WorldWideScience

Sample records for factory components estimated

  1. Factorial estimation of energy requirement for egg production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André

    1992-01-01

    Based on balance and respiration measurements with 60 White Leghorns during the laying period from 27 to 48 wk of age, a factorial method for estimating the energy requirement for egg production is proposed. The present experiment showed that the deposition of fat and energy increased during...... the laying period, but protein deposition slightly decreased. It has been shown that the efficiency of ME utilization for fat energy deposition is higher than for protein energy deposition in the egg. Because the proportions of protein and fat differ during the laying period, and because energy utilization...... is different between protein and fat, the ME requirement was calculated as the sum of ME for maintenance and the partial requirements for protein, fat, and carbohydrate deposition. For practical applications, functions for prediction of protein (OP), fat (OF), and energy (OE) in eggs during the laying period...

  2. Generation of components for software renovation factories from context-free grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den M.G.J.; Sellink, M.P.A.; Verhoef, C.

    2000-01-01

    We present an approach for the generation of components for a software renovation factory. These components are generated from a contex-free grammar definition that recognizes the code that has to be renovated. We generate analysis and transformation components that can be instantiated with a

  3. Least-squares variance component estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, P.J.G.; Amiri-Simkooei, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    Least-squares variance component estimation (LS-VCE) is a simple, flexible and attractive method for the estimation of unknown variance and covariance components. LS-VCE is simple because it is based on the well-known principle of LS; it is flexible because it works with a user-defined weight

  4. Epistemic uncertainties when estimating component failure rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan Cizelj, R.; Mavko, B.; Kljenak, I.

    2000-01-01

    A method for specific estimation of a component failure rate, based on specific quantitative and qualitative data other than component failures, was developed and is described in the proposed paper. The basis of the method is the Bayesian updating procedure. A prior distribution is selected from a generic database, whereas likelihood is built using fuzzy logic theory. With the proposed method, the component failure rate estimation is based on a much larger quantity of information compared to the presently used classical methods. Consequently, epistemic uncertainties, which are caused by lack of knowledge about a component or phenomenon are reduced. (author)

  5. Estimation of internal exposure for exposed personnel from a CANDU nuclear fuel factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horhoianu, Valeria; Valeca Monica; Hirica, Ovidiu; Todoran, Anca

    2004-01-01

    The knowledge of the radioactive material behaviour inside the human body is an essential issue for interpretation of the radioactivity measurements in human body or excretions in terms of internal contamination or committed equivalent dose. The paper presents evaluation of internal contamination of professionally exposed workers from a CANDU nuclear fuel factory with the ACRO computer code which estimates burden and tissue or organ dose resulting from inhalation or ingestion of radioactive materials. The workplaces where continuous aerosol sampling are carried out have been taken into account for the analysis. For potentially inhaled activity assessment, the average aerosol concentrations were estimated. The dose equivalent and collective dose equivalent are also estimated. (authors)

  6. Estimation of internal exposure for exposed personnel from a Candu nuclear fuel factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horhoianu, V.; Hirica, O.; Valeca, M.; Todoran, A.

    2003-01-01

    The knowledge of the radioactive material behavior inside the human body is an essential issue for interpretation of the radioactivity measurements in human body or excretions in terms of internal contamination or committed equivalent dose. The paper present evaluation of internal contamination of professionally exposed workers from a Candu nuclear fuel factory with the ACRO computer code which estimate burden and tissue or organ dose resulting from inhalation or ingestion of radioactive materials. The workplaces where continuos aerosols sampling are carried out, has been taken into account for the analysis. For potentially inhaled activity assessment, the average aerosol concentrations were estimated. The dose equivalent and collective dose equivalent are also estimated. (authors)

  7. Robust bearing estimation for 3-component stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CLAASSEN, JOHN P.

    2000-01-01

    A robust bearing estimation process for 3-component stations has been developed and explored. The method, called SEEC for Search, Estimate, Evaluate and Correct, intelligently exploits the inherent information in the arrival at every step of the process to achieve near-optimal results. In particular the approach uses a consistent framework to define the optimal time-frequency windows on which to make estimates, to make the bearing estimates themselves, to construct metrics helpful in choosing the better estimates or admitting that the bearing is immeasurable, and finally to apply bias corrections when calibration information is available to yield a single final estimate. The algorithm was applied to a small but challenging set of events in a seismically active region. It demonstrated remarkable utility by providing better estimates and insights than previously available. Various monitoring implications are noted from these findings

  8. Component external leakage and rupture frequency estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eide, S.A.; Khericha, S.T.; Calley, M.B.; Johnson, D.A.; Marteeny, M.L.

    1991-11-01

    In order to perform detailed internal flooding risk analyses of nuclear power plants, external leakage and rupture frequencies are needed for various types of components - piping, valves, pumps, flanges, and others. However, there appears to be no up-to-date, comprehensive source for such frequency estimates. This report attempts to fill that void. Based on a comprehensive search of Licensee Event Reports (LERs) contained in Nuclear Power Experience (NPE), and estimates of component populations and exposure times, component external leakage and rupture frequencies were generated. The remainder of this report covers the specifies of the NPE search for external leakage and rupture events, analysis of the data, a comparison with frequency estimates from other sources, and a discussion of the results

  9. Principal component regression for crop yield estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Suryanarayana, T M V

    2016-01-01

    This book highlights the estimation of crop yield in Central Gujarat, especially with regard to the development of Multiple Regression Models and Principal Component Regression (PCR) models using climatological parameters as independent variables and crop yield as a dependent variable. It subsequently compares the multiple linear regression (MLR) and PCR results, and discusses the significance of PCR for crop yield estimation. In this context, the book also covers Principal Component Analysis (PCA), a statistical procedure used to reduce a number of correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components (PC). This book will be helpful to the students and researchers, starting their works on climate and agriculture, mainly focussing on estimation models. The flow of chapters takes the readers in a smooth path, in understanding climate and weather and impact of climate change, and gradually proceeds towards downscaling techniques and then finally towards development of ...

  10. Fish as major carbonate mud producers and missing components of the tropical carbonate factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Chris T.; Salter, Michael A.; Harborne, Alastair R.; Crowley, Stephen F.; Jelks, Howard L.; Wilson, Rod W.

    2011-01-01

    Carbonate mud is a major constituent of recent marine carbonate sediments and of ancient limestones, which contain unique records of changes in ocean chemistry and climate shifts in the geological past. However, the origin of carbonate mud is controversial and often problematic to resolve. Here we show that tropical marine fish produce and excrete various forms of precipitated (nonskeletal) calcium carbonate from their guts ("low" and "high" Mg-calcite and aragonite), but that very fine-grained (mostly 4 mole % MgCO3) are their dominant excretory product. Crystallites from fish are morphologically diverse and species-specific, but all are unique relative to previously known biogenic and abiotic sources of carbonate within open marine systems. Using site specific fish biomass and carbonate excretion rate data we estimate that fish produce ~6.1 x 106 kg CaCO3/year across the Bahamian archipelago, all as mud-grade (the marine carbonate factories function both today and in the past.

  11. Estimation of Internal Exposure for Exposed Personnel from a CANDU Nuclear Fuel Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horhoianu, V.; Valeca, M.; Margeanu, S.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The knowledge of the radioactive material behaviour inside the human body is an essential issue for interpretation of the radioactivity measurements in human body or excretions in terms of internal contamination or committed equivalent dose. The paper presents evaluation of internal contamination of professionally exposed workers from a CANDU nuclear fuel factory with the ACRO computer code which estimate burden and tissue or organ dose resulting from inhalation or ingestion of radioactive materials. The workplaces where continuos aerosols sampling are carried out, has been taken into account for the analysis. For potentially inhaled activity assessment, the average aerosol concentrations were estimated. The dose equivalent and collective dose equivalent are also estimated. (author)

  12. Error variation in OSL palaeodose estimates from single aliquots of quartz: a factorial experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galbraith, R.F.; Roberts, R.G.; Yoshida, H.

    2005-01-01

    We use a factorial experiment to study systematic and random differences between measured OSL palaeodoses for a variety of quartz samples. These include samples that have absorbed either a large or small natural or laboratory-induced radiation dose, either with or without prior heating or bleaching. The systematic factors studied are the size of the test dose, the preheat temperature and the number of quartz grains in each multi-grain aliquot. Palaeodoses were estimated using a single-aliquot regenerative-dose protocol. The main parameter of interest is the amount of random variation, over and above that due to photon counting statistics, to be expected between estimates from aliquots that have received the same radiation dose. This over-dispersion is generally larger for natural samples than for artificially bleached ones, and it varies from about 1% in the most favourable cases to about 18% for small aliquots of a sample that had received a natural dose of about 46 Gy. The latter is comparable to the over-dispersion reported for single grains of natural quartz that are thought to have been well-bleached at the time of deposition. The factorial experiment also revealed a number of systematic effects. In particular, measured palaeodoses using a preheat temperature of 260 deg. C were systematically lower than those using 180 deg. C, by up to about 5% in some cases

  13. Estimating post-marketing exposure to pharmaceutical products using ex-factory distribution data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telfair, Tamara; Mohan, Aparna K; Shahani, Shalini; Klincewicz, Stephen; Atsma, Willem Jan; Thomas, Adrian; Fife, Daniel

    2006-10-01

    The pharmaceutical industry has an obligation to identify adverse reactions to drug products during all phases of drug development, including the post-marketing period. Estimates of population exposure to pharmaceutical products are important to the post-marketing surveillance of drugs, and provide a context for assessing the various risks and benefits, including drug safety, associated with drug treatment. This paper describes a systematic approach to estimating post-marketing drug exposure using ex-factory shipment data to estimate the quantity of medication available, and dosage information (stratified by indication or other factors as appropriate) to convert the quantity of medication to person time of exposure. Unlike the non-standardized methods often used to estimate exposure, this approach provides estimates whose calculations are explicit, documented, and consistent across products and over time. The methods can readily be carried out by an individual or small group specializing in this function, and lend themselves to automation. The present estimation approach is practical and relatively uncomplicated to implement. We believe it is a useful innovation. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Estimating Sound Intensity and its Effect on the Hearing Status of the Workers in an Industrial Shoe Factory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Ameri

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We estimated the noise in an industrial shoe factory to determine the effect of noise in the workplace on the hearing status of the workers in such environments.Materials and method: the intensity of noise in dB in different parts of the factory was estimated. Then working people in each part was selected randomly and their hearing thresholds were evaluated by Conventional audiometry.Results: The results demonstrated that 23% were required to estimate thresholds more precisely and 95 needed close examination by Otolaryngologist. Besides, 10% of the workers suffered sensory neural hearing loss whose 2% of them diagnosed as NIHL.Discussion: Since the mentioned factory has good hearing conservation program for the workers, it seems that promoting the program can decline the number of noise induced hearing losses to the least numbers.

  15. Estimation of Dose Received in Decommissioning of Phosphate Acid Factory-Petro Kimia Gresik

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubis, Erwansyah; Heru Umbara; Agus Gindo S

    2007-01-01

    The estimation of dose received in decommissioning of Phosphate Acid Factory-Petro Kimia Gresik (PAF-PKG) was carried out. The external dose estimated base on the radiation rate in each working area of zona-1, 2, 3 and 4. The internal dose estimated base on the radionuclides activity and diameter of particulate exist in each working area. The calculation of the internal dose was carried out by LUDEP 2.0 computer code. The results indicated that in the normal activity of decommissioning, the effective dose will received by the worker per year were 0.27 mSv in zona-1, 1.23 mSv in zona-2, 1.37 mSv in zona-3 and 11.85 mSv in zona-4. The internal dose received when a worse accident happens in decommissioning activity is 21.06 mSv for lung organ or 4.2 % of the dose limit for that organ. Based on the discussion above, indicated that in the decommissioning of PAF-PKG the dose received by the workers is far lower than the dose limit. (author)

  16. Factorial structure of the 'ToM Storybooks': A test evaluating multiple components of Theory of Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgarelli, Daniela; Testa, Silvia; Molina, Paola

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the factorial structure of the Theory of Mind (ToM) Storybooks, a comprehensive 93-item instrument tapping the five components in Wellman's model of ToM (emotion recognition, understanding of desire and beliefs, ability to distinguish between physical and mental entities, and awareness of the link between perception and knowledge). A sample of 681 three- to eight-year-old Italian children was divided into three age groups to assess whether factorial structure varied across different age ranges. Partial credit model analysis was applied to the data, leading to the empirical identification of 23 composite variables aggregating the ToM Storybooks items. Confirmatory factor analysis was then conducted on the composite variables, providing support for the theoretical model. There were partial differences in the specific composite variables making up the dimensions for each of the three age groups. A single test evaluating distinct dimensions of ToM is a valuable resource for clinical practice which may be used to define differential profiles for specific populations. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Estimation of cellular manufacturing cost components using simulation and activity-based costing

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Savory; Robert Williams

    2010-01-01

    It can be difficult estimating all of the cost components that are attributed to a machined part.  This problem is more pronounced when a factory uses group technology manufacturing cells as opposed to a functional or process layout of a job shop.  This paper describes how activity-based costing (ABC) concepts can be integrated into a discrete-event simulation model of a U-shaped manufacturing cell producing a part family with four members.  The simulation model generates detai...

  18. Estimation of cellular manufacturing cost components using simulation and activity-based costing

    OpenAIRE

    Savory, Paul

    2010-01-01

    It can be difficult estimating all of the cost components that are attributed to a machined part. This problem is more pronounced when a factory uses group technology manufacturing cells as opposed to a functional or process layout of a job shop. This paper describes how activity-based costing (ABC) concepts can be integrated into a discrete-event simulation model of a U-shaped manufacturing cell producing a part family with four members. The simulation model generates detailed Bills of Ac...

  19. A new approach for estimation of component failure rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan Cizelj, R.; Kljenak, I.

    1999-01-01

    In the paper, a formal method for component failure rate estimation is described, which is proposed to be used for components, for which no specific numerical data necessary for probabilistic estimation exist. The framework of the method is the Bayesian updating procedure. A prior distribution is selected from a generic database, whereas the likelihood distribution is assessed from specific data on component state using principles of fuzzy logic theory. With the proposed method the component failure rate estimation is based on a much larger quantity of information compared to presently used classical methods.(author)

  20. Time Series Decomposition into Oscillation Components and Phase Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Takeru; Komaki, Fumiyasu

    2017-02-01

    Many time series are naturally considered as a superposition of several oscillation components. For example, electroencephalogram (EEG) time series include oscillation components such as alpha, beta, and gamma. We propose a method for decomposing time series into such oscillation components using state-space models. Based on the concept of random frequency modulation, gaussian linear state-space models for oscillation components are developed. In this model, the frequency of an oscillator fluctuates by noise. Time series decomposition is accomplished by this model like the Bayesian seasonal adjustment method. Since the model parameters are estimated from data by the empirical Bayes' method, the amplitudes and the frequencies of oscillation components are determined in a data-driven manner. Also, the appropriate number of oscillation components is determined with the Akaike information criterion (AIC). In this way, the proposed method provides a natural decomposition of the given time series into oscillation components. In neuroscience, the phase of neural time series plays an important role in neural information processing. The proposed method can be used to estimate the phase of each oscillation component and has several advantages over a conventional method based on the Hilbert transform. Thus, the proposed method enables an investigation of the phase dynamics of time series. Numerical results show that the proposed method succeeds in extracting intermittent oscillations like ripples and detecting the phase reset phenomena. We apply the proposed method to real data from various fields such as astronomy, ecology, tidology, and neuroscience.

  1. Virtual Learning Factory on VR-Supported Factory Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Weidig , Christian; Menck , Nicole; Winkes , Pascal ,; Aurich , Jan ,

    2014-01-01

    Part 13: Virtual Reality and Simulation; International audience; Learning Factories are becoming popular as tangible measures to teach engineering methods while making use of them in an industrial-like environment. Their core component is usually a factory demonstrator, users are physically working with. For factory planning such approaches can hardly be adapted, due to long lasting realization phases.To overcome this obstacle a virtual learning factory has been developed whose core component...

  2. Residual life estimation of cracked aircraft structural components

    OpenAIRE

    Maksimović, Mirko S.; Vasović, Ivana V.; Maksimović, Katarina S.; Trišović, Nataša; Maksimović, Stevan M.

    2018-01-01

    The subject of this investigation is focused on developing computation procedure for strength analysis of damaged aircraft structural components with respect to fatigue and fracture mechanics. For that purpose, here will be defined computation procedures for residual life estimation of aircraft structural components such as wing skin and attachment lugs under cyclic loads of constant amplitude and load spectrum. A special aspect of this investigation is based on using of the Strain Energy Den...

