CNC patients, respectively. About 15% of FIPA kindreds present with mutations of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene. Mutations in the CDKN1B gene, encoding p27(Kip)¹ were identified in MEN4 cases. Familial tumours appear to differ from their sporadic counterparts not only in genetic basis but also in clinical characteristics. Evidence suggests that, especially in MEN1 and FIPA, they are more aggressive and affect patients at younger age, therefore justifying the importance of early diagnosis. In this review, we summarize the genetic and clinical characteristics of these familial pituitary adenomas.

  1. [The LDL receptor family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meilinger, Melinda

    2002-12-29

    The members of the LDL receptor family are structurally related endocytic receptors. Our view on these receptors has considerably changed in recent years. Not only have new members of the family been identified, but also several interesting observations have been published concerning the biological function of these molecules. The LDL receptor family members are able to bind and internalize a plethora of ligands; as a consequence, they play important roles in diverse physiological processes. These receptors are key players in the lipoprotein metabolism, vitamin homeostasis, Ca2+ homeostasis, cell migration, and embryonic development. Until recently, LDL receptor family members were thought to be classic endocytic receptors that provide cells with metabolites on one hand, while regulating the concentration of their ligands in the extracellular fluids on the other hand. However, recent findings indicate that in addition to their cargo transport function, LDL receptor family members can act as signal transducers, playing important roles in the development of the central nervous system or the skeleton. Better understanding of physiological and pathophysiological functions of these molecules may open new avenues for the treatment or prevention of many disorders.

  2. Family focused nursing education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. E. Thompson

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available At the present time the majority of nurse education programmes are firmly tied to the perspectives of curative medicine within hospitals - they are disease and hospital oriented. This model, which indicates a 'sickness’ concept of nursing is entirely inappropriate if contemporary and future health care needs are to be met. The shift in education should be towards a health, family and whole person centered approach. The family is the most fundamental and dynamic unit in society with a profound influence upon its members. Besides performing a variety of other functions, the family has a central role in promoting and maintaining the health of its members. Because the family unit is the microcosm of society and accurately reflects the needs of society at large it is appropriate that this should be a key area of experience. Family attachments during training provide opportunities for close and committed contact with people in their everyday world and for learning what is really important to them.

  3. Understanding Family Interaction Patterns in Families With Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaber, Patricia; Blair, Kate; Jost, Ellen; Schaffer, Molly; Thurner, Emily

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the dynamic changes that occur in family interaction patterns when Alzheimer's disease is present. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 participants who have a family member with the disease. Using modified analytic induction, guided by the dimensions of the Family Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation (FIRO) Model, participants shared how Alzheimer's disease affected family structure, control dynamics, and intimacy among family members. Findings demonstrate that (a) families reorganize and restructure based on geographic proximity and shifting roles, act out of filial responsibility, and strive to preserve shared meanings and rituals; (b) decision making increases around care of the person with Alzheimer's disease and shifts to the primary caregiver or other family members based on their abilities; and (c) expressions of intimacy intensify while personality is preserved in the person with the disease. The Family FIRO model can inform practitioners using family-centered care with families with Alzheimer's disease.

  4. Understanding family member suicide narratives by investigating family history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnarajah, Dorothy; Maple, Myfanwy; Minichiello, Victor

    2014-01-01

    The complex family environments in which a suicide death had previously occurred were explored in a qualitative study of narratives of suicide-bereaved participants. The participants searched for reasons why the suicide occurred in their family. Family patterning stories and the context of the environment in which the suicide death occurred provided an additional depth of meaning into the relational aspects of the family. Fractured families emerged as an important theme. Shared in the narratives were stories of conditions within the family that may have contributed to vulnerability towards persistent negative feelings about their lives, their family, and their future. The study also identifies the strengths of family culture that led to resilience in the suicide bereaved. These stories highlight the importance of support for those bereaved by the suicide of a close family member and the issues that places people in vulnerable situations that perhaps may explain the increased risk of suicide for those bereaved family members.

  5. Fostering families' and children's rights to family connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsman, Miriam J; Boel-Studt, Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Recent federal legislation strengthens children's and families' rights to family-centered practice by increasing the responsibility of child welfare agencies to identify and engage extended family members in providing care and support to children placed out of the home. Preliminary results from an experimental study of a federally funded family finding project found greater involvement of family, kin, and informal supports and a higher likelihood of reunification or relative placement compared with standard child welfare services.

  6. Dignifying families at risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Anne Marie Anker

    2017-01-01

    Workshop på konference: Through the voices of families at risk, the aim of the presentation is to display how a change in caseworker approach and municipal organization can dignify families at risk and create change in the families’ experiences of collaboration, agency and of self. Qualitative...... adult who handles the financials and one (or more) from child protection. Most likely, the several different caseworkers from different departments are combined with different professionals related to the different initiatives launched by the different departments. Therefore, it is not unrealistic...... measures the idea is to enable these families away from being at risk. Grad af anerkendelse: International Links: http://ifsweurope2017.yourhost.is/workshops/...

  7. Families from Supergroups

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, S M

    2016-01-01

    As was shown in 1984 by Caneschi, Farrar, and Schwimmer, decomposing representations of the supergroup SU(M|N), can give interesting anomaly-free sets of fermion representations of SU(M) x SU(N) x U(1). It is shown here that such groups can be used to construct realistic grand unified models with non-abelian gauged family symmetries. A particularly simple three-family example based on SU(5) x SU(2) x U(1) is studied. The forms of the mass matrices, including that of the right-handed neutrinos, are determined in terms of SU(2) Clebsch coefficients. Models of this type would have a rich phenomenology if part of the family symmetry is broken near the electroweak scale.

  8. Familial gigantiform cementoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Won Jeong; Kim, Eun Kyung [Dankook Univ. School of Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    Familial gigantiform cementoma is a rate fibro-cemento-osseous disease of the jaws which appears to be transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with variable expressivity of the phenotype. A 7-year-old girl visited DKUDH complaining of the painless facial deformity. Clinically, significant facie-lingual expansion was observed at the left maxilla, left mandibular body and symphysis portion. Malposition of lower anterior teeth was found. Panoramic radiograph and CT scan showed the extensive expandile mixed lesion at maxilla and mandible. Bone scan revealed hot spot at the maxilla and left side of mandible. Histologic examination revealed moderately dense fibrous connective tissue with scattered masses resembling cementum. The patient's mother had a history of the mandibular resection due to benign tumor. Her younger brother had buccal expansion of right mandible. We report our finding of a family that has exhibited clinical, radiographic and histologic findings consistent with the familial gigantiform dementoma.

  9. Innovation in Family Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filser, Matthias; Brem, Alexander; Gast, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, research on innovation in family firms has received growing attention by scholars and practitioners around the globe with a wide range of aspects explored within the current body of literature. Despite the constantly growing number of scientific publications, research lacks...... a comprehensive and critical review of past and present research achievements. First, conducting a bibliometric analysis with a focus on innovation in family firms, we identify five topical clusters that help to understand the foundations of recent findings: namely ownership and governance, structural settings......, organizational culture and behaviour, resources, and innovation and strategy. Second, based on a thorough literature review the major research avenues are reflected. The comparison of the results of both analyses showed the following areas for future research on family firm innovation: members‘ individual human...

  10. Family ties and residential locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.H.; Cooke, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, and in the Special Issue it introduces, the focus is on the role of family ties in residential location choice and, conversely, the role of residential locations in maintaining family ties. Not only do events in the nuclear family trigger residential relocations, but nearby family mem

  11. Gendered Discourse about Family Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danes, Sharon M.; Haberman, Heather R.; McTavish, Donald

    2005-01-01

    Language patterns of family business owners were explored by identifying discourse styles and emphasized ideas in four presenting contexts: business, family, intersection of family and business, and business success. The content analysis supports the existence of a general discourse style within family businesses and of similarities and…

  12. 75 FR 63753 - Family Offices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... family, provides advice to a broader group of clients and much more resembles the business model common... investment advisory business, and not a family managing its own wealth. 2. Ownership and Control We propose... feature helped distinguish these family offices from the family-run investment advisory businesses...

