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Sample records for faithfully recapitulates photomorphogenic

  1. A Light-Independent Allele of Phytochrome B Faithfully Recapitulates Photomorphogenic Transcriptional Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Hu; Yi-Shin Su; J. Clark Lagarias

    2009-01-01

    Dominant gain-of-function alleles of Arabidopsis phytochrome B were recently shown to confer lightindependent, constitutive photomorphogenic (cop) phenotypes to transgenic plants (Su and Lagarias, 2007). In the present study, comparative transcription profiling experiments were performed to assess whether the pattern of gene expression regulated by these alleles accurately reflects the process of photomorphogenesis in wild-type Arabidopsis. Wholegenome transcription profiles of dark-grown phyAphyB seedlings expressing the Y276H mutant of phyB (YHB) revealed that YHB reprograms about 13% of the Arabidopsis transcriptome in a light-independent manner. The YHB-regulated transcriptome proved qualitatively similar to but quantitatively greater than those of wild-type seedlings grown under 15 or 50 μmol m-2 m-1 continuous red light (Rc). Among the 2977 genes statistically significant two-fold (SSTF) regulated by YHB in the absence of light include those encoding components of the photosynthetic apparatus, tetrapyrrole/pigment biosynthetic pathways, and early light-responsive signaling factors. Approximately 80% of genes SSTF regulated by Rc were also YHB-regulated. Expression of a notable subset of 346 YHB-regulated genes proved to be strongly attenuated by Rc, indicating compensating regulation by phyC-E and/or other Rc-dependent processes. Since the majority of these 346 genes are regulated by the circadian clock, these results suggest that phyA- and phyB-independent light signaling pathway(s) strongly influence clock output. Together with the unique plastid morphology of dark-grown YHB seedlings, these analyses indicate that the YHB mutant induces constitutive photomorphogenesis via faithful reconstruction of phyB signaling pathways in a light-independent fashion.

  2. Faith

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier Sørensen, Bent; Spoelstra, Sverre

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter we explore the relationship between business ethics and faith. We show how business ethics is largely motivated by a now shattered faith in the capitalist entrepreneur. But this does not mean that business ethics is faithless. The shattered faith in the capitalist entrepreneur has...... made way for a number of newly created figures and concepts, including social entrepreneurship, corporate social responsibility, and responsible leadership. The belief is that these figures and concepts are capable of correcting business’ dark sides, without disrupting the faith in business itself....

  3. Functional interconnection of MYC2 and SPA1 in the photomorphogenic seedling development of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangappa, Sreeramaiah N; Prasad, V Babu Rajendra; Chattopadhyay, Sudip

    2010-11-01

    MYC2 is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that cross talks with light, abscisic acid (ABA), and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathways. Here, we have shown that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) MYC2 directly binds to the G-box present in the SUPPRESSOR OF PHYTOCHROME A1 (SPA1) promoter and that it controls the expression of SPA1 in a COP1-dependent manner. Analyses of atmyc2 spa1 double mutants suggest that whereas MYC2 and SPA1 act redundantly to suppress photomorphogenic growth in the dark, they function synergistically for the suppression of photomorphogenic growth in the light. Our studies have also revealed that MYC2-mediated ABA and JA responses are further modulated by SPA1. Taken together, this study demonstrates the molecular and physiological interrelations of MYC2 and SPA1 in light, ABA, and JA signaling pathways.

  4. Photoactivated UVR8-COP1 module determines photomorphogenic UV-B signaling output in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Huang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In Arabidopsis, ultraviolet (UV-B-induced photomorphogenesis is initiated by a unique photoreceptor UV resistance locus 8 (UVR8 which utilizes its tryptophan residues as internal chromophore to sense UV-B. As a result of UV-B light perception, the UVR8 homodimer shaped by its arginine residues undergoes a conformational switch of monomerization. Then UVR8 associates with the constitutively photomorphogenic 1-suppressor of PHYA (COP1-SPA core complex(es that is released from the cullin 4-damaged dna binding protein 1 (CUL4-DDB1 E3 apparatus. This association, in turn, causes COP1 to convert from a repressor to a promoter of photomorphogenesis. It is not fully understood, however, regarding the biological significance of light-absorbing and dimer-stabilizing residues for UVR8 activity in photomorphogenic UV-B signaling. Here, we take advantage of transgenic UVR8 variants to demonstrate that two light-absorbing tryptophans, W233 and W285, and two dimer-stabilizing arginines, R286 and R338, play pivotal roles in UV-B-induced photomorphogenesis. Mutation of each residue results in alterations in UV-B light perception, UVR8 monomerization and UVR8-COP1 association in response to photomorphogenic UV-B. We also identify and functionally characterize two constitutively active UVR8 variants, UVR8W285A and UVR8R338A, whose photobiological activities are enhanced by the repression of CUL4, a negative regulator in this pathway. Based on our molecular and biochemical evidence, we propose that the UVR8-COP1 affinity in plants critically determines the photomorphogenic UV-B signal transduction coupling with UVR8-mediated UV-B light perception.

  5. Photoactivated UVR8-COP1 module determines photomorphogenic UV-B signaling output in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xi; Yang, Panyu; Ouyang, Xinhao; Chen, Liangbi; Deng, Xing Wang

    2014-03-01

    In Arabidopsis, ultraviolet (UV)-B-induced photomorphogenesis is initiated by a unique photoreceptor UV resistance locus 8 (UVR8) which utilizes its tryptophan residues as internal chromophore to sense UV-B. As a result of UV-B light perception, the UVR8 homodimer shaped by its arginine residues undergoes a conformational switch of monomerization. Then UVR8 associates with the constitutively photomorphogenic 1-suppressor of PHYA (COP1-SPA) core complex(es) that is released from the cullin 4-damaged dna binding protein 1 (CUL4-DDB1) E3 apparatus. This association, in turn, causes COP1 to convert from a repressor to a promoter of photomorphogenesis. It is not fully understood, however, regarding the biological significance of light-absorbing and dimer-stabilizing residues for UVR8 activity in photomorphogenic UV-B signaling. Here, we take advantage of transgenic UVR8 variants to demonstrate that two light-absorbing tryptophans, W233 and W285, and two dimer-stabilizing arginines, R286 and R338, play pivotal roles in UV-B-induced photomorphogenesis. Mutation of each residue results in alterations in UV-B light perception, UVR8 monomerization and UVR8-COP1 association in response to photomorphogenic UV-B. We also identify and functionally characterize two constitutively active UVR8 variants, UVR8W285A and UVR8R338A, whose photobiological activities are enhanced by the repression of CUL4, a negative regulator in this pathway. Based on our molecular and biochemical evidence, we propose that the UVR8-COP1 affinity in plants critically determines the photomorphogenic UV-B signal transduction coupling with UVR8-mediated UV-B light perception.

  6. Cerebral Organoids Recapitulate Epigenomic Signatures of the Human Fetal Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongyuan Luo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells recapitulate the early three-dimensional organization of the human brain, but whether they establish the epigenomic and transcriptional programs essential for brain development is unknown. We compared epigenomic and regulatory features in cerebral organoids and human fetal brain, using genome-wide, base resolution DNA methylome and transcriptome sequencing. Transcriptomic dynamics in organoids faithfully modeled gene expression trajectories in early-to-mid human fetal brains. We found that early non-CG methylation accumulation at super-enhancers in both fetal brain and organoids marks forthcoming transcriptional repression in the fully developed brain. Demethylated regions (74% of 35,627 identified during organoid differentiation overlapped with fetal brain regulatory elements. Interestingly, pericentromeric repeats showed widespread demethylation in multiple types of in vitro human neural differentiation models but not in fetal brain. Our study reveals that organoids recapitulate many epigenomic features of mid-fetal human brain and also identified novel non-CG methylation signatures of brain development.

  7. Recapitulating maladaptive, multiscale remodeling of failing myocardium on a chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCain, Megan L; Sheehy, Sean P; Grosberg, Anna; Goss, Josue A; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2013-06-11

    The lack of a robust pipeline of medical therapeutic agents for the treatment of heart disease may be partially attributed to the lack of in vitro models that recapitulate the essential structure-function relationships of healthy and diseased myocardium. We designed and built a system to mimic mechanical overload in vitro by applying cyclic stretch to engineered laminar ventricular tissue on a stretchable chip. To test our model, we quantified changes in gene expression, myocyte architecture, calcium handling, and contractile function and compared our results vs. several decades of animal studies and clinical observations. Cyclic stretch activated gene expression profiles characteristic of pathological remodeling, including decreased α- to β-myosin heavy chain ratios, and induced maladaptive changes to myocyte shape and sarcomere alignment. In stretched tissues, calcium transients resembled those reported in failing myocytes and peak systolic stress was significantly reduced. Our results suggest that failing myocardium, as defined genetically, structurally, and functionally, can be replicated in an in vitro microsystem by faithfully recapitulating the structural and mechanical microenvironment of the diseased heart.

  8. A recapitulative three-dimensional model of breast carcinoma requires perfusion for multi-week growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayla F Goliwas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Breast carcinomas are complex, three-dimensional tissues composed of cancer epithelial cells and stromal components, including fibroblasts and extracellular matrix. In vitro models that more faithfully recapitulate this dimensionality and stromal microenvironment should more accurately elucidate the processes driving carcinogenesis, tumor progression, and therapeutic response. Herein, novel in vitro breast carcinoma surrogates, distinguished by a relevant dimensionality and stromal microenvironment, are described and characterized. A perfusion bioreactor system was used to deliver medium to surrogates containing engineered microchannels and the effects of perfusion, medium composition, and the method of cell incorporation and density of initial cell seeding on the growth and morphology of surrogates were assessed. Perfused surrogates demonstrated significantly greater cell density and proliferation and were more histologically recapitulative of human breast carcinoma than surrogates maintained without perfusion. Although other parameters of the surrogate system, such as medium composition and cell seeding density, affected cell growth, perfusion was the most influential parameter.

  9. Myelin regeneration: a recapitulation of development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancy, Stephen P J; Chan, Jonah R; Baranzini, Sergio E; Franklin, Robin J M; Rowitch, David H

    2011-01-01

    The developmental process of myelination and the adult regenerative process of remyelination share the common objective of investing nerve axons with myelin sheaths. A central question in myelin biology is the extent to which the mechanisms of these two processes are conserved, a concept encapsulated in the recapitulation hypothesis of remyelination. This question also has relevance for translating myelin biology into a better understanding of and eventual treatments for human myelin disorders. Here we review the current evidence for the recapitulation hypothesis and discuss recent findings in the development and regeneration of myelin in the context of human neurological disease.

  10. Conditional involvement of constitutive photomorphogenic1 in the degradation of phytochrome A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrieux, Dimitry; Trevisan, Martine; Fankhauser, Christian

    2013-04-01

    All higher plants possess multiple phytochrome photoreceptors, with phytochrome A (phyA) being light labile and other members of the family being relatively light stable (phyB-phyE in Arabidopsis [Arabidopsis thaliana]). phyA also differs from other members of the family because it enables plants to deetiolate in far-red light-rich environments typical of dense vegetational cover. Later in development, phyA counteracts the shade avoidance syndrome. Light-induced degradation of phyA favors the establishment of a robust shade avoidance syndrome and was proposed to be important for phyA-mediated deetiolation in far-red light. phyA is ubiquitylated and targeted for proteasome-mediated degradation in response to light. Cullin1 and the ubiquitin E3 ligase constitutive photomorphogenic1 (COP1) have been implicated in this process. Here, we systematically analyze the requirement of cullins in this process and show that only CULLIN1 plays an important role in light-induced phyA degradation. In addition, the role of COP1 in this process is conditional and depends on the presence of metabolizable sugar in the growth medium. COP1 acts with SUppressor of phytochrome A (SPA) proteins. Unexpectedly, the light-induced decline of phyA levels is reduced in spa mutants irrespective of the growth medium, suggesting a COP1-independent role for SPA proteins.

  11. Conditional Involvement of CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 in the Degradation of Phytochrome A1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrieux, Dimitry; Trevisan, Martine; Fankhauser, Christian

    2013-01-01

    All higher plants possess multiple phytochrome photoreceptors, with phytochrome A (phyA) being light labile and other members of the family being relatively light stable (phyB–phyE in Arabidopsis [Arabidopsis thaliana]). phyA also differs from other members of the family because it enables plants to deetiolate in far-red light-rich environments typical of dense vegetational cover. Later in development, phyA counteracts the shade avoidance syndrome. Light-induced degradation of phyA favors the establishment of a robust shade avoidance syndrome and was proposed to be important for phyA-mediated deetiolation in far-red light. phyA is ubiquitylated and targeted for proteasome-mediated degradation in response to light. Cullin1 and the ubiquitin E3 ligase CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1) have been implicated in this process. Here, we systematically analyze the requirement of cullins in this process and show that only CULLIN1 plays an important role in light-induced phyA degradation. In addition, the role of COP1 in this process is conditional and depends on the presence of metabolizable sugar in the growth medium. COP1 acts with SUPPRESSOR OF PHYTOCHROME A (SPA) proteins. Unexpectedly, the light-induced decline of phyA levels is reduced in spa mutants irrespective of the growth medium, suggesting a COP1-independent role for SPA proteins. PMID:23391578

  12. The Location of Faith

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLisky, Claire Louise

    2010-01-01

    The description and analysis of religious faith, whether as embodied experience or as the subject of academic inquiry, is a troubled undertaking at the best of times. It is particularly fraught in the context of settler-colonial Christian missions to Indigenous peoples, where historical distance...... missions in the history of Aboriginal peoples and the continuing resonance of Christianity in many Aboriginal communities, the importance of undrstanding how and why faith worked on Aboriginal missions cannot be overestimated. This paper takes a fresh look at questions of belief through a consideration...

  13. A Short Amino-Terminal Part of Arabidopsis Phytochrome A Induces Constitutive Photomorphogenic Response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    András Viczián; (E)va (A)dám; Iris Wolf; János Bindics; Stefan Kircher; Marc Heijde; Roman UIm; Eberhard Sch(a)fer; Ferenc Nagy

    2012-01-01

    Phytochrome A (phyA) is the dominant photoreceptor of far-red light sensing in Arabidopsis thaliana.phyA accumulates at high levels in the cytoplasm of etiolated seedlings,and light-induced phyA signaling is mediated by a complex regulatory network.This includes light- and FHY1/FHL protein-dependent translocation of native phyA into the nucleus in vivo.It has also been shown that a short N-terminal fragment of phyA (PHYA406) is sufficient to phenocopy this highly regulated cellular process in vitro.To test the biological activity of this N-terminal fragment of phyA in planta,we produced transgenic phyA-201 plants expressing the PHYA406-YFP (YELLOW FLUORESCENT PROTEIN)-DD,PHYA406-YFP-DD-NLS (nuclear localization signal),and PHYA406-YFP-DD-NES (nuclear export signal) fusion proteins.Here,we report that PHYA406-YFP-DD is imported into the nucleus and this process is partially light-dependent whereas PHYA406-YFP-DD-NLS and PHYA406-YFP-DD-NES display the expected constitutive localization patterns.Our results show that these truncated phyA proteins are light-stable,they trigger a constitutive photomorphogenic-like response when localized in the nuclei,and neither of them induces proper phyA signaling.We demonstrate that in vitro and in vivo PHYA406 Pfr and Pr bind COP1,a general repressor of photomorphogenesis,and co-localize with it in nuclear bodies.Thus,we conclude that,in planta,the truncated PHYA406 proteins inactivate COP1 in the nuclei in a light-independent fashion.

  14. Faith, Fact, and Behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staddon, J E R

    2013-01-01

    David Hume argued that ought cannot be derived from is. That is, no set of facts, no amount of scientific knowledge, is by itself sufficient to urge us to action. Yet generations of well-meaning scientists (more and more as secular influences grow in the West) seem to have forgotten Hume's words of wisdom. All motivated action depends ultimately on beliefs that cannot be proved by the methods of science, that is, on faith.

  15. Faith, Fact, and Behaviorism

    OpenAIRE

    Staddon, J. E. R.

    2013-01-01

    David Hume argued that ought cannot be derived from is. That is, no set of facts, no amount of scientific knowledge, is by itself sufficient to urge us to action. Yet generations of well-meaning scientists (more and more as secular influences grow in the West) seem to have forgotten Hume's words of wisdom. All motivated action depends ultimately on beliefs that cannot be proved by the methods of science, that is, on faith.

  16. Physiological functions of phytochromes in tomato : a study using photomorphogenic mutants = [Fysiologische functies van fytochromen in tomaat : een studie gebruikmakend van fotomorfogenetische mutanten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerckhoffs, L.H.J.

    1996-01-01


    Plant morphogenesis is influenced greatly by the irradiance, quality, direction and periodicity of the ambient light. At least three different photomorphogenic photoreceptors have been distinguished: (i) the red light (R)- and far-red light (FR)- absorbing phytochromes; (ii) the UV-A and

  17. Good Faith and Game Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Caspar

    2016-01-01

    This article shows how game theory can be applied to model good faith mathematically using an example of a classic legal dispute related to rei vindicato. The issue is whether an owner has a legal right to his good if a person has bought it in good faith by using updated probabilities. The article...

  18. Attachment and Women's Faith Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Eun Sim

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between human attachment and God attachment, particularly in Christian women's experiences of faith. It is based on the attachment perspective as a conceptual framework. The main aim was to evolve an attachment-theoretical approach to women's faith development and to offer a complementary path to interpret…

  19. Faithful Squashed Entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Brandao, Fernando G S L; Yard, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Squashed entanglement is a measure for the entanglement of bipartite quantum states. In this paper we present a lower bound for squashed entanglement in terms of the LOCC distance to the set of separable states. This implies that squashed entanglement is faithful, that is, it is strictly positive if and only if the state is entangled. We derive the lower bound on squashed entanglement from a lower bound on the quantum conditional mutual information which is used to define squashed entanglement. The quantum conditional mutual information corresponds to the amount by which strong subadditivity of von Neumann entropy fails to be saturated. Our result therefore sheds light on the structure of states that almost satisfy strong subadditivity with equality. The proof is based on two recent results from quantum information theory: the operational interpretation of the quantum mutual information as the optimal rate for state redistribution and the interpretation of the regularised relative entropy of entanglement as a...

  20. Evolution and Christian Faith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roughgarden, J. E.

    2006-12-01

    My recent book, Evolution and Christian Faith explores how evolutionary biology can be portrayed from the religious perspective of Christianity. The principal metaphors for evolutionary biology---differential success at breeding and random mutation, probably originate with the dawn of agriculture and clearly occur in the Bible. The central narrative of evolutionary biology can be presented using Biblical passages, providing an account of evolution that is inherently friendly to a Christian perspective. Still, evolutionary biology is far from complete, and problematic areas pertain to species in which the concept of an individual is poorly defined, and to species in which the expression of gender and sexuality depart from Darwin's sexual-selection templates. The present- day controversy in the US about teaching evolution in the schools provides an opportunity to engage the public about science education.

  1. The DNA of Religious Faith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barash, David P.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the tensions between science and religion. According to recent books--many of them by prominent biologists--the era of deference to religious belief--belief without evidence--is ending as faith is subjected to gimlet-eyed scrutiny. Like Mark Twain's celebrated comment about stopping smoking, scholars have…

  2. A Faithful Defender of Patriarchy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨双菊

    2010-01-01

    The hero in the masterpiece of Charlotte Bronte Jane Eyre--Edward Rochester acts as a faithful defender on the matter of his marriage with Bertha Mason.His compliance with the patriarchal rules mostly displays in three aspects,that is,male dominant household,men's superiority to women in law,and man's supremacy in marriage.

  3. Faith Ringgold and Her Escapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snead, Susan

    1988-01-01

    Faith Ringgold is a Black feminist artist who, like her mother before her, is a strong woman determined to leave a legacy in Black culture. Her works show much emotion and personal commitment as she portrays the joys and struggles of Black people in crafts and fine arts. (VM)

  4. CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 10 (COP10 Contributes to Floral Repression under Non-Inductive Short Days in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Young Kang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In Arabidopsis, CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC/DE-ETIOLATED/FUSCA (COP/DET/FUS genes act in repression of photomorphogenesis in darkness, and recent reports revealed that some of these genes, such as COP1 and DET1, also have important roles in controlling flowering time and circadian rhythm. The COP/DET/FUS protein COP10 interacts with DET1 and DNA DAMAGE-BINDING PROTEIN 1 (DDB1 to form a CDD complex and represses photomorphogenesis in darkness. The cop10-4 mutants flower normally in inductive long days (LD but early in non-inductive short days (SD compared with wild type (WT; however, the role of COP10 remains unknown. Here, we investigate the role of COP10 in SD-dependent floral repression. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR revealed that in SD, expression of the LD-dependent floral inducers GI, FKF1, and FT significantly increased in cop10-4 mutants, compared with WT. This suggests that COP10 mainly regulates FT expression in a CO-independent manner. We also show that COP10 interacts with GI in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that COP10 could also affect GI function at the posttranslational level. Moreover, FLC expression was repressed drastically in cop10-4 mutants and COP10 interacts with MULTICOPY SUPPRESSOR OF IRA1 4 (MSI4/FVE (MSI4/FVE, which epigenetically inhibits FLC expression. These data suggest that COP10 contributes to delaying flowering in the photoperiod and autonomous pathways by downregulating FT expression under SD.

  5. Targeting Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α in a New Orthotopic Model of Glioblastoma Recapitulating the Hypoxic Tumor Microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigim, Fares; Cavanaugh, Jill; Patel, Anoop P; Curry, William T; Esaki, Shin-ichi; Kasper, Ekkehard M; Chi, Andrew S; Louis, David N; Martuza, Robert L; Rabkin, Samuel D; Wakimoto, Hiroaki

    2015-07-01

    Tissue hypoxia and necrosis represent pathophysiologic and histologic hallmarks of glioblastoma (GBM). Although hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) plays crucial roles in the malignant phenotypes of GBM, developing HIF-1α-targeted agents has been hampered by the lack of a suitable preclinical model that recapitulates the complex biology of clinical GBM. We present a new GBM model, MGG123, which was established from a recurrent human GBM. Orthotopic xenografting of stem-like MGG123 cells reproducibly generated lethal tumors that were characterized by foci of palisading necrosis, hypervascularity, and robust stem cell marker expression. Perinecrotic neoplastic cells distinctively express HIF-1α and are proliferative in both xenografts and the patient tissue. The xenografts contain scattered hypoxic foci that were consistently greater than 50 μm distant from blood vessels, indicating intratumoral heterogeneity of oxygenation. Hypoxia enhanced HIF-1α expression in cultured MGG123 cells, which was abrogated by the HIF-1α inhibitors digoxin or ouabain. In vivo, treatment of orthotopic MGG123 xenografts with digoxin decreased HIF-1α expression, vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA levels, and CD34-positive vasculature within the tumors, and extended survival of mice bearing the aggressive MGG123 GBM. This preclinical tumor model faithfully recapitulates the GBM-relevant hypoxic microenvironment and stemness and is a suitable platform for studying disease biology and developing hypoxia-targeted agents.

  6. A phenotypic model recapitulating the neuropathology of Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ferris, Craig F.; Marella, Mathieu; Smerkers, Brian; Barchet, Thomas M.; Gershman, Benjamin; Matsuno-Yagi, Akemi; Yagi, Takao

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to develop a phenotypic model recapitulating the neuropathology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Such a model would show loss of dopamine in the basal ganglia, appearance of Lewy bodies, and the early stages of motor dysfunction. The model was developed by subcutaneously injecting biodegradable microspheres of rotenone, a complex I inhibitor in 8–9 month old, ovariectomized Long–Evans rats. Animals were observed for changes in body weight and motor activity. At the end o...

  7. On two conjectures of Faith

    CERN Document Server

    Haim, M; Torrecillas, B

    2011-01-01

    We prove that a profinite algebra whose left (right) cyclic modules are torsionless is finite dimensional and QF. We give a relative version of the notion of left (right) PF ring for pseudocompact algebras and prove it is left-right symmetric and dual to the notion of quasi-co-Frobenius coalgebras. We also prove two ring theoretic conjectures of Faith, in the setting (and supplementary hypothesis) of profinite algebras: any profinite semiartinian selfinjective algebra is finite dimensional and QF, and any FGF profinite algebra is finite dimensional QF.

  8. The Flexibility of Good Faith Concept

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    Camelia IGNATESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Concerned with the analysis of the good faith concept, as flexible concept, there are some people who have considered that law compels the judge to look at good faith and justice and usually to reconsider the contractual background in order to discover new commitment susceptible of variations and multiplications during time. In the circumstances that, good faith is an instrument of interpreting contracts, and the judge wonders what it is that the parties, of good faith, could have desired to hire, we understand here the demands of a behavior rule in performing the convention.

  9. Where's the Faith in Faith-Based Organizations? Measures and Correlates of Religiosity in Faith-Based Social Service Coalitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebaugh, Helen Rose Fuchs; Saltzman, Janet; Pipes, Paula F.

    2006-01-01

    Organizational religiosity is analyzed with data from a national survey of faith-based social service coalitions (N = 656). Twenty-one items related to religious practices within these organizations result in three distinct factors: service religiosity, staff religiosity and organizational religiosity scales. Self-defined faith-based coalitions…

  10. Good Faith, Bad Faith? Making an Effort in Dispute Resolution

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    Tania Sourdin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of those engaged in negotiation and Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR processes that are undertaken or required before or after litigation is increasingly the subject of legislative regulation. Recent case law has also more clearly articulated the characteristics of good faith as well as other standards such as 'genuine effort' and explored to a limited extent the behavioural indicators and approaches that could be used to determine the meaning and scope of these types of concepts. Arguably, the growth in mandatory (rather than voluntary ADR may require the articulation of clearer conduct obligations as ADR participants may be disinclined to negotiate or may be relatively unsophisticated or unaware of their negotiation behaviour. This article explores the development of conduct obligations and notes that whilst the requirements need to be linked to the circumstances of each dispute, there are some clear differences in terms of how these requirements are more generally interpreted by lawyers and others.

  11. Looking Forward from "A Common Faith"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noddings, Nel

    2009-01-01

    "A Common Faith," according to this author, is arguably one of John Dewey's least effective books. In it, he tries to persuade readers that the best of two epistemologically different worlds can be reconciled in a common faith--one that employs the methods of science with a generously religious attitude. Possibly most people today believe this…

  12. Face to Faith: Teaching Global Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Marcia

    2011-01-01

    The Tony Blair Faith Foundation has created a program that enables students to learn directly with, from, and about one another's culture, religion and beliefs. Face to Faith is a state-of-the-art educational program that addresses cross-cultural and inter-religious understanding in the context of study about global issues. The program uses…

  13. Forum: Teaching with, against, and to Faith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones Medine, Carolyn M.; Penner, Todd; Lehman, Marjorie

    2015-01-01

    These three articles deal with the issue of faith in the classroom--whether one should teach "to," "for," or "against" faith. While their institutional settings and experiences are different, the authors all contend that more serious reflection needs to be given to the matter of how religious commitment plays out in…

  14. Transgenic zebrafish recapitulating tbx16 gene early developmental expression.

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    Simon Wells

    Full Text Available We describe the creation of a transgenic zebrafish expressing GFP driven by a 7.5 kb promoter region of the tbx16 gene. This promoter segment is sufficient to recapitulate early embryonic expression of endogenous tbx16 in the presomitic mesoderm, the polster and, subsequently, in the hatching gland. Expression of GFP in the transgenic lines later in development diverges to some extent from endogenous tbx16 expression with the serendipitous result that one line expresses GFP specifically in commissural primary ascending (CoPA interneurons of the developing spinal cord. Using this line we demonstrate that the gene mafba (valentino is expressed in CoPA interneurons.

  15. NANOPARTICLE OF FAITH ON NURSES INTERVENTIONS

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    Paula Soares Encarnação

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization, in recent years has stimulated the development of research studies that have positive implications for the quality of people's health, such as spirituality. This topic discusses the concept of faith as an expression of human spirituality; develops the idea of faith as a “nanoparticle” that can be used in nursing care as an intervention to promote people’s health, and explore the contribution to education in Nursing. Given these findings it is concluded that nurses should require training and develop research studies that demonstrate faith as a protective factor and a health promoter with salutogenic effects in the Portuguese context.

  16. Faith and wisdom in science

    CERN Document Server

    McLeish, Tom

    2014-01-01

    "Do you have wisdom to count the clouds?" asks the voice of God from the whirlwind in the stunningly beautiful catalogue of nature-questions from the Old Testament Book of Job. Tom McLeish takes a scientist's reading of this ancient text as a centrepiece to make the case for science as a deeply human and ancient activity, embedded in some of the oldest stories told about human desire to understand the natural world. Drawing on stories from the modern science of chaos and uncertainty alongside medieval, patristic, classical and Biblical sources, Faith and Wisdom in Science challenges much of the current 'science and religion' debate as operating with the wrong assumptions and in the wrong space. Its narrative approach develops a natural critique of the cultural separation of sciences and humanities, suggesting an approach to science, or in its more ancient form natural philosophy - the 'love of wisdom of natural things' - that can draw on theological and cultural roots. Following the theme of pain in human con...

  17. Faith and Form on Screen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Bacon

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To understand any aspect of being-in-the-world in general or cinematic experience in particular, both reductionist and holistic approaches are needed. Psychological accounts can give us only functional explanations of human behaviour or responses to signifying artifacts such as art. To understand the significance of these experiences the psychological must be complemented by a study on a level which may be termed spiritual. This line of thought is applied to analyses of Robert Bresson’s Pickpocket, starting from David Bordwell’s formalist and cognitive account of why many people experience this film as religious despite there being no explicit reference to religion. Paul Schrader’s analysis of the formal structure of this film in terms of his notion of transcendental style in film goes a step forward by explaining how the formal structure as he analyses it suggests a transcendental dimension which cannot be addressed directly. This approach connects in an illuminating way with Slavoj Žižek’s notions of the imaginary and the symbolic sphere. Bordwell’s approach, functioning on the psychological level, is basically reductionist, while Schrader’s, boosted with Žižek’s ideas as appropriated for the purposes of this article, is holistic and operative on the spiritual level. This two-tiered analysis reveals how cinematic form in Pickpocket serves as an indirect expression of faith.

  18. Teaching Teens To Use Condoms Faithfully

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Dating & Sex Fitness Nutrition Driving Safety School Substance Abuse Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Teen > Dating & Sex > Teaching Teens To Use Condoms Faithfully Ages & Stages ...

  19. Faith-based humanitarianism in northern Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Benson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The response of faith-based organisations to displacement in northern Myanmar has been remarkable but sustaining an open and collaborative relationship with the international community remains an ongoing challenge.

  20. 'divine healing' in the 'faith movement'

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-12-10

    Dec 10, 2009 ... most forms of cancer, heart disease and genetic diseases. (Wikipedia ... functioning of the healthy body of the patient begins to function ..... It is finished! Amen. .... Renowned faith healer, TL Osborn's wife, Peggy, died of lung.

  1. Recapitulation of Developing Artery Muscularization in Pulmonary Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Q. Sheikh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Excess smooth muscle accumulation is a key component of many vascular disorders, including atherosclerosis, restenosis, and pulmonary artery hypertension, but the underlying cell biological processes are not well defined. In pulmonary artery hypertension, reduced pulmonary artery compliance is a strong independent predictor of mortality, and pathological distal arteriole muscularization contributes to this reduced compliance. We recently demonstrated that embryonic pulmonary artery wall morphogenesis consists of discrete developmentally regulated steps. In contrast, poor understanding of distal arteriole muscularization in pulmonary artery hypertension severely limits existing therapies that aim to dilate the pulmonary vasculature but have modest clinical benefit and do not prevent hypermuscularization. Here, we show that most pathological distal arteriole smooth muscle cells, but not alveolar myofibroblasts, derive from pre-existing smooth muscle. Furthermore, the program of distal arteriole muscularization encompasses smooth muscle cell dedifferentiation, distal migration, proliferation, and then redifferentiation, thereby recapitulating many facets of arterial wall development.

  2. A phenotypic model recapitulating the neuropathology of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Craig F; Marella, Mathieu; Smerkers, Brian; Barchet, Thomas M; Gershman, Benjamin; Matsuno-Yagi, Akemi; Yagi, Takao

    2013-07-01

    This study was undertaken to develop a phenotypic model recapitulating the neuropathology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Such a model would show loss of dopamine in the basal ganglia, appearance of Lewy bodies, and the early stages of motor dysfunction. The model was developed by subcutaneously injecting biodegradable microspheres of rotenone, a complex I inhibitor in 8-9 month old, ovariectomized Long-Evans rats. Animals were observed for changes in body weight and motor activity. At the end of 11-12 weeks animals were euthanized and the brains examined for histopathological changes. Rotenone treated animals gain weight and appear normal and healthy as compared to controls but showed modest hypokinesia around 5-6 weeks posttreatment. Animals showed loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons and the appearance of putative Lewy bodies in the substantia nigra. Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress were evidenced by the appearance of activated microglia, iron precipitates, and 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine a major product of DNA oxidation. The dorsal striatum, the projection site of midbrain DA neurons, showed a significant reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase immunostaining, together with an increase in reactive astrocytes, an early sign of DA nerve terminal damage. Levels of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) were significantly reduced in the dorsal striatum; however, there was an unexpected increase in dopamine transporter (DAT) levels. Old, ovariectomized females treated with rotenone microspheres present with normal weight gain and good health but a modest hypokinesia. Accompanying this behavioral phenotype are a constellation of neuropathologies characteristic of PD that include loss of DA neurons, microglia activation, oxidative damage to nuclear DNA, iron deposition, and appearance of putative Lewy bodies. This phenotypic model recapitulating the neuropathology of Parkinson's disease could provide insight into early mechanisms of pathogenesis and could aid in the

  3. The Crossroads of Science and Faith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benecchi, Susan D.; Kober, Gladys; Gossard, Paula

    2015-11-01

    We have recently completed a 4-year project to produce a textbook for students that uniquely addresses the needs of the Christian homeschool community. It is also relevant for students of other faith and non-faith backgrounds. Two elements are at work: parents want their kids to become mature adults adhering to the faith of their upbringing, and students are challenged when they don't understand how to rationally discuss their beliefs in relation to many current scientific discoveries. To add to the polarization, a few scientists have spread an atheistic naturalistic worldview together with their teaching of science as if it was part of science itself. As a result many parents avoid materials they consider controversial and students later come to believe they must choose between science and their faith. The key to bridging this gap are professional astronomers who hold to a Christian worldview and who can speak both languages, understanding the complexities of both communities. The role of science educators is to teach science, not to impose worldviews. Science is well received by Christians when it is presented not as a threat to faith, but rather as a complementary way to understand God, leading to a more integrated view of reality. Our textbook boasts four hallmarks, providing students with: 1) An understanding of the relationship between faith and science with the goal of helping students to identify and integrate their own worldview. 2) Scientifically reviewed and accurate astronomical information. 3) Examples of scientists who have wrestled with science/faith issues and come to a coherent relationship between the two. And 4) exercises for the students to interact with the material in both faith and scientific areas. We hope this will be a resource to help parents who hold tightly to particular ideologies to be less closed to current scientific discovery and more excited about how new discoveries can bolster and enable their faith. We will present an overview

  4. Faith in science in global perspective: Implications for transhumanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, John H

    2014-10-01

    While citizens can know scientific facts, they also have faith in science - with faith defined as a firm belief for which there is no proof. Using national public opinion surveys from twelve nations from 1993 to 2010, I examine three different types of faith in science that citizens could hold. I examine temporal changes in levels of faith in science as well as the social determinants of each type of faith. I focus on the implications of these levels of faith for the transhumanist movement, which is particularly dependent on faith in science. I find that two of three types of faith in science are on the rise across the West, and that the social determinants of these types of faith suggest particular challenges for the transhumanist movement.

  5. Disregarding Familiarity during Recollection Attempts: Content-Specific Recapitulation as a Retrieval Orientation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Stephen J.; Gallo, David A.

    2015-01-01

    People can use a content-specific recapitulation strategy to trigger memories (i.e., mentally reinstating encoding conditions), but how people deploy this strategy is unclear. Is recapitulation naturally used to guide all recollection attempts, or is it only used selectively, after retrieving incomplete information that requires additional…

  6. Recapitulating phylogenies using k-mers: from trees to networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Guillaume; Ragan, Mark A; Chan, Cheong Xin

    2016-01-01

    Ernst Haeckel based his landmark Tree of Life on the supposed ontogenic recapitulation of phylogeny, i.e. that successive embryonic stages during the development of an organism re-trace the morphological forms of its ancestors over the course of evolution. Much of this idea has since been discredited. Today, phylogenies are often based on families of molecular sequences. The standard approach starts with a multiple sequence alignment, in which the sequences are arranged relative to each other in a way that maximises a measure of similarity position-by-position along their entire length. A tree (or sometimes a network) is then inferred. Rigorous multiple sequence alignment is computationally demanding, and evolutionary processes that shape the genomes of many microbes (bacteria, archaea and some morphologically simple eukaryotes) can add further complications. In particular, recombination, genome rearrangement and lateral genetic transfer undermine the assumptions that underlie multiple sequence alignment, and imply that a tree-like structure may be too simplistic. Here, using genome sequences of 143 bacterial and archaeal genomes, we construct a network of phylogenetic relatedness based on the number of shared k-mers (subsequences at fixed length k). Our findings suggest that the network captures not only key aspects of microbial genome evolution as inferred from a tree, but also features that are not treelike. The method is highly scalable, allowing for investigation of genome evolution across a large number of genomes. Instead of using specific regions or sequences from genome sequences, or indeed Haeckel's idea of ontogeny, we argue that genome phylogenies can be inferred using k-mers from whole-genome sequences. Representing these networks dynamically allows biological questions of interest to be formulated and addressed quickly and in a visually intuitive manner.

  7. Zambia: Multi-Faith Religious Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Brendan

    2006-01-01

    As countries' populations become more religiously diverse, a need to review the religious education syllabus that operates is often perceived. One such country is Zambia, which was not only traditionally religiously diverse but has become even more so with the advent of Christianity, Islam and Hinduism and other non-African faiths. This article…

  8. President Bush's Faith-Based & Community Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White House Office of Faith-Based and Community Initiatives, Washington, DC.

    Despite efforts by the federal and state governments to battle social distress, there are many people who still suffer from poverty and despair. People are calling out for help. For years, faith-based and community groups have been assisting these people and others in need. The federal government has not often been a willing partner to these…

  9. Faith action on urban social issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaumont, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    What evidence supports or refutes the claim articulated from various quarters that faith-based organisations (FBOs) have been repositioned as actors for combating social problems like poverty and social exclusion in cities? This paper explores FBOs as agents of social change in contemporary cities i

  10. Associations between faith, distress and mental adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen-Henry, Christine Tind

    2013-01-01

    ), specific aspects of faith ('belief in a god', 'belief in a god with whom I can talk' and 'experiences of god or a higher power'), religious community and church attendance (DUREL), distress (POMS-SF), adjustment to cancer (Mini-MAC) and sociodemographic factors. Linear regression models were used...

  11. Restoring faith in politics from deliberation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quim Brugué

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Politics is in difficulties. It is constantly blamed by people, who also require it to respond. The world is increasingly complex and diverse, and politics is needed to facilitate the continuity of a civilized community. The article defines the conceptual and operative bases of deliberative democracy, which is interpreted as the way to restore faith in politics.

  12. First Footing Inter-Faith Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Antony

    2014-01-01

    This article examines an action research project on inter-faith dialogue within the sensitive context of Catholic pupils being taught Catholic religious education in state-funded secondary schools. Twenty pupils in S3 and S4 (Year 10 and Year 11) participated in a series of three paired conversations that focused primarily on science and religion,…

  13. 42 CFR 93.210 - Good faith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Good faith. 93.210 Section 93.210 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON...

  14. Spirituality in Counseling: A Faith Development Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the use of Fowler's (1981) faith development theory (FDT) in counseling. FDT is a stage model of spiritual and religious development that allows counselors to identify both adaptive qualities and potential encumbrances in spiritual or religious expression. FDT offers a nonsectarian model of spiritual growth that permits…

  15. Faith-Based Partnerships Promoting Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Michael L.; Chappel-Aiken, Lolita

    2012-01-01

    Churches or, as they are now more commonly referred to in some circles, faith-based organizations (FBOs), have a rich tradition of providing not only religious but educational and social service opportunities for their congregations and local community. Social service agencies, health care agencies, and educational institutions have long realized…

  16. Predicting Faculty Integration of Faith and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Corina R.; Hardin, Kimberly A.; Beaujean, A. Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Concern regarding the secularization of Christian higher education has prompted researchers to investigate the extent that faith and learning is integrated at a faculty level and what factors might predict faculty integration (Lyon, Beaty, Parker, & Mencken, 2005). This research attempted to replicate Lyon et al.'s (2005) logistic regression…

  17. Faith-Based Partnerships Promoting Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Michael L.; Chappel-Aiken, Lolita

    2012-01-01

    Churches or, as they are now more commonly referred to in some circles, faith-based organizations (FBOs), have a rich tradition of providing not only religious but educational and social service opportunities for their congregations and local community. Social service agencies, health care agencies, and educational institutions have long realized…

  18. Zambia: Multi-Faith Religious Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Brendan

    2006-01-01

    As countries' populations become more religiously diverse, a need to review the religious education syllabus that operates is often perceived. One such country is Zambia, which was not only traditionally religiously diverse but has become even more so with the advent of Christianity, Islam and Hinduism and other non-African faiths. This article…

  19. ‘Welcoming the stranger’ and UNHCR’s cooperation with faith-based organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Riera

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Since its creation in 1950, UNHCR has engaged with faith-based organisations, faith communities and faith leaders in carrying out its work. Recently, UNHCR has been more actively exploring the role of faith in humanitarian responses.

  20. On Faith and Love in Marriage of Othello

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宁

    2014-01-01

    Othello is a good reflection of trust, distrust, and mistrust.This paper proves marriage based on distrust dooms to fail by analyzing Othello and Desdemona’s marriage.Based on strong faith and love, their marriage is happy, but when faith is destroyed, even love still exists, life cannot be harmonious and peaceful, Amarriage bonds were broken with the loss of faith.

  1. Faith and Sexual Orientation Identity Development in Gay College Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Merrily; Glassmann, Danny; Garrett, J. Matthew; Badaszewski, Philip; Jones, Ginny; Pierre, Darren; Fresk, Kara; Young, Dallin; Correll-Hughes, Larry

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the experiences of gay-identified college men related to their faith and sexual orientation identity development. The findings suggest that for gay-identified college men, faith and sexual orientation identity development includes examination of one's faith and sexual orientation identity, important relationships, and a desire…

  2. 7 CFR 1779.3 - Full faith and credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Full faith and credit. 1779.3 Section 1779.3... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.3 Full faith and credit. The Loan Note Guarantee constitutes an obligation supported by the full faith and credit of the United...

  3. 7 CFR 1980.308 - Full faith and credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Full faith and credit. 1980.308 Section 1980.308...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Rural Housing Loans § 1980.308 Full faith and credit. The loan note guarantee constitutes an obligation supported by the full faith and credit of the United States...

  4. 49 CFR 218.97 - Good faith challenge procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... normal business hours. (2) A copy of any written good faith challenge verification decision, made in... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Good faith challenge procedures. 218.97 Section... Derails § 218.97 Good faith challenge procedures. (a) Employee responsibility. An employee shall...

  5. Faith and Sexual Orientation Identity Development in Gay College Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Merrily; Glassmann, Danny; Garrett, J. Matthew; Badaszewski, Philip; Jones, Ginny; Pierre, Darren; Fresk, Kara; Young, Dallin; Correll-Hughes, Larry

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the experiences of gay-identified college men related to their faith and sexual orientation identity development. The findings suggest that for gay-identified college men, faith and sexual orientation identity development includes examination of one's faith and sexual orientation identity, important relationships, and a desire…

  6. Bridging Faith, Languages and Learning in London: A Faith Teacher Reflects upon Pedagogy in Religious Instruction Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytra, Vally; Gregory, Eve; Ilankuberan, Arani

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we examine a faith teacher's reflections on faith literacy teaching and learning and how they shaped his pedagogy in the context of Hindu/Saiva religious instruction classes for students of Sri Lankan Tamil heritage. The data are part of a larger multi-site three-year team ethnography of children's faith literacy learning in…

  7. Kierkegaard on the Relationship of Faith and Rationality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available øren Kierkegaard was one of the most influential Christian philosophers and theologians in the nineteenth century. The relationship between faith and rationality in Kierkegaard’s thought is a very important topic for many contemporary theologians and philosophers. He, with a particular interpretation of faith, tried to show that faith is a passion and subjective truth, conflicting with objective categories and intellectual arguments. On the one hand, he attempted to prove that faith is beyond reason and in conflict with it, on the other hand. Using three arguments; the approximation argument, the postponement argument, and the passion argument, he asserts these two claims. This article seeks to answer two central questions about the relationship of faith and rationality in Kierkegaard's thought: First, on what basis Kierkegaard proves that faith is beyond reason and in conflict with it? Second, is Kierkegaard's view on the matter of faith and reason justified and acceptable?

  8. (THE LEGAL CONCEPT OF) BAD FAITH

    OpenAIRE

    Alferillo, Pascual E.; Academia Nacional de Derecho de Córdoba.

    2011-01-01

    In the present investigation examines bad faith trying to decipher if it has enough conceptual and operational independence for typical autonomous legal figure. In this course and, based on the collection of the normative background in Latin American and European civil codes which is mentioned in seeks to establish the common  parameters that guide the construction of its concept. From this, analyses the differences and links with the criminal intent and guilt, to conclude that the figure has...

  9. Faith and Health: Past and Present of Relations between Faith Communities and the World Health Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Rev. Canon Ted Karpf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Relationships between faith communities and international multi-lateral organizations can be complicated. While there is potential for synergy between the two, different values often characterize the approach of each. The history of these relationships is illustrative. This review describes collaboration between the World Health Organization (WHO and faith-based organizations (FBOs in the implementation of primary health care, the role of spirituality in health, community responses to the HIV pandemic, and definitions of Quality of Life containing spiritual dimensions. However, important gaps persist in the appreciation and measurement of the contribution of faith communities to health assets on the part of governments and the WHO. FBOs can still draw from the nine points developed in the 1960s as a time-tested viable agenda for current and future operations.

  10. Faith-Based International Development Work: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Heist; Cnaan, Ram A

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of the Faith-Based Initiative in the USA, substantial research has resulted in an increased awareness of religious congregations and faith-based organizations as welfare service providers. The next frontier appears to be the role of religious organizations in international social and economic development, a topic that only recently started to attract academic interest. In this paper, we review available literature on the role that religious, or faith-based, organizations play in i...

  11. Balancing acts: drag queens, gender and faith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan-Blum, Constance R

    2004-01-01

    While engaged in research on the same-sex marriage debate in mainline denominations, I interviewed 23 LGBT Christians, four of whom were drag queens. While it is not possible to generalize from such a small sample, the drag queens in this study insist on maintaining their identity as Christians despite the hegemonic discourse that renders faith and LGBT identities mutually exclusive. They developed innovative approaches to reconciling their gender and sexual identities with their spirituality. Their innovations are potentially liberating not just for them personally, but for LGBT people generally because they challenge Christianity's rigid dichotomies of gender and sexuality.

  12. Mechanics of Old Faithful Geyser, Calistoga, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, M.L.; Manga, M.; Hurwitz, Shaul; Johnston, Malcolm J.; Karlstrom, L.; Wang, Chun-Yong

    2012-01-01

    In order to probe the subsurface dynamics associated with geyser eruptions, we measured ground deformation at Old Faithful Geyser of Calistoga, CA. We present a physical model in which recharge during the period preceding an eruption is driven by pressure differences relative to the aquifer supplying the geyser. The model predicts that pressure and ground deformation are characterized by an exponential function of time, consistent with our observations. The geyser's conduit is connected to a reservoir at a depth of at least 42 m, and pressure changes in the reservoir can produce the observed ground deformations through either a poroelastic or elastic mechanical model.

  13. Issues of hope and faith in the cancer patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carni, E

    1988-12-01

    Akira Kurosawa's 1952 film about a man with a terminal gastric cancer introduces a discussion of hope and faith in the oncology patient. A psychodynamic relationship between hope and faith is explored, using Lawrence LeShan's research in cancer psychotherapy and Erik Erikson's lifespan developmental theory. LeShan describes a cancer personality characterized by hopeless despair, while Erikson formulates a psychogenetic framework for the development of hope and despair. Hope and faith are linked through the individual's earliest strivings toward basic trust in the world and his or her own self-efficacy. Accordingly, cancer psychotherapy may aim at restoring adult patients' faith in life and inner creative resources.

  14. Generous to a Fault: A Deep, Recapitulative Pattern of Thought in Ricoeur’s Works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joél Z. Schmidt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Paul Ricoeur clearly sought to differentiate between and keep separate his philosophical and theological intellectual endeavors. This essay brings into relief a deep, implicit, recapitulative pattern in Ricoeur’s thinking that cuts across this explicit “conceptual asceticism.” Specifically, it highlights this recapitulative pattern in Ricoeur’s treatment of prophecy in the Hebrew Bible; his understanding of utopia and ideology; the functioning of symbols in The Symbolism of Evil and of sublimation in Freud and Philosophy. On these topics Ricoeur extended his typical generosity toward all that might appear to be outdated, primitive, and even regressive in our collective and personal humanity. The frequently recapitulative nature of Ricoeur’s insights indicates the importance not just of the content of his thought but also the way in which he did his thinking, a pattern which above all was generous, even to a fault. 

  15. The Law and Hiring Practices in Faith-Based Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Charles J.

    2009-01-01

    A key concern of educational leaders in faith-based schools is their ability to hire faculty members who support institutional missions. Insofar as the American legal system protects the rights of leaders in faith-based schools to hire those who share in school goals, this article is divided into three substantive sections. The first section…

  16. Understanding Faith-Based Organizations and the Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David J.; Montiel, Lisa M.

    2008-01-01

    The role of religious groups in providing a wide range of services, including child care and early childhood education, has drawn renewed attention since the federal government's 2001 Faith-Based and Community Initiative. This article explains the various forms that faith-based organizations can take, provides an overview of the services they…

  17. Aesthetic Learning Theory and the Faith Formation of Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Katherine M.

    2013-01-01

    Participation in the arts is a form of practical reason and as such has the potential to form and transform the faith of individuals. The findings from Katherine M. Douglass's 2011 study on the role of the arts in the faith lives of young adults provides examples of the transformative potential of the arts as they foster expression,…

  18. Freeing Speech: Proverbial Wisdom and Faith Formation as Liberation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willhauck, Susan

    2013-01-01

    It is crucial to recover the practice of seeking and refining ways to speak of faith. Certain sayings, idioms, maxims, and proverbs constituting wisdom from various cultures help shape a faith that is liberative, particularly evident in undervalued and dominated cultures. This article examines proverbial wisdom and the patois of the street to…

  19. Going Green and Renewing Life: Environmental Education in Faith Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitzhusen, Gregory E.

    2012-01-01

    Faith communities, such as churches, synagogues, temples, and mosques, are providing new venues for innovative adult environmental education. As faith communities turn their concerns to issues of sustainability, environmental teaching is emerging in many forms across diverse religious traditions, as evidenced by the development of denominational…

  20. Translational control of TWIST1 expression in MCF-10A cell lines recapitulating breast cancer progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nairismägi, Maarja-Liisa; Vislovukh, Andrii; Meng, Q

    2012-01-01

    TWIST1 is a highly conserved basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that promotes epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). Its misregulation has been observed in various types of tumors. Using the MCF-10A-series of cell lines that recapitulate the early stages of breast cancer formation...

  1. The Dardenne Brothers and the Invisible Ethical Drama: Faith without Faith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Caruana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The cinema of the Dardenne brothers represents a new kind of cinema, one that challenges a number of our conventional ways of thinking about the distinction between religion and secularism, belief and unbelief. Their films explore the intricacies of spiritual and ethical transformations as they are experienced within embodied, material life. These features of their cinema will be examined primarily through the lens of Emmanuel Levinas’s philosophy of the imbrication of the drama of existence and the ethical intrigue of self and Other. The work of the Dardenne brothers can be understood as an attempt to express what I describe as a “faith without faith”—a recognition of the absolute centrality of belief for the development of a responsible subject but in the absence of a traditional faith in a personal deity.

  2. The Construction of Faith in Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam; Chow, Danny

    This paper has sought to explore how generic globalized accounting ideas and instruments come to be translated into a local solution at the United Nations (UN) in response to the oil-for-food scandal. To do so, we analysed the official, published, rationales for reform and considered the role...... of key protagonists within the reform process. A number of themes emerged from the analysis. We argue that the process of instilling faith in accounting at the UN relies heavily on the clever and varying use of an extrapolative logic derived from a master-idea of the need to ‘do more accounting......’ to persuade reformers to take on particular ideas and instruments of accounting. The work of propagating such logic was facilitated by a closed system of protagonists who form a tight interlocking network....

  3. Should Entanglement Measures be Monogamous or Faithful?

    CERN Document Server

    Lancien, Cécilia; Huber, Marcus; Piani, Marco; Adesso, Gerardo; Winter, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    "Is entanglement monogamous?" asks the title of a popular article [B. Terhal, IBM J. Res. Dev. 48, 71 (2004)], celebrating C. H. Bennett's legacy on quantum information theory. While the answer is certainly affirmative in the qualitative sense, the situation is far less clear if monogamy is intended as a quantitative limitation on the distribution of bipartite entanglement in a multipartite system, given some particular measure of entanglement. Here, we clarify the most general form of a universal quantitative monogamy relation for a bipartite measure of entanglement. We then go on to show that an important class of entanglement measures fail to be monogamous in this most general sense of the term, with monogamy violations becoming generic with increasing dimension. In particular, we show that entanglement measures cannot satisfy monogamy while at the same time faithfully capturing the entanglement of the fully antisymmetric state in arbitrary dimension. Nevertheless, monogamy can be recovered if one allows f...

  4. Uncertainty in quantum mechanics: faith or fantasy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penrose, Roger

    2011-12-13

    The word 'uncertainty', in the context of quantum mechanics, usually evokes an impression of an essential unknowability of what might actually be going on at the quantum level of activity, as is made explicit in Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and in the fact that the theory normally provides only probabilities for the results of quantum measurement. These issues limit our ultimate understanding of the behaviour of things, if we take quantum mechanics to represent an absolute truth. But they do not cause us to put that very 'truth' into question. This article addresses the issue of quantum 'uncertainty' from a different perspective, raising the question of whether this term might be applied to the theory itself, despite its unrefuted huge success over an enormously diverse range of observed phenomena. There are, indeed, seeming internal contradictions in the theory that lead us to infer that a total faith in it at all levels of scale leads us to almost fantastical implications.

  5. The Faithfulness Principle of Literary Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭俊霞

    2008-01-01

    In the recent decades, Whenever the question of principles of translation is under discussion, the three characters, faithfulness, expressiveness and elegance formulated by Yan Fu in his Introductory Remarks are thought of and supported as the one and only maxim all translators must absorb. But the three principles for translation, especially some of the methods related with them, seem to be not one hunderd percent applicable to the work of translation today. It is necessary make a re?evaluation of them. We should neither negate nor affirm them as a whole without any criticism or revision. The correct attitude towards them is to accept them critically and absorb what is still useful to us.