  3. The use of expert opinion for estimation of component unavailability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan Cizelj, R.; Kljenak, I.

    1998-01-01

    When evaluating system safety with Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA), data of component reliability are necessary input data. Despite a significant effort which has been devoted to the collection and processing of reliability data during the last ten years, the quality of data available is still not satisfactory. In the present paper, a method for a suitable failure rate estimation with the help of expert judgement of maintenance people is proposed. Expert judgement about component state is combined with information gathered from a classical reliability database. With the proposed method, generic data are adapted to specific components with combination of probability and fuzzy logic theory.(author)

  4. Estimates of variance components for postweaning feed intake and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feed efficiency is of major economic importance in beef production. The objective of this work was to evaluate alternative measures of feed efficiency for use in genetic evaluation. To meet this objective, genetic parameters were estimated for the components of efficiency. These parameters were then used in multiple-trait ...

  5. Fast Component Pursuit for Large-Scale Inverse Covariance Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lei; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Tong

    2016-08-01

    The maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) for the Gaussian graphical model, which is also known as the inverse covariance estimation problem, has gained increasing interest recently. Most existing works assume that inverse covariance estimators contain sparse structure and then construct models with the ℓ 1 regularization. In this paper, different from existing works, we study the inverse covariance estimation problem from another perspective by efficiently modeling the low-rank structure in the inverse covariance, which is assumed to be a combination of a low-rank part and a diagonal matrix. One motivation for this assumption is that the low-rank structure is common in many applications including the climate and financial analysis, and another one is that such assumption can reduce the computational complexity when computing its inverse. Specifically, we propose an efficient COmponent Pursuit (COP) method to obtain the low-rank part, where each component can be sparse. For optimization, the COP method greedily learns a rank-one component in each iteration by maximizing the log-likelihood. Moreover, the COP algorithm enjoys several appealing properties including the existence of an efficient solution in each iteration and the theoretical guarantee on the convergence of this greedy approach. Experiments on large-scale synthetic and real-world datasets including thousands of millions variables show that the COP method is faster than the state-of-the-art techniques for the inverse covariance estimation problem when achieving comparable log-likelihood on test data.

  6. Particle factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, Rafe

    1989-01-01

    Physicists' attention is increasingly turning to the high luminosity frontier - providing enough collisions to amass sizable numbers of rare events - to complement the traditional quest for higher energies. This month we cover three areas where projects are now being considered: Phi-factory workshop, PSI Planning for B meson factory, Tau-charm factory

  7. Particle factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, Rafe

    1989-07-15

    Physicists' attention is increasingly turning to the high luminosity frontier - providing enough collisions to amass sizable numbers of rare events - to complement the traditional quest for higher energies. This month we cover three areas where projects are now being considered: Phi-factory workshop, PSI Planning for B meson factory, Tau-charm factory.

  8. Practical aspects of estimating energy components in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Bert evan Klinken

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently there has been an increasing interest in exploiting computational and statistical techniques for the purpose of component analysis of indirect calorimetry data. Using these methods it becomes possible to dissect daily energy expenditure into its components and to assess the dynamic response of the resting metabolic rate to nutritional and pharmacological manipulations. To perform robust component analysis, however, is not straightforward and typically requires the tuning of parameters and the preprocessing of data. Moreover the degree of accuracy that can be attained by these methods depends on the configuration of the system, which must be properly taken into account when setting up experimental studies. Here, we review the methods of Kalman filtering, linear and penalised spline regression, and minimal energy expenditure estimation in the context of component analysis and discuss their results on high resolution datasets from mice and rats. In addition, we investigate the effect of the sample time, the accuracy of the activity sensor, and the washout time of the chamber on the estimation accuracy. We found that on the high resolution data there was a strong correlation between the results of Kalman filtering and P-spline regression, except for the activity respiratory quotient. For low resolution data the basal metabolic rate and resting respiratory quotient could still be estimated accurately with P-spline regression, having a strong correlation with the high resolution estimate (R2 > 0.997; sample time of 9 min. In contrast, the thermic effect of food and activity related energy expenditure were more sensitive to a reduction in the sample rate (R2 > 0.97.In conclusion, for component analysis on data generated by single channel systems with continuous data acquisition both Kalman filtering and P-spline regression can be used, while for low resolution data from multichannel systems P-spline regression gives more robust results.

  9. Principal component approach in variance component estimation for international sire evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakobsen Jette

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dairy cattle breeding industry is a highly globalized business, which needs internationally comparable and reliable breeding values of sires. The international Bull Evaluation Service, Interbull, was established in 1983 to respond to this need. Currently, Interbull performs multiple-trait across country evaluations (MACE for several traits and breeds in dairy cattle and provides international breeding values to its member countries. Estimating parameters for MACE is challenging since the structure of datasets and conventional use of multiple-trait models easily result in over-parameterized genetic covariance matrices. The number of parameters to be estimated can be reduced by taking into account only the leading principal components of the traits considered. For MACE, this is readily implemented in a random regression model. Methods This article compares two principal component approaches to estimate variance components for MACE using real datasets. The methods tested were a REML approach that directly estimates the genetic principal components (direct PC and the so-called bottom-up REML approach (bottom-up PC, in which traits are sequentially added to the analysis and the statistically significant genetic principal components are retained. Furthermore, this article evaluates the utility of the bottom-up PC approach to determine the appropriate rank of the (covariance matrix. Results Our study demonstrates the usefulness of both approaches and shows that they can be applied to large multi-country models considering all concerned countries simultaneously. These strategies can thus replace the current practice of estimating the covariance components required through a series of analyses involving selected subsets of traits. Our results support the importance of using the appropriate rank in the genetic (covariance matrix. Using too low a rank resulted in biased parameter estimates, whereas too high a rank did not result in

  10. Distributions of component failure rates estimated from LER data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    Past analyses of Licensee Event Report (LER) data have noted that component failure rates vary from plant to plant, and have estimated the distributions by two-parameter gamma distributions. In this study, a more complicated distributional form is considered, a mixture of gammas. This could arise if the plants' failure rates cluster into distinct groups. The method was applied to selected published LER data for diesel generators, pumps, valves, and instrumentation and control assemblies. The improved fits from using a mixture rather than a single gamma distribution were minimal, and not statistically significant. There seem to be two possibilities: either explanatory variables affect the failure rates only in a gradual way, not a qualitative way; or, for estimating individual component failure rates, the published LER data have been analyzed to the limit of resolution. 9 refs

  11. Distributions of component failure rates, estimated from LER data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    Past analyses of Licensee Event Report (LER) data have noted that component failure rates vary from plant to plant, and have estimated the distributions by two-parameter γ distributions. In this study, a more complicated distributional form is considered, a mixture of γs. This could arise if the plants' failure rates cluster into distinct groups. The method was applied to selected published LER data for diesel generators, pumps, valves, and instrumentation and control assemblies. The improved fits from using a mixture rather than a single γ distribution were minimal, and not statistically significant. There seem to be two possibilities: either explanatory variables affect the failure rates only in a gradual way, not a qualitative way; or, for estimating individual component failure rates, the published LER data have been analyzed to the limit of resolution

  12. Training Methods for Image Noise Level Estimation on Wavelet Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. De Stefano

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of the standard deviation of noise contaminating an image is a fundamental step in wavelet-based noise reduction techniques. The method widely used is based on the mean absolute deviation (MAD. This model-based method assumes specific characteristics of the noise-contaminated image component. Three novel and alternative methods for estimating the noise standard deviation are proposed in this work and compared with the MAD method. Two of these methods rely on a preliminary training stage in order to extract parameters which are then used in the application stage. The sets used for training and testing, 13 and 5 images, respectively, are fully disjoint. The third method assumes specific statistical distributions for image and noise components. Results showed the prevalence of the training-based methods for the images and the range of noise levels considered.

  13. An estimate of cosmic dose component around Kudankulam site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, B.; Thomas, G.; Rajan, P.S.; Selvi, B.S.; Balamurugan, M.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Natural ionizing radiation pervades the whole environment and enters human lives in a wide variety of ways. It arises from natural processes such as the decay of terrestrially deposited radionuclides in the earth, and artificial processes like the use of X-rays in medicine. Thus, radiation can be classified as natural and artificial depending on its origin. Natural sources include cosmic rays, terrestrial gamma radiation, radon and its decay products in air and various radio nuclides found naturally in food and drink. Cosmic rays reach the earth from outer space. Artificial sources include medical X-rays, therapeutic use of radioisotopes, fallout from past weapon tests, discharges from nuclear industry, industrial gamma rays and use of radioisotopes in consumer products. This paper attempts to estimate the natural cosmic dose component around Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant site in the south eastern coast of India. (author)

  14. Internet Factories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkers, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis contributes a novel concept for introducing new network technologies in network infrastructures. The concept, called Internet factories, describes the methodical process to create and manage application-specific networks from application programs, referred to as Netapps. An Internet

  15. Internet factories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkers, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis contributes a novel concept for introducing new network technologies in network infrastructures. The concept, called Internet factories, describes the methodical process to create and manage application-specific networks from application programs, referred to as Netapps. An Internet

  16. Factory physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hopp, Wallace J.

    2011-01-01

    After a brief introductory chapter, "Factory Physics 3/e" is divided into three parts: I - The Lessons of History; II - Factory Physics; and III - Principles in Practice. The scientific approach to manufacturing and supply chain management, developed in Part II, is unique to this text. No other text or professional book provides a rigorous, principles-based foundation for manufacturing management. The Third Edition offers tighter connections between Lean Manufacturing, MRP/ERP, Six Sigma, Supply Chain Management, and Factory Physics. In addition to enhancing the historical overview of how these systems evolved, the authors show explicitly how users can achieve Lean Manufacturing objectives (faster response, less inventory) using the integration aspects of MRP/ERP/SCM systems along with the variance analysis methods of Six Sigma. Factory Physics provides the overarching framework that coordinates all of these initiatives into a single-focused strategy.

  17. Baby Factory

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    2018-01-24

    Jan 24, 2018 ... mass media have the power to easily propagate ideas on social change ... issue of 'baby factory' is becoming everyday news affecting the right of ... according to recent mass media reports, teenage girls and young women are.

  18. Two-component mixture cure rate model with spline estimated nonparametric components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Du, Pang; Liang, Hua

    2012-09-01

    In some survival analysis of medical studies, there are often long-term survivors who can be considered as permanently cured. The goals in these studies are to estimate the noncured probability of the whole population and the hazard rate of the susceptible subpopulation. When covariates are present as often happens in practice, to understand covariate effects on the noncured probability and hazard rate is of equal importance. The existing methods are limited to parametric and semiparametric models. We propose a two-component mixture cure rate model with nonparametric forms for both the cure probability and the hazard rate function. Identifiability of the model is guaranteed by an additive assumption that allows no time-covariate interactions in the logarithm of hazard rate. Estimation is carried out by an expectation-maximization algorithm on maximizing a penalized likelihood. For inferential purpose, we apply the Louis formula to obtain point-wise confidence intervals for noncured probability and hazard rate. Asymptotic convergence rates of our function estimates are established. We then evaluate the proposed method by extensive simulations. We analyze the survival data from a melanoma study and find interesting patterns for this study. © 2011, The International Biometric Society.

  19. Estimating the monetary value of willingness to pay for E-book reader's attributes using partially confounded factorial conjoint choice experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Chin-Khian

    2013-09-01

    A partially confounded factorial conjoint choice experiments design was used to examine the monetary value of the willingness to pay for E-book Reader's attributes. Conjoint analysis is an efficient, cost-effective, and most widely used quantitative method in marketing research to understand consumer preferences and value trade-off. Value can be interpreted by customer or consumer as the received of multiple benefits from a price that was paid. The monetary value of willingness to pay for battery life, internal memory, external memory, screen size, text to Speech, touch screen, and converting handwriting to digital text of E-book reader were estimated in this study. Due to the significant interaction effect of the attributes with the price, the monetary values for the seven attributes were found to be different at different values of odds of purchasing versus not purchasing. The significant interactions effects were one of the main contribution of the partially confounded factorial conjoint choice experiment.

  20. Neutrino Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Bogomilov, M; Tsenov, R; Dracos, M; Bonesini, M; Palladino, V; Tortora, L; Mori, Y; Planche, T; Lagrange, J  B; Kuno, Y; Benedetto, E; Efthymiopoulos, I; Garoby, R; Gilardoini, S; Martini, M; Wildner, E; Prior, G; Blondel, A; Karadzhow, Y; Ellis, M; Kyberd, P; Bayes, R; Laing, A; Soler, F  J  P; Alekou, A; Apollonio, M; Aslaninejad, M; Bontoiu, C; Jenner, L  J; Kurup, A; Long, K; Pasternak, J; Zarrebini, A; Poslimski, J; Blackmore, V; Cobb, J; Tunnell, C; Andreopoulos, C; Bennett, J  R  J; Brooks, S; Caretta, O; Davenne, T; Densham, C; Edgecock, T  R; Fitton, M; Kelliher, D; Loveridge, P; McFarland, A; Machida, S; Prior, C; Rees, G; Rogers, C; Rooney, M; Thomason, J; Wilcox, D; Booth, C; Skoro, G; Back, J  J; Harrison, P; Berg, J  S; Fernow, R; Gallardo, J  C; Gupta, R; Kirk, H; Simos, N; Stratakis, D; Souchlas, N; Witte, H; Bross, A; Geer, S; Johnstone, C; Mokhov, N; Neuffer, D; Popovic, M; Strait, J; Striganov, S; Morfín, J  G; Wands, R; Snopok, P; Bogacz, S  A; Morozov, V; Roblin, Y; Cline, D; Ding, X; Bromberg, C; Hart, T; Abrams, R  J; Ankenbrandt, C  M; Beard, K  B; Cummings, M  A  C; Flanagan, G; Johnson, R  P; Roberts, T  J; Yoshikawa, C  Y; Graves, V  B; McDonald, K  T; Coney, L; Hanson, G

    2014-01-01

    The properties of the neutrino provide a unique window on physics beyond that described by the standard model. The study of subleading effects in neutrino oscillations, and the race to discover CP-invariance violation in the lepton sector, has begun with the recent discovery that $\\theta_{13} > 0$. The measured value of $\\theta_{13}$ is large, emphasizing the need for a facility at which the systematic uncertainties can be reduced to the percent level. The neutrino factory, in which intense neutrino beams are produced from the decay of muons, has been shown to outperform all realistic alternatives and to be capable of making measurements of the requisite precision. Its unique discovery potential arises from the fact that only at the neutrino factory is it practical to produce high-energy electron (anti)neutrino beams of the required intensity. This paper presents the conceptual design of the neutrino factory accelerator facility developed by the European Commission Framework Programme 7 EURO$\

  1. Phi factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Plans for 'phi factories' gathered momentum with a recent workshop at UCLA. These machines, high luminosity electron-positron colliders working near the phi resonance at 1020 MeV, have been proposed at Laboratories in Europe, the US, Japan and the USSR

  2. Colorful Microbial Cell Factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Pia Damm

    Yeast cell factories are powerful tools used for the production of high-value natural compounds otherwise not easily available. Many bioactive and industrially important plant secondary metabolites can be produced in yeast by engineering their biosynthetic pathways into yeast cells, as these both...... anthocyanins. Yeast cell factories present a platform to circumvent the problem of low yields of interesting molecular structures in plant tissues, as hand-picking of desired enzyme activities allows for specific biosynthesis of the precise pigment of interest, as well as choosing more stable structures...... for heterologous biosynthesis is possible. In cell factories, great improvements in yields can be achieved through molecular engineering of flux from endogenous yeast precursors, e.g. by elimination of by-product formation, and by genetic optimization of pathway components, such as fine-tuning of expression levels...

  3. Reliability estimation for check valves and other components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElhaney, K.L.; Staunton, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    For years the nuclear industry has depended upon component operational reliability information compiled from reliability handbooks and other generic sources as well as private databases generated by recognized experts both within and outside the nuclear industry. Regrettably, these technical bases lacked the benefit of large-scale operational data and comprehensive data verification, and did not take into account the parameters and combinations of parameters that affect the determination of failure rates. This paper briefly examines the historic use of generic component reliability data, its sources, and its limitations. The concept of using a single failure rate for a particular component type is also examined. Particular emphasis is placed on check valves due to the information available on those components. The Appendix presents some of the results of the extensive analyses done by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on check valve performance

  4. Smart Factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilberg, Arne; Radziwon, Agnieszka; Grube Hansen, David

    2017-01-01

    their innovation and competitive advantage by focusing at their competences, strengths and opportunities. The project suggests innovative solutions and business models through collaboration and use of new technologies. In the Smart Factory, SMEs should be able to collaborate on new products, markets and production......, and to target their challenges and ensure sustainable growth and business in these enterprises. Therefore the focus of the Smart Factory project was to support the growth and sustainable development of the small and medium sized manufacturing industry in Denmark. The project focused on SMEs and how to improve......A large part of Danish Industry is based on Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs), which account for –99% of the companies in Denmark and about two third of the job positions (source: statistikbanken.dk) . That is why, it is so important also to focus research and development at SMEs...