  13. The intersubjectivity of family consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jeppe Trolle

    This study of everyday consumption is based on an ethnographic fieldwork conducted among four Danish middle-class families in Copenhagen, from which an illustrative example of family car purchase is drawn. By introducing two new concepts to the study of family consumption; intra-family consumer...

  14. APPROACH TO SMALL FAMILY NORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonibala

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Idea of approach to maintain small family norm in the family and so to the society is the hope for almost all of the couples as the saying -"Small family is a happy family". And every couple always thinks and plan for a safer and better future.

  15. APPROACH TO SMALL FAMILY NORM

    OpenAIRE

    Nonibala

    2014-01-01

    The Idea of approach to maintain small family norm in the family and so to the society is the hope for almost all of the couples as the saying -"Small family is a happy family". And every couple always thinks and plan for a safer and better future.

  16. FAMily-Oriented Support (FAMOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salem, Hanin; Johansen, Christoffer; Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    2017-01-01

    by tracking procedures and parents’ evaluations. Results: A total of 68 families (68 mothers, 60 fathers, 68 children with cancer and 73 siblings) were enrolled, with a participation rate of 62% of families. Fathers were highly represented (88% of families); also families with single parents (12%) and parents...

  17. The Economy, Families and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    The recession has impacted American families and the schools their children attend like nothing in recent memory. Many families continue to struggle with the impact of joblessness. The number of homeless children and youth is staggering. Families struggle with access to health care, growing hunger and greater instability in the family unit.…

  18. 解密"family"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王松海

    2009-01-01

    @@ 小朋友们,你一定熟悉"family"这个单词吧,它的意思是"家,家庭".提起它,你是否会想到自己的爸爸和妈妈呢?为什么?因为"family"这个单词本身就包含了爸爸和妈妈,而且还表达了对他们的爱呢!下面就听我细细地为你解读吧!

  19. My Family s Looks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯耀南

    2006-01-01

    I have a happy family.There are three people in my family: My mother, my father and I. Let me tell you about my family’s looks: My father has short straight hair and bright black eyes. He is medium build and he is very tall. He is such a good teacher that all of us love and respect him. He likes telling jokes. He never stops talking. I love my hand- some father just because he loves me. My mother is a kind and gentle woman. She has long curly fair hair. She is tall and slim. I think she is beautiful. But no...

  20. FAMILY DISORGANISATION AND CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. V.N. Sreekumar

    2017-01-01

    Abstract                           The family is based on and supports primary relations. It provides Very serious especially if the parents don't get along, Insecurity, instability, problems in school, at home, etc. Counseling is always helpful, someone non-biased so the child feels they can trust someone. Children that come from broken families will most likely have a difficult time in life, struggle and turn to drug abuse or other negative behavior. Some kids get made fun of and have ...

  1. Familial hemicrania continua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherall, Mark W; Bahra, Anish

    2011-01-01

    There are now three known causative genes for familial hemiplegic migraine and increasing evidence to support a genetic predisposition to the more common types of migraine with and without aura, and for cluster headache. We present the first reported case of familial hemicrania continua. A mother and daughter developed hemicrania continua at the same time of life. Both showed an absolute response to indometacin and at similar doses. Both also suffered from migraine with aura. We discuss the increasing support for a genetic predisposition to dysfunction of the pain system within the brain manifesting as primary headache.

  2. Contemporary family life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viala, Eva Silberschmidt

    2011-01-01

    Based on a longitudinal interview-study of ten heterosexual couples and first-time parents, in Denmark the author argues that addressing contemporary everyday family life as a joint venture with contradictions contribute new insights into the complexities, contradictions, and ambiguities linked...... of complementary gender roles as well as in new understandings of gender equality based on ideals of mutual trust, respect and support. As a result, it is important to investigate how parenthood, family life and parental roles are constantly reflected upon and reproduced, negotiated and transformed through...

  3. OCULAR COLOBAMATA IN A FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheetal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To identify the proportion of cases affected in a family with ocular colobamata . MATERIAL: Ocular colobomata present in a family METHOD: Visual acuity, Slit lamp examination, Ophthalmoscopy, Fundus Photography, B - Scan, Family members were examined. RESULTS: Family showed poor visual acuity, Iris and Choridal Coloboma without optic disc involvement and normal corneal diameter. CONCLUSION: Ocular coloboma occurring in patients of my study is family and genetically determined.

  4. Another way to teach family: family nursing game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Sílvia Neves da Nova Fernandes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Current paper describes the application of an innovative strategy to teach family, within a hospital context, by sensitizing nurses on the family subject through the use of a game. Given the hospitalization of a relative, the family faces changes in its dynamics caused by the crisis it is exposed to. It is the relevance for including the family within the care process. Since nurses are expected to assume a key role for which they need specific competence to intervene in families when experiencing an eventual crisis. The in-service education becomes a strategy of generating new skills and enhances human capital to improve the quality of nursing care. Considering the importance of including family in the care context, a playful tool called Family Nursing Game has been invented for teaching the family, especially by passing a model of family intervention. The strategy is based on the belief of the existence of relationship between game and learning.

  5. Crowding and Family Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Alan; Edwards, John N.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of household and neighborhood crowding on the relations between spouses, those between parents and children, and the relations among children are examined; a sample of urban families residing in conditions ranging from open to highly compressed provided the data for the investigation and multiple regression was used to analyze the…

  6. Serving Migrant Families, 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Barbara, Ed.

    The directory describes services provided to migratory agricultural workers and their families, through the governmental and nongovernmental agencies interested in and responsible for their well-being. Agencies are grouped into: (1) United States government agencies, (2) North Carolina State government agencies, and (3) private organizations.…

  7. Family Sequencing and Cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grundel, S.; Ciftci, B.B.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hamers, H.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the allocation problem of the maximal cost savings of the whole group of jobs, we define and analyze a so-called corresponding cooperative family sequencing game which explicitly takes into account the maximal cost savings for any coalition of jobs. Using nonstandard techniques we prove t

  8. Families of Parabolas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, John E.

    1992-01-01

    Explores families of parabolas that result from the graphs of quadratic functions. Computer software allows students to quickly depict a series of graphs and make conjectures about emerging patterns. Discusses cases in different parameters in the quadratic are varied to produce different effects in which the parabolas. (MDH)

  9. It Takes a Family

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-01

    This podcast follows an African American man with diabetes and his family as they discuss living healthfully with diabetes.  Created: 11/1/2007 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 11/12/2007.

  10. Family Feathers. [Videotape Series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    Family Feathers is a set of 18 videotapes for parents of preschool children, created by the Alaska Native Home Base Video Project of the Tlingit and Haida Head Start Program. This series offers culturally relevant solutions to the challenges of parenting, drawing on practical advice from Tlingit and Haida parents, wisdom from elders, and some of…

  11. A Family of Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 一、故事内容 There is a family of mice in my house. They are father mouse, mother mouse and baby mouse. Baby mouse likes dancing. He is very cute. Father mouse likes watching TV. He likes the sports on TV best. These three mice are clever.