  6. Faith communities and their assets for health promotion: the views from health professionals and faith leaders in Dundee, in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Donna M; Kiger, Alice; van Teijlingen, Edwin

    2012-06-01

    Within the European Union, as well as in Canada and the United States (US), health promoters employ a number of strategies to encourage community-based health improvements. This involves the creation of innovative health promotion partnerships to support and enable people to choose and engage in healthy living practices. Compared to the US, in other Western countries, such as the United Kingdom, faith communities have largely been ignored in health promotion partnerships. This study established existing evidence about health promotion in faith communities in Scotland by examining the perceptions and attitudes concerning health promotion among faith leaders and health promotion professionals. We conducted 33 semi-structured interviews with health promotion professionals (n = 9) and representatives of Christian and non-Christian faith communities (n = 24). The majority of participants expressed an interest in the concept of health promotion in a faith community and could readily envision its application in their area of work. Both groups identified multiple physical assets, as well as social supports within faith communities that could be directed towards healthy living activities. Faith groups and church organisations may constitute potential partners and new settings to increase community capacity for health promotion. Further research and funding for demonstration projects may be particularly helpful to provide evidence of the strengths and limitations of faith-based health promotion in Scotland, which in turn could inform health promotion practice and policy.

  7. 18 CFR 2.20 - Good faith requests for transmission services and good faith responses by transmitting utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Good faith requests for transmission services and good faith responses by transmitting utilities. 2.20 Section 2.20 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL...

  8. A murine Niemann-Pick C1 I1061T knock-in model recapitulates the pathological features of the most prevalent human disease allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praggastis, Maria; Tortelli, Brett; Zhang, Jessie; Fujiwara, Hideji; Sidhu, Rohini; Chacko, Anita; Chen, Zhouji; Chung, Chan; Lieberman, Andrew P; Sikora, Jakub; Davidson, Cristin; Walkley, Steven U; Pipalia, Nina H; Maxfield, Frederick R; Schaffer, Jean E; Ory, Daniel S

    2015-05-27

    Niemann-Pick Type C1 (NPC1) disease is a rare neurovisceral, cholesterol-sphingolipid lysosomal storage disorder characterized by ataxia, motor impairment, progressive intellectual decline, and dementia. The most prevalent mutation, NPC1(I1061T), encodes a misfolded protein with a reduced half-life caused by ER-associated degradation. Therapies directed at stabilization of the mutant NPC1 protein reduce cholesterol storage in fibroblasts but have not been tested in vivo because of lack of a suitable animal model. Whereas the prominent features of human NPC1 disease are replicated in the null Npc1(-/-) mouse, this model is not amenable to examining proteostatic therapies. The objective of the present study was to develop an NPC1 I1061T knock-in mouse in which to test proteostatic therapies. Compared with the Npc1(-/-) mouse, this Npc1(tm(I1061T)Dso) model displays a less severe, delayed form of NPC1 disease with respect to weight loss, decreased motor coordination, Purkinje cell death, lipid storage, and premature death. The murine NPC1(I1061T) protein has a reduced half-life in vivo, consistent with protein misfolding and rapid ER-associated degradation, and can be stabilized by histone deacetylase inhibition. This novel mouse model faithfully recapitulates human NPC1 disease and provides a powerful tool for preclinical evaluation of therapies targeting NPC1 protein variants with compromised stability.

  9. Karoo fracking and the Christian faith community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit van Tonder

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges for Practical Theology in Africa is to engage with the continent’s concerns and challenges in such a way that the kingdom of God is realised in society and is seen to be relevant to these issues by people who are outside of academia. In our article, which was first presented at the Practical Theology congress in Pretoria in January 2014, the authors seek to demonstrate how this may be accomplished by applying insights to one concern, namely ‘fracking’. The objective is to mobilise the influential Christian faith community in South Africa to begin to exercise prophetic discernment concerning fracking in the Karoo. The fracking debate is a product of the tension between the environmental degradation that its waste products may cause, on the one hand, and, on the other, the greater energy demands of a rapidly increasing world population along with its expectations of an ever-increasing standard of living. Shale gas fracking in the Karoo region of South Africa promises to make vast reserves of oil and gas available to help meet a significant percentage of the country’s energy needs for many years to come, and so thus aid development and contribute to raising the standard of living of many people. Yet the management of the waste products associated with the process is an area of serious environmental concern. The article aims to apprise the South African Christian faith community of the technology and risks involved. Theological guidelines are presented by which fracking’s benefits and dangers can be interrogated so that the community may come to an informed decision as to whether or not to support fracking.

  10. Karoo fracking and the Christian faith community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit van Tonder

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges for Practical Theology in Africa is to engage with the continent’s concerns and challenges in such a way that the kingdom of God is realised in society and is seen to be relevant to these issues by people who are outside of academia. In our article, which was first presented at the Practical Theology congress in Pretoria in January 2014, the authors seek to demonstrate how this may be accomplished by applying insights to one concern, namely ‘fracking’. The objective is to mobilise the influential Christian faith community in South Africa to begin to exercise prophetic discernment concerning fracking in the Karoo. The fracking debate is a product of the tension between the environmental degradation that its waste products may cause, on the one hand, and, on the other, the greater energy demands of a rapidly increasing world population along with its expectations of an ever-increasing standard of living. Shale gas fracking in the Karoo region of South Africa promises to make vast reserves of oil and gas available to help meet a significant percentage of the country’s energy needs for many years to come, and so thus aid development and contribute to raising the standard of living of many people. Yet the management of the waste products associated with the process is an area of serious environmental concern. The article aims to apprise the South African Christian faith community of the technology and risks involved. Theological guidelines are presented by which fracking’s benefits and dangers can be interrogated so that the community may come to an informed decision as to whether or not to support fracking.

  11. Keeping the faith: African American faith leaders' perspectives and recommendations for reducing racial disparities in HIV/AIDS infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Nunn

    Full Text Available In Philadelphia, 66% of new HIV infections are among African Americans and 2% of African Americans are living with HIV. The city of Philadelphia has among the largest numbers of faith institutions of any city in the country. Although faith-based institutions play an important role in the African American community, their response to the AIDS epidemic has historically been lacking. We convened 38 of Philadelphia's most influential African American faith leaders for in-depth interviews and focus groups examining the role of faith-based institutions in HIV prevention. Participants were asked to comment on barriers to engaging faith-based leaders in HIV prevention and were asked to provide normative recommendations for how African American faith institutions can enhance HIV/AIDS prevention and reduce racial disparities in HIV infection. Many faith leaders cited lack of knowledge about Philadelphia's racial disparities in HIV infection as a common reason for not previously engaging in HIV programs; others noted their congregations' existing HIV prevention and outreach programs and shared lessons learned. Barriers to engaging the faith community in HIV prevention included: concerns about tacitly endorsing extramarital sex by promoting condom use, lack of educational information appropriate for a faith-based audience, and fear of losing congregants and revenue as a result of discussing human sexuality and HIV/AIDS from the pulpit. However, many leaders expressed a moral imperative to respond to the AIDS epidemic, and believed clergy should play a greater role in HIV prevention. Many participants noted that controversy surrounding homosexuality has historically divided the faith community and prohibited an appropriate response to the epidemic; many expressed interest in balancing traditional theology with practical public health approaches to HIV prevention. Leaders suggested the faith community should: promote HIV testing, including during or after

  12. Should Entanglement Measures be Monogamous or Faithful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancien, Cécilia; Di Martino, Sara; Huber, Marcus; Piani, Marco; Adesso, Gerardo; Winter, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    "Is entanglement monogamous?" asks the title of a popular article [B. Terhal, IBM J. Res. Dev. 48, 71 (2004)], celebrating C. H. Bennett's legacy on quantum information theory. While the answer is affirmative in the qualitative sense, the situation is less clear if monogamy is intended as a quantitative limitation on the distribution of bipartite entanglement in a multipartite system, given some particular measure of entanglement. Here, we formalize what it takes for a bipartite measure of entanglement to obey a general quantitative monogamy relation on all quantum states. We then prove that an important class of entanglement measures fail to be monogamous in this general sense of the term, with monogamy violations becoming generic with increasing dimension. In particular, we show that every additive and suitably normalized entanglement measure cannot satisfy any nontrivial general monogamy relation while at the same time faithfully capturing the geometric entanglement structure of the fully antisymmetric state in arbitrary dimension. Nevertheless, monogamy of such entanglement measures can be recovered if one allows for dimension-dependent relations, as we show explicitly with relevant examples.

  13. Faith in Islam and Christianity and its impact on health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahdi Ahmad farazi

    Full Text Available Of the most central elements of religions and most important issues in theology and the Contemporary study of religion is the category of faith and its greatest impact on various aspects of life. Faith, in Islamic and Christian theology, has common and also distinct aspects. The truth of Faith in Islamic thought was multidimensional and consists of a wide range of Confession of language, intellectual knowledge, heart affirmation and inner experience to the treatment involves external actions. In Christianity, it was faith in confirmation of the revealed proposition that led to a sense of transcendence and meta-proposition and created Interest mode in human And sometimes faith apply to the experience of presence and manifestation of God in life. The position of consensus and association between Islam and Christianity was consists of the doctrine of Belief in God and the prophecy and resurrection. This belief is based on the functionalist view affected on body and psyche (or soul health of the human. The impact of Faith on physical and mental health has been separately approved by the specialists. The impacts of faith and religious teachings on physical health have been investigated through psycho-neuro-physiological way that Faith and Religious teachings produce positive emotions in human. The emotions through autonomous nervous system strengthen the immune system and its optimal performance in a way that the messenger molecule called neuropeptide Y, carry the messages related to thoughts and transport it through the blood circulation, and the mental state directly relate to the body's cells. This is the most important factor in strengthening or weakening the immune system influenced by the thoughts and beliefs. Moreover, Te'osumatic medicine known as the God-body medicine, after the psychosomatic or psycho-body medicine confirms the impact of faith on the health and recovery of individuals. They believe that illness and death of individuals

  14. Evolution, knowledge and Christian faith: Gerd Theissen and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Evolution, knowledge and Christian faith: Gerd Theissen and the cred ibility of theology. In this article the way in which Theissen uses the evolutionary paradigm ..... theological thought it can be its originality and creative construction.

  15. Faith in Islam and Christianity and its impact on health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Ajdar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Of the most central elements of religions and most important issues in theology and the Contemporary study of religion is the category of faith and its greatest impact on various aspects of life. Faith, in Islamic and Christian theology, has common and also distinct aspects. The truth of Faith in Islamic thought was multidimensional and consists of a wide range of Confession of language, intellectual knowledge, heart affirmation and inner experience to the treatment involves external actions. In Christianity, it was faith in confirmation of the revealed proposition that led to a sense of transcendence and meta-proposition and created Interest mode in human And sometimes faith apply to the experience of presence and manifestation of God in life.   The position of consensus and association between Islam and Christianity was consists of the doctrine of Belief in God and the prophecy and resurrection. This belief is based on the functionalist view affected on body and psyche (or soul health of the human. The impact of Faith on physical and mental health has been separately approved by the specialists. The impacts of faith and religious teachings on physical health have been investigated through psycho-neuro-physiological way that Faith and Religious teachings produce positive emotions in human. The emotions through autonomous nervous system strengthen the immune system and its optimal performance in a way that the messenger molecule called neuropeptide Y, carry the messages related to thoughts and transport it through the blood circulation, and the mental state directly relate to the body's cells. This is the most important factor in strengthening or weakening the immune system influenced by the thoughts and beliefs. Moreover, Te'osumatic medicine known as the God-body medicine, after the psychosomatic or psycho-body medicine confirms the impact of faith on the health and recovery of individuals. They believe that illness and death

  16. Becoming an Adult in a Community of Faith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Steven B.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes developmental needs of emerging young adults and how they are often met, or not met, in faith communities. The author offers recommendations for creating better connections with today's emerging young adults.

  17. FAITH IN THE ONE GOD IN CHRISTIAN AND AFRICAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ike

    The Bible is popularly referred to as the sacred Scripture or the. Word of God. The first ... Faith in the One God in Christian and African Traditional Religions. 57 ... interpretative dimension and takes place within the context of .... and nature.

  18. An in vitro model that recapitulates the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT in human breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elad Katz

    Full Text Available The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT is a developmental program in which epithelial cells down-regulate their cell-cell junctions, acquire spindle cell morphology and exhibit cellular motility. In human breast cancer, invasion into surrounding tissue is the first step in metastatic progression. Here, we devised an in vitro model using selected cell lines, which recapitulates many features of EMT as observed in human breast cancer. By comparing the gene expression profiles of claudin-low breast cancers with the experimental model, we identified a 9-gene signature characteristic of EMT. This signature was found to distinguish a series of breast cancer cell lines that have demonstrable, classical EMT hallmarks, including loss of E-cadherin protein and acquisition of N-cadherin and vimentin expression. We subsequently developed a three-dimensional model to recapitulate the process of EMT with these cell lines. The cells maintain epithelial morphology when encapsulated in a reconstituted basement membrane, but undergo spontaneous EMT and invade into surrounding collagen in the absence of exogenous cues. Collectively, this model of EMT in vitro reveals the behaviour of breast cancer cells beyond the basement membrane breach and recapitulates the in vivo context for further investigation into EMT and drugs that may interfere with it.

  19. Analisis Konsep Abrahamic Faiths dan Kaitannya dengan Pluralisme Agama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijah Mohd Khambali @ Hambali

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abrahamic Faiths often referred to Judaism, Christianity and Islam that put this categorization based on a number of features common to all three religions in the same cluster. Terminology of Abrahamic Faiths within the contemporary real-world comparative religion has been manipulated by leaders to strengthen the concept of religious pluralism is not only related to the Abrahamic Faiths, but also related to wad'i religions on the basis of prophetic chronology of Abraham. In reality, the position of Abrahamic Faiths has evolved appropriate real philosophical doctrines that every reality is much different. Therefore, this study will reveal and analyze the concept of Abrahamic Faiths in the context of religious studies to provide clarification on the ambiguity arising out of the equation. In addition to analyzing relationship between religious pluralism that makes the concept of Abrahamic Faiths seen as one of the themes of religious generalizations on the basis of prophetic chronology equation as the way for religious tolerance.

  20. Faith-Based International Development Work: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Heist

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of the Faith-Based Initiative in the USA, substantial research has resulted in an increased awareness of religious congregations and faith-based organizations as welfare service providers. The next frontier appears to be the role of religious organizations in international social and economic development, a topic that only recently started to attract academic interest. In this paper, we review available literature on the role that religious, or faith-based, organizations play in international social and economic development. We also provide results from our own study of USA international NGOs1 that are faith-based. We divide the paper into the positive contributions of faith-based international NGOs and the drawbacks of these NGOs. We find that faith-based nonprofits constitute almost 60 percent of USA-based international development organizations, and their contribution to international social development is quite considerable. We conclude with a call for further research and nuanced understanding of the role religion plays in international development.

  1. Shaping public policy: a challenge in faith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, J E

    1984-05-01

    Religious health care's involvement in public policy is an essential part of Christian life. The most important way in which Catholic hospitals and health care systems can contribute to public policy is through faith-reflection upon their identity and calling. To guide the shaping of public policy, several theological models have been set forth. The theology of democratic capitalism is based on individual human creativity. As a system of political economy organized to prevent the centralization of government power, it thrives on free competition. Well- intentioned social programs that seek to equalize results, according to democratic capitalists , inevitably lead to greater government control and should be avoided. Inequality, in fact, according to this theory, can create incentive for individuals and industry to be more productive. The stewardship approach to theological reflection calls for a distribution of goods and services based on need. The right to health care, for example, is founded in God's gift of creation to all inhabitants. The resources of creation are allotted to individuals as property in a sense of cooperation and sharing. Thus, according to this notion, government programs that help society steward its resources wisely should be promoted. The U.S. bishops ' 1981 pastoral letter on health and health care presents a third model, which reflects on the dignity of human beings as images of God to guide public policy. Models, however, must not replace personal theological reflection. Catholic health care providers share a responsibility to evaluate social issues from their perspective as members of the healing ministry and to participate in public policy development.

  2. Faith-Based Organizations and Veteran Reintegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werber, Laura; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Rudnick, Mollie; Harrell, Margaret C.; Naranjo, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Faith-based organizations (FBOs) are an important community-based resource for veterans as they readjust to civilian life. Through interviews with both national-level and smaller, local FBOs, the authors sought to understand better the current and potential roles for FBOs in veteran reintegration. Interviewees suggested that veterans may look to FBOs for support because they offer privacy and confidentiality, two features that may be especially critical when a potential stigma is involved. Some FBOs have also developed a reputation as safe places for veterans, providing supportive, judgment-free environments. FBOs not only help veterans with spiritual matters but address diverse areas of veteran health and wellness, including vocation, education, financial and legal stability, shelter, access to goods and services, mental health, access to health care, physical health, family, and social networks. In some cases, the support is offered to veterans directly; in other instances, the support is indirect, via training individuals to help veterans or educating the public about them. In the process of providing support, FBOs interact with varied organizations, including government entities, private nonprofits, and one another, for training, outreach, referrals, information exchange, obtaining donations, and collaboration. Yet challenges exist, including insufficient connections with chaplains working in different settings and others in the web of support, resource and capacity constraints, lack of awareness of experience with veterans, issues related to religious philosophy or orientation, and characteristics of veterans themselves. To move forward, the authors offer recommendations for policymakers, organizations that interact with FBOs, and FBOs themselves to help FBOs engage fully in the web of reintegration support. PMID:28083391

  3. Heterotypic mouse models of canine osteosarcoma recapitulate tumor heterogeneity and biological behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milcah C. Scott

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma (OS is a heterogeneous and rare disease with a disproportionate impact because it mainly affects children and adolescents. Lamentably, more than half of patients with OS succumb to metastatic disease. Clarification of the etiology of the disease, development of better strategies to manage progression, and methods to guide personalized treatments are among the unmet health needs for OS patients. Progress in managing the disease has been hindered by the extreme heterogeneity of OS; thus, better models that accurately recapitulate the natural heterogeneity of the disease are needed. For this study, we used cell lines derived from two spontaneous canine OS tumors with distinctly different biological behavior (OS-1 and OS-2 for heterotypic in vivo modeling that recapitulates the heterogeneous biology and behavior of this disease. Both cell lines demonstrated stability of the transcriptome when grown as orthotopic xenografts in athymic nude mice. Consistent with the behavior of the original tumors, OS-2 xenografts grew more rapidly at the primary site and had greater propensity to disseminate to lung and establish microscopic metastasis. Moreover, OS-2 promoted formation of a different tumor-associated stromal environment than OS-1 xenografts. OS-2-derived tumors comprised a larger percentage of the xenograft tumors than OS-1-derived tumors. In addition, a robust pro-inflammatory population dominated the stromal cell infiltrates in OS-2 xenografts, whereas a mesenchymal population with a gene signature reflecting myogenic signaling dominated those in the OS-1 xenografts. Our studies show that canine OS cell lines maintain intrinsic features of the tumors from which they were derived and recapitulate the heterogeneous biology and behavior of bone cancer in mouse models. This system provides a resource to understand essential interactions between tumor cells and the stromal environment that drive the progression and metastatic propensity of

  4. Science instruction in the context of Christian faith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Brock Cameron

    One of the issues faced in higher education involves the development of scientifically literate undergraduate students (NRC, 1996). Developing science literacy needs to take into account the various aspects of resistance students have toward science because of their personal faith. There is a need to know more about the effective strategies that science faculty in a Christian, faith-based institution use to assist their undergraduate students in dealing with the apparent conflict between science and faith. The purpose of this study was to analyze how these faculty members develop scientifically literate students. Through descriptive qualitative analysis, interview and questionnaire data were analyzed to discover science faculty perceptions of student tension with faith and science and to elicit faculty use of conceptual change teaching strategies. It was discovered that faculty participants perceive that their students experience such a tension. Students generally view the two as conflicting or independent of each other. Also, it was found that the conceptual change strategies were used to some extent by all participants. The data revealed three themes: time, talk, and trust. Conceptual change is accomplished over time through a learning environment rich with instruction and experimentation. These strategies allow for increasing science literacy through self-reflection and conversations. Trust is built through faculty modeling of the process of science and its integration with personal faith. Increasing science literacy in the college population has potential for social change by producing adults capable of making more informed political and ethical decisions.

  5. Frequency of Faith and Spirituality Discussion in Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamo, David; White, Dawn

    2016-04-01

    Faith and spirituality are important in the lives of many individuals, and therefore, many patients. This study was performed to determine whether faith and spirituality are active part of the healthcare field and patients' receipt of these sometimes delicate topics. The nuances of the concepts of faith, spirituality, and religion and their implications in the healthcare setting are discussed. Benefits and detriments of faith and spirituality are reviewed in terms of how they relate to the health of the patient and to the healthcare field. With the focus of healthcare shifting to holistic care, this conversation may be more necessary than ever in practice, yet it seems many providers are not discussing these matters with patients. The study analyzes whether healthcare providers are discussing these topics with patients and how the discussion is received or would be received by patients. Findings demonstrate the infrequency of the discussion regardless of the fact that the majority of patients consider themselves faithful or spiritual. This study was approved by the Clarkson University Institutional Review Board on June 18, 2104.

  6. Faith healing and the field of healthcare in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Franco Puttini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The general aim of the present paper was to contribute towards the discussion on the field of healthcare. Specifically, the aim was to contribute towards reflections on the hegemonic power of medicine and its relationships with practices of faith healing. Taking into account the field and habitus of Pierre Bourdieu's theory, faith healing is discussed based on a review of the concept of trance in the intellectual field as an object of scientific habitus formed between medical practice and religious practice. Finally, by means of contemporary themes shared by social sciences and public health, it is shown how faith healing - a negative term within the field of medicine - is transformed into a positive term within the field of public health.

  7. Re-engaging with the past: recapitulation of encoding operations during episodic retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcom, Alexa M.

    2014-01-01

    Recollection of events is accompanied by selective reactivation of cortical regions which responded to specific sensory and cognitive dimensions of the original events. This reactivation is thought to reflect the reinstatement of stored memory representations and therefore to reflect memory content, but it may also reveal processes which support both encoding and retrieval. The present study used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate whether regions selectively engaged in encoding face and scene context with studied words are also re-engaged when the context is later retrieved. As predicted, encoding face and scene context with visually presented words elicited activity in distinct, context-selective regions. Retrieval of face and scene context also re-engaged some of the regions which had shown successful encoding effects. However, this recapitulation of encoding activity did not show the same context selectivity observed at encoding. Successful retrieval of both face and scene context re-engaged regions which had been associated with encoding of the other type of context, as well as those associated with encoding the same type of context. This recapitulation may reflect retrieval attempts which are not context-selective, but use shared retrieval cues to re-engage encoding operations in service of recollection. PMID:24904386

  8. Recapitulation of the hairless mouse phenotype using catalytic oligonucleotides: implications for permanent hair removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cserhalmi-Friedman, Peter B; Panteleyev, Andrey A; Christiano, Angela M

    2004-03-01

    Ribozyme technology is widely used to target mRNA in a sequence-specific fashion and thus change the expression pattern of cells or tissues. While the goal of mRNA targeting is usually the cleavage of mutant mRNAs with the prospect of gene therapy for inherited diseases, in certain instances, targeting of wild-type genes can be used therapeutically. Lack of expression of the mouse hairless gene due to inherited mutations leads to the complete and irreversible loss of hair known as atrichia. We designed this study to recapitulate the hairless phenotype in a restricted manner by topical application of deoxyribozyme-targeting molecules to specifically cleave the mouse hairless mRNA. Histological samples taken from treated skin at different times demonstrated a decreased number of hair follicles, an involution of the remaining follicles, a separation of the dermal papillae, and the presence of dermal cysts, all characteristics of the hairless phenotype, but not normally present in the skin of C57Bl/6 J mice. In this study, we successfully recapitulated the hairless phenotype using topically applied target-specific catalytic oligonucleotides designed to cleave the mouse hairless mRNA. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using ribozyme technology to alter the gene expression in the skin via topical application and provide proof of principle for the development of this strategy for permanent hair removal.

  9. Recapitulation of physiological spatiotemporal signals promotes in vitro formation of phenotypically stable human articular cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yiyong; Zhou, Bin; Bernhard, Jonathan; Robinson, Samuel; Burapachaisri, Aonnicha; Guo, X. Edward

    2017-01-01

    Standard isotropic culture fails to recapitulate the spatiotemporal gradients present during native development. Cartilage grown from human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) is poorly organized and unstable in vivo. We report that human cartilage with physiologic organization and in vivo stability can be grown in vitro from self-assembling hMSCs by implementing spatiotemporal regulation during induction. Self-assembling hMSCs formed cartilage discs in Transwell inserts following isotropic chondrogenic induction with transforming growth factor β to set up a dual-compartment culture. Following a switch in the basal compartment to a hypertrophic regimen with thyroxine, the cartilage discs underwent progressive deep-zone hypertrophy and mineralization. Concurrent chondrogenic induction in the apical compartment enabled the maintenance of functional and hyaline cartilage. Cartilage homeostasis, chondrocyte maturation, and terminal differentiation markers were all up-regulated versus isotropic control groups. We assessed the in vivo stability of the cartilage formed under different induction regimens. Cartilage formed under spatiotemporal regulation in vitro resisted endochondral ossification, retained the expression of cartilage markers, and remained organized following s.c. implantation in immunocompromised mice. In contrast, the isotropic control groups underwent endochondral ossification. Cartilage formed from hMSCs remained stable and organized in vivo. Spatiotemporal regulation during induction in vitro recapitulated some aspects of native cartilage development, and potentiated the maturation of self-assembling hMSCs into stable and organized cartilage resembling the native articular cartilage. PMID:28228529

  10. Ectopic expression of Msx2 in mammalian myotubes recapitulates aspects of amphibian muscle dedifferentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilgan Yilmaz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to urodele amphibians and teleost fish, mammals lack the regenerative responses to replace large body parts. Amphibian and fish regeneration uses dedifferentiation, i.e., reversal of differentiated state, as a means to produce progenitor cells to eventually replace damaged tissues. Therefore, induced activation of dedifferentiation responses in mammalian tissues holds an immense promise for regenerative medicine. Here we demonstrate that ectopic expression of Msx2 in cultured mouse myotubes recapitulates several aspects of amphibian muscle dedifferentiation. We found that MSX2, but not MSX1, leads to cellularization of myotubes and downregulates the expression of myotube markers, such as MHC, MRF4 and myogenin. RNA sequencing of myotubes ectopically expressing Msx2 showed downregulation of over 500 myotube-enriched transcripts and upregulation of over 300 myoblast-enriched transcripts. MSX2 selectively downregulated expression of Ptgs2 and Ptger4, two members of the prostaglandin pathway with important roles in myoblast fusion during muscle differentiation. Ectopic expression of Msx2, as well as Msx1, induced partial cell cycle re-entry of myotubes by upregulating CyclinD1 expression but failed to initiate S-phase. Finally, MSX2-induced dedifferentiation in mouse myotubes could be recapitulated by a pharmacological treatment with trichostatin A (TSA, bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4 and fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1. Together, these observations indicate that MSX2 is a major driver of dedifferentiation in mammalian muscle cells.

  11. Route Recapitulation and Route Loyalty in Homing Pigeons: Pilotage From 25 km?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biro, Dora; Meade, Jessica; Guilford, Tim

    2006-01-01

    We utilised precision Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking to examine the homing paths of pigeons (Columba livia) released 20 times consecutively 25 km from the loft. By the end of the training phase, birds had developed highly stereotyped yet individually distinct routes home, with detailed recapitulation evident at each stage of the journey. Following training, birds also participated in a series of releases from novel sites at perpendicular distances of up to 3 km from their established routes. Results showed that subjects were attracted back to their established routes and recapitulated them from the point of contact. Naïve conspecifics (yoked controls) released from the same off-route sites confirmed that the experienced birds' route choices were not influenced by constraints exerted by terrain features, but that increased experience with the general area conferred a homing advantage in the form of more efficient flight tracks, even from these novel sites. Patterns in the paths taken by experienced birds to rejoin their established routes are discussed with reference to navigational mechanisms employed by homing pigeons in their familiar area.

  12. Christian Faith Rush in Rural Areas and Social Work Intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jian-ling; WANG Shu-min

    2012-01-01

    To make the public have rational knowledge of the Christian faith rush in rural areas and guide coordinated development of Christianity with the socialist society, we analyzed reasons and complex influence on rural social development from aspects of society and individual and attraction of Christianity by the Literature Analysis Method. In view of its negative effect, we put forward several countermeasures from the perspective of social work intervention, such as improving farmers’ overall qualities, promoting effective implementation of social security system, and correcting believers’ understanding of Christianity. Finally, we introduced situation of Christian faith in other countries and reference and directive significance to China.

  13. A Latina Theological Reflection on Education, Faith, Love, and Beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Andrieu, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    In this article, Cecilia González-Andrieu presents what she defines as a theological reflection. She writes that it is theological in that she engages jointly faith and reason, the religious tradition of the Catholic Church and the contemporary situation. What makes it theological "reflection" is that it arises out of a community of…

  14. Institutionalizing Faith-Based Management Education in a Catholic University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teehankee, Benito

    2012-01-01

    De La Salle University started in the Philippines as a Catholic school of business in 1911 through the initiative of Archbishop Harty of Manila. Its faith-based orientation gave way to a more secular one in the following decades as it adopted the more scientific and technical approaches of Western business schools. Recent changes in the…

  15. Thomas Aquinas: Integrating Faith and Reason in the Catholic School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Dennis M.

    2007-01-01

    The Second Vatican Council, social upheaval, and quickly changing cultural norms were a part of the fabric of life in the 1960s. Values and beliefs held firmly for generations were called into question. Faith, once solid, appeared to some Catholics to turn fluid and doubtful. Though now well over seven centuries old, the work of Thomas Aquinas can…

  16. Faithful to science the role of science in religion

    CERN Document Server

    Steane, Andrew M

    2014-01-01

    Science and religious faith are two of the most important and influential forces in human life, yet there is widespread confusion about how, or indeed whether, they link together. This book describes this combination from the perspective of one who finds that they link together productively and creatively.

  17. Are Religion or "Faith" Necessary for a Moral Sexual Ethos?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Marty

    2011-01-01

    Credit the editor of the American Journal of Sexuality Education for inviting an article on whether religion or faith is necessary for a moral sexual ethos. Credit organized religion for creating a global cultural narrative in which this question would even be asked. Most articles answer a central question. This article challenges the central…

  18. Are Religion or "Faith" Necessary for a Moral Sexual Ethos?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Marty

    2011-01-01

    Credit the editor of the American Journal of Sexuality Education for inviting an article on whether religion or faith is necessary for a moral sexual ethos. Credit organized religion for creating a global cultural narrative in which this question would even be asked. Most articles answer a central question. This article challenges the central…

  19. 7 CFR 762.103 - Full faith and credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... misrepresentation. The loan guarantee constitutes an obligation supported by the full faith and credit of the United States. The Agency may contest the guarantee only in cases of fraud or misrepresentation by a lender or holder, in which: (1) The lender or holder had actual knowledge of the fraud or misrepresentation at the...

  20. Faith and Reason in a Post Secular Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Mike

    2012-01-01

    The problems that this article seeks to address are those that are raised in the context of the bilateralism that is established when we think in terms of secularism as primarily orientated towards reason and post secularism, towards faith. The objective of the article is to show that the distinction between the two can be collapsed. Post…

  1. Some remarks on the conflict between faith and science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Pabjan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the conflict between faith and science. Since the issue is extensive, only selected aspects of this question are discussed. At first, the origin of the problem is outlined – it is argued, that the fundamental difference between the language and the method of science on one hand and of theology understood as a rational reflection on the truths of faith on the other is responsible for the conflict. Afterwards, two aspects of the conflict are presented – the first one concerns inconsistencies which appear on the plane of content – when some scientific statements or theorems seem to deny some theological claims; the second one involves differences in mentality and in worldview which appear on the plane of attitude. It is argued, that the content discrepancies can be eliminated with the help of two methods: of separation and of catharsis. But the differences in mentality which appear on the plane of attitude cannot be so easily eliminated. So finally the characteristics of these two different attitudes – of faith and of science – is discussed. It is argued, that a fundamental dissimilarity between the character of scientific knowledge (especially its empiricism and of religious faith is a basic source of mutual estrangement and alienation.

  2. Understanding Public Attitudes in Britain towards Faith Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Ben

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed analysis of different aspects of public attitudes towards faith schools in Britain. It examines two questions relating to government policy on this issue and two questions that ask about the perceived outcomes of this type of school. After discussing existing public opinion on this issue it uses data from the British…

  3. 24 CFR 3500.7 - Good faith estimate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Good faith estimate. 3500.7 Section 3500.7 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  4. Faith-based Organisations, Development and the World Bank (abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Haynes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Faith-based organisations (FBOs have increasingly become important actors in international development cooperation. Many international institutions recognise them as valuable partners and declare to have ‘mainstreamed faith’ within their own activities. But is this really the case? And how has this happened? Focusing on the activities of the World Bank in the 1995–2005 period, when, under the leadership of President James Wolfensohn and Katherine Marshall, then Head of the Bank’s Development Dialogue on Values and Ethics (DDVE, the institution engaged with some selected FBOs, this chapter enquires into the reasons for the Bank’s interest in faith as well as its sudden disappearance. It argues that the main rationale for engagement with faith lay in the disappointing results of previous secular strategies and the feeling that religion had a positive role to play in fighting poverty. However, diverging perceptions of poverty and development between states and religious entities, along with lingering suspicions among state officials about dealing with faith in the public realm, derailed the collaboration.

  5. Teaching the Devout Student: Faith and Scholarship in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brian H.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing numbers of college students enrolling in religion courses in recent years are looking to develop their religious faith or spirituality, while professors of religion want students to use and appreciate scholarly tools to study religion from an academic perspective. Some scholars argue that it is not possible to satisfy both goals in the…

  6. Tabligh Jamaat: A transnational movement of Islamic faith regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan A. Ali

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Tabligh Jama'at (Convey Group or Group for conveying the message of Islam established in 1927 in Mwt in India is an independent transnational movement of Islamic faith regeneration. It is an offshoot of Deoband movement and emerged in direct response to Hindu Arya Samaj sect which was seen by the Tablgh Jama'at as a threat to vulnerable and non-practicing Muslims. From its humble beginnings in Mwt Tabligh Jama'at gradually grew from local to national settings and ultimately traversed the globe by entering over two hundred countries becoming the world's largest transnational movement of Islamic faith regeneration. Its success is mainly due to its itinerant preaching style which revolves around rudimentary teaching and its Six Principles. This paper looks at the genesis of the Tabligh Jama'at in the crisis situation of the people of Islamic faith. It argues that he growth and development of the Tablgh Jama'at as the world's largest transnational movement of Islamic faith regeneration is attributed to its response largely to the negative consequences of modernity or to the crisis situation in specific local context. However, the rise of Tabligh Jama'at is also in part due to its ability to negotiate through modernity rather than destroying it.

  7. A Comparative Study of Saint Paul and Fakhri Razi on Faith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorban Elmi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Faith has a central place in Abrahamic religions. Jewish, Christian and Moslem thinkers have conducted several studies of the notion of faith and offered different ideas. Fakhri Razi and Saint Paul, two thinkers from Islamic and Christian religious traditions, have commented on the matter at length and these comments and ideas are studied in this essay.    Paul the Apostle (died 64 AD is the most famous and influential Christian figure and is known as the second founder of Christianity. He has an indispensable role in formulating Christian doctrines. At first, he was a Jew and after the revelation of Jesus, converted to Christianity and dedicated himself to evangelism. The only credible reports and first hand sources about the lives and beliefs of Paul are the Acts of the Apostles and his letters and epistles in the Bible.    The background of the debate on faith should be sought for in the Old Testament. In the Old Testament, belief means trusting in God, relying on Him, and recognizing and acknowledging the special relationship that God has established with Israel. In the New Testament, belief has a significant position too. Faith in the New Testament is more epistemic and cognitive and means certain belief and conviction. According to Paul faith is the basic principle of Christianity and outstanding feature of Christians and the main cause of salvation. In the early Christianity, Paul offers the most extensive and most profound exposition of faith.    In defining faith, Paul uses Greek word «pistis» which means confidence, faith and trust. In definition of faith, he says: "Faith is the confidence that what we hope will be, and faith is the certainty of what we believe, although we are not able to see them "(Hebrews, 11/1. He mentions Abraham as a distinguished example for introducing true faith and faithful. Faith in Jesus means to trust or have confidence in Jesus Christ. According to Paul, faith is based on hope in things which have

  8. Faith-to-faith at the bedside: theological and ethical issues in ecumenical clinical chaplaincy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, Brad F

    2003-04-01

    Chaplains who serve in a clinical context often minister to patients representing a wide variety of faiths. In order to offer the best pastoral care possible, the chaplain should first possess a set of personal theological convictions as a foundation for ministry. Second, he or she needs to be sensitive to the beliefs and practices of the patients. Third, it is vital to develop a relationship of acceptance and trust not only with patients under their care, but also with family members and caregivers as well. At times, situations will arise that are purely religious or theological. In a clinical setting, however, the questions and problems that arise more often are both theological and ethical. It is beneficial for the chaplain to be involved in an ethics committee, where the specifics of each case can be discussed, and staff can offer counsel to patients and their families. This study examines issues that chaplains face at the bedside, such as terminal care, life-prolonging treatments, dementia, persistent vegetative state, and euthanasia-assisted suicide. We will discover that those who are involved in clinical pastoral ministry will be called upon to be a comforter, mediator, educator, ethicist, and counselor.

  9. GOOD FAITH AND FAIR DEALING IN THE COMMERCIAL CONTRACT LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktorija Budreckienė

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – to analyze the commercial concept of good faith and fair dealing applicable in the UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts, Draft Common Frame of Reference and Lithuanian commercial contract law. Methodology – theoretical methods (analytic and systematic had been applied in the research. Findings – the author of the article concludes that the substantive content of good faith and fair dealing notion applied in Lithuanian commercial contract law should be specified taking into regard the peculiarities of business relations. What is more, the question, whether a businessman acted in good faith, should be answered with respect to common business practice of particular trade. The case law of Lithuania also recognizes the peculiarities of commercial good faith and fair dealing notion. What is more, when determining if a businessman acted in good faith, courts also mention common commercial practice. However, it is doubted that courts really take this criteria into account and it can be guessed that often the application of this standard is limited only to mentioning. Due to application of common business practice criteria the content of good faith and fair dealing principle is even harder to unfold, especially, as it can be very difficult to prove the existence of such practice. Yet this is the problem not only of the court, but also the parties of the civil dispute, as the presentation of reasonable arguments and proofs is their right and obligation. Research limitations/implications – the research has been limited to the analysis of commercial good faith and fair dealing doctrine in Lithuanian contract law, UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts and Draft Common Frame of Reference. Practical implications – the findings of the research can be applied by judges invoking good faith and fair dealing doctrine in commercial disputes, as well, by businessman determining the limits of their

  10. Faith-Learning Integration, Critical Thinking Skills, and Student Development in Christian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Karl G. D.

    2012-01-01

    Although the integration of faith and learning presupposes a learner, little theoretical work has addressed the role of students in faith-learning integration. Moreover, many students perceive faith-learning integration to be the work of teachers and institutions, suggesting that for learners, integration is a passive experience. This theoretical…

  11. Stapled HIV-1 peptides recapitulate antigenic structures and engage broadly neutralizing antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Gregory H; Irimia, Adriana; Ofek, Gilad; Kwong, Peter D; Wilson, Ian A; Walensky, Loren D

    2014-12-01

    Hydrocarbon stapling can restore bioactive α-helical structure to natural peptides, yielding research tools and prototype therapeutics to dissect and target protein interactions. Here we explore the capacity of peptide stapling to generate high-fidelity, protease-resistant mimics of antigenic structures for vaccine development. HIV-1 has been refractory to vaccine technologies thus far, although select human antibodies can broadly neutralize HIV-1 by targeting sequences of the gp41 juxtamembrane fusion apparatus. To develop candidate HIV-1 immunogens, we generated and characterized stabilized α-helices of the membrane-proximal external region (SAH-MPER) of gp41. SAH-MPER peptides were remarkably protease resistant and bound to the broadly neutralizing 4E10 and 10E8 antibodies with high affinity, recapitulating the structure of the MPER epitope when differentially engaged by the two anti-HIV Fabs. Thus, stapled peptides may provide a new opportunity to develop chemically stabilized antigens for vaccination.

  12. A hamster model for Marburg virus infection accurately recapitulates Marburg hemorrhagic fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzi, Andrea; Banadyga, Logan; Haddock, Elaine; Thomas, Tina; Shen, Kui; Horne, Eva J.; Scott, Dana P.; Feldmann, Heinz; Ebihara, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Marburg virus (MARV), a close relative of Ebola virus, is the causative agent of a severe human disease known as Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF). No licensed vaccine or therapeutic exists to treat MHF, and MARV is therefore classified as a Tier 1 select agent and a category A bioterrorism agent. In order to develop countermeasures against this severe disease, animal models that accurately recapitulate human disease are required. Here we describe the development of a novel, uniformly lethal Syrian golden hamster model of MHF using a hamster-adapted MARV variant Angola. Remarkably, this model displayed almost all of the clinical features of MHF seen in humans and non-human primates, including coagulation abnormalities, hemorrhagic manifestations, petechial rash, and a severely dysregulated immune response. This MHF hamster model represents a powerful tool for further dissecting MARV pathogenesis and accelerating the development of effective medical countermeasures against human MHF. PMID:27976688

  13. The Genetics of Mexico Recapitulates Native American Substructure and Affects Biomedical Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Fernández-López, Juan Carlos; Zakharia, Fouad; Sikora, Martin; Contreras, Alejandra V.; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Sandoval, Karla; Eng, Celeste; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Ortiz-Tello, Patricia; Robles, Victoria; Kenny, Eimear E.; Nuño-Arana, Ismael; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Macín-Pérez, Gastón; Granados-Arriola, Julio; Huntsman, Scott; Galanter, Joshua M.; Via, Marc; Ford, Jean G.; Chapela, Rocío; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Rodríguez-Santana, Jose R.; Romieu, Isabelle; Sienra-Monge, Juan José; Navarro, Blanca del Rio; London, Stephanie J.; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Garcia-Herrera, Rodrigo; Estrada, Karol; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Carnevale, Alessandra; Soberón, Xavier; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rangel-Villalobos, Héctor; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Burchard, Esteban Gonzalez; Bustamante, Carlos D.

    2014-01-01

    Mexico harbors great cultural and ethnic diversity, yet fine-scale patterns of human genome-wide variation from this region remain largely uncharacterized. We studied genomic variation within Mexico from over 1,000 individuals representing 20 indigenous and 11 mestizo populations. We found striking genetic stratification among indigenous populations within Mexico at varying degrees of geographic isolation. Some groups were as differentiated as Europeans are from East Asians. Pre-Columbian genetic substructure is recapitulated in the indigenous ancestry of admixed mestizo individuals across the country. Furthermore, two independently phenotyped cohorts of Mexicans and Mexican Americans showed a significant association between sub-continental ancestry and lung function. Thus, accounting for fine-scale ancestry patterns is critical for medical and population genetic studies within Mexico, in Mexican-descent populations, and likely in many other populations worldwide. PMID:24926019

  14. Prolonged application of high fluid shear to chondrocytes recapitulates gene expression profiles associated with osteoarthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Excessive mechanical loading of articular cartilage producing hydrostatic stress, tensile strain and fluid flow leads to irreversible cartilage erosion and osteoarthritic (OA disease. Since application of high fluid shear to chondrocytes recapitulates some of the earmarks of OA, we aimed to screen the gene expression profiles of shear-activated chondrocytes and assess potential similarities with OA chondrocytes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a cDNA microarray technology, we screened the differentially-regulated genes in human T/C-28a2 chondrocytes subjected to high fluid shear (20 dyn/cm(2 for 48 h and 72 h relative to static controls. Confirmation of the expression patterns of select genes was obtained by qRT-PCR. Using significance analysis of microarrays with a 5% false discovery rate, 71 and 60 non-redundant transcripts were identified to be ≥2-fold up-regulated and ≤0.6-fold down-regulated, respectively, in sheared chondrocytes. Published data sets indicate that 42 of these genes, which are related to extracellular matrix/degradation, cell proliferation/differentiation, inflammation and cell survival/death, are differentially-regulated in OA chondrocytes. In view of the pivotal role of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 in the pathogenesis and/or progression of OA in vivo and regulation of shear-induced inflammation and apoptosis in vitro, we identified a collection of genes that are either up- or down-regulated by shear-induced COX-2. COX-2 and L-prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS induce reactive oxygen species production, and negatively regulate genes of the histone and cell cycle families, which may play a critical role in chondrocyte death. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Prolonged application of high fluid shear stress to chondrocytes recapitulates gene expression profiles associated with osteoarthritis. Our data suggest a potential link between exposure of chondrocytes/cartilage to abnormal mechanical loading and the pathogenesis

  15. Ernst Haeckel's ontogenetic recapitulation: irritation and incentive from 1866 to our time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Klaus

    2002-11-01

    Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) must count among the most widely known biologists of his time. His monographs on radiolarian skeletons, sponges and medusae immediately became standard works, owing partly to lavish illustrations that later on culminated in his "Art Forms in Nature", which markedly influenced the "art nouveau" of the early 20th century. Haeckel's main impact, however, came from his numerous popular books that were crucial in transferring Darwin's ideas to continental Europe. Haeckel's main addition was his claim that ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny. It was partly founded on pre-Darwinian observations by J.F. Meckel and K.E. v. Baer who noticed that vertebrate embryos of different species resemble each other more strongly during early ontogenesis than later on. Wishing to illustrate this clearly, Haeckel clandestinely generalized some figures showing early embryos of animals and Man. This "fraud" provided ammunition for his many adversaries, most of whom felt provoked by his antireligious campaigns. The resulting controversies continued well into the 20th century but then subsided. Quite recently, however, they have flared up again, perhaps in connection with progress in molecular embryology that revealed an amazing evolutionary conservation of genes and their cooperation in signal transduction chains. The scientific publications that triggered this flare, and a selection of "Letters to the Editor" in both international science magazines and the German popular press, serve here to show that Haeckel's idea of recapitulation, while having proven its heuristic value, is still causing considerable irritation. This results from the widespread intuition that the marvels of ontogenesis and other biological phenomena must reflect some "intelligent design" rather than Darwinian evolution.

  16. Shared Use of Physical Activity Facilities Among North Carolina Faith Communities, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardison-Moody, Annie; Edwards, Michael B; Bocarro, Jason N; Stein, Anna; Kanters, Michael A; Sherman, Danielle Marie; Rhew, Lori K; Stallings, Willona Marie; Bowen, Sarah K

    2017-02-02

    Shared use of recreational facilities is a promising strategy for increasing access to places for physical activity. Little is known about shared use in faith-based settings. This study examined shared use practices and barriers in faith communities in North Carolina. Faith communities in North Carolina (n = 234) completed an online survey (October-December 2013) designed to provide information about the extent and nature of shared use of recreational facilities. We used binary logistic regression to examine differences between congregations that shared use and those that did not share use. Most of the faith communities (82.9%) that completed the survey indicated that they share their facilities with outside individuals and organizations. Formal agreements were more common when faith communities shared indoor spaces such as gymnasiums and classroom meeting spaces than when they shared outdoor spaces such as playgrounds or athletic fields. Faith communities in the wealthiest counties were more likely to share their spaces than were faith communities in poorer counties. Faith communities in counties with the best health rankings were more likely to share facilities than faith communities in counties that had lower health rankings. The most frequently cited reasons faith communities did not share their facilities were that they did not know how to initiate the process of sharing their facilities or that no outside groups had ever asked. Most faith communities shared their facilities for physical activity. Research is needed on the relationship between shared use and physical activity levels, including the effect of formalizing shared-use policies.

  17. Partnership among a faith-based organization and community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponte, Judith; Cruz, Henry; Arce, Samuel; Durso, Rev Michael

    2013-01-01

    In a collaborative effort, a community-based participatory research approach was used to address the holistic health needs of a community while including a multilanguage view, a faith-based organization, The Legacy Center Community Development Corporation, and several health agencies partnered in organizing and conducting a health fair in West Central Queens. Health awareness and health promotion activities were provided through presentations, health screenings, and education materials (on diabetes, hypertension, nutrition, cholesterol, and heart disease). To meet the needs of community and/or faith-based organization members, translation services were available: nurses translated for non-English-speaking participants in Spanish, Mandarin, or Cantonese, and sign language interpreters used American Sign Language to translate for deaf participants.

  18. Moving Toward a Virtual Knowledge Platform for Faith Community Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziebarth, Deborah; Hunter, Carson

    2016-11-01

    In preparation for the development of a virtual knowledge platform for faith community nurses, a review of literature explored the prevalence and context of electronic knowledge management initiatives. The review revealed that healthcare, business, and global virtual knowledge platforms have been developed to elicit certain behaviors in users. For those who develop virtual knowledge platforms, the results are improved efficiency, innovation, accessibility, and cost savings. The main component of virtual knowledge platforms is a central repository or an infrastructure where knowledge is created, acquired, stored (documents), updated, and shared internally and externally. The refinery processes refer to technology mechanisms that make content accessible. A transparent collaboration among information technology, knowledge owners, and users is needed to successfully sustain a virtual knowledge platform. Faith community nurses often practice in isolated environments. A virtual knowledge platform where practice resources and tools are shared, and communication among peers exists, may improve knowledge and skills and result in a positive impact on patient outcomes.

  19. FAITH: Scanning of Rich Web Applications for Parameter Tampering Vulnerabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Fung, Adonis P H; Wong, T Y

    2012-01-01

    Modern HTML forms are designed to generate form controls dynamically and submit over AJAX as a result of recent advances in Javascript programming techniques. Existing scanners are constrained by interacting only with traditional forms, and vulnerabilities are often left undetected even after scrutiny. In this paper, we overcome a number of client-side challenges that used to make automated fuzzing of form submissions difficult and unfaithful. We build FAITH, a pragmatic scanner for uncovering parameter tampering vulnerabilities in real-world rich web applications. It is the first scanner that enables fuzzing in most kinds of form submissions while faithfully preserving the required user actions, HTML 5, AJAX, anti-CSRF tokens and dynamic form updates. The importance of this work is demonstrated by the severe vulnerabilities uncovered, including a way to bypass the most-trusted One-Time Password (OTP) in one of the largest multinational banks. These vulnerabilities cannot be detected by existing scanners.

  20. On the n-symplectic structure of faithful irreducible representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, L. K.

    2017-04-01

    Each faithful irreducible representation of an N-dimensional vector space V1 on an n-dimensional vector space V2 is shown to define a unique irreducible n-symplectic structure on the product manifold V1×V2 . The basic details of the associated Poisson algebra are developed for the special case N = n2, and 2n-dimensional symplectic submanifolds are shown to exist.

  1. Amenable, transitive and faithful actions of groups acting on trees

    CERN Document Server

    Fima, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    We study under which condition an amalgamated free product or an HNN-extension over a finite subgroup admits an amenable, transitive and faithful action on an infinite countable set. We show that such an action exists if the initial groups admit an amenable and almost free action with infinite orbits (e.g. virtually free groups or infinite amenable groups). Our result relies on the Baire category Theorem. We extend the result to groups acting on trees.

  2. The relation of collapsibility and confounding to faithfulness and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Greenland, Sander

    2015-07-01

    A probability distribution may have some properties that are stable under a structure (e.g., a causal graph) and other properties that are unstable. Stable properties are implied by the structure and thus will be shared by populations following the structure. In contrast, unstable properties correspond to special circumstances that are unlikely to be replicated across those populations. A probability distribution is faithful to the structure if all independencies in the distribution are logical consequences of the structure. We explore the distinction between confounding and noncollapsibility in relation to the concepts of faithfulness and stability. Simple collapsibility of an odds ratio over a risk factor is unstable and thus unlikely if the exposure affects the outcome, whether or not the risk factor is associated with exposure. For a binary exposure with no effect, collapsibility over a confounder also requires unfaithfulness. Nonetheless, if present, simple collapsibility of the odds ratio limits the degree of confounding by the covariate. Collapsibility of effect measures is stable if the covariate is independent of the outcome given exposure, but it is unstable if the covariate is an instrumental variable. Understanding stable and unstable properties of distributions under causal structures, and the distinction between stability and faithfulness, yields important insights into the correspondence between noncollapsibility and confounding.

  3. Faith and End of Life in Nursing Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Rubinstein

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the role of religious belief in the experiences of dying and death in a Catholic nursing home. The home appeals to residents and their families due to the active religious presence. Thus, religion is a salient element of the “local culture” which exists in this long-term care setting. The preeminence of faith within the organization and the personal religious convictions of staff, residents, and families may drive how death and dying are discussed and experienced in this setting, as well as the meanings that are attached to them. This paper examines the relationship between faith and the experience and meaning of death in this nursing home. We present themes that emerged from open-ended interviews with residents, family members, and staff, gathered between 1996 and 2004. The data indicate that people select the home due to their Catholic faith and the home's religious tone. Themes also show that belief in God and an afterlife helps shape the experience of dying and death for our informants. Our paper does not compare ease of dying with other nursing homes or within other belief systems.

  4. Faith Moves Mountains-Mountains Move Faith: Two Opposite Epidemiological Forces in Research on Religion and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvidt, N C; Hvidtjørn, D; Christensen, K; Nielsen, J B; Søndergaard, J

    2017-02-01

    Research suggests opposite epidemiological forces in religion and health: (1). Faith seems to move mountains in the sense that religion is associated with positive health outcomes. (2). Mountains of bad health seem to move faith. We reflected on these forces in a population of 3000 young Danish twins in which all religiosity measures were associated with severe disease. We believe the reason for this novel finding is that the sample presents as a particularly secular population-based study and that the second epidemiological force has gained the upper hand in this sample. We suggest that all cross-sectional research on religion and health should be interpreted in light of such opposite epidemiological forces potentially diluting each other.

  5. Faith Is Confidence: The Implication of Psychosocial Components in Faith-Based Educational Programs on Expressive Communication Skills of Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Erin M.

    2016-01-01

    Faith-based programs for adult learners have environmental factors that differentiate them from non-faith based programs, but explicit empirical studies evaluating the impact of the psychosocial factors have been lacking in the literature. This study comparatively examines the achievement level of expressive communication skills as measured…

  6. Patient-derived xenografts recapitulate molecular features of human uveal melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Cécile; Gentien, David; Piperno-Neumann, Sophie; Némati, Fariba; Nicolas, André; Tesson, Bruno; Desjardins, Laurence; Mariani, Pascale; Rapinat, Audrey; Sastre-Garau, Xavier; Couturier, Jérôme; Hupé, Philippe; de Koning, Leanne; Dubois, Thierry; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Stern, Marc-Henri; Barillot, Emmanuel; Harbour, J William; Saule, Simon; Decaudin, Didier

    2013-06-01

    We have previously developed a new method for the development and maintenance of uveal melanoma (UM) xenografts in immunodeficient mice. Here, we compare the genetic profiles of the primary tumors to their corresponding xenografts that have been passaged over time. The study included sixteen primary UMs and corresponding xenografts at very early (P1), early (P4), and late (P9) in vivo passages. The tumors were analyzed for mutation status of GNAQ, GNA11, GNAS, GNA15, BAP1, and BRAF, chromosomal copy number alterations using Affymetrix GeneChip(®) Genome-Wide Human SNP6.0 arrays, gene expression profiles using GeneChip(®) Human Exon 1.0 ST arrays, BAP1 mRNA and protein expression, and MAPK pathway status using Reverse Phase Protein Arrays (RPPA). The UM xenografts accurately recapitulated the genetic features of primary human UMs and they exhibited genetic stability over the course of their in vivo maintenance. Our technique for establishing and maintaining primary UMs as xenograft tumors in immunodeficient mice exhibit a high degree of genetic conservation between the primary tumors and the xenograft tumors over multiple passages in vivo. These models therefore constitute valuable preclinical tool for drug screening in UM.