  5. Neutrino factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dydak, F.

    2002-01-01

    The discovery of neutrino oscillations marks a major milestone in the history of neutrino physics, and opens a window to what lies beyond the Standard Model. Many current and forthcoming experiments will answer open questions; however, a major step forward, up to and possibly including CP violation in the neutrino mixing matrix, will be offered by the neutrino beams from a neutrino factory. The neutrino factory is a new concept for producing neutrino beams of unprecedented quality in terms of intensity, flavour composition, and precision of the beam parameters. These beams enable the exploration of otherwise inaccessible domains in neutrino oscillation physics by exploiting baselines of planetary dimensions. Suitable detectors pose formidable challenges but seem within reach with only moderate extrapolations from existing technologies. Although the main physics attraction of the neutrino factory is in the area of neutrino oscillations, an interesting spectrum of further opportunities ranging from high-precision, high-rate neutrino scattering to physics with high-intensity stopped muons comes with it

  6. (Co) variance Components and Genetic Parameter Estimates for Re

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mapula

    The magnitude of heritability estimates obtained in the current study ... traits were recently introduced to supplement progeny testing programmes or for usage as sole source of ..... VCE-5 User's Guide and Reference Manual Version 5.1.

  7. The TRIUMF KAON factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.K.

    1991-05-01

    The TRIUMF KAON Factory is designed to produce beams of kaons, antiprotons, other hadrons and neutrinos 100 times more intense, or cleaner, than are available now, for a broad range of particle and nuclear physics experiments. This will require a 100 μA beam of 30 GeV protons, to be produced by an interleaved sequence of two fast-cycling synchrotrons and three storage rings, with the existing TRIUMF H - cyclotron as injector. An $11-million preconstruction study has enabled the overall design to be reviewed and prototypes of various components to be built and evaluated -fast-cycling dipole and quadrupole magnets, a dual-frequency magnet power supply, ceramic beam pipes with internal RF shields, an RF cavity (using perpendicular bias), an extraction kicker, and RF beam chopper, and production targets. Environmental, industrial and economic impact studies have also been completed and the cost estimates and schedule updated. The total cost of $708 million (Canadian) will be shared equally between Canada, British Columbia (already approved) and international contributors. The federal decision is expected shortly. (Author) 29 refs., 5 figs

  8. Consistent estimation of Gibbs energy using component contributions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elad Noor

    Full Text Available Standard Gibbs energies of reactions are increasingly being used in metabolic modeling for applying thermodynamic constraints on reaction rates, metabolite concentrations and kinetic parameters. The increasing scope and diversity of metabolic models has led scientists to look for genome-scale solutions that can estimate the standard Gibbs energy of all the reactions in metabolism. Group contribution methods greatly increase coverage, albeit at the price of decreased precision. We present here a way to combine the estimations of group contribution with the more accurate reactant contributions by decomposing each reaction into two parts and applying one of the methods on each of them. This method gives priority to the reactant contributions over group contributions while guaranteeing that all estimations will be consistent, i.e. will not violate the first law of thermodynamics. We show that there is a significant increase in the accuracy of our estimations compared to standard group contribution. Specifically, our cross-validation results show an 80% reduction in the median absolute residual for reactions that can be derived by reactant contributions only. We provide the full framework and source code for deriving estimates of standard reaction Gibbs energy, as well as confidence intervals, and believe this will facilitate the wide use of thermodynamic data for a better understanding of metabolism.

  9. Survivor shielding. Part A. Nagasaki factory worker shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, Robert T.; Barnes, John M.; Azmy, Yousry Y.; Kerr, George D.; Egbert, Stephen D.; Cullings, Harry M.

    2005-01-01

    Recent investigations based on conventional chromosome aberration data by the RERF suggest that the DS86 doses received by many Nagasaki factory workers may have been overestimated by as much as 40% relative to those for other survivors in Japanese-type houses and other shielding configurations (Kodama et al. 2001). Since the factory workers represent about 25% of the Nagasaki survivors with DS86 doses in excess of 0.5 Gy (50 rad), systematic errors in their dose estimates can have a major impact on the risk coefficients from RERF studies. The factory worker doses may have been overestimated for a number of reasons. The calculation techniques, including the factory building modeling, weapon source spectra and cross-section data used in the DS86 shielding calculations were not detailed enough to replicate actual conditions. The models used did not take into account local shielding provided by machinery, tools, and the internal structure in the buildings. In addition, changes in the disposition of shielding following collapse of the building by the blast wave were not considered. The location of large factory complexes may be uncertain, causing large numbers of factory survivors, correctly located relative to each other, to be uniformly too close to the hypocenter. Any or all of these reasons are sufficient to result in an overestimate of the factory worker doses. During the DS02 studies, factory worker doses have been reassessed by more carefully modeling the factory buildings, incorporating improved radiation transport methods and cross-section data and using the most recent bomb leakage spectra (Chapter 2). Two-dimensional discrete ordinates calculations were carried out initially to estimate the effects of workbenches and tools on worker doses to determine if the inclusion of these components would, in fact, reduce the dose by amounts consistent with the RERF observations (Kodama et al. 2001). (author)

  10. Variance component and heritability estimates of early growth traits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as selection criteria for meat production in sheep (Anon, 1970; Olson et ai., 1976;. Lasslo et ai., 1985; Badenhorst et ai., 1991). If these traits are to be included in a breeding programme, accurate estimates of breeding values will be needed to optimize selection programmes. This requires a knowledge of variance and co-.

  11. On estimating the fracture probability of nuclear graphite components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, Makuteswara

    2008-01-01

    The properties of nuclear grade graphites exhibit anisotropy and could vary considerably within a manufactured block. Graphite strength is affected by the direction of alignment of the constituent coke particles, which is dictated by the forming method, coke particle size, and the size, shape, and orientation distribution of pores in the structure. In this paper, a Weibull failure probability analysis for components is presented using the American Society of Testing Materials strength specification for nuclear grade graphites for core components in advanced high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. The risk of rupture (probability of fracture) and survival probability (reliability) of large graphite blocks are calculated for varying and discrete values of service tensile stresses. The limitations in these calculations are discussed from considerations of actual reactor environmental conditions that could potentially degrade the specification properties because of damage due to complex interactions between irradiation, temperature, stress, and variability in reactor operation

  12. Resource use efficiency of closed plant production system with artificial light: concept, estimation and application to plant factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozai, Toyoki

    2013-01-01

    Extensive research has recently been conducted on plant factory with artificial light, which is one type of closed plant production system (CPPS) consisting of a thermally insulated and airtight structure, a multi-tier system with lighting devices, air conditioners and fans, a CO2 supply unit, a nutrient solution supply unit, and an environment control unit. One of the research outcomes is the concept of resource use efficiency (RUE) of CPPS.This paper reviews the characteristics of the CPPS compared with those of the greenhouse, mainly from the viewpoint of RUE, which is defined as the ratio of the amount of the resource fixed or held in plants to the amount of the resource supplied to the CPPS.It is shown that the use efficiencies of water, CO2 and light energy are considerably higher in the CPPS than those in the greenhouse. On the other hand, there is much more room for improving the light and electric energy use efficiencies of CPPS. Challenging issues for CPPS and RUE are also discussed.

  13. Meson factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicello, J.F.; Zaider, M.; Bradbury, J.N.

    1979-01-01

    Technological improvements in accelerator design in the 1960's resulted in the capability to develop medium-energy proton accelerators with beam intensities of almost 1 mA. These beams are able to produce fluxes of secondary particles, including pions, muons, neutrinos, and neutrons, which are as much as 10,000 times as intense as those previously available. Those machines built for optimum meson production are commonly called meson factories. The characteristics of these facilities are reviewed, and the present programs in applied research, and some potential areas of future work are discussed

  14. Estimation of component redundancy in optimal age maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Siopa, Jorge; Garção, José; Silva, Júlio

    2012-01-01

    The classical Optimal Age-Replacement defines the maintenance strategy based on the equipment failure consequences. For severe consequences an early equipment replacement is recommended. For minor consequences the repair after failure is proposed. One way of reducing the failure consequences is the use of redundancies, especially if the equipment failure rate is decreasing over time, since in this case the preventive replacement does not reduce the risk of failure. The estimation of an ac...

  15. Cost Performance Estimating Relationships for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-31

    Permanent magnet motors are more likely to be used as generators, while AC induction motors are more efficiently used as motors. Inverters/controllers can...than permanent magnet motors . Switched Reluctance motors are also used on hybrid electric vehicles, but are not used as widely as either AC...induction or permanent magnet motors , and are not analyzed here. Methodology The motor estimates are based on power, with kilowatts being the unit of

  16. Improved computation method in residual life estimation of structural components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimović Stevan M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work considers the numerical computation methods and procedures for the fatigue crack growth predicting of cracked notched structural components. Computation method is based on fatigue life prediction using the strain energy density approach. Based on the strain energy density (SED theory, a fatigue crack growth model is developed to predict the lifetime of fatigue crack growth for single or mixed mode cracks. The model is based on an equation expressed in terms of low cycle fatigue parameters. Attention is focused on crack growth analysis of structural components under variable amplitude loads. Crack growth is largely influenced by the effect of the plastic zone at the front of the crack. To obtain efficient computation model plasticity-induced crack closure phenomenon is considered during fatigue crack growth. The use of the strain energy density method is efficient for fatigue crack growth prediction under cyclic loading in damaged structural components. Strain energy density method is easy for engineering applications since it does not require any additional determination of fatigue parameters (those would need to be separately determined for fatigue crack propagation phase, and low cyclic fatigue parameters are used instead. Accurate determination of fatigue crack closure has been a complex task for years. The influence of this phenomenon can be considered by means of experimental and numerical methods. Both of these models are considered. Finite element analysis (FEA has been shown to be a powerful and useful tool1,6 to analyze crack growth and crack closure effects. Computation results are compared with available experimental results. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 174001

  17. The TRIUMF KAON Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.

    1989-05-01

    TRIUMF has been awarded $11M for a one-year pre-construction Engineering Design and Impact Study of the KAON Factory. This will enable prototypes of many accelerator components to be built and the design of the accelerators and the layout of the experimental areas to be reviewed. The building and tunnel designs will be finalized, environmental, legal and economic impact studies carried out, and international involvement pursued further

  18. Kaon factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.K.

    1983-03-01

    Kaon factories would provide beams 100-1000 times more intense than those available from present accelerators in the 10-30 GeV range. More intense or cleaner secondary beams of kaons, antiprotons and neutrinos would be of particular interest for high precision experiments and studies of rare processes in both particle and nuclear physics, e.g. symmetry violations in K-decay, neutrino scattering, meson and baryon spectroscopy, hypernuclei, exotic atoms, K + studies of nuclear density and resonance propagation in nuclei. The various accelerators proposed include both fast-cycling synchrotrons providing 100 μA proton beams at 15 to 32 GeV and superconducting isochronous ring cyclotrons giving 100-400 μA at up to 15 GeV. This paper describes these designs and the various technical problems associated with them

  19. Application of fuzzy-MOORA method: Ranking of components for reliability estimation of component-based software systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Ali Siddiqui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Component-based software system (CBSS development technique is an emerging discipline that promises to take software development into a new era. As hardware systems are presently being constructed from kits of parts, software systems may also be assembled from components. It is more reliable to reuse software than to create. It is the glue code and individual components reliability that contribute to the reliability of the overall system. Every component contributes to overall system reliability according to the number of times it is being used, some components are of critical usage, known as usage frequency of component. The usage frequency decides the weight of each component. According to their weights, each component contributes to the overall reliability of the system. Therefore, ranking of components may be obtained by analyzing their reliability impacts on overall application. In this paper, we propose the application of fuzzy multi-objective optimization on the basis of ratio analysis, Fuzzy-MOORA. The method helps us find the best suitable alternative, software component, from a set of available feasible alternatives named software components. It is an accurate and easy to understand tool for solving multi-criteria decision making problems that have imprecise and vague evaluation data. By the use of ratio analysis, the proposed method determines the most suitable alternative among all possible alternatives, and dimensionless measurement will realize the job of ranking of components for estimating CBSS reliability in a non-subjective way. Finally, three case studies are shown to illustrate the use of the proposed technique.

  20. KAON factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.K.

    1989-09-01

    Proposals for high intensity proton synchrotrons (typically providing 100 μA (6 x 10 14 p/s)) at 30 GeV have been made in Canada, Europe, Japan, the USA and the USSR. These beams would be roughly 100 times more intense than those available now and would yield equivalent increases in the fluxes of secondary particles (kaons, pions, muons, antiprotons, hyperons and neutrinos) - or cleaner beams for a smaller increase in flux. The ability to investigate rare processes on the precision frontier opens new avenues to fundamental questions in both particle and nuclear physics, complementary to traditional approaches via the energy frontier. The demand for higher currents has led to novel features in many of the accelerator designs: asymmetric magnet cycles, avoidance of transition crossing, separate collector and stretcher rings, three-dimensional beam painting at injection, bucket-to-bucket beam transfer, perpendicular biassing of microwave ferrite in the rf tuners, the use of Siberian Snakes to preserve polarization, and the addition of a pre-septum to make slow extraction >99.8% efficient. Other characteristic features include rapid cycling rates, booster stages, H - injection, low impedance enclosures, powerful feedback systems for control of beam instabilities and beam loading, and local collimation systems for handling beam loss. This paper reviews the general features of kaon factory accelerator design and the status of the various proposals

  1. A factory concept for processing and manufacturing with lunar material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driggers, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    A conceptual design for an orbital factory sized to process 1.5 million metric tons per year of raw lunar fines into 0.3 million metric tons of manufacturing materials is presented. A conservative approach involving application of present earth-based technology leads to a design devoid of new inventions. Earth based counterparts to the factory machinery were used to generate subsystem masses and lumped parameters for volume and mass estimates. The results are considered to be conservative since technologies more advanced than those assumed are presently available in many areas. Some attributes of potential space processing technologies applied to material refinement and component manufacture are discussed.

  2. Parameter estimation of component reliability models in PSA model of Krsko NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan Cizelj, R.; Vrbanic, I.

    2001-01-01

    In the paper, the uncertainty analysis of component reliability models for independent failures is shown. The present approach for parameter estimation of component reliability models in NPP Krsko is presented. Mathematical approaches for different types of uncertainty analyses are introduced and used in accordance with some predisposed requirements. Results of the uncertainty analyses are shown in an example for time-related components. As the most appropriate uncertainty analysis proved the Bayesian estimation with the numerical estimation of a posterior, which can be approximated with some appropriate probability distribution, in this paper with lognormal distribution.(author)

  3. Cost analysis of small hydroelectric power plants components and preliminary estimation of global cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basta, C.; Olive, W.J.; Antunes, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of cost for each components of Small Hydroelectric Power Plant, taking into account the real costs of these projects is shown. It also presents a global equation which allows a preliminary estimation of cost for each construction. (author)

  4. METHODS OF THE APPROXIMATE ESTIMATIONS OF FATIGUE DURABILITY OF COMPOSITE AIRFRAME COMPONENT TYPICAL ELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Strizhius

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods of the approximate estimations of fatigue durability of composite airframe component typical elements which can be recommended for application at the stage of outline designing of the airplane are generated and presented.