  12. The Pycnogonid family Austrodecidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, J.H.

    1957-01-01

    DE PYCNOGONIDEN- FAMILIE AUSTRODECIDAE Toen mij, in 1954, uit Oslo een verzameling Pycnogonida van de „Norwegian Scientific Expedition to Tristan da Cunda 1937—1938“ ter bewerking werd opgezonden, kon ik niet vermoeden dat deze kleine collectie aanleiding zou geven tot een uitgebreide revisie van ee

  13. Family Play Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel, Shlomo

    This paper examines a case study of family play therapy in Israel. The unique contributions of play therapy are evaluated including the therapy's accessibility to young children, its richness and flexibility, its exposure of covert patterns, its wealth of therapeutic means, and its therapeutic economy. The systematization of the therapy attempts…

  14. Families and Communities (Bookalogues).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Miriam; Nash, Marcia F.

    1993-01-01

    Presents brief reviews of 26 picture books, chapter books, and informational books that deal with families and/or communities. Notes that the picture books and chapter books cover a wide variety of genres including poetry, realistic fiction, and fantasy and that the informational books have a variety of formats, with the "photo essay" dominating.…

  15. Aging and the Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C. Roberta

    1984-01-01

    Discusses emotional, social, medical, and nutritional needs of older people, and stresses the need for education of the families of the elderly and the need for a coordinated approach to service delivery to this population. In this way, maximum independence of the aged can be achieved. (NRJ)

  16. Not Your Family Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenopir, Carol; Baker, Gayle; Grogg, Jill E.

    2007-01-01

    The information industry continues to consolidate, just as agribusiness has consolidated and now dominates farming. Both the family farm and the small information company still exist but are becoming rarer in an age of mergers, acquisitions, and increased economies of scale. Small companies distinguish themselves by high quality, special themes,…

  17. Family Constellations in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Puur; L. Sakkeus; N. Schenk (Niels); A. Põldma

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe importance of one’s family in times of need is unquestionable. Young children rely on their parents for proper living conditions, who in turn receive help from their aging parents in raising and caring for their children. There also comes a time when elderly parents themselves requir

  18. Family, Friends and Fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balbo, Nicoletta Franca Germana

    2012-01-01

    In deze dissertatie wordt een belangrijke nieuwe verklaring van vruchtbaarheidsgedrag ontwikkeld. De nadruk in deze nieuwe benadering ligt op het meso-niveau, dus op factoren die relatie hebben met het netwerk van de informele relaties die iemand deelt met familie en vrienden (d.w.z. het sociale

  19. Familial Crouzon syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Samatha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Crouzon syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition of the craniosynostotic syndromes without syndactyly and with various dentofacial anomalies. Craniosynostosis, maxillary hypoplasia, shallow orbits, ocular proptosis and hypertelorism are the characteristic features of Crouzon syndrome. This report describes the variable clinical features in affected individuals over two generations of a family with dentofacial deformities and review of literature.

  20. Familial Brain Arteriovenous Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Researchers at University Medical Centre Utrecht, the Netherlands, reviewed the literature on patients with familial brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVMs, and their age, sex, and clinical presentation were compared with those in population-based patients with sporadic BAVMs.

  1. The family Planococcaceae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shivaji, S.; Srinivas, T.N.R.; Reddy, G.S.N.

    , Ureibacillus, and Viridibacillus Members of the family are Gram-variable, spore forming or nonspore forming, and motile or nonmotile; morphology varies from trichomes in case of Caryophanon, filamentous in case of Filibacter to rods or rod-cocci, or spherical...

  2. The colpitts oscillator family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik; Murali, K.; Tamasevicius, A.

    A tutorial study of the Colpitts oscillator family defined as all oscillators based on a nonlinear amplifier and a three- terminal linear resonance circuit with one coil and two capacitors. The original patents are investigated. The eigenvalues of the linearized Jacobian for oscillators based...

  3. 刺五加总苷对REM睡眠剥夺所致大鼠记忆获得障碍的改善作用及其LTP机制%Effect of Total Glucosides of Acanthopanax senticosus on Memory Acquisition Deficit Rats Induced by REM Sleep Deprivation and It's LTP Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭冷秋; 郭壮丽; 康施瑶; 叶晓楠; 李廷利

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究刺五加总苷对快动眼睡眠剥夺(REMSD)所致记忆获得障碍的改善作用及对突触电位长时程增强(LTP)的影响,探讨刺五加总苷改善学习记忆能力的可能机制.方法:成年雄性SD大鼠,随机分为大平台对照组、睡眠剥夺组和刺五加总苷3个剂量组(200,100,50 mg· kg-1).各组大鼠灌胃给药/蒸馏水3d后,利用改良多平台水环境法(MMPM)剥夺REM睡眠,制备学习记忆获得障碍动物模型;造模期间利用六角迷宫进行训练并测试,观察刺五加总苷对记忆获得障碍的改善作用;最后利用电生理学方法,高频刺激大鼠海马内嗅皮层穿通纤维诱导LTP,记录海马齿状回颗粒细胞层群峰电位(PS)幅值.结果:与对照组相比,模型组大鼠的记忆能力降低(P<0.01),同时伴有海马脑区强直刺激后PS幅值明显下降(P<0.01);与模型组大鼠相比,刺五加总苷中、高剂量均能明显增强模型大鼠的记忆能力(P <0.05,P<0.01).升高PS幅值(P <0.01,P<0.05),且具有剂量依赖性.结论:REM睡眠剥夺能够造成大鼠记忆获得障碍,刺五加总苷能够改善这种障碍,此作用可能与增强大鼠海马区突触可塑性有关.

  4. [Return to the family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouaidou, N G

    1993-08-01

    Sahelian countries occupy an inglorious place in the global list of human development. The human development index is superior to the gross national product (GNP) at measuring the progress of a country in terms of development, because it includes income, longevity, and educational level. The highest ranked Sahelian country holds the 114th position out of a 173 countries. The low human development index scores for the Sahel reflects the socioeconomic crisis which has overcome these countries. In 1991, only 3 of 9 Sahelian countries had a mean GP equal or superior to US$500. Just 2 countries had a life expectancy greater than 50 years. In fact, the Sahel had a lower life expectancy than all of Africa (50 years) and much lower than Asia (64 years) and Latin America (67 years). The economic crisis is worse than the cold statistics show. It destabilizes the most disadvantaged populations. The pressure it exerts often leads public authorities to adopt unpopular measures. It depreciates some sociocultural values and disintegrates traditional social structures. It is accentuated by the effects of war and drought. Internal and external migration increases even as urban hope is uncertain. For most people, the family (the traditional framework of individual development) is ready to break apart, leaving only a disincarnate nuclear entity to subsist. Yet, African history is built around the extended family: the place of reproduction, production, distribution, formation, management, perpetuation of demographic behavior, and social control. Senegal and Mali have created ministries which invest in families. The Third African Conference on Population, in 1992, chose its theme to be the relationship between family, population, and sustainable development. It is important to return to the natural or primordial framework--family--as a refuge against the economic crisis.

  5. Transfers of Family Businesses to Non-Family Buyers - The Selling Business Family Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sten, Jan

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on business families and how they handle transitions such as business transfers. It also tries to shift the balance of research away from successions and towards business transfers as a key topic for family business researchers. In addition, it contributes to the family business research field by further highlighting the importance of the various different contributions in the family business from business family members other than the entrepreneurial founder. Based on ...

  6. Changes in modern family life and the transformation of the family and family life in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Milivojević, Snežana M.

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical framework of this topic can be built on an analysis of the following issues: developmental changes in the family; the transformation of the function of a modern family; changes in the structure of families and relationships among its members; the transition model of marriage and parenting; the impact of social, economic, and demographic factors on the transformation of the family. Review of the prospects for the future development of the family points out the changes in marria...

  7. Family size effects: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, M E; Schubert, H J; Schubert, D S

    1985-03-01

    Larger families are more frequent with early marriage and rapid birth of the first child. In larger families, child rearing becomes more rule ridden, less individualized, with corporal punishment and less investment of resources. Smaller families tend to result in higher IQ, academic achievement, and occupational performance. Large families produce more delinquents and alcoholics. Perinatal morbidity and mortality rates are higher in large families as birth weights decrease. Mothers of large families are at higher risk of several physical diseases. Common methodological errors are indicated and exemplary studies are described.