  7. A transient outward potassium current activator recapitulates the electrocardiographic manifestations of Brugada syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calloe, Kirstine; Cordeiro, Jonathan M; Di Diego, José M;

    2008-01-01

    , NS5806. METHODS AND RESULTS: Isolated canine ventricular myocytes and coronary-perfused wedge preparations were used. Whole-cell patch-clamp studies showed that NS5806 (10 microM) increased peak I(to) at +40 mV by 79 +/- 4% (24.5 +/- 2.2 to 43.6 +/- 3.4 pA/pF, n = 7) and slowed the time constant......, but not in the endocardium, and accentuated the ECG J-wave, leading to the development of phase 2 re-entry and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (n = 9). Although sodium and calcium channel blockers are capable of inducing BrS only in right ventricular (RV) wedge preparations, the I(to) activator was able to induce...... the phenotype in wedges from both ventricles. NS5806 induced BrS in 4/6 right and 2/10 left ventricular wedge preparations. CONCLUSION: The I(to) activator NS5806 recapitulates the electrographic and arrhythmic manifestation of BrS, providing evidence in support of its pivotal role in the genesis of the disease...

  8. An engineered multicomponent bone marrow niche for the recapitulation of hematopoiesis at ectopic transplantation sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica S. Ventura Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone marrow (BM niches are often inaccessible for controlled experimentation due to their difficult accessibility, biological complexity, and three-dimensional (3D geometry. Methods Here, we report the development and characterization of a BM model comprising of cellular and structural components with increased potential for hematopoietic recapitulation at ectopic transplantation sites. Cellular components included mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs and hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs. Structural components included 3D β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP scaffolds complemented with Matrigel or collagen I/III gels for the recreation of the osteogenic/extracellular character of native BM. Results In vitro, β-TCP/Matrigel combinations robustly maintained proliferation, osteogenic differentiation, and matrix remodeling capacities of MSCs and maintenance of HSPCs function over time. In vivo, scaffolds promoted strong and robust recruitment of hematopoietic cells to sites of ectopic transplantation, vascularization, and soft tissue formation. Conclusions Our tissue-engineered BM system is a powerful tool to explore the regulatory mechanisms of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells for a better understanding of hematopoiesis in health and disease.

  9. Selective Activation of mTORC1 Signaling Recapitulates Microcephaly, Tuberous Sclerosis, and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetoshi Kassai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR has been implicated in human neurological diseases such as tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC, neurodegeneration, and autism. However, little is known about when and how mTOR is involved in the pathogenesis of these diseases, due to a lack of animal models that directly increase mTOR activity. Here, we generated transgenic mice expressing a gain-of-function mutant of mTOR in the forebrain in a temporally controlled manner. Selective activation of mTORC1 in embryonic stages induced cortical atrophy caused by prominent apoptosis of neuronal progenitors, associated with upregulation of HIF-1α. In striking contrast, activation of the mTORC1 pathway in adulthood resulted in cortical hypertrophy with fatal epileptic seizures, recapitulating human TSC. Activated mTORC1 in the adult cortex also promoted rapid accumulation of cytoplasmic inclusions and activation of microglial cells, indicative of progressive neurodegeneration. Our findings demonstrate that mTORC1 plays different roles in developmental and adult stages and contributes to human neurological diseases.

  10. Recapitulation of fibromatosis nodule by multipotential stem cells in immunodeficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Pan Wang

    Full Text Available Musculoskeletal fibromatosis remains a disease of unknown etiology. Surgical excision is the standard of care, but the recurrence rate remains high. Superficial fibromatosis typically presents as subcutaneous nodules caused by rapid myofibroblast proliferation followed by slow involution to dense acellular fibrosis. In this study, we demonstrate that fibromatosis stem cells (FSCs can be isolated from palmar nodules but not from cord or normal palm tissues. We found that FSCs express surface markers such as CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105, and CD166 but do not express CD34, CD45, or CD133. We also found that FSCs are capable of expanding up to 20 passages, that these cells include myofibroblasts, osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes, hepatocytes, and neural cells, and that these cells possess multipotentiality to develop into the three germ layer cells. When implanted beneath the dorsal skin of nude mice, FSCs recapitulated human fibromatosis nodules. Two weeks after implantation, the cells expressed immunodiagnostic markers for myofibroblasts such as α-smooth muscle actin and type III collagen. Two months after implantation, there were fewer myofibroblasts and type I collagen became evident. Treatment with the antifibrogenic compound Trichostatin A (TSA inhibited the proliferation and differentiation of FSCs in vitro. Treatment with TSA before or after implantation blocked formation of fibromatosis nodules. These results suggest that FSCs are the cellular origin of fibromatosis and that these cells may provide a promising model for developing new therapeutic interventions.

  11. Recapitulation of fibromatosis nodule by multipotential stem cells in immunodeficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jung-Pan; Hui, Yun-Ju; Wang, Shih-Tien; Yu, Hsiang-Hsuan Michael; Huang, Yi-Chao; Chiang, En-Rung; Liu, Chien-Lin; Chen, Tain-Hsiung; Hung, Shih-Chieh

    2011-01-01

    Musculoskeletal fibromatosis remains a disease of unknown etiology. Surgical excision is the standard of care, but the recurrence rate remains high. Superficial fibromatosis typically presents as subcutaneous nodules caused by rapid myofibroblast proliferation followed by slow involution to dense acellular fibrosis. In this study, we demonstrate that fibromatosis stem cells (FSCs) can be isolated from palmar nodules but not from cord or normal palm tissues. We found that FSCs express surface markers such as CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105, and CD166 but do not express CD34, CD45, or CD133. We also found that FSCs are capable of expanding up to 20 passages, that these cells include myofibroblasts, osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes, hepatocytes, and neural cells, and that these cells possess multipotentiality to develop into the three germ layer cells. When implanted beneath the dorsal skin of nude mice, FSCs recapitulated human fibromatosis nodules. Two weeks after implantation, the cells expressed immunodiagnostic markers for myofibroblasts such as α-smooth muscle actin and type III collagen. Two months after implantation, there were fewer myofibroblasts and type I collagen became evident. Treatment with the antifibrogenic compound Trichostatin A (TSA) inhibited the proliferation and differentiation of FSCs in vitro. Treatment with TSA before or after implantation blocked formation of fibromatosis nodules. These results suggest that FSCs are the cellular origin of fibromatosis and that these cells may provide a promising model for developing new therapeutic interventions.

  12. Robotic partial nephrectomy with cold ischemia and on-clamp tumor extraction: recapitulating the open approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Craig G; Ghani, Khurshid R; Kumar, Ramesh K; Jeong, Wooju; Menon, Mani

    2013-03-01

    We describe a reproducible technique for achieving cold ischemia with intraoperative tumor assessment during robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN) that recapitulates the open approach: intracorporeal cooling and extraction (ICE). A total of seven patients underwent the ICE modification of RPN by transperitoneal (n=5) and retroperitoneal (n=2) approaches. A Gelpoint access port was used for the camera and assistant ports. Following hilar clamping, ice slush was introduced through the Gelpoint via syringes and applied over the kidney surface. The excised tumor was immediately extracted through the Gelpoint, allowing gross margin assessment by pathology during the renorrhaphy. RPN was achieved in all cases with successful introduction of ice slush and tumor extraction while on clamp. Median RENAL nephrometry score was 8 (range: 6-10), and there was one solitary kidney. Mean cold ischemia time was 19.6 min (range: 8-37) and mean estimated blood loss was 296.4 ml (range: 50-1000). Renal parenchymal temperatures 0.5°C during any procedures. Intraoperative assessment of the excised tumor showed adequate gross margins in all cases and final pathology confirmed negative surgical margins.

  13. Recapitulating physiological and pathological shear stress and oxygen to model vasculature in health and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaci, Hasan Erbil; Shen, Yu-I.; Tan, Scott; Gerecht, Sharon

    2014-05-01

    Studying human vascular disease in conventional cell cultures and in animal models does not effectively mimic the complex vascular microenvironment and may not accurately predict vascular responses in humans. We utilized a microfluidic device to recapitulate both shear stress and O2 levels in health and disease, establishing a microfluidic vascular model (μVM). Maintaining human endothelial cells (ECs) in healthy-mimicking conditions resulted in conversion to a physiological phenotype namely cell elongation, reduced proliferation, lowered angiogenic gene expression and formation of actin cortical rim and continuous barrier. We next examined the responses of the healthy μVM to a vasotoxic cancer drug, 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), in comparison with an in vivo mouse model. We found that 5-FU does not induce apoptosis rather vascular hyperpermeability, which can be alleviated by Resveratrol treatment. This effect was confirmed by in vivo findings identifying a vasoprotecting strategy by the adjunct therapy of 5-FU with Resveratrol. The μVM of ischemic disease demonstrated the transition of ECs from a quiescent to an activated state, with higher proliferation rate, upregulation of angiogenic genes, and impaired barrier integrity. The μVM offers opportunities to study and predict human ECs with physiologically relevant phenotypes in healthy, pathological and drug-treated environments.

  14. Partial Loss of Rpl11 in Adult Mice Recapitulates Diamond-Blackfan Anemia and Promotes Lymphomagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Morgado-Palacin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA is characterized by anemia and cancer susceptibility and is caused by mutations in ribosomal genes, including RPL11. Here, we report that Rpl11-heterozygous mouse embryos are not viable and that Rpl11 homozygous deletion in adult mice results in death within a few weeks, accompanied by bone marrow aplasia and intestinal atrophy. Importantly, Rpl11 heterozygous deletion in adult mice results in anemia associated with decreased erythroid progenitors and defective erythroid maturation. These defects are also present in mice transplanted with inducible heterozygous Rpl11 bone marrow and, therefore, are intrinsic to the hematopoietic system. Additionally, heterozygous Rpl11 mice present increased susceptibility to radiation-induced lymphomagenesis. In this regard, total or partial deletion of Rpl11 compromises p53 activation upon ribosomal stress or DNA damage in fibroblasts. Moreover, fibroblasts and hematopoietic tissues from heterozygous Rpl11 mice present higher basal cMYC levels. We conclude that Rpl11-deficient mice recapitulate DBA disorder, including cancer predisposition.

  15. Engineering strategies to recapitulate epithelial morphogenesis within synthetic 3 dimensional extracellular matrix with tunable mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnikova, Y.A.; Jorgens, D.M.; Spirio, L.; Auer, M.; Sieminski-Sarang, A.L.; Weaver, V.M.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanical properties (e.g. stiffness) of the extracellular matrix (ECM) influence cell fate and tissue morphogenesis and contribute to disease progression. Nevertheless, our understanding of the mechanisms by which ECM rigidity modulates cell behavior and fate remains rudimentary. To address this issue, a number of two and three dimensional (3D) hydrogel systems have been used to explore the effects of mechanical properties of the ECM on cell behavior. Unfortunately, many of these systems have limited application because fiber architecture, adhesiveness and/or pore size often change in parallel when gel elasticity is varied. Here we describe the use of ECM-adsorbed, synthetic, self-assembling peptide gels (SAPs) that are able to recapitulate normal epithelial acini morphogenesis and gene expression in a 3D context. By exploiting the range of visco-elasticity attainable with these SAP gels, and their ability to recreate native-like ECM fibril topology with minimal variability in ligand density and pore size, we were able to reconstitute normal versus tumor-like phenotype and gene expression patterns in nonmalignant mammary epithelial cells (MECs). Accordingly, this SAP hydrogel system presents the first tunable system capable of independently assessing the interplay between ECM stiffness and multi-cellular epithelial phenotype in a 3D context. PMID:21441648

  16. Clinical challenges of chronic wounds: searching for an optimal animal model to recapitulate their complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Nunan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficient healing of a skin wound is something that most of us take for granted but is essential for surviving day-to-day knocks and cuts, and is absolutely relied on clinically whenever a patient receives surgical intervention. However, the management of a chronic wound – defined as a barrier defect that has not healed in 3 months – has become a major therapeutic challenge throughout the Western world, and it is a problem that will only escalate with the increasing incidence of conditions that impede wound healing, such as diabetes, obesity and vascular disorders. Despite being clinically and molecularly heterogeneous, all chronic wounds are generally assigned to one of three major clinical categories: leg ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers or pressure ulcers. Although we have gleaned much knowledge about the fundamental cellular and molecular mechanisms that underpin healthy, acute wound healing from various animal models, we have learned much less about chronic wound repair pathology from these models. This might largely be because the animal models being used in this field of research have failed to recapitulate the clinical features of chronic wounds. In this Clinical Puzzle article, we discuss the clinical complexity of chronic wounds and describe the best currently available models for investigating chronic wound pathology. We also assess how such models could be optimised to become more useful tools for uncovering pathological mechanisms and potential therapeutic treatments.

  17. Clinical challenges of chronic wounds: searching for an optimal animal model to recapitulate their complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, Robert; Harding, Keith G; Martin, Paul

    2014-11-01

    The efficient healing of a skin wound is something that most of us take for granted but is essential for surviving day-to-day knocks and cuts, and is absolutely relied on clinically whenever a patient receives surgical intervention. However, the management of a chronic wound - defined as a barrier defect that has not healed in 3 months - has become a major therapeutic challenge throughout the Western world, and it is a problem that will only escalate with the increasing incidence of conditions that impede wound healing, such as diabetes, obesity and vascular disorders. Despite being clinically and molecularly heterogeneous, all chronic wounds are generally assigned to one of three major clinical categories: leg ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers or pressure ulcers. Although we have gleaned much knowledge about the fundamental cellular and molecular mechanisms that underpin healthy, acute wound healing from various animal models, we have learned much less about chronic wound repair pathology from these models. This might largely be because the animal models being used in this field of research have failed to recapitulate the clinical features of chronic wounds. In this Clinical Puzzle article, we discuss the clinical complexity of chronic wounds and describe the best currently available models for investigating chronic wound pathology. We also assess how such models could be optimised to become more useful tools for uncovering pathological mechanisms and potential therapeutic treatments.

  18. Clinical challenges of chronic wounds: searching for an optimal animal model to recapitulate their complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, Robert; Harding, Keith G.; Martin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The efficient healing of a skin wound is something that most of us take for granted but is essential for surviving day-to-day knocks and cuts, and is absolutely relied on clinically whenever a patient receives surgical intervention. However, the management of a chronic wound – defined as a barrier defect that has not healed in 3 months – has become a major therapeutic challenge throughout the Western world, and it is a problem that will only escalate with the increasing incidence of conditions that impede wound healing, such as diabetes, obesity and vascular disorders. Despite being clinically and molecularly heterogeneous, all chronic wounds are generally assigned to one of three major clinical categories: leg ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers or pressure ulcers. Although we have gleaned much knowledge about the fundamental cellular and molecular mechanisms that underpin healthy, acute wound healing from various animal models, we have learned much less about chronic wound repair pathology from these models. This might largely be because the animal models being used in this field of research have failed to recapitulate the clinical features of chronic wounds. In this Clinical Puzzle article, we discuss the clinical complexity of chronic wounds and describe the best currently available models for investigating chronic wound pathology. We also assess how such models could be optimised to become more useful tools for uncovering pathological mechanisms and potential therapeutic treatments. PMID:25359790

  19. Substoichiometric hydroxynonenylation of a single protein recapitulates whole-cell-stimulated antioxidant response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvez, Saba; Fu, Yuan; Li, Jiayang; Long, Marcus J C; Lin, Hong-Yu; Lee, Dustin K; Hu, Gene S; Aye, Yimon

    2015-01-14

    Lipid-derived electrophiles (LDEs) that can directly modify proteins have emerged as important small-molecule cues in cellular decision-making. However, because these diffusible LDEs can modify many targets [e.g., >700 cysteines are modified by the well-known LDE 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE)], establishing the functional consequences of LDE modification on individual targets remains devilishly difficult. Whether LDE modifications on a single protein are biologically sufficient to activate discrete redox signaling response downstream also remains untested. Herein, using T-REX (targetable reactive electrophiles and oxidants), an approach aimed at selectively flipping a single redox switch in cells at a precise time, we show that a modest level (∼34%) of HNEylation on a single target is sufficient to elicit the pharmaceutically important antioxidant response element (ARE) activation, and the resultant strength of ARE induction recapitulates that observed from whole-cell electrophilic perturbation. These data provide the first evidence that single-target LDE modifications are important individual events in mammalian physiology.

  20. Genetic deletion of fibroblast growth factor 14 recapitulates phenotypic alterations underlying cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshammari, T K; Alshammari, M A; Nenov, M N; Hoxha, E; Cambiaghi, M; Marcinno, A; James, T F; Singh, P; Labate, D; Li, J; Meltzer, H Y; Sacchetti, B; Tempia, F; Laezza, F

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive processing is highly dependent on the functional integrity of gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) interneurons in the brain. These cells regulate excitability and synaptic plasticity of principal neurons balancing the excitatory/inhibitory tone of cortical networks. Reduced function of parvalbumin (PV) interneurons and disruption of GABAergic synapses in the cortical circuitry result in desynchronized network activity associated with cognitive impairment across many psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. However, the mechanisms underlying these complex phenotypes are still poorly understood. Here we show that in animal models, genetic deletion of fibroblast growth factor 14 (Fgf14), a regulator of neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission, leads to loss of PV interneurons in the CA1 hippocampal region, a critical area for cognitive function. Strikingly, this cellular phenotype associates with decreased expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) and vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) and also coincides with disrupted CA1 inhibitory circuitry, reduced in vivo gamma frequency oscillations and impaired working memory. Bioinformatics analysis of schizophrenia transcriptomics revealed functional co-clustering of FGF14 and genes enriched within the GABAergic pathway along with correlatively decreased expression of FGF14, PVALB, GAD67 and VGAT in the disease context. These results indicate that Fgf14−/− mice recapitulate salient molecular, cellular, functional and behavioral features associated with human cognitive impairment, and FGF14 loss of function might be associated with the biology of complex brain disorders such as schizophrenia. PMID:27163207

  1. Chemical polyglycosylation and nanolitre detection enables single-molecule recapitulation of bacterial sugar export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingbing; Almond, Andrew; Bayley, Hagan; Davis, Benjamin G.

    2016-05-01

    The outermost protective layer of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria is composed of bacterial capsular polysaccharides. Insights into the interactions between the capsular polysaccharide and its transporter and the mechanism of sugar export would not only increase our understanding of this key process, but would also help in the design of novel therapeutics to block capsular polysaccharide export. Here, we report a nanolitre detection system that makes use of the bilayer interface between two droplets, and we use this system to study single-molecule recapitulation of sugar export. A synthetic strategy of polyglycosylation based on tetrasaccharide monomers enables ready synthetic access to extended fragments of K30 oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Examination of the interactions between the Escherichia coli sugar transporter Wza and very small amounts of fragments of the K30 capsular polysaccharide substrate reveal the translocation of smaller but not larger fragments. We also observe capture events that occur only on the intracellular side of Wza, which would complement coordinated feeding by adjunct biosynthetic machinery.

  2. Human cerebral organoids recapitulate gene expression programs of fetal neocortex development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, J Gray; Badsha, Farhath; Florio, Marta; Kanton, Sabina; Gerber, Tobias; Wilsch-Bräuninger, Michaela; Lewitus, Eric; Sykes, Alex; Hevers, Wulf; Lancaster, Madeline; Knoblich, Juergen A; Lachmann, Robert; Pääbo, Svante; Huttner, Wieland B; Treutlein, Barbara

    2015-12-22

    Cerebral organoids-3D cultures of human cerebral tissue derived from pluripotent stem cells-have emerged as models of human cortical development. However, the extent to which in vitro organoid systems recapitulate neural progenitor cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation programs observed in vivo remains unclear. Here we use single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) to dissect and compare cell composition and progenitor-to-neuron lineage relationships in human cerebral organoids and fetal neocortex. Covariation network analysis using the fetal neocortex data reveals known and previously unidentified interactions among genes central to neural progenitor proliferation and neuronal differentiation. In the organoid, we detect diverse progenitors and differentiated cell types of neuronal and mesenchymal lineages and identify cells that derived from regions resembling the fetal neocortex. We find that these organoid cortical cells use gene expression programs remarkably similar to those of the fetal tissue to organize into cerebral cortex-like regions. Our comparison of in vivo and in vitro cortical single-cell transcriptomes illuminates the genetic features underlying human cortical development that can be studied in organoid cultures.

  3. Morphology, Biochemistry, and Pathophysiology of MENX-Related Pheochromocytoma Recapitulate the Clinical Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Tobias; Peitzsch, Mirko; Qin, Nan; Neff, Frauke; Ehrhart-Bornstein, Monika; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Pellegata, Natalia S

    2016-08-01

    Pheochromocytomas (PCCs) are tumors arising from neural crest-derived chromaffin cells. There are currently few animal models of PCC that recapitulate the key features of human tumors. Because such models may be useful for investigations of molecular pathomechanisms and development of novel therapeutic interventions, we characterized a spontaneous animal model (multiple endocrine neoplasia [MENX] rats) that develops endogenous PCCs with complete penetrance. Urine was longitudinally collected from wild-type (wt) and MENX-affected (mutant) rats and outputs of catecholamines and their O-methylated metabolites determined by mass spectrometry. Adrenal catecholamine contents, cellular ultrastructure, and expression of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase, which converts norepinephrine to epinephrine, were also determined in wt and mutant rats. Blood pressure was longitudinally measured and end-organ pathology assessed. Compared with wt rats, mutant animals showed age-dependent increases in urinary outputs of norepinephrine (P = .0079) and normetanephrine (P = .0014) that correlated in time with development of tumor nodules, increases in blood pressure, and development of hypertension-related end-organ pathology. Development of tumor nodules, which lacked expression of N-methyltransferase, occurred on a background of adrenal medullary morphological and biochemical changes occurring as early as 1 month of age and involving increased adrenal medullary concentrations of dense cored vesicles, tissue contents of both norepinephrine and epinephrine, and urinary outputs of metanephrine, the metabolite of epinephrine. Taken together, MENX-affected rats share several biochemical and pathophysiological features with PCC patients. This model thus provides a suitable platform to study the pathogenesis of PCC for preclinical translational studies aimed at the development of novel therapies for aggressive forms of human tumors.

  4. An estrogen-induced endometrial hyperplasia mouse model recapitulating human disease progression and genetic aberrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chieh-Hsiang; Almomen, Aliyah; Wee, Yin Shen; Jarboe, Elke A; Peterson, C Matthew; Janát-Amsbury, Margit M

    2015-07-01

    Endometrial hyperplasia (EH) is a condition originating from uterine endometrial glands undergoing disordered proliferation including the risk to progress to endometrial adenocarcinoma. In recent years, a steady increase in EH cases among younger women of reproductive age accentuates the demand of therapeutic alternatives, which emphasizes that an improved disease model for therapeutic agents evaluation is concurrently desired. Here, a new hormone-induced EH mouse model was developed using a subcutaneous estradiol (E2)-sustained releasing pellet, which elevates the serum E2 level in mice, closely mimicking the effect known as estrogen dominance with underlying, pathological E2 levels in patients. The onset and progression of EH generated within this model recapitulate a clinically relevant, pathological transformation, beginning with disordered proliferation developing to simple EH, advancing to atypical EH, and then progressing to precancerous stages, all following a chronologic manner. Although a general increase in nuclear progesterone receptor (PR) expression occurred after E2 expression, a total loss in PR was noted in some endometrial glands as disease advanced to simple EH. Furthermore, estrogen receptor (ER) expression in the nucleus of endometrial cells was reduced in disordered proliferation and increased when EH progressed to atypical EH and precancerous stages. This EH model also resembles other pathological patterns found in human disease such as leukocytic infiltration, genetic aberrations in β-catenin, and joint phosphatase and tensin homolog/paired box gene 2 (PTEN/PAX2) silencing. In summary, this new and comprehensively characterized EH model is cost-effective, easily reproducible, and may serve as a tool for preclinical testing of therapeutic agents and facilitate further investigation of EH.

  5. Transgenic Monkey Model of the Polyglutamine Diseases Recapitulating Progressive Neurological Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Hidetoshi; Minakawa, Eiko N.; Motohashi, Hideyuki H.; Takayama, Osamu; Popiel, H. Akiko; Puentes, Sandra; Owari, Kensuke; Nakatani, Terumi; Nogami, Naotake; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Yonekawa, Takahiro; Tanaka, Yoko; Fujita, Naoko; Suzuki, Hikaru; Aizawa, Shu; Nagano, Seiichi; Yamada, Daisuke; Wada, Keiji; Kohsaka, Shinichi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Age-associated neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and the polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases, are becoming prevalent as a consequence of elongation of the human lifespan. Although various rodent models have been developed to study and overcome these diseases, they have limitations in their translational research utility owing to differences from humans in brain structure and function and in drug metabolism. Here, we generated a transgenic marmoset model of the polyQ diseases, showing progressive neurological symptoms including motor impairment. Seven transgenic marmosets were produced by lentiviral introduction of the human ataxin 3 gene with 120 CAG repeats encoding an expanded polyQ stretch. Although all offspring showed no neurological symptoms at birth, three marmosets with higher transgene expression developed neurological symptoms of varying degrees at 3–4 months after birth, followed by gradual decreases in body weight gain, spontaneous activity, and grip strength, indicating time-dependent disease progression. Pathological examinations revealed neurodegeneration and intranuclear polyQ protein inclusions accompanied by gliosis, which recapitulate the neuropathological features of polyQ disease patients. Consistent with neuronal loss in the cerebellum, brain MRI analyses in one living symptomatic marmoset detected enlargement of the fourth ventricle, which suggests cerebellar atrophy. Notably, successful germline transgene transmission was confirmed in the second-generation offspring derived from the symptomatic transgenic marmoset gamete. Because the accumulation of abnormal proteins is a shared pathomechanism among various neurodegenerative diseases, we suggest that this new marmoset model will contribute toward elucidating the pathomechanisms of and developing clinically applicable therapies for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:28374014

  6. Reconstructing the origin of oxygenic photosynthesis: do assembly and photoactivation recapitulate evolution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanai eCardona

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the great abundance of genomes and protein structures that today span a broad diversity of organisms, now more than ever before, it is possible to reconstruct the molecular evolution of protein complexes at an incredible level of detail. Here, I recount the story of oxygenic photosynthesis or how an ancestral reaction center was transformed into a sophisticated photochemical machine capable of water oxidation. First, I review the evolution of all reaction center proteins in order to highlight that Photosystem II and Photosystem I, today only found in the phylum Cyanobacteria, branched out very early in the history of photosynthesis. Therefore, it is very unlikely that they were acquired via horizontal gene transfer from any of the described phyla of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria. Second, I present a new evolutionary scenario for the origin of the CP43 and CP47 antenna of Photosystem II. I suggest that the antenna proteins originated from the remodeling of an entire Type I reaction center protein and not from the partial gene duplication of a Type I reaction center gene. Third, I highlight how Photosystem II and Photosystem I reaction center proteins interact with small peripheral subunits in remarkably similar patterns and hypothesize that some of this complexity may be traced back to the most ancestral reaction center. Fourth, I outline the sequence of events that led to the origin of the Mn4CaO5 cluster and show that the most ancestral Type II reaction center had some of the basic structural components that would become essential in the coordination of the water-oxidizing complex. Finally, I collect all these ideas, starting at the origin of the first reaction center proteins and ending with the emergence of the water-oxidizing cluster, to hypothesize that the complex and well-organized process of assembly and photoactivation of Photosystem II recapitulate evolutionary transitions in the path to oxygenic photosynthesis.

  7. Reconstructing the Origin of Oxygenic Photosynthesis: Do Assembly and Photoactivation Recapitulate Evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Tanai

    2016-01-01

    Due to the great abundance of genomes and protein structures that today span a broad diversity of organisms, now more than ever before, it is possible to reconstruct the molecular evolution of protein complexes at an incredible level of detail. Here, I recount the story of oxygenic photosynthesis or how an ancestral reaction center was transformed into a sophisticated photochemical machine capable of water oxidation. First, I review the evolution of all reaction center proteins in order to highlight that Photosystem II and Photosystem I, today only found in the phylum Cyanobacteria, branched out very early in the history of photosynthesis. Therefore, it is very unlikely that they were acquired via horizontal gene transfer from any of the described phyla of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria. Second, I present a new evolutionary scenario for the origin of the CP43 and CP47 antenna of Photosystem II. I suggest that the antenna proteins originated from the remodeling of an entire Type I reaction center protein and not from the partial gene duplication of a Type I reaction center gene. Third, I highlight how Photosystem II and Photosystem I reaction center proteins interact with small peripheral subunits in remarkably similar patterns and hypothesize that some of this complexity may be traced back to the most ancestral reaction center. Fourth, I outline the sequence of events that led to the origin of the Mn4CaO5 cluster and show that the most ancestral Type II reaction center had some of the basic structural components that would become essential in the coordination of the water-oxidizing complex. Finally, I collect all these ideas, starting at the origin of the first reaction center proteins and ending with the emergence of the water-oxidizing cluster, to hypothesize that the complex and well-organized process of assembly and photoactivation of Photosystem II recapitulate evolutionary transitions in the path to oxygenic photosynthesis.

  8. The Progressive BSSG Rat Model of Parkinson's: Recapitulating Multiple Key Features of the Human Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kampen, Jackalina M; Baranowski, David C; Robertson, Harold A; Shaw, Christopher A; Kay, Denis G

    2015-01-01

    The development of effective neuroprotective therapies for Parkinson's disease (PD) has been severely hindered by the notable lack of an appropriate animal model for preclinical screening. Indeed, most models currently available are either acute in nature or fail to recapitulate all characteristic features of the disease. Here, we present a novel progressive model of PD, with behavioural and cellular features that closely approximate those observed in patients. Chronic exposure to dietary phytosterol glucosides has been found to be neurotoxic. When fed to rats, β-sitosterol β-d-glucoside (BSSG) triggers the progressive development of parkinsonism, with clinical signs and histopathology beginning to appear following cessation of exposure to the neurotoxic insult and continuing to develop over several months. Here, we characterize the progressive nature of this model, its non-motor features, the anatomical spread of synucleinopathy, and response to levodopa administration. In Sprague Dawley rats, chronic BSSG feeding for 4 months triggered the progressive development of a parkinsonian phenotype and pathological events that evolved slowly over time, with neuronal loss beginning only after toxin exposure was terminated. At approximately 3 months following initiation of BSSG exposure, animals displayed the early emergence of an olfactory deficit, in the absence of significant dopaminergic nigral cell loss or locomotor deficits. Locomotor deficits developed gradually over time, initially appearing as locomotor asymmetry and developing into akinesia/bradykinesia, which was reversed by levodopa treatment. Late-stage cognitive impairment was observed in the form of spatial working memory deficits, as assessed by the radial arm maze. In addition to the progressive loss of TH+ cells in the substantia nigra, the appearance of proteinase K-resistant intracellular α-synuclein aggregates was also observed to develop progressively, appearing first in the olfactory bulb, then

  9. Behavioral constraints and the evolution of faithful social learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alberto ACERBI; Pierre O. JACQUET; Claudio TENNIE

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral "traditions",i.e.behavioral patterns that are acquired with the aid of social learning and that are relatively stable in a group,have been observed in several species.Recently,however,it has been questioned whether non-human social learning is faithful enough to stabilize those patterns.The observed stability could be interpreted as a result of various constraints that limit the number of possible alternative behaviors,rather than of the fidelity of transmission mechanisms.Those constraints can be roughly described as "internal",such as mechanical (bodily) properties or cognitive limitations and predispositions,and "external",such as ecological availability or pressures.Here we present an evolutionary individual-based model that explores the relationships between the evolution of faithful social learning and behavioral constraints,represented both by the size of the behavioral repertoire and by the "shape" of the search space of a given task.We show that the evolution of high-fidelity transmission mechanisms,when associated with costs (e.g.cognitive,biomechanical,energetic,etc.),is only likely if the potential behavioral repertoire of a species is large and if the search space does not provide information that can be exploited by individual learning.Moreover we show how stable behavioral patterns ("traditions") can be achieved at the population level as an outcome of both high-fidelity and low-fidelity transmission mechanisms,given that the latter are coupled with a small behavioral repertoire or with a search space that provide substantial feedback.Finally,by introducing the possibility of environmental change,we show that intermediate rates of change favor the evolution of faithful social learning [Current Zoology 58 (2):307-318,2012].

  10. Buddhism, Poststructuralist Thought, Cultural Studies: A Profession of Faith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Ng

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay is a result of the author's research into Buddhism and poststructuralist theories on knowledge, self and ethics and attempts to articulate the ethico-political implications of his own practice of Vipassana (a form of Buddhist meditation and interrogate what is called the politics of spirituality. He explores the role of faith within cultural studies by first contextualising the relevant discursive fields, then  analysing Vipassana with a ‘religious’ Foucauldian approach oriented around the critico-political aims of Foucault's late work. This elucidates how Buddhist and poststructuralist thought share certain concerns, and identifies trajectories for further inquiry.

  11. From Quantum theory to Quantum theology: A leap of faith

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    M. M.J. Basson

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is aimed at introducing multi valued logic as an epistemic model for theological thought within the  reformational-dialectic paradigm. Nowadays, reformational-dialectic theology is challenged by postmodem culture, interreligious exposure and scientific discoveries, which subsequently lead to new and unaccounted world-views. As a result, an epistemological shift based on an expanded rationality is called for. It is in this regard that multivalued-logic emerges as an epistemic model specifically developed to accommodate diversity, uncertainty and probability as well as, to restore hope and faith in the hearts of millions.

  12. Mass-Fatality Incident Preparedness Among Faith-Based Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Qi; Merrill, Jacqueline A; Gershon, Robyn R

    2017-07-04

    Introduction Members of faith-based organizations (FBOs) are in a unique position to provide support and services to their local communities during disasters. Because of their close community ties and well-established trust, they can play an especially critical role in helping communities heal in the aftermath of a mass-fatality incident (MFI). Faith-based organizations are considered an important disaster resource and partner under the National Response Plan (NRP) and National Response Framework; however, their level of preparedness and response capabilities with respect to MFIs has never been evaluated. The purpose of this study was threefold: (1) to develop appropriate measures of preparedness for this sector; (2) to assess MFI preparedness among United States FBOs; and (3) to identify key factors associated with MFI preparedness. Problem New metrics for MFI preparedness, comprised of three domains (organizational capabilities, operational capabilities, and resource sharing partnerships), were developed and tested in a national convenience sample of FBO members. Data were collected using an online anonymous survey that was distributed through two major, national faith-based associations and social media during a 6-week period in 2014. Descriptive, bivariate, and correlational analyses were conducted. One hundred twenty-four respondents completed the online survey. More than one-half of the FBOs had responded to MFIs in the previous five years. Only 20% of respondents thought that roughly three-quarters of FBO clergy would be able to respond to MFIs, with or without hazardous contamination. A higher proportion (45%) thought that most FBO clergy would be willing to respond, but only 37% thought they would be willing if hazardous contamination was involved. Almost all respondents reported that their FBO was capable of providing emotional care and grief counseling in response to MFIs. Resource sharing partnerships were typically in place with other voluntary

  13. Gandhi on religion, faith and conversion: secular blueprint relevant today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajai R; Singh, Shakuntala A

    2004-01-01

    Gandhi believed in judging people of other faiths from their stand point rather than his own. He welcomed contact of Hinduism with other religions, especially the Christian doctrines, for he did not want to be debarred from assimilating good anywhere else. He believed a respectful study of other's religion was a sacred duty and it did not reduce reverence for one's own. He was looking out for those universal principles which transcended religion as a dogma. He expected religion to take account of practical life, he wanted it to appeal to reason and not be in conflict with morality. He believed it was his right and duty to point out the defects of his own religion, but to desist from doing so with other's faith. He refused to abuse a man for his fanatical deeds for he tried to see them from the other person's point of view. He believed Jesus expressed the will and spirit of God but could not accept Jesus as the only incarnate son of God. If Jesus was like God or God himself, then all men were like God or God Himself. But neither could he accept the Vedas as the inspired word of God, for if they were inspired why not also the Bible and the Koran? He believed all great religions were fundamentally equal and that there should be innate respect for them, not just mutual tolerance. He felt a person wanting to convert should try to be a good follower of his own faith rather than seek goodness in change of faith. His early impressions of Christianity were unfortunate which underwent a change when he discovered the New Testament and the Sermon on the Mount, whose ideal of renunciation appealed to him greatly. He thought Parliament of Religions or International Fellowship of Religions could be based only on equality of status, a common platform. An attitude of patronising tolerance was false to the spirit of international fellowship. He believed that all religions were more or less true, but had errors because they came to us though imperfect human instrumentality. Religious

  14. Framing the Role of the Faith Community in Global Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Strand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization has brought many people and organizations together. Healthcare is one of the fields that has been the most prominent in global collaboration. Healthcare professionals working from the framework of Christian faith have been participants and leaders in global health for many years. The current challenges in global health call for the active involvement of all concerned players, Christian healthcare professionals among them. In this paper, the authors suggest a unique framework for Christians involved in global health to make contributions to research, scholarship, and practice innovation in this field.

  15. Gandhi on Religion, Faith and Conversion: Secular Blueprint Relevant Today*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajai R.; Singh, Shakuntala A.

    2004-01-01

    Gandhi believed in judging people of other faiths from their stand point rather than his own. He welcomed contact of Hinduism with other religions, especially the Christian doctrines, for he did not want to be debarred from assimilating good anywhere else. He believed a respectful study of other's religion was a sacred duty and it did not reduce reverence for one's own. He was looking out for those universal principles which transcended religion as a dogma. He expected religion to take account of practical life, he wanted it to appeal to reason and not be in conflict with morality. He believed it was his right and duty to point out the defects of his own religion, but to desist from doing so with other's faith. He refused to abuse a man for his fanatical deeds for he tried to see them from the other person's point of view. He believed Jesus expressed the will and spirit of God but could not accept Jesus as the only incarnate son of God. If Jesus was like God or God himself, then all men were like God or God Himself. But neither could he accept the Vedas as the inspired word of God, for if they were inspired why not also the Bible and the Koran? He believed all great religions were fundamentally equal and that there should be innate respect for them, not just mutual tolerance. He felt a person wanting to convert should try to be a good follower of his own faith rather than seek goodness in change of faith. His early impressions of Christianity were unfortunate which underwent a change when he discovered the New Testament and the Sermon on the Mount, whose ideal of renunciation appealed to him greatly. He thought Parliament of Religions or International Fellowship of Religions could be based only on equality of status, a common platform. An attitude of patronising tolerance was false to the spirit of international fellowship. He believed that all religions were more or less true, but had errors because they came to us though imperfect human instrumentality. Religious

  16. Inclusion of people with mental retardation and other developmental disabilities in communities of faith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Jeannine; Polloway, Edward A; Smith, J David

    2006-04-01

    Our focus in this paper is on efforts to include persons with developmental disabilities in faith communities. We provide a review of the relevant literature on religious participation and faith communities for persons with disabilities and blend the limited data available on these topics with the perspectives of individuals whose efforts focus on these concerns. Topics explored are the implications of being part of the faith community in terms of its impact on quality of life, the barriers to inclusion in such communities, strategies for overcoming these barriers, and special considerations for adults with mental retardation or other developmental disabilities. Discussion of the implications for enhancing inclusion in faith communities is provided.

  17. Exploration and Description of Faith-Based Health Resources: Findings Inform Advancing Holistic Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyess, Susan MacLeod

    2015-01-01

    It is important to use all holistic resource opportunities in communities, such as integrative healing centers, and mind-body-spirit approaches to health. These holistic approaches may be realized through nontraditional avenues, such as faith-based resources. This article reports on an exploratory study that describes faith-based resources supporting holistic health in a southeastern region of the United States. A working definition for "faith-based health resources" was "ecumenical and interfaith community-based, open-access health resources that include in mission for service a reference to faith." Excluded from the definition were institutional services from hospitals, focused social services from area agencies, and federally funded services.

  18. Mammalian development does not recapitulate suspected key transformations in the evolutionary detachment of the mammalian middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Chaves, Héctor E; Wroe, Stephen W; Selwood, Lynne; Hinds, Lyn A; Leigh, Chris; Koyabu, Daisuke; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Weisbecker, Vera

    2016-01-13

    The ectotympanic, malleus and incus of the developing mammalian middle ear (ME) are initially attached to the dentary via Meckel's cartilage, betraying their origins from the primary jaw joint of land vertebrates. This recapitulation has prompted mostly unquantified suggestions that several suspected--but similarly unquantified--key evolutionary transformations leading to the mammalian ME are recapitulated in development, through negative allometry and posterior/medial displacement of ME bones relative to the jaw joint. Here we show, using µCT reconstructions, that neither allometric nor topological change is quantifiable in the pre-detachment ME development of six marsupials and two monotremes. Also, differential ME positioning in the two monotreme species is not recapitulated. This challenges the developmental prerequisites of widely cited evolutionary scenarios of definitive mammalian middle ear (DMME) evolution, highlighting the requirement for further fossil evidence to test these hypotheses. Possible association between rear molar eruption, full ME ossification and ME detachment in marsupials suggests functional divergence between dentary and ME as a trigger for developmental, and possibly also evolutionary, ME detachment. The stable positioning of the dentary and ME supports suggestions that a 'partial mammalian middle ear' as found in many mammaliaforms--probably with a cartilaginous Meckel's cartilage--represents the only developmentally plausible evolutionary DMME precursor.

  19. Public health and health education in faith communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatters, L M; Levin, J S; Ellison, C G

    1998-12-01

    This special issue of Health Education & Behavior is devoted to broadly examining the interconnections among public health, health education, and faith-based communities. In addition to a focus on questions related to the practice of public health and health education within religious settings (e.g., program development, implementation, and evaluation), the articles in this issue examine a broad range of both substantive and methodological questions and concerns. These articles include contributions that address (1) various theoretical and conceptual issues and frameworks explaining the relationships between religious involvement and health; (2) substantive reviews of current research in the area; (3) individual empirical studies exploring the associations between religious involvement and health attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors; (4) evaluations of health education programs in faith communities; and (5) religious institutions and their contributions to the development of health policy. The articles comprising the issue are selective in their coverage of the field and provide different and complementary perspectives on the connections between religious involvement and health. It is hoped that this approach will appeal to a broad audience of researchers, practitioners, policy makers, and others from health education, public health, and related social and behavioral science disciplines.

  20. Trim37-deficient mice recapitulate several features of the multi-organ disorder Mulibrey nanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaisa M. Kettunen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mulibrey nanism (MUL is a rare autosomal recessive multi-organ disorder characterized by severe prenatal-onset growth failure, infertility, cardiopathy, risk for tumors, fatty liver, and type 2 diabetes. MUL is caused by loss-of-function mutations in TRIM37, which encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase belonging to the tripartite motif (TRIM protein family and having both peroxisomal and nuclear localization. We describe a congenic Trim37 knock-out mouse (Trim37−/− model for MUL. Trim37−/− mice were viable and had normal weight development until approximately 12 months of age, after which they started to manifest increasing problems in wellbeing and weight loss. Assessment of skeletal parameters with computer tomography revealed significantly smaller skull size, but no difference in the lengths of long bones in Trim37−/− mice as compared with wild-type. Both male and female Trim37−/− mice were infertile, the gonads showing germ cell aplasia, hilus and Leydig cell hyperplasia and accumulation of lipids in and around Leydig cells. Male Trim37−/− mice had elevated levels of follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones, but maintained normal levels of testosterone. Six-month-old Trim37−/− mice had elevated fasting blood glucose and low fasting serum insulin levels. At 1.5 years Trim37−/− mice showed non-compaction cardiomyopathy, hepatomegaly, fatty liver and various tumors. The amount and morphology of liver peroxisomes seemed normal in Trim37−/− mice. The most consistently seen phenotypes in Trim37−/− mice were infertility and the associated hormonal findings, whereas there was more variability in the other phenotypes observed. Trim37−/− mice recapitulate several features of the human MUL disease and thus provide a good model to study disease pathogenesis related to TRIM37 deficiency, including infertility, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cardiomyopathy and tumorigenesis.

  1. Genetic inactivation of glutamate neurons in the rat sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus recapitulates REM sleep behaviour disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia Garcia, Sara; Libourel, Paul-Antoine; Lazarus, Michael; Grassi, Daniela; Luppi, Pierre-Hervé; Fort, Patrice

    2017-02-01

    SEE SCHENCK AND MAHOWALD DOI101093/AWW329 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder is characterized by the enactment of violent dreams during paradoxical (REM) sleep in the absence of normal muscle atonia. Accumulating clinical and experimental data suggest that REM sleep behaviour disorder might be due to the neurodegeneration of glutamate neurons involved in paradoxical sleep and located within the pontine sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus. The purpose of the present work was thus to functionally determine first, the role of glutamate sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus neurons in paradoxical sleep and second, whether their genetic inactivation is sufficient for recapitulating REM sleep behaviour disorder in rats. For this goal, we first injected two retrograde tracers in the intralaminar thalamus and ventral medulla to disentangle neuronal circuits in which sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus is involved; second we infused bilaterally in sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus adeno-associated viruses carrying short hairpin RNAs targeting Slc17a6 mRNA [which encodes vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (vGluT2)] to chronically impair glutamate synaptic transmission in sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus neurons. At the neuroanatomical level, sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus neurons specifically activated during paradoxical sleep hypersomnia send descending efferents to glycine/GABA neurons within the ventral medulla, but not ascending projections to the intralaminar thalamus. These data suggest a crucial role of sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus neurons rather in muscle atonia than in paradoxical sleep generation. In line with this hypothesis, 30 days after adeno-associated virus injections into sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus rats display a decrease of 30% of paradoxical sleep daily quantities, and a significant increase of muscle tone during paradoxical sleep concomitant to a tremendous increase of abnormal motor dream

  2. The Progressive BSSG Rat Model of Parkinson's: Recapitulating Multiple Key Features of the Human Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackalina M Van Kampen

    Full Text Available The development of effective neuroprotective therapies for Parkinson's disease (PD has been severely hindered by the notable lack of an appropriate animal model for preclinical screening. Indeed, most models currently available are either acute in nature or fail to recapitulate all characteristic features of the disease. Here, we present a novel progressive model of PD, with behavioural and cellular features that closely approximate those observed in patients. Chronic exposure to dietary phytosterol glucosides has been found to be neurotoxic. When fed to rats, β-sitosterol β-d-glucoside (BSSG triggers the progressive development of parkinsonism, with clinical signs and histopathology beginning to appear following cessation of exposure to the neurotoxic insult and continuing to develop over several months. Here, we characterize the progressive nature of this model, its non-motor features, the anatomical spread of synucleinopathy, and response to levodopa administration. In Sprague Dawley rats, chronic BSSG feeding for 4 months triggered the progressive development of a parkinsonian phenotype and pathological events that evolved slowly over time, with neuronal loss beginning only after toxin exposure was terminated. At approximately 3 months following initiation of BSSG exposure, animals displayed the early emergence of an olfactory deficit, in the absence of significant dopaminergic nigral cell loss or locomotor deficits. Locomotor deficits developed gradually over time, initially appearing as locomotor asymmetry and developing into akinesia/bradykinesia, which was reversed by levodopa treatment. Late-stage cognitive impairment was observed in the form of spatial working memory deficits, as assessed by the radial arm maze. In addition to the progressive loss of TH+ cells in the substantia nigra, the appearance of proteinase K-resistant intracellular α-synuclein aggregates was also observed to develop progressively, appearing first in the

  3. A survey of faith leaders concerning health promotion and the level of healthy living activities occurring in faith communities in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Donna M; Kiger, Alice; van Teijlingen, Edwin

    2010-12-01

    Faith groups constitute a growing health promotion partner in North America where they help increase community capacity. However, in the United Kingdom this collaboration is seemingly far less developed. This study sought to find evidence of health promotion in faith communities and examine perceptions and attitudes concerning health promotion among faith leaders. It also sought to establish the level to which health-promoting activities currently occur in, and are organized by, places of worship in one Scottish city, Dundee. The authors distributed a self-administered questionnaire to representatives of all faith communities in Dundee (response rate 71%, n = 50). The survey identified existing, well-formed community groups, some of whom already engaged in health-promoting activities, and shared similar interests with health promotion professionals. Generally, faith leaders were positive towards the concept of health promotion and many considered health promotion to be compatible with their mission. Not all denominations were equally involved in health promotion activities, for example, some conducted annual one-off activities, while others had well-established walking groups or exercise classes. The responses suggest a degree of readiness by faith communities to engage, if invited, in health promotion programmes. These results also indicate that faith groups may constitute untapped resources, poised to contribute to local health promotion efforts. The article concludes that as the National Health Service (NHS) invests in community-based health initiatives that can have long-term sustainability, it is reasonable to make links between what is happening in North America, the interest in health promotion reported by faith leaders in this study and the possibilities for their participation in voluntary sector community health partnerships.

  4. Common Ground with "A Common Faith": Dewey's Idea of the "Religious"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurain, Bradley

    2011-01-01

    In "A Common Faith", Dewey rejects organized religion and belief in the supernatural, instead arguing for an authentically "religious" attitude which this interpretive essay analyzes in terms of four propositions: (1) Knowledge is unified. (2) Knowledge is democratic. (3) The pursuit of moral ideals requires moral faith. (4) The authority for…

  5. From Indoctrination to Initiation: A Non-Coercive Approach to Faith-Learning Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Joshua D.

    2013-01-01

    This article contributes to ongoing discussions related to the nature, scope, and methods of faith-learning integration. The "initiation" approach developed by Tim McDonough (2011) is adapted to faith-learning integration in an attempt to bridge polarizing discussions regarding indoctrination versus rational autonomy and critical…

  6. Social Justice and Faith Maturity: Exploring Whether Religious Beliefs Impact Civic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Christine; Ferrari, Joseph R.; Odahl, Charlynn

    2014-01-01

    The current study compared perceptions by college students (n = 304; M age=19.75 years old) enrolled at an urban and diverse Roman Catholic university on self-report measures of faith/belief structures, social justice, and community service attitudes. Survey results indicated that both horizontal and vertical faith maturity perceptions…

  7. Developing a Program-Level Faith Integration Curriculum: A Case Study from Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Bradley K.

    2014-01-01

    Integrating faith with academics possesses significant benefits for students, because it connects major disciplines to students' personal values and goals, prepares students to be effective and faithful professionals in their discipline and vocation, and develops students' understanding of the nature of their discipline. However, to…

  8. Developing Graduate Curricula Faithful to Professional Training and a Christian Worldview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauf-Grounds, Claudia; Edwards, Scott; Macdonald, Don; Quek, Karen Mui-Teng; Sellers, Tina Schermer

    2009-01-01

    Trends in Christian higher education indicate a growing interest in professional training programs that take Christian faith commitments and values seriously. This article explores one professional graduate program with secondary accreditation that attempts to be faithful to a Christian worldview while at the same time honoring the developments…

  9. Teaching about Faith-Based Organizations in the Social Work Curriculum: Perspectives of Social Work Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Samta P.

    2016-01-01

    Faith-based organizations (FBOs) have an important presence in contemporary civil society and have gained further prominence through their repertoire of social welfare and services. This study engaged social work educators (n = 316) across nine countries to examine their perceptions of including discourses on faith and FBOs in the social work…

  10. Categorizing "Others": The Segmentation of Other Actors for "Faith in Others' Efficacy (FIO)"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chi Kwan; D'Souza, Clare

    2016-01-01

    This conceptual paper provides an innovative categorization of "others" for the variable of "faith in others (FIO)". Adopted by pro-environmental and sustainability literature, FIO refers to faith in the efficacy of other actors. Examination and integration of theories on sustainable pro-environmental behavior leads to the…

  11. The importance of life and faith histories in the methodology of Practical Theology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bons-Storm, Riet

    2002-01-01

    The basic questions of Practical Theology concern the development of a community of faith built on, and building the faithful lives of its members in their particular contexts. This article is an exploration of the biographical method - as a means of qualitative empirical research - to obtain data c

  12. How can you resist? Executive control helps romantically involved individuals to stay faithful

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, T.M.; Karremans, J.C.T.M.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    In the present research, we examined why some people have more difficulty than others in staying faithful to their romantic partners. Three studies supported our main prediction that executive control is associated with romantically involved individuals' ability to stay faithful. Study 1 showed that

  13. Faith-Based Mental Health Interventions with African Americans: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Krystal; Aranda, Maria P.

    2016-01-01

    Faith-based interventions have emerged culturally sensitive way to address mental health issues among African Americans. This systematic review explores the scope and efficacy of faith-based mental health intervention outcomes among African Americans. Extracted data included the study population, setting, study design, intervention, adaptations,…

  14. Balancing Identity and Diversity in Faith-Based Nursing Education: A Case Study from Northern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveit, Bodil; Karvinen, Ikali; Damsma-Bakker, Alica; Ylönen, Merja; Oosterhoff-Zielman, Marjanne; Fanuelsen, Olav; van Leeuwen, Réné

    2015-01-01

    The role of faith-based nursing education is contested in today's Northern European societies, which are often described as postmodern, pluralist, or secular. Although faith-based institutions played pioneering roles in the early development of nursing education, many today downplay their religious roots and have transformed themselves into modern…

  15. 24 CFR 100.308 - Good faith defense against civil money damages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Good faith defense against civil money damages. 100.308 Section 100.308 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... Good faith defense against civil money damages. (a) A person shall not be held personally liable...

  16. Cultural Studies and Matters of Faith: The Case of DhammaWheel.com

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Ng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article begins with the premise that cultural studies has neglected questions about religion and faith. Through an analysis of a discussion in an online Buddhist forum whereby the participants debate the issue of faith vis-a-vis knowledge, the paper explicates how Buddhism negotiates dominant cultural formations and evolves against various contexts of social struggles. The analysis also reveals how the participants articulate a vernacular theory of faith to rethink the relationships between reason, religion, faith, knowledge, and ethics. The article demonstrates how an engagement with a religious discourse elucidates themes that are of interest to cultural studies’ critical project, and argues that cultural studies has an ethical responsibility to engage with religion and address matters of faith.

  17. The Perils of Entanglement: Bilateral Donors, Faith-Based Organisations and International Development (abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Clarke

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The faith and development interface has become a significant feature of development discourse and policy over the last 15 years. While most of the recent literature treats it as a welcome and positive development, leading to productive engagement between donors and faith communities, the new interface has also proven challenging for donors and faith leaders alike. This chapter explores recent initiatives by European bilateral donors to engage with faith-based organisations (FBOs and efforts by faith communities to create conditions for productive engagement. It also examines some of the resulting controversies and suggests that both donors and FBOs have some distance to travel in creating the conditions and mechanisms that would enable them to work together effectively to combat poverty and social exclusion.