  5. Full information estimations of a system of simultaneous equations with error component structure

    OpenAIRE

    Balestra, Pietro; Krishnakumar, Jaya

    1987-01-01

    In this paper we develop full information methods for estimating the parameters of a system of simultaneous equations with error component struc-ture and establish relationships between the various structural estimat

  6. Estimation of the energy ratio between primary and ambience components in stereo audio data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harma, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    Stereo audio signal is often modeled as a mixture of instantaneously mixed primary components and uncorrelated ambience components. This paper focuses on the estimation of the primary-to-ambience energy ratio, PAR. This measure is useful for signal decomposition in stereo and multichannel audio

  7. Estimation of compound distribution in spectral images of tomatoes using independent component analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, G.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Independent Component Analysis (ICA) is one of the most widely used methods for blind source separation. In this paper we use this technique to estimate the important compounds which play a role in the ripening of tomatoes. Spectral images of tomatoes were analyzed. Two main independent components

  8. Maintenance Management Support Systems for component aging estimation at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Shunichi; Ando, Yasumasa; Morioka, Toshihiko; Okuzumi, Naoaki

    1991-01-01

    Maintenance Management Support Systems (MMSSs) for nuclear power plants have been developed using component aging estimation methods and decision tree analysis for maintenance planning. The former evaluates actual component reliability through statistical analysis on field maintenance data. The latter provides preventive maintenance (PM) planning guidance using heuristic expert knowledge and estimated reliability parameters. The following aspects have been investigated: (1) A systematic and effective method of managing components/parts design information and field maintenance data (2) A method for estimating component aging based on a statistical analysis of field maintenance data (3) A method for providing PM planning guidance using estimated component reliability/performance parameters and decision tree analysis. Based on these investigations, two MMSSs were developed. One deals with 'general maintenance data', which are common to all component types and are amenable to common data handling. The other system deals with 'specific maintenance data', which are specific to an individual component type. Both systems provide PM planning guidance for PM cycles propriety and the PM work priority. The function of these systems were verified using simulated maintenance data. (author)

  9. Evaluation of the robustness of estimating five components from a skin spectral image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaho, Rina; Hirose, Misa; Tsumura, Norimichi

    2018-04-01

    We evaluated the robustness of a method used to estimate five components (i.e., melanin, oxy-hemoglobin, deoxy-hemoglobin, shading, and surface reflectance) from the spectral reflectance of skin at five wavelengths against noise and a change in epidermis thickness. We also estimated the five components from recorded images of age spots and circles under the eyes using the method. We found that noise in the image must be no more 0.1% to accurately estimate the five components and that the thickness of the epidermis affects the estimation. We acquired the distribution of major causes for age spots and circles under the eyes by applying the method to recorded spectral images.

  10. Methodology for estimating realistic responses of buildings and components under earthquake motion and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisawa, Katsumi; Abe, Kiyoharu; Kohno, Kunihiko; Nakamura, Hidetaka; Itoh, Mamoru.

    1996-11-01

    Failure probabilities of buildings and components under earthquake motion are estimated as conditional probabilities that their realistic responses exceed their capacities. Two methods for estimating their failure probabilities have already been developed. One is a detailed method developed in the Seismic Safety margins Research Program of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in U.S.A., which is called 'SSMRP method'. The other is a simplified method proposed by Kennedy et al., which is called 'Zion method'. The Zion method is sometimes called 'response factor method'. The authors adopted the response factor method. In order to enhance the estimation accuracy of failure probabilities of buildings and components, however, a new methodology for improving the response factor method was proposed. Based on the improved method, response factors of buildings and components designed to seismic design standard in Japan were estimated, and their realistic responses were also calculated. By using their realistic responses and capacities, the failure probabilities of a reactor building and relays were estimated. In order to identify the difference between new method, SSMRP method and original response factor method, the failure probabilities were compared estimated by these three methods. A similar method of SSMRP was used instead of the original SSMRP for saving time and labor. The viewpoints for selecting the methods to estimate failure probabilities of buildings and components were also proposed. (author). 55 refs

  11. Estimation of component failure probability from masked binomial system testing data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Zhibin

    2005-01-01

    The component failure probability estimates from analysis of binomial system testing data are very useful because they reflect the operational failure probability of components in the field which is similar to the test environment. In practice, this type of analysis is often confounded by the problem of data masking: the status of tested components is unknown. Methods in considering this type of uncertainty are usually computationally intensive and not practical to solve the problem for complex systems. In this paper, we consider masked binomial system testing data and develop a probabilistic model to efficiently estimate component failure probabilities. In the model, all system tests are classified into test categories based on component coverage. Component coverage of test categories is modeled by a bipartite graph. Test category failure probabilities conditional on the status of covered components are defined. An EM algorithm to estimate component failure probabilities is developed based on a simple but powerful concept: equivalent failures and tests. By simulation we not only demonstrate the convergence and accuracy of the algorithm but also show that the probabilistic model is capable of analyzing systems in series, parallel and any other user defined structures. A case study illustrates an application in test case prioritization

  12. Method of estimating changes in vapor concentrations continuously generated from two-component organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Hajime; Ishidao, Toru; Ishimatsu, Sumiyo

    2010-12-01

    We measured vapor concentrations continuously evaporated from two-component organic solvents in a reservoir and proposed a method to estimate and predict the evaporation rate or generated vapor concentrations. Two kinds of organic solvents were put into a small reservoir made of glass (3 cm in diameter and 3 cm high) that was installed in a cylindrical glass vessel (10 cm in diameter and 15 cm high). Air was introduced into the glass vessel at a flow rate of 150 ml/min, and the generated vapor concentrations were intermittently monitored for up to 5 hours with a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector. The solvent systems tested in this study were the methanoltoluene system and the ethyl acetate-toluene system. The vapor concentrations of the more volatile component, that is, methanol in the methanol-toluene system and ethyl acetate in the ethyl acetate-toluene system, were high at first, and then decreased with time. On the other hand, the concentrations of the less volatile component were low at first, and then increased with time. A model for estimating multicomponent organic vapor concentrations was developed, based on a theory of vapor-liquid equilibria and a theory of the mass transfer rate, and estimated values were compared with experimental ones. The estimated vapor concentrations were in relatively good agreement with the experimental ones. The results suggest that changes in concentrations of two-component organic vapors continuously evaporating from a liquid reservoir can be estimated by the proposed model.

  13. Sequential fitting-and-separating reflectance components for analytical bidirectional reflectance distribution function estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu; Yu, Chanki; Lee, Sang Wook

    2018-01-10

    We present a sequential fitting-and-separating algorithm for surface reflectance components that separates individual dominant reflectance components and simultaneously estimates the corresponding bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) parameters from the separated reflectance values. We tackle the estimation of a Lafortune BRDF model, which combines a nonLambertian diffuse reflection and multiple specular reflectance components with a different specular lobe. Our proposed method infers the appropriate number of BRDF lobes and their parameters by separating and estimating each of the reflectance components using an interval analysis-based branch-and-bound method in conjunction with iterative K-ordered scale estimation. The focus of this paper is the estimation of the Lafortune BRDF model. Nevertheless, our proposed method can be applied to other analytical BRDF models such as the Cook-Torrance and Ward models. Experiments were carried out to validate the proposed method using isotropic materials from the Mitsubishi Electric Research Laboratories-Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MERL-MIT) BRDF database, and the results show that our method is superior to a conventional minimization algorithm.

  14. Estimation of component failure rates for PSA on nuclear power plants 1982-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirimoto, Yukihiro; Matsuzaki, Akihiro; Sasaki, Atsushi

    2001-01-01

    Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) on nuclear power plants has been studied for many years by the Japanese industry. The PSA methodology has been improved so that PSAs for all commercial LWRs were performed and used to examine for accident management.On the other hand, most data of component failure rates in these PSAs were acquired from U.S. databases. Nuclear Information Center (NIC) of Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) serves utilities by providing safety- , and reliability-related information on operation and maintenance of the nuclear power plants, and by evaluating the plant performance and incident trends. So, NIC started a research study on estimating the major component failure rates at the request of the utilities in 1988. As a result, we estimated the hourly-failure rates of 47 component types and the demand-failure rates of 15 component types. The set of domestic component reliability data from 1982 to 1991 for 34 LWRs has been evaluated by a group of PSA experts in Japan at the Nuclear Safety Research Association (NSRA) in 1995 and 1996, and the evaluation report was issued in March 1997. This document describes the revised component failure rate calculated by our re-estimation on 49 Japanese LWRs from 1982 to 1997. (author)

  15. Regression to fuzziness method for estimation of remaining useful life in power plant components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamaniotis, Miltiadis; Grelle, Austin; Tsoukalas, Lefteri H.

    2014-10-01

    Mitigation of severe accidents in power plants requires the reliable operation of all systems and the on-time replacement of mechanical components. Therefore, the continuous surveillance of power systems is a crucial concern for the overall safety, cost control, and on-time maintenance of a power plant. In this paper a methodology called regression to fuzziness is presented that estimates the remaining useful life (RUL) of power plant components. The RUL is defined as the difference between the time that a measurement was taken and the estimated failure time of that component. The methodology aims to compensate for a potential lack of historical data by modeling an expert's operational experience and expertise applied to the system. It initially identifies critical degradation parameters and their associated value range. Once completed, the operator's experience is modeled through fuzzy sets which span the entire parameter range. This model is then synergistically used with linear regression and a component's failure point to estimate the RUL. The proposed methodology is tested on estimating the RUL of a turbine (the basic electrical generating component of a power plant) in three different cases. Results demonstrate the benefits of the methodology for components for which operational data is not readily available and emphasize the significance of the selection of fuzzy sets and the effect of knowledge representation on the predicted output. To verify the effectiveness of the methodology, it was benchmarked against the data-based simple linear regression model used for predictions which was shown to perform equal or worse than the presented methodology. Furthermore, methodology comparison highlighted the improvement in estimation offered by the adoption of appropriate of fuzzy sets for parameter representation.

  16. Nonlinear Denoising and Analysis of Neuroimages With Kernel Principal Component Analysis and Pre-Image Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup; Abrahamsen, Trine Julie; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the use of kernel principal component analysis (PCA) and the inverse problem known as pre-image estimation in neuroimaging: i) We explore kernel PCA and pre-image estimation as a means for image denoising as part of the image preprocessing pipeline. Evaluation of the denoising...... procedure is performed within a data-driven split-half evaluation framework. ii) We introduce manifold navigation for exploration of a nonlinear data manifold, and illustrate how pre-image estimation can be used to generate brain maps in the continuum between experimentally defined brain states/classes. We...

  17. Algorithms and programs of dynamic mixture estimation unified approach to different types of components

    CERN Document Server

    Nagy, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a general theoretical background for constructing the recursive Bayesian estimation algorithms for mixture models. It collects the recursive algorithms for estimating dynamic mixtures of various distributions and brings them in the unified form, providing a scheme for constructing the estimation algorithm for a mixture of components modeled by distributions with reproducible statistics. It offers the recursive estimation of dynamic mixtures, which are free of iterative processes and close to analytical solutions as much as possible. In addition, these methods can be used online and simultaneously perform learning, which improves their efficiency during estimation. The book includes detailed program codes for solving the presented theoretical tasks. Codes are implemented in the open source platform for engineering computations. The program codes given serve to illustrate the theory and demonstrate the work of the included algorithms.

  18. Estimation of the common cause failure probabilities on the component group with mixed testing scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Meejeong; Kang, Dae Il

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► This paper presents a method to estimate the common cause failure probabilities on the common cause component group with mixed testing schemes. ► The CCF probabilities are dependent on the testing schemes such as staggered testing or non-staggered testing. ► There are many CCCGs with specific mixed testing schemes in real plant operation. ► Therefore, a general formula which is applicable to both alternate periodic testing scheme and train level mixed testing scheme was derived. - Abstract: This paper presents a method to estimate the common cause failure (CCF) probabilities on the common cause component group (CCCG) with mixed testing schemes such as the train level mixed testing scheme or the alternate periodic testing scheme. In the train level mixed testing scheme, the components are tested in a non-staggered way within the same train, but the components are tested in a staggered way between the trains. The alternate periodic testing scheme indicates that all components in the same CCCG are tested in a non-staggered way during the planned maintenance period, but they are tested in a staggered way during normal plant operation. Since the CCF probabilities are dependent on the testing schemes such as staggered testing or non-staggered testing, CCF estimators have two kinds of formulas in accordance with the testing schemes. Thus, there are general formulas to estimate the CCF probability on the staggered testing scheme and non-staggered testing scheme. However, in real plant operation, there are many CCCGs with specific mixed testing schemes. Recently, Barros () and Kang () proposed a CCF factor estimation method to reflect the alternate periodic testing scheme and the train level mixed testing scheme. In this paper, a general formula which is applicable to both the alternate periodic testing scheme and the train level mixed testing scheme was derived.

  19. Reduction of adhesive stain defect in flexible printed circuit board on hot pressing process: A case study of electronic component factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakulkaew Srisang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is a reduction of an adhesive stain defect in flexible printed circuit board in hot pressing process, the electronic factory. The manufacturing have been processing by sheet type of products with ninety-six pieces of flexible printed circuit boards. Causes of the problem include the before and internal hot pressing process. In process beginning times, the most right row of products between the cooling plate and the hot pressing machine has temperature 71.2◦C that is higher than glass transition temperature (Tg 60◦C. Those products’ temperature lead to evaporate a polyimide adhesive before hot pressing process beginning. The internal hot pressing process include the preheat times and the pressure time. In the preheat time the problem is a gap between lower and upper plate, was under specification (Under 1 mm and leaded to adhesive polyimide stain. In the actuality this time requires temperature and low pressure that mean a gap within 1 – 2 mm (between lower and upper plate. In pressure times the hot pressing plate surface is not flat and products are pressed by insufficient force that it lead to generate an adhesive stain on flexible printed circuit boards. That force is measured by the pre-scale paper and a result, RGB color, is provided. And then color density (From standard color sample and RGB color (From pre-scale paper is found out the relation by Photoshop program and multiple regression theory using. The formula is applied to compare with defect so as to find out the suitable color density (Defects reducing. The solving solutions is provided including the gap reduced adjustment between cooling plate and hot pressing machine before hot pressing process, the plate adjustment within specification in the preheat time and the pressing plate polishing in the pressure time. Results of study and solving are provide defect reduction from 24.4 percentage to 7.2 percentage of total study product.

  20. The KAON Factory at TRIUMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.K.

    1992-08-01

    The TRIUMF KAON Factory is designed to produce beams of kaons, antiprotons, other hadrons and neutrinos 100 times more intense, or cleaner, than are available now, for a broad range of particle and nuclear physics experiments. This will require a 100 μA beam of 30 GeV protons, to be produced by an interleaved sequence of two fast-cycling synchrotrons and three storage rings, with the existing TRIUMF H - cyclotron as injector. An $11-million preconstruction study has enabled the overall design to be reviewed and prototypes of various components to be built and evaluated -fast-cycling dipole and quadrupole magnets, a dual-frequency magnet power supply, ceramic beam pipes with internal rf shields, and rf cavity (using perpendicular bias), an extraction kicker, and rf beam chopper, and production targets. Environmental, industrial and economic impact studies have also been completed and the cost estimates and schedule updated. The total cost of $708 million (Canadian) will be shared equally between Canada, British Columbia and international contributors: the first two-thirds of this sum have already been approved and negotiations for the remainder are under way. 25 refs., 7 figs

  1. The KAON factory at TRIUMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.K.

    1992-07-01

    The TRIUMF KAON Factory is designed to produce beams of kaons, antiprotons, other hadrons and neutrinos 100 times more intense, or cleaner, than are available now, for a broad range of particle and nuclear physics experiments. This will require a 100 μA beam of 30 GeV protons, to be produced by an interleaved sequence of two fast-cycling synchrotrons and three storage rings, with the existing TRIUMF H - cyclotron as injector. An $11-million pre-construction study has enabled the overall design to be reviewed and prototypes of various components to be built and evaluated: fast-cycling dipole and quadrupole magnets, a dual frequency magnet power supply, ceramic beam pipes with internal rf shields, an rf cavity (using perpendicular bias), an extraction kicker, an rf beam chopper, and production targets. Environmental, industrial and economic impact studies have also been completed and the cost estimates and schedule updated. The total cost of $708 million (Canadian) will be shared equally between Canada, British Columbia and international contributors; the first two-thirds of this sum have already been approved and negotiations for the remainder are under way. 26 refs., 6 figs

  2. Component Analysis of Errors on PERSIANN Precipitation Estimates over Urmia Lake Basin, IRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghajarnia, N.; Daneshkar Arasteh, P.; Liaghat, A. M.; Araghinejad, S.