  8. Children's Views on Family Communications in Families with their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs Afam

    Children in many families have witnessed or experienced family violence, disunity, conflicts, extreme deprivation, and malnutrition. The extent children view ... in order to find out the relative opinion, belief, attitude and status of that population.

  9. Study of a family that overcomes poverty issues: family resilience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ángela Mattar Yunes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Generally, researches with families focus the difficulties and the negative aspects of family life by bringing up their maladjustments and failures. The interest in family resilience contributes to change this logic by demonstrating the healthy aspects of the family world. Nevertheless, the term resilience presents ideological controversies which are more severe when the discussion is about families and poverty. In order to diminish these contradictions this study adopted a systemic concept of resilience which refers to “those processes that make possible to overcome adversities”. A case study was realized with a low income family who lived in a “very poor” neighborhood in the deep south of Brazil. The methodological strategies to the formal investigation of the family were: life history of the family using the principles of reflexive interview, genograms and data analyses through the approach of the grounded theory. The results showed that the family lived a number of risk experiences such as adoption, privation of basic needs, migration and diseases. Among the indicators of their abilities of “overcoming adversities”, emerged the belief system as the core of the discourses. The family showed that they value the interpersonal relationships through intra and extra familiar interactions based in the patterns of help, learning, affection and solidarity. During the crisis the family gives meaning to the difficulties in order to maintaining the situation controlled through cohesion, open communication, mutual respect and getting support of the extended family/ social network. The pos-adversity period is perceived as benefic and transforming as the family feels stronger and with feelings of solidarity, which is a mark of this family. Their attitude in relation to the neighborhood is active in the sense of promoting the welfare of other families who live in the same social address. Would those above identified processes be adequate to

  10. Enhancing family resilience through family narrative co-construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, William R; Pynoos, Robert S; Lester, Patricia; Layne, Christopher M; Beardslee, William R

    2013-09-01

    We draw upon family resilience and narrative theory to describe an evidence-based method for intervening with military families who are impacted by multiple wartime deployments and psychological, stress-related, or physical parental injuries. Conceptual models of familial resilience provide a guide for understanding the mechanics of how families respond and recover from exposure to extreme events, and underscore the role of specific family processes and interaction patterns in promoting resilient capabilities. Leading family theorists propose that the family's ability to make meaning of stressful and traumatic events and nurture protective beliefs are critical aspects of resilient adaptation. We first review general theoretical and empirical research contributions to understanding family resilience, giving special attention to the circumstances, challenges, needs, and strengths of American military families. Therapeutic narrative studies illustrate the processes through which family members acquire meaning-making capacities, and point to the essential role of parents' in facilitating discussions of stressful experiences and co-constructing coherent and meaningful narratives. This helps children to make sense of these experiences and develop capacities for emotion regulation and coping. Family-based narrative approaches provide a structured opportunity to elicit parents' and children's individual narratives, assemble divergent storylines into a shared family narrative, and thereby enhance members' capacity to make meaning of stressful experiences and adopt beliefs that support adaptation and growth. We discuss how family narratives can help to bridge intra-familial estrangements and re-engage communication and support processes that have been undermined by stress, trauma, or loss. We conclude by describing a family-based narrative intervention currently in use with thousands of military children and families across the USA.

  11. Family and Cultural Capital. The perspective of familiness

    OpenAIRE

    Ortíz García, Pilar; Olaz Capitán, Ángel José; Monreal Martínez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The influence of the family on a business, its commitment to the company and the values it conveys form a capital capable of influencing the global development of a business. This research analyzes family capital and in particular its cultural components as a resource influencing the direction of the company. Corporate culture as a guiding philosophy for family business strategy is a key factor in its success. In short, the cultural capital of a family business is a capac...

  12. FRANCHISE FROM FAMILY BUSINESS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián NAGY

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the franchise as a form of enterprise in perspective to existing family businesses and how can they operate this way. Why is this form better for them, what advantages it has? In this case an ice cream shop’s economic inidicators were examined ,one which is owned by a hungarian family in Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok county who runs several shops like this. That is why this study was made, to find out if it is possible to run it sucsessfully and what costs does the newcomers in the franchise business network have to pay and how much is the time on the return of investments.

  13. Marriage and Family Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    About the author: Chen Yiyun graduated from the Russian Language and Literature Departraent at Beijing University in 1964. She then enrolled at the Sociology Institute of the China Academy of Social Sciences in 1978. Upon graduation, she remained at the Institute as a research fellow. She later became editor-in-chief of the magazine Sociology Abroad. She translated and edited dozens of sociology books. In 1988, after she returned from the United States, she devoted herself to the research of sociology and marriage consultation. In 1993, Chen set up the Jinglun Family Science Center, a non-governmental organization which is a combination of scientific research and social practice. She organized scholars, social workers and volunteers from sectors of public health, education and legislation to conduct useful activities to promote democracy in the family, equality, health and civilization.

  14. Familial hypophosphatemic rickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sattur A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rickets is the failure of mineralization of osteoid and newly formed bones in a child skeleton. It is commonly associated with vitamin D deficiency; however, it can be because of a decrease in the serum phosphate levels leading to inadequate mineralization of cartilage and bone, consequent skeletal deformities, and growth retardation. The hypophosphatemic conditions that interfere in bone mineralization comprise many hereditary or acquired diseases. One of the hereditary types of hypophosphatemic rickets is the familial hypophosphatemic rickets. This rare variety was diagnosed in a 9-year-old patient who had come with a chief complaint of a missing tooth. In the present case, radiographic aspects of oral and systemic manifestations of familial hypophosphatemic rickets are highlighted.

  15. Familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvistgaard, Helene

    2011-01-01

    Familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI) is characterized by severe low-solute polyuria and polydipisa. The disease is caused by a deficient neurosecretion of the antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP). The hormone is normally synthesized by the magnocellular neurons in the pa......Familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI) is characterized by severe low-solute polyuria and polydipisa. The disease is caused by a deficient neurosecretion of the antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP). The hormone is normally synthesized by the magnocellular neurons...... as one sporadic case of early-onset diabetes insipidus. Genetic testing of the sporadic case of diabetes insipidus revealed a highly unusual mosaicism for a variation in the gene encoding the AVP receptor (AVPR2). This mosaicism had resulted in a partial phenotype and initial diagnostic difficulties...

  16. Familial reactive perforating collagenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhat Yasmeen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reactive perforating collagenosis (RPC is one of the rare forms of transepidermal elimination in which genetically altered collagen is extruded from the epidermis. This disease usually starts in early childhood as asymptomatic umbilicated papules on extremities, and the lesions become more conspicuous with age. Aims: The objective of our study was to determine the clinico-pathological features of RPC and the response to various treatment modalities. Methods: Ten patients of RPC, belonging to five different families, were studied clinically. Various laboratory investigations were carried out and diagnosis was made by histopathology of the lesions. Patients were given various topical and oral treatments. Results: RPC is familial in most cases without any definite inheritance pattern. It begins in childhood and the lesions are usually recurrent and become profuse and large with age. Systemic diseases have no role in the onset of lesions. Conclusion: Oral and topical retinoids in combination with emollients is the best treatment option.

  17. Designing Product Families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Per Erik Elgård; Miller, Thomas Dedenroth

    1998-01-01

    Manufacturing companies that operate with products aimed at different market segments and applications are experiencing an increasing demand from customers who expect products to be tailored to their exact needs rather than accepting general products based on average customer needs. This trend ha...... led to a new business paradigm, "mass customization", where companies strive to provide highly customized products while still maintaining the efficiency of the classical mass production enterprise. One of the key factors in mass customization has been efficient use of product platforms...... as a foundation for the customization process, whereby the customized products become variants of a product family with a high degree of reuse and utilization of kinship between the individual variants.With this paper, we will discuss the development of platform based product families from three points of view...