  18. Envisioning Religiously Diverse Partnership Systems among Government, Faith Communities and FBOs

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    Jo Anne Schneider

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent U.S. policy regarding faith-based organizations (FBO envisions “partnerships with government” that include both financial and non-financial relationships. This paper explores the current nature of a three-way partnership among faith communities, FBOs and government, proposing ways that government could more effectively partner with faith communities and their organizations. I use data from the Faith and Organizations Project and earlier studies of refugee resettlement and social welfare supports. The paper combines research and policy literature with research findings to describe how faith communities organize social services, education, health, senior services and community development through their FBOs, differences among religions and denominations and current forms of partnerships with government. Conclusions provide policy suggestions for U.S. systems.

  19. Development of a Faith-Based Stress Management Intervention in a Rural African American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Keneshia; Moore, Todd; Willis, Nathaniel; Hadden, Kristie

    2017-01-01

    Background Faith-based mental health interventions developed and implemented using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach hold promise for reaching rural African Americans and addressing health disparities. Objectives To describe the development, challenges, and lessons learned from the Trinity Life Management, a faith-based stress management intervention in a rural African American faith community. Methods The researchers used a CBPR approach by partnering with the African American faith community to develop a stress management intervention. Development strategies include working with key informants, focus groups, and a community advisory board (CAB). Results The community identified the key concepts that should be included in a stress management intervention. Conclusions The faith-based “Trinity Life Management” stress management intervention was developed collaboratively by a CAB and an academic research team. The intervention includes stress management techniques that incorporate Biblical principles and information about the stress–distress–depression continuum. PMID:26548794

  20. Faith, Trust and the Perinatal Healthcare Maze in Urban India

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    S. Raman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available How women access and utilise health services through pregnancy, childbirth and infancy needs to be understood if we are to improve the delivery of and access to appropriate healthcare. Drawing on ethnographic observations of clinic encounters and in-depth interviews with women in Bangalore, South India, this paper reports on the complexities of negotiating healthcare throughout the perinatal continuum in urban India. Key themes identified include faith and trust in health services, confusion over right to healthcare; and the contested nature of choice for women. What is revealed is a socially restrictive framework that results in choices that seem arbitrary, irrational and self-defeating; poor women being particularly vulnerable. Given the current policy support for public-private-partnerships in reproductive healthcare delivery in India, both public and private health services need to move substantially to achieve true partnership and provide care that is respectful and valued by women and children in urban India.

  1. Youth culture, media and sexuality: What could faith communities contribute?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Cloete

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article provided an overview of youth culture and how the media shapes youth culture today. Its specific aim was to focus on the access to sexual content that the different forms of media provide and the possible effect that they have on youth culture today. The sexual development of teenagers is one of the most important areas of their journey into adulthood and can easily be influenced by media messages on sex and sexuality. As such, the sexual behaviour of teenagers mostly seems to demonstrate a misconception on sex and sexuality. The author argued that sex and sexuality can also be viewed as theological issues and concluded by offering a few suggestions on how faith communities can become a more relevant and effective partner in fostering a theological understanding of sex and sexuality, especially to the youth.

  2. EXERCISE WITH BAD FAITH OF SUBJECTIVE CIVIL RIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLAE GRADINARU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The abuse of rights is qualified as civil offence and it may not be different from that of aquilian responsibility, the purpose of its sanction is to protect the victim and not to punish the author. In the Romanian legal doctrine, the abuse of rights was defined as “the exercise of a civil subjective right by breaching the principles of its exercise.” The Constitutional Court held that the person exercising in bad faith and abusively his/her subjective or procedural rights is punishable by appropriate penalties, such as: dismissal of his/her legal action, obligation to bear the costs, application of certain court fines, etc.

  3. An Intensional Concurrent Faithful Encoding of Turing Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Given-Wilson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The benchmark for computation is typically given as Turing computability; the ability for a computation to be performed by a Turing Machine. Many languages exploit (indirect encodings of Turing Machines to demonstrate their ability to support arbitrary computation. However, these encodings are usually by simulating the entire Turing Machine within the language, or by encoding a language that does an encoding or simulation itself. This second category is typical for process calculi that show an encoding of lambda-calculus (often with restrictions that in turn simulates a Turing Machine. Such approaches lead to indirect encodings of Turing Machines that are complex, unclear, and only weakly equivalent after computation. This paper presents an approach to encoding Turing Machines into intensional process calculi that is faithful, reduction preserving, and structurally equivalent. The encoding is demonstrated in a simple asymmetric concurrent pattern calculus before generalised to simplify infinite terms, and to show encodings into Concurrent Pattern Calculus and Psi Calculi.

  4. Hybrid Identity. Exploring a Dutch Protestant community of faith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Brouwer

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Communities of faith develop their identity in dialogue with changing social and cultural contexts. This article presents a single case of identity formation in a local congregation of the Protestants Church in the Netherlands, in a changing environment. Out of one specific congregational practice, namely the liturgical (non-affirmation of same-sex marriages, the complexity of identity construction in a plural and diverse congregation is shown. From a qualitative empirical research perspective, the details of a congregational practice are unfolded in an ethnographic, thick description of the identity. All the different aspects and voices with regard to the congregational practice together give shape to an identity gestalt. The outcome of this detailed research into one practice of a community of faith is that identity is under construction. Unambiguous and uniform congregational identities are rare. In this particular case the identity is even diffuse. The church council and the congregation members find it difficult to state their identity in a positive way and to find agreement on that. The �hybridisation� of identity is presented as a concept that can shed some light on the nature of identity formation. In a global world, integrated contexts and integrated cultures and identities no longer exist. Contextualisation is a never-ending process. Hybrid identities are construed out of different fragments. Identity construction results from a process of negotiation. This asks for transparant communication and a constructive dealing with differences. As a community of difference, the church as koinonia receives its identity in dialogue with all who are involved. The outcome of this dialogue should be beneficial to not only the congregation but also to its social and cultural environment.

  5. Imitation in faith: Enacting Paul’s ambiguous pistis Christou formulations on a Greco-Roman stage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agteres, Suzan

    2016-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate in New Testament scholarship on the correct interpretation of Paul’s pistis Christou formulations: are we justified by our own faith/trust in Christ, or by participating in Christ’s faith and faithfulness towards God? This article contributes to the position of purposeful

  6. Measuring religious faith in cancer patients: reliability and construct validity of the Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, A C; Simonton, S; Adams, D C; Latif, U; Plante, T G; Burns, S K; Poling, T

    2001-01-01

    Growing attention has focused on associations between religious involvement and health outcomes for cancer patients. Unfortunately, research has been hampered by lack of measures suitable for use in oncology settings. This study examined the performance of one recently developed measure, the Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire (SCSORF). Initial investigations with cancer patients in a bone marrow transplant program and with non-oncology patients yielded promising results. This study provided additional information about temporal stability and convergent validity. The measure was evaluated in two well-defined samples: (1) 95 breast cancer patients, and (2) 53 healthy young adults. Most of the cancer patients had recent diagnoses and localized or regional disease. In each sample, the instrument demonstrated high test-retest reliability (r's=0.82-0.93) and internal consistency (r's=0.95-0.97). It displayed strong correlations with measures of intrinsic religiosity (r's=0.67-0.82, p<0.0001), and moderate correlations with organizational religiosity (r's=0.61-069, p<0.0001), non-organizational religiosity (r's=0.52-0.55, p<0.0001), comfort from religion (r=0.58, p<0.0001), and ratings of self as religious (r=0.58, p<0.0001). Among cancer patients, scores were significantly associated with optimism (r=0.30, p<0.01), but not with openness of family communication about cancer or perceived social support. These data build on previous findings with cancer patients, and suggest that the SCSORF may be a useful measure of religious faith in oncology settings.

  7. Recapitulation of Clinical Individual Susceptibility to Drug-Induced QT Prolongation in Healthy Subjects Using iPSC-Derived Cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadahiro Shinozawa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To predict drug-induced serious adverse events (SAE in clinical trials, a model using a panel of cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs of individuals with different susceptibilities could facilitate major advancements in translational research in terms of safety and pharmaco-economics. However, it is unclear whether hiPSC-derived cells can recapitulate interindividual differences in drug-induced SAE susceptibility in populations not having genetic disorders such as healthy subjects. Here, we evaluated individual differences in SAE susceptibility based on an in vitro model using hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs as a pilot study. hiPSCs were generated from blood samples of ten healthy volunteers with different susceptibilities to moxifloxacin (Mox-induced QT prolongation. Different Mox-induced field potential duration (FPD prolongation values were observed in the hiPSC-CMs from each individual. Interestingly, the QT interval was significantly positively correlated with FPD at clinically relevant concentrations (r > 0.66 in multiple analyses including concentration-QT analysis. Genomic analysis showed no interindividual significant differences in known target-binding sites for Mox and other drugs such as the hERG channel subunit, and baseline QT ranges were normal. The results suggest that hiPSC-CMs from healthy subjects recapitulate susceptibility to Mox-induced QT prolongation and provide proof of concept for in vitro preclinical trials.

  8. Self-Organizing 3D Human Neural Tissue Derived from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Recapitulate Alzheimer's Disease Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Waseem K; Mungenast, Alison E; Lin, Yuan-Ta; Ko, Tak; Abdurrob, Fatema; Seo, Jinsoo; Tsai, Li-Huei

    2016-01-01

    The dismal success rate of clinical trials for Alzheimer's disease (AD) motivates us to develop model systems of AD pathology that have higher predictive validity. The advent of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) allows us to model pathology and study disease mechanisms directly in human neural cells from healthy individual as well as AD patients. However, two-dimensional culture systems do not recapitulate the complexity of neural tissue, and phenotypes such as extracellular protein aggregation are difficult to observe. We report brain organoids that use pluripotent stem cells derived from AD patients and recapitulate AD-like pathologies such as amyloid aggregation, hyperphosphorylated tau protein, and endosome abnormalities. These pathologies are observed in an age-dependent manner in organoids derived from multiple familial AD (fAD) patients harboring amyloid precursor protein (APP) duplication or presenilin1 (PSEN1) mutation, compared to controls. The incidence of AD pathology was consistent amongst several fAD lines, which carried different mutations. Although these are complex assemblies of neural tissue, they are also highly amenable to experimental manipulation. We find that treatment of patient-derived organoids with β- and γ-secretase inhibitors significantly reduces amyloid and tau pathology. Moreover, these results show the potential of this model system to greatly increase the translatability of pre-clinical drug discovery in AD.

  9. Understanding Spiritual Care: The Faith-Hope-Love Model of Spiritual Wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christman, Sharon K; Mueller, Julia R

    Spiritual care has been associated with positive patient outcomes. Although nurses want to provide spiritual care, many have difficulty conceptualizing spiritual care outside of religion and religious activities. The Faith-Hope-Love Model of Spiritual Wellness, a theoretical model of spirituality and spiritual well-being, grounded in Christian theology and biblical text, can help nurses provide spiritual support to patients and families from multiple faith traditions or those without a faith background. Spirituality concepts are discussed, and description of how spirituality is related to finding meaning and purpose in life along with a summary of the spiritual needs identified from healthcare literature and the Bible, are provided.

  10. Comparing the Performance of Faith-Based and Government Schools in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Backiny-Yetna, Prospere; Wodon, Quentin

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a comparative assessment of the market share, reach to the poor, and performance of faith-based and public schools in the Democratic Republic of Congo using data from the 2004-2005 "123" survey. More than two thirds of primary school students attend faith-based government-assisted schools. Both types of school cater to a similar population that is overwhelmingly poor. Faith-based schools perform slightly better at least in some dimensions than government schools, but the d...

  11. Comparing the Performance of Faith-Based and Government Schools in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Backiny-Yetna, Prospere; Wodon, Quentin

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a comparative assessment of the market share, reach to the poor, and performance of faith-based and public schools in the Democratic Republic of Congo using data from the 2004-2005 "123" survey. More than two thirds of primary school students attend faith-based government-assisted schools. Both types of school cater to a similar population that is overwhelmingly poor. Faith-based schools perform slightly better at least in some dimensions than government schools, but the ...

  12. Obesity discourse and the crisis of faith in disciplinary technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gard

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available According to Kirk (1998 (following Foucault a shift in corporeal power has been underway since the late 18th century in many ‘western’ countries, from an external form of power and locus of control to an internal form and locus. In light of the increased volume of discourse around the alleged obesity crisis (Gard & Wright 2005 we revisit and attempt to update Kirk’s thesis about the regulation of bodies in schools; is the widespread concern about an obesity crisis producing new ways of managing and disciplining children’s bodies? We explore in some detail a case study of curriculum development in Health and Physical Education in Ontario, Canada where we argue that the grades 1–8 syllabus trades the productive compliance and liberal individualism of previous eras for a new layering of physical education discourse and the production of cheerfully courteous and responsible individuals. We complete this analysis by asking whether this curriculum development in an era of obesity discourse signals a crisis of faith in disciplinary technology. We end by noting the need for the retention of spaces within school physical education where young people can question assumptions about corporeality.

  13. Faithful conditional quantum state transfer between weakly coupled qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miková, M.; Straka, I.; Mičuda, M.; Krčmarský, V.; Dušek, M.; Ježek, M.; Fiurášek, J.; Filip, R.

    2016-08-01

    One of the strengths of quantum information theory is that it can treat quantum states without referring to their particular physical representation. In principle, quantum states can be therefore fully swapped between various quantum systems by their mutual interaction and this quantum state transfer is crucial for many quantum communication and information processing tasks. In practice, however, the achievable interaction time and strength are often limited by decoherence. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate a procedure for faithful quantum state transfer between two weakly interacting qubits. Our scheme enables a probabilistic yet perfect unidirectional transfer of an arbitrary unknown state of a source qubit onto a target qubit prepared initially in a known state. The transfer is achieved by a combination of a suitable measurement of the source qubit and quantum filtering on the target qubit depending on the outcome of measurement on the source qubit. We experimentally verify feasibility and robustness of the transfer using a linear optical setup with qubits encoded into polarization states of single photons.

  14. 'Ein furtrefflicher Munch': Luther and the Living out of Faith

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Else Marie Wiberg

    2007-01-01

    This article treats of main points in Luther's less known treaty on monastic vows, "De votis monasticis iudicium", from 1521. It is demonstrated how Luther bases his ideas on Bernard of Clairvaux's understanding of monastic life as a Christ-formed life in the faith in God. Luther values that also...... between "praecepta" and "consilia" (Bernard does not know such a differentiation, post his time; and Luther sharply confronts the arrogance he finds in such an epistemology). On the other hand, they have very different views on the raison d'être of monasticism. Bernard, who lives in a flourishing yet...... turbulent Europe of the11th century,  sees the monastery as a sublime greenhouse for growing a social and peaceful life in love of neighbour, which ought to be the ideal of all human life. Luther, living 400 years later, experiences a quite different ecclesial and monastic life, where he witnesses abuse...

  15. Prion pathogenesis is faithfully reproduced in cerebellar organotypic slice cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeppe Falsig

    Full Text Available Prions cause neurodegeneration in vivo, yet prion-infected cultured cells do not show cytotoxicity. This has hampered mechanistic studies of prion-induced neurodegeneration. Here we report that prion-infected cultured organotypic cerebellar slices (COCS experienced progressive spongiform neurodegeneration closely reproducing prion disease, with three different prion strains giving rise to three distinct patterns of prion protein deposition. Neurodegeneration did not occur when PrP was genetically removed from neurons, and a comprehensive pharmacological screen indicated that neurodegeneration was abrogated by compounds known to antagonize prion replication. Prion infection of COCS and mice led to enhanced fodrin cleavage, suggesting the involvement of calpains or caspases in pathogenesis. Accordingly, neurotoxicity and fodrin cleavage were prevented by calpain inhibitors but not by caspase inhibitors, whereas prion replication proceeded unimpeded. Hence calpain inhibition can uncouple prion replication from its neurotoxic sequelae. These data validate COCS as a powerful model system that faithfully reproduces most morphological hallmarks of prion infections. The exquisite accessibility of COCS to pharmacological manipulations was instrumental in recognizing the role of calpains in neurotoxicity, and significantly extends the collection of tools necessary for rigorously dissecting prion pathogenesis.

  16. Islam, brain death, and transplantation: culture, faith, and jurisprudence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbour, Richard; AlGhamdi, Hanan Mesfer Saad; Peters, Linda

    2012-01-01

    A significant gap exists between availability of organs for transplant and patients with end-stage organ failure for whom organ transplantation is the last treatment option. Reasons for this mismatch include inadequate approach to potential donor families and donor loss as a result of refractory cardiopulmonary instability during and after brainstem herniation. Other reasons include inadequate cultural competence and sensitivity when communicating with potential donor families. Clinicians may not have an understanding of the cultural and religious perspectives of Muslim families of critically ill patients who may be approached about brain death and organ donation. This review analyzes Islamic cultural and religious perspectives on organ donation, transplantation, and brain death, including faith-based directives from Islamic religious authorities, definitions of death in Islam, and communication strategies when discussing brain death and organ donation with Muslim families. Optimal family care and communication are highlighted using case studies and backgrounds illustrating barriers and approaches with Muslim families in the United States and in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia that can improve cultural competence and family care as well as increase organ availability within the Muslim population and beyond.

  17. Science and Faith: Discussing Astronomy Research with Religious Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekemoer, Anton M.

    2006-12-01

    An important component of our outreach as research astronomers involves interaction with the religious community. From my personal perspective, being an active research astronomer who is also a practicing Christian, I am sometimes invited to present the latest astronomical research to church audiences and other religious groups; belonging to both communities thereby provides a valuable means of contributing to the dialogue between science and religion. These opportunities can be used to explain that science and religion are not necessarily in conflict but can be considered to be quite complementary. For instance, an important aspect of religion deals with the purpose of our existence, while science is more focussed on providing physical explanations for what we observe in the world, using a well-defined scientific process. Hence, religious believers need not necessarily abandon their faith in order to accept mainstream scientific research; these address very different and complementary aspects of our existence. Recent ideas such as Intelligent Design attempt to address the scientific method, but do not address the ultimate religious question of purpose and do not contribute towards reconciling science and religion in this sense. Ultimately, every individual arrives at their own understanding of this rather complex interplay; I will present some personal reflections on general approaches for discussing mainstream astronomical research with religious audiences, aimed at helping to advance the dialogue between religion and science in general.

  18. Kant’s Prudential Theory of Religion: The Necessity of Historical Faith for Moral Empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Palmquist

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Given his emphasis on deontological ethics, Kant is rarely regarded as a friend of prudence. For example, he is often interpreted as an opponent of so-called “historical faiths” (i.e., empirical religious traditions. What typically goes unnoticed is that in explaining the legitimate (indeed, indispensable role of historical faiths in the moral development of the human race, Kant appeals explicitly to their prudential status. A careful examination of Kant’s main references to prudence demonstrates that the prudential status of historical faith is the key to understanding both its limitations (as merely the vehicle of true religion, not its essential core and its real value (as a necessary means of moral empowerment. The wise person adopts some form of historical faith, because to abandon any and all prudential appeals to a faith-based vehicle for morality would render the goal of living a good life virtually impossible for embodied beings to achieve.

  19. "Faithful Servant of the Kingdom": A Hymn to St. Thomas More

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smedberg, Benjamin

    2002-01-01

    Presents the sheet music for "Faithful Servant of the Kingdom," a hymn composed by Brother Andrew Hofer, a seminarian at the Dominican House of Studies in Washington, DC, that pays tribute to St. Thomas More...

  20. Restoring trust in corporate directors: the Disney standard and the "new" good faith

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duggin, Sarah Helene; Goldman, Stephen M

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the parameters and potential impact of the good faith standard articulated by the Delaware Supreme Court in In re Walt Disney Company Derivative Legislation (Disney V...

  1. Faith-Based Diplomacy: A Pathway to Marginalizing Al-Qa’ida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    al-Qa`ida organization, including its theology and ideology; and, third, recommending faith-based policy initiatives, including the advocacy for...Security Strategy; second, characterizing the current global nature of the al-Qa`ida organization, including its theology and ideology; and, third...nature of the al-Qa`ida organization, including its theology and ideology; and, third, recommending faith-based policy initiatives to sideline al-Qa`ida

  2. A Novel Letrozole Model Recapitulates Both the Reproductive and Metabolic Phenotypes of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Alexander S; Thackray, Varykina G; Ryan, Genevieve E; Tolson, Kristen P; Glidewell-Kenney, Christine A; Semaan, Sheila J; Poling, Matthew C; Iwata, Nahoko; Breen, Kellie M; Duleba, Antoni J; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Shimasaki, Shunichi; Webster, Nicholas J; Mellon, Pamela L

    2015-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) pathophysiology is poorly understood, due partly to lack of PCOS animal models fully recapitulating this complex disorder. Recently, a PCOS rat model using letrozole (LET), a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor, mimicked multiple PCOS phenotypes, including metabolic features absent in other models. Given the advantages of using genetic and transgenic mouse models, we investigated whether LET produces a similar PCOS phenotype in mice. Pubertal female C57BL/6N mice were treated for 5 wk with LET, which resulted in increased serum testosterone and normal diestrus levels of estradiol, similar to the hyperandrogenemia and follicular phase estrogen levels of PCOS women. As in PCOS, ovaries from LET mice were larger, polycystic, and lacked corpora lutea versus controls. Most LET females were acyclic, and all were infertile. LET females displayed elevated serum LH levels and higher Lhb mRNA in the pituitary. In contrast, serum FSH and Fshb were significantly reduced in LET females, demonstrating differential effects on gonadotropins, as in PCOS. Within the ovary, LET females had higher Cyp17, Cyp19, and Fsh receptor mRNA expression. In the hypothalamus, LET females had higher kisspeptin receptor mRNA expression but lower progesterone receptor mRNA levels. LET females also gained more weight than controls, had increased abdominal adiposity and adipocyte size, elevated adipose inflammatory mRNA levels, and impaired glucose tolerance, mirroring the metabolic phenotype in PCOS women. This is the first report of a LET paradigm in mice that recapitulates both reproductive and metabolic PCOS phenotypes and will be useful to genetically probe the PCOS condition.

  3. A human pluripotent stem cell model of catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia recapitulates patient-specific drug responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela K. Preininger

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although β-blockers can be used to eliminate stress-induced ventricular arrhythmias in patients with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT, this treatment is unsuccessful in ∼25% of cases. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs generated from these patients have potential for use in investigating the phenomenon, but it remains unknown whether they can recapitulate patient-specific drug responses to β-blockers. This study assessed whether the inadequacy of β-blocker therapy in an individual can be observed in vitro using patient-derived CPVT iPSC-CMs. An individual with CPVT harboring a novel mutation in the type 2 cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2 was identified whose persistent ventricular arrhythmias during β-blockade with nadolol were abolished during flecainide treatment. iPSC-CMs generated from this patient and two control individuals expressed comparable levels of excitation-contraction genes, but assessment of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ leak and load relationship revealed intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis was altered in the CPVT iPSC-CMs. β-adrenergic stimulation potentiated spontaneous Ca2+ waves and unduly frequent, large and prolonged Ca2+ sparks in CPVT compared with control iPSC-CMs, validating the disease phenotype. Pursuant to the patient's in vivo responses, nadolol treatment during β-adrenergic stimulation achieved negligible reduction of Ca2+ wave frequency and failed to rescue Ca2+ spark defects in CPVT iPSC-CMs. In contrast, flecainide reduced both frequency and amplitude of Ca2+ waves and restored the frequency, width and duration of Ca2+ sparks to baseline levels. By recapitulating the improved response of an individual with CPVT to flecainide compared with β-blocker therapy in vitro, these data provide new evidence that iPSC-CMs can capture basic components of patient-specific drug responses.

  4. Principles of Faithful Execution in the implementation of trusted objects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarman, Thomas David; Campbell, Philip LaRoche; Pierson, Lyndon George

    2003-09-01

    We begin with the following definitions: Definition: A trusted volume is the computing machinery (including communication lines) within which data is assumed to be physically protected from an adversary. A trusted volume provides both integrity and privacy. Definition: Program integrity consists of the protection necessary to enable the detection of changes in the bits comprising a program as specified by the developer, for the entire time that the program is outside a trusted volume. For ease of discussion we consider program integrity to be the aggregation of two elements: instruction integrity (detection of changes in the bits within an instruction or block of instructions), and sequence integrity (detection of changes in the locations of instructions within a program). Definition: Faithful Execution (FE) is a type of software protection that begins when the software leaves the control of the developer and ends within the trusted volume of a target processor. That is, FE provides program integrity, even while the program is in execution. (As we will show below, FE schemes are a function of trusted volume size.) FE is a necessary quality for computing. Without it we cannot trust computations. In the early days of computing FE came for free since the software never left a trusted volume. At that time the execution environment was the same as the development environment. In some circles that environment was referred to as a ''closed shop:'' all of the software that was used there was developed there. When an organization bought a large computer from a vendor the organization would run its own operating system on that computer, use only its own editors, only its own compilers, only its own debuggers, and so on. However, with the continuing maturity of computing technology, FE becomes increasingly difficult to achieve

  5. Long-term funding and faithfulness to the original goal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoegren, G

    1999-02-01

    The study describes long-term funding in terms of faithfulness to the original goals of the foundations. After having examined 20 different Swedish foundations three main categories of problems have appeared. The main threats to the original goals of the foundations are juridical problems, economic problems and a changing society. Fraud and embezzlement are covered by the Act (1994:1220) Concerning Foundations, but the law does not prevent unfaithfulness to the original goal of the foundation in terms of permutation. If the foundation is a private-established foundation the board has to apply for a change of the original goal to the Swedish Judicial Board for Public Lands and Funds. If the State, a municipality or a community establishes the foundation the Government can change the goal without permission of any other authority. Economic problems often strike smaller funds established by private persons, but State-established funds can also be hit by economical problems. The economic problems presented in the text are high tax levels, bad investments and problems getting donations. Both small private and large State-established foundations sometimes have to change their original goals as a result of a changing society. The goal of the foundation can be out-of-date, be against the ideology of the government party or the demography might have changed. Examples from each category are given in the text. The study is made to facilitate a description in general terms of the prospects for the Swedish nuclear funds if a final decision can not be made in the time span of 100 or 200 years. Looking back on the changes in the judicial, economical and political arenas during the last 200 years, one realizes the impossibility to foresee the changes that will occur within the next 200 years. The author`s conclusion, after examined 20 foundation, is that it is impossible to establish a perfect long-term fund as we can not foresee the long-term future

  6. Evaluation of Fostering Students' Creativity in Preparing Aided Recalls for Revision Courses Using Electronic Revision and Recapitulation Tools 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Oliver; Weber, Christoph; Sato, Toshihiko

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the electronic revision and recapitulation tools 2.0 (EREP 2.0) were used to foster creative moments while creating aided recalls (ARs) (pictures electronic notes etc.). Creative and critical thinking is associated with vital skills which enable students to deal with often complex knowledge domains through an informal way of…

  7. The birds, the bees, and the Bible: single African American mothers' perceptions of a faith-based sexuality educaton program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Judith Bacchus

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study examined single mothers' ideas on the development of a faith-based sexuality program. Twenty African American single mothers with adolescent children (11 to 13 years of age) who were of the same faith and members of one church, participated in two focus groups about how a faith-based sexuality program could be designed and implemented. The findings call attention to the need for research on the design of faith-based sexuality education programs for ethnic minority families headed by single mothers.

  8. Concepts and treatment for diabetes among traditional and faith healers in the Northern Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Peltzer

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to assess the concepts and treatment modalities for diabetes among traditional and faith healers in the Northern Province in South Africa. The sample consisted of 50 traditional healers (13 females and 37 males and 50 faith healers (12 females and 38 males. They were interviewed on local terminology, clinical manifestations, causes, curability, and treatment for diabetes, help-seeking behaviour of diabetes patients, and the healers’ sources of information about diabetes. Results indicate that all healers were familiar with “diabetes”, however, not all of them had seen patients suffering from diabetes. The perceived causes of diabetes by both traditional and faith healers could be divided into (1 diet (especially too much of sugar, (2 heredity, (3 supernatural, and (4 psychological causes. Most traditional healers (92% and faith healers (90% indicated that diabetes is curable. Treatments used by the healers in this study included the use of prayer, diet, and herbs. The authors conclude that the concepts and treatment modalities for diabetes among traditional and faith healers should be taken note of by health workers while developing health education programmes in the Province.

  9. Perspectives of Community- and Faith-Based Organizations about Partnering with Local Health Departments for Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Stajura

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Public health emergency planners can better perform their mission if they develop and maintain effective relationships with community- and faith-based organizations in their jurisdictions. This qualitative study presents six themes that emerged from 20 key informant interviews representing a wide range of American community- and faith-based organizations across different types of jurisdictions, organizational types, and missions. This research seeks to provide local health department public health emergency planners with tools to assess and improve their inter-organizational community relationships. The themes identified address the importance of community engagement, leadership, intergroup dynamics and communication, and resources. Community- and faith-based organizations perceive that they are underutilized or untapped resources with respect to public health emergencies and disasters. One key reason for this is that many public health departments limit their engagement with community- and faith-based organizations to a one-way “push” model for information dissemination, rather than engaging them in other ways or improving their capacity. Beyond a reprioritization of staff time, few other resources would be required. From the perspective of community- and faith-based organizations, the quality of relationships seems to matter more than discrete resources provided by such ties.

  10. Mapping the good faith principle in international investment arbitration: Assessment of its substantive and procedural value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đajić Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available International investment cases show the frequent use of good faith arguments by both investors and respondent states. These cases also illustrate how parties and tribunals tend to conceptualize the good faith principle which has become an important rule of international investment law. This article will explore recent trends in order to assess the importance of this argument for both parties and at different stages of the proceeding. This article will also provide an overview of responses given by the tribunals faced with good faith arguments. Whereas claimants have traditionally relied on this concept to argue the breach of fair and equitable treatment and legitimate expectations, recent cases such as Inceysa, Phoenix and TSA Spectrum, indicate a new defense strategy for respondent states. Given the fact that investment tribunals have shown willingness to treat the good faith principle as autonomous and as a self-standing standard, the possibilities for respondent states have increased. Respondent states can rely on good faith to deny the right of claimants to seize the tribunal (Article 41(5 of the ICSID Rules, to challenge the jurisdiction of the tribunal or admissibility, to contest the right of the claimant to have a decision in its favor, or to challenge the right to compensation.

  11. Perspectives of community- and faith-based organizations about partnering with local health departments for disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajura, Michael; Glik, Deborah; Eisenman, David; Prelip, Michael; Martel, Andrea; Sammartinova, Jitka

    2012-07-01

    Public health emergency planners can better perform their mission if they develop and maintain effective relationships with community- and faith-based organizations in their jurisdictions. This qualitative study presents six themes that emerged from 20 key informant interviews representing a wide range of American community- and faith-based organizations across different types of jurisdictions, organizational types, and missions. This research seeks to provide local health department public health emergency planners with tools to assess and improve their inter-organizational community relationships. The themes identified address the importance of community engagement, leadership, intergroup dynamics and communication, and resources. Community- and faith-based organizations perceive that they are underutilized or untapped resources with respect to public health emergencies and disasters. One key reason for this is that many public health departments limit their engagement with community- and faith-based organizations to a one-way "push" model for information dissemination, rather than engaging them in other ways or improving their capacity. Beyond a reprioritization of staff time, few other resources would be required. From the perspective of community- and faith-based organizations, the quality of relationships seems to matter more than discrete resources provided by such ties.

  12. PRINSIP GOOD FAITH(ITIKAD BAIK DALAM HUKUM KONTRAK BISNIS INTERNASIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs. Cindawati

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The law of international business contracts is the law of national contract with additional of foreign substances, this principle relevant for the law of  international business contracts. Writer has an interest in the issue what principle good faith in the international business contract law. Principle good faith is honesty in behavior or honesty in trade transaction, which include honesty in fact and honour towards proper trade standards, and honesty in trade transaction. Relations require good faith when contract signatory, but also not yet to close the contracts.   Hukum Kontrak Internasional adalah hukum kontrak nasional yang ada unsur asingnya, prinsip ini relevan bagi Hukum Kontrak Internasional. Penulis tertarik untuk mengkaji dengan permasalahan: apa prinsip good faith(itikad baik dalam hukum kontrak internasional? Prinsip good faith(itikad baik tidak lain adalah “kejujuran” dalam perilaku atau kejujuran dalam bertransaksi dagang, termasuk di dalamnya adalah kejujuran dalam fakta dan penghormatan terhadap standar-standar dagang yang wajar dan transaksi dagang yang jujur. Hubungan mensyaratkan kewajiban itikad baik bukan saja ketika kontrak ditandatangani, tetapi juga sebelum kontrak ditutup.

  13. PRINSIP GOOD FAITH(ITIKAD BAIK DALAM HUKUM KONTRAK BISNIS INTERNASIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs. Cindawati

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The law of international business contracts is the law of national contract with additional of foreign substances, this principle relevant for the law of  international business contracts. Writer has an interest in the issue what principle good faith in the international business contract law. Principle good faith is honesty in behavior or honesty in trade transaction, which include honesty in fact and honour towards proper trade standards, and honesty in trade transaction. Relations require good faith when contract signatory, but also not yet to close the contracts. Hukum Kontrak Internasional adalah hukum kontrak nasional yang ada unsur asingnya, prinsip ini relevan bagi Hukum Kontrak Internasional. Penulis tertarik untuk mengkaji dengan permasalahan: apa prinsip good faith(itikad baik dalam hukum kontrak internasional? Prinsip good faith(itikad baik tidak lain adalah “kejujuran” dalam perilaku atau kejujuran dalam bertransaksi dagang, termasuk di dalamnya adalah kejujuran dalam fakta dan penghormatan terhadap standar-standar dagang yang wajar dan transaksi dagang yang jujur. Hubungan mensyaratkan kewajiban itikad baik bukan saja ketika kontrak ditandatangani, tetapi juga sebelum kontrak ditutup.

  14. Small Faith-Related Organizations as Partners in Local Social Service Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Campbell

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to enlist small faith-related organizations as partners in public service delivery raise many questions. Using community social service networks as the unit of analysis, this paper asks one with broader relevance to nonprofit sector managers: What factors support and constrain effective integration of these organizations into a local service delivery network? The evidence and illustrations come from longitudinal case studies of five faith-related organizations who received their first government contract as part of a California faith-based initiative. By comparing the organizational development and network partnership trajectories of these organizations over more than a decade, the analysis identifies four key variables influencing partnership dynamics and outcomes: organizational niche within the local network; leadership connections and network legitimacy; faith-inspired commitments and persistence; and core organizational competencies and capacities. The evidence supports shifting the focus of faith-based initiatives to emphasize local planning and network development, taking into account how these four variables apply to specific organizations and their community context.

  15. Health promoting behaviors among African American women with faith-based support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drayton-Brooks, Shirlee; White, Neva

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative exploratory study was to document health perceptions, beliefs and attitudes, intentions and social pressures that influence health promoting behaviors as expressed by community level aggregates of African American women with faith support. Twenty-six African American women from two large urban congregations with an active health ministry program participated in this study. Focus group interviews guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980 & 1991) were used to identify salient health perceptions, beliefs and attitudes, intentions, and social pressures influencing health-promoting behaviors in African American women with faith-based support. Positive health perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs were identified as important to engaging in a healthy lifestyle. Exercise, well balanced diets, weight reduction and stress management were the most salient health concerns among the respondents. Key referents identified included the pastor, congregational nurses, physicians, and church/family members. Control beliefs among these women reflected salient spiritual and fatalistic beliefs concerning health-promoting behaviors. Trusting relationships, open communication, safe, comfortable, and familiar environments were identified as important considerations when planning health promotion interventions for an African American faith community. Health beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors are not developed outside of social systems, therefore, the facilitation of healthy lifestyle behaviors may be best assessed and influenced within a context of reciprocal social interaction such as in a faith-based community. In the context of a community level aggregate with faith-based support, behaviors to promote a healthy lifestyle may be positively influenced.

  16. The third therapeutic system: faith healing strategies in the context of a generalized AIDS epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manglos, Nicolette D; Trinitapoli, Jenny

    2011-03-01

    Faith healing in sub-Saharan Africa has primarily been studied qualitatively among Pentecostal-Charismatic groups, and considered as its own phenomenon with little attention to its relationship to other modes of healing. Using data from Malawi, a religiously diverse African country with high HIV prevalence, we find that faith healing is pervasive across multiple religious traditions. For individuals, attending a faith healing congregation is associated with lower levels of generalized worry about AIDS, and this association is driven by those who switched churches before AIDS became widespread in rural areas. Use of condoms and traditional medicine are, on the other hand, positively associated with worry about AIDS. We argue that faith healing can be understood as a third therapeutic system that coexists with the well-documented biomedical and traditional systems. The success of faith healing approaches lies in their unique ability to combine individual-pragmatic and communal-ritualized aspects of healing to inform interpretations of the AIDS epidemic and its consequences.

  17. Engineering strategies to recapitulate epithelial morphogenesis within synthetic three-dimensional extracellular matrix with tunable mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnikova, Y. A.; Jorgens, D. M.; Spirio, L.; Auer, M.; Sarang-Sieminski, A. L.; Weaver, V. M.

    2011-04-01

    The mechanical properties (e.g. stiffness) of the extracellular matrix (ECM) influence cell fate and tissue morphogenesis and contribute to disease progression. Nevertheless, our understanding of the mechanisms by which ECM rigidity modulates cell behavior and fate remains rudimentary. To address this issue, a number of two and three-dimensional (3D) hydrogel systems have been used to explore the effects of the mechanical properties of the ECM on cell behavior. Unfortunately, many of these systems have limited application because fiber architecture, adhesiveness and/or pore size often change in parallel when gel elasticity is varied. Here we describe the use of ECM-adsorbed, synthetic, self-assembling peptide (SAP) gels that are able to recapitulate normal epithelial acini morphogenesis and gene expression in a 3D context. By exploiting the range of viscoelasticity attainable with these SAP gels, and their ability to recreate native-like ECM fibril topology with minimal variability in ligand density and pore size, we were able to reconstitute normal and tumor-like phenotypes and gene expression patterns in nonmalignant mammary epithelial cells. Accordingly, this SAP hydrogel system presents the first tunable system capable of independently assessing the interplay between ECM stiffness and multi-cellular epithelial phenotype in a 3D context. Originally submitted for the special focus issue on physical oncology.

  18. A Human Neural Crest Stem Cell-Derived Dopaminergic Neuronal Model Recapitulates Biochemical Abnormalities in GBA1 Mutation Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Yu Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerically the most important risk factor for the development of Parkinson's disease (PD is the presence of mutations in the glucocerebrosidase GBA1 gene. In vitro and in vivo studies show that GBA1 mutations reduce glucocerebrosidase (GCase activity and are associated with increased α-synuclein levels, reflecting similar changes seen in idiopathic PD brain. We have developed a neural crest stem cell-derived dopaminergic neuronal model that recapitulates biochemical abnormalities in GBA1 mutation-associated PD. Cells showed reduced GCase protein and activity, impaired macroautophagy, and increased α-synuclein levels. Advantages of this approach include easy access to stem cells, no requirement to reprogram, and retention of the intact host genome. Treatment with a GCase chaperone increased GCase protein levels and activity, rescued the autophagic defects, and decreased α-synuclein levels. These results provide the basis for further investigation of GCase chaperones or similar drugs to slow the progression of PD.

  19. Fibromatosis stem cells rather than bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells recapitulate a murine model of fibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jung-Pan; Hui, Yun-Ju; Wang, Shih-Tien; Huang, Yi-Chao; Chiang, En-Rung; Liu, Chien-Lin; Chen, Tain-Hsiung; Hung, Shih-Chieh

    2011-05-06

    Palmar fibromatosis is a benign fibroproliferative tumor of unknown etiology, with a high rate of recurrence after excision. The offending cells of palmar fibromatosis are myofibroblasts and the cellular origin of other myofibroblasts has previously been reported to be the bone marrow. However, further clarification of the relationship between bone marrow precursors and palmar fibromatosis is required. Stem cells (SCs) are known to exist in various tissues, but whether SCs can be isolated from fibromatosis tissue is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to isolate and identify stem cells from human palmar fibromatosis, and to evaluate the differences in the differentiation and fibrogenic capacities of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) and fibromatosis-derived stem cells (FSCs). We found that FSCs had better fibrogenic differentiation potential than BMSCs, whereas BMSCs had better adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation capacities. Treatment with transforming growth factor-β1 increased the expression of α-smooth muscle actin, and types III and I collagen significantly more in FSCs than in BMSCs. An in vivo study further confirmed the results of fibrogenesis and suggested that FSCs can recapitulate the fibromatosis nodule. In summary, their myofibroblastic differentiation both in vivo and in vitro makes FSCs a potential cell source for future applications in murine models of fibromatosis or fibrogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Expression of MALT1 oncogene in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells recapitulates the pathogenesis of human lymphoma in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Dueñas, Carolina; Fontán, Lorena; Gonzalez-Herrero, Ines; Romero-Camarero, Isabel; Segura, Victor; Aznar, M Angela; Alonso-Escudero, Esther; Campos-Sanchez, Elena; Ruiz-Roca, Lucía; Barajas-Diego, Marcos; Sagardoy, Ainara; Martinez-Ferrandis, Jose I; Abollo-Jimenez, Fernando; Bertolo, Cristina; Peñuelas, Ivan; Garcia-Criado, Francisco J; García-Cenador, María B; Tousseyn, Thomas; Agirre, Xabier; Prosper, Felipe; Garcia-Bragado, Federico; McPhail, Ellen D; Lossos, Izidore S; Du, Ming-Qing; Flores, Teresa; Hernandez-Rivas, Jesus M; Gonzalez, Marcos; Salar, Antonio; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Conde, Eulogio; Siebert, Reiner; Sagaert, Xavier; Cobaleda, Cesar; Sanchez-Garcia, Isidro; Martinez-Climent, Jose A

    2012-06-26

    Chromosomal translocations involving the MALT1 gene are hallmarks of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. To date, targeting these translocations to mouse B cells has failed to reproduce human disease. Here, we induced MALT1 expression in mouse Sca1(+)Lin(-) hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, which showed NF-κB activation and early lymphoid priming, being selectively skewed toward B-cell differentiation. These cells accumulated in extranodal tissues and gave rise to clonal tumors recapitulating the principal clinical, biological, and molecular genetic features of MALT lymphoma. Deletion of p53 gene accelerated tumor onset and induced transformation of MALT lymphoma to activated B-cell diffuse large-cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL). Treatment of MALT1-induced lymphomas with a specific inhibitor of MALT1 proteolytic activity decreased cell viability, indicating that endogenous Malt1 signaling was required for tumor cell survival. Our study shows that human-like lymphomas can be modeled in mice by targeting MALT1 expression to hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, demonstrating the oncogenic role of MALT1 in lymphomagenesis. Furthermore, this work establishes a molecular link between MALT lymphoma and ABC-DLBCL, and provides mouse models to test MALT1 inhibitors. Finally, our results suggest that hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of human mature B-cell lymphomas.

  1. Recapitulation of complex transport and action of drugs at the tumor microenvironment using tumor-microenvironment-on-chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bumsoo; Qu, Chunjing; Park, Kinam; Konieczny, Stephen F; Korc, Murray

    2016-09-28

    Targeted delivery aims to selectively distribute drugs to targeted tumor tissues but not to healthy tissues. This can address many clinical challenges by maximizing the efficacy but minimizing the toxicity of anti-cancer drugs. However, a complex tumor microenvironment poses various barriers hindering the transport of drugs and drug delivery systems. New tumor models that allow for the systematic study of these complex environments are highly desired to provide reliable test beds to develop drug delivery systems for targeted delivery. Recently, research efforts have yielded new in vitro tumor models, the so called tumor-microenvironment-on-chip, that recapitulate certain characteristics of the tumor microenvironment. These new models show benefits over other conventional tumor models, and have the potential to accelerate drug discovery and enable precision medicine. However, further research is warranted to overcome their limitations and to properly interpret the data obtained from these models. In this article, key features of the in vivo tumor microenvironment that are relevant to drug transport processes for targeted delivery were discussed, and the current status and challenges for developing in vitro transport model systems were reviewed.

  2. A genome-editing strategy to treat β-hemoglobinopathies that recapitulates a mutation associated with a benign genetic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traxler, Elizabeth A; Yao, Yu; Wang, Yong-Dong; Woodard, Kaitly J; Kurita, Ryo; Nakamura, Yukio; Hughes, Jim R; Hardison, Ross C; Blobel, Gerd A; Li, Chunliang; Weiss, Mitchell J

    2016-09-01

    Disorders resulting from mutations in the hemoglobin subunit beta gene (HBB; which encodes β-globin), mainly sickle cell disease (SCD) and β-thalassemia, become symptomatic postnatally as fetal γ-globin expression from two paralogous genes, hemoglobin subunit gamma 1 (HBG1) and HBG2, decreases and adult β-globin expression increases, thereby shifting red blood cell (RBC) hemoglobin from the fetal (referred to as HbF or α2γ2) to adult (referred to as HbA or α2β2) form. These disorders are alleviated when postnatal expression of fetal γ-globin is maintained. For example, in hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH), a benign genetic condition, mutations attenuate γ-globin-to-β-globin switching, causing high-level HbF expression throughout life. Co-inheritance of HPFH with β-thalassemia- or SCD-associated gene mutations alleviates their clinical manifestations. Here we performed CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing of human blood progenitors to mutate a 13-nt sequence that is present in the promoters of the HBG1 and HBG2 genes, thereby recapitulating a naturally occurring HPFH-associated mutation. Edited progenitors produced RBCs with increased HbF levels that were sufficient to inhibit the pathological hypoxia-induced RBC morphology found in SCD. Our findings identify a potential DNA target for genome-editing-mediated therapy of β-hemoglobinopathies.

  3. Androgen receptor YAC transgenic mice recapitulate SBMA motor neuronopathy and implicate VEGF164 in the motor neuron degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopher, Bryce L; Thomas, Patrick S; LaFevre-Bernt, Michelle A; Holm, Ida E; Wilke, Scott A; Ware, Carol B; Jin, Lee-Way; Libby, Randell T; Ellerby, Lisa M; La Spada, Albert R

    2004-03-04

    X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an inherited neuromuscular disorder characterized by lower motor neuron degeneration. SBMA is caused by polyglutamine repeat expansions in the androgen receptor (AR). To determine the basis of AR polyglutamine neurotoxicity, we introduced human AR yeast artificial chromosomes carrying either 20 or 100 CAGs into mouse embryonic stem cells. The AR100 transgenic mice developed a late-onset, gradually progressive neuromuscular phenotype accompanied by motor neuron degeneration, indicating striking recapitulation of the human disease. We then tested the hypothesis that polyglutamine-expanded AR interferes with CREB binding protein (CBP)-mediated transcription of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and observed altered CBP-AR binding and VEGF reduction in AR100 mice. We found that mutant AR-induced death of motor neuron-like cells could be rescued by VEGF. Our results suggest that SBMA motor neuronopathy involves altered expression of VEGF, consistent with a role for VEGF as a neurotrophic/survival factor in motor neuron disease.

  4. Fashion, faith, and fantasy in the new physics of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Penrose, Roger

    2016-01-01

    What can fashionable ideas, blind faith, or pure fantasy possibly have to do with the scientific quest to understand the universe? Surely, theoretical physicists are immune to mere trends, dogmatic beliefs, or flights of fancy? In fact, acclaimed physicist and bestselling author Roger Penrose argues that researchers working at the extreme frontiers of physics are just as susceptible to these forces as anyone else. In this provocative book, he argues that fashion, faith, and fantasy, while sometimes productive and even essential in physics, may be leading today's researchers astray in three of the field's most important areas--string theory, quantum mechanics, and cosmology. Arguing that string theory has veered away from physical reality by positing six extra hidden dimensions, Penrose cautions that the fashionable nature of a theory can cloud our judgments of its plausibility. In the case of quantum mechanics, its stunning success in explaining the atomic universe has led to an uncritical faith that it must ...

  5. Business and faith: key community partnerships for school-based health centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juszczak, L; Moody, J K; Vega-Matos, C

    1998-12-01

    School-based health centers need to form partnerships with organizations in the community. These relationships are essential to the viability of the centers because they can provide support and resources. However, benefits should be accrued by all partners, not just the health centers. Although there are many communities for school-based health centers to connect to, this article focuses on two integral ones--communities of business and faith. Key findings from a project formed to develop communication strategies and to generate support from the business community are reviewed. Recommendations for school-based health centers in approaching the business community are provided. Similarities and differences between communities of faith and strategies of develop relationships with these communities are presented. School-based health centers are encouraged to understand the characteristics and priorities of their partners in communities of business and faith, and to pursue strong relationships with both communities.

  6. Loan Portfolio of a Faith-based Microfinance Institution: An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmul HODA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An effective tool of economic development is found in microfinance and is believed to provide sustainable mechanism for poverty alleviation. The microfinance institutions across the world operate on a few established models and have been able to make a considerable impact in the areas of financial inclusion and poverty alleviation. However, the industry also needs innovative models and products to attain the targets set under the Millennium Development Goals. In addition to this, there is a need for client-centered models in order to overcome the problems of client dissatisfaction and loan defaults that have been reported in the recent past. This study focuses on the faith-based model of microfinance that differs from mainstream microfinance basically in terms of the underlying values. Faith-based organizations have a long history of participation in the areas of human development. Apart from charity-based lending, many such organizations are also functioning as microfinance institutions that are successfully delivering financial services to the poor. There is a need to study the procedures and performance of these institutions in order to ascertain their distinctive features and potential. Along with other indicators like outreach, impact, and financial sustainability, loan portfolio of a microfinance institution is also a good indicator of sustainability and throws light upon other important features. The main objective of this study is to understand the loan portfolio of faith-based microfinance institutions. A sample of 100 loan clients was purposively selected from one faith-based microfinance institution. This microfinance institution was selected from the list of faith based institutions generated after the literature review. The factors studied were the loan repayment cycles, general demographics and, the relationship between various factors involved in loan repayment. The study also tries to understand if such institutions have any

  7. Faith Tourism: for a Healthy Environment and a More Sensitive World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Sharma

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The domain of the ‘religious’ / ‘spiritual’ has become a significant source of revenue production for the tourism industry . Faith-based tourism seems to draw increasing numbers of people who wish to travel not just for leisure, or pleasure, but in search of personal meaning and fulfilment in a postmodern capitalist world. Though undertaken as a physical journey, pilgrimage seems to be embedded in the traveller’s wish for some kind of personal transformation. The journey is often distinguished from regular travel through its inherent call for a letting-go, be it of mental constructs, pathologies, personal and social conditioning, artefacts, logic or behaviour. Perhaps the faith-based ‘tourist’ sustains an attitude of veneration to the place and the path, and becomes sensitive to the environment as well as its inhabitants. One could then ask: does the commercial appropriation of faith-based journeys by the tourism industry contribute positively to the industry and, in larger terms, to humanity in general? Can faith-based tourism lead to a crucial, empathetic shift in awareness, enabling humans to accept one another without prejudice? Can faith-based tourism help to build deeper and permanent trans-class, trans-racial, trans-ethnic and trans-religious connections? Can it transform the tourist from a consumer-voyeur to a responsible participant in the larger ideals of social equality and cultural / environmental preservation? This paper suggests that pilgrimage tourism could in different ways sensitize pilgrim-tourists to ongoing social and environmental crises, and how tour organisers and administrators could promote this wider consciousness by illustrating the religious beliefs and sentiments of faith-based tourists.

  8. Amongst the unbelievable: Rage, faith and reason in selected writings by V.S. Naipaul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Balfour

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the representation of faith as conveyed by Naipaul in the course of four travelogues. Drawing on historical scholarship pertaining to Islamic societies in transition, and comparing this to a selection of the literary critical reception that Naipaul’s writing about Islam has evoked, I argue for a revision of literary readings of Naipaul’s travelogues. My premise is that the author’s subject positioning influences both a self-critical as well as more compassionate perspective on the relationship between faith and political transition in developing societies.

  9. Amongst the unbelievable: Rage, faith and reason in selected writings by V.S. Naipaul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Balfour

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the representation of faith as conveyed by Naipaul in the course of four travelogues. Drawing on historical scholarship pertaining to Islamic societies in transition, and comparing this to a selection of the literary critical reception that Naipaul’s writing about Islam has evoked, I argue for a revision of literary readings of Naipaul’s travelogues. My premise is that the author’s subject positioning influences both a self-critical as well as more compassionate perspective on the relationship between faith and political transition in developing societies.

  10. Defender of the Faith – hagiography’s topos in the Orthodox Church

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    Michał Dżega

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author wanted to show the specific for Orthodoxy – topos Her defender. As demonstratedby this topos is universal for any kind of holiness. Starting from the Martyrs ending the Hierarchs and Ascetics, inthe Orthodox Church, there is a never-ending battle for Purity of the Faith in Christ. In this paper author have shown thethree main determinants for the Fight of Faith: 1 Holy Zeal, 2 Holy Pride and 3 Holy Insubordination. To confirm histhesis the author gives some examples from the history of the Eastern Orthodox Church. At the same time author usingthe patristic and liturgical texts.

  11. Measuring Attitude toward Theistic Faith: Assessing the Astley-Francis Scale among Christian, Muslim and Secular Youth in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J.; Brockett, Adrian; Village, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Alongside a family of instruments designed to measure the attitudinal dimension of religion within specific faith contexts (Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism), the Astley-Francis Scale of Attitude toward Theistic Faith was designed to assess the attitudinal dimension of religion within a multifaith context. Drawing on a sample of 4338…

  12. Self-Deception in the Classroom: Educational Manifestations of Sartre's Concept of Bad Faith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blenkinsop, Sean; Waddington, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This article explores an important section of Jean-Paul Sartre's famous early work, "Being and Nothingness." In that section Sartre proposes that part of the human condition is to actively engage in a particular kind of self-deception he calls bad faith. Bad faith is recognized by the obvious inconsistency between the purported…

  13. Self-Deception in the Classroom: Educational Manifestations of Sartre's Concept of Bad Faith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blenkinsop, Sean; Waddington, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This article explores an important section of Jean-Paul Sartre's famous early work, "Being and Nothingness." In that section Sartre proposes that part of the human condition is to actively engage in a particular kind of self-deception he calls bad faith. Bad faith is recognized by the obvious inconsistency between the purported…

  14. Healthy religiosity and salutary faith : Clarification of concepts from the perspectives of psychology, psychiatry and of theology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries-Schot, M.R.; Uden, M.H.F. van; Heitink, G.; Pieper, J.Z.T.

    2008-01-01

    The object of this research is to clarify the concepts 'healthy religiosity' and 'salutary faith' in order to provide criteria for the assessment of a person's faith both in (mental) health care and in pastoral care. Based on the scientific literature, a questionnaire composed according to the Delph

  15. The Woman Image in Men-dominated Society——Analysis of Faith in Young Goodman Brown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩红宇

    2015-01-01

    Faith, the woman character in Young Goodman Brown written by American writer Nathaniel Hawthorne, is regarded as the general woman character in the men-dominated society, who owned a low status both in family and society in relation to their male counterparts. This paper aims to analyse the female image represented by Faith based on the theory of androcentrism and feminism.