    2016-12-01

    In this study, PERSIANN daily dataset is evaluated from 2000 to 2011 in 69 pixels over Urmia Lake basin in northwest of Iran. Different analytical approaches and indexes are used to examine PERSIANN precision in detection and estimation of rainfall rate. The residuals are decomposed into Hit, Miss and FA estimation biases while continues decomposition of systematic and random error components are also analyzed seasonally and categorically. New interpretation of estimation accuracy named "reliability on PERSIANN estimations" is introduced while the changing manners of existing categorical/statistical measures and error components are also seasonally analyzed over different rainfall rate categories. This study yields new insights into the nature of PERSIANN errors over Urmia lake basin as a semi-arid region in the middle-east, including the followings: - The analyzed contingency table indexes indicate better detection precision during spring and fall. - A relatively constant level of error is generally observed among different categories. The range of precipitation estimates at different rainfall rate categories is nearly invariant as a sign for the existence of systematic error. - Low level of reliability is observed on PERSIANN estimations at different categories which are mostly associated with high level of FA error. However, it is observed that as the rate of precipitation increase, the ability and precision of PERSIANN in rainfall detection also increases. - The systematic and random error decomposition in this area shows that PERSIANN has more difficulty in modeling the system and pattern of rainfall rather than to have bias due to rainfall uncertainties. The level of systematic error also considerably increases in heavier rainfalls. It is also important to note that PERSIANN error characteristics at each season varies due to the condition and rainfall patterns of that season which shows the necessity of seasonally different approach for the calibration of

  3. Fractional factorial plans

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Aloke

    2009-01-01

    A one-stop reference to fractional factorials and related orthogonal arrays.Presenting one of the most dynamic areas of statistical research, this book offers a systematic, rigorous, and up-to-date treatment of fractional factorial designs and related combinatorial mathematics. Leading statisticians Aloke Dey and Rahul Mukerjee consolidate vast amounts of material from the professional literature--expertly weaving fractional replication, orthogonal arrays, and optimality aspects. They develop the basic theory of fractional factorials using the calculus of factorial arrangements, thereby providing a unified approach to the study of fractional factorial plans. An indispensable guide for statisticians in research and industry as well as for graduate students, Fractional Factorial Plans features: * Construction procedures of symmetric and asymmetric orthogonal arrays. * Many up-to-date research results on nonexistence. * A chapter on optimal fractional factorials not based on orthogonal arrays. * Trend-free plans...

  4. Estimation of the common cause failure probabilities of the components under mixed testing schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dae Il; Hwang, Mee Jeong; Han, Sang Hoon

    2009-01-01

    For the case where trains or channels of standby safety systems consisting of more than two redundant components are tested in a staggered manner, the standby safety components within a train can be tested simultaneously or consecutively. In this case, mixed testing schemes, staggered and non-staggered testing schemes, are used for testing the components. Approximate formulas, based on the basic parameter method, were developed for the estimation of the common cause failure (CCF) probabilities of the components under mixed testing schemes. The developed formulas were applied to the four redundant check valves of the auxiliary feed water system as a demonstration study for their appropriateness. For a comparison, we estimated the CCF probabilities of the four redundant check valves for the mixed, staggered, and non-staggered testing schemes. The CCF probabilities of the four redundant check valves for the mixed testing schemes were estimated to be higher than those for the staggered testing scheme, and lower than those for the non-staggered testing scheme.

  5. Reduction of adhesive stain defect in flexible printed circuit board on hot pressing process: a case study of electronic component factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakulkaew Srisang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is a reduction of an adhesive stain defect in flexible printed circuit board in hot pressing process, the electronic factory. The manufacturing have been processing by sheet type of products with ninety-six pieces of flexible printed circuit boards. Causes of the problem include the before and internal hot pressing process. In process beginning times, the most right row of products between the cooling plate and the hot pressing machine has temperature 71.2◦C that is higher than glass transition temperature (Tg 60◦C. Those products’ temperature lead to evaporate a polyimide adhesive before hot pressing process beginning. The internal hot pressing process include the preheat times and the pressure time. In the preheat time the problem is a gap between lower and upper plate, was under specification(Under 1 mm and leaded to adhesive polyimide stain. In the actuality this time requires temperature and low pressure that mean a gap within 1 – 2 mm (between lower and upper plate. In pressure times the hot pressing plate surface is not flat and products are pressed by insufficient force that it lead to generate an adhesive stain on flexible printed circuit boards. That force is measured by the pre-scale paper and a result, RGB color, is provided. And then color density (From standard color sample and RGB color (From pre-scale paper is found out the relation by Photoshop program and multiple regression theory using. The formula is applied to compare with defect so as to find out the suitable color density (Defects reducing. The solving solutions is provided including the gap reduced adjustment between cooling plate and hot pressing machine before hot pressing process, the plate adjustment within specification in the preheat time and the pressing plate polishing in the pressure time. Results of study and solving are provide defect reduction from 24.4 percentage to 7.2 percentage of total study product.

  6. Image Denoising Algorithm Combined with SGK Dictionary Learning and Principal Component Analysis Noise Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available SGK (sequential generalization of K-means dictionary learning denoising algorithm has the characteristics of fast denoising speed and excellent denoising performance. However, the noise standard deviation must be known in advance when using SGK algorithm to process the image. This paper presents a denoising algorithm combined with SGK dictionary learning and the principal component analysis (PCA noise estimation. At first, the noise standard deviation of the image is estimated by using the PCA noise estimation algorithm. And then it is used for SGK dictionary learning algorithm. Experimental results show the following: (1 The SGK algorithm has the best denoising performance compared with the other three dictionary learning algorithms. (2 The SGK algorithm combined with PCA is superior to the SGK algorithm combined with other noise estimation algorithms. (3 Compared with the original SGK algorithm, the proposed algorithm has higher PSNR and better denoising performance.

  7. Fast noise level estimation algorithm based on principal component analysis transform and nonlinear rectification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shaoping; Zeng, Xiaoxia; Jiang, Yinnan; Tang, Yiling

    2018-01-01

    We proposed a noniterative principal component analysis (PCA)-based noise level estimation (NLE) algorithm that addresses the problem of estimating the noise level with a two-step scheme. First, we randomly extracted a number of raw patches from a given noisy image and took the smallest eigenvalue of the covariance matrix of the raw patches as the preliminary estimation of the noise level. Next, the final estimation was directly obtained with a nonlinear mapping (rectification) function that was trained on some representative noisy images corrupted with different known noise levels. Compared with the state-of-art NLE algorithms, the experiment results show that the proposed NLE algorithm can reliably infer the noise level and has robust performance over a wide range of image contents and noise levels, showing a good compromise between speed and accuracy in general.

  8. Bayesian estimation of mixtures with dynamic transitions and known component parameters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nagy, I.; Suzdaleva, Evgenia; Kárný, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 4 (2011), s. 572-594 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA TA ČR TA01030123; GA ČR GA102/08/0567 Grant - others:Skoda Auto(CZ) ENS/2009/UTIA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : mixture model * Bayesian estimation * approximation * clustering * classification Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 0.454, year: 2011 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/AS/nagy-bayesian estimation of mixtures with dynamic transitions and known component parameters.pdf

  9. Mixture estimation with state-space components and Markov model of switching

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nagy, Ivan; Suzdaleva, Evgenia

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 24 (2013), s. 9970-9984 ISSN 0307-904X R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01030123 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : probabilistic dynamic mixtures, * probability density function * state-space models * recursive mixture estimation * Bayesian dynamic decision making under uncertainty * Kerridge inaccuracy Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 2.158, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/AS/nagy-mixture estimation with state-space components and markov model of switching.pdf

  10. Estimation of Leakage Ratio Using Principal Component Analysis and Artificial Neural Network in Water Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongwoo Jang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Leaks in a water distribution network (WDS constitute losses of water supply caused by pipeline failure, operational loss, and physical factors. This has raised the need for studies on the factors affecting the leakage ratio and estimation of leakage volume in a water supply system. In this study, principal component analysis (PCA and artificial neural network (ANN were used to estimate the volume of water leakage in a WDS. For the study, six main effective parameters were selected and standardized data obtained through the Z-score method. The PCA-ANN model was devised and the leakage ratio was estimated. An accuracy assessment was performed to compare the measured leakage ratio to that of the simulated model. The results showed that the PCA-ANN method was more accurate for estimating the leakage ratio than a single ANN simulation. In addition, the estimation results differed according to the number of neurons in the ANN model’s hidden layers. In this study, an ANN with multiple hidden layers was found to be the best method for estimating the leakage ratio with 12–12 neurons. This suggested approaches to improve the accuracy of leakage ratio estimation, as well as a scientific approach toward the sustainable management of water distribution systems.

  11. Soft Sensor of Vehicle State Estimation Based on the Kernel Principal Component and Improved Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haorui Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the car control systems, it is hard to measure some key vehicle states directly and accurately when running on the road and the cost of the measurement is high as well. To address these problems, a vehicle state estimation method based on the kernel principal component analysis and the improved Elman neural network is proposed. Combining with nonlinear vehicle model of three degrees of freedom (3 DOF, longitudinal, lateral, and yaw motion, this paper applies the method to the soft sensor of the vehicle states. The simulation results of the double lane change tested by Matlab/SIMULINK cosimulation prove the KPCA-IENN algorithm (kernel principal component algorithm and improved Elman neural network to be quick and precise when tracking the vehicle states within the nonlinear area. This algorithm method can meet the software performance requirements of the vehicle states estimation in precision, tracking speed, noise suppression, and other aspects.

  12. Work stress: its components and its association with self-reported health outcomes in a garment factory in Bangladesh-Findings from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinisch, Maria; Yusuf, Rita; Li, Jian; Rahman, Omar; Ashraf, Hasan M; Strümpell, Christian; Fischer, Joachim E; Loerbroks, Adrian

    2013-11-01

    Bangladesh is one of the leading exporters of ready-made garments (RMG) worldwide producing at very low cost almost exclusively for Western markets. Empirical evidence on psychologically adverse working conditions and their association with health in the RMG setting remains sparse. Drawing on insights from previous ethnographic research, we conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological study among 332 RMG workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh. High work-related demands and poor interpersonal resources represented key components of work stress and were important determinants of poor health. The key work stress components observed in this study partly differed from those identified in Western work place settings. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Accounting for multiple climate components when estimating climate change exposure and velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Christopher P.; Fuller, Angela K.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of anthropogenic climate change on organisms will likely be related to climate change exposure and velocity at local and regional scales. However, common methods to estimate climate change exposure and velocity ignore important components of climate that are known to affect the ecology and evolution of organisms.We develop a novel index of climate change (climate overlap) that simultaneously estimates changes in the means, variation and correlation between multiple weather variables. Specifically, we estimate the overlap between multivariate normal probability distributions representing historical and current or projected future climates. We provide methods for estimating the statistical significance of climate overlap values and methods to estimate velocity using climate overlap.We show that climates have changed significantly across 80% of the continental United States in the last 32 years and that much of this change is due to changes in the variation and correlation between weather variables (two statistics that are rarely incorporated into climate change studies). We also show that projected future temperatures are predicted to be locally novel (using climate overlap compared to 1·4 km yr−1 when estimated using traditional methods.Our results suggest that accounting for changes in the means, variation and correlation between multiple weather variables can dramatically affect estimates of climate change exposure and velocity. These climate components are known to affect the ecology and evolution of organisms, but are ignored by most measures of climate change. We conclude with a set of future directions and recommend future work to determine which measures of climate change exposure and velocity are most related to biological responses to climate change.

  14. Heat flux estimation for neutral beam line components using inverse heat conduction procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharathi, P.; Prahlad, V.; Quereshi, K.; Bansal, L.K.; Rambabu, S.; Sharma, S.K.; Parmar, S.; Patel, P.J.; Baruah, U.K.; Patel, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we describe and compare the analytical IHCP methods such-as semi-infinite method, finite slab method and a numerical method called Stolz method for estimating the incident heat flux from the experimentally measured temperature data. In case of analytical methods, the finite time response of the sensor is needed to be accounted for an accurate power density estimations. The modified models corrected for the response time of the sensors are also discussed in this paper. Application of these methods using example temperature waveforms obtained on the SST1-NBI test stand is presented and discussed. For choosing the suitable method for the calorimetry on beam line components, the estimated results are also validated using the ANSYS analysis done on these beam Iine components. As a conclusion, the finite slab method corrected for the influence of the sensor response time found out to be the most suitable method for the inversion of temperature data in case of neutral beam line components

  15. Objective selection of EEG late potentials through residual dependence estimation of independent components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanesi, M; James, C J; Martini, N; Menicucci, D; Gemignani, A; Ghelarducci, B; Landini, L

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method to objectively select electroencephalographic (EEG) cortical sources estimated by independent component analysis (ICA) in event-related potential (ERP) studies. A proximity measure based on mutual information is employed to estimate residual dependences of the components that are then hierarchically clustered based on these residual dependences. Next, the properties of each group of components are evaluated at each level of the hierarchical tree by two indices that aim to assess both cluster tightness and physiological reliability through a template matching process. These two indices are combined in three different approaches to bring to light the hierarchical structure of the cluster organizations. Our method is tested on a set of experiments with the purpose of enhancing late positive ERPs elicited by emotional picture stimuli. Results suggest that the best way to look for physiologically plausible late positive potential (LPP) sources is to explore in depth the tightness of those clusters that, taken together, best resemble the template. According to our results, after brain sources clustering, LPPs are always identified more accurately than from ensemble-averaged raw data. Since the late components of an ERP involve the same associative areas, regardless of the modality of stimulation or specific tasks administered, the proposed method can be simply adapted to other ERP studies, and extended from psychophysiological studies to pathological or sport training evaluation support

  16. An adaptive neuro fuzzy model for estimating the reliability of component-based software systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirti Tyagi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although many algorithms and techniques have been developed for estimating the reliability of component-based software systems (CBSSs, much more research is needed. Accurate estimation of the reliability of a CBSS is difficult because it depends on two factors: component reliability and glue code reliability. Moreover, reliability is a real-world phenomenon with many associated real-time problems. Soft computing techniques can help to solve problems whose solutions are uncertain or unpredictable. A number of soft computing approaches for estimating CBSS reliability have been proposed. These techniques learn from the past and capture existing patterns in data. The two basic elements of soft computing are neural networks and fuzzy logic. In this paper, we propose a model for estimating CBSS reliability, known as an adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS, that is based on these two basic elements of soft computing, and we compare its performance with that of a plain FIS (fuzzy inference system for different data sets.

  17. An improved principal component analysis based region matching method for fringe direction estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, A.; Quan, C.

    2018-04-01

    The principal component analysis (PCA) and region matching combined method is effective for fringe direction estimation. However, its mask construction algorithm for region matching fails in some circumstances, and the algorithm for conversion of orientation to direction in mask areas is computationally-heavy and non-optimized. We propose an improved PCA based region matching method for the fringe direction estimation, which includes an improved and robust mask construction scheme, and a fast and optimized orientation-direction conversion algorithm for the mask areas. Along with the estimated fringe direction map, filtered fringe pattern by automatic selective reconstruction modification and enhanced fast empirical mode decomposition (ASRm-EFEMD) is used for Hilbert spiral transform (HST) to demodulate the phase. Subsequently, windowed Fourier ridge (WFR) method is used for the refinement of the phase. The robustness and effectiveness of proposed method are demonstrated by both simulated and experimental fringe patterns.

  18. Inexpensive CubeSat attitude estimation using COTS components and Unscented Kalman Filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard; Vinther, Kasper

    2011-01-01

    computational cost of estimating bias in measurements is worthwhile. The simulations where performed in a simulation environment for the CubeSat AAUSAT3, where robustness has been an important factor during tuning of the attitude estimators. The results indicate that it is possible to achieve acceptable Cube......This paper describes a quaternion implementation of an Unscented Kalman Filter for attitude estimation on CubeSats using measurements of a sun vector, a magnetic field vector and angular velocity. Using unit quaternions provides a singularity free attitude parameterization. However, the unity...... constraint requires a redesign of the Unscented Kalman Filter. Therefore, a quaternion error state is introduced. Emphasis has been put in making the implementation accessible to other CubeSat by using realistic models of COTS components used for attitude sensing and simulations have shown that the extra...

  19. Cell Factory Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davy, Anne Mathilde; Kildegaard, Helene Faustrup; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2017-01-01

    focused on individual strategies or cell types, but collectively they fall under the broad umbrella of a growing field known as cell factory engineering. Here we condense >130 reviews and key studies in the art into a meta-review of cell factory engineering. We identified 33 generic strategies......-review provides general strategy guides for the broad range of applications of rational engineering of cell factories....

  20. Variance components estimation for farrowing traits of three purebred pigs in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Irvine Lopez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to estimate breed-specific variance components for total number born (TNB, number born alive (NBA and mortality rate from birth through weaning including stillbirths (MORT of three main swine breeds in Korea. In addition, the importance of including maternal genetic and service sire effects in estimation models was evaluated. Methods Records of farrowing traits from 6,412 Duroc, 18,020 Landrace, and 54,254 Yorkshire sows collected from January 2001 to September 2016 from different farms in Korea were used in the analysis. Animal models and the restricted maximum likelihood method were used to estimate variances in animal genetic, permanent environmental, maternal genetic, service sire and residuals. Results The heritability estimates ranged from 0.072 to 0.102, 0.090 to 0.099, and 0.109 to 0.121 for TNB; 0.087 to 0.110, 0.088 to 0.100, and 0.099 to 0.107 for NBA; and 0.027 to 0.031, 0.050 to 0.053, and 0.073 to 0.081 for MORT in the Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire breeds, respectively. The proportion of the total variation due to permanent environmental effects, maternal genetic effects, and service sire effects ranged from 0.042 to 0.088, 0.001 to 0.031, and 0.001 to 0.021, respectively. Spearman rank correlations among models ranged from 0.98 to 0.99, demonstrating that the maternal genetic and service sire effects have small effects on the precision of the breeding value. Conclusion Models that include additive genetic and permanent environmental effects are suitable for farrowing traits in Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire populations in Korea. This breed-specific variance components estimates for litter traits can be utilized for pig improvement programs in Korea.