  18. Intermediate Family Therapy Skills

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    The field of marriage and family therapy (MFT) has prospered since its beginnings nearly 50 years ago. In order to keep the field current and competitive with other related professions, empirical research is necessary. Although there has been an upsurge of research on the effectiveness and specialty areas of MFT, one area has been overlooked: skills. THe empirical research that has been performed has focused its attention on beginning therapists. The current research took the next step in...

  19. Family planning: where now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, L

    1977-01-01

    The focus is in terms of family planning as an exercise in induced social change; the objective is to alter the reproductive patterns of societies sufficiently to bring about a significant reduction in fertility. The year 1974 emerges as the year in which family planning as a social movement achieved maturity and was confirmed as a legitimate area for national policy and programming, a year of determined and varied efforts to reduce population growth. In affirming the rights and responsibilities of people and the obligations of governments in population concerns, the Bucharest Conference conferred its seal of approval on a movement that had made considerable progress since it began early in the 19th century. The evolution of birth control as a social movement which began with Francis Place's printing and distributing contraceptive bills in 1820 was encouraged by other writings in England and the U.S. over the next 50 years. Several overlapping phases can be distinguished in the global response to a new sense of urgence regarding population concerns following World War 2. Moving from a global perspective to consideration of family planning as it exists in the programs of individual countries, the achievement is not so great and the prospects are less hopeful. Although it has had success as a social movement and is now accepted as a government responsibility, family planning programs still have a long way to go before they develop the scope, vigor, and versatility that is required for there to be widespread demographic change. 1 change that is needed is for a stronger and more visible political commitment and commitment on the basis of demographic rather than health or welfare reasons.

  20. The chicken SLAM family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Christian; Viertlboeck, Birgit C; Göbel, Thomas W

    2013-01-01

    The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family of receptors is critically involved in the immune regulation of lymphocytes but has only been detected in mammals, with one member being present in Xenopus. Here, we describe the identification, cloning, and analysis of the chicken homologues to the mammalian SLAMF1 (CD150), SLAMF2 (CD48), and SLAMF4 (CD244, 2B4). Two additional chicken SLAM genes were identified and designated SLAMF3like and SLAM5like in order to stress that those two receptors have no clear mammalian counterpart but share some features with mammalian SLAMF3 and SLAMF5, respectively. Three of the chicken SLAM genes are located on chromosome 25, whereas two are currently not yet assigned. The mammalian and chicken receptors share a common structure with a V-like domain that lacks conserved cysteine residues and a C2-type Ig domain with four cysteines forming two disulfide bonds. Chicken SLAMF2, like its mammalian counterpart, lacks a transmembrane and cytoplasmic domain and thus represents a glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol-anchored protein. The cytoplasmic tails of SLAMF1 and SLAMF4 display two and four conserved immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motifs (ITSMs), respectively, whereas both chicken SLAMF3like and SLAMF5like have only a single ITSM. We have also identified the chicken homologues of the SLAM-associated protein family of adaptors (SAP), SAP and EAT-2. Chicken SAP shares about 70 % identity with mammalian SAP, and chicken EAT-2 is homologous to mouse EAT-2, whereas human EAT-2 is much shorter. The characterization of the chicken SLAM family of receptors and the SAP adaptors demonstrates the phylogenetic conservation of this family, in particular, its signaling capacities.

  1. Origin of family symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilles, Hans Peter [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics; Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Ratz, Michael [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    Discrete (family) symmetries might play an important role in models of elementary particle physics. We discuss the origin of such symmetries in the framework of consistent ultraviolet completions of the standard model in field and string theory. The symmetries can arise due to special geometrical properties of extra compact dimensions and the localization of fields in this geometrical landscape. We also comment on anomaly constraints for discrete symmetries.

  2. What determines family structure?

    OpenAIRE

    Blau, David M.; van der Klaauw, Wilbert

    2010-01-01

    We estimate the effects of policy and labor market variables on the fertility, union formation and dissolution, type of union (cohabiting versus married), and partner choices of the NLSY79 cohort of women. These demographic behaviors interact to determine the family structure experienced by the children of these women: living with the biological mother and the married or cohabiting biological father, a married or cohabiting step father, or no man. We find that the average wage rates available...

  3. Tom’s family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周昕睿

    2015-01-01

    Tom’s family lives at Eighty-sixth King Street.Tom’s mother is a housewife and his father is a policeman.In the morning,Tom’s father goes to work and Tom goes to school.His father takes him to school every day.Tom’s mother stays at home and does the housework every day.She always eats lunch at noon.

  4. Hadamard partitioned difference families

    OpenAIRE

    Buratti, Marco

    2017-01-01

    We prove that every Hadamard difference set of order $u^2$ leads to a partitioned difference family of any order $v\\equiv4u^2$ (mod $8u^2$) and blocks of sizes $4u^2-2u$, $4u^2$ and $4u^2+2u$ provided that the maximal prime power divisors of $v\\over4u^2$ are all greater than $4u^2+2u$.

  5. Family Planning Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米国庆

    1994-01-01

    According to the China national programme of economic and social development, by 2000 the standard of living of Chinese people will have been fairly welloff. In order to accomplish the goal, the government has comprised the population development in the national social economic development programme. Family planning (FP) work will contribute to the general goal of social economy and development. Reform and open policy and establishment of socialist market economy sys

  6. Family Planning in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱耀华

    1994-01-01

    China is a developing country with vast territory, numerous population and relatively poor economic foundation. The basic features of China's population are of great quantity and considerable annual increase of population as well as its uneven distribution in different regions. For improvement of living standard of the people,Chinese Government began to advocate family planning throughout this country in the beginning of the 1970s while a strenuous effort was made to develop economy.

  7. Family Counseling Interventions: Understanding Family Systems and the Referral Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Ellen Hawley; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This article describes concepts underlying the idea of the "family as a system"; compares and contrasts four approaches to family therapy (those of Virginia Satir, Jay Haley, Murray Bowen, and Salvador Minuchin); and offers suggestions to teachers referring parents for family counseling. (DB)

  8. Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Smoking and Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Susan L.; Rinelli, Lauren N.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether family structure was associated with adolescent risk behaviors, including smoking and drinking. Family living arrangements have become increasingly diverse, yet research on adolescent risk behaviors has typically relied on measures of family structure that do not adequately capture this diversity. Data from the…

  9. Using Our Understanding of Families to Strengthen Family Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopf, Herman T.; Swick, Kevin J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to help teachers become more responsive to the changing needs and contexts of families in their efforts to establish relationships and encourage family participation. Through this article, the authors describe the changing landscape of parenting and the stressors experienced by contemporary families. The authors then…

  10. A Family Affair : Explaining Co-Working By Family Members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, Esther de; Lippe, Tanja van der; Raub, Werner; Weessie, Jeroen

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on co-working by intimate partners and other family members in entrepreneurs’ businesses. We hypothesize that co-working by family is beneficial because it reduces trust problems associated with employment relations. On the other hand, co-working is risky because co-working family

  11. Changing Families, Changing Responsibilities: Family Obligations Following Divorce and Remarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; Coleman, Marilyn

    The high incidence of divorce and remarriage means that the structure of American families is changing. Drawing on 13 studies that explore intergenerational obligations, this book discusses the responsibilities of family members to one another after divorce and remarriage. Chapter 1, "Who Is Responsible for Dependent Family Members?," presents an…

  12. Family Counseling Interventions: Understanding Family Systems and the Referral Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Ellen Hawley; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This article describes concepts underlying the idea of the "family as a system"; compares and contrasts four approaches to family therapy (those of Virginia Satir, Jay Haley, Murray Bowen, and Salvador Minuchin); and offers suggestions to teachers referring parents for family counseling. (DB)

  13. A Family Affair : Explaining Co-Working By Family Members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, Esther de; Lippe, Tanja van der; Raub, Werner; Weessie, Jeroen