  16. Measuring Attitude toward Theistic Faith: Assessing the Astley-Francis Scale among Christian, Muslim and Secular Youth in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J.; Brockett, Adrian; Village, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Alongside a family of instruments designed to measure the attitudinal dimension of religion within specific faith contexts (Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism), the Astley-Francis Scale of Attitude toward Theistic Faith was designed to assess the attitudinal dimension of religion within a multifaith context. Drawing on a sample of 4338…

  17. An Examination of Common Worship and Ceremonies among the Abrahamic Faiths: Implication for Religious Tolerance in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omomia, O. Austin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abrahamic faiths refer to the three most popular religions that traced their origin to Abraham. These religions are Judaism (the earliest of the three, Christianity and Islam (Islam is commonly adjudged as the most recent.This paper examined the common worship, customs and other religious ceremonies prevalent among the Abrahamic faiths. It also identified the common areas of agreement between the Abrahamic faiths with regards to the common religious related customs. It is on this strength that the paper argued that the Abrahamic faiths should emphasize on areas of unity rather than widen the gulf of disagreement. The paper employed the historical and sociological methods of investigation. It is recommended that the Abrahamic faiths should explore areas of unity in order to strengthen the cord of tolerance and peace in the world in general and Nigeria in particular.

  18. In vitro recapitulation of functional microvessels for the study of endothelial shear response, nitric oxide and [Ca2+]i.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    Full Text Available Microfluidic technologies enable in vitro studies to closely simulate in vivo microvessel environment with complexity. Such method overcomes certain constrains of the statically cultured endothelial monolayers and enables the cells grow under physiological range of shear flow with geometry similar to microvessels in vivo. However, there are still existing knowledge gaps and lack of convincing evidence to demonstrate and quantify key biological features of the microfluidic microvessels. In this paper, using advanced micromanufacturing and microfluidic technologies, we presented an engineered microvessel model that mimicked the dimensions and network structures of in vivo microvessels with a long-term and continuous perfusion capability, as well as high-resolution and real-time imaging capability. Through direct comparisons with studies conducted in intact microvessels, our results demonstrated that the cultured microvessels formed under perfused conditions recapitulated certain key features of the microvessels in vivo. In particular, primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells were successfully cultured the entire inner surfaces of the microchannel network with well-developed junctions indicated by VE-cadherin staining. The morphological and proliferative responses of endothelial cells to shear stresses were quantified under different flow conditions which was simulated with three-dimensional shear dependent numerical flow model. Furthermore, we successfully measured agonist-induced changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration and nitric oxide production at individual endothelial cell levels using fluorescence imaging. The results were comparable to those derived from individually perfused intact venules. With in vivo validation of its functionalities, our microfluidic model demonstrates a great potential for biological applications and bridges the gaps between in vitro and in vivo microvascular research.

  19. Genetic recapitulation of human pre-eclampsia risk during convergent evolution of reduced placental invasiveness in eutherian mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Michael G; Crespi, Bernard J

    2015-03-05

    The relationship between phenotypic variation arising through individual development and phenotypic variation arising through diversification of species has long been a central question in evolutionary biology. Among humans, reduced placental invasion into endometrial tissues is associated with diseases of pregnancy, especially pre-eclampsia, and reduced placental invasiveness has also evolved, convergently, in at least 10 lineages of eutherian mammals. We tested the hypothesis that a common genetic basis underlies both reduced placental invasion arising through a developmental process in human placental disease and reduced placental invasion found as a derived trait in the diversification of Euarchontoglires (rodents, lagomorphs, tree shrews, colugos and primates). Based on whole-genome analyses across 18 taxa, we identified 1254 genes as having evolved adaptively across all three lineages exhibiting independent evolutionary transitions towards reduced placental invasion. These genes showed strong evidence of enrichment for associations with pre-eclampsia, based on genetic-association studies, gene-expression analyses and gene ontology. We further used in silico prediction to identify a subset of 199 genes that are likely targets of natural selection during transitions in placental invasiveness and which are predicted to also underlie human placental disorders. Our results indicate that abnormal ontogenies can recapitulate major phylogenetic shifts in mammalian evolution, identify new candidate genes for involvement in pre-eclampsia, imply that study of species with less-invasive placentation will provide useful insights into the regulation of placental invasion and pre-eclampsia, and recommend a novel comparative functional-evolutionary approach to the study of genetically based human disease and mammalian diversification. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Host-specific parvovirus evolution in nature is recapitulated by in vitro adaptation to different carnivore species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew B Allison

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Canine parvovirus (CPV emerged as a new pandemic pathogen of dogs in the 1970s and is closely related to feline panleukopenia virus (FPV, a parvovirus of cats and related carnivores. Although both viruses have wide host ranges, analysis of viral sequences recovered from different wild carnivore species, as shown here, demonstrated that>95% were derived from CPV-like viruses, suggesting that CPV is dominant in sylvatic cycles. Many viral sequences showed host-specific mutations in their capsid proteins, which were often close to sites known to control binding to the transferrin receptor (TfR, the host receptor for these carnivore parvoviruses, and which exhibited frequent parallel evolution. To further examine the process of host adaptation, we passaged parvoviruses with alternative backgrounds in cells from different carnivore hosts. Specific mutations were selected in several viruses and these differed depending on both the background of the virus and the host cells in which they were passaged. Strikingly, these in vitro mutations recapitulated many specific changes seen in viruses from natural populations, strongly suggesting they are host adaptive, and which were shown to result in fitness advantages over their parental virus. Comparison of the sequences of the transferrin receptors of the different carnivore species demonstrated that many mutations occurred in and around the apical domain where the virus binds, indicating that viral variants were likely selected through their fit to receptor structures. Some of the viruses accumulated high levels of variation upon passage in alternative hosts, while others could infect multiple different hosts with no or only a few additional mutations. Overall, these studies demonstrate that the evolutionary history of a virus, including how long it has been circulating and in which hosts, as well as its phylogenetic background, has a profound effect on determining viral host range.

  1. Helping Moms, Saving Babies: Faith-Based Partnerships to Reduce Prematurity in the African American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, LaToya L.

    2008-01-01

    The March of Dimes, Texas Chapter, partnered with the faith community to pilot Honey Child[SM], a prenatal education program for African American women. The program is designed to combat prematurity, which is the leading cause of death for African American infants. Honey Child uses a spiritual approach to promote prenatal health through…

  2. When faith does violence: Reimagining engagement between churches and LGBTI groups on homophobia in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald West

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ‘Homophobia’ is shorthand for stigmatising attitudes and practices towards people who demonstrate sexual diversity. In this article, we reflect on how African Christian faith may become redemptive rather than violent in the context of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex forms of sexuality.

  3. Assessing Attitude towards Religion: The Astley-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Theistic Faith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astley, Jeff; Francis, Leslie J.; Robbins, Mandy

    2012-01-01

    This study builds on the research tradition modelled by the Francis Scale of Attitude towards Christianity, the Katz-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Judaism, the Sahin-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Islam and the Santosh-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Hinduism to propose a generic instrument concerned with attitudes towards theistic faith.…

  4. ORTHODOX FAITH AND ROMANIA CREDINTA ORTODOXĂ ȘI ROMÂNIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PhD. Bugiulescu Marin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Christian mission in the Romania has been continuous, but has adapted to the realities of everyday life and to historical conditions, both local and national. However, the clergy and the believers engaged in serving the Church in Romania continued preaching the Gospel and strengthening the faith and unity of the nation, a necessary component for effective ministry

  5. Assessing Christian-Faith and Cognitive Development in College Students: CFCDS Instrument Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Laura S.

    2013-01-01

    What happens when students go to college? An important outcome of college attendance is student cognitive development. Part of that developmental process is learning how to address contrasting values, beliefs, knowledge structures, and worldviews critically. This study addressed the relationship between cognitive and Christian-faith development in…

  6. Assessing Christian-Faith and Cognitive Development in College Students: CFCDS Instrument Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Laura S.

    2013-01-01

    What happens when students go to college? An important outcome of college attendance is student cognitive development. Part of that developmental process is learning how to address contrasting values, beliefs, knowledge structures, and worldviews critically. This study addressed the relationship between cognitive and Christian-faith development in…

  7. Talking about Religion: How Highly Religious Youth and Parents Discuss Their Faith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollahite, David C.; Thatcher, Jennifer Y.

    2008-01-01

    This study builds on previous research regarding parent-child religious conversations to explore the transactional processes of these conversations. It employs qualitative analyses of interviews with highly religious parents and adolescents representing the Abrahamic faiths (Christianity, Judaism, Islam) from New England and Northern California.…

  8. Religious Education in the Experience of Young People from Mixed-Faith Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arweck, Elisabeth; Nesbitt, Eleanor

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of a recent ethnographic study at the University of Warwick of the religious identity formation of young people in "mixed-faith" families, this article focuses on their (and their parents') experiences and perceptions of religious education (RE) and of religious nurture in the community. The young people's experience of RE…

  9. Assessing Attitude towards Religion: The Astley-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Theistic Faith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astley, Jeff; Francis, Leslie J.; Robbins, Mandy

    2012-01-01

    This study builds on the research tradition modelled by the Francis Scale of Attitude towards Christianity, the Katz-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Judaism, the Sahin-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Islam and the Santosh-Francis Scale of Attitude towards Hinduism to propose a generic instrument concerned with attitudes towards theistic faith.…

  10. Promoting Cancer Screening among Churchgoing Latinas: "Fe en Acción"/Faith in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, J. P.; Haughton, J.; Perez, L. G.; Martínez, M. E.; De la Torre, C. L.; Slymen, D. J.; Arredondo, E. M.

    2017-01-01

    Cancer screening rates among Latinas are generally low, reducing the likelihood of early cancer detection in this population. This article examines the effects of a community intervention ("Fe en Acción"/Faith in Action) led by community health workers ("promotoras") on promoting breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening…

  11. Cross-Cultural Perspectives in Thanatology: Through a Prism of Religious Faiths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandan, Monica

    2005-01-01

    Recent decades have witnessed an increase in thanatology education in colleges and universities. However, the infusion into thanatology curricula of religious faiths as they affect behaviors, experiences and emotions of dying individuals and survivors is still in its infancy. In this article I describe an effective approach I have used to…

  12. Faith Development in the Adult Life Cycle. The Report of a Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith Development in the Adult Life Cycle, Minneapolis, MN.

    This report presents findings of a study of a variety of factors relating the processes of aging and faith development among adults. Part I is an overview of the entire study. The introduction (chapter 1) provides its setting. Chapter 2 delineates the project's overall structure and its use of two complementary research designs to gather similar…

  13. Keeping the Faith : Origins of Confidence in Charitable Organizations and its Consequences for Philanthropy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, René

    2006-01-01

    Origins and consequences of charitable confidence are investigated with the Giving in the Netherlands Panel Survey 2002-2004 (n=1,246). Charitable confidence is higher among the higher educated, children of volunteers, younger age groups, those with more faith in people, those who are aware of

  14. Faith-Learning Interaction in Graphic Design Courses in Protestant Evangelical Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Lorraine

    2010-01-01

    Integration or connectedness between faith and learning is a core aim of Protestant evangelical colleges and universities. It is pursued in a number of different ways in the academic programs of these institutions, even in commercially oriented courses that they offer, such as graphic design. However, the different ways that practical and…

  15. 28 CFR 33.53 - Participation by faith-based organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Participation by faith-based organizations. 33.53 Section 33.53 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE BUREAU OF JUSTICE ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAMS Criminal Justice Block Grants Additional Requirements § 33.53 Participation by...

  16. ORTHODOX FAITH AND ROMANIA CREDINTA ORTODOXĂ ȘI ROMÂNIA

    OpenAIRE

    PhD. Bugiulescu Marin

    2015-01-01

    Christian mission in the Romania has been continuous, but has adapted to the realities of everyday life and to historical conditions, both local and national. However, the clergy and the believers engaged in serving the Church in Romania continued preaching the Gospel and strengthening the faith and unity of the nation, a necessary component for effective ministry

  17. Gendered Realities and Women's Leadership Development: Participant Voices from Faith-Based Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafreniere, Shawna L.; Longman, Karen A.

    2008-01-01

    Women who seek high-level administrative leadership positions in various sectors of higher education continue to meet a variety of barriers (Eagly & Carli, 2007). These challenges are especially evident among the 105-member Council for Christian Colleges & Universities (CCCU), an association of faith-based liberal arts institutions. Seeking to…

  18. Start-Up Manual for Faith-Based Child Care Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Debra

    In response to the need for guidance, this manual provides assistance for faith-based communities as they decide whether licensed child care fits within their ministry. The manual covers steps for getting started, key factors in determining budget, performing a needs assessment in the community and for the facility, the administrative structure of…

  19. Faith Matters: Developing the Our Whole Lives Evaluation and Promotion Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of faith-based organizations implementing comprehensive sexuality education into their ministries, including a review of a study of 5,819 religious teens by Christian Community Inc., a nonprofit research and resource development organization. The study by Christian Community Inc. had a major impact in the…

  20. Saved at Home: Christian Branding and Faith Nights in the "Church of Baseball"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Baseball has enjoyed its status as the "national pastime" in part because it has been associated with democracy. To the extent that baseball, as an institution of civil religion, fosters pluralism and inclusion, it can indeed be viewed in democratic terms. In recent years, the advent of conservative Christian events called "Faith Nights" threatens…

  1. Can Positive Faith-Based Encounters Influence Australian Young People's Drinking Behaviours?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Alison; Whitehead, Dean; Ullah, Shahid

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Alcohol-related accidents and injuries occur disproportionately within young people--especially when gathering at social events. This study represents a partnership between a faith-based group of volunteers specifically trained to counsel and support young people to reduce their risk of alcohol-related harm, Adelaide City Council, and the…

  2. Exploring the Interface between Christian Faith and Education: An Annotated List of Current Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Allan G.

    2013-01-01

    Seventeen academic journals which explore aspects of the interface between the Christian faith and educational concerns, and which are currently available internationally and in English, are listed. Annotations for each journal include publication and editorial details, website access, sponsoring institution, stated focus, educational content…

  3. Investigating Students' Negotiation of Religious Faiths in ELT Contexts: A Critical Spiritual Pedagogy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mambu, Joseph Ernest

    2016-01-01

    Based on a larger case study project at an English language teacher education program in Indonesia, this article demonstrates how Christian and non-Christian students negotiate their religious faiths in English-language-teaching (ELT) settings. In view of the critical spiritual pedagogy perspective, the current study defies dichotomizing religious…

  4. Islamic Educational Goals, Methods, and Content, with Emphasis on Shia' Faith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    As a major world religion representing approximately 20% of the human family, Islam holds particular and significant educational perspectives. The purpose of this article is to identify and interpret the viewpoints of Islam on education (with emphasis on Shia' faith). To accomplish this aim, "educational goals" from the viewpoint of Islam have…

  5. Social Context Effects in 2- and 4-Year-Olds' Selective versus Faithful Imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yue; Kushnir, Tamar

    2014-01-01

    This study asked whether children's tendency to imitate selectively (ignore causally unnecessary actions) versus faithfully ("overimitate" causally unnecessary actions) varies across ages and social contexts. In the first experiment, 2-year-olds and 4-year-olds were randomly assigned to play 1 of 3 prior games with a demonstrator: a…

  6. Keeping the Faith : Origins of Confidence in Charitable Organizations and its Consequences for Philanthropy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, René

    2006-01-01

    Origins and consequences of charitable confidence are investigated with the Giving in the Netherlands Panel Survey 2002-2004 (n=1,246). Charitable confidence is higher among the higher educated, children of volunteers, younger age groups, those with more faith in people, those who are aware of stand

  7. Faith Matters: Developing the Our Whole Lives Evaluation and Promotion Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of faith-based organizations implementing comprehensive sexuality education into their ministries, including a review of a study of 5,819 religious teens by Christian Community Inc., a nonprofit research and resource development organization. The study by Christian Community Inc. had a major impact in the…

  8. Minimal Degrees of Faithful Quasi-Permutation Representations for Direct Products of -Groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ghodrat Ghaffarzadeh; Mohammad Hassan Abbaspour

    2012-08-01

    In [2], the algorithms of $c(G), q(G)$ and $p(G)$, the minimal degrees of faithful quasi-permutation and permutation representations of a finite group are given. The main purpose of this paper is to consider the relationship between these minimal degrees of non-trivial -groups and with the group × .

  9. Keeping the Faith: The Christian Scholar in the Academy in a Postmodern World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlin, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Christian academics continue to face a significant question when engaging in scholarship: Is scholarly pursuit incompatible with Christian thought as seems to be assumed by some academics today, or are academic enquiry and Christian faith mutually supportive? In this paper, a range of responses to this question from within the Christian community…

  10. 24 CFR Appendix C to Part 3500 - Instructions for Completing Good Faith Estimate (GFE) Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT Pt... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Instructions for Completing Good Faith Estimate (GFE) Form C Appendix C to Part 3500 Housing and Urban Development Regulations...

  11. Faith Dialogue as a Pedagogy for a Post Secular Religious Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Inter-faith or inter-religious dialogue takes place for a range of reasons and comes in many guises, from the reconciliatory encounter to ease rivalry, to an engagement with the other in an exploration of the meaning and purpose of the human condition. This article examines the process of dialogue in a religious education context and proposes a…

  12. An Attachment Theory Approach to Narrating the Faith Journey of Children of Parental Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesling, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the effects of parental divorce on a child's faith. Drawing from attachment theory, Granqvist and Kirkpatrick proposed two probable developmental pathways to religion. For those with secure attachment, whose cumulative experiences of sensitive, religious caregivers enhance the development of a God image as loving; belief…

  13. Public Support for Faith-Based Correctional Programs: Should Sacred Places Serve Civic Purposes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Francis T.; Pealer, Jennifer A.; Santana, Shannon A.; Fisher, Bonnie S.; Applegate, Brandon K.; Blevins, Kristie R.

    2007-01-01

    In light of President Bush's enthusiastic support and numerous initiatives, there is a growing call to fund "faith-based" social service programs, including those focused on juvenile and adult offenders. These programs are controversial because they seek to reconfigure the line separating church and state. Based on a national 2001 survey of 327…

  14. Faith communities, social exclusion, homelessness and disability: Transforming the margins in the City of Tshwane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thinandavha D. Mashau

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Social exclusion is a reality in South Africa today. Its faces are diverse and varied; social exclusion can be defined in terms of social, economic, political and religious dimensions. This diversity also applies to the context of homelessness in the City of Tshwane. The research on which this article is based sought to explore the issue of social exclusion from a religious perspective; it looked closely at how social exclusion manifests from a religious perspective in the context of homelessness and disability in the City of Tshwane. The thrust of this article is captured in the following question: how do homeless people and persons with disability experience social exclusion from faith communities? What do they say about the role that faith communities should play in addressing their marginalisation? These questions were answered by doing Contextual Bible Study of Acts 3:1–10 with the homeless in the City of Tshwane, thereby allowing them space for their voices to be heard as to how the faith community should respond to their plight. It became clear in this research that faith communities should always act as transforming agents to those in the margins.

  15. Faith, Race, and LGB Affirmation: Experiences of African American Counselors-in-Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Janeé R. Avent; Roberston, Derek L.; Jones, Brenda; Prado, Ashley M.

    2017-01-01

    In this phenomenological study, the authors investigated the experiences of African American counselors-in-training, with roots in the Black church, as they navigated their faith and professional responsibilities to provide affirming services to lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients. Findings suggest attitudes toward lesbian, gay, and bisexual…

  16. Faith-Learning Interaction in Graphic Design Courses in Protestant Evangelical Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Lorraine

    2010-01-01

    Integration or connectedness between faith and learning is a core aim of Protestant evangelical colleges and universities. It is pursued in a number of different ways in the academic programs of these institutions, even in commercially oriented courses that they offer, such as graphic design. However, the different ways that practical and…

  17. The development of a scale to identify college and university science professors' science-faith paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundrick, David Ray

    The relationship between science and religion in American higher education changed significantly over the past two centuries as empiricism and naturalism became the philosophical underpinnings of the university. This philosophical shift contributed significantly to the secularization of the academy, the context in which philosophers of science during the last half-century have theorized a variety of theoretical patterns for relating science and religion. Evidence suggests that science professors operationalize various science-faith paradigms, but no instrument prior to this research had ever been created to measure the constructs. The purpose of this research was to develop a scale, with at least adequate psychometric properties (good validity and initial reliability), able to identify and discriminate among these various science-faith paradigms (in the Western Christian tradition) in practice among college and university science professors in the United States. The researcher conducted a Web-based electronic survey of a stratified random sample of science professors representing a variety of higher education institution types, science disciplines, and religious affiliation. Principal Components Analysis of the survey data produced five factors predicted by the researcher. These factors correspond to five science-faith paradigms: Conflict---Science over Religion; Conflict---Religion over Science; Compartmentalism; Complementarism; and Concordism. Analysis of items loading on each factor produced a 50-item Science-Faith Paradigm Scale (SFPS) that consists of five sub-scales, each having characteristics of good content validity, construct validity, and initial reliability (Cronbach's alpha ranging from .87 to .95). Preliminary exploratory analysis of differences in SFPS sub-scale scores based on demographic variables indicates that the SFPS is capable of discriminating among groups. This research validates the existence of five science-faith paradigms in practice in

  18. Back to basics: the untreated rabbit reticulocyte lysate as a competitive system to recapitulate cap/poly(A) synergy and the selective advantage of IRES-driven translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto Rifo, Ricardo; Ricci, Emiliano P; Décimo, Didier; Moncorgé, Olivier; Ohlmann, Théophile

    2007-01-01

    Translation of most eukaryotic mRNAs involves the synergistic action between the 5' cap structure and the 3' poly(A) tail at the initiation step. The poly(A) tail has also been shown to stimulate translation of picornavirus internal ribosome entry sites (IRES)-directed translation. These effects have been attributed principally to interactions between eIF4G and poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) but also to the participation of PABP in other steps during translation initiation. As the rabbit reticulocyte lysate (RRL) does not recapitulate this cap/poly(A) synergy, several systems based on cellular cell-free extracts have been developed to study the effects of poly(A) tail in vitro but they generally exhibit low translational efficiency. Here, we describe that the non-nuclease-treated RRL (untreated RRL) is able to recapitulate the effects of poly(A) tail on translation in vitro. In this system, translation of a capped/polyadenylated RNA was specifically inhibited by either Paip2 or poly(rA), whereas translation directed by HCV IRES remained unaffected. Moreover, cleavage of eIF4G by FMDV L protease strongly stimulated translation directed by the EMCV IRES, thus recapitulating the competitive advantage that the proteolytic processing of eIF4G confers to IRES-driven RNAs.

  19. Stem cells responsible for deer antler regeneration are unable to recapitulate the process of first antler development-revealed through intradermal and subcutaneous tissue transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyi; Yang, Fuhe; Haines, Stephen; Zhao, Haiping; Wang, Wenying; Xing, Xiumei; Sun, Hongmei; Chu, Wenhui; Lu, Xiaoping; Liu, Linling; McMahon, Chris

    2010-11-15

    Antlers offer a unique model for the study of whether regeneration recapitulates development in a mammalian organ. Research, to date, supports the full recapitulation in antler, but a recent report that subcutaneously transplanted (ST) pedicle periosteum (PP) failed to induce that ectopic antler formation could argue against recapitulation, as antlerogenic periosteum (AP) can readily do so. However, it was not clear in that study whether the result was caused by inability of the PP to interact with the skin or owing to failure to create the required close contact to it. This study was designed to clarify this uncertainty by adopting intradermal transplantation (IT) to achieve the required close contact without the need for significant mass expansion. The results showed that IT of 1/8 of the original AP mass or more was sufficient for antler induction, whereas ST of 1/4-AP or less could not do so within 2 years. The minimum amount of AP required for antler induction using the IT approach was somewhere between 1/8 and 1/12-AP (development. It is likely that PP has been restricted for antler regeneration and lost the potential to initiate antler development.

  20. Exploring home visits in a faith community as a service-learning opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, Emmerentia; Koen, Magdalene P; Bester, Petra

    2013-08-01

    Within South Africa the Psychiatric Nursing Science curriculum in undergraduate Baccalaureate nursing education utilizes home visits as a service-learning opportunity. In this context faith communities are currently unexplored with regards to service-learning opportunities. With limited literature available on this topic, the question was raised as to what are these students' and family members' experience of home visits within a faith community. To explore and describe nursing students' and family members' experiences of home visits within a faith community. A qualitative approach was used that was phenomenological, explorative and descriptive and contextual in nature. The research was conducted within a faith community as service learning opportunity for Baccalaureate degree nursing students. This community was situated in a semi-urban area in the North-West Province, South Africa. Eighteen (n=18) final year nursing students from different cultural representations, grouped into seven groups conducted home visits at seven (n=7) families. Comprehensive reflective reporting after the visits, namely that the students participated in a World Café data collection technique and interviews were conducted with family members. Three main themes emerged: students' initial experiences of feeling overwhelmed but later felt more competent; students' awareness of religious and cultural factors; and students' perception of their role. Two main themes from the family members emerged: experiencing caring and growth. There is mutual benefit for nursing students and family members. Students' experiences progress during home visits from feeling overwhelmed and incompetent towards a trusting relationship. Home visits in a faith community seems to be a valuable service learning opportunity, and the emotional competence, as well as spiritual and cultural awareness of nursing students should be facilitated in preparation for such home visits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  1. Understanding low colorectal cancer screening uptake in South Asian faith communities in England--a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Cecily K; Thomas, Mary C; McGregor, Lesley M; von Wagner, Christian; Raine, Rosalind

    2015-10-01

    Colorectal cancer screening uptake within the South Asian population in England is approximately half that of the general population (33 % vs 61 %), and varies by Muslim (31.9 %), Sikh (34.6 %) and Hindu (43.7 %) faith background. This study sought to explore reasons for low uptake of CRC screening in South Asian communities and for the variability of low uptake between three faith communities; and to identify strategies by which uptake might be improved. We interviewed 16 'key informants' representing communities from the three largest South Asian faith backgrounds (Islam, Hinduism and Sikhism) in London, England. Reasons for low colorectal cancer screening uptake were overwhelmingly shared across South Asian faith groups. These were: limitations posed by written English; limitations posed by any written language; reliance on younger family members; low awareness of colorectal cancer and screening; and difficulties associated with faeces. Non-written information delivered verbally and interactively within faith or community settings was preferred across faith communities. Efforts to increase accessibility to colorectal cancer screening in South Asian communities should use local language broadcasts on ethnic media and face-to-face approaches within community and faith settings to increase awareness of colorectal cancer and screening, and address challenges posed by written materials.

  2. EMT/MET at the Crossroad of Stemness, Regeneration and Oncogenesis: The Ying-Yang Equilibrium Recapitulated in Cell Spheroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Forte

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT is an essential trans-differentiation process, which plays a critical role in embryonic development, wound healing, tissue regeneration, organ fibrosis, and cancer progression. It is the fundamental mechanism by which epithelial cells lose many of their characteristics while acquiring features typical of mesenchymal cells, such as migratory capacity and invasiveness. Depending on the contest, EMT is complemented and balanced by the reverse process, the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET. In the saving economy of the living organisms, the same (Ying-Yang tool is integrated as a physiological strategy in embryonic development, as well as in the course of reparative or disease processes, prominently fibrosis, tumor invasion and metastasis. These mechanisms and their related signaling (e.g., TGF-β and BMPs have been effectively studied in vitro by tissue-derived cell spheroids models. These three-dimensional (3D cell culture systems, whose phenotype has been shown to be strongly dependent on TGF-β-regulated EMT/MET processes, present the advantage of recapitulating in vitro the hypoxic in vivo micro-environment of tissue stem cell niches and their formation. These spheroids, therefore, nicely reproduce the finely regulated Ying-Yang equilibrium, which, together with other mechanisms, can be determinant in cell fate decisions in many pathophysiological scenarios, such as differentiation, fibrosis, regeneration, and oncogenesis. In this review, current progress in the knowledge of signaling pathways affecting EMT/MET and stemness regulation will be outlined by comparing data obtained from cellular spheroids systems, as ex vivo niches of stem cells derived from normal and tumoral tissues. The mechanistic correspondence in vivo and the possible pharmacological perspective will be also explored, focusing especially on the TGF-β-related networks, as well as others, such as SNAI1, PTEN, and EGR1. This

  3. EMT/MET at the Crossroad of Stemness, Regeneration and Oncogenesis: The Ying-Yang Equilibrium Recapitulated in Cell Spheroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Elvira; Chimenti, Isotta; Rosa, Paolo; Angelini, Francesco; Pagano, Francesca; Calogero, Antonella; Giacomello, Alessandro; Messina, Elisa

    2017-07-29

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an essential trans-differentiation process, which plays a critical role in embryonic development, wound healing, tissue regeneration, organ fibrosis, and cancer progression. It is the fundamental mechanism by which epithelial cells lose many of their characteristics while acquiring features typical of mesenchymal cells, such as migratory capacity and invasiveness. Depending on the contest, EMT is complemented and balanced by the reverse process, the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET). In the saving economy of the living organisms, the same (Ying-Yang) tool is integrated as a physiological strategy in embryonic development, as well as in the course of reparative or disease processes, prominently fibrosis, tumor invasion and metastasis. These mechanisms and their related signaling (e.g., TGF-β and BMPs) have been effectively studied in vitro by tissue-derived cell spheroids models. These three-dimensional (3D) cell culture systems, whose phenotype has been shown to be strongly dependent on TGF-β-regulated EMT/MET processes, present the advantage of recapitulating in vitro the hypoxic in vivo micro-environment of tissue stem cell niches and their formation. These spheroids, therefore, nicely reproduce the finely regulated Ying-Yang equilibrium, which, together with other mechanisms, can be determinant in cell fate decisions in many pathophysiological scenarios, such as differentiation, fibrosis, regeneration, and oncogenesis. In this review, current progress in the knowledge of signaling pathways affecting EMT/MET and stemness regulation will be outlined by comparing data obtained from cellular spheroids systems, as ex vivo niches of stem cells derived from normal and tumoral tissues. The mechanistic correspondence in vivo and the possible pharmacological perspective will be also explored, focusing especially on the TGF-β-related networks, as well as others, such as SNAI1, PTEN, and EGR1. This latter, in

  4. The Relationship between Faith and History in Panenberg’s View Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Salari

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Relation between Faith and History is one of  the main issues in modern Christian Theology. The start point of this issue refers to Historical Critique of the Bible. What motivated towards   addressing   to the History and its relation with faith, is relation between Divine being (as a reality and the world which has made by Historical events and phenomena. Under impact of German Idealism and Hegel’s Philosophical thought regarding History and Historical critique, Panenberg, puts Christian Theology in the context of the modern historical  affairs  and studied it with a critical approaches. By providing  a hermeneutical interpretation of Divine visions, or, providing  a revelation in line of modern historical thoughts ,he tries, to turns from Theology of Salvation to Historical Theology

  5. The Relationship between Faith and History in Panenberg’s View Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Salari

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Relation between Faith and History is one of  the main issues in modern Christian Theology. The start point of this issue refers to Historical Critique of the Bible. What motivated towards   addressing   to the History and its relation with faith, is relation between Divine being (as a reality and the world which has made by Historical events and phenomena. Under impact of German Idealism and Hegel’s Philosophical thought regarding History and Historical critique, Panenberg, puts Christian Theology in the context of the modern historical  affairs  and studied it with a critical approaches. By providing  a hermeneutical interpretation of Divine visions, or, providing  a revelation in line of modern historical thoughts ,he tries, to turns from Theology of Salvation to Historical Theology

  6. Faith community as a centre of liberationist praxis in the city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Hankela

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Theologians speak of the silence of churches’ prophetic voice in the ‘new’ South Africa, whilst the country features amongst the socio-economically most unequal countries in the world, and the urban areas in particular continue to be characterised by segregation. In this context I ask: where is liberation theology? I spell out my reading of some of the recent voices in the liberationist discourse. In dialogue with these scholars I, firstly, argue for the faith community to be made a conscious centre of liberationist debates and praxis. Secondly, I do this by suggesting two theoretical building blocks (i.e. critical deconstruction and radical friendship for local faith communities that wish to grow in a liberationist fashion.

  7. Translating Faith: Field Narratives as a Means of Dialogue in Collaborative Ethnographic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Gregory PhD

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents research from a collaborative ethnography in four faith settings in London, UK. In particular, we show how a group of researchers from diverse cultures teach and learn from each other through the use of field narratives. After outlining a sociocultural approach to learning and discussing how faith situates itself within this frame, we show ways in which field narratives provide a bridge between the past, present and future of cultural events and practices and allow a polyphonic gaze by different researchers describing the same setting. We show how researchers learn to reflect upon their own research site, compare it with those of others, and, ultimately, become more aware of their own. This process is iterative and dialogic, which enriches not only the knowledge of the researchers themselves but also provides a mosaic of different interpretations to a wider interested audience.

  8. Human rights and faith: a ‘world-wide secular religion’?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Féron

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While human rights are meant to represent a secular morality, there are surprising parallels to be drawn with religions. Perhaps most striking is the realization that human rights are actually based on faith, as was already recognized at the proclamation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. This dependence on faith has deep implications for the way we understand and propagate them, because it puts rights in situations of epistemological stalemate vis-à-vis other cultural, religious, or ideological moral systems. This paper proposes to compare human rights doctrine to a religion to identify potential threats to its long-term credibility, and how to address them. In particular, it explains why coercive propagation of rights risks degenerating into a form of self-contradictory fundamentalism. Ultimately, the article argues for a return to the values of tolerance and mutual respect that rights actually stand for.

  9. The amalgam of faith and reason: Euclid’s Elements and the scientific thinker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade-Molina, Melissa; Valero, Paola; Ravn, Ole

    2017-01-01

    child intertwines with what was ought to be the ‘scientific thinker’ to Christianity. We focus on how Euclidean geometry, taken as a proper method of inquiry amalgamated with the Christian worldview to provide explanations about the natural world. In modern education, the core of this amalgamation...... continues connecting reason with faith, and science with Platonic views of mathematics. The effect of power is the making of the Modern scientific thinker....

  10. Book review: Gendered paradoxes: educating Jordanian women in nation, faith, and progress

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    "Gendered Paradoxes: Educating Jordanian Women in Nation, Faith, and Progress." Fida J. Adely. University of Chicago Press. 2012. --- \\ud In 2005 the World Bank released a gender assessment of the nation of Jordan, a country that like many in the Middle East has undergone dramatic social and gender transformations, in part by encouraging equal access to education for men and women. The resulting demographic picture there—highly educated women who still largely stay at home as mothers and care...

  11. Amongst the unbelievable: Rage, faith and reason in selected writings by V.S. Naipaul

    OpenAIRE

    Balfour, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the representation of faith as conveyed by Naipaul in the course of four travelogues. Drawing on historical scholarship pertaining to Islamic societies in transition, and comparing this to a selection of the literary critical reception that Naipaul’s writing about Islam has evoked, I argue for a revision of literary readings of Naipaul’s travelogues. My premise is that the author’s subject positioning influences both a self-critical as well as more compassionate perspe...

  12. The role and impact of personal faith and religion among genetic service providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Gail; Micco, Ellyn; Silver, Rachel J; Kolodner, Ken; Bernhardt, Barbara A

    2009-02-15

    This paper describes the impact of genetic service providers' personal faith and religious values on their experiences interacting with colleagues and patients. We surveyed 480 clinical geneticists (MDs), genetic counselors (GCs), and genetic nurses randomly selected from their professional associations, and then interviewed a sample of survey respondents. Outcomes included religiosity, coping with distress through spiritual beliefs, and personal value conflicts (PVCs). Two hundred fourteen providers completed the survey out of an estimated 348 eligible (61% response rate). Importance attributed to regular attendance at religious services ranged from 39% (not at all important) to 27% (very important). Reliance on religion and spiritual beliefs as a source of comfort ranged from 48% (never) to 33% (sometimes or often). Religiosity varied by discipline with 58% of nurses thinking regular attendance at religious services was moderately or very important as compared to 47% of GCs and 30% of MDs (P = 0.006). Ten percent of respondents had difficulty reconciling their own faith with being a genetics professional, 14% felt the need to hide their own faith from their colleagues or patients, 7% thought their professional stance was not consistent with their personal values, and 4% felt ostracized by the genetics community because of their personal beliefs. The experience of such PVCs was positively correlated with religiosity (r = 0.35; P values to cope with distress. These individuals often experience difficulty reconciling their religious beliefs with the expectations of their profession, and sharing their beliefs with their colleagues and patients. Efforts should be made to prevent or reduce the secrecy surrounding personal faith and religion among genetics professionals.

  13. The harmonious relationship between faith and science from the perspective of some great saints: A brief comment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Manuel E; Del Río, Juan Pablo; Vigil, Pilar

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this editorial is to show that a harmonious relationship between science and faith is possible, as exemplified by great saints of the Catholic Church. It begins with the definitions of science and faith, followed by an explanation of the apparent conflict between them. A few saints that constitute an example that a fruitful relationship between these two seemingly opposed realities has been possible are Saint Albert the Great, Saint John of the Cross, Saint Giuseppe Moscati, and Saint Edith Stein, among others, and this editorial highlights their deep contributions to the dialogue between faith and reason. This editorial ends with a brief discussion on whether it is possible to be both a scientist and a man of faith.

  14. The harmonious relationship between faith and science from the perspective of some great saints: A brief comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Manuel E.; del Río, Juan Pablo; Vigil, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this editorial is to show that a harmonious relationship between science and faith is possible, as exemplified by great saints of the Catholic Church. It begins with the definitions of science and faith, followed by an explanation of the apparent conflict between them. A few saints that constitute an example that a fruitful relationship between these two seemingly opposed realities has been possible are Saint Albert the Great, Saint John of the Cross, Saint Giuseppe Moscati, and Saint Edith Stein, among others, and this editorial highlights their deep contributions to the dialogue between faith and reason. This editorial ends with a brief discussion on whether it is possible to be both a scientist and a man of faith. PMID:25698837

  15. Faithful representation of stimuli with a population of integrate-and-fire neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Aurel A; Pnevmatikakis, Eftychios A

    2008-11-01

    We consider a formal model of stimulus encoding with a circuit consisting of a bank of filters and an ensemble of integrate-and-fire neurons. Such models arise in olfactory systems, vision, and hearing. We demonstrate that bandlimited stimuli can be faithfully represented with spike trains generated by the ensemble of neurons. We provide a stimulus reconstruction scheme based on the spike times of the ensemble of neurons and derive conditions for perfect recovery. The key result calls for the spike density of the neural population to be above the Nyquist rate. We also show that recovery is perfect if the number of neurons in the population is larger than a threshold value. Increasing the number of neurons to achieve a faithful representation of the sensory world is consistent with basic neurobiological thought. Finally we demonstrate that in general, the problem of faithful recovery of stimuli from the spike train of single neurons is ill posed. The stimulus can be recovered, however, from the information contained in the spike train of a population of neurons.

  16. Three-point bending test simulation on implant fpds with a bio-faithful model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertucci, V; Montani, M; Arcuri, C; Cardelli, P

    2017-01-01

    It is well known by previous important studies that mandible flexes during different jaw movements. According to this assumption it is very important to know how implant supported fixed partial dentures could restrict mandibular movements and, could lead to excess strain accumulation that could modify the resolution of implant treatment. The aim of our project is to create a bio-faithful model able to recreate mandibular movements, during three point bending test methods of (FIXED -PARTIAL -DENTURES) FPDs, to avoid a not flexible metal base, where models' properties doesn't allow to obtain a bio-faithful simulation during testing phases. 2 implants (premium Sweden and Martina®) were embedded in mandible resin section to mimic osteointegrated implants in premolar and molar areas, in order to recreate a Kennedy Class II configuration. Our mandible test simulator was creating according to the measurement obtained according to the study of Schwartz-Dabney and Dechow (2002). Sample so created is tested with testing machine (Instron 5566(®), UK) adopting the three point bending mechanical tests configuration. We can admit that oral cavity is a bio-dynamic system, where different variables incurr, so it's very important that experimental conditions simulate clinical environment. Experimentation should be based on the correlation between the failure mechanisms exhibited for in vitro samples and those observed in fractured clinical prostheses made of the same composition and processing conditions. A bio-faithful model could reduce this wide range between in vitro and in vivo study experimentation.

  17. The New Age of faith tourism and Fruska Gora mountain (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Stamenković

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In general, pilgrimage is a journey from home to a far sacred place for the purpose of spiritual enrichment (Raj, Morpeth, 2007. This paper is concerned with the possibility for development of religious tourism on Fruska Gora mountain. Nowdays, monasteries and sacred objects and places are the pilgrimage destinations for Orthodox and other Christians and religious belivers, in the Serbia. For instance, the Krušedol monastery is one of sixteen Serb’s Orthodox monasteries on the Fruška Gora mountain in the northern Serbian province of Vojvodina. The monastery is the legacy of the last Serbian despot family of Srem - Branković. As a form of movement, pilgrimage has always been an active encounter with uncertainty. The main issue of this paper is to emphasize the importance of gaining modern management and marketing strategies and suggests, in order to make a better relationship between Orthodox church and religious tourism. Also, the purpose of this paper is to represent this Christian Holy place as strong touristic destinations that are visited by thousands of tourists and pilgrims. The Year of Faith Tourism 2009, hosted by the World Religious Travel Association (WRTA, is a year dedicated to the promotion of and participation in Faith Tourism. All sectors of society are encouraged to become involved including the media, governments, travel providers/suppliers, and people of faith.

  18. Horseshoes, angels and other UFOs: Rethinking faith in light of present-day superstitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel W. du Toit

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The monotheistic religions see God as the author of human faith. Faith comes �from above� and as such is unnatural or supernatural. The faith of pagans, by contrast, is regarded as superstition and hence natural (Rm 1. One can make a case for the �natural� universal incidence of both religion and superstition and their fulfilment of similar needs. In addition both are characterised by the pattern-finding operation of the human brain. The (causal connections we make and the patterns we impose on reality have always helped people to comprehend and manipulate the world. Historical circumstances led to the development of �official� religions as institutions wielding political power, whereas superstition has remained a para-religious phenomenon to this day.But how should religion and superstition be viewed in a postmetaphysical, technoscientific environment? How can the supernatural aspects of religion and superstition be accommodated in such an environment? The role of affect and belief (placebo effect in religion and superstition is also scrutinised. Viewed differently, both religion and superstition are considered natural and are proposed as a form of immanent transcendence, in which the �supernatural� is not posited as a metaphysical model but is worked out �from below� in terms of the human constitution.

  19. How can you resist? Executive control helps romantically involved individuals to stay faithful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronk, Tila M; Karremans, Johan C; Wigboldus, Daniël H J

    2011-05-01

    In the present research, we examined why some people have more difficulty than others in staying faithful to their romantic partners. Three studies supported our main prediction that executive control is associated with romantically involved individuals' ability to stay faithful. Study 1 showed that participants with a higher level of executive control reported less difficulty in staying faithful to their partners than did those with lower levels of executive control. In Study 2, romantically involved male participants were placed in a waiting room together with an attractive female confederate. Results showed that participants with a higher level of executive control showed less flirting behavior with the confederate than did those with lower levels of executive control. Study 3 demonstrated that a higher level of executive control was related to a lower expressed desire to meet an attractive other, but only for romantically involved participants. Together, these studies showed that executive control helps romantically involved individuals to deal with the lure of attractive alternatives. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. A Brief View of“Chinese Dream”the Value of the Ideal Faith Education for College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李科; 燕爽

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the“Chinese dream”and“Chinese dream”the connotation of education, believe that the current to carry out the"Chinese dream"education is the best form of the ideal faith education of college students."Chinese dream"rich ideal faith education value which contains the leading value, the incentive value, the integrated value and adding value Etc.

  1. A Brief View of “Chinese Dream” the Value of the Ideal Faith Education for College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李科; 燕爽

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the“Chinese dream”and“Chinese dream”the connotation of education, believe that the current to carry out the“Chinese dream” education is the best form of the ideal faith education of college students.&quot;Chinese dream&quot;rich ideal faith education value which contains the leading value, the incentive value, the integrated value and adding value Etc.

  2. The role of interleukin-10 and hyaluronan in murine fetal fibroblast function in vitro: implications for recapitulating fetal regenerative wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Swathi; King, Alice; Marsh, Emily; LeSaint, Maria; Bhattacharya, Sukanta S; Han, Nathaniel; Dhamija, Yashu; Ranjan, Rajeev; Le, Louis D; Bollyky, Paul L; Crombleholme, Timothy M; Keswani, Sundeep G

    2015-01-01

    Mid-gestation fetal cutaneous wounds heal scarlessly and this has been attributed in part to abundant hyaluronan (HA) in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and a unique fibroblast phenotype. We recently reported a novel role for interleukin 10 (IL-10) as a regulator of HA synthesis in the fetal ECM, as well as the ability of the fetal fibroblast to produce an HA-rich pericellular matrix (PCM). We hypothesized that IL-10-mediated HA synthesis was essential to the fetal fibroblast functional phenotype and, moreover, that this phenotype could be recapitulated in adult fibroblasts via supplementation with IL-10 via an HA dependent process. To evaluate the differences in functional profile, we compared metabolism (MTS assay), apoptosis (caspase-3 staining), migration (scratch wound assay) and invasion (transwell assay) between C57Bl/6J murine fetal (E14.5) and adult (8 weeks) fibroblasts. We found that fetal fibroblasts have lower rates of metabolism and apoptosis, and an increased ability to migrate and invade compared to adult fibroblasts, and that these effects were dependent on IL-10 and HA synthase activity. Further, addition of IL-10 to adult fibroblasts resulted in increased fibroblast migration and invasion and recapitulated the fetal phenotype in an HA-dependent manner. Our data demonstrates the functional differences between fetal and adult fibroblasts, and that IL-10 mediated HA synthesis is essential for the fetal fibroblasts' enhanced invasion and migration properties. Moreover, IL-10 via an HA-dependent mechanism can recapitulate this aspect of the fetal phenotype in adult fibroblasts, suggesting a novel mechanism of IL-10 in regenerative wound healing.

  3. The role of interleukin-10 and hyaluronan in murine fetal fibroblast function in vitro: implications for recapitulating fetal regenerative wound healing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swathi Balaji

    Full Text Available Mid-gestation fetal cutaneous wounds heal scarlessly and this has been attributed in part to abundant hyaluronan (HA in the extracellular matrix (ECM and a unique fibroblast phenotype. We recently reported a novel role for interleukin 10 (IL-10 as a regulator of HA synthesis in the fetal ECM, as well as the ability of the fetal fibroblast to produce an HA-rich pericellular matrix (PCM. We hypothesized that IL-10-mediated HA synthesis was essential to the fetal fibroblast functional phenotype and, moreover, that this phenotype could be recapitulated in adult fibroblasts via supplementation with IL-10 via an HA dependent process.To evaluate the differences in functional profile, we compared metabolism (MTS assay, apoptosis (caspase-3 staining, migration (scratch wound assay and invasion (transwell assay between C57Bl/6J murine fetal (E14.5 and adult (8 weeks fibroblasts. We found that fetal fibroblasts have lower rates of metabolism and apoptosis, and an increased ability to migrate and invade compared to adult fibroblasts, and that these effects were dependent on IL-10 and HA synthase activity. Further, addition of IL-10 to adult fibroblasts resulted in increased fibroblast migration and invasion and recapitulated the fetal phenotype in an HA-dependent manner.Our data demonstrates the functional differences between fetal and adult fibroblasts, and that IL-10 mediated HA synthesis is essential for the fetal fibroblasts' enhanced invasion and migration properties. Moreover, IL-10 via an HA-dependent mechanism can recapitulate this aspect of the fetal phenotype in adult fibroblasts, suggesting a novel mechanism of IL-10 in regenerative wound healing.

  4. Recapitulation of tumor heterogeneity and molecular signatures in a 3D brain cancer model with decreased sensitivity to histone deacetylase inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart J Smith

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Physiologically relevant pre-clinical ex vivo models recapitulating CNS tumor micro-environmental complexity will aid development of biologically-targeted agents. We present comprehensive characterization of tumor aggregates generated using the 3D Rotary Cell Culture System (RCCS. METHODS: CNS cancer cell lines were grown in conventional 2D cultures and the RCCS and comparison with a cohort of 53 pediatric high grade gliomas conducted by genome wide gene expression and microRNA arrays, coupled with immunohistochemistry, ex vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy and drug sensitivity evaluation using the histone deacetylase inhibitor, Vorinostat. RESULTS: Macroscopic RCCS aggregates recapitulated the heterogeneous morphology of brain tumors with a distinct proliferating rim, necrotic core and oxygen tension gradient. Gene expression and microRNA analyses revealed significant differences with 3D expression intermediate to 2D cultures and primary brain tumors. Metabolic profiling revealed differential profiles, with an increase in tumor specific metabolites in 3D. To evaluate the potential of the RCCS as a drug testing tool, we determined the efficacy of Vorinostat against aggregates of U87 and KNS42 glioblastoma cells. Both lines demonstrated markedly reduced sensitivity when assaying in 3D culture conditions compared to classical 2D drug screen approaches. CONCLUSIONS: Our comprehensive characterization demonstrates that 3D RCCS culture of high grade brain tumor cells has profound effects on the genetic, epigenetic and metabolic profiles of cultured cells, with these cells residing as an intermediate phenotype between that of 2D cultures and primary tumors. There is a discrepancy between 2D culture and tumor molecular profiles, and RCCS partially re-capitulates tissue specific features, allowing drug testing in a more relevant ex vivo system.

  5. Relationships among spirituality, religious practices, personality factors, and health for five different faith traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Brick; Yoon, Dong Pil; Cohen, Daniel; Schopp, Laura H; McCormack, Guy; Campbell, James; Smith, Marian

    2012-12-01

    To determine: (1) differences in spirituality, religiosity, personality, and health for different faith traditions; and (2) the relative degree to which demographic, spiritual, religious, and personality variables simultaneously predict health outcomes for different faith traditions. Cross-sectional analysis of 160 individuals from five different faith traditions including Buddhists (40), Catholics (41), Jews (22), Muslims (26), and Protestants (31). Brief multidimensional measure of religiousness/spirituality (BMMRS; Fetzer in Multidimensional measurement of religiousness/spirituality for use in health research, Fetzer Institute, Kalamazoo, 1999); NEO-five factor inventory (NEO-FFI; in Revised NEO personality inventory (NEO PI-R) and the NEO-five factor inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual, Psychological Assessment Resources, Odessa, Costa and McCrae 1992); Medical outcomes scale-short form (SF-36; in SF-36 physical and mental health summary scores: A user's manual, The Health Institute, New England Medical Center, Boston, Ware et al. 1994). (1) ANOVAs indicated that there were no significant group differences in health status, but that there were group differences in spirituality and religiosity. (2) Pearson's correlations for the entire sample indicated that better mental health is significantly related to increased spirituality, increased positive personality traits (i.e., extraversion) and decreased personality traits (i.e., neuroticism and conscientiousness). In addition, spirituality is positively correlated with positive personality traits (i.e., extraversion) and negatively with negative personality traits (i.e., neuroticism). (3) Hierarchical regressions indicated that personality predicted a greater proportion of unique variance in health outcomes than spiritual variables. Different faith traditions have similar health status, but differ in terms of spiritual, religious, and personality factors. For all faith traditions, the presence of positive and

  6. The blind faith deep water horizontal pipeline tie-in project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charalambides, John Nicos [Oceaneering International, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-12-19

    This presentation will concentrate on the design challenges, experience and learning from the SIT and offshore installation of two deepwater pipeline tie-ins using first-of-its-kind subsea technology and installation methodologies on the 'Blind Faith' project. The Blind Faith Subsea Tie-Ins join the Blind Faith oil and gas pipelines with the Canyon Chief gas pipeline and the Mountaineer oil pipeline in 5100 feet of water. Both of the Blind Faith oil and gas pipelines are terminated with conventional PLEMs providing a horizontal connector for the tie-in and a vertical connector for a future tie-in connection point. The connectors are ROV operable/installable clamp style connectors. The method of joining to the Canyon Chief oil and gas pipelines and the type of jumper employed are unique to the tie-in. An ROV operable / installable mechanical pipe end connector connects the bare ends of the Canyon Chief and Mountaineer pipelines. The mechanical pipe end connector is fitted with an integral clamp connector hub and rests on an ROV installed mud mat. After installation of the mechanical connector, metrology was performed to create a neutral state horizontal jumper for joining the mechanical connector hub and the Blind Faith PLEM. The neutral state horizontal jumper is a compliant 'Z-Bend' design. During installation the jumper was elastically pre-deformed using a bowstring system. Pre-deformation of the jumper provided installation clearances and facilitated the neutral stress state after installation. Once landed the jumper bowstring was relaxed, allowing the jumper to expand to fit between the hubs. After expansion and make-up, the clamp connectors were tightened via an ROV operated hydraulic torque wrench. A seal test verified the integrity of the connections. After installation the jumper remains in a minimal residual stress state atypical of most horizontal jumpers. The horizontal jumper was chosen over the vertical jumper because it provides a

  7. Is HIV/AIDS a consequence or divine judgment? Implications for faith-based social services. A Nigerian faith-based university's study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaore, Israel B; Olaore, Augusta Y

    2014-01-01

    A contemporary reading of Romans 1:27 was disguised as a saying by Paul Benjamin, AD 58 and administered to 275 randomly selected members of a private Christian university community in south western Nigeria in West Africa. Participants were asked to respond to a two-item questionnaire on their perception of the cause of HIV/AIDS either as a judgment from God or consequence of individual lifestyle choices. The apparent consensus drifted in the direction of God as the culprit handing down his judgment to perpetrators of evil who engage in the homosexual lifestyle. The goal of this paper was to examine the implications of a judgmental stance on addressing the psychosocial needs of Persons Living with HIV/AIDS in religious environments. It also explores how service providers in faith-based environments can work around the Judgment versus Consequence tussle in providing non-discriminatory services to persons diagnosed with HIV/AIDS.

  8. Double heterozygous mice for Klf5 and Fli1 genes: a new animal model of systemic sclerosis recapitulating its three cardinal pathological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Yoshihide

    2015-09-01

    The lack of animal models recapitulating the three cardinal features of systemic sclerosis (SSc), such as immune activation, vasculopathy, and tissue fibrosis, hinders the understanding of the pathogenesis of this disease. A series of clinical studies has suggested that environmental factors largely contribute to the development of SSc in individuals predisposed by genetic factors. This notion is supported by the establishment of a new murine SSc model which recapitulates three cardinal features of SSc by simultaneous haploinsufficiency of Klf5 and Fli1 genes, both of which are epigenetically suppressed in SSc dermal fibroblasts. In addition to enhanced dermal thickness, Klf5(+/-) and Fli1(+/-) mice resemble dermal fibrosis of SSc at the ultrastructural level. Furthermore, these mice simulate altered vascular structure and B cell activation characteristic of SSc. Further studies on the pathological events in Klf5(+/-) and Fli1(+/-) mice and the roles of KLF5 and Fli1 in various types of cells may provide us with a useful clue to better understand the developmental process of SSc.