  1. PCs in the factory

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a short discount publication.PCs have become as essential to the factory environment as they are to the office environment. This in-depth report examines how specially adapted PCs and peripherals are being established in Factory Process Control and Reporting. The report covers: * Hardware and Software* Typical Applications* Implementation Issues* Case Studies and Real Applications

  2. Integrated analysis of numerical weather prediction and computational fluid dynamics for estimating cross-ventilation effects on inhaled air quality inside a factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murga, Alicia; Sano, Yusuke; Kawamoto, Yoichi; Ito, Kazuhide

    2017-10-01

    Mechanical and passive ventilation strategies directly impact indoor air quality. Passive ventilation has recently become widespread owing to its ability to reduce energy demand in buildings, such as the case of natural or cross ventilation. To understand the effect of natural ventilation on indoor environmental quality, outdoor-indoor flow paths need to be analyzed as functions of urban atmospheric conditions, topology of the built environment, and indoor conditions. Wind-driven natural ventilation (e.g., cross ventilation) can be calculated through the wind pressure coefficient distributions of outdoor wall surfaces and openings of a building, allowing the study of indoor air parameters and airborne contaminant concentrations. Variations in outside parameters will directly impact indoor air quality and residents' health. Numerical modeling can contribute to comprehend these various parameters because it allows full control of boundary conditions and sampling points. In this study, numerical weather prediction modeling was used to calculate wind profiles/distributions at the atmospheric scale, and computational fluid dynamics was used to model detailed urban and indoor flows, which were then integrated into a dynamic downscaling analysis to predict specific urban wind parameters from the atmospheric to built-environment scale. Wind velocity and contaminant concentration distributions inside a factory building were analyzed to assess the quality of the human working environment by using a computer simulated person. The impact of cross ventilation flows and its variations on local average contaminant concentration around a factory worker, and inhaled contaminant dose, were then discussed.

  3. Estimating and interpreting a common stochastic component for the Brazilian industrial production index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Picchetti

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper employs a state-space formulation to model a common stochastic component in four different series that constitute the aggregate index of industrial production in Brazil. This estimated common component is then interpreted as a measurement of behavior of fundamentals in the brazilian economy and compared to the actual aggregate index.A partir de uma formulação em espaço de estado, modelamos um componente estocástico comum para quatro séries distintas que compõem o índice agregado de produção industrial calculado pelo IBGE para o Brasil. Esse componente estocástico comum estimado é então interpretado como uma medida do comportamento de fundamentos da economia brasileira, e comparado com o índice agregado efetivo.

  4. Robust estimation and forecasting of the long-term seasonal component of electricity spot prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowotarski, Jakub; Tomczyk, Jakub; Weron, Rafał

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of an extensive study on estimation and forecasting of the long-term seasonal component (LTSC) of electricity spot prices. We consider a battery of over 300 models, including monthly dummies and models based on Fourier or wavelet decomposition combined with linear or exponential decay. We find that the considered wavelet-based models are significantly better in terms of forecasting spot prices up to a year ahead than the commonly used monthly dummies and sine-based models. This result questions the validity and usefulness of stochastic models of spot electricity prices built on the latter two types of LTSC models. - Highlights: • First comprehensive study on the forecasting of the long-term seasonal components • Over 300 models examined, including commonly used and new approaches • Wavelet-based models outperform sine-based and monthly dummy models. • Validity of stochastic models built on sines or monthly dummies is questionable

  5. A rapid reliability estimation method for directed acyclic lifeline networks with statistically dependent components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Won-Hee; Kliese, Alyce

    2014-01-01

    Lifeline networks, such as transportation, water supply, sewers, telecommunications, and electrical and gas networks, are essential elements for the economic and societal functions of urban areas, but their components are highly susceptible to natural or man-made hazards. In this context, it is essential to provide effective pre-disaster hazard mitigation strategies and prompt post-disaster risk management efforts based on rapid system reliability assessment. This paper proposes a rapid reliability estimation method for node-pair connectivity analysis of lifeline networks especially when the network components are statistically correlated. Recursive procedures are proposed to compound all network nodes until they become a single super node representing the connectivity between the origin and destination nodes. The proposed method is applied to numerical network examples and benchmark interconnected power and water networks in Memphis, Shelby County. The connectivity analysis results show the proposed method's reasonable accuracy and remarkable efficiency as compared to the Monte Carlo simulations

  6. An expert system for diagnostics and estimation of steam turbine components condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murmansky, B. E.; Aronson, K. E.; Brodov, Yu. M.

    2017-11-01

    The report describes an expert system of probability type for diagnostics and state estimation of steam turbine technological subsystems components. The expert system is based on Bayes’ theorem and permits to troubleshoot the equipment components, using expert experience, when there is a lack of baseline information on the indicators of turbine operation. Within a unified approach the expert system solves the problems of diagnosing the flow steam path of the turbine, bearings, thermal expansion system, regulatory system, condensing unit, the systems of regenerative feed-water and hot water heating. The knowledge base of the expert system for turbine unit rotors and bearings contains a description of 34 defects and of 104 related diagnostic features that cause a change in its vibration state. The knowledge base for the condensing unit contains 12 hypotheses and 15 evidence (indications); the procedures are also designated for 20 state parameters estimation. Similar knowledge base containing the diagnostic features and faults hypotheses are formulated for other technological subsystems of turbine unit. With the necessary initial information available a number of problems can be solved within the expert system for various technological subsystems of steam turbine unit: for steam flow path it is the correlation and regression analysis of multifactor relationship between the vibration parameters variations and the regime parameters; for system of thermal expansions it is the evaluation of force acting on the longitudinal keys depending on the temperature state of the turbine cylinder; for condensing unit it is the evaluation of separate effect of the heat exchange surface contamination and of the presence of air in condenser steam space on condenser thermal efficiency performance, as well as the evaluation of term for condenser cleaning and for tube system replacement and so forth. With a lack of initial information the expert system enables to formulate a diagnosis

  7. The estimation of defects influence on lifetime of NPP equipment components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovchinikov, A.V.; Vasilchenko, G.S.; Rivkin, E.Y.

    1998-01-01

    Estimating the influence of defects on NPP components lifetime requires several typical operations: testing the objects without destroying the means of control, scheme of detected defects and performing calculations. The basic methods for revealing defects are ultrasonic, radiographic and visual control. A technique was developed for lifetime calculation of reactor equipment with defects using minimum information about defects and properties of material. The experience obtained during several years has shown good results. Experimental data of tests concerning destruction of construction elements showed good reliability

  8. Classification in hyperspectral images by independent component analysis, segmented cross-validation and uncertainty estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Galindo-Prieto

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Independent component analysis combined with various strategies for cross-validation, uncertainty estimates by jack-knifing and critical Hotelling’s T2 limits estimation, proposed in this paper, is used for classification purposes in hyperspectral images. To the best of our knowledge, the combined approach of methods used in this paper has not been previously applied to hyperspectral imaging analysis for interpretation and classification in the literature. The data analysis performed here aims to distinguish between four different types of plastics, some of them containing brominated flame retardants, from their near infrared hyperspectral images. The results showed that the method approach used here can be successfully used for unsupervised classification. A comparison of validation approaches, especially leave-one-out cross-validation and regions of interest scheme validation is also evaluated.

  9. Complex demodulation in VLBI estimation of high frequency Earth rotation components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, S.; Brzeziński, A.; Schuh, H.

    2012-12-01

    The spectrum of high frequency Earth rotation variations contains strong harmonic signal components mainly excited by ocean tides along with much weaker non-harmonic fluctuations driven by irregular processes like the diurnal thermal tides in the atmosphere and oceans. In order to properly investigate non-harmonic phenomena a representation in time domain is inevitable. We present a method, operating in time domain, which is easily applicable within Earth rotation estimation from Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). It enables the determination of diurnal and subdiurnal variations, and is still effective with merely diurnal parameter sampling. The features of complex demodulation are used in an extended parameterization of polar motion and universal time which was implemented into a dedicated version of the Vienna VLBI Software VieVS. The functionality of the approach was evaluated by comparing amplitudes and phases of harmonic variations at tidal periods (diurnal/semidiurnal), derived from demodulated Earth rotation parameters (ERP), estimated from hourly resolved VLBI ERP time series and taken from a recently published VLBI ERP model to the terms of the conventional model for ocean tidal effects in Earth rotation recommended by the International Earth Rotation and Reference System Service (IERS). The three sets of tidal terms derived from VLBI observations extensively agree among each other within the three-sigma level of the demodulation approach, which is below 6 μas for polar motion and universal time. They also coincide in terms of differences to the IERS model, where significant deviations primarily for several major tidal terms are apparent. An additional spectral analysis of the as well estimated demodulated ERP series of the ter- and quarterdiurnal frequency bands did not reveal any significant signal structure. The complex demodulation applied in VLBI parameter estimation could be demonstrated a suitable procedure for the reliable reproduction of

  10. Nuclear reactor component populations, reliability data bases, and their relationship to failure rate estimation and uncertainty analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martz, H.F.; Beckman, R.J.

    1981-12-01

    Probabilistic risk analyses are used to assess the risks inherent in the operation of existing and proposed nuclear power reactors. In performing such risk analyses the failure rates of various components which are used in a variety of reactor systems must be estimated. These failure rate estimates serve as input to fault trees and event trees used in the analyses. Component failure rate estimation is often based on relevant field failure data from different reliability data sources such as LERs, NPRDS, and the In-Plant Data Program. Various statistical data analysis and estimation methods have been proposed over the years to provide the required estimates of the component failure rates. This report discusses the basis and extent to which statistical methods can be used to obtain component failure rate estimates. The report is expository in nature and focuses on the general philosophical basis for such statistical methods. Various terms and concepts are defined and illustrated by means of numerous simple examples

  11. The TRIUMF KAON Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.K.

    1990-11-01

    The TRIUMF KAON Factory is designed to produce beams of kaons, antiprotons, other hadrons and neutrinos 100 times more intense, or cleaner, than are available now, for a broad range of experiments in particle and nuclear physics. This will require a 100 μA beam of 30 GeV protons, to be produced by an interleaved sequence of two fast-cycling synchrotrons and three storage rings, with the existing TRIUMF H - cyclotron as injector. An $11-million preconstruction study has enabled the overall design to be reviewed and prototypes of various accelerator components to be built and evaluated. Environmental, industrial and economic impact studies have also been completed. Payment of one-third of the total cost of $708 million (Canadian) has been approved by the government of British Columbia; a further third is expected from international sources, on the basis of inter-governmental consultations. A decision on the final third is expected from the government of Canada before the end of 1990. (Author) (15 refs., 7 figs.)

  12. A geo-informatics approach for estimating water resources management components and their interrelationships

    KAUST Repository

    Liaqat, Umar Waqas

    2016-09-21

    A remote sensing based geo-informatics approach was developed to estimate water resources management (WRM) components across a large irrigation scheme in the Indus Basin of Pakistan. The approach provides a generalized framework for estimating a range of key water management variables and provides a management tool for the sustainable operation of similar schemes globally. A focus on the use of satellite data allowed for the quantification of relationships across a range of spatial and temporal scales. Variables including actual and crop evapotranspiration, net and gross irrigation, net and gross groundwater use, groundwater recharge, net groundwater recharge, were estimated and then their interrelationships explored across the Hakra Canal command area. Spatially distributed remotely sensed estimates of actual evapotranspiration (ETa) rates were determined using the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) model and evaluated against ground-based evaporation calculated from the advection-aridity method. Analysis of ETa simulations across two cropping season, referred to as Kharif and Rabi, yielded Pearson correlation (R) values of 0.69 and 0.84, Nash-Sutcliffe criterion (NSE) of 0.28 and 0.63, percentage bias of −3.85% and 10.6% and root mean squared error (RMSE) of 10.6 mm and 12.21 mm for each season, respectively. For the period of study between 2008 and 2014, it was estimated that an average of 0.63 mm day−1 water was supplied through canal irrigation against a crop water demand of 3.81 mm day−1. Approximately 1.86 mm day−1 groundwater abstraction was estimated in the region, which contributed to fulfil the gap between crop water demand and canal water supply. Importantly, the combined canal, groundwater and rainfall sources of water only met 70% of the crop water requirements. As such, the difference between recharge and discharge showed that groundwater depletion was around −115 mm year−1 during the six year study period. Analysis indicated that

  13. Large Scale Evapotranspiration Estimates: An Important Component in Regional Water Balances to Assess Water Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garatuza-Payan, J.; Yepez, E. A.; Watts, C.; Rodriguez, J. C.; Valdez-Torres, L. C.; Robles-Morua, A.

    2013-05-01

    Water security, can be defined as the reliable supply in quantity and quality of water to help sustain future populations and maintaining ecosystem health and productivity. Water security is rapidly declining in many parts of the world due to population growth, drought, climate change, salinity, pollution, land use change, over-allocation and over-utilization, among other issues. Governmental offices (such as the Comision Nacional del Agua in Mexico, CONAGUA) require and conduct studies to estimate reliable water balances at regional or continental scales in order to provide reasonable assessments of the amount of water that can be provided (from surface or ground water sources) to supply all the human needs while maintaining natural vegetation, on an operational basis and, more important, under disturbances, such as droughts. Large scale estimates of evapotranspiration (ET), a critical component of the water cycle, are needed for a better comprehension of the hydrological cycle at large scales, which, in most water balances is left as the residual. For operational purposes, such water balance estimates can not rely on ET measurements since they do not exist, should be simple and require the least ground information possible, information that is often scarce or does not exist at all. Given this limitation, the use of remotely sensed data to estimate ET could supplement the lack of ground information, particularly in remote regions In this study, a simple method, based on the Makkink equation is used to estimate ET for large areas at high spatial resolutions (1 km). The Makkink model used here is forced using three remotely sensed datasets. First, the model uses solar radiation estimates obtained from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES); Second, the model uses an Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) obtained from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) normalized to get an estimate for vegetation amount and land use which was

  14. Age estimation in forensic anthropology: quantification of observer error in phase versus component-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Natalie R; Ramirez Montes, Paula Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess observer error in phase versus component-based scoring systems used to develop age estimation methods in forensic anthropology. A method preferred by forensic anthropologists in the AAFS was selected for this evaluation (the Suchey-Brooks method for the pubic symphysis). The Suchey-Brooks descriptions were used to develop a corresponding component-based scoring system for comparison. Several commonly used reliability statistics (kappa, weighted kappa, and the intraclass correlation coefficient) were calculated to assess observer agreement between two observers and to evaluate the efficacy of each of these statistics for this study. The linear weighted kappa was determined to be the most suitable measure of observer agreement. The results show that a component-based system offers the possibility for more objective scoring than a phase system as long as the coding possibilities for each trait do not exceed three states of expression, each with as little overlap as possible. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. Towards energy transparent factories

    CERN Document Server

    Posselt, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    This monograph provides a methodological approach for establishing demand-oriented levels of energy transparency of factories. The author presents a systematic indication of energy drivers and cost factors, taking into account the interdependencies between facility and production domains. Particular attention is given to energy flow metering and monitoring. Readers will also be provided with an in-depth description of a planning tool which allows for systematically deriving suitable metering points in complex factory environments. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field of factory planning, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  16. Wake Component Detection in X-Band SAR Images for Ship Heading and Velocity Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Daniela Graziano

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A new algorithm for ship wake detection is developed with the aim of ship heading and velocity estimation. It exploits the Radon transform and utilizes merit indexes in the intensity domain to validate the detected linear features as real components of the ship wake. Finally, ship velocity is estimated by state-of-the-art techniques of azimuth shift and Kelvin arm wavelength. The algorithm is applied to 13 X-band SAR images from the TerraSAR-X and COSMO/SkyMed missions with different polarization and incidence angles. Results show that the vast majority of wake features are correctly detected and validated also in critical situations, i.e., when multiple wake appearances or dark areas not related to wake features are imaged. The ship route estimations are validated with truth-at-sea in seven cases. Finally, it is also verified that the algorithm does not detect wakes in the surroundings of 10 ships without wake appearances.