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on co-working by intimate partners and other family members in entrepreneurs’ businesses. We hypothesize that co-working by family is beneficial because it reduces trust problems associated with employment relations. On the other hand, co-working is risky because co-working family

  14. Changing Families, Changing Responsibilities: Family Obligations Following Divorce and Remarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; Coleman, Marilyn

    The high incidence of divorce and remarriage means that the structure of American families is changing. Drawing on 13 studies that explore intergenerational obligations, this book discusses the responsibilities of family members to one another after divorce and remarriage. Chapter 1, "Who Is Responsible for Dependent Family Members?," presents an…

  15. Fostering Families' and Children's Rights to Family Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsman, Miriam J.; Boel-Studt, Shamra

    2011-01-01

    Recent federal legislation strengthens children's and families' rights to family-centered practice by increasing the responsibility of child welfare agencies to identify and engage extended family members in providing care and support to children placed out of the home. Preliminary results from an experimental study of a federally funded family…

  16. Psychoanalysis: a dysfunctional family?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosskurth, P

    1998-01-01

    The discussion opens with an account of the author's mother's bizarre family in which a strong, charismatic grandmother maintained absolute control over her large family by encouraging a neurotic dependence in them through daily reports of their complaints. Getting interested in psychoanalysis in an effort to understand the dynamics of this dysfunctional family, the author, a biographer, turned to the study of Melanie Klein, becoming entranced by her ideas. Her research also revealed how Klein had discouraged her followers from developing ideas that diverged in any way from her own. Her portrait of the pioneer analyst provoked intense indignation. A similar pattern of absolute loyalty to his person and theories was to be found in Freud's Secret Committee, formed primarily as a means of getting rid of Jung who had been showing disturbing signs of independence. When Ferenczi and Rank began to pursue independent lines of enquiry in their work, they too were though to be undermining the foundations of classical psychoanalysis. Finally, the author concludes that though there have been sorry incidents in psychoanalysis, we should be mature enough to accept both the contributions of the early pioneers and the realizations that new ideas must be permitted to evolve.

  17. Cybernetics of Brief Family Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeney, Bradford P.; Ross, Jeffrey M.

    1983-01-01

    Presents a cybernetic view of brief family therapy. Includes a historical discussion of the key ideas underlying brief family therapy, a cybernetic model of therapeutic change, and a clinical case for exemplification. (Author/JAC)

  18. One Family's Struggles with Rotavirus

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... GETVAXED print ads go to GETVAXED.ORG cme Immunizations Rotavirus One family's struggles with rotavirus We provide ... not possible without a visit to your doctor. Immunizations stop disease from spreading. Check with your family ...

  19. One Family's Struggle with Chickenpox

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... GETVAXED print ads go to GETVAXED.ORG cme Immunizations Chickenpox (Varicella) One family's struggles with chickenpox We ... not possible without a visit to your doctor. Immunizations stop disease from spreading. Check with your family ...

  20. National Survey of Family Growth

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) gathers information on family life, marriage and divorce, pregnancy, infertility, use of contraception, and men's and...

  1. Families classification including multiopposition asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Andrea; Spoto, Federica; Knežević, Zoran; Novaković, Bojan; Tsirvoulis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of our new classification of asteroid families, upgraded by using catalog with > 500,000 asteroids. We discuss the outcome of the most recent update of the family list and of their membership. We found enough evidence to perform 9 mergers of the previously independent families. By introducing an improved method of estimation of the expected family growth in the less populous regions (e.g. at high inclination) we were able to reliably decide on rejection of one tiny group as a probable statistical fluke. Thus we reduced our current list to 115 families. We also present newly determined ages for 6 families, including complex 135 and 221, improving also our understanding of the dynamical vs. collisional families relationship. We conclude with some recommendations for the future work and for the family name problem.

  2. One Family's Struggle with Chickenpox

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tos Ferina AAP CME ask your doctor brochure family stories faq meet dr. gary freed meet keri ... media video/audio pneumonia tb overview links & resources families advocacy about civil rights kids' rights sample school ...

  3. One Family's Struggles with Rotavirus

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tos Ferina AAP CME ask your doctor brochure family stories faq meet dr. gary freed meet keri ... media video/audio pneumonia tb overview links & resources families advocacy about civil rights kids' rights sample school ...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: familial porencephaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Johns Hopkins Medicine Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery: Intracerebral Hemorrhage Johns Hopkins Medicine Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery: Stroke MalaCards: familial porencephaly Orphanet: Familial porencephaly Patient ...

  5. A Family Finds Its Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Issues Cover Story: Traumatic Brain Injury A Family Finds Its Way Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table ... are living with serious health conditions as a family. Photo courtesy of Stefan Radtke, www.stefanradtke.com ...

  6. One Family's Struggles with Rotavirus

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tos Ferina AAP CME ask your doctor brochure family stories faq meet dr. gary freed meet keri ... media video/audio pneumonia tb overview links & resources families advocacy about civil rights kids' rights sample school ...

  7. Energize Yourself and Your Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Direction Keeping Active & Healthy Eating for the Whole Family Did you know? Eating healthy foods and staying ... charge up your body for work, play, and family feel better about yourself and manage stress better ...

  8. One Family's Struggle with Chickenpox

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tos Ferina AAP CME ask your doctor brochure family stories faq meet dr. gary freed meet keri ... media video/audio pneumonia tb overview links & resources families advocacy about civil rights kids' rights sample school ...

  9. Family Reintegration Following Guard Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    expectations is a key process that has to occur for successful reintegration of the veteran back into the family. Both parties have to work out their...describe veterans and families perceptions of: Aim 1. Their experience with family reintegration and the challenges reintegration presents; Aim 2...deployment, and post deployment shape the degree of challenges with reintegration that a veteran and their family will encounter. Pre-deployment, the

  10. Pars planitis in a family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, P; Sanz, A; Criado, D

    1994-01-01

    The familial occurrence of pars planitis is rare. We have found ten cases reported previously. We describe a new case of pars planitis in a family. The affected members included a mother and two of her four children. The family was tested for HLA antigens in order to establish a comparison with others HLA types by different authors. We have not identified any cause for the familial occurrence of this disease. We discuss the role of genetic and ambiental factors.

  11. Canada's family violence initiative: partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Elaine

    1994-01-01

    Under Canada's four-year, $136 million Family Violence Initiative, the federal government is calling upon all Canadians to work in partnerships towards the elimination of family violence - child abuse, violence against women, and elder (senior) abuse. Family violence is a complex problem and requires the efforts of all Canadians to resolve it. One of the key themes of the Initiative - a multidisciplinary approach to the problem of family violence - is reflected in the selection and developmen...

  12. Contribution on family business definition

    OpenAIRE

    Vallone, C

    2013-01-01

    Despite numerous researches and an ample literature, there is not a unanimously and approved family business definition which identify family businesses from nonfamily businesses. Which are the aspects to describe exactly a family business? Which are the aspects that help to recognise family business from nonfamily business? Answering to these questions means to circumscribe the field of investigation, and obtain a comparable sample for international researches; to individualize the presence ...

  13. Family conditions and children abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Platone, Maria Luisa

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with family conditions (structure and family system interactive patterns) which are considered as risk factors for children abuse. Method. Descriptive research multimethod (cuantitative and cualitative), data were obtained from a retrospective study (1970-2000) of public and private elementary schools, from pre-school to sixth grade. The instruments used were: 1) the family test drawing, 2) a questionnaire to the child. 3) a questionnaire to the teachers about family condit...

  14. 76 FR 37983 - Family Offices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... or entities with no family relations to nevertheless receive investment advice from the family office... throughout this Release and rule 202(a)(11)(G)-1 has the same meaning as in section 202(a)(5) of the Advisers... is an individual or couple.\\18\\ They noted that in many cases, however, family offices are...