  9. Ablation of fast-spiking interneurons in the dorsal striatum, recapitulating abnormalities seen post-mortem in Tourette syndrome, produces anxiety and elevated grooming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M; Li, L; Pittenger, C

    2016-06-02

    Tic disorders, including Tourette syndrome (TS), are thought to involve pathology of cortico-basal ganglia loops, but their pathology is not well understood. Post-mortem studies have shown a reduced number of several populations of striatal interneurons, including the parvalbumin-expressing fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs), in individuals with severe, refractory TS. We tested the causal role of this interneuronal deficit by recapitulating it in an otherwise normal adult mouse using a combination transgenic-viral cell ablation approach. FSIs were reduced bilaterally by ∼40%, paralleling the deficit found post-mortem. This did not produce spontaneous stereotypies or tic-like movements, but there was increased stereotypic grooming after acute stress in two validated paradigms. Stereotypy after amphetamine, in contrast, was not elevated. FSI ablation also led to increased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze, but not to alterations in motor learning on the rotorod or to alterations in prepulse inhibition, a measure of sensorimotor gating. These findings indicate that a striatal FSI deficit can produce stress-triggered repetitive movements and anxiety. These repetitive movements may recapitulate aspects of the pathophysiology of tic disorders.

  10. Dilemmas and tensions facing a faith-based organisation promoting HIVprevention among young people in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Marisa; Nixon, Stephanie; Flicker, Sarah; Rubincam, Clara; Jenney, Angelique

    2010-06-01

    Faith-based organisations (FBOs) are receiving growing attention for their roles in addressing HIV and AIDS in southern Africa. These roles, however, are not without philosophical challenges. Yet, to date, most references to the successes or limitations of FBOs have remained the domain of theoretical and, often, ideological debate. In this context, discussions about the roles of faith and FBOs in responding to HIV and AIDS often evoke extreme positions-either advocating for or critiquing their involvement. In place of this there is a need for empirical evidence and analyses that shed light on both the challenges and opportunities of faith-based HIV-prevention programming. This article presents a critical sociological analysis of the complexities confronting one FBO in its effort to deliver an abstinence-focused HIV-prevention programme to school-going adolescents in a poor peri-urban area of South Africa. As one aspect of a larger mixed-methods evaluation, this analysis is based on 11 focus group discussions, variously held with parents, teachers, learners and programme facilitators, in an effort to determine how and why the participants perceived the programme to work. We present and analyse four sources of tension appearing within the data which relate to the programme's faith-based orientation: a) enthusiasm for sexual abstinence despite awareness of the structural constraints; b) a dichotomous framing of behaviours (i.e. good versus bad); c) mixed messages about condoms; and d) administering faith-based programming within secular public schools. Through this analysis we aim to identify opportunities and challenges for faith-based HIV-prevention efforts more broadly. We argue that any assessment of faith-based HIV-prevention programming ought to respect and reflect its complexity as well as the complexity of the context within which it operates.

  11. ROMAN MARKS TO EUROPEAN LAW OF THE CONTRACTS GOOD – FAITH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIA MOCANU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Beyond its political destinations, Europe is a civilization that each of its constituent parts has contributed its genius, over time. Or Rome, its original matrix, has sent her fundamental right. To what extent can it be another tool for reflection, for mutual understanding, sometimes of harmony, here's what seems to be necessarily raised, albeit briefly, by this favored means of communication and exchange, that it has always been the contract. Since then the issue is explained by the need to have a contractual law in the middle of this community adapted to the needs of this new burning community, in Europe of the beginning of the third millennium. In fact, market opening has led to considerable development of trade between the EU-counties and this is exactly cross-border flow through contracts. In this context we aimed to determine the role that it has one of the most important and current principles of law, that of good - faith in European contract law building.It is known that good - faith is experiencing a very special embodiment in the contract, where it assumes many functions. She is the subject of many studies and analysis and is likely to grow rapidly in national and supranational rights.Although contract law has evolved considerably, the theme is present and justified, under conditions which the Roman foundations remain. European contractual universe and its possible developments do not exclude but require an approach in terms of Roman law. Methodologically, the paper is structured as follows: good - faith in contracts, the birth and evolution of the concept (ancient Rome, Middle Ages, modern and contemporary and contemporary applications - abuse of right, information requirements, hardship principle.

  12. SOLUS, SOLA: Constructing a Christocentric faith model of the �ordo salutis�

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    Andre van Oudtshoorn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article develops a non-linear model of the ordo salutis with Christ at the centre. It shows that each individual event is a manifestation of what Christ has done and a call to faith in him. Faith is shown to comprise of consensus (agreement and fiducia (trust. Through this model, the creative tension between the objective (indicative and the subjective (imperative dimensions of the gospel as well as the tension between God�s eschatological time and our unfulfilled time are maintained in such a way that they both complement and limit each other. This tension, it is argued, is intrinsically linked to the way in which Christ continues to be present within our world as both Lord and Spirit. As Lord, Jesus is proclaimed as the One who has already overcome our broken reality; as the Spirit, Christ continues to be vulnerable to be resisted and rejected by us. As the Spirit of the risen Lord, he is nevertheless able to perform miracles and overcome our broken reality as the gospel is proclaimed. A short analysis of the way in which the Bible refers to some of the events in the ordo salutis confirms the legitimacy of this model.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: It is argued that this model overcomes many objections against the traditional understanding of the ordo salutis. By challenging the underlying presuppositions of both Arminiaism and Calvinism, this article provides a unique alternative which does justice to key insights from both traditions and adds a new voice to the ongoing debate between Arian, Pelagian and semi-pelagian theologians, on the one side, and Reformed theologians, on the other side. It thus makes a significant intradisciplinary contribution to systematic theology. It also aligns the universality of salvation in Christ as the second Adam to the continuing need for a personal faith response to Christ.

  13. Restoring Faith

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Life in Lhasa returns to normal after violent riots It was 7:30 p.m.on March 26.Lhasa, capital of Tibet Autonomous Region and a world-famous tourist attraction,was unnaturally quiet.Many stores and res- taurants had alreadv locked their doors. There was little traffic and few pedestrians on the streets.From time to time a police car cruised by on patrol."I was so afraid when I saw the bad

  14. Faithfully probabilistic teleportation of an unknown atomic state and cavity field state with a single measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Zhen-Biao; Wu Huai-Zhi; Su Wan-Jun; Zhong Zhi-Rong; Zheng Shi-Biao

    2007-01-01

    This paper shows that, based on the single-photon JC model depicting the resonant interaction of a two-level atom with a single cavity mode, an unknown atomic state and cavity photon superposition state can be faithfully teleported with only a single measurement. The scheme is probabilistic, its success lies on the event that the sender atom (or the medi-atom, for teleportation of cavity field state) is detected in the higher state. The scheme is in contrast to the previous ones of using a maximally two-particle entangled state as quantum channel.

  15. Assessing attitude towards religion : the Astley–Francis Scale of attitude towards theistic faith

    OpenAIRE

    Astley, Jeff; Francis, Leslie J.; Robbins, Mandy

    2012-01-01

    This study builds on the research tradition modelled by the Francis Scale of Attitude towards Christianity, the Katz–Francis Scale of Attitude towards Judaism, the Sahin–Francis Scale of Attitude towards Islam and the Santosh–Francis Scale of Attitude towards Hinduism to propose a generic instrument concerned with attitudes towards theistic faith. The scale properties of this new instrument, established among a sample of 284 (200 female and 84 male) 16–18-year-old students, commend it for use...

  16. Classroom to clinic: incorporating adolescent spiritual/faith assessment into nurse practitioner education & practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Janice M

    2014-01-01

    Although nursing is well grounded in the conceptualization of person as body-mind-spirit, there is little evidence that advanced practice nurses routinely address the spirit in giving patient care, especially with adolescents in the outpatient setting. The neglect of spiritual aspects of care may be related to lack of a framework, or education/incorporation into nurse practitioner preparation. This article describes one method of integrating adolescent spiritual/faith assessment into a nurse practitioner clinical course. Readings, assignments, and a grading rubric are offered.

  17. Michael Farquhar, Circuits of Faith: Migration, Education and the Wahhabi Mission

    OpenAIRE

    Pétriat, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Using the concept of what he calls a “transnational religious economy” centered on the Islamic University of Medina (IUM), Michael Farquhar’s Circuits of Faith is an important and historicized contribution to the debate over the export of Wahhabism and its role in global Salafism. The detailed history of the IUM is probably the main interest of this book based on an array of IUM publications (syllabuses) and interviews. It deals with historicized facts and provides precise knowledge of one o...

  18. Faithful quantum entanglement sharing based on linear optics with additional qubits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xi-Han; Duan Xiao-Jiao; Sheng Yu-Bo; Zhou Hong-Yu; Deng Fu-Guo

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a scheme for faithfully distributing a pure entanglement between two parties over an arbitrary collective-noise channel with linear optics. The transmission is assisted by an additional qubit against collective noise.The receiver can take advantage of the time discrimination and the measurement results of the assistant qubit to reconstruct a pure entanglement with the sender. Although the scheme succeeds probabilistically,the resource used to get a pure entanglement state is finite,and so is easier to establish entanglement in practice than quantum entanglement purification.

  19. The Faith, Hope and Charity Triad through Onomastic Nomination (with Reference to Eastern Slavonic Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Gerasimovich

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the Вера, Надежда, Любовь (corresponding to the English Faith, Hope and Charity proper names, and their Eastern Slavonic equivalents, viewed upon through the prism of correspondence to the appellative homonyms, designating the key Christian virtues. The triad is actively employed in nominations of different material (religious and nonreligious and nonmaterial objects (public institutions and events, which is proved by Internet data.

  20. Gandhi on religion, faith and conversion-secular blueprint relevant today

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    Ajai R. Singh

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Gandhi believed in judging people of other faiths from their stand point rather than his own. He welcomed contact of Hinduism with other religions, especially the Christian doctrines, for he did not want to be debarred from assimilating good anywhere else. He believed a respectful study of other's religion was a sacred duty and it did not reduce reverence for one's own. He was looking out for those universal principles which transcended religion as a dogma. He expected religion to take account of practical life, he wanted it to appeal to reason and not be in conflict with morality. He believed it was his right and duty to point out the defects of his own religion, but to desist from doing so with other's faith. He refused to abuse a man for his fanatical deeds for he tried to see them from the other person's point of view. He believed Jesus expressed the will and spirit of God but could not accept Jesus as the only incarnate son of God. If Jesus was like God or God himself, then all men were like God or God Himself. But neither could he accept the Vedas as the inspired word of God, for if they were inspired why not also the Bible and the Koran? He believed all great religions were fundamentally equal and that there should be innate respect for them, not just mutual tolerance. He felt a person wanting to convert should try to be a good follower of his own faith rather than seek goodness in change of faith. His early impressions of Christianity were unfortunate which underwent a change when he discovered the New Testament and the Sermon on the Mount, whose ideal of renunciation appealed to him greatly. He thought Parliament of Religions or International Fellowship of Religions could be based only on equality of status, a common platform. An attitude of patronising tolerance was false to the spirit of international fellowship. He believed that all religions were more or less true, but had errors because they came to us though imperfect human

  1. Moral Psychology Must Not Be Based on Faith and Hope: Commentary on Narvaez (2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidt, Jonathan

    2010-03-01

    Narvaez (2010, this issue) calls for a moral psychology in which reasoning and intuitions are equal partners. But empirical research on the power of implicit processes and on the weakness of everyday reasoning indicates that the partnership is far from equal. The ancient rationalist faith that good reasoning can be taught and that it will lead to improved behavior is no longer justified. The social intuitionist model (Haidt, 2001) is a more realistic portrayal of the ways that moral intuition and reasoning work together. © The Author(s) 2010.

  2. Quality of life of depressed and suicidal patients seeking services from traditional and faith healers in rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musyimi, Christine W; Mutiso, Victoria N; Nayak, Sameera S; Ndetei, David M; Henderson, David C; Bunders, Joske

    2017-05-08

    In rural Kenya, traditional and faith healers provide an alternative pathway to health care, including mental health care. However, not much is known about the characteristics of the populations they serve. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between depression, suicidal ideation, and socio-demographic variables with Quality of Life (QoL) indicators in a sample seeking mental health services from traditional and faith healers in rural Kenya. Understanding QoL in this sample can help develop mental health policy and training to improve the well-being of this population. This was a cross-sectional epidemiological survey (n = 443) conducted over a period of 3 months among adult patients seeking care from traditional and faith healers in rural Kenya. Data were collected using the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II), Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSS) and WHO Quality of Life Survey- BREF (WHOQOL-BREF), and analyzed using correlation analyses, parametric tests, and regression analyses. Increasing levels of depression were associated with lower QoL among patients seeking care from traditional and faith healers. BSS scores were significantly negatively correlated with overall, physical, psychological, and environmental QoL, p Kenya. Evidence suggests that traditional and faith healers treat patients with a variety of QoL issues. Further research should focus on understanding how these issues tie into QoL, and how these healers can target these to improve care.

  3. Role of Religion in Organ Donation-Development of the United Kingdom Faith and Organ Donation Action Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, G; Neuberger, J

    2016-04-01

    At a national policy level, the United Kingdom is at the forefront of recognizing the role of faith and its impact on organ donation. This is demonstrated by the recommendations of the Organ Donation Taskforce, National Institute for Clinical Excellence guidelines on organ donation, All-Party Parliamentary Kidney Group, and National Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic Taskforce Alliance. Evidence to date shows that further thought is required to ensure the active engagement of faith communities with organ donation in the UK. The "Taking Organ Transplantation to 2020" strategy was launched in July 2013 by National Health Service Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) in collaboration with the Department of Health and Welsh, Scottish, and Northern Irish governments and seeks to increase the number of people, from all sections of the UK's multiethnic and multifaith population, who consent to and authorize organ donation in their life. NHSBT seeks to work in partnership with faith leaders and this culminated in a Faith and Organ Donation Summit. Faith leaders highlight that there is a need for engagement at both national and local levels concerning organ donation as well as diagnosis and definition of death.

  4. Mimicking the functional hematopoietic stem cell niche in vitro: recapitulation of marrow physiology by hydrogel-based three-dimensional cultures of mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Monika B; Limaye, Lalita S; Kale, Vaijayanti P

    2012-05-01

    A culture system that closely recapitulates marrow physiology is essential to study the niche-mediated regulation of hematopoietic stem cell fate at a molecular level. We investigated the key features that play a crucial role in the formation of a functional niche in vitro. Hydrogel-based cultures of human placenta-derived mesenchymal stromal cells were established to recapitulate the fibrous three-dimensional architecture of the marrow. Plastic-adherent mesenchymal stromal cells were used as controls. Human bone marrow-derived CD34(+) cells were co-cultured with them. The output hematopoietic cells were characterized by various stem cell-specific phenotypic and functional parameters. The hydrogel-cultures harbored a large pool of primitive hematopoietic stem cells with superior phenotypic and functional attributes. Most importantly, like the situation in vivo, a significant fraction of these cells remained quiescent in the face of a robust multi-lineage hematopoiesis. The retention of a high percentage of primitive stem cells by the hydrogel-cultures was attributed to the presence of CXCR4-SDF1α axis and integrin beta1-mediated adhesive interactions. The hydrogel-grown mesenchymal stromal cells expressed high levels of several molecules that are known to support the maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells. Yet another physiologically relevant property exhibited by the hydrogel cultures was the formation of hypoxia-gradient. Destruction of hypoxia-gradient by incubating these cultures in a hypoxia chamber destroyed their specialized niche properties. Our data show that hydrogel-based cultures of mesenchymal stromal cells form a functional in vitro niche by mimicking key features of marrow physiology.

  5. Religious Education in Russia: Inter-Faith Harmony or Neo-Imperial Toleration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Lisovskaya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the approach to religious education that has been instituted in Russia since 2012. The new policy’s manifestly proclaimed goals seem convergent with the values of religious freedom, self-determination, tolerance, and inter-faith peace that are espoused by Western liberal democracies. Yet Russia’s hidden religious education curriculum is far more consistent with a neo-imperial model of ethno-religious (Russian Orthodox hegemony and limited toleration of selected, other faiths whose reach is restricted to politically peripheral ethno-territorial entities. This model embodies and revitalizes Russia’s imperial legacies. Yet the revitalization is, in itself, an outcome of strategic choices made by the country’s religious and secular elites in the course of its desecularization. Building on discourse analysis of five Russian textbooks and a teacher’s manual, this article shows how the neo-imperial model manifests itself in the suppression of exogenous and endogenous pluralism, cultivation of the ideology of “ethnodoxy”, and in essentially imperialist mythology. The paper concludes by predicting the new model’s potential instability.

  6. Discerning the role of faith communities in responding to urban youth marginalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginald W. Nel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban youth marginalisation became a key consideration in scholarly and policy literature in the 1990s. This entailed a shift from an emphasis on youth in relation to activism in the struggle to overcome colonial racism – popularly known as ‘the struggle against apartheid’ – to an emphasis on youth as the object of social inquiry and social welfare programmes. Irrespective of how we valuate this shift, the question in this article is how urban faith communities and youth ministry research are to respond to the agency of youth as dialogue partners – with a focus on social cohesion. This article explores this shift in scholarship on urban youth movements, especially for the period since 1994. It draws from the perspectives of my recent doctoral studies (Nel 2013 in constructing a creative dialogue with youth movements. The ultimate aim of this article is to provide a grounded basis for constructing a methodology for a postcolonial urban theology. In addition, it aims to inform the ongoing Youth at the Margins (YOMA comparative study on the contribution of faith-based organisations to social cohesion in South Africa and Nordic Europe, with the Riverlea community, in Johannesburg, as one of the case studies.

  7. Religion, faith and the empowerment process: stories of Iranian people with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoli, Samereh; Ashktorab, Tahereh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Parvizy, Soroor; Dunning, Trisha

    2011-06-01

    Empowerment concerning people with diabetes is well researched. However, few researchers specifically focus on the barriers to and facilitators of empowerment in Iranian people with diabetes. Understanding the factors could help health professionals facilitate self-empowerment more effectively. This study aims to determine the barriers to and facilitators of empowerment in Iranian people with diabetes. A qualitative exploratory study was conducted using in-depth interviews to collect the data from 11 women and men in 2007. Themes were identified using constant comparative analysis method. Common barriers to empowerment were similar to other chronic diseases: prolonged stress, negative view about diabetes, ineffective health-care systems, poverty and illiteracy. Diabetes education, fear of diabetes' complications, self-efficacy and hope for a better future emerged as being crucial to empowerment. Facilitators specific to Iranians were: the power of religion and faith, the concept of the doctor as holy man, accepting diabetes as God's will, caring for the body because it was God's gift and support from families especially daughters. Empowerment was strongly influenced by cultural and religious beliefs in Iran and the power of faith emerged as an important facilitator of diabetes empowerment. The findings will help health professionals understand how Iranian people with diabetes view life and the factors that facilitate empowerment. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Faith and Superstitions in the Frontline and in the Rear in Wartime (1941-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny F. Krinko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the faith and superstitions of the Soviet citizens in the frontline and in the rear during the Great Patriotic War. The study of the religion history in the USSR in 1941-1945 was significantly influenced by ideology. This theme has been thoroughly studied in recent years, but the attention is mainly attached to its institutional aspects and the role of religion in lives of Soviet citizens is still little-studied. Nevertheless, by the start of war, considerable part of the population maintained its religious beliefs, despite the anti-religious policy of the Soviet authorities. The war increased the faith of Soviet citizens in the frontline, in the rear and within the occupied territory. It was mainly caused by the extreme wartime situation. Different superstitions and omens gained a wide circulation. Despite the fact that they had different content, both rites and prayers, acknowledged by the church and the omens and superstitions, rejected by the church have become the necessary ways of people psychological adaptation to wartime severities and hardships. The conclusions, which were made with the help of different sources, such as official documents, statistical data, both published and collected in the course of work under the theme of participants and eyewitnesses’ recollections, help us to imagine the collective consciousness of the Soviet society during the Great Patriotic War.

  9. Religious Education in Russia: Inter-Faith Harmony or Neo-Imperial Toleration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Lisovskaya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the approach to religious education that has been instituted in Russia since 2012. The new policy’s manifestly proclaimed goals seem convergent with the values of religious freedom, self-determination, tolerance, and inter-faith peace that are espoused by Western liberal democracies. Yet Russia’s hidden religious education curriculum is far more consistent with a neo-imperial model of ethno-religious (Russian Orthodox hegemony and limited toleration of selected, other faiths whose reach is restricted to politically peripheral ethno-territorial entities. This model embodies and revitalizes Russia’s imperial legacies. Yet the revitalization is, in itself, an outcome of strategic choices made by the country’s religious and secular elites in the course of its desecularization. Building on discourse analysis of five Russian textbooks and a teacher’s manual, this article shows how the neo-imperial model manifests itself in the suppression of exogenous and endogenous pluralism, cultivation of the ideology of “ethnodoxy”, and in essentially imperialist mythology. The paper concludes by predicting the new model’s potential instability.

  10. Practising chaordic beauty: On embracing strangers in one inner city faith community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan de Beer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article I read one inner city faith community – the Tshwane Leadership Foundation (TLF – through the lenses of literature that reflects on chaordic organisations and chaordic leadership. I explore whether an emphasis on the management of diversity, which is widespread in organisational and ecclesial practices and languages, should not be replaced with a spirituality of vulnerable embrace, as I discover it in this specific faith community. It is a spirituality that combines an invitation and radical embrace of diversity, and a dance with chaos, with a posture of vulnerability and a vision of justice. I bring the reflections of community members in TLF on difference and diversity in their organisation, in conversation with scholars contemplating chaordic organisations and chaordic leadership. I then wonder whether their emphasis on embrace instead of management does not open up the possibility of retrieving and affirming the hidden beauties and potentialities mediated by diversity, which is, I suggest, to practise ‘chaordic beauty’.

  11. A Social Responsibility Guide for Engineering Students and Professionals of all Faith Traditions: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punzi, Vito L

    2017-07-18

    The development of the various themes of Catholic Social Teaching (CST) is based on numerous papal documents and ecclesiastical statements. While this paper provides a summary of a number of these documents, this paper focuses on two themes: the common good and care of the environment, and on three documents authored by Pope John Paul II in 1990, by Pope Benedict XVI in 2010, and by Pope Francis in 2015. By analyzing these documents from an engineer's perspective, the author proposes a model for Socially Responsible Engineering. The proposed model is intended to serve as a guide for engineering students and practicing engineers of all faith traditions and to those with no faith tradition at all who wish to incorporate CST in the daily conduct of their personal and professional lives; to provide guidance for the professional the author terms the aspiring Socially Responsible Engineer; and to offer engineers a preferred alternative to the undesirable aspects of the technocratic paradigm. While intended primarily for engineers, this document also serves as a guide for those with expertise in social justice and who, by gaining a better understanding of the thought processes of engineers, can become better mentors for engineering students and practicing engineers seeking to incorporate CST into their daily lives.

  12. "A remarkable experience of god, shaping us as a family": parents' use of faith following child's rare disease diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Hillary N; Whisenhunt, Allison; Cheng, Joy; Dimitriou, Sophia; Young, Lisa R; Grossoehme, Daniel H

    2015-01-01

    A child's chronic illness can lead parents to utilize different types of coping, including religious beliefs and practices. Previous studies have generally focused on life-shortening diagnoses. The present study explored parental use of faith when the diagnosis was not life-shortening, using grounded-theory qualitative methodology. Data were collected using semi-structured telephone interviews with N = 12 parents of children diagnosed with Neuroendocrine Hyperplasia of Infancy (NEHI); approximately 50% of the diagnosed population in the United States at the time of the interview. Participants used faith to cope and make meaning in five ways: parents believed NEHI happened for a reason; beliefs provided resilience; parents were sustained by faith communities; beliefs affected parents' behavior; and beliefs developed over time. The results suggest that chaplains develop means for universal screening for spiritual struggle; educating congregational clergy how to support families in which a child has a chronic illness; and assisting parents construct meaning of their experience.

  13. Responses to the global HIV and AIDS pandemic: a study of the role of faith-based organisations in Lesotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olowu, Dejo

    2015-01-01

    This article attempts to establish the key contribution by people of faith to the global HIV pandemic response, using Lesotho as a case study. Particular focus is paid to the work of selected religious organisations in Lesotho in this context, assessing their capacities to coordinate an effective HIV and AIDS action at the grassroots levels through education, health care, development, and social service activities. Empirical evaluations and findings regarding the level and quality of faith-based engagement in this field establish the basic premise of this article, namely, that faith-based organisations are contributing energy, expertise, and experience in order to achieve the commitment of the global commitment to advance universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, and support. Although the article is particularly focused on the Lesotho context, its tremendous implications for simulated studies and approaches across Sub-Saharan Africa are accentuated.

  14. Astarabadi and Alame Majlesi’s Faith Studies and the Mullasdra’s Impression on Alame’s thoughts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mahdi Emamijomeh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available   Ekhbarigari doctrine, was founded by Astarabadi in 11th century of Hejirah As we will explain that he had a special theory in faith that Alame found it a very interesting subject to work on. We should know, Allame showed that he had the knowledge in faith studies from Astarabad ’s theories but without all the ambiguities in them, he tried to work on making his theories clearer and more correct.   So we can differenciate between Astarabadi and Allame’s theories in faith study and name the allame’s theory as a very special theory in Isfahan Ekhbarigari doctrine, but the most important thing that we try to discuss in this article is proving that Mullasadra has a very important part in balancing and moderating the Allame’s theories. So for saying and proving all these things we should start from a summary of the Astarabadi’s theories .    

  15. Sustaining health in faith community nursing practice: emerging processes that support the development of a middle-range theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyess, Susan MacLeod; Chase, Susan K

    2012-01-01

    This article reveals processes that support theoretical development for holistic nursing in the context of a faith community. The emerging processes enhance the articulation of the holistically focused practice, add clarity to faith community nursing activities and outcomes, and contribute to theoretical clarification and development. Theoretical clarity is essential to guide faith community nursing practice, research, and education because there is tremendous potential for the specialty practice to contribute to the health of a community across the continuum of caring and because to date there has been no unifying model for this practice proposed. A lack of a theoretical basis can result in disparate and disconnected approaches to studying, testing, and promoting the practice.

  16. End of Life in a Haitian American, Faith-Based Community: Caring for Family and Communal Unity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Susan Charlotte; Gordon, Shirley C

    This article presents two models resulting from a grounded theory study of the end-of-life decision-making process for Haitian Americans. Successful access to this vulnerable population was achieved through the faith-based community. The first model describes this faith-based community of Haitian Americans. The second model describes the process used by families in this community who must make end-of-life healthcare decisions. Implications for nursing practice and caring science include a need to improve the congruence between the nursing care provided at this vulnerable time and the cultural values of a population.

  17. Hydrogeology of the Old Faithful area, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, and its relevance to natural resources and infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Foley, Duncan; Fournier, Robert O.; Heasler, Henry P.; Hinckley, Bern; Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Susong, David D.

    2014-01-01

    A panel of leading experts (The Old Faithful Science Review Panel) was convened by Yellowstone National Park (YNP) to review and summarize the geological and hydrological understanding that can inform National Park Service management of the Upper Geyser Basin area. We give an overview of present geological and hydrological knowledge of the Old Faithful hydrothermal (hot water) system and related thermal areas in the Upper Geyser Basin. We prioritize avenues for improving our understanding of key knowledge gaps that limit informed decision-making regarding human use in this fragile natural landscape. Lastly, we offer guidelines to minimize impacts to the hydrothermal system that could be used to aid decisions by park management.

  18. Faithfulness and Similarity in Spirit-An Appreciation of Liu Shicong’s English Translation Wild Grass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Xiu-wen

    2016-01-01

    As a modern famous translator, Liu Shicong believes that literary translation should be faithful to the content of the original text and more importantly, it should convey its artistic effect, which includes the style, spirit and verve of the original text, namely transmitting the spirit of the original text. Based upon this translation principle, the paper aims to analyze and com-pare his English translation Wild Grass with the source text written by XiaYan in the aspects of being faithful to the original text and transmitting the verve of the original text, thus proving that the principles for prose translation initiated by Liu Shicong are applicable and effective.

  19. An Exploration of the Use of Branding to Shape Institutional Image in the Marketing Activities of Faith-Based Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    Modern higher education includes student-consumers who shop for educational opportunities and institutions that actively market themselves. This study examined the marketing of faith-based institutions to determine how faith-related missions are reflected in the printed recruitment materials, Web sites, and admissions portals of the 112 member…

  20. An Exploration of the Use of Branding to Shape Institutional Image in the Marketing Activities of Faith-Based Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    Modern higher education includes student-consumers who shop for educational opportunities and institutions that actively market themselves. This study examined the marketing of faith-based institutions to determine how faith-related missions are reflected in the printed recruitment materials, Web sites, and admissions portals of the 112 member…

  1. Young South Africans’ views on, and perceptions of, abstinence and faithfulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keitshepile G. Setswe

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The goals of the Abstinence and Be Faithful Among Youth (ABY project were to enhance local responses among the youth in South Africa to prevent HIV infection through encouraging abstinence,faithfulness and avoidance of unhealthy sexual behaviour among youths over a five-year period. A quantitative baseline evaluation of the ABY project was conducted in five cities in South Africa. Data were collected from learners and youths just before the ABY intervention started at nine randomly selected sites in Johannesburg, Cape Town, Durban, Port Elizabeth and Mthatha using a three-stage cluster sampling design. In total, nine sites were randomly selected from a possible eighteen. At each of the data-collection points, data were collected from 60 participants. In total there were 27 data-collection points and 1620 respondents. Young people have strong views on abstaining from sexual intercourse, as 83% said that it was possible not to have sex for as long as you can. There was also strong support for abstinence, as 78.5% said that not having sex was the best way of preventing infection with HIV. In total, 68.1% of the youths said that the media had a positive influence on encouraging abstinence and 72.1% said role models could help them not to have sex, while 84.3% said that leadership and life skills workshops were helpful in encouraging them to abstain from sex. In total, 68.7% of young people said that the media encouraged faithfulness in relationships and 84.6% said that life skills workshops were helpful in encouraging them to remain faithful to one partner. Young people have strong views on and support for abstinence. They also have strong views on and perceptions of remaining faithful to one partner. These findings are a valuable guide to the views and perceptions of young people with respect to abstinence and faithfulness before interventions are implemented.

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  2. Factors associated with faith-based health counselling in the United States: implications for dissemination of evidence-based behavioural medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Elizabeth A; Bopp, Melissa; Webb, Benjamin

    2013-03-01

    Health counselling is an evidence-based behavioural medicine approach and the most commonly reported form of faith-based health interventions. Yet, no research has explored the factors influencing the implementation of faith-based health counselling. Therefore, this study examined individual, organisational and environmental factors associated with offering/not offering faith-based health counselling programmes within faith-based organisations. A national, internet-based, opt-in, cross-sectional survey of faith leaders (N = 676) was conducted (March-December 2009) to assess faith leaders' demographic information, health status, fatalism, health-related attitudes and normative beliefs, attitudes towards health counselling, institutional and occupational information, and perceptions of parent organisation support for health and wellness interventions. Most faith leaders reported offering some type of health counselling in the past year [n = 424, 62.7%, 95% CI (59.0, 66.3)]. Results of a multivariate logistic regression showed that faith leaders reporting greater proxy efficacy (OR = 1.40, P = 0.002), greater comfort in speaking with church members about health (OR = 1.25, P = 0.005), greater perceived health (OR = 1.27, P = 0.034), and who worked at larger churches (OR ≥ 3.2, P ≤ 0.001) with greater parent organisation support (OR = 1.33, P = 0.002) had significantly higher odds of offering faith-based health counselling. Church size and parent organisation support for faith-based health interventions appear to be important factors in the presence of faith leader health counselling. The content of faith leader health counselling training should aim to increase faith leaders' confidence that church members will successfully change their health behaviours as a result of the health counselling and increase faith leaders' comfort in speaking with church members about health. Future research is needed to examine efficacious and effective dissemination methods such as

  3. The internal migration between public and faith-based health providers: a cross-sectional, retrospective and multicentre study from southern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabai, Patrik; Prytherch, Helen; Baumgarten, Inge; Kisanga, Oberlin M E; Schmidt-Ehry, Bergis; Marx, Michael

    2013-07-01

    To assess the magnitude, direction and underlying dynamics of internal health worker migration between public and faith-based health providers from a hospital perspective. Two complementary tools were implemented in 10 public and six faith-based hospitals in southern Tanzania. A hospital questionnaire assessed magnitude and direction of staff migration between January 2006 and June 2009. Interviews with 42 public and 20 faith-based maternity nurses evaluated differences in staff perspectives and motives for the observed migration patterns. The predominant direction of staff movement was from the faith-based to the public sector: 69.1% (n = 105/152) of hospital staff exits and 60.6% (n = 60/99) of hospital staff gains. Nurses were the largest group among the migrating health workforce. Faith-based hospitals lost 59.3% (n = 86/145) of nurses and 90.6% (n = 77/85) of registered nurses to the public sector, whereby public hospitals reported 13.5% (n = 59/436) of nurses and 24.4% (n = 41/168) of registered nurses being former faith-based employees. Interviews revealed significantly inferior staff perspectives among faith-based respondents than their public colleagues. Main differences were identified regarding career development and training, management support, employee engagement and workload. This study revealed considerable internal health worker migration from the faith-based to the public sector. Staff retention and motivation within faith-based hospitals are not restricted to financial considerations, and salary gaps can no longer uniquely explain this movement pattern. The consequences for the catchment area of faith-based hospitals are potentially severe and erode cooperation potential between the public and private health sector.

  4. The Role of Islamic Faith-Based Organization in Building Solidarity and Resilience among People of Different Faiths in Northeast Thailand: A Case Study of Foundation for Education and Development of Muslims in Northeast Thailand-FEDMIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Imron Sohsan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this paper are to examine the role of FEDMIN in building solidarity and resilience between Muslims and Buddhists and to find a model of peaceful coexistence among people of different faiths in northeast Thailand called “Isan region”. The research area was focused on the peaceful coexistence between Muslims and Buddhist in particular in Ban Nong Muen Tao village, Mueang, Udon Thani province. The study found that there were four important roles of FEDMIN in building solidarity and resilience among people of different faiths. Firstly, demonstrating the real image of Islam and Muslims to the other people of different faiths through the FEDMIN leaders’ role and personality in practicing peaceful coexistence, FEDMIN’s Santhitham Wittaya School, Muslim village model, which were described as “an intellectual contribution of Muslim community for the public”, FEDMIN Muslim area as a field trip attraction to the Authorities. Secondly, encouraging Muslims and Buddhists to set up a suitable atmosphere of dialogue of action based on socially engaged Islam and Buddhism concept which was demonstrated by the faith-based community forum as “comfort space” in which a suitable atmosphere of dialogue of action can exist. Third, empowering religious institution to play a vital role in preaching the principles of peaceful coexistence to believers becoming citizen of the society through Islamic sermon- Khutbah, Islamic class, establishing Santhitham Wittaya school as a substantive contribution from Muslim community to the public, and Community Radio Station project as a positive media which supported to create an atmosphere of citizenship among people of different faiths in the village.

  5. Faith-Based HIV Care and Prevention in Chinese Immigrant Communities: Rhetoric or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ezer; Chin, John J; Behar, Elana

    2011-10-01

    Ethnic churches attended by first generation Chinese immigrants are uniquely positioned to address emerging HIV prevention and care needs within the Chinese community at-large. Efforts to develop faith-based HIV programs necessitate identifying how HIV intersects with the sinicization of Christianity within Chinese churches. This paper will review the process of contextualizing HIV within theological and cultural frameworks that are meaningful for ethnic Chinese church leaders and members. The authors specifically propose two points of integration between public health and ecclesial functions: (1) HIV stigma-mitigation initiatives as informed by Christo-centric teachings of compassion and justice, and (2) HIV prevention and care reframed as social responsibility and informed by the Christian tradition of evangelism. Systems and practices that hinder and promote the involvement of Chinese churches in HIV prevention, care, and stigma-reduction will be discussed.

  6. Faith 7 L. Gordon Cooper, Jr., and the final Mercury mission

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    Burgess, Colin

    2016-01-01

    This book celebrates the final spaceflight in the Mercury series, flown by NASA astronaut Gordon Cooper, who led an adventurous life in the cockpit of airplanes and spacecraft alike, and on his Mercury mission he became the last American ever to rocket into space alone. He flew in the Mercury and Gemini programs and served as head of flight crew operations in both the Apollo and Skylab programs. His final Mercury mission closed out a pivotal chapter in American spaceflight. Based on extensive research and first-person interviews, this is a complete history of the Faith 7 flight and its astronaut. Cooper later gained notoriety following the release of the movie, The Right Stuff, in which he was depicted by Dennis Quaid, but Burgess discovers there was even more drama to his story. This recounting of the final Mercury 7 flight completes Burgess's investigation of the early spaceflight program in thrilling fashion.

  7. A faith-based intervention for cocaine-dependent Black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahler, Gerald J; Kirby, Kimberly C; Kerwin, MaryLouise E

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to obtain preliminary data on the effectiveness of a faith-based treatment adjunct for cocaine-using homeless mothers in residential treatment. The Bridges intervention utilizes various Black church communities to provide culturally-relevant group activities and individual mentoring from volunteers. Eighteen women who were recent treatment admissions were randomly assigned to receive Standard Treatment plus Bridges or Standard Treatment with an Attention Control. Participants were assessed at intake and three and six months after intake. Bridges treatment resulted in significantly better treatment retention (75% vs. 20% at six months) than standard residential treatment alone. In addition, Bridges produced superior outcomes at the six month follow-up assessment on a secondary measure of cocaine abstinence. Creating a community of social support through Black churches appears feasible and promising, and may be a cost-effective means of providing longer-term post-treatment support for cocaine-addicted women.

  8. The Karoo fracking debate: a christian contribution to the world communities of faith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, A Roger; van Tonder, Gerrit

    2015-06-01

    The fracking debate is a product of the tension between the environmental degradation it may cause, on the one hand, and on the other the greater energy demands of a rapidly increasing South African population with expectations of an ever-increasing standard of living. Shale gas fracking in the Karoo of South Africa promises to make vast reserves of oil and gas available to help meet a significant percentage of the country's energy needs for many years to come. This will aid development and contribute to raising the standard of living of many. This article seeks to apprise the South African faith communities of the technology and risks involved. Christian theological guidelines are presented by which its benefits and dangers may be interrogated so that the community may be able come to an informed decision as to whether or not to support fracking.

  9. Is The Production of Religious Knowledge Efficient? Managing Faith Related Postsecondary Institutions

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    G. Thomas SAV

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is on the efficiency of producing and managing religion based knowledge in postsecondary institutions. Panel data is used to estimate a stochastic cost frontier and associated inefficiencies for a panel of 222 U.S. bible colleges, theological seminaries, and other faith based higher education institutions over the 2005-09 academic years. Results indicate that institutions offering undergraduate only education are on average less inefficient than graduate only or combined undergraduate-graduate education institutions. Government provided student loans and private philanthropy are efficiency improving, while institutional debt acts to increase inefficiency. Time varying inefficiencies show efficiency gains over the last two of the four academic years. However, additional observations will be required to determine whether that is a managerial reaction to the global financial crisis and if it is sustainable in future academic years.

  10. Scientific faith: Belief in science increases in the face of stress and existential anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Miguel; Newheiser, Anna-Kaisa; Kahane, Guy; de Toledo, Zoe

    2013-11-01

    Growing evidence indicates that religious belief helps individuals to cope with stress and anxiety. But is this effect specific to supernatural beliefs, or is it a more general function of belief - including belief in science? We developed a measure of belief in science and conducted two experiments in which we manipulated stress and existential anxiety. In Experiment 1, we assessed rowers about to compete (high-stress condition) and rowers at a training session (low-stress condition). As predicted, rowers in the high-stress group reported greater belief in science. In Experiment 2, participants primed with mortality (vs. participants in a control condition) reported greater belief in science. In both experiments, belief in science was negatively correlated with religiosity. Thus, some secular individuals may use science as a form of "faith" that helps them to deal with stressful and anxiety-provoking situations.

  11. Reflections on the Role of Religion and Faith in Development Discourse and Practice (abstract

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    Moncef Kartas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This concluding chapter takes up issues arising from the preceding contributions to this volume, with a view towards enriching further debates and policy dialogues relating to religion and development. This chapter is divided into six sections. Following the introduction in section 1, section 2 deals with the (discontinuities in the interaction between religion and development over an extended historical timeframe. Section 3 sheds light on the larger context of the ongoing engagements and confrontations between religion and neoliberal development. This, in turn, leads to an examination in section 4 of the role of new religious movements in conceptualizing and responding to the various existential insecurities generated by globalization. Drawing from the chapters contained in this volume and previous publications by various other authors, section 5 assesses the role of, and challenges to, faith-based organisations in reintegrating values in an increasingly materialistic world. Finally, section 6 summarises the conclusions of the essay.

  12. A Qualitative Evaluation of a Faith-Based Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Intervention for African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Alicia K.; Berrios, Nerida; Darnell, Julie S.; Calhoun, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a formative evaluation of a CDC Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) 2010 faith-based breast and cervical cancer early detection and prevention intervention for African American women living in urban communities. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of women (N = 94) recruited from each church…

  13. A Science-Faith Partnership to Provide Education and Facilitate Action on Climate Change and Energy Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervenec, J. M.; Hitzhusen, G.; Ward, S.; Foster, C.

    2014-12-01

    In 2009, the Byrd Polar Research Center (BPRC) and Ohio Interfaith Power and Light (OhIPL) collaborated on a climate change education summit for scientists and clergy. Since that first program, a robust partnership has been nurtured where researchers at the center regularly contribute to events within the faith community. In 2014 alone, BPRC supported OhIPL in hosting a Teach-In event on climate change before a live audience that was simultaneously broadcast to three remote sites across Ohio; a State of the Climate event at the Ohio Statehouse that featured presentations by a scientist, a policymaker, and a member of the faith community; and an Earthkeeping Summit to bring together members of the faith community from across Ohio. OhIPL has helped BPRC fulfill one of our mission objectives of communicating science to a broad community. OhIPL engages houses of worship of all denominations through faith and education with a goal of moving them towards actions that reduce energy consumption. Houses of worship take actions for various reasons - including creation care, concerns of social justice related to climate change, or a desire to save money through building efficiency.

  14. Eating Disorder Behaviors, Strength of Faith, and Values in Late Adolescents and Emerging Adults: An Exploration of Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stephanie L.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents entering college are often affected by eating disorders and during this transition to emerging adulthood, individuals begin to establish personal values and beliefs, which makes this population interesting when studying Eating Disorders, values, and faith. This research project seeks to examine the association among strength of…

  15. THE BALANCE OF FAITH AND REASON: THE ROLE OF CONFIRMATION IN THE THOUGHT OF ST. THOMAS AQUINAS

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    Benjamin M. Block

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The evidentialist objection against Christianity, which states that the Christian faith does not have sufficient evidence to justify belief, can be troubling for Christians, for they do not wish to say that their beliefs are founded upon mere human evidence, and yet, they also wish to affirm that “those who place their faith in this truth, for which human reason offers no experience, do not believe lightly, as those following unlearned fables” (SCG I.6. St. Thomas Aquinas offers a unique and compelling solution to the evidentialist objection—a solution that confirms the Christian belief that faith is a gift from God, but which also respects the proper place of human reason within the believing life of men. St. Thomas teaches that God provides both internal and external confirmation of what He reveals, although only the internal confirmation of the work of the Holy Spirit is necessary to justify Christian belief. Aquinas’s teaching concerning the role of divine confirmation of revealed truths provides at least one important key to understanding the delicate balance between faith and reason within the Christian life.

  16. The Bible and mission in faith perspective: J.Hudson Taylor and the early China Inland Mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wigram, C.E.M.

    2007-01-01

    The thesis 'The Bible and Mission in Faith Perspective: J.Hudson Taylor and the Early China Inland Mission' by Christopher E.M. Wigram analysis the hermeneutical assumptions that underlay Hudson Taylor's approach to biblical interpretation, and the significance of his approach for the mission which

  17. Taking a Leap of Faith: Redefining Teaching and Learning in Higher Education through Project-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jean S.; Blackwell, Sue; Drake, Jennifer; Moran, Kathryn A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines two aspects of teaching with a project-based learning (PBL) model in higher education settings: faculty definitions of PBL and faculty PBL practices, as evidenced by their self-described successes and challenges in implementation. Faculty participants took "a leap of faith" in their teaching practices to redefine what…

  18. A PILOT STUDY OF FAITH HEALERS’ VIEWS ON EVIL EYE, JINN POSSESSION, AND MAGIC IN THE KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Habeeb, Tariq A.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Faith healers usually offer unorthodox therapies to their clients who present with an array of physical and psychological symptoms suggestive of the evil eye, jinn possession, and magic. Objective: This exploratory pilot study aims to analyse the pattern of narrated symptoms and treatments given by faith healers practising in the Al-Qassim region, Saudi Arabia. Method: Forty five faith healers who consented to this study were given a predesigned, self-administered, semistructured questionnaire to collect the relevant data. Results: Notably, most faith healers have a poor repertoire of psychiatric symptoms, which could not specifically differentiate the three spiritual disorders. They tend to recommend an array of therapies rooted in religious concepts for the treatment of their clients who, they claim, show substantial improvement in their mental suffering. Conclusion: The revealed symptomatology of each disorder alone may not be specific but it certainly helps them not only to identify these disorders but also to prescribe unconventional therapies. Future research should look systematically into the diagnostic and treatment methods for these disorders. PMID:23012035

  19. A pilot study of faith healers' views on evil eye, jinn possession, and magic in the kingdom of saudi arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Habeeb, Tariq A

    2003-09-01

    Faith healers usually offer unorthodox therapies to their clients who present with an array of physical and psychological symptoms suggestive of the evil eye, jinn possession, and magic. This exploratory pilot study aims to analyse the pattern of narrated symptoms and treatments given by faith healers practising in the Al-Qassim region, Saudi Arabia. Forty five faith healers who consented to this study were given a predesigned, self-administered, semistructured questionnaire to collect the relevant data. Notably, most faith healers have a poor repertoire of psychiatric symptoms, which could not specifically differentiate the three spiritual disorders. They tend to recommend an array of therapies rooted in religious concepts for the treatment of their clients who, they claim, show substantial improvement in their mental suffering. The revealed symptomatology of each disorder alone may not be specific but it certainly helps them not only to identify these disorders but also to prescribe unconventional therapies. Future research should look systematically into the diagnostic and treatment methods for these disorders.

  20. Faith-Based Media Literacy Education: A Look at the Past with an Eye toward the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaquinto, Stephanie; Keeler, John

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses several fundamental questions about faith-based media literacy education in the United States, including how the assumptions, motivations, goals, and pedagogy of those Christians who are operating within a media literacy framework come together to create a unique approach to teaching media literacy. After briefly reviewing…

  1. A qualitative study of nurses' attitudes towards' and accommodations of patients' expressions of religiosity and faith in dementia care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skomakerstuen Ødbehr, Liv; Kvigne, Kari; Hauge, Solveig; Danbolt, Lars Johan

    2015-02-01

    To investigate nurses' attitudes towards and accommodations of patients' expressions of religiosity and faith in dementia care. Holistic care for people with dementia addresses patients' religiosity and faith. Nurses' accommodations of patients' religiosity have not been studied extensively even though nurses report a lack of experience and knowledge regarding religious care. This study has a qualitative research design. Eight focus group interviews with 16 nurses and 15 care workers in four Norwegian nursing homes were conducted from June 2011-January 2012. The interview text was analysed using van Manen's hermeneutic-phenomenological approach and Lindseth and Nordberg's structural analysis. The following three main themes reflected the nurses' and care workers' attitudes towards and accommodations of patients' expressions of religiosity and faith: (i) embarrassment vs. comfort, described in the sub-themes 'feelings of embarrassment' and 'religiosity as a private matter'; (ii) unknown religious practice vs. known religious practice, described as 'religious practice that was scary' or 'religious practice that was recognizable'; and (iii) death vs. life, described as 'difficulty talking about death 'or 'focusing on life and the quality of life'. Nurses and care workers were uncertain and lacked knowledge of the patients' expressions of religiosity and faith in terms of both their substance and their function. Nurses struggled with ambivalent feelings about patients' religious expressions and with unclear understanding of the significance of religiosity. These challenges compromised person-centred and holistic care on several occasions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Eating Disorder Behaviors, Strength of Faith, and Values in Late Adolescents and Emerging Adults: An Exploration of Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stephanie L.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents entering college are often affected by eating disorders and during this transition to emerging adulthood, individuals begin to establish personal values and beliefs, which makes this population interesting when studying Eating Disorders, values, and faith. This research project seeks to examine the association among strength of…

  3. Parents' faith and hope during the pediatric palliative phase and the association with long-term parental adjustment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geest, I.M.M. van der; Heuvel-Eibrink, M.M. van den; Falkenburg, N.; Michiels, E.M.C.; Vliet, L. van; Pieters, R.; Darlington A.S.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The loss of a child is associated with an increased risk for developing psychological problems. However, studies investigating the impact of parents’ faith and hope for a cure during the palliative phase on long-term parental psychological functioning are limited. Objective: The study’s

  4. The Balance of Faith and Reason: The Role of Confirmation in the Thought of St. Thomas Aquinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M. Block

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The evidentialist objection against Christianity, which states that the Christian faith does not have sufficient evidence to justify belief, can be troubling for Christians, for they do not wish to say that their beliefs are founded upon mere human evidence, and yet, they also wish to affirm that “those who place their faith in this truth, for which human reason offers no experience, do not believe lightly, as those following unlearned fables” (SCG I.6. St. Thomas Aquinas offers a unique and compelling solution to the evidentialist objection—a solution that confirms the Christian belief that faith is a gift from God, but which also respects the proper place of human reason within the believing life of men. St. Thomas teaches that God provides both internal and external confirmation of what He reveals, although only the internal confirmation of the work of the Holy Spirit is necessary to justify Christian belief. Aquinas’s teaching concerning the role of divine confirmation of revealed truths provides at least one important key to understanding the delicate balance between faith and reason within the Christian life.

  5. Religious Freedom and Rendering to Caesar: Reading Democratic and Faith-Based Values in Curriculum, Pedagogy and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    In this article I synthesise and apply elements of political and reading theory to demonstrate how central themes in learners' lives (such as freedom, faith, autonomy, equality, rationality and rights) can be read and interpreted differently. I suggest that policy and pedagogy for citizenship and democratic education informed by research into…

  6. 75 FR 6033 - Public Meeting of the President's Advisory Council on Faith-Based and Neighborhood Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Public Meeting of the President's Advisory Council on Faith-Based and Neighborhood Partnerships ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: A notice was published in the Federal Register on Tuesday, Feb. 2, 2010... Partnerships that was scheduled to be held on Tuesday, Feb. 9th, 2010. This meeting has been cancelled in...

  7. Religious Affect among Adolescents in a Multi-Faith Society: The Role of Personality and Religious Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Village, Andrew; Francis, Leslie J.; Brockett, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    A sample of 3783 11- to 16-year-old secondary school pupils completed the Astley-Francis Scale of Attitude toward Theistic Faith and the abbreviated form of the Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised together with information on personal religious practice (prayer), public religious practice (attendance) and religious identity (secular,…

  8. A confident call to faith: Rediscovering the relevance of Christian catechisms

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    Raymond Potgieter

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Protestant heritage is synonymous with the traditional employment of catechisms and catechetical teaching of both young and old. Many denominations have shifted from this historical approach, not least because of the challenges of so-called catechetical vacuums when facing third-millennial issues. The Heidelberg, Anglican and Westminster Catechisms allow for express distinctions peculiar to each unique Protestant faith constituency, but serve acceptably within the wider ecumenical tradition. A rediscovery of the historical contexts of these historical formulations will illustrate traditional denominational Protestant flexibility accompanying its Christian creedal fixity. This study will refer to confessional content in the main without resorting to particular content. The intention is to show how these polarities could dynamically serve the confessing church in meeting present-day challenges to the Christian faith in a manner that once again will inspire confidence in its catholic witness in the third millennium.Die protestantse erfenis is sinoniem met die tradisionele gebruik van die kategismusse en die kategetiese onderrig van oud en jonk. Baie kerkgenootskappe neig weg van hierdie historiese benadering hoofsaaklik as gevolg van die uitdagings van die sogenaamde kategetiese leemtes in die hantering van derde millenniumkwessies. Die Heidelbergse, Anglikaanse en Westminsterse Kategismusse laat ruimte vir spesifieke onderskeidings wat eie is aan elke unieke protestantse geloofsgemeenskap, maar wat nogtans binne die breër ekumeniese tradisie aanvaar word. ’n Herontdekking van die historiese konteks van hierdie tradisionele formulerings sal tradisioneel kerklik-protestantse buigsaamheid illustreer wat met konfessionele vastheid gepaard gaan. Hierdie artikel verwys na konfessionele inhoud oor die algemeen sonder om spesifieke inhoud aan te toon. Die doel is dus om aan te toon hoedanig hierdie polariteite die belydende kerk daadwerklik kan help om

  9. A Historical Analysis of the Relationship of Faith and Science and its Significance within Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegge, John G.

    Science curriculum and pedagogy are at the center of a centuries-long debate concerning the appropriate relationship of faith and science. The difficulties that science educators face seem to be based in misinformation about the historical roots of this conflict. To address that conflict, the goals of this research were to separate myth from reality and to provide a necessary context to the current tensions that are disrupting science pedagogy and curriculum content within American public schools. Working within a theoretical framework of historical literacy, this qualitative, historical analysis was a comprehensive examination of the relationship of faith and science from ancient times through the Renascence to the emergence and development of Darwinism. The historical approach methodology was utilized as a means to document the systematic examination of past events, in order to illuminate and interpret the meaning of those events. The historical record revealed that science and religion are not necessarily incompatible and that the early Christian religion provided a fertile environment in which modern science could emerge. Also noted were many instances where the record was inconsistent with what educators have commonly taught as historical fact. Finally, the complex sources of tension between modern fundamentalist Christianity and Darwinism, which has appeared as a flashpoint in public discourse within science education, were examined in depth. Based on this analysis, the study includes recommendations for educators in their approach to addressing these challenges and teaching science. This analysis can produce positive social change for educators and their students, as this information is advanced as a means to enhance historical literacy among educators and their students.

  10. The Theoretical course of the Good Faith Principle of Jurisprudence and its Reception in Civil Law Brazilian

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    Rosalice Fidalgo Pinheiro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this article is to demonstrate how the good-faith principle moved away from the formalism into which is was embedded under the aegis of legal positivism of the 19th century, to become the object of jurisprudential creation without, however, totally departing from a certain positivistic rationality.  Restricted to the parameters of forma- lism, it has shown to be too imprecise to be included in a syllogistic way of thinking, which demanded juridical methodology efforts in face of the legislative technique of ge- neral clauses, standards and juridical principles in order to delimit its area of application.  Here is what German courts in the post-war second period achieved; the concretization of the general clause of good-faith into typical legal concepts, the exercise of which re- mains inadmissible: exceptio doli generalis, venire contra facum proprium, Verwirkung, tu quoque, non allegeability of formal nullity, and the unbalanced exercise of rights.  We have limited the topic of this article to the function of good-faith control in the exercise of individual prerogatives in the area of economics, and found that the concept is included in other legal systems that lacked it.  Having chosen to investigate the concept of good- faith in Brazilian jurisprudence, we have submitted the results to critical examination, revealing the specificity of the European juridical tradition in our own Law.  Lastly, we question the limits of a “prêt-a-porter” good-faith to maintain juridical positivism.