  17. Maximum likelihood estimation of semiparametric mixture component models for competing risks data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sangbum; Huang, Xuelin

    2014-09-01

    In the analysis of competing risks data, the cumulative incidence function is a useful quantity to characterize the crude risk of failure from a specific event type. In this article, we consider an efficient semiparametric analysis of mixture component models on cumulative incidence functions. Under the proposed mixture model, latency survival regressions given the event type are performed through a class of semiparametric models that encompasses the proportional hazards model and the proportional odds model, allowing for time-dependent covariates. The marginal proportions of the occurrences of cause-specific events are assessed by a multinomial logistic model. Our mixture modeling approach is advantageous in that it makes a joint estimation of model parameters associated with all competing risks under consideration, satisfying the constraint that the cumulative probability of failing from any cause adds up to one given any covariates. We develop a novel maximum likelihood scheme based on semiparametric regression analysis that facilitates efficient and reliable estimation. Statistical inferences can be conveniently made from the inverse of the observed information matrix. We establish the consistency and asymptotic normality of the proposed estimators. We validate small sample properties with simulations and demonstrate the methodology with a data set from a study of follicular lymphoma. © 2014, The International Biometric Society.

  18. Estimation of mercury amount in the components of spent U-type lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Seung-Whee

    2017-05-01

    Spent U-type lamps are strongly encouraged to be separately managed in Korea, because U-type lamps are categorized as a household waste and thereby could not be managed properly. Determination of mercury amount in the components of U-type lamp, such as plastics, glass tube and phosphor powder from 3 U-type lamp manufacturers (A, B and C), is carried out to estimate the mercury content in spent U-type lamps. Regardless of lamp manufacturers, the portion of mercury in phosphor powder was higher than 90%, but that in plastics and others was less than 1%. At an air flow rate of 1.0 L/min, the range of the initial mercury concentration in vapor phase for U-type lamp was between 849 and 2076 µg/m 3 from 3 companies. The estimated mercury amount in vapor phase of U-type lamp was in the range from 0.206 mg for company A to 0.593 mg for company B. And the portion of mercury in vapor phase in the total amount of mercury was estimated in the range from 3.0% for company A to 6.7% for company B. Hence, it is desirable to get rid of mercury from phosphor powder in order to perform U-type lamps recycling.

  19. Factorial structure of aerobics athletes’ fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Shepelenko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to develop an algorithm of teams’ formation in sport aerobics and to define factorial structure of athletes’ fitness. Material : in the research sport aerobics’ athletes (n=19 participated. All athletes are members of Kharkiv national team (Ukraine. All athletes underwent complete medical examination. The functional condition of an organism (arterial blood pressure, indicators of a variability of the rhythm of the heart, treadbahn testing, psycho-physiological state (time’s determination of simple and complex reaction were defined. The physical development and physical fitness and stability of vestibular system were also defined. The factorial and cluster analysis were used. Results : The algorithm of teams’ formation in sport aerobics is developed for performances in various competitive categories. The algorithm contains all stages of standard procedure of the factorial and cluster analysis. In the factorial analysis the individual factorial values were also defined. Conclusions : The obtained data are recommended to be used at teams’ formation for performances in various competitive categories: team formation for pair and group performances. The general and individual factorial structure of athletes’ complex fitness is defined. It is possible to select athletes with similar qualities and with different qualities for the mixed performances. The determination of individual factorial structure of fitness permits to estimate objectively variants of athletes’ formation in groups.

  20. Sanitation: No hot chocolate. Insulation of pipelines and component parts in the Ritter Sport factory at Waldenbuch; Sanierung: Keine heisse Schokolade. Daemmung von Rohrleitungen und Anlagenteilen im Ritter Sport Werk Waldenbuch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2002-12-13

    In the chocolate factory Ritter Sport the heating systems were retrofitted in the last months. Two separated central heating plants were unified in a central block unit with cogeneration components. The piping system was decartelized and optimized. During the insulation of pipelines with elastomer high temperature materials high hygienical standards have to be kept. Furthermore the new lines have to be installed and insulated during running production because hot water supply shouldn't be interrupted. (GL) [German] Isolierungen in der Industrie muessen haeufig hohen Anforderungen genuegen und unter erschwerten Bedingungen durchgefuehrt werden. In der Schokoladenfabrik Ritter Sport in Waldenbuch wurde in den vergangenen Monaten die Heizungsanlage saniert: Dabei wurden zwei raeumlich getrennte Heizzentralen auf ein zentrales Blockheizkraftwerk umgeruestet. Gleichzeitig wurde das Rohrleitungsnetz entflochten und optimiert. Bei der Daemmung der Heizungsrohrleitungen mit einem elastomeren Hochtemperaturdaemmstoff mussten nicht nur die hohen Hygiene-Standards der Ritter Sport GmbH eingehalten werden, die neuen Leitungen mussten zudem bei laufender Produktion verlegt und gedaemmt werden, da die Heizwasserversorgung nicht unterbrochen werden durfte. (orig.)

  1. Evaluation of ring impedance of the Photon Factory storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiuchi, T.; Izawa, M.; Tokumoto, S.; Hori, Y.; Sakanaka, S.; Kobayashi, M.; Kobayakawa, H.

    1992-05-01

    The loss parameters of the ducts in the Photon Factory (PF) storage ring were evaluated using the wire method and the code TBCI. Both the measurement and the calculation were done for a different bunch length (σ) ranging from 23 to 80 ps. The PF ring impedance was estimated to be |Z/n|=3.2 Ω using the broadband impedance model. The major contribution to the impedance comes from the bellows and the gate valve sections. Improvements of these components will lower the ring impedance by half. (author)

  2. Planned Positron Factory project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Sohei

    1990-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, JAERI, has started, drafting a construction plan for the 'Positron Factory', in which intense energy-controllable monoenergetic positron beams are produced from pair-production reactions caused by high-energy electrons from a linac. The JAERI organized a planning committee to provide a basic picture for the Positron Factory. This article presents an overview of the interactions of positrons, intense positron sources and the research program and facilities planned for the project. The interactions of positrons and intense positron sources are discussed focusing on major characteristics of positrons in different energy ranges. The research program for the Positron Factory is then outlined, focusing on advanced positron annihilation techniques, positron spectroscopy (diffraction, scattering, channeling, microscopy), basic positron physics (exotic particle science), and positron beam technology. Discussion is also made of facilities required for the Positron Factory. (N.K.)

  3. Virtual Factory Testbed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Virtual Factory Testbed (VFT) is comprised of three physical facilities linked by a standalone network (VFNet). The three facilities are the Smart and Wireless...

  4. TRIUMF kaon factory plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackmore, E.W.

    1983-01-01

    A progress report on the TRIUMF Kaon Factory Feasibility Study is presented. The requirements placed on the machine parameters and experimental facilities by the potentially interesting experiments are discussed

  5. TRIUMF kaon factory plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackmore, E.W.

    1982-11-01

    A progress report on the TRIUMF Kaon Factory Feasibility Study is presented. The requirements placed on the machine parameters and experimental facilities by the potentially interesting experiments are discussed

  6. Super B Factories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B factory; CP violation; B meson; supersymmetry. PACS Nos 11.30.Hv; 11.30.Pb; 12.15.Hh; 12.15.Mm; 13.20.He; 13.20.Fc;. 13.35.Dx; 14.65.Fy. 1. Introduction. The two asymmetric B factories, PEP-II and KEK-B, and their companion detec- tors, BABAR and Belle, have produced a wealth of flavor physics results, subjecting.

  7. Determination of power system component parameters using nonlinear dead beat estimation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolluru, Lakshmi

    Power systems are considered the most complex man-made wonders in existence today. In order to effectively supply the ever increasing demands of the consumers, power systems are required to remain stable at all times. Stability and monitoring of these complex systems are achieved by strategically placed computerized control centers. State and parameter estimation is an integral part of these facilities, as they deal with identifying the unknown states and/or parameters of the systems. Advancements in measurement technologies and the introduction of phasor measurement units (PMU) provide detailed and dynamic information of all measurements. Accurate availability of dynamic measurements provides engineers the opportunity to expand and explore various possibilities in power system dynamic analysis/control. This thesis discusses the development of a parameter determination algorithm for nonlinear power systems, using dynamic data obtained from local measurements. The proposed algorithm was developed by observing the dead beat estimator used in state space estimation of linear systems. The dead beat estimator is considered to be very effective as it is capable of obtaining the required results in a fixed number of steps. The number of steps required is related to the order of the system and the number of parameters to be estimated. The proposed algorithm uses the idea of dead beat estimator and nonlinear finite difference methods to create an algorithm which is user friendly and can determine the parameters fairly accurately and effectively. The proposed algorithm is based on a deterministic approach, which uses dynamic data and mathematical models of power system components to determine the unknown parameters. The effectiveness of the algorithm is tested by implementing it to identify the unknown parameters of a synchronous machine. MATLAB environment is used to create three test cases for dynamic analysis of the system with assumed known parameters. Faults are

  8. Estimation of variation and correlation analysis for yield components in black currant cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakonjac Vera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Creating genotypes that will be characterized by high yields, good quality and other favorable agronomic characters is a major objective of most currant breeding programs worldwide. For easier and faster achievement of these goals and identification of superior genotypes suitable for use as parents in future hybridization programs, study of genetic parameters seems to be obligatory. In this regard, the aims of our study were to estimate components of variability and heritability, and do correlation analysis for yield components in order to determine efficient strategies for improving yield in black currant breeding programs. Significant differences between cultivars were established for all studied traits. A high proportion of genotypic variance was found with bush width, no. of shoots per bush, bunch weight and berry weight indicating that genetic improvement for these traits through breeding was achievable. Opposite, seasonal variance was high for bush height, no. of bunch per bush and yield. The high heritability coefficients (0.80-0.94 detected for all traits studied reflect the close agreement between their phenotypic and genotypic values. Also, most pairs of traits were similarly correlated at both phenotypic and genotypic levels. So, yield was significantly and positively correlated with bush height, no of bunch per bush and bunch weight. These results imply a rapid response of black currants to selection. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46013 i FP7 Project AREA 316004

  9. Estudo fatorial dos componentes da leitura: velocidade, compreensão e reconhecimento de palavras Estudio factorial de los componentes de la lectura: velocidad, comprensión y reconocimiento de palabras Factorial study of reading components: speed, comprehension and word recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Gotuzo Seabra

    2012-08-01

    reconocimiento de palabras; el factor 3, la estrategia ortográfica; y el factor 4 se refirió a la velocidad lectora. Los hallazgos, muy próximos al esperado teóricamente, pueden auxiliar en la comprensión de los procesos cognitivos involucrados en la lectura de niños en el inicio de la enseñanza básica.Information Processing Models has identified different process involved in the reading, including word recognition, comprehension and speed, being that the word recognition can occur for three different strategies, the logographic, the alphabetic and ortographic one. In the way to identify such components in the reading, 443 students of the 1st to the 4th grades of the elementary school were evaluated in words recognition, oral/auditory comprehension, reading comprehension, orthographic processing and speed of reading tests. A Factorial Analyses of principal components and oblimin rotation was conducted, deriving four factors. The factor 1 included recognition of familiar words and oral and written linguistic comprehension; the factor 2 understood the logographic and alphabetic strategies of word recognition; the factor 3, the orthographic strategy; and the factor 4 referred to the speed of reading. The finds, near to the expected theoretically, are able to help in the comprehension of the cognitive process involved in the reading of children in the beginning of the elementary education.

  10. Tau-charm factory..

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-10-15

    In addition to hearing the latest experimental and theoretical developments at the 17th International Symposium on Lepton Photon Interactions in Beijing, delegates were brought up-to-date on the substantial progress towards the realization of a Tau-Charm Factory in the Chinese capital. Opening the Symposium, Zhou Guangzhao, President of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, expressed a commitment of the Chinese government to basic research and its interest in the continuing development high energy physics in China. Following the very successful construction and operation of Beijing's Electron-Positron Collider, BEPC, the Chinese government has provided 5M yuan ($US 600,000) for a feasibility study by the end of 1996 for a Tau-Charm Factory at Beijing's Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP). Professor Zhou expressed his belief that, once approved, such a factory would greatly enhance high energy physics in China. He warmly welcomed international collaboration both in the construction of the accelerator and in the experimental programme. His comments were reinforced in the following welcome speech by IHEP Director Zheng Zhipeng. Conference delegates had the opportunity to inspect the BEPC injector and collider, built almost entirely by Chinese industry. The International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) met during the Symposium, with Tau- Charm Factory business on the agenda. In his subsequent report, ICFA Chairman John Peoples said that a Tau-Charm Factory provides a unique experimental environment for the precision studies of tau, charm and light quark-gluon spectroscopy, and that some issues in these fields are not satisfactorily addressed solely by B Factories or fixed-target experiments. The committee expressed a strong interest in seeing a Tau-Charm Factory built and noted the serious interest, especially in China, and looks forward to operation and exploitation by the international physics community. In their Beijing summary talks, both Sam Ting and T

  11. Tau-charm factory..

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    In addition to hearing the latest experimental and theoretical developments at the 17th International Symposium on Lepton Photon Interactions in Beijing, delegates were brought up-to-date on the substantial progress towards the realization of a Tau-Charm Factory in the Chinese capital. Opening the Symposium, Zhou Guangzhao, President of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, expressed a commitment of the Chinese government to basic research and its interest in the continuing development high energy physics in China. Following the very successful construction and operation of Beijing's Electron-Positron Collider, BEPC, the Chinese government has provided 5M yuan ($US 600,000) for a feasibility study by the end of 1996 for a Tau-Charm Factory at Beijing's Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP). Professor Zhou expressed his belief that, once approved, such a factory would greatly enhance high energy physics in China. He warmly welcomed international collaboration both in the construction of the accelerator and in the experimental programme. His comments were reinforced in the following welcome speech by IHEP Director Zheng Zhipeng. Conference delegates had the opportunity to inspect the BEPC injector and collider, built almost entirely by Chinese industry. The International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) met during the Symposium, with Tau- Charm Factory business on the agenda. In his subsequent report, ICFA Chairman John Peoples said that a Tau-Charm Factory provides a unique experimental environment for the precision studies of tau, charm and light quark-gluon spectroscopy, and that some issues in these fields are not satisfactorily addressed solely by B Factories or fixed-target experiments. The committee expressed a strong interest in seeing a Tau-Charm Factory built and noted the serious interest, especially in China, and looks forward to operation and exploitation by the international physics community. In their Beijing summary talks, both Sam Ting

  12. Estimation of error components in a multi-error linear regression model, with an application to track fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruehwirth, R.

    1993-01-01

    We present an estimation procedure of the error components in a linear regression model with multiple independent stochastic error contributions. After solving the general problem we apply the results to the estimation of the actual trajectory in track fitting with multiple scattering. (orig.)

  13. Estimating spatial and temporal components of variation in count data using negative binomial mixed models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Brian J.; Wagner, Tyler; Bence, James R.; Kepler, Megan V.; Liu, Weihai; Hayes, Daniel B.

    2013-01-01

    Partitioning total variability into its component temporal and spatial sources is a powerful way to better understand time series and elucidate trends. The data available for such analyses of fish and other populations are usually nonnegative integer counts of the number of organisms, often dominated by many low values with few observations of relatively high abundance. These characteristics are not well approximated by the Gaussian distribution. We present a detailed description of a negative binomial mixed-model framework that can be used to model count data and quantify temporal and spatial variability. We applied these models to data from four fishery-independent surveys of Walleyes Sander vitreus across the Great Lakes basin. Specifically, we fitted models to gill-net catches from Wisconsin waters of Lake Superior; Oneida Lake, New York; Saginaw Bay in Lake Huron, Michigan; and Ohio waters of Lake Erie. These long-term monitoring surveys varied in overall sampling intensity, the total catch of Walleyes, and the proportion of zero catches. Parameter estimation included the negative binomial scaling parameter, and we quantified the random effects as the variations among gill-net sampling sites, the variations among sampled years, and site × year interactions. This framework (i.e., the application of a mixed model appropriate for count data in a variance-partitioning context) represents a flexible approach that has implications for monitoring programs (e.g., trend detection) and for examining the potential of individual variance components to serve as response metrics to large-scale anthropogenic perturbations or ecological changes.