  15. Theme Section: Focus on Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Manya; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A collection of 14 brief articles considers the effects of family environment and lifestyle on children and provides suggestions for healthier family relations. The articles cover such topics as: family stress; preschool academic programs; stepfamilies; corporate child care; fathers; divorce; only children; single and working parents; and death.…

  16. Family members' experiences of autopsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppewal, F; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    2001-01-01

    Background. The experiences of family members will teach us how to handle an autopsy, the ultimate quality assessment tool. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine surviving family members' experience of autopsy. Method. Seven GPs were asked to approach surviving family members of autopsie

  17. Children's Impressions of Television Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartella, Ellen

    This research study examines the types of social behaviors portrayed by families in various television series and explores children's impressions of the TV family members. Content analysis of nine family-oriented TV series was employed to describe the ranges of behaviors of fathers, mothers and children on television. Eleven shows from each series…

  18. Does Addiction Run in Families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Addiction? » Does Addiction Run in Families? Does Addiction Run in Families? Listen PDF: EasyToRead_WhatIsAddiction_Final_ ... English Español "Heart disease runs in some families. Addiction runs in ours." ©istock.com/ Antonio_Diaz Matt's ...

  19. Family Textbooks Twelve Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Norval D.

    2009-01-01

    In 1996 the author conducted an intensive study of twenty current family textbooks published in the United States, the results of which appeared in an academic journal article and a nonacademic report in 1997. The study included practical "functionalist" marriage and family textbooks and more academic sociology of the family books; these…

  20. NASA Science Served Family Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel-Storr, Jacob; Mitchell, S.; Drobnes, E.

    2010-01-01

    Family oriented innovative programs extend the reach of many traditional out-of-school venues to involve the entire family in learning in comfortable and fun environments. Research shows that parental involvement is key to increasing student achievement outcomes, and family-oriented programs have a direct impact on student performance. Because families have the greatest influence on children's attitudes towards education and career choices, we have developed a Family Science program that provides families a venue where they can explore the importance of science and technology in our daily lives by engaging in learning activities that change their perception and understanding of science. NASA Family Science Night strives to change the way that students and their families participate in science, within the program and beyond. After three years of pilot implementation and assessment, our evaluation data shows that Family Science Night participants have positive change in their attitudes and involvement in science.  Even after a single session, families are more likely to engage in external science-related activities and are increasingly excited about science in their everyday lives.  As we enter our dissemination phase, NASA Family Science Night will be compiling and releasing initial evaluation results, and providing facilitator training and online support resources. Support for NASA Family Science Nights is provided in part through NASA ROSES grant NNH06ZDA001N.

  1. Family Dinners. For Parents Particularly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Helen Altman

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that family dinners deserve attention as a positive contributor to children's well-being. Maintains that family dinners give stability to a potentially confusing day, present a place for children to express themselves, and provide children's first community. Includes ideas for helping families identify their own dinner patterns and…

  2. Family members' experiences of autopsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppewal, F; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    Background. The experiences of family members will teach us how to handle an autopsy, the ultimate quality assessment tool. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine surviving family members' experience of autopsy. Method. Seven GPs were asked to approach surviving family members of

  3. The growing VAO flavoprotein family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Nicole G. H.; Heuts, Dominic P. H. M.; Fraaije, Marco W.; van Berkel, Willem J. H.

    2008-01-01

    The VAO flavoprotein family is a rapidly growing family of oxidoreductases that favor the covalent binding of the FAD cofactor. In this review we report on the catalytic properties of some newly discovered VAO family members and their mode of flavin binding. Covalent binding of the flavin is a self-

  4. Family control and financing decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croci, Ettore; Doukas, John A.; Gonenc, Halit

    2011-01-01

    This study uses a comprehensive European dataset to investigate the role of family control in corporate financing decisions during the period 1998-2008. We find that family firms have a preference for debt financing, a non-control-diluting security, and are more reluctant than non-family firms to ra

  5. Ecological Correlates of Family Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Steven A.; Varkey, Soji; Aguirre, Angela M.

    2002-01-01

    Explores how parents' psychological functioning, social relationships, and demographic characteristics relate to family functioning with a sample of 197 participants. Significant associations between predictor variables and family functioning were found as rated by mothers, caseworkers, and coders of family interaction tasks. (JDM)

  6. Administration for Children and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Releases RSS Feeds Speeches Videos What is the Administration for Children & Families? The Administration for Children and Families (ACF) is a division ... Center Blog Press Releases RSS Feeds Speeches Videos Administration for Children & Families U.S. Department of Health & Human ...

  7. Family identity: black-white interracial family health experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Marcia Marie; Garwick, Ann Williams

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this interpretive descriptive study was to describe how eight Black-White couples with school-aged children constructed their interracial family identity through developmental transitions and interpreted race to their children. Within and across-case data analytic strategies were used to identify commonalities and variations in how Black men and White women in couple relationships formed their family identities over time. Coming together was the core theme described by the Black-White couples as they negotiated the process of forming a family identity. Four major tasks in the construction of interracial family identity emerged: (a) understanding and resolving family of origin chaos and turmoil, (b) transcending Black-White racial history, (c) articulating the interracial family's racial standpoint, and (d) explaining race to biracial children across the developmental stages. The findings guide family nurses in promoting family identity formation as a component of family health within the nurse-family partnership with Black-White mixed-race families.

  8. Family burden, family health and personal mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Edel; Bunting, Brendan P

    2013-03-21

    The economic and moral implications of family burden are well recognised. What is less understood is whether or how family health and family burden relate to personal mental health. This study examines family health and perceived family burden as predictors of personal mental health, taking personal and sociodemographic factors into consideration. Data used was from the National Comorbidity Study Replication (NCS-R), namely the random 30% of participants (N = 3192) to whom the family burden interview was administered. Measures of family burden and mental health were considered for analysis. Binary logistic regressions were used as means of analyses. Perception of family burden was associated with an increased vulnerability to personal mental health problems, as was the presence of mental health difficulties within the family health profile. Which member of the family (kinship) was ill bore no relation to prediction of personal mental health. Personal and socio-demographic factors of sex, age, marital status, education and household income were all predictive of increased vulnerability to mental health problems over the last 12 months. Certain elements of family health profile and its perceived burden on the individuals themselves appears related to risk of personal incidence of mental health problems within the individuals themselves. For moral and economic reasons, further research to understand the dynamics of these relationships is essential to aid developing initiatives to protect and support the mental health and wellbeing of relatives of ill individuals.

  9. Family dynamics and infant temperament in Danish families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, M.E.; Hall, Elisabeth O.C.; White, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Transition to parenthood involves the fine balance of family dynamics which both affect, and are affected by, the infant's temperament. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in family dynamics over the transition to parenthood and the relationship of family dynamics to infant...... temperament. A sample of 99 families in Odense, Denmark, completed the Family Dynamics Measure in the third trimester of pregnancy and again when the infant was 8-9 months old. At this second time, the mothers also completed the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Overall we found small changes......, although always in a negative direction, in family dynamics over this transition. The largest change was an increase in perceived role conflict reported by both mothers and fathers. Mothers reported more role conflict than fathers. Positive family dynamics were related to infant rhythmicity....

  10. Dual-career family as an exampleof egalitarian family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Ostrouch-Kamińska

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The economic, cultural, and social transformation, growth of women's economic strength as well as the level of their education, and development of ideas of equal rights of women and men on the labour market and in social life cause changes in gender relation in the family. Poles more and more often declare and support egalitarian family, and a new model of a family appears among existing ones – dual-career family.The main aim of the article is to consider the sources of its rise, description of gender positions in marital relation, the division of tasks and responsibilities, possible dilemmas and conflicts, but also emotional, intellectual and social advantages. The analysis were put into context of changes in defining and describing family, and also in context of different family discourses. One of them was underlined the most – egalitarian one as the most approximate to the way of defining and understanding dual-career family model.

  11. How Family Leisure Influences Family Functionality in Single-Parent Families

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Debra Pakstis; Pei-Chun Hsieh

    2015-01-01

      [...]since communication has been identified as a key component in the core and balance model and also plays a vital role in impacting family adaptability and family cohesion, recreation therapists working...

  12. [Family warmth cures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inthamun, P

    1996-04-01

    Women in Thailand are increasingly finding themselves responsible for caring for the physical and mental health of HIV-infected men. The author gained such experience caring for her husband, while her suffering since youth of a series of chronic illnesses helped her to understand that life is full of surprises. Moreover, meditation also helps her to squarely confront problems as they arise, such as when she learned that she contracted HIV from her husband 5 years ago. The author then learned about AIDS and attended, together with her husband, conferences on HIV/AIDS to learn how to care for them both. She also enrolled in a Red Cross program on in-home care. In 1994, the husband returned home from the hospital in poor health, with little time left to live. However, surrounded by the warmth and affection of home, friends, and family, the man¿s health status improved to the extent that his opportunistic diseases disappeared. Since that experience, the author visits other households where people are living with AIDS in an attempt to bring them moral support, to teach about in-home care, and to coordinate hospital care when needed. The author now knows that HIV-seropositive people can contribute considerably to help the lives of both others living with AIDS and the general community. She is determined to show that families working together can reduce the level of suffering experienced by HIV-infected individuals and that such people will survive longer through families¿ efforts.

  13. The cullin protein family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikas, Antonio; Hartmann, Thomas; Pan, Zhen-Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Cullin proteins are molecular scaffolds that have crucial roles in the post-translational modification of cellular proteins involving ubiquitin. The mammalian cullin protein family comprises eight members (CUL1 to CUL7 and PARC), which are characterized by a cullin homology domain. CUL1 to CUL7 assemble multi-subunit Cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase (CRL) complexes, the largest family of E3 ligases with more than 200 members. Although CUL7 and PARC are present only in chordates, other members of the cullin protein family are found in Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, Arabidopsis thaliana and yeast. A cullin protein tethers both a substrate-targeting unit, often through an adaptor protein, and the RING finger component in a CRL. The cullin-organized CRL thus positions a substrate close to the RING-bound E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, which catalyzes the transfer of ubiquitin to the substrate. In addition, conjugation of cullins with the ubiquitin-like molecule Nedd8 modulates activation of the corresponding CRL complex, probably through conformational regulation of the interactions between cullin's carboxy-terminal tail and CRL's RING subunit. Genetic studies in several model organisms have helped to unravel a multitude of physiological functions associated with cullin proteins and their respective CRLs. CRLs target numerous substrates and thus have an impact on a range of biological processes, including cell growth, development, signal transduction, transcriptional control, genomic integrity and tumor suppression. Moreover, mutations in CUL7 and CUL4B genes have been linked to hereditary human diseases.

  14. Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Albayrak

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF is an autosomal recessive genetic disease that affects males and females. FMF gene is on the short arm of chromosome 16. It is most often found in Jews, Arabs, Turks, and Armenians. Amyloidosis is charecterized by the deposition of a particular protein between the cells in the tissue. It is a potentially serious complication of FMF. The kidney is a prime target for the amyloid. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(4.000: 260-267

  15. Balancing family and work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-08-01

    More than 45% of women scientists at top universities in the United States have indicated that their careers have kept them from having as many children as they want, according to an 8 August study, “Scientists want more children,” which appears in the journal PLoS ONE. The study, by sociologists Elaine Howard Ecklund of Rice University and Anne Lincoln of Southern Methodist University, indicates that 24.5% of male scientists surveyed indicated the same concerns. The study also found that among junior scientists, 29% of women indicated concern that a science career would prevent them from having a family; 7% of men indicated the same concern.

  16. QUAD FAMILY CENTERING.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PINAYEV, I.

    2005-11-01

    It is well known that beam position monitors (BPM) utilizing signals from pickup electrodes (PUE) provide good resolution and relative accuracy. The absolute accuracy (i.e. position of the orbit in the vacuum chamber) is not very good due to the various reasons. To overcome the limitation it was suggested to use magnetic centers of quadrupoles for the calibration of the BPM [1]. The proposed method provides accuracy better then 200 microns for centering of the beam position monitors using modulation of the whole quadrupole family.

  17. Congenital familial hypertonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, Carl F; Cashore, William J

    2002-09-01

    1. This complex of symptoms appears to be congenital, familial, and hereditary. It is apparently transmitted by a dominant gene, probably on chromosome 5. 2. Hypertonicity with rigidity of all voluntary muscles usually presents at birth. 3. Feeding problems are due to dysphagia or laryngospasm associated with aspiration and dyspnea. 4. Respiratory problems are characterized by apneic episodes due to muscle spasm. 5. Prolonged episodes of muscular rigidity secondary to sudden stimuli result in frequent falls, characteristically en bloc, like a statue. 6. Continuous electromyographic activity even at rest (with absence of fasciculations) improves after intravenous diazepam.

  18. Familial vesicoureteral reflux

    OpenAIRE

    朴, 勺; 新井, 豊; 友吉, 唯夫; 吉田, 修

    1983-01-01

    Primary vesicoureteral reflux was seen in 2 siblings in a family of 5 (1 daughter and 2 sons). Voiding cystogram of elder sister, who complained of fever and backache, showed bilateral reflux at the age of 6. Left reflux disappeared soon but right reflux persisted. Right antireflux operation was performed at the age of 9, but right renal function deteriorated gradually. Right nephrectomy was done at the age of 12 because of persistent pyuria and renal stones. The second case was her younger b...

  19. Familial hyperamylasemia Hiperamilasemia familiar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Kar Ling Koda

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A 7-year-old white boy was referred to us with a history of 3 attacks of hypogastric pain over the previous 2 years and persistently elevated serum amylase concentrations. At physical examination, he was well with no evidence of clinical abnormalities. His weight and height were normal. Laboratory diagnostic investigations were all normal except for the presence of Ascaris lumbricoides in the feces and persistently elevated serum amylase levels. Serum amylase determinations in the family members were normal in his father and maternal grandmother but elevated in his mother, sister, maternal aunt, and uncle, all of whom asymptomatic. Macroamylasemia was excluded in the child and in the mother. The finding of persistently elevated amylasemia in the child and in the other family members spanning 3 generations, and the exclusion of diseases that lead to hyperamilasemia are consistent with the diagnosis of familial hyperamylasemia. Until now, only 1 similar case has been reported. Familial hyperamylasemia must be considered in the differential diagnosis of hyperamylasemias in childhood.Paciente branco, masculino, sete anos, encaminhado com história de três episódios de dor abdominal no baixo ventre nos últimos dois anos e níveis elevados de amilase sérica. Ao exame físico encontrava-se em bom estado geral, com desenvolvimento pondo-estatural normal e sem sinais ou sintomas de quaisquer anormalidades clínicas. Os exames complementares para investigação diagnóstica revelaram-se todos normais com exceção do exame parasitológico de fezes que revelou Ascaris lumbricoides e dos níveis séricos de amilase que se encontravam persistentemente elevados. Amilasemias realizadas nos familiares, todos assintomáticos, mostraram níveis normais no pai e na avó materna e elevados na mãe, na irmã , na tia e no tio maternos. Macroamilasemia foi excluída na criança e na mãe. O encontro de níveis séricos de amilase persistentemente elevados na

  20. Celibacy and Family Disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emaletdinov B. M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Causes for celibacy, divorces and successful marriage are discussed in the article. Absence of true love and inability to build and keep it are the main reasons for family disruption. Amorousness, immature love and various forms of false or flawed love substitute the true feeling. It is caused by increased women’s independence, loss of mutual understanding and trust (due to infidelity or jealousy, incompatibility of characters or values. Celibacy is often conditioned by physical disability, revaluation of freedom and independence, huge requirements to partners, consumer attitude to life, infertility, alcohol and drug abuse, abnormalities in personality and sexuality.