  11. Community-based participatory research to design a faith-enhanced diabetes prevention program: The Better Me Within randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzman, Heather; Dodgen, Leilani; Mamun, Abdullah; Slater, J Lee; King, George; Slater, Donna; King, Alene; Mandapati, Surendra; DeHaven, Mark

    2017-08-12

    Reducing obesity positively impacts diabetes and cardiovascular risk; however, evidence-based lifestyle programs, such as the diabetes prevention program (DPP), show reduced effectiveness in African American (AA) women. In addition to an attenuated response to lifestyle programs, AA women also demonstrate high rates of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. To address these disparities, enhancements to evidence-based lifestyle programs for AA women need to be developed and evaluated with culturally relevant and rigorous study designs. This study describes a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to design a novel faith-enhancement to the DPP for AA women. A long-standing CBPR partnership designed the faith-enhancement from focus group data (N=64 AA adults) integrating five components: a brief pastor led sermon, memory verse, in class or take-home faith activity, promises to remember, and scripture and prayer integrated into participant curriculum and facilitator materials. The faith components were specifically linked to weekly DPP learning objectives to strategically emphasize behavioral skills with religious principles. Using a CBPR approach, the Better Me Within trial was able to enroll 12 churches, screen 333 AA women, and randomize 221 (Mage=48.8±11.2; MBMI=36.7±8.4; 52% technical or high school) after collection of objective eligibility measures. A prospective, randomized, nested by church, design will be used to evaluate the faith-enhanced DPP as compared to a standard DPP on weight, diabetes and cardiovascular risk, over a 16-week intervention and 10-month follow up. This study will provide essential data to guide enhancements to evidence-based lifestyle programs for AA women who are at high risk for chronic disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. In God and CAM we trust. Religious faith and use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in a nationwide cohort of women treated for early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Christina Gundgaard; Christensen, Søren; Jensen, Anders Bonde; Zachariae, Robert

    2013-09-01

    Turning to faith in God or a higher spiritual power is a common way of coping with life-threatening disease such as cancer. Little, however, is known about religious faith among cancer patients in secular societies. The present study aimed at exploring the prevalence of religious faith among Danish breast cancer patients and at identifying whether socio-demographic, pre-cancer health status, clinical, and health behavior characteristics, including their use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), were associated with their degree of faith. Information on faith in God or a higher spiritual power and use of CAM was provided by a nationwide sample of 3,128 recurrence-free Danish women who had received surgery for early-stage breast cancer 15-16 months earlier. Socio-demographic, clinical, and health status variables were obtained from national longitudinal registries, and health behaviors had been assessed at 3-4 months post-surgery. Of the women, 47.3% reported a high degree of faith (unambiguous believers), 35.9% some degree of faith (ambiguous believers), while the remaining 16.8% were non-believers. Unambiguous believers were more likely than ambiguous believers to experience their faith as having a positive impact on their disease and their disease-related quality-of-life. When compared to non-believers, unambiguous believers were also older, had poorer physical function, and were more frequent users of CAM, and more inclined to believe that their use of CAM would have a beneficial influence on their cancer. Disease- and treatment-related variables were unrelated to faith. While overall religious faith appears equally prevalent among Danish and US breast cancer patients, the majority of Danish breast cancer patients experienced ambiguous faith, whereas the majority of US patients have been found to express unambiguous faith. Our results suggest that future studies may benefit from exploring the role of faith for health behaviors, adherence to

  13. Renin-angiotensin system transgenic mouse model recapitulates pathophysiology similar to human preeclampsia with renal injury that may be mediated through VEGF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, J Morgan; Bird, Cynthia; Gendron-Fitzpatrick, Annette; Sampene, Emmanuel; Bird, Ian M; Shah, Dinesh M

    2017-03-01

    Using a transgenic cross, we evaluated features of preeclampsia, renal injury and the sFlt1/VEGF changes. Transgenic hAGT and hREN, or wild-type (WT) C57Bl/6 mice were cross-bred: female hAGT × male hREN for preeclampsia (PRE) model and female WT × male WT for pregnant controls (WTP). Samples were collected for plasma VEGF, sFlt1, and urine albumin. Blood pressures (BP) were monitored by telemetry. Vascular reactivity was investigated by wire myography. Kidneys and placenta were immunostained for sFlt1 and VEGF. Eleven PRE and 9 WTP mice were compared. PRE more frequently demonstrated albuminuria, glomerular endotheliosis (80% vs. 11%; P = 0.02), and placental necrosis (60% vs. 0%; P preeclampsia recapitulates human preeclamptic state with high fidelity, and that, vascular adaptation to pregnancy is suggested by declining BPs and reduced vascular response to PE and increased response to acetylcholine. Placental damage with resultant increased release of sFlt1, proteinuria, deficient spiral artery remodeling, and glomerular endotheliosis were observed in this model of PRE. Increased VEGF binding to glomerular endothelial cells in this model of PRE is similar to human PRE and leads us to hypothesize that renal injury in preeclampsia may be mediated through local VEGF. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. In Vitro Models of GJB2-Related Hearing Loss Recapitulate Ca(2+) Transients via a Gap Junction Characteristic of Developing Cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Ichiro; Fujimoto, Ayumi; Hatakeyama, Kaori; Aoki, Toru; Nishikawa, Atena; Noda, Tetsuo; Minowa, Osamu; Kurebayashi, Nagomi; Ikeda, Katsuhisa; Kamiya, Kazusaku

    2016-12-13

    Mutation of the Gap Junction Beta 2 gene (GJB2) encoding connexin 26 (CX26) is the most frequent cause of hereditary deafness worldwide and accounts for up to 50% of non-syndromic sensorineural hearing loss cases in some populations. Therefore, cochlear CX26-gap junction plaque (GJP)-forming cells such as cochlear supporting cells are thought to be the most important therapeutic target for the treatment of hereditary deafness. The differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into cochlear CX26-GJP-forming cells has not been reported. Here, we detail the development of a novel strategy to differentiate induced pluripotent stem cells into functional CX26-GJP-forming cells that exhibit spontaneous ATP- and hemichannel-mediated Ca(2+) transients typical of the developing cochlea. Furthermore, these cells from CX26-deficient mice recapitulated the drastic disruption of GJPs, the primary pathology of GJB2-related hearing loss. These in vitro models should be useful for establishing inner-ear cell therapies and drug screening that target GJB2-related hearing loss. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Low-energy helium-neon laser induces locomotion of the immature melanoblasts and promotes melanogenesis of the more differentiated melanoblasts: recapitulation of vitiligo repigmentation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Cheng-Che E; Wu, Ching-Shuang; Chiou, Min-Hsi; Hsieh, Pei-Chen; Yu, Hsin-Su

    2006-09-01

    Helium-neon laser (He-Ne Laser, 632.8 nm) is a low-energy laser that has therapeutic efficacy on various clinical conditions. Our previous study has demonstrated efficacy of He-Ne laser on vitiligo, a disease characterized by skin depigmentation. To regain skin tone on vitiligo lesions, the process began by the migration of the immature melanoblasts (MBs) to the epidermis, which was followed by their functional development to produce melanin. In this study, we investigated the physiologic effects of He-Ne laser irradiation on two MB cell lines: the immature NCCmelb4 and the more differentiated NCCmelan5. The intricate interactions between MBs with their innate extracelluar matrix, fibronectin, were also addressed. Our results showed that He-Ne laser irradiation enhanced NCCmelb4 mobility via enhanced phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase expression and promoted melanogenesis in NCCmelan5. In addition, He-Ne laser decreased the affinity between NCCmelb4 and fibronectin, whereas the attachment of NCCmelan5 to fibronectin increased. The alpha5beta1 integrin expression on NCCmelb4 cells was enhanced by He-Ne laser. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that He-Ne laser induced different physiologic changes on MBs at different maturation stages and recapitulated the early events during vitiligo repigmentation process brought upon by He-Ne laser in vitro.

  16. Pipette-based Method to Study Embryoid Body Formation Derived from Mouse and Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Partially Recapitulating Early Embryonic Development Under Simulated Microgravity Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Vaibhav; Brungs, Sonja; Hescheler, Jürgen; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Sachinidis, Agapios

    2016-06-01

    The in vitro differentiation of pluripotent stem cells partially recapitulates early in vivo embryonic development. More recently, embryonic development under the influence of microgravity has become a primary focus of space life sciences. In order to integrate the technique of pluripotent stem cell differentiation with simulated microgravity approaches, the 2-D clinostat compatible pipette-based method was experimentally investigated and adapted for investigating stem cell differentiation processes under simulated microgravity conditions. In order to keep residual accelerations as low as possible during clinorotation, while also guaranteeing enough material for further analysis, stem cells were exposed in 1-mL pipettes with a diameter of 3.5 mm. The differentiation of mouse and human pluripotent stem cells inside the pipettes resulted in the formation of embryoid bodies at normal gravity (1 g) after 24 h and 3 days. Differentiation of the mouse pluripotent stem cells on a 2-D pipette-clinostat for 3 days also resulted in the formation of embryoid bodies. Interestingly, the expression of myosin heavy chain was downregulated when cultivation was continued for an additional 7 days at normal gravity. This paper describes the techniques for culturing and differentiation of pluripotent stem cells and exposure to simulated microgravity during culturing or differentiation on a 2-D pipette clinostat. The implementation of these methodologies along with -omics technologies will contribute to understand the mechanisms regulating how microgravity influences early embryonic development.

  17. New murine Niemann-Pick type C models bearing a pseudoexon-generating mutation recapitulate the main neurobehavioural and molecular features of the disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Grau, Marta; Albaigès, Júlia; Casas, Josefina; Auladell, Carme; Dierssen, Mara; Vilageliu, Lluïsa; Grinberg, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a rare neurovisceral disease caused mainly by mutations in the NPC1 gene. This autosomal recessive lysosomal disorder is characterised by the defective lysosomal secretion of cholesterol and sphingolipids. No effective therapy exists for the disease. We previously described a deep intronic point mutation (c.1554-1009 G > A) in NPC1 that generated a pseudoexon, which could be corrected at the cellular level using antisense oligonucleotides. Here, we describe the generation of two mouse models bearing this mutation, one in homozygosity and the other in compound heterozygosity with the c.1920delG mutation. Both the homozygotes for the c.1554-1009 G > A mutation and the compound heterozygotes recapitulated the hallmarks of NPC. Lipid analysis revealed accumulation of cholesterol in the liver and sphingolipids in the brain, with both types of transgenic mice displaying tremor and ataxia at 7–8 weeks of age. Behavioural tests showed motor impairment, hyperactivity, reduced anxiety-like behaviour and impaired learning and memory performances, features consistent with those reported previously in NPC animal models and human patients. These mutant mice, the first NPC models bearing a pseudoexon-generating mutation, could be suitable for assessing the efficacy of specific splicing-targeted therapeutic strategies against NPC. PMID:28167839

  18. In vitro generated Rh(null) red cells recapitulate the in vivo deficiency: a model for rare blood group phenotypes and erythroid membrane disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambot, Marie; Mazurier, Christelle; Canoui-Poitrine, Florence; Hebert, Nicolas; Picot, Julien; Clay, Denis; Picard, Véronique; Ripoche, Pierre; Douay, Luc; Dubart-Kupperschmitt, Anne; Cartron, Jean-Pierre

    2013-05-01

    Lentiviral modification combined with ex vivo erythroid differentiation was used to stably inhibit RhAG expression, a critical component of the Rh(rhesus) membrane complex defective in the Rh(null) syndrome. The cultured red cells generated recapitulate the major alterations of native Rh(null) cells regarding antigen expression, membrane deformability, and gas transport function, providing the proof of principle for their use as model of Rh(null) syndrome and to investigate Rh complex biogenesis in human primary erythroid cells. Using this model, we were able to reveal for the first time that RhAG extinction alone is sufficient to explain ICAM-4 and CD47 loss observed on native Rh(null) RBCs. Together with the effects of RhAG forced expression in Rh(null) progenitors, this strongly strengthens the hypothesis that RhAG is critical to Rh complex formation. The strategy is also promising for diagnosis purpose in order to overcome the supply from rare blood donors and is applicable to other erythroid defects and rare phenotypes, providing models to dissect membrane biogenesis of multicomplex proteins in erythroid cells, with potential clinical applications in transfusion medicine.

  19. Heterologous expression of tyrosinase recapitulates the misprocessing and mistrafficking in oculocutaneous albinism type 2: effects of altering intracellular pH and pink-eyed dilution gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni-Komatsu, Li; Orlow, Seth J

    2006-03-01

    The processing and trafficking of tyrosinase, a melanosomal protein essential for pigmentation, was investigated in a human epithelial 293 cell line that stably expresses the protein. The effects of the pink-eyed dilution (p) gene product, in which mutations result in oculocutaneous albinism type 2 (OCA2), on the processing and trafficking of tyrosinase in this cell line were studied. The majority of tyrosinase was retained in the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment and the early Golgi compartment in the 293 cells expressing the protein. Coexpression of p could partially correct the mistrafficking of tyrosinase in 293 cells. Tyrosinase was targeted to the late endosomal and lysosomal compartments after treatment of the cells with compounds that correct the tyrosinase mistrafficking in albino melanocytes, most likely through altering intracellular pH, while the substrate tyrosine had no effect on the processing of tyrosinase. Remarkably, this heterologous expression system recapitulates the defective processing and mistrafficking of tyrosinase observed in OCA2 albino melanocytes and certain amelanotic melanoma cells. Coexpression of other melanosomal proteins in this heterologous system may further aid our understanding of the details of normal and pathologic processing of melanosomal proteins.

  20. A Psychological Interpretation of Faith and its Spiritual Value%信仰及其价值的心理学解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    井婷; 刘忠孝

    2011-01-01

    Faith is the unification of knowledge,emotion,and meaning on the basis of belief.The origin of faith suggests its connection to the collective unconscious.Faith is an important component of personality which develops in the process of socialization.Philosophy and religion are the two means by which faith is realized.Faith provides individuals with effective cognitive strategies,satisfying various human needs,representing an ultimate form of love and care;faith provides individuals with a value system,guiding their self-regulating existence;faith promotes individual mental health and strengthens harmony in society.%信仰是在"信"的基础之上的知、情、意的完美统一;从信仰的发生学上看,信仰与集体潜意识有关,是在后天社会化过程中不断发展完成的人格的重要组成部分;哲学和宗教是信仰实现的两种方式;信仰为人提供有效的认知策略;信仰能够满足人的不同需要,体现终极关怀;信仰为人提供价值体系,指导个体自律生存;信仰能促进个体的心理健康,促进社会和谐。

  1. Developmentally-faithful and effective human erythropoiesis in immunodeficient and Kit mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Claudia; Abdulhay, Nour J; McFarland, Sean K; Munschauer, Mathias; Ulirsch, Jacob C; Chiarle, Roberto; Sankaran, Vijay G

    2017-09-01

    Immunodeficient mouse models have been valuable for studies of human hematopoiesis, but high-fidelity recapitulation of erythropoiesis in most xenograft recipients remains elusive. Recently developed immunodeficient and Kit mutant mice, however, have provided a suitable background to achieve higher-level human erythropoiesis after long-term hematopoietic engraftment. While there has been some characterization of human erythropoiesis in these models, a comprehensive analysis from various human developmental stages has not yet been reported. Here, we have utilized cell surface phenotypes, morphologic analyses, and molecular studies to fully characterize human erythropoiesis from multiple developmental stages in immunodeficient and Kit mutant mouse models following long-term hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell engraftment. We show that human erythropoiesis in such models demonstrates complete maturation and enucleation, as well as developmentally appropriate globin gene expression. These results provide a framework for future studies to utilize this model system for interrogating disorders affecting human erythropoiesis and for developing improved therapeutic approaches. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A mammalian conserved element derived from SINE displays enhancer properties recapitulating Satb2 expression in early-born callosal projection neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensuke Tashiro

    Full Text Available Short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs are highly repeated sequences that account for a significant proportion of many eukaryotic genomes and are usually considered "junk DNA". However, we previously discovered that many AmnSINE1 loci are evolutionarily conserved across mammalian genomes, suggesting that they may have acquired significant functions involved in controlling mammalian-specific traits. Notably, we identified the AS021 SINE locus, located 390 kbp upstream of Satb2. Using transgenic mice, we showed that this SINE displays specific enhancer activity in the developing cerebral cortex. The transcription factor Satb2 is expressed by cortical neurons extending axons through the corpus callosum and is a determinant of callosal versus subcortical projection. Mouse mutants reveal a crucial function for Sabt2 in corpus callosum formation. In this study, we compared the enhancer activity of the AS021 locus with Satb2 expression during telencephalic development in the mouse. First, we showed that the AS021 enhancer is specifically activated in early-born Satb2(+ neurons. Second, we demonstrated that the activity of the AS021 enhancer recapitulates the expression of Satb2 at later embryonic and postnatal stages in deep-layer but not superficial-layer neurons, suggesting the possibility that the expression of Satb2 in these two subpopulations of cortical neurons is under genetically distinct transcriptional control. Third, we showed that the AS021 enhancer is activated in neurons projecting through the corpus callosum, as described for Satb2(+ neurons. Notably, AS021 drives specific expression in axons crossing through the ventral (TAG1(-/NPY(+ portion of the corpus callosum, confirming that it is active in a subpopulation of callosal neurons. These data suggest that exaptation of the AS021 SINE locus might be involved in enhancement of Satb2 expression, leading to the establishment of interhemispheric communication via the corpus callosum

  3. Transcriptome Dynamics of Developing Photoreceptors in Three-Dimensional Retina Cultures Recapitulates Temporal Sequence of Human Cone and Rod Differentiation Revealing Cell Surface Markers and Gene Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewkhaw, Rossukon; Kaya, Koray Dogan; Brooks, Matthew; Homma, Kohei; Zou, Jizhong; Chaitankar, Vijender; Rao, Mahendra; Swaroop, Anand

    2015-12-01

    The derivation of three-dimensional (3D) stratified neural retina from pluripotent stem cells has permitted investigations of human photoreceptors. We have generated a H9 human embryonic stem cell subclone that carries a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter under the control of the promoter of cone-rod homeobox (CRX), an established marker of postmitotic photoreceptor precursors. The CRXp-GFP reporter replicates endogenous CRX expression in vitro when the H9 subclone is induced to form self-organizing 3D retina-like tissue. At day 37, CRX+ photoreceptors appear in the basal or middle part of neural retina and migrate to apical side by day 67. Temporal and spatial patterns of retinal cell type markers recapitulate the predicted sequence of development. Cone gene expression is concomitant with CRX, whereas rod differentiation factor neural retina leucine zipper protein (NRL) is first observed at day 67. At day 90, robust expression of NRL and its target nuclear receptor NR2E3 is evident in many CRX+ cells, while minimal S-opsin and no rhodopsin or L/M-opsin is present. The transcriptome profile, by RNA-seq, of developing human photoreceptors is remarkably concordant with mRNA and immunohistochemistry data available for human fetal retina although many targets of CRX, including phototransduction genes, exhibit a significant delay in expression. We report on temporal changes in gene signatures, including expression of cell surface markers and transcription factors; these expression changes should assist in isolation of photoreceptors at distinct stages of differentiation and in delineating coexpression networks. Our studies establish the first global expression database of developing human photoreceptors, providing a reference map for functional studies in retinal cultures.

  4. Early-life lead exposure recapitulates the selective loss of parvalbumin-positive GABAergic interneurons and subcortical dopamine system hyperactivity present in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, K H; Ruby, K N; Soares, B D; McGlothan, J L; Liu, X; Guilarte, T R

    2015-03-10

    Environmental factors have been associated with psychiatric disorders and recent epidemiological studies suggest an association between prenatal lead (Pb(2+)) exposure and schizophrenia (SZ). Pb(2+) is a potent antagonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and converging evidence indicates that NMDAR hypofunction has a key role in the pathophysiology of SZ. The glutamatergic hypothesis of SZ posits that NMDAR hypofunction results in the loss of parvalbumin (PV)-positive GABAergic interneurons (PVGI) in the brain. Loss of PVGI inhibitory control to pyramidal cells alters the excitatory drive to midbrain dopamine neurons increasing subcortical dopaminergic activity. We hypothesized that if Pb(2+) exposure in early life is an environmental risk factor for SZ, it should recapitulate the loss of PVGI and reproduce subcortical dopaminergic hyperactivity. We report that on postnatal day 50 (PN50), adolescence rats chronically exposed to Pb(2+) from gestation through adolescence exhibit loss of PVGI in SZ-relevant brain regions. PV and glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 kDa (GAD67) protein were significantly decreased in Pb(2+) exposed rats with no apparent change in calretinin or calbindin protein levels suggesting a selective effect on the PV phenotype of GABAergic interneurons. We also show that Pb(2+) animals exhibit a heightened locomotor response to cocaine and express significantly higher levels of dopamine metabolites and D2-dopamine receptors relative to controls indicative of subcortical dopaminergic hyperactivity. Our results show that developmental Pb(2+) exposure reproduces specific neuropathology and functional dopamine system changes present in SZ. We propose that exposure to environmental toxins that produce NMDAR hypofunction during critical periods of brain development may contribute significantly to the etiology of mental disorders.

  5. Differential expression of specific FGF ligands and receptor isoforms during osteogenic differentiation of mouse Adipose-derived Stem Cells (mASCs) recapitulates the in vivo osteogenic pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarto, Natalina; Longaker, Michael T

    2008-11-15

    The ability of Adipose-derived Stem Cells (ASCs) to differentiate into various tissues in vitro and in vivo, a function known as "stem cell plasticity", makes them an appealing cell source for tissue engineering. Our laboratory is particularly focused on the potential role of adipose tissue as a readily available postnatal source of osteoprogenitor. Fibroblast growth factors (FGF) and their receptors (FGFR) are important regulators of osteogenesis. The goal of this study was to elucidate how changes in temporal expression patterns of individual components of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling axis correlate with osteogenic differentiation of mASCs. Our results indicate that FGF ligand genes, such as Fgf-2, -4, -8, and -18, displayed a differential and dynamic profile during mouse ASC (mASC) osteogenesis. Fgf-2 transcript was down-regulated, while Fgf-18 transcript level was strongly up-regulated. Interestingly, a drift in the ratio of different FGF-2 protein forms, with translation favoring the HMWFGF-2 forms, occurred during osteogenic differentiation, whereas, the expression of LMWFGF-2 form was down-regulated. This finding shares similarity with a previous study suggesting that preferential expression of the HMWFGF-2 forms is associated with a more osteogenic differentiated state of calvarial osteoblast. Moreover, a differential expression of Fgf Receptor 1 and 2 resembling that previously found in in vivo osteogenic study was observed. Thus, mASCs undergoing osteogenesis recapitulate the in vivo osteogenic differentiation expression pattern of FGF ligands and receptors of calvarial mesenchymal cells during their own osteogenic differentiation. Indeed, this observation further validates ASCs as a suitable resource for skeletal tissue engineering.

  6. An innovative faith-based healthy eating program: from class assignment to real-world application of PRECEDE/PROCEED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buta, Brian; Brewer, LaPrincess; Hamlin, Deneen L; Palmer, Michael W; Bowie, Janice; Gielen, Andrea

    2011-11-01

    The Fostering African American Improvement in Total Health! (FAITH!) Nutrition Education Program is a theory-based, multicomponent health intervention developed and operated in partnership with an East Baltimore church. The program aims to improve eating habits, as well as knowledge and beliefs about healthy eating, among African American adults in order to prevent diseases related to dietary choices. This article addresses the development, design, and formative research that informed the FAITH! program. The main program components are also discussed. Program design used a framework for strategic intervention planning (PRECEDE-PROCEED), and health education theories informed the evaluation process. Formative research was conducted to incorporate the needs and assets of the priority population. The main program components are culturally tailored educational materials, lectures and discussions on diet and related diseases, video presentations on healthy eating, healthy cooking demonstrations/food samples, evaluation, and a church-run healthy food pantry.

  7. From the Knight of Faith to the Becoming-Imperceptible. Drifts of Abraham’s Myth between Kierkegaard and Deleuze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Mc Namara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to comprehend Kierkegaard’s theory of the movement of faith through Deleuze’s theory of becoming. At the same time, it aims to understand Deleuze’s theory of becoming in the light of Kierkegaard’s thought, mainly through his reflections on Abraham and the concept of anxiety. It will show the way in which the conceptual character of the knight of faith works as a possible variation of one of the most original concepts of Deleuze’s work: the becoming-imperceptible. This crossing of concepts allows us to shed light on the problem of thinking a theory of the subject that takes into account the intensive movements that escape the logic of representation; and also the deleuzian search for a renewal of philosophical ways of expression.

  8. Who is in Control? How Women in a Halfway House Use Faith to Recover from Drug Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent R. Kerley

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Religious adherents from most major faith traditions struggle in balancing their individual agency with divine leadership. While this issue of individual versus divine control is complex for those in free society, it becomes even more so when applied to those in correctional and treatment settings. For those attempting to recover from drug addiction, a common conclusion is that drugs have taken control of their lives, thus it is necessary for them to reclaim control. Via a narrative analysis of semi-structured interviews with 30 former drug addicts residing in a faith-based halfway house for women, we explore how the women make sense of losing control of their lives due to their drug use, but then being taught to regain control by surrendering to a higher power. We find strong evidence of Deferring and Collaborative religious coping styles and these coping styles structure how the women discuss the future and their strategies for success.

  9. Moral and Cultural Awareness in Emerging Adulthood: Preparing for Multi-Faith Workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Snell Herzog

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluates a pilot course designed to respond to findings from the National Study of Youth and Religion (NSYR and similar findings reporting changes in U.S. life course development and religious participation through an intervention based on sociological theories of morality. The purpose of the study is to investigate the impacts of a business course in a public university designed to prepare emerging adults for culturally and religiously diverse workplaces. The intended outcomes are for students to better identify their personal moral values, while also gaining cultural awareness of the moral values in six different value systems: five major world religions and secular humanism. The study response rate was 97 percent (n = 109. Pre- and post-test survey data analyze changes in the reports of students enrolled in the course (primary group compared to students in similar courses but without an emphasis on morality (controls. Qualitative data include survey short answer questions, personal mission statements, and student essays describing course impacts. Quantitative and qualitative results indicate reported increases in identification of personal moral values and cultural awareness of other moral values, providing initial evidence that the course helps prepare emerging adults for multi-faith workplaces.

  10. Faith-based perspectives on the use of chimeric organisms for medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeling, Chris; Irvine, Rob; Kerridge, Ian

    2014-04-01

    Efforts to advance our understanding of neurodegenerative diseases involve the creation chimeric organisms from human neural stem cells and primate embryos--known as prenatal chimeras. The existence of potential mentally complex beings with human and non-human neural apparatus raises fundamental questions as to the ethical permissibility of chimeric research and the moral status of the creatures it creates. Even as bioethicists find fewer reasons to be troubled by most types of chimeric organisms, social attitudes towards the non-human world are often influenced by religious beliefs. In this paper scholars representing eight major religious traditions provide a brief commentary on a hypothetical case concerning the development and use of prenatal human-animal chimeric primates in medical research. These commentaries reflect the plurality and complexity within and between religious discourses of our relationships with other species. Views on the moral status and permissibility of research on neural human animal chimeras vary. The authors provide an introduction to those who seek a better understanding of how faith-based perspectives might enter into biomedical ethics and public discourse towards forms of biomedical research that involves chimeric organisms.

  11. Partnerships between the faith-based and medical sectors: Implications for preventive medicine and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Jeff

    2016-12-01

    Interconnections between the faith-based and medical sectors are multifaceted and have existed for centuries, including partnerships that have evolved over the past several decades in the U.S. This paper outlines ten points of intersection that have engaged medical and healthcare professionals and institutions across specialties, focusing especially on primary care, global health, and community-based outreach to underserved populations. In a time of healthcare resource scarcity, such partnerships-involving religious congregations, denominations, and communal and philanthropic agencies-are useful complements to the work of private-sector medical care providers and of federal, state, and local public health institutions in their efforts to protect and maintain the health of the population. At the same time, challenges and obstacles remain, mostly related to negotiating the complex and contentious relations between these two sectors. This paper identifies pressing legal/constitutional, political/policy, professional/jurisdictional, ethical, and research and evaluation issues that need to be better addressed before this work can realize its full potential.

  12. Partnerships between the faith-based and medical sectors: Implications for preventive medicine and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Levin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Interconnections between the faith-based and medical sectors are multifaceted and have existed for centuries, including partnerships that have evolved over the past several decades in the U.S. This paper outlines ten points of intersection that have engaged medical and healthcare professionals and institutions across specialties, focusing especially on primary care, global health, and community-based outreach to underserved populations. In a time of healthcare resource scarcity, such partnerships—involving religious congregations, denominations, and communal and philanthropic agencies—are useful complements to the work of private-sector medical care providers and of federal, state, and local public health institutions in their efforts to protect and maintain the health of the population. At the same time, challenges and obstacles remain, mostly related to negotiating the complex and contentious relations between these two sectors. This paper identifies pressing legal/constitutional, political/policy, professional/jurisdictional, ethical, and research and evaluation issues that need to be better addressed before this work can realize its full potential.

  13. Promoting cancer screening among churchgoing Latinas: Fe en Acción/faith in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, J P; Haughton, J; Perez, L G; Martínez, M E; De la Torre, C L; Slymen, D J; Arredondo, E M

    2017-04-01

    Cancer screening rates among Latinas are generally low, reducing the likelihood of early cancer detection in this population. This article examines the effects of a community intervention (Fe en Acción/Faith in Action) led by community health workers (promotoras) on promoting breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening among churchgoing Latinas. Sixteen churches were randomly assigned to a cancer screening or a physical activity intervention. We examined cancer knowledge, barriers to screening and self-reported mammography, clinical breast exam, Pap test, fecal occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy at baseline and 12 months follow-up. Participants were 436 adult Latinas, with 16 promotoras conducting a cancer screening intervention at 8 out of 16 churches. The cancer screening intervention had a significant positive impact on self-reported mammography (OR = 4.64, 95% CI: 2.00-10.75) and breast exams in the last year (OR= 2.82, 95% CI: 1.41-5.57) and corresponding reductions in perceived (87.6%) barriers to breast cancer screening (P cancer screening did not improve with the intervention. These findings suggest Fe en Acción church-based promotoras had a significant impact on promoting breast cancer screening among Latinas. Colon cancer screening promotion, however, remains a challenge. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Discovery of the faithfulness gene: a model of transmission and transformation of scientific information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Eva G T; Clémence, Alain

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the diffusion and transformation of scientific information in everyday discussions. Based on rumour models and social representations theory, the impact of interpersonal communication and pre-existing beliefs on transmission of the content of a scientific discovery was analysed. In three experiments, a communication chain was simulated to investigate how laypeople make sense of a genetic discovery first published in a scientific outlet, then reported in a mainstream newspaper and finally discussed in groups. Study 1 (N=40) demonstrated a transformation of information when the scientific discovery moved along the communication chain. During successive narratives, scientific expert terminology disappeared while scientific information associated with lay terminology persisted. Moreover, the idea of a discovery of a faithfulness gene emerged. Study 2 (N=70) revealed that transmission of the scientific message varied as a function of attitudes towards genetic explanations of behaviour (pro-genetics vs. anti-genetics). Pro-genetics employed more scientific terminology than anti-genetics. Study 3 (N=75) showed that endorsement of genetic explanations was related to descriptive accounts of the scientific information, whereas rejection of genetic explanations was related to evaluative accounts of the information.

  15. A Christian faith-based recovery theory: understanding God as sponsor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, Shirley M

    2012-12-01

    This article reports the development of a substantive theory to explain an evangelical Christian-based process of recovery from addiction. Faith-based, 12-step, mutual aid programs can improve drug abstinence by offering: (a) an intervention option alone and/or in conjunction with secular programs and (b) an opportunity for religious involvement. Although literature on religion, spirituality, and addiction is voluminous, traditional 12-step programs fail to explain the mechanism that underpins the process of Christian-based recovery (CR). This pilot study used grounded theory to explore and describe the essence of recovery of 10 former crack cocaine-addicted persons voluntarily enrolled in a CR program. Data were collected from in-depth interviews during 4 months of 2008. Audiotapes were transcribed verbatim, and the constant comparative method was used to analyze data resulting in the basic social process theory, understanding God as sponsor. The theory was determined through writing theoretical memos that generated key elements that allow persons to recover: acknowledging God-centered crises, communicating with God, and planning for the future. Findings from this preliminary study identifies important factors that can help persons in recovery to sustain sobriety and program administrators to benefit from theory that guides the development of evidence-based addiction interventions.

  16. Faith Pinnacle Moments: Stress, Miraculous Experiences, and Life Satisfaction in Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manglos, Nicolette D

    2013-06-01

    Religious beliefs often persist among unaffiliated young adults, and certain beliefs about God have been shown to support subjective well-being. Yet we know much less about the persistence or psychological impact of religious experiences, specifically miracles from God. I conceive of such experiences as faith pinnacle moments which express and reinvigorate the individual's reciprocal bond with God, frequently occur in response to certain types of stress, and support well-being by solidifying one's sense of that bond. My results show that net of institutional religiosity, young adults who experience stress from traumas are more likely to report miracles. This suggests that these reports often refer to healings or similar interventions. Stress from family breakups, however, is negatively correlated with miracles, presumably since these disruptions damage the bond with God due to the established connection between parental relationships and perceived relationship with God. Finally, miracles are positively correlated with life satisfaction and partially protect against the negative effects of stress on life satisfaction.

  17. Justification by faith in Luther’s thought and today: an introduction

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    Carlos Ribeiro Caldas Filho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As the fifth centenary of the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century approaches, it reminds us of the person and work of Martin Luther. Perhaps the main aspect of the reforming program of Luther has been his comprehension of the doctrine of justification by faith, understood as the foundation of the theology of the Reformation. However, since the end of the late 20th century this doctrine has been reframed, due the work of Biblical scholars, such as James Dunn and N. Thomas Wright, who identify themselves with the so called “New Perspective on Paul” (NPP. This essay intends to show, succinctly, the general contours of Luther’s understanding of the subject, as well as the reaction of the Council of Trent of 1545, the Lutheran-Roman Catholic Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification of 1999 and the recent debate on the NPP. In summary, regardless of any consideration of the merits the NPP, the text shall show the relevance of Luther’s thought for today. 

  18. Food safety training needs at evacuation shelters operated by faith-based organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Junehee; Zottarelli, Lisa; Kwon, Sockju; Lee, Yee Ming; Ryu, Dojin

    2013-09-01

    The authors conducted a survey to identify food safety training needs at evacuation shelters operated by faith-based organizations (FBOs) in four hurricane-prone states. Five thousand randomly selected FBO leaders were asked questions about their food safety attitudes and food handling practices at evacuation shelters. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis of variance were calculated to summarize and prioritize the responses. Results from 138 leaders revealed that on average, 590 +/- 4,787 evacuees were served for 36 +/- 72 days at FBO-operated shelters. Only 19.6% felt they were well prepared for the shelter. Only 5.8% had professional food preparation staff and many accepted hot (47.8%) and cold (37%) prepared food donations. Some lacked adequate refrigerator (18.8%) or freezer (16.7%) spaces, but 40% kept hot food leftovers for later use. The majority did not provide food safety training before opening the shelters (73.2%), yet 76.9% said they will provide food to evacuation shelters again. The results show a need for food safety training and specific strategies for training at FBOs.

  19. GENRE IN RELATION TO SACRUM. CRISIS OF FAITH, HORROR AND POP CULTURE

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    Anna Taszycka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the text “Genre in relation to sacrum. Crisis of faith, horror and pop culture” Samuel Nowak and Anna Taszycka ponder over the phenomenon of modern horror raising the subject of sacrum, especially in relation to the motive of possession and exorcism. The authors attempt to prove that the phenomenon is symptomatic for the transition from religiousness, understood in institutional and collective terms, to individual and contemplative spirituality. After analysing selected films from the perspective of “spirituality” (in the meaning given to it by Zbigniew Pasek the authors conclude that today the pop cultural narrations which depict the new function of sacrum and shift the load from institution to an individual may become successful and accepted by viewers.According to the authors the traditional narration – which associates sacrum with a religious experience – is supplanted today by stories which treat sacrum rather in terms of a spiritual experience. This transformation leads to many possible alternative interpretations of selected films which in this text were described in categories of pensiveness or meta-interpretation.

  20. Critical importance of appropriate fixation conditions for faithful imaging of receptor microclusters

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    Tess A. Stanly

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Receptor clustering is known to trigger signalling events that contribute to critical changes in cellular functions. Faithful imaging of such clusters by means of fluorescence microscopy relies on the application of adequate cell fixation methods prior to immunolabelling in order to avoid artefactual redistribution by the antibodies themselves. Previous work has highlighted the inadequacy of fixation with paraformaldehyde (PFA alone for efficient immobilisation of membrane-associated molecules, and the advantages of fixation with PFA in combination with glutaraldehyde (GA. Using fluorescence microscopy, we here highlight how inadequate fixation can lead to the formation of artefactual clustering of receptors in lymphatic endothelial cells, focussing on the transmembrane hyaluronan receptors LYVE-1 and CD44, and the homotypic adhesion molecule CD31, each of which displays their native diffuse surface distribution pattern only when visualised with the right fixation techniques, i.e. PFA/GA in combination. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP confirms that the artefactual receptor clusters are indeed introduced by residual mobility. In contrast, we observed full immobilisation of membrane proteins in cells that were fixed and then subsequently permeabilised, irrespective of whether the fixative was PFA or PFA/GA in combination. Our study underlines the importance of choosing appropriate sample preparation protocols for preserving authentic receptor organisation in advanced fluorescence microscopy.

  1. With Heart and Soul: Closing a Faith-Based Refugee Resettlement Office

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    Ruth Hoogland DeHoog

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. refugee program is implemented almost entirely through national and local nonprofit and faith-based organizations that are highly dependent upon limited government funding and uneven refugee flows. This paper reports on a study of a large North Carolina nonprofit agency that closed down its longstanding refugee resettlement office in Greensboro in 2010. The research questions addressed are: What were the reasons given for the closing according to different participants? What were the consequences of this shutdown? This study helps to illuminate not only the organizational dynamics within a large, multi-service agency, but it also exemplifies the challenges faced in refugee resettlement services. The research is based on formal interviews with employees, agency executives, former employees, and representatives of the agency's national office that has a contract with the U.S. State Department to resettle refugees in North and South Carolina. The issues of leadership, financial management, and organizational culture are central to understanding why Lutheran Family Services in the Carolinas closed one of its key refugee resettlement offices. While the effects on the local community of volunteers, community agencies, and refugees are still unfolding, this closure had a profound impact on how the community viewed itself, as well as on the agency’s reputation.

  2. Non-faith-based arguments against physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulmasy, Daniel P; Travaline, John M; Mitchell, Louise A; Ely, E Wesley

    2016-08-01

    This article is a complement to "A Template for Non-Religious-Based Discussions Against Euthanasia" by Melissa Harintho, Nathaniel Bloodworth, and E. Wesley Ely which appeared in the February 2015 Linacre Quarterly. Herein we build upon Daniel Sulmasy's opening and closing arguments from the 2014 Intelligence Squared debate on legalizing assisted suicide, supplemented by other non-faith-based arguments and thoughts, providing four nontheistic arguments against physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia: (1) "it offends me"; (2) slippery slope; (3) "pain can be alleviated"; (4) physician integrity and patient trust. Lay Summary: Presented here are four non-religious, reasonable arguments against physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia: (1) "it offends me," suicide devalues human life; (2) slippery slope, the limits on euthanasia gradually erode; (3) "pain can be alleviated," palliative care and modern therapeutics more and more adequately manage pain; (4) physician integrity and patient trust, participating in suicide violates the integrity of the physician and undermines the trust patients place in physicians to heal and not to harm.

  3. Concepts and treatment modalities for hypertension by traditional and faith healers in the Northern Province, South Africa

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    L Cherian

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical experiences and some research findings indicate that traditional and faith healers play a role in the management of hypertension in Africa.

    Opsomming
    Kliniese ondervindings en sommige navorsingsbevindinge dui daarop dat tradisionele en geloofsgenesers ‘n rol speel in die hantering van hipertensie in Afrika. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  4. Facets of Spirituality as Predictors of Adjustment to Cancer: Relative Contributions of Having Faith and Finding Meaning

    OpenAIRE

    Yanez, Betina; Edmondson, Donald; Annette L. Stanton; Park, Crystal L.; Kwan, Lorna; Ganz, Patricia A.; Blank, Thomas O.

    2009-01-01

    Spirituality is a multidimensional construct, and little is known about how its distinct dimensions jointly affect well-being. In longitudinal studies (Study 1, N = 418 breast cancer patients; Study 2, N = 165 cancer survivors), we examined two components of spiritual well-being (i.e., meaning/peace and faith) and their interaction, as well as change scores on those variables, as predictors of psychological adjustment. In Study 1, higher baseline meaning/peace, as well as an increase in meani...

  5. Using Prayer as an Intervention with Clients Who Are Substance Abusing and Addicted and Who Self-Identify Personal Faith in God and Prayer as Recovery Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhnke, Gerald A.; Watts, Richard E.; Guerra, Norma S.; Hsieh, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how the authors use prayer with clients who self-identify their personal faith in God and who have used prayer as a helpful recovery agent or who believe prayer would be helpful to their personal recovery.

  6. The Effectiveness of Abstinence-Based/Faith-Based Addiction Quitting Courses on General and Coping Self-Efficacy

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    Hosin Nazari, Sh

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: One of the influential elements in the life of an individual is his or her level of self efficacy. This research aimed to study the effectiveness of abstinence-based/faith-based addiction quitting courses on general and coping self efficacy of the people who want to quit opium addiction through these courses in Tehran city. Method: In semi experimental research design 80 people who referred to abstinence-based/faith-based addiction quitting courses were selected by census method. General self efficacy questionnaire of Jerusalem and Schwartzer (1981 and coping self-efficacy questionnaire of Chesney (2006 administered among selected sample before and after treatment. Results: The results of paired t-test indicated that abstinence-based/faith-based addiction quitting courses have a significant influence on the skills of impeding negative thoughts and excitements and gaining friends’ and colleagues’ support. Conclusion: The findings of this research concur with the findings of similar researches, and indicated with appropriate strategies of training self-efficacy beliefs can be improved and boosted.

  7. Good faith in corporate law – an independent fiduciary duty or an element of the duty of loyalty?

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    Adina Ponta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking the duty of loyalty as a starting point, which we consider to be the director’s core fiduciary duty, this paper aims at identifying the contours of good faith in corporate law and the interpretations of this institution in corporate governance. The objective of the paper is to demonstrate the autonomy of good faith, along with the duty of care and the duty of loyalty. The paper displays the traditional legal approaches of this institution, both in continental civil law and in common law literature and jurisprudence and exhaustively describes the obligations that compose or even define this concept. Due to its amplitude, the duty of good faith enabled courts to articulate subsidiary fiduciary duties that meet social changes and transformation within business law. By means of cited case law, the conclusion will show that due to the nature, content and effects of situations where specific obligations are met, these may not be incorporated as elements of the traditional duty of care or duty of loyalty.

  8. Faith-based aid, globalisation and the humanitarian frontline: an analysis of Western-based Muslim aid organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cordier, Bruno

    2009-10-01

    This paper focuses on the emergence and modus operandi of Muslim faith-based aid organisations from the West, particularly those from the United Kingdom. Through case studies of Islamic Relief Worldwide and Muslim Hands, it examines the actual and potential added value generated by these humanitarian players in Muslim-majority contexts at times when aid actors from or associated with the West are being perceived by some as instrumental to the political agendas of Western powers, or are being confronted with the consequences thereof. The study analyses Muslim faith-based aid organisations' transnational networks, their implementing partnerships with local faith-based non-governmental organisations (NGOs), and their security position within and their access to insecure contexts, drawing on field examples and opinion from Central Asia, Iraq and Pakistan. It thereby argues that there is ground for an expansion of the role of Muslim aid actors, because of the existence of social and political realities in the field that cannot be always effectively tackled by the dominant international development approaches.

  9. Faith after an earthquake: a longitudinal study of religion and perceived health before and after the 2011 Christchurch New Zealand Earthquake.

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    Chris G Sibley

    Full Text Available On 22 February 2011, Christchurch New Zealand (population 367,700 experienced a devastating earthquake, causing extensive damage and killing one hundred and eighty-five people. The earthquake and aftershocks occurred between the 2009 and 2011 waves of a longitudinal probability sample conducted in New Zealand, enabling us to examine how a natural disaster of this magnitude affected deeply held commitments and global ratings of personal health, depending on earthquake exposure. We first investigated whether the earthquake-affected were more likely to believe in God. Consistent with the Religious Comfort Hypothesis, religious faith increased among the earthquake-affected, despite an overall decline in religious faith elsewhere. This result offers the first population-level demonstration that secular people turn to religion at times of natural crisis. We then examined whether religious affiliation was associated with differences in subjective ratings of personal health. We found no evidence for superior buffering from having religious faith. Among those affected by the earthquake, however, a loss of faith was associated with significant subjective health declines. Those who lost faith elsewhere in the country did not experience similar health declines. Our findings suggest that religious conversion after a natural disaster is unlikely to improve subjective well-being, yet upholding faith might be an important step on the road to recovery.

  10. Faith after an earthquake: a longitudinal study of religion and perceived health before and after the 2011 Christchurch New Zealand Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Chris G; Bulbulia, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    On 22 February 2011, Christchurch New Zealand (population 367,700) experienced a devastating earthquake, causing extensive damage and killing one hundred and eighty-five people. The earthquake and aftershocks occurred between the 2009 and 2011 waves of a longitudinal probability sample conducted in New Zealand, enabling us to examine how a natural disaster of this magnitude affected deeply held commitments and global ratings of personal health, depending on earthquake exposure. We first investigated whether the earthquake-affected were more likely to believe in God. Consistent with the Religious Comfort Hypothesis, religious faith increased among the earthquake-affected, despite an overall decline in religious faith elsewhere. This result offers the first population-level demonstration that secular people turn to religion at times of natural crisis. We then examined whether religious affiliation was associated with differences in subjective ratings of personal health. We found no evidence for superior buffering from having religious faith. Among those affected by the earthquake, however, a loss of faith was associated with significant subjective health declines. Those who lost faith elsewhere in the country did not experience similar health declines. Our findings suggest that religious conversion after a natural disaster is unlikely to improve subjective well-being, yet upholding faith might be an important step on the road to recovery.

  11. Faith-based partnerships in graduate medical education: the experience of the Morehouse School of Medicine Public Health/Preventive Medicine Residency Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Beverly D; Buckner, Ayanna V; Walker, Carla Durham; Blumenthal, Daniel S

    2011-10-01

    Faith-based organizations can be strategic partners in addressing the needs of low-income and underserved individuals and communities. The Morehouse School of Medicine (MSM) Public Health/Preventive Medicine Residency Program (PH/PMR) collaborates with faith-based organizations for the purpose of resident education, community engagement, and service. These partners provide guidance for the program's community initiatives and health promotion activities designed to address health inequities. Residents complete a longitudinal community practicum experience with a faith-based organization over the 2-year training period. Residents conduct a community health needs assessment at the organization and design a health intervention that addresses the identified needs. The faith-based community practicum also serves as a vehicle for achieving skills in all eight domains of the Public Health Competencies developed by the Council on Linkages and all six Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Core Competencies. The MSM PH/PMR Program has engaged in faith-based partnerships for 7 years. This article discusses the structure of these partnerships, how partners are identified, funding sources for supporting resident projects, and examples of resident health needs assessment and intervention activities. The MSM PH/PMR Program may serve as a model to other residency and fellowship programs that may have an interest in developing partnerships with faith-based organizations.

  12. Family planning and reproductive health supply stockouts: problems and remedies for faith-based health facilities in Africa

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    Amy M. Metzger

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Faith-based organizations (FBOs provide a substantial portion of the health care services in many African countries. FBO facilities do consider family planning and reproductive health services as essential to reducing maternal and child mortality, and to the growth of healthy families. Many health facilities, however, struggle to maintain adequate stocks of reproductive health (RH supplies because of the various RH supply chains and funding sources, which often operate separately from other medicines and supplies. The purpose of this study is to identify the types of supply chain systems used by African faith-based health facilities to acquire reproductive health products (clotrimazole, combined oral contraceptive pills, contraceptive implants, CycleBeads®, emergency contraception, Erythromycin, female condoms, injectable contraceptives, intra-uterine contraceptive devices, magnesium sulfate, male condoms, Methyldopa, Misoprostol, Nifedpine, Oxytocin, and Progestin-only pills, to describe their problems and challenges, and to identify possible corrective actions. Methods: Through email surveys, phone interviews, and on-site visits, we studied the supply chains of 46 faith-based health facilities in 13 African countries. Sixteen RH commodities, including contraceptives, were selected as indicators. Results: Of the 46 facilities surveyed, 55 percent faced stockouts of one or more products in the three months prior to the survey. Stockouts were less common for contraceptives than for other RH products. Significant strengths of the FBO supply chain included creativity in finding other sources of commodities in the face of stockouts, staff designated to monitor quality of the commodities, high capacity for storage, low incidence of expired products, few instances of poor quality, and strong financial sustainability mechanisms, often including patient fees. Weaknesses included unreliable commodity sources and power supplies, long

  13. Computational cell model based on autonomous cell movement regulated by cell-cell signalling successfully recapitulates the "inside and outside" pattern of cell sorting

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    Ajioka Itsuki

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of multicellular organisms proceeds from a single fertilized egg as the combined effect of countless numbers of cellular interactions among highly dynamic cells. Since at least a reminiscent pattern of morphogenesis can be recapitulated in a reproducible manner in reaggregation cultures of dissociated embryonic cells, which is known as cell sorting, the cells themselves must possess some autonomous cell behaviors that assure specific and reproducible self-organization. Understanding of this self-organized dynamics of heterogeneous cell population seems to require some novel approaches so that the approaches bridge a gap between molecular events and morphogenesis in developmental and cell biology. A conceptual cell model in a computer may answer that purpose. We constructed a dynamical cell model based on autonomous cell behaviors, including cell shape, growth, division, adhesion, transformation, and motility as well as cell-cell signaling. The model gives some insights about what cellular behaviors make an appropriate global pattern of the cell population. Results We applied the model to "inside and outside" pattern of cell-sorting, in which two different embryonic cell types within a randomly mixed aggregate are sorted so that one cell type tends to gather in the central region of the aggregate and the other cell type surrounds the first cell type. Our model can modify the above cell behaviors by varying parameters related to them. We explored various parameter sets with which the "inside and outside" pattern could be achieved. The simulation results suggested that direction of cell movement responding to its neighborhood and the cell's mobility are important for this specific rearrangement. Conclusion We constructed an in silico cell model that mimics autonomous cell behaviors and applied it to cell sorting, which is a simple and appropriate phenomenon exhibiting self-organization of cell population. The model

  14. Subthreshold desensitization of human basophils re-capitulates the loss of Syk and FcεRI expression characterized by other methods of desensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGlashan, D

    2012-07-01

    Clinical desensitization of patients to drugs involves progressive exposure to escalating doses of drug over a period of 24 h. In prior studies, this method was re-capitulated in vitro to also demonstrate loss of mast cell or basophil responsiveness. However, most signalling studies of human basophils have identified changes in signalling by using other methods of inducing cellular desensitization. This study examined two well-described endpoints of basophil desensitization, loss of syk or FcεRI expression, under conditions of subthreshold desensitization. The loss of FcεRI and syk was examined in human basophils. It was shown that both loss of syk and FcεRI/IgE occurred during an escalating series of stimulation (anti-IgE Ab) and that expression loss occurred despite the presence of little histamine release. If basophils were first cultured for 3 days in 10 ng/mL IL-3, the concentration-dependence of histamine release shifted to 100-fold lower concentrations of stimulus. However, loss of syk did not show any change in its EC50 while loss of FcεRI also shifted 100-fold. From the perspective of early signal element activation, the marked shift in the EC50 for histamine release was not accompanied by similar shifts in the EC50s for several signalling elements. The EC50s for phospho-Src, phospho-SHIP1, phospho-Syk, or phospho-Cbl did not change while the EC50s for phospho-Erk and the cytosolic calcium response did shift 100-fold. These studies show that under normal conditions, subthreshold desensitization leads to loss of two critical signalling molecules (FcεRI and syk) but under at least one condition, treatment with IL-3, it is possible to markedly blunt the loss of syk, but not FcεRI, while executing a proper subthreshold titration. These data also suggest that IL-3 modifies only the sensitivity of signalling elements that are downstream of syk activation. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Faith-Based Organizations and Veteran Reintegration: Enriching the Web of Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werber, Laura; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Rudnick, Mollie; Harrell, Margaret C; Naranjo, Diana

    2015-11-30

    Faith-based organizations (FBOs) are an important community-based resource for veterans as they readjust to civilian life. Through interviews with both national-level and smaller, local FBOs, the authors sought to understand better the current and potential roles for FBOs in veteran reintegration. Interviewees suggested that veterans may look to FBOs for support because they offer privacy and confidentiality, two features that may be especially critical when a potential stigma is involved. Some FBOs have also developed a reputation as safe places for veterans, providing supportive, judgment-free environments. FBOs not only help veterans with spiritual matters but address diverse areas of veteran health and wellness, including vocation, education, financial and legal stability, shelter, access to goods and services, mental health, access to health care, physical health, family, and social networks. In some cases, the support is offered to veterans directly; in other instances, the support is indirect, via training individuals to help veterans or educating the public about them. In the process of providing support, FBOs interact with varied organizations, including government entities, private nonprofits, and one another, for training, outreach, referrals, information exchange, obtaining donations, and collaboration. Yet challenges exist, including insufficient connections with chaplains working in different settings and others in the web of support, resource and capacity constraints, lack of awareness of experience with veterans, issues related to religious philosophy or orientation, and characteristics of veterans themselves. To move forward, the authors offer recommendations for policymakers, organizations that interact with FBOs, and FBOs themselves to help FBOs engage fully in the web of reintegration support.