  14. A meta-model based approach for rapid formability estimation of continuous fibre reinforced components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerling, Clemens; Dörr, Dominik; Henning, Frank; Kärger, Luise

    2018-05-01

    Due to their high mechanical performance, continuous fibre reinforced plastics (CoFRP) become increasingly important for load bearing structures. In many cases, manufacturing CoFRPs comprises a forming process of textiles. To predict and optimise the forming behaviour of a component, numerical simulations are applied. However, for maximum part quality, both the geometry and the process parameters must match in mutual regard, which in turn requires numerous numerically expensive optimisation iterations. In both textile and metal forming, a lot of research has focused on determining optimum process parameters, whilst regarding the geometry as invariable. In this work, a meta-model based approach on component level is proposed, that provides a rapid estimation of the formability for variable geometries based on pre-sampled, physics-based draping data. Initially, a geometry recognition algorithm scans the geometry and extracts a set of doubly-curved regions with relevant geometry parameters. If the relevant parameter space is not part of an underlying data base, additional samples via Finite-Element draping simulations are drawn according to a suitable design-table for computer experiments. Time saving parallel runs of the physical simulations accelerate the data acquisition. Ultimately, a Gaussian Regression meta-model is built from the data base. The method is demonstrated on a box-shaped generic structure. The predicted results are in good agreement with physics-based draping simulations. Since evaluations of the established meta-model are numerically inexpensive, any further design exploration (e.g. robustness analysis or design optimisation) can be performed in short time. It is expected that the proposed method also offers great potential for future applications along virtual process chains: For each process step along the chain, a meta-model can be set-up to predict the impact of design variations on manufacturability and part performance. Thus, the method is

  15. The Smart Factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Agnieszka; Bilberg, Arne; Bogers, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays we live in a world, which a decade ago would only be described in the science fiction literature. More and more things become smart and both scientists and engineers strive for developing not only new and innovative devices, but also homes, factories, or even cities. Despite of continuous...... development, many of those concepts are still being just a vision of the future, which still needs a lot of effort to become true. This paper reviews the usage of adjective smart in respect to technology and with a special emphasis on the smart factory concept placement among contemporary studies. Due...... to a lack of a consensus of common understanding of this term, a unified definition is proposed. The conceptualization will not only refer to various smart factory visions reported in the literature, but also link the crucial characteristics of this emerging manufacturing concept to usual manufacturing...

  16. Microclimatic models. Estimation of components of the energy balance over land surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikinheimo, M.; Venaelaeinen, A.; Tourula, T. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Air Quality Dept.

    1996-12-31

    Climates at regional scale are strongly dependent on the interaction between atmosphere and its lower boundary, the oceans and the land surface mosaic. Land surfaces influence climate through their albedo, and the aerodynamic roughness, the processes of the biosphere and many soil hydrological properties; all these factors vary considerably geographically. Land surfaces receive a certain portion of the solar irradiance depending on the cloudiness, atmospheric transparency and surface albedo. Short-wave solar irradiance is the source of the heat energy exchange at the earth`s surface and also regulates many biological processes, e.g. photosynthesis. Methods for estimating solar irradiance, atmospheric transparency and surface albedo were reviewed during the course of this project. The solar energy at earth`s surface is consumed for heating the soil and the lower atmosphere. Where moisture is available, evaporation is one of the key components of the surface energy balance, because the conversion of liquid water into water vapour consumes heat. The evaporation process was studied by carrying out field experiments and testing parameterisation for a cultivated agricultural surface and for lakes. The micrometeorological study over lakes was carried out as part of the international `Northern Hemisphere Climatic Processes Experiment` (NOPEX/BAHC) in Sweden. These studies have been aimed at a better understanding of the energy exchange processes of the earth`s surface-atmosphere boundary for a more accurate and realistic parameterisation of the land surface in atmospheric models

  17. Microclimatic models. Estimation of components of the energy balance over land surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikinheimo, M; Venaelaeinen, A; Tourula, T [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Air Quality Dept.

    1997-12-31

    Climates at regional scale are strongly dependent on the interaction between atmosphere and its lower boundary, the oceans and the land surface mosaic. Land surfaces influence climate through their albedo, and the aerodynamic roughness, the processes of the biosphere and many soil hydrological properties; all these factors vary considerably geographically. Land surfaces receive a certain portion of the solar irradiance depending on the cloudiness, atmospheric transparency and surface albedo. Short-wave solar irradiance is the source of the heat energy exchange at the earth`s surface and also regulates many biological processes, e.g. photosynthesis. Methods for estimating solar irradiance, atmospheric transparency and surface albedo were reviewed during the course of this project. The solar energy at earth`s surface is consumed for heating the soil and the lower atmosphere. Where moisture is available, evaporation is one of the key components of the surface energy balance, because the conversion of liquid water into water vapour consumes heat. The evaporation process was studied by carrying out field experiments and testing parameterisation for a cultivated agricultural surface and for lakes. The micrometeorological study over lakes was carried out as part of the international `Northern Hemisphere Climatic Processes Experiment` (NOPEX/BAHC) in Sweden. These studies have been aimed at a better understanding of the energy exchange processes of the earth`s surface-atmosphere boundary for a more accurate and realistic parameterisation of the land surface in atmospheric models

  18. Shielding design of RIKEN RI Beam Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uwamino, Yoshitomo; Fukunishi, Nobuhisa [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Oishi, Koji [Shimizu Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Construction of the RIKEN RI Beam Factory is started, and the phase 1 will be finished by the end of March 2003. Two ring cyclotrons including one superconducting machine and two Big RIPSs will be constructed in the phase 1. Heavy ions of proton to uranium will be accelerated up to 400 MeV/u (A<40) and 150 MeV/u for uranium at an intensity of 10{sup 13} pps. Neutron production by the 400 MeV/u {sup 20}Ne beam was measured at HIMAC of NIRS and it was used for the source term of the shielding calculations. The deep penetration of high-energy neutrons was calculated by using the ANISN code with the DLC-119/HILO86R group constants and also by using the HETC code. The ANISN results were modified by using the HETC results and the shielding experiment at ISIS, and they were fitted by a simple formula for practical use. High-energy neutron penetrations of slantwise injection and the reflection probabilities of iron slab were calculated with the HETC code, and these results were used for the estimation of the thickness for the iron local shielding of Big RIPSs. Induced radioactivity in the air, accelerator components and the building, and the skyshine effect were also estimated. (author)

  19. B-factory detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlow, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    The designs of the recently commissioned BaBar and Belle B-Factory detectors are described. The discussion is organized around the methods and instruments used to detect the so-called gold-plated-mode B 0 →J/ΨK S decays and related modes

  20. Factorial Analysis of Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Georgeta VINTILA; Ilie GHEORGHE; Ioana Mihaela POCAN; Madalina Gabriela ANGHEL

    2012-01-01

    The DuPont analysis system is based on decomposing the profitability ratio in factors of influence. This paper describes the factorial analysis of profitability based on the DuPont system. Significant importance is given to the impact on various indicators on the shares value and profitability.

  1. The Clone Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Beryl

    2005-01-01

    Have humans been cloned? Is it possible? Immediate interest is sparked when students are asked these questions. In response to their curiosity, the clone factory activity was developed to help them understand the process of cloning. In this activity, students reenact the cloning process, in a very simplified simulation. After completing the…

  2. Four-legged factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackie, R.I.; Van der Walt, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    Insight into how ruminants utilise plant material, converting what is essentially waste into food, wool and draught power for Man is being sought by Animal Scientists using isotopic tracer techniques. Answers to cost-effectice biological conversion lie in the complex interactions of the rumen's microbial fermentation factory and the host animal's diet and metabolism

  3. Haiti. Educating factory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, H

    1990-04-01

    There are approximately 50,000 workers employed in the light assembly industry in Haiti. About 70% are women, the majority of whom are aged between 25 and 34 years, and are either single or in a nonpermanent relationship with the father of their children. Many live and work in appalling conditions, surviving on very low wages to support several children and an extended family. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is now a visible problem in many factories. In October 1988, the Center for the Promotion of Women Workers (Centre de Promotion des Femmes Ouvriers/CPFO) launched a pilot AIDS education program for factory women. The Center, based in a large industrial zone near the airport, runs a health clinic and courses in literacy, communications skills, health promotion and family planning. The new AIDS program allowed CPFO staff to gain entry into factories for the 1st time. Other courses were held outside working hours and outside factory premises. Staff contacted manages by telephone to arrange a meeting to discuss AIDS and to ask permission to hold educational "round tables" with workers. Of 18 managers in the factories approached over a 12-month period, only 2 refused entry to CPFO staff. Almost all managers reported they had registered between 2 and 5 deaths from AIDS among their employees over the past couple of years. A total of 85 educational sessions, each lasting about 2 hours, were held within 28 different factories, community or labor organizations reaching 3063 workers (male and female). In each session, the presentation was carried out by 2 CPFO trained monitors and included a slide show, flip charts, and the video "Met ko," originally produced for Haitian immigrants in New York. The most important aspect of the program was the training of 38 volunteer factory-based health promoters. These promoters attended the round table sessions, where they facilitated discussion and distributed condoms and were subsequently available for counseling co

  4. Two-component wind fields over ocean waves using atmospheric lidar and motion estimation algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, S. D.

    2016-02-01

    Numerical models, such as large eddy simulations, are capable of providing stunning visualizations of the air-sea interface. One reason for this is the inherent spatial nature of such models. As compute power grows, models are able to provide higher resolution visualizations over larger domains revealing intricate details of the interactions of ocean waves and the airflow over them. Spatial observations on the other hand, which are necessary to validate the simulations, appear to lag behind models. The rough ocean environment of the real world is an additional challenge. One method of providing spatial observations of fluid flow is that of particle image velocimetry (PIV). PIV has been successfully applied to many problems in engineering and the geosciences. This presentation will show recent research results that demonstate that a PIV-style approach using pulsed-fiber atmospheric elastic backscatter lidar hardware and wavelet-based optical flow motion estimation software can reveal two-component wind fields over rough ocean surfaces. Namely, a recently-developed compact lidar was deployed for 10 days in March of 2015 in the Eureka, California area. It scanned over the ocean. Imagery reveal that breaking ocean waves provide copius amounts of particulate matter for the lidar to detect and for the motion estimation algorithms to retrieve wind vectors from. The image below shows two examples of results from the experiment. The left panel shows the elastic backscatter intensity (copper shades) under a field of vectors that was retrieved by the wavelet-based optical flow algorithm from two scans that took about 15 s each to acquire. The vectors, that reveal offshore flow toward the NW, were decimated for clarity. The bright aerosol features along the right edge of the sector scan were caused by ocean waves breaking on the beach. The right panel is the result of scanning over the ocean on a day when wave amplitudes ranged from 8-12 feet and whitecaps offshore beyond the

  5. Estimating mean long-term hydrologic budget components for watersheds and counties: An application to the commonwealth of Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Ward E.; Nelms, David L.; Pope, Jason P.; Selnick, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Mean long-term hydrologic budget components, such as recharge and base flow, are often difficult to estimate because they can vary substantially in space and time. Mean long-term fluxes were calculated in this study for precipitation, surface runoff, infiltration, total evapotranspiration (ET), riparian ET, recharge, base flow (or groundwater discharge) and net total outflow using long-term estimates of mean ET and precipitation and the assumption that the relative change in storage over that 30-year period is small compared to the total ET or precipitation. Fluxes of these components were first estimated on a number of real-time-gaged watersheds across Virginia. Specific conductance was used to distinguish and separate surface runoff from base flow. Specific-conductance (SC) data were collected every 15 minutes at 75 real-time gages for approximately 18 months between March 2007 and August 2008. Precipitation was estimated for 1971-2000 using PRISM climate data. Precipitation and temperature from the PRISM data were used to develop a regression-based relation to estimate total ET. The proportion of watershed precipitation that becomes surface runoff was related to physiographic province and rock type in a runoff regression equation. A new approach to estimate riparian ET using seasonal SC data gave results consistent with those from other methods. Component flux estimates from the watersheds were transferred to flux estimates for counties and independent cities using the ET and runoff regression equations. Only 48 of the 75 watersheds yielded sufficient data, and data from these 48 were used in the final runoff regression equation. Final results for the study are presented as component flux estimates for all counties and independent cities in Virginia. The method has the potential to be applied in many other states in the U.S. or in other regions or countries of the world where climate and stream flow data are plentiful.

  6. Review of Hosein Aabad Sugar Factory (HASF) Wastewater and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar industry is one of the largest industries in the world. Hosein Abad sugar factory (HASF) is located in Hamadan province of Iran. The aim of this research was to evaluate the quality and quantity of wastewater of the said factory and to estimate the pollution load and its emission factor as prerequisite of the management ...

  7. Components of variance involved in estimating soil water content and water content change using a neutron moisture meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, D.F.; Williams, J.

    1979-01-01

    There have been significant developments in the design and use of neutron moisture meters since Hewlett et al.(1964) investigated the sources of variance when using this instrument to estimate soil moisture. There appears to be little in the literature, however, which updates these findings. This paper aims to isolate the components of variance when moisture content and moisture change are estimated using the neutron scattering method with current technology and methods

  8. Review of kaon factory proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiessen, H.A.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear physics issues and particle physics issues for a kaon factory are discussed. Kaon factory accelerator proposals are then considered. Secondary beam considerations are covered and hardware development for a kaon factory is discussed. The prospects for construction are presented. 9 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Superconducting cavities for beauty factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengeler, H.

    1992-01-01

    The possibilities and merits of superconducting accelerating cavities for Beauty-factories are considered. There exist already large sc systems of size and frequency comparable to the ones needed for Beauty-factories. Their status and operation experience is discussed. A comparison of normal conducting and superconducting systems is done for two typical Beauty-factory rings

  10. Hazardous factories: Nigerian evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloyede, Olajide

    2005-06-01

    The past 15 years have seen an increasing governmental and corporate concern for the environment worldwide. For governments, information about the environmental performance of the industrial sector is required to inform macro-level decisions about environmental targets such as those required to meet UN directives. However, in many African, Asian, and Latin American countries, researching and reporting company environmental performance is limited. This article serves as a contribution to filling the gap by presenting evidence of physical and chemical risk in Nigerian factories. One hundred and three factories with a total of 5,021 workers were studied. One hundred and twenty physical and chemical hazards were identified and the result shows a high number of workers exposed to such hazards. The study also reveals that workers' awareness level of chemical hazards was high. Yet the danger was perceived in behavioral terms, especially by manufacturing firms, which tend to see environmental investment in an increasingly global economy as detrimental to profitability.

  11. Engineering the smart factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Robert; Vera, Daniel; Ahmad, Bilal

    2016-10-01

    The fourth industrial revolution promises to create what has been called the smart factory. The vision is that within such modular structured smart factories, cyber-physical systems monitor physical processes, create a virtual copy of the physical world and make decentralised decisions. This paper provides a view of this initiative from an automation systems perspective. In this context it considers how future automation systems might be effectively configured and supported through their lifecycles and how integration, application modelling, visualisation and reuse of such systems might be best achieved. The paper briefly describes limitations in current engineering methods, and new emerging approaches including the cyber physical systems (CPS) engineering tools being developed by the automation systems group (ASG) at Warwick Manufacturing Group, University of Warwick, UK.

  12. Analytical Approach for Estimating Preliminary Mass of ARES I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Structural Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Pravin

    2007-01-01

    electrical power functions to other Elements of the CLV, is included as secondary structure. The MSFC has an overall responsibility for the integrated US element as well as structural design an thermal control of the fuel tanks, intertank, interstage, avionics, main propulsion system, Reaction Control System (RCS) for both the Upper Stage and the First Stage. MSFC's Spacecraft and Vehicle Department, Structural and Analysis Design Division is developing a set of predicted mass of these elements. This paper details the methodology, criterion and tools used for the preliminary mass predictions of the upper stage structural assembly components. In general, weight of the cylindrical barrel sections are estimated using the commercial code Hypersizer, whereas, weight of the domes are developed using classical solutions. HyperSizer is software that performs automated structural analysis and sizing optimization based on aerospace methods for strength, stability, and stiffness. Analysis methods range from closed form, traditional hand calculations repeated every day in industry to more advanced panel buckling algorithms. Margin-of-safety reporting for every potential failure provides the engineer with a powerful insight into the structural problem. Optimization capabilities include finding minimum weight panel or beam concepts, material selections, cross sectional dimensions, thicknesses, and lay-ups from a library of 40 different stiffened and sandwich designs and a database of composite, metallic, honeycomb, and foam materials. Multiple different concepts (orthogrid, isogrid, and skin stiffener) were run for multiple loading combinations of ascent design load with and with out tank pressure as well as proof pressure condition. Subsequently, selected optimized concept obtained from Hypersizer runs was translated into a computer aid design (CAD) model to account for the wall thickness tolerance, weld land etc for developing the