  16. THE PRINCIPLES OF CONTRACTUAL FREEDOM AND GOOD FAITH IN JURIDICAL CONTRACTS

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    MIHAELA IRINA IONESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The contract is the very heart of the Civil Code, and it is in fact also the cornerstone of any society, as without it relations and rapport amongst citizens could not occur nor unfold, and as such it is presently considered an effective legal instrument for organizing the behavior of all members of society. The importance of contracts, the extent of contractual freedoms, the rapports that contracts entertain with laws, norms and other regulations and the means to properly frame and limit the State’s intervention in the economy all hinge on the evolution of society and it’s general ideological proclivity. The contract acts as the mirror of all this and it comes as no surprise that a society that has shortly left an organization based on the tenants of communism still bears the full weight of this ideology when it comes to contracts. In the framework of the New Civil Code, the contract is viewed as based on a series of principles which are carefully drawn and well established in the general consciousness. As such, altering these principles would naturally cause important concern and uncertainty between the Parties to the Contract. Therefore, when times require repealing from a principle, this should be implemented with the greatest prudence by the legislature. This paper contains a summary of the guiding principles of contracts from the provisions of the New Civil Code. For the first time in our legal history, these provisions regulate the two most fundamental principles of contracts; contractual freedom and good faith, which is why the author chose to insist on these new regulations

  17. Faith in the Ghosts of Literature. Poetic Hauntology in Derrida, Blanchot and Morrison’s Beloved

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    Elisabeth M. Loevlie

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Literature, this paper argues, is a privileged language that can give form to those specters of existence that resist the traditional ontological boundaries of being and non-being, alive and dead. This I describe as the “hauntology” of literature. Literature, unlike our everyday, referential language, is not obliged to refer to a determinable reality, or to sustain meaning. It can therefore be viewed as a negation of the world of things and sensible phenomena. Yet it gives us access to vivid and sensory rich worlds. The status of this literary world, then, is strangely in-between; its ontology is not present and fixed, but rather quivering or ghostlike. The “I” that speaks in a literary text never coincides with the “I” of the writing subject, rather they haunt each other. This theoretical understanding is based on texts by Jacques Derrida and Maurice Blanchot. The paper also draws an analogy between this spectral dynamic of literature and an understanding of religious faith or belief. Belief relates to that which cannot be ontologically fixed or verified, be it God, angels, or spirits. Literature, because it releases and sustains this ontological quivering, can transmit the ineffable, the repressed and transcendent. With this starting point, I turn to Toni Morrison’s book Beloved (1987 and to Beloved’s strange, spectral monologue. By giving literary voice to the dead, Morrison releases literature’s hauntology to express the horror that history books cannot convey, and that our memory struggles to contain.

  18. 'Every disease has its cure': faith and HIV therapies in Islamic northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocco, Jack Ume

    2010-12-01

    Northern Nigeria has one of the highest levels of HIV prevalence among societies that are predominantly Muslim. In the last decade the region has experienced marked expansion of religiously-oriented healing practices following the formal adoption of Islamic sharia law. Since 2005, international funding has also made antiretroviral therapy (ART) more widely available throughout Nigeria. This study uses ethnographic data collected in Kano, northern Nigeria's largest city, to examine Muslims' perspectives on HIV treatment in the context of popular health beliefs and expanding therapeutic options. The research found that passages from classical Islamic texts are regularly cited by both HIV/AIDS practitioners and patients, especially when talking about the supposition that Allah sends a cure to humankind for every disease. Some religious scholar-practitioners (malamai) working in the Islamic traditions of prophetic medicine insist that HIV can be completely cured given sufficient faith in the supernatural power of the Quran; others claim that the natural ingredients prescribed in Islamic texts can cure HIV. Such assertions contradict the mainstream biomedical position that, with the proper therapeutic regimen, infection with HIV can be managed as a chronic illness, although not cured. Thus, these assertions constitute a challenge to the increasing therapeutic hegemony of antiretroviralbased care in Nigeria. Without falsifying the proposition that a divine cure for HIV exists, many Muslim patients on ART, and the predominantly Muslim biomedical staff who treat them, express scepticism about whether the cure has yet to be revealed to humans. These findings suggest that despite recent efforts in Nigeria to assert a unified Islamic perspective on HIV and AIDS, substantive disagreements persist over the causes, treatments and curability of the disease. The healing systems in which practitioners and patients operate influence how they interpret Islamic texts concerning the

  19. Estimating the development assistance for health provided to faith-based organizations, 1990-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Haakenstad

    Full Text Available Faith-based organizations (FBOs have been active in the health sector for decades. Recently, the role of FBOs in global health has been of increased interest. However, little is known about the magnitude and trends in development assistance for health (DAH channeled through these organizations.Data were collected from the 21 most recent editions of the Report of Voluntary Agencies. These reports provide information on the revenue and expenditure of organizations. Project-level data were also collected and reviewed from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. More than 1,900 non-governmental organizations received funds from at least one of these three organizations. Background information on these organizations was examined by two independent reviewers to identify the amount of funding channeled through FBOs.In 2013, total spending by the FBOs identified in the VolAg amounted to US$1.53 billion. In 1990, FB0s spent 34.1% of total DAH provided by private voluntary organizations reported in the VolAg. In 2013, FBOs expended 31.0%. Funds provided by the Global Fund to FBOs have grown since 2002, amounting to $80.9 million in 2011, or 16.7% of the Global Fund's contributions to NGOs. In 2011, the Gates Foundation's contributions to FBOs amounted to $7.1 million, or 1.1% of the total provided to NGOs.Development assistance partners exhibit a range of preferences with respect to the amount of funds provided to FBOs. Overall, estimates show that FBOS have maintained a substantial and consistent share over time, in line with overall spending in global health on NGOs. These estimates provide the foundation for further research on the spending trends and effectiveness of FBOs in global health.

  20. Good faith in business relations A boa-fé nas relações negociais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Parra Leite

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of ideological changes, that implicated the evolution of the conception of State, from Liberal to a Social one, gradually there was an intervention of the State in private relationships, that gained a proper sociality. With attention to that, the legislator elaborated the Civil Code of 2002, a text inspired by constitutional dictates of equality, dignity of the human being and solidarity. Based on this new ideology, the contracts suffered too many changes, always concerning to the principles that inform the new codex, which are: ethics, sociality and operability. In the same way, it is important the study of the objective good faith and its hermeneutical and integrative functions, that creates lateral obligations, annex or instrumental, and limiter of the subjective rights.Em decorrência de modificações ideológicas que implicaram na evolução da concepção do Estado de Liberal para um Estado Social, paulatinamente, houve a intervenção do Estado nas relações privadas, que passaram e ter contornos de socialidade. Atento a isto, o legislador pátrio elaborou o Código Civil de 2002, um texto inspirado em ditames constitucionais de igualdade, dignidade da pessoa humana e solidariedade. Fundado nesta nova ideologia, os contratos sofreram inúmeras modificações, sempre na observância dos princípios informadores do novo codex, quais sejam: eticidade, socialidade e operabilidade. Nesse sentido, importante é o estudo da boa-fé objetiva com suas funções hermenêutico-integrativa, criadora de deveres laterais, anexos ou instrumentais e limitadora de direitos subjetivos.

  1. Old Faithful Model for Radiolytic Gas-Driven Cryovolcanism at Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; Cooper, Paul D.; Sittler, Edward; Sturner, Steven J.; Rymer, Abigail M.

    2009-01-01

    A new model is presented on how chemically driven cryovolcanism might contribute to episodic outgassing at the icy moon Enceladus and potentially elsewhere including Europa and Kuiper Belt Objects. Exposed water ices can become oxidized from radiolytic chemical alteration of near-surface water ice by space environment irradiation. In contact with primordially abundant reductants such as NH3, CH4, and other hydrocarbons, the product oxidants can react exothermically to produce volatile gases driving cryovolcanism via gas-piston forces on any subsurface liquid reservoirs. Radiolytic oxidants such as H2O2 and O2 can continuously accumulate deep in icy regoliths and be conveyed by rheological flows to subsurface chemical reaction zones over million-year time scales indicated by cratering ages for active regions of Enceladus and Europa. Surface blanketing with cryovolcanic plume ejecta would further accelerate regolith burial of radiolytic oxidants. Episodic heating from transient gravitational tides, radioisotope decay, impacts, or other geologic events might occasionally accelerate chemical reaction rates and ignite the exothermic release of cumulative radiolytic oxidant energy. The time history for the suggested "Old Faithful" model of radiolytic gas-driven cryovolcanism at Enceladus and elsewhere therefore consists of long periods of chemical energy accumulation punctuated by much briefer episodes of cryovolcanic activity. The most probable sequence for detection of activity in the current epoch is a long evolutionary phase of slow but continuous oxidant accumulation over billions of years followed by continuous but variable high activity over the past 10(exp 7)-10(exp 8) years. Detectable cryovolcanic activity could then later decline due to near-total oxidation of the rheologically accessible ice crust and depletion the accessible reductant abundances, as may have already occurred for Europa in the more intense radiation environment of Jupiter's magnetosphere

  2. The faithful and the rulers: Calvin's two sermons of 1554 on 1 Timothy 2:1-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Pont

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study Calvin's two sermons on 1 Timothy 2:1-2 are examined and the contents briely analyzed. The conclusion is drawn that Calvin is not giving a treatise on the biblical doctrine on princes and rulers, but is addressing the faithful. In doing so, he explains to the congregation their position vis-à-vis the rulers and what Paul's injunctions mean intheir situation. It is true preaching as Calvin only expounds the Biblical message as it is found in this text.

  3. Aging with service, socialization, and support: The work of faith-based stories in a lifetime community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Jill

    2015-12-01

    This project explores the impact that stories told through the church have on rural older adults and their perceptions of community resources, possibilities, and responsibilities as they age in the same small town where they have lived most, if not all, of their lives. I combine qualitative research practices with narrative theorizing to understand the ways in which faith-based stories work with, for, and on community members. I seek to understand how these stories foster a culture of altruism and spirit of stewardship that can ultimately build an inclusive community, nurture a sense of responsibility across generations, and enable residents to age in place with meaningful connection, purpose, and support.

  4. Sheikh Bin Wan Ismail Wan Abdul Qadir (d. 1965 And His Efforts in the Field of Islamic Faith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujahid Mustafa Bahjat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wan Ismail Shaikh Abdul Qadir was one of the Ulema, he known to struggle in spreading Islamic Aqedah and development in the Patani region in particular and generally in Malay region, this study will provide an overview of his life and contribution to science, and also the study of the struggle to spread knowledge in the Islamic faith. One of the relics of his work is "Bakurah أل أماني for the Layman Patani" is the greatest work of his in the Islamic Aqedah Science until recently used as a guide and reference in the study of science aqidah in the Malay region.

  5. Faith-based organisations between service delivery and social change in contemporary China: The experience of Amity Foundation

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    Theresa C. Carino

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available China has undergone a profound paradigm shift in its approach to economic development since its policy of ‘opening and reform’ was first implemented in 1978. It has shifted rapidly from a centrally planned economy to a market-oriented one, speeding up its economic development through foreign investment, a more open market, access to advanced technologies and management experience. It is notable that its economic growth, marked by annual doubledigit rises in GDP over two decades, has lifted more than 400 million people out of extreme poverty. Today, the number of Chinese billionaires has ballooned, but so has the rich–poor gap. China’s ‘development’ has to address this urgent issue.This article examines, based on the experience of Amity Foundation, one of China’s largest faith-based organisations (FBOs, how religious organisations are being harnessed by the state to redress the wealth gap arising from ‘development’. The process of social engagement has empowered FBOs, made their presence more accepted and appreciated in Chinese society and contributed to the creation of more social and political space for a nascent civil society. The author argues that FBOs must provide visible, viable and replicable alternatives in their social practices that are firmly rooted in their faith, if they are to make any sustainable impact on the development debate.

  6. The Moral Dignity of Inductive Method and the Reconciliation of Science and Faith in Adam Sedgwick's Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellon, Richard

    2012-07-01

    Science's inductive method required patient, humble and self-controlled behavior; Christian revelation demanded the same virtues. The discoveries of science and the truths of scripture would always harmonize as long as both men of science and men of faith conducted themselves in scrupulous accordance with their duty. So ran a central argument in A Discourse on the studies of the university (1833; 5th ed, 1850) by Adam Sedgwick (1785-1873), the longtime professor of geology at the University of Cambridge. This sanctification of the inductive method provided the foundation for a theistic science which (in theory) did not subordinate scientific theory to religious doctrine. This vision provided the foundation for Sedgwick's lifelong crusade against all forms of evolutionary theory. Evolution's impiety, he insisted, resulted from (and exacerbated) a failure to behave inductively. The fact that Sedgwick (in principle if not always in practice) elevated norms of behavior above systems of belief had an important and paradoxical consequence. Even though his personal hatred of evolution never cooled, his Discourse nonetheless provided a dominant model for younger theists to reconcile faith with Charles Darwin's evolutionary theory.

  7. "I honestly believe god keeps me healthy so i can take care of my child": parental use of faith related to treatment adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossoehme, Daniel H; Cotton, Sian; Ragsdale, Judy; Quittner, Alexandra L; McPhail, Gary; Seid, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A limited number of studies address parental faith and its relationship to their children's health. Using cystic fibrosis as a disease exemplar in which religion/spirituality have been shown to play a role and parental health behaviors (adherence to their child's daily recommended home treatments) are important, this study explored whether parents with different levels of adherence would describe use of faith differently. Twenty-five interviews were completed and analyzed using grounded theory methodology. Some parents described no relationship between faith and treatment adherence. However, of those who did, higher-adherence parents believed God empowered them to care for their child and they used prayer to change themselves, while lower-adherence parents described trusting God to care for their child and used prayer to change God. Clinical implications for chaplains' differential engagement with parents are presented.

  8. Astarabadi and Alame Majlesi’s Faith Studies and the Mullasdra’s Impression on Alame’s thoughts

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    S. Mahdi Emamijomeh

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ekhbarigari doctrine, was founded by Astarabadi in 11th century of Hejirah As we will explain that he had a special theory in faith that Alame found it a very interesting subject to work on. We should know, Allame showed that he had the knowledge in faith studies from Astarabad ’s theories but without all the ambiguities in them, he tried to work on making his theories clearer and more correct.   So we can differenciate between Astarabadi and Allame’s theories in faith study and name the allame’s theory as a very special theory in Isfahan Ekhbarigari doctrine, but the most important thing that we try to discuss in this article is proving that Mullasadra has a very important part in balancing and moderating the Allame’s theories. So for saying and proving all these things we should start from a summary of the Astarabadi’s theories .

  9. Angustia y fe teologal en Kierkegaard y san Juan de la Cruz Anguish and Theological faith in Kierkegaard and San Juan de la Cruz

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    Lucero González Suárez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Se parte del planteamiento general de la perspectiva moderna que aún impera en la interpretación regular de la fe, para señalar sus insuficiencias. Posteriormente, se aborda la oposición entre universalidad ética y particularidad teológica, con base en las observaciones hechas por Kant y Kierkegaard, respectivamente, a fin de determinar el ámbito de la fe y su independencia respecto de la moral. Hecho el deslinde entre el Dios de la fe y el Dios de las filósofos, se describen los rasgos fundamentales de la fe teologal, con base en el testimonio neotestamentario. Finalmente, se expone la concepción místico-religiosa de San Juan de la Cruz acerca de la fe como conocimiento oscuro amoroso, para luego aclarar en qué sentido la fe está íntimamente relacionada con el amor-ágape y la esperanza. Unidad que constituye la esencia de la actitud teologal.Be part of the overall approach of the modern perspective that still prevails in the interpretation regular of faith, to point out its shortcomings. Subsequently, deals with the opposition between ethical universality and particularity theological, based on observations made by Kant and Kierkegaard, respectively, to determine the field of faith and independence from morality. Made the boundary between the God of faith and the God of the philosophers, describes the basic features of theological faith, based on the New Testament witness. Finally, we illustrate the mystical-religious conception of San Juan de la Cruz about faith as loving dark knowledge, then clarify in what sense faith is intimately linked to the love-agape and hope. Unit which is the essence of the theological attitude.

  10. Fighting Hislam : an investigation into Australian and North American Muslim women fighting sexism within their own communities from a pro-faith perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Carland, Susan Janet

    2017-01-01

    This research investigates how Muslim women in Australia and North America fight sexism within their own communities from a pro-faith perspective. It examines the stories of the women who engaged in such work, their motivations, and their path to fighting sexism, the support and criticism they received from both Muslims and non-Muslims, and the role faith played in their work. Little previous research has been done in this field. The majority of the accounts of Muslim women portray them as p...

  11. Nine Tips To Help Faith Leaders and Their Communities Address Teen Pregnancy = Nueve consejos para ayudar a lideres espirituales y sus comunidades a hacerle frente al problema del embarazo en la adolescencia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC.

    To support faith communities in protecting teenage boys and girls from too-early sexual activity and teen pregnancy, the National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy's Task Force on Religion and Public Values has compiled these nine tips which summarize a wealth of experience and advice from faith leaders around the country. The members of the Task…

  12. Nine Tips To Help Faith Leaders and Their Communities Address Teen Pregnancy = Nueve consejos para ayudar a lideres espirituales y sus comunidades a hacerle frente al problema del embarazo en la adolescencia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC.

    To support faith communities in protecting teenage boys and girls from too-early sexual activity and teen pregnancy, the National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy's Task Force on Religion and Public Values has compiled these nine tips which summarize a wealth of experience and advice from faith leaders around the country. The members of the Task…

  13. The Impact of the Birth of a Child with Intellectual Disabilities on Pre-Existing Parental Christian Faith from the Perspective of Parents Who Have Parented Their Child to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Susannah; Hatton, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Background: Faith in the lives of UK families with an adult with intellectual disabilities is an under-researched area with little existing literature. Research in the United States with Christian parents suggests that they draw on their faith for coping (Rogers-Dulan 1998) and for understanding (Skinner et al. 1999). Methods: In this study,…

  14. THE EFFECT OF DERIVATIVE FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS ON BANK RISKS, RELEVANCE AND FAITHFUL REPRESENTATION: EVIDENCE FROM BANKS IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toth Kornel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In a continuously changing business environment accounting data have to provide useful information in order to achieve relevant and faithful representation in financial statements. Since global markets have changed radically, growing international trade means the horizons of investors and borrowers have now become global, which has increased the level of their risks. Concerning international trade and investment, one of the most important risks is uncertainty about future foreign currency exchange rates and interest rates. Changes in financial markets have increased the use of derivative instruments (such as forwards, futures, swaps, and options to hedge risk exposure worldwide, while the related accounting standards have not kept pace with those changes. Because of the complexity and variety of these instruments, reporting on derivatives faces many difficulties, since a different framework and different accounting concepts are required to present useful financial information. For these reasons the growing use of derivative financial instruments and the challenges of the global financial system have intensified and sharpened debates about whether derivative instruments increase or decrease the risk of banks, affecting faithful representation based on their financial statements and decision usefulness of the reported information. This study aims to describe the transformation of accounting concepts and its effect on fair value accounting for derivative financial instruments in the information economy. The research question of the paper is whether the advantages of fair value accounting exceed the disadvantages, especially in the case of derivatives, in reducing the uncertainty and risk associated with financial reporting. Based on this question, the purpose of the empirical research is to assess the level of different risks which banks operating in Hungary face when using derivative financial instruments and to investigate how and to what extent

  15. Yet another call for a greater Role for good Faith in the South African Law of Contract: Can we banish the Law of the Jungle, while avoiding the Elephant in the Room?

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    Andre M Louw

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the current approach of the South African courts to the role of good faith or bona fides in contracts, as well as the courts’ stated reasons for this approach. The article specifically examines how arguments based on good faith have fared in the Constitutional Court to date, and the prospects for law reform to emanate from that court in the near future. The author suggests an understanding of good faith which he believes is in line with the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 and argues that in terms of such an understanding of a robust good faith doctrine the legal fraternity or the courts can avoid some of the dangers that the judges of the Supreme Court of Appeal have warned about in this context in recent years. The author shares some concluding thoughts on the pressing need for law reform with respect to the role and presence of good faith in contracts.

  16. 论董事问责的诚信路径%On directors' accountability in China: Good faith path

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱羿锟

    2009-01-01

    The mode of deferential review on directors' management decisions coincides with the requirements of adaptive efficiency, being conducive to encouraging directors' tentative experiments. However, under the rule of business judgment, directors' accountability requires for onerous burden of proof on the plaintiff, and the formal review of directors' decisions and the uncertainty of the standard of care have rendered the duty of care almost an empty shell, and consequently the unfaithful conducts of directors between gross negligence and malice are always at large. The good faith path is not only a mechanism to fill the gap of accountability but an important mechanism to overcome the information asymmetry between shareholders and directors. The judicial practice of directors' accountability in the 1990s produced a good faith path, and the good faith concept has been rejuvenated with creative changes, the standards of conducts become clear with the increasing operability of judicial reviews. In China, the standards on fiduciary conducts can be defined by the judicial interpretation of the Company Law, so as to incorporate such misconducts as intentionally causing the violation of law by company, failure to disclose candidly, abuse of power and gross disregard of responsibilities, hence inducing the good faith path to accountability.%董事经营决策的尊重审查模式契合了适应性效率的要求,有利于鼓励董事进行尝试性试验.但是,在商事判断规则下,董事问责需原告负担严苛的举重责任,董事决策审查形式化及注意标准的不确定性,使得注意义务几乎被掏空,介于重大过失与恶意之间的董事失信往往逃脱法律责任.诚信路径不仅是问责空隙的填补机制,也是克服股东与董事之间信息不对称的重要机制.二十世纪九十年代以来,董事问责的司法实践催生了诚信路径,诚信概念亦因创造性转化而获得新生,其行为标准日益明晰,司法审查可

  17. The faith of a physicist reflections of a bottom-up thinker : the Gifford lectures for 1993-4

    CERN Document Server

    Polkinghorne, John C

    1994-01-01

    Is it possible to think like a scientist and yet have the faith of a Christian? Although many Westerners might say no, there are also many critically minded individuals who entertain what John Polkinghorne calls a "wistful wariness" toward religion--they feel unable to accept religion on rational grounds yet cannot dismiss it completely. Polkinghorne, both a particle physicist and Anglican priest, here explores just what rational grounds there could be for Christian beliefs, maintaining that the quest for motivated understanding is a concern shared by scientists and religious thinkers alike. Anyone who assumes that religion is based on unquestioning certainties, or that it need not take into account empirical knowledge, will be challenged by Polkinghorne's bottom-up examination of Christian beliefs about events ranging from creation to the resurrection. The author organizes his inquiry around the Nicene Creed, an early statement that continues to summarize Christian beliefs. He applies to each of its tenets ...

  18. An Analysis of How Participating in a NCAA Division I-A Football Program Impacts the Christian Faith Development of Student Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epting, James B., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The current study described and analyzed the perspectives of traditional-aged college student-athletes who participated in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I football regarding the impact the sport had on Christian faith development. The study entailed a qualitative research method approach using in-depth semi-structured…

  19. An Analysis of How Participating in a NCAA Division I-A Football Program Impacts the Christian Faith Development of Student Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epting, James B., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The current study described and analyzed the perspectives of traditional-aged college student-athletes who participated in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I football regarding the impact the sport had on Christian faith development. The study entailed a qualitative research method approach using in-depth semi-structured…

  20. Religion Education Teaching in Zimbabwe Secondary Schools: The Search for an Authentic Values-Oriented Multi-Faith Religion Education Pedagogical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndlovu, Lovemore

    2014-01-01

    Religion Education teaching in post-independence Zimbabwe has remained bible-oriented and confessional at a time when most Religion Education stakeholders expect an "open", plural and authentic multi-faith Religion Education curriculum. Despite curriculum innovation initiatives aimed at introducing new approaches such as experiential…

  1. Religion Education Teaching in Zimbabwe Secondary Schools: The Search for an Authentic Values-Oriented Multi-Faith Religion Education Pedagogical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndlovu, Lovemore

    2014-01-01

    Religion Education teaching in post-independence Zimbabwe has remained bible-oriented and confessional at a time when most Religion Education stakeholders expect an "open", plural and authentic multi-faith Religion Education curriculum. Despite curriculum innovation initiatives aimed at introducing new approaches such as experiential…

  2. Healthcare hath no fury. Power of religion and might of physicians join forces to prevent joint venture of faith-based Baptist Health, for-profit Triad Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Michael

    2003-07-21

    The power of religion and the might of physicians seem to have joined forces against Baptist Health System's proposed merger with for-profit Triad Hospitals. Doctors and employees of Baptist facilities such as Montclair Baptist Medical Center, left, demanded that the system remain faith-based and under local control.

  3. Truth, Reason, and Faith in Modern Civilisation: The violence of truth and the truth of violence in modern �secular� Western civilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann-Albrecht Meylahn

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available What is truth? What is reason? What is faith? These questions have been hotly debated and have been the cause of violence prior to the rise of the modern and so-called secular state. The rise of the modern �secular� state was founded on the distinction between reason and faith thus bringing to an end the religious violence which was inspired by their respective truths. The concept of truth will be questioned, thus questioning the �truth� that reason and faith can be neatly separated from each other and consequently that the secular and religious can be separated into neat categories. There is an inherent violence (political, religious and linguistic in the Truth(s, be it the truths of either religion or secular reason, namely the originary linguistic violence of truth. This article will ask the question: How can one speak of truth, reason and faith in a modern civilisation and seek ways beyond the violence of truths towards interdisciplinary open dialogue of a democracy still to come?

  4. Integrating Faith-Based Organizations into State-Funded Pre-K Programs: Resolving Constitutional Conflict. Pre-K Policy Brief Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Dan; Boylan, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    This policy brief addresses federal and state constitutional issues that arise when faith-based organizations participate in state prekindergarten (pre-k) programs and recommends safeguards to ensure that public funding of those programs complies with constitutional principles respecting the separation of church and state and freedom of religion.…

  5. Wonderfully Made: Preparing Children To Learn and Succeed. Worship, Educational, Community Outreach, and Advocacy Resources for Protestant, Catholic, Jewish and Other Faith Traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley-Harris, Shannon

    This booklet provides resource materials for the National Observance of Children's Sabbaths, a weekend of worship, education, outreach, and advocacy that proclaims and responds to a faith-based call to meet the needs of children. The theme of 1999's Children's Sabbath focuses on getting all children ready to learn and succeed. The booklet's…

  6. Gifted and Called To Raise Up Our Children: Worship, Educational, Community Outreach, and Advocacy Resources for Protestant, Catholic, Jewish, and Other Faith Traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

    This resource guide was developed to promote the National Observance of Children's Sabbaths, a program of prayer, education, community service, and advocacy with and on behalf of children. The guide provides materials for planning, promoting, and implementing a Children's Sabbath specific to particular faith traditions and recounts the experiences…

  7. Christian ethics: on the difficult dialectics between faith and ethics. http://dlibrary.acu.edu.au/research/theology/ejournal/aejt_2/Jan_Jans.htm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jans, J.M.N.E.

    2004-01-01

    The thesis of this paper is that Christian theological ethics or moral theology is only possible for those who conceive such a conflict as an opportunity for a fruitful dialectics between faith and ethics. Furthermore, it would be my thesis that experience and practical reflection in the area of eth

  8. Faith-Based and Graduate Adult Educators' Negotiation of Similarities and Differences among People as an Indicator of Their Multicultural Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elizabeth Conerly

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between adult educators' multicultural effectiveness scores and their negotiation of similarities and differences scores. The participants were in faith-based institutions, specifically Christian churches and in graduate adult education programs of universities and colleges in the United States. Multicultural…

  9. The Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire (SCSORF): a validation study on Iranian Muslim patients undergoing dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakpour, Amir H; Plante, Thomas G; Saffari, Mohsen; Fridlund, Bengt

    2014-12-01

    The Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire (SCSORF) is an often used and validated scale that is uncommonly utilized in culturally diverse populations. The purpose of this research investigation was to adapt the SCSORF for use among Iranian Muslim patients undergoing dialysis and to examine the reliability and validity of the scale among this population. A total of 428 patients (228 females, 200 males, M age = 52.2 years, SD = 10) were selected from five dialysis center in Tehran and Qazvin, Iran. A comprehensive forward-backward translation system was used for cross-cultural translation. Patients completed a baseline questionnaire obtaining demographic and clinical information as well as the SCSORF, the Age Universal Religious Orientation Scale (AUROS), the religious life inventory (RLI), and the Duke University religion index (DUREL). 2 weeks later, patients were asked to complete the SCSORF once again. Reliability of the SCSORF was examined using internal consistency and test-rest reliability. Convergent validity and factor structure using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were also examined. Cronbach's α for the single construct of the SCSORF was 0.89 with adequate test-retest reliability measured over a 2 week period. SCSORF scores were significantly correlated with AUROS, RLI and the DUREL. The EFA generated a single factor solution for the SCSORF while these results were confirmed by the CFA in an independent sample. Findings demonstrated that the SCSORF has favorable reliability, convergent validity, and divergent validity among Iranian Muslim patients undergoing dialysis and is recommended for use by clinicians (e.g., nephrologists) to measure strength of religious faith among patients.

  10. Working together for global health goals: The United States Agency for International Development and faith-based organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clydette L Powell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For many years, and before the term “FBO” was used for faith-based organizations, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID has supported the work of FBOs in global health and development. The Agency has long recognized the impact of FBOs within that development space, because these organizations are often well positioned to reach the hard-to-reach and to go the last mile because of their strong ties to the community. Moreover, FBOs deliver a substantial percentage of the health services in some developing countries. Faith partners, whether Catholic, Protestant, Buddhist, Hindu, Muslim, or other, have an important role to play as implementers in global health and to support global efforts towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs in health. In addition, partnerships at national and international levels are key to the success of US Presidential Initiatives in the developing world, such as President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR and President’s Malaria Initiative (PMI. FBOs also have an important voice in policy and strategy formulation. Among other international donors, USAID support has been of great importance to the work of FBOs, thereby helping host nations to achieve goals in ending preventable child and maternal deaths, improving communicable disease control and prevention, and by supporting the construction and renovation of hospitals and health facilities where service delivery is most needed. The development literature is replete with examples of the work of FBOs made possible through access to resources. This paper focuses on some of the work supported by USAID in global health initiatives in order to reach complementary goals and achieve significant public health advances. Given the vastness of the topic, not all the global health initiatives involving FBOs supported by USAID are included here; the reader is encouraged to access the USAID website and USAID implementing partners for

  11. 民间信仰建筑及其构成元素分析——以福州近代民间信仰建筑为例%Analysis of Civilian Faith Architecture and the Compositing Elements Thereof: A Case Study on Modern Civilian Faith Building in Fuzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱永春

    2011-01-01

    民间信仰是一种民众自发地对超自然力量的神灵信奉与崇拜.它是民间普遍存在的一种文化现象.民间信仰建筑是乡土建筑中特殊的类型.在田野调查和文献考释基础上,探讨了民间信仰建筑基本构成要素的源流.并以福州近代民间信仰建筑为例,探讨民间信仰建筑的组成要素和构成方式.%Civilian faith is a kind of spontaneous supernatural worship. It is a common cultural phenomenon in folk. Civilian faith architecture is a special type of vernacular architecture. Through field survey and documentary research, this paper discusses the origin of essential elements of civilian faith architecture. Taking modern civilian faith building in Fuzhou as example, this paper discusses the compositing methods and elements of civilian faith architecture.

  12. The formation of Nv Wa faith circle in She county of Hebei%河北涉县地区女娲信仰圈的形成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常玉荣

    2015-01-01

    信仰圈的形成是某一大神在一定区域内影响力的标志,也是俗民神灵信仰的组织结构方式。女娲是涉县地区的主神。涉县全境存在着大小不同的以“社”为单位的祭祀女娲的组织,具备了信仰圈形成的五个基本要素,最终以中皇山娲皇宫为核心形成了女娲信仰圈。女娲信仰圈的存在说明女娲自古至今在当地对于百姓日常生活的全方位的影响,百姓最终将女娲看作是“天地全神”。%The formation of faith circle is both the symbol of the influence of a great god in a certain area and the organizational structure mode of folks’faith to god. Nv Wa is the main god in She County. There are various sacrifice organizations to Nv Wa with their local name—She in She County which has possessed the five basic factors to form a faith circle, and finally the Nv Wa faith circle formed, taking Wahuang Palace in Mount Zhonghuang as its core. The existence of Nv Wa faith circle shows the all-round influence on the daily life of the local people in all ages. Eventually, people regard Nv Wa as“God of heaven and earth”.

  13. The analysis of the Integrated marketing’ function to the faith of brand%整合营销对品牌信仰的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾俊侃

    2014-01-01

    Brand is the enterprise important intangible assets, also is the core of enterprise development. This paper will with advertising and marketing, transmission channels, consumer value orientation as the research foundation, proposed from the perspective of integrated marketing brand faith this point of view, and explain how integrated marketing for the brand of faith.%品牌是企业重要的无形资产,也是企业发展的核心。本文将以广告营销、传播渠道、消费者价值取向为研究基础,从整合营销的角度提出品牌信仰这个观点,并解释整合营销如何对品牌信仰产生作用。

  14. "The story God is weaving us into": narrativizing grief, faith, and infant loss in US evangelical women's blog communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Deborah

    2015-04-01

    This case study explores how US evangelical Christian "mommy blog" communities constitute spaces for the collective memorialization of infant loss. Personal religious blogs feature a rich combination of esthetics, narrative structure, description of religious practices and beliefs, reader interaction, and linked networks. Using a textual approach, I illustrate distinctive features in how pregnancy and infant loss and grief are experienced, shared and memorialized in US women's evangelical blogging communities. I argue that the blog format allows for a (re)narrativization of the devastating experience of infant loss as grieving mothers situate their traumatic personal experiences within the context of an ongoing religious narrative in which blog readers also come to participate. As the blogger tells the story of her own loss to a listening public, it becomes a larger shared story, so that it is not just the child's story but also the author's story, their family's story, and "our story" inclusive of the blog community of readers, "the story God is weaving us into," post by post, day by day. Personal religious blogs and their reading publics, therefore, can provide a medium for the ongoing creation of meaning, faith and community in the context of infant loss.

  15. Renditions of Faithfulness; from Jorge Calvetti’s Poetry to Gustavo Fontán’s Films.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana C. Cid

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An original and sensitive filmmaker, Gustavo Fontán goes beyond classic transpositions to venture into a poet’s obsessions, aesthetic and atmospheres. He has done so with the work of Jacobo Fijman, Juan L. Ortiz and Jorge Calvetti – to name just a few. In this paper I intend to explore El paisaje invisible, a short film by Fontán that brings us closer to Calvetti. I will focus on the director’s strategies – characteristic of the cinematographic language - that convey the poet’s mythical world and aesthetic, and I will analyze the union of both artists’ poetics. Finally, I would like to offer a brief explanation of the title of this article, which is drawn from a reflection by Calvetti: “All inspiration is born with its own form or forms. The same subject can be written as a narrative or in verse. Why not? They are different renditions of faithfulness.” I believe cinema is another rendition.

  16. Faithful Is Successful: Notes to the Driven Pilgrim. Grills. N, Lewis. DE, and Swamidass. SJ, eds. USA: Outskirts 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicollette Maunganidze

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Faithful is Successful (Grills et al, 2014, a collection of memoirs penned by individuals from a designated demographic: “successful Christian professionals,” explores the topic of success from the Christian worldview. This work leverages, most specifically, lessons learned from struggle and search on the topic, to explicate how success in vocation can and ought to be achieved. Inevitably canvassed subthemes include the definition in essence, the measuring stick(s and expected exemplification of success. The latter, the authors suggest, a fruit one can only authentically interpret ex post. Overall, the undeniable page-turner is the refreshing honesty of each disclosure including contributions from a U.S Army serviceman turned hedge-fund co-founder in Africa and a respected artist working in Los Angeles, to name a few. Noteworthy is the fact that among contributors, authors Denholm and Grills, and editors Swamidass and Grills hail from the medical field. Not only them, but several of the authors have interfaced with the theme of this volume: “Caring in Conflict.” Whether at work or at home, interpersonal conflict has challenged some of the authors, and at times their families, as they negotiated their life journey’s in both old and new environments.

  17. Utilization of Social Capital for Sustainable Development and Peacebuilding in Global Conflict Zones by Faith-Based Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsan Yilmaz

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is a pattern of resource use which tries to meet human needs without dramatically harming the environment so that future generation can also benefit from these resources. In other words, sustainable development combines “concern for the carrying capacity of the natural systems with the social challenges facing humanity”.2 Sustainable development is conceptually broken into three parts: environmental sustainability, economic sustainability and socio-political sustainability or the simultaneous pursuit of economic prosperity, environmental quality and social equity. This paper focuses on how volunteer organizations can contribute to social equity and also economic prosperity in multi-ethnic societies and global conflict zones. Civil society can play a positive role in maintaining sustainable peace as civil society is a critical space where diversity and pluralism could be cherished and fostered. Social network of informed and responsible citizens furthers pluralism, democracy and peacebuilding. The study is based on a case documenting how faith-based movements can effectively utilize and direct social capital in order to achieve and/or maintain sustainable development and peace.

  18. Utilization of Social Capital for Sustainable Development and Peacebuilding in Global Conflict Zones by Faith-Based Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsan Yilmaz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is a pattern of resource use which tries to meet human needs without dramatically harming the environment so that future generation can also benefit from these resources. In other words, sustainable development combines "concern for the carrying capacity of the natural systems with the social challenges facing humanity".2 Sustainable development is conceptually broken into three parts: environmental sustainability, economic sustainability and socio-political sustainability or the simultaneous pursuit of economic prosperity, environmental quality and social equity. This paper focuses on how volunteer organizations can contribute to social equity and also economic prosperity in multi-ethnic societies and global conflict zones. Civil society can play a positive role in maintaining sustainable peace as civil society is a critical space where diversity and pluralism could be cherished and fostered. Social network of informed and responsible citizens furthers pluralism, democracy and peacebuilding. The study is based on a case documenting how faith-based movements can effectively utilize and direct social capital in order to achieve and/or maintain sustainable development and peace.

  19. Availability of family planning services and quality of counseling by faith-based organizations: a three country comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barden-O'Fallon, Janine

    2017-05-08

    Faith-based organizations (FBOs) have a long history of providing health services in developing countries and are important contributors to healthcare systems. Support for the wellbeing of women, children, and families is evidenced through active participation in the field of family planning (FP). However, there is little quantitative evidence on the availability or quality of FP services by FBOs. The descriptive analysis uses facility-level data collected through recent Service Provision Assessments in Malawi (2013-14), Kenya (2010), and Haiti (2012) to examine 11 indicators of FP service and method availability and nine indicators of comprehensive and quality counseling. The indicators include measures of FP service provision, method mix, method stock, the provision of accurate information, and the discussion of reproductive intentions, client's questions/concerns, prevention of sexually transmitted infections, and return visits, among others. Pearson's Chi-square test is used to assess the selected indicators by managing authority (FBO, public, and other private sector) to determine statistical equivalence. Results show that FBOs are less likely to offer FP services than other managing authorities (p analysis indicate that there is room for improvement in the availability of FP services by FBOs in these countries. Quality of counseling should be improved by all managing authorities in the three countries, as indicated by low overall coverage for practices such as ensuring confidentiality (22% in Malawi, 47% in Kenya and 12% in Haiti), discussion of sexually transmitted infections (18%, 25%, 17%, respectively), and providing services to youth (53%, 27%, 32%, respectively).

  20. 江西民间佛教与女性信仰%Jiamud folk Buddhism and women of faith

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱寅; 王水根

    2012-01-01

    Buddhist beliefs can be divided into two systems: one faith, one folk Buddhism. Women believers to accept is relatively difficult letter. Therefore only folk Buddhism and its closer, because the history and so- cial. Jiangxi is a Buddhist resort since ancient times, popular Buddhism is also developed very well, with a large number of female Buddhist. Social atmosphere limited for women to Buddhism, but also provided an opportunity for them. In the folk activities of Buddhist, women occupy an important position. In short, there is the interaction be- tween folk Buddhism and femal Buddist,%佛教信仰可以分为两个系统,一是正信,一是民间佛教。由于历史和社会的原因,女性信众接受正信相对困难,是故唯有民间佛教与其更为接近。江西自古以来是佛教胜地,民间佛教也非常发达,拥有着众多的女性信众。社会风气为女性信仰佛教造成了限制,但也提供了契机。佛教民俗活动中,女性则占有重要的地位。总之,民间佛教和女性信仰二者之间相互作用,不断发展。

  1. [Special Issue on Hmong Newcomers to Saint Paul Public Schools] The Affective Consequences of Cultural Capital: Feelings of Powerlessness, Gratitude, and Faith among Hmong Refugee Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Bic Ngo

    2015-01-01

    In education research, the analysis of the role of cultural capital has focused primarily on its role in parent involvement. Little attention has been paid to how cultural capital affects the attitudes or feelings of parents about their worth and roles as parents. In this article I examine the impact of the exclusionary characteristic of cultural capital on refugee Hmong parents from Wat Tham Krabok. I highlight themes of uncertainty, powerlessness, gratitude and faith that parents repeatedly...

  2. Faith in public debate: an inquiry into the relationship between freedom of expression and hate speech pertaining to religion and race in France, the Netherlands and European and international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, E.H.

    2014-01-01

    Faith in public debate’ forms an inquiry into the relationship between freedom of expression and hate speech pertaining to religion and race in France, the Netherlands and European and international law.

  3. Faith in public debate: an inquiry into the relationship between freedom of expression and hate speech pertaining to religion and race in France, the Netherlands and European and international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, E.H.

    2014-01-01

    Faith in public debate’ forms an inquiry into the relationship between freedom of expression and hate speech pertaining to religion and race in France, the Netherlands and European and international law.

  4. A Discussion of Initiative Faithfulness and Creative Treason in Translation%翻译中的能动性忠实与创造性叛逆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶晓玲

    2016-01-01

    Translation is the communication of meaning from one language to another. The difference between two languages will cause some deviations from the source text. The translators should attach importance to the relationship between initiative faithfulness and creative treason as well as their functions. By grasping the creative space and seeking balance between faithful-ness and treason, translators are able to serve the target audience better with the extending vitality, expressiveness and appeal.%翻译就是语言“转换变易”的活动。由于语言间的差异,翻译中的“走样”与“失真”在所难免。译者在翻译过程中应重视能动性忠实与创造性叛逆的关系和作用,把握创造性空间的大小,在忠实与背叛间寻求平衡,利用一定程度的“走样”与“失真”使原作延伸生命力,扩大表现力,增强感染力,更好地为读者服务。

  5. "Big Momma Had Sugar, Imma Have It Too" Medical Fatalism and the Language of Faith Among African-American Women in Memphis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotz, Kendra G

    2015-12-01

    This essay offers a theological exploration of the relationship between medical fatalism and religious belonging among African-American women in Memphis. Drawing on the work of black and womanist theologians and on conversations with participants in a diabetes intervention program administered by a faith-based community health provider, I argue that how we narrate the meanings of our bodies is irreducibly religious. The language we use to interpret and communicate the meaning of our bodily existence emerges from a set of assumptions, often unarticulated, about what is of ultimate value to us. The essay focuses on three interlocking features that link faith with fatalism or hope: (1) The idea that if "I don't claim that" disease cannot enter my body; (2) the role of faith-based clinics in re-establishing trust with marginalized communities; and (3) how nuanced attention to the social location of health seekers can re-frame our understanding of patient compliance. Disrupting fatalism can only be done from within a health seeker's own narrative, and therefore, healthcare providers who learn these narratives and respect their holiness will develop more effective interventions.

  6. Study of the Construction of Good Faith Culture in Merchandising Business%商业企业诚信文化建设研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱涛

    2013-01-01

      诚信是商业企业可持续发展的必备品质。本文列举了商业企业诚信缺失的主要现象和主要表现,分析了造成问题的主要原因,提出了加强商业企业诚信文化建设的对策措施。以某商场创建“三信三优”品牌为例,介绍了诚信文化建设的主要做法。%The good faith is the necessary quality for sustainable development of merchandising business. The paper lists the appearances of flaws of good faith culture in merchandising business, analyzes its forming reason, puts forward the corresponding countermeasure on the cultural construction of good faith in merchandising business. As an example, main methods of department store are introduced.

  7. A knockin mouse model for human ATP4aR703C mutation identified in familial gastric neuroendocrine tumors recapitulates the premalignant condition of the human disease and suggests new therapeutic strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriol Calvete

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available By whole exome sequencing, we recently identified a missense mutation (p.R703C in the human ATP4a gene, which encodes the proton pump responsible for gastric acidification. This mutation causes an aggressive familial type I gastric neuroendocrine tumor in homozygous individuals. Affected individuals show an early onset of the disease, characterized by gastric hypoacidity, hypergastrinemia, iron-deficiency anemia, gastric intestinal metaplasia and, in one case, an associated gastric adenocarcinoma. Total gastrectomy was performed as the definitive treatment in all affected individuals. We now describe the generation and characterization of a knockin mouse model for the ATP4aR703C mutation to better understand the tumorigenesis process. Homozygous mice recapitulated most of the phenotypical alterations that were observed in human individuals, strongly suggesting that this mutation is the primary alteration responsible for disease development. Homozygous mice developed premalignant condition with severe hyperplasia, dysplasia and glandular metaplasia in the stomach. Interestingly, gastric acidification in homozygous mice, induced by treatment with 3% HCl acid in the drinking water, prevented (if treated from birth or partially reverted (if treated during adulthood the development of glandular metaplasia and dysplasia in the stomach and partially rescued the abnormal biochemical parameters. We therefore suggest that, in this model, achlorhydria contributes to tumorigenesis to a greater extent than hypergastrinemia. Furthermore, our mouse model represents a unique and novel tool for studying the pathologies associated with disturbances in gastric acid secretion.

  8. Symbol of Undetermined Faith. A Note on Aleksej Kručënyx’s Vowel Poem “Heights”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Crnković

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Denis Crnković“Symbol of Undetermined Faith: A Note on Aleksej Kručënyx’s Vowel Poem ‘Heights’”This article looks at Aleksej Kručënyx’s poem “Vysoty” (Heights. Consisting entirely of vowels culled from the Church Slavic version of the “Symvol Very” (the eastern Nicene Creed the poem has been traditionally examined as a prime example of the transrational expression (zaum’ of the Futurist movement. As such, analyses have tended to focus on the phonic and phonemic features of the poem with little attention paid to the relationship between the source text and the poem itself. Thus, “missing” or “transferred” vowels in the poem have often been regarded as mistakes or dismissed as the result of Kručënyx’s artistic whim. The paper therefore examines the poem in the context of its Church Slavic antecedent, concentrating on those places where the vowels of the poem diverge from those of the Creed. A close analysis of the apparent anomalies between poem and prayer reveals a sophisticated level of word-play that hinges on a complete understanding of the source text and the manipulation of the source vowels. Moreover, our research shows that in the broader context of the antipathy between the Symbolist and Futurist movements, each missing or transposed vowel constitutes a crucial hint for grasping a hidden significance in the poem and for understanding Kručënyx’s revamped statement of belief as a playful new literary “creed” that challenges the more “orthodox” literary tenets of the Symbolist poets.

  9. Faith in the 'cultural fix': limits to a planned cultural change program in a rural health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahony, K

    2000-01-01

    This paper, by way of a narrative on the author's participation, explains the limits to a planned cultural change program in a large rural health service. Cultural change was identified by the CEO as crucial to the success of a major restructuring of the service, and the attitudes and beliefs of the 'old guard' were considered to be constraining progress. Advocates of cultural integration contend that shared core values across an organisation can overcome such obstacles. This is a matter of faith. An application of Habermasian theory suggests that organisational leaders are drawing on traditional/religious beliefs and practices to bolster their visions and missions at a time of motivational crisis. Though a need for cultural change in some sectors of the health services is acknowledged, the particular challenges in attempting to manipulate the traditionally embedded culture and sub-cultures of the health services is highlighted. An analysis of some of the ideas and beliefs surrounding authority, deference and discipline is undertaken. It is argued that the ritualistic reinforcement of these beliefs and the reproduction of sub-cultures along material and ideal interests militate against the implementation of objectives delineated by the CEO. While cultural analysis has revealed the irrational face of organisations and can bring to conscious awareness the taken-for-granted beliefs which inform behaviour, the cultural integrationists have a further agenda. They aim to manipulate organisational culture to subtly control employees' beliefs and hence behaviour. Cultural control is a covert form of top down authority that can be just as directive and centralizing as bureaucratic control. The author also maintains that cultural change programs alone cannot fix a problem that arose in the macro-economic sphere: a chronic lack of resources ever since the state responded to the economic crisis by cutting funds to health and welfare services.

  10. Selective impairment of a subset of Ran-GTP-binding domains of ran-binding protein 2 (Ranbp2) suffices to recapitulate the degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) triggered by Ranbp2 ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Hemangi; Saha, Arjun; Senda, Eugene; Cho, Kyoung-in; Haque, MdEmdadul; Yu, Minzhong; Qiu, Sunny; Yoon, Dosuk; Hao, Ying; Peachey, Neal S; Ferreira, Paulo A

    2014-10-24

    Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) degeneration underpins diseases triggered by disparate genetic lesions, noxious insults, or both. The pleiotropic Ranbp2 controls the expression of intrinsic and extrinsic pathological stressors impinging on cellular viability. However, the physiological targets and mechanisms controlled by Ranbp2 in tissue homeostasis, such as RPE, are ill defined. We show that mice, RPE-cre::Ranbp2(-/-), with selective Ranbp2 ablation in RPE develop pigmentary changes, syncytia, hypoplasia, age-dependent centrifugal and non-apoptotic degeneration of the RPE, and secondary leakage of choriocapillaris. These manifestations are accompanied by the development of F-actin clouds, metalloproteinase-11 activation, deregulation of expression or subcellular localization of critical RPE proteins, atrophic cell extrusions into the subretinal space, and compensatory proliferation of peripheral RPE. To gain mechanistic insights into what Ranbp2 activities are vital to the RPE, we performed genetic complementation analyses of transgenic lines of bacterial artificial chromosomes of Ranbp2 harboring loss of function of selective Ranbp2 domains expressed in a Ranbp2(-/-) background. Among the transgenic lines produced, only Tg(RBD2/3*-HA)::RPE-cre::Ranbp2(-/-)-expressing mutations, which selectively impair binding of RBD2/3 (Ran-binding domains 2 and 3) of Ranbp2 to Ran-GTP, recapitulate RPE degeneration, as observed with RPE-cre::Ranbp2(-/-). By contrast, Tg(RBD2/3*-HA) expression rescues the degeneration of cone photoreceptors lacking Ranbp2. The RPE of RPE-cre::Ranbp2(-/-) and Tg(RBD2/3*-HA)::RPE-cre::Ranbp2(-/-) share proteostatic deregulation of Ran GTPase, serotransferrin, and γ-tubulin and suppression of light-evoked electrophysiological responses. These studies unravel selective roles of Ranbp2 and its RBD2 and RBD3 in RPE survival and functions. We posit that the control of Ran GTPase by Ranbp2 emerges as a novel therapeutic target in diseases promoting

  11. I. Embryonal vasculature formation recapitulated in transgenic mammary tumor spheroids implanted pseudo-orthotopicly into mouse dorsal skin fold: the organoblasts concept [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1fa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Witkiewicz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate understanding of cancer biology is a problem. This work focused on cellular mechanisms of tumor vascularization. According to earlier studies, the tumor vasculature derives from host endothelial cells (angiogenesis or their precursors of bone marrow origin circulating in the blood (neo-vasculogenesis unlike in embryos. In this study, we observed the neo-vasculature form in multiple ways from local precursor cells. Recapitulation of primitive as well as advanced embryonal stages of vasculature formation followed co-implantation of avascular (in vitro cultured N202 breast tumor spheroids and homologous tissue grafts into mouse dorsal skin chambers. Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical analysis of tissue sections exposed the interactions between the tumor and the graft tissue stem cells. It revealed details of vasculature morphogenesis not seen before in either tumors or embryos. A gradual increase in complexity of the vascular morphogenesis at the tumor site reflected a range of steps in ontogenic evolution of the differentiating cells. Malignant- and surgical injury repair-related tissue growth prompted local cells to initiate extramedullar erythropoiesis and vascular patterning. The new findings included: interdependence between the extramedullar hematopoiesis and assembly of new vessels (both from the locally differentiating precursors; nucleo-cytoplasmic conversion (karyolysis as the mechanism of erythroblast enucleation; the role of megakaryocytes and platelets in vascular pattern formation before emergence of endothelial cells; lineage relationships between hematopoietic and endothelial cells; the role of extracellular calmyrin in tissue morphogenesis; and calmyrite, a new ultrastructural entity associated with anaerobic energy metabolism. The central role of the extramedullar erythropoiesis in the formation of new vasculature (blood and vessels emerged here as part of the tissue building process including the lymphatic system

  12. Take Meds Faithfully

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Internet, just a few clicks away. The FDA Web site (FDA.gov) is a valuable primary source, as are medlineplus.gov and CRBestBuyDrugs.org. Advice: skip the “sponsored links” on most major search engine drug pages; these are mostly drug company-funded. ...

  13. Free vs. Faithful

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort-Pedersen, Mette

    2016-01-01

    . But what is the relationship between these ‘academic’ observations and the way professional users and producers, i.e., lawyers and translators, think of legal translation? This article examines how actors on the Danish legal translation market view translational manoeuvres that result in a more or less...

  14. Free vs. Faithful

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort-Pedersen, Mette

    2016-01-01

    For many years translation theorists have discussed the degree of translational freedom a legal translator has in rendering the meaning of a legal source text in a translation. Some believe that in order to achieve the communicative purpose, legal translators should focus on readability and bias...... their translation towards the target language community. Others insist that because of the special nature of legal texts and the sometimes binding force of legal translations, translators should stay as close to the source text as possible, i.e., bias their translation towards the source language community....... But what is the relationship between these ‘academic’ observations and the way professional users and producers, i.e., lawyers and translators, think of legal translation? This article examines how actors on the Danish legal translation market view translational manoeuvres that result in a more or less...

  15. Keeping The Faith

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    More young people are turning to Buddhism as the ancient philosophy strives to keep up with the times Yin Xiaotian, 37, is successful, modern and ambitious. In his car, a blessing card hangs from the rearview mirror. On one side of the card is a picture of Mao Zedong.

  16. Keeping the Faith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Jeff

    1991-01-01

    Describes St. Bonaventura, an inner-city Catholic school in Philadelphia, that consistently produces students who outperform public school students. The article discusses the school's financial problems, dwindling enrollment, teacher and administrator attitudes and motivation; and claims that vision, autonomy, and traditional values make Catholic…

  17. (En)gendering Faith

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLisky, Claire Louise

    2011-01-01

    Heteroseksuel kærlighed, ægteskab og reproduktion har altid optaget en ambivalent sted i nybygger kolonier som Australien. Mens gengivelse af de 'rigtige' slags nybyggere er bydende nødvendigt at den numeriske stigning i koloniserende befolkning, indfødte folks reproduktion er mere problematisk, ...

  18. Echoes of Faith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, B. Denise

    2012-01-01

    In the years after the Civil War, there were millions of newly-freed Black children and adults who emerged from slavery worn, but eager and determined to get something they never had--a chance to learn how to read the Bible, write their names and words on a page, and be educated. Even before the Civil War, some Blacks in the North were pressing…

  19. Between Faith and Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carney, Stephen; Rappleye, Jeremy; Silova, Iveta

    2012-01-01

    World culture theory seeks to explain an apparent convergence of education through a neoinstitutionalist lens, seeing global rationalization in education as driven by the logic of science and the myth of progress. While critics have challenged these assumptions by focusing on local manifestations...

  20. Faith or Reason? The Shi’ite Tradition of Political Ideas in the Light of the Theological Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fazlhashemi

    2010-05-01

    the relationship between faith and reason play any part in this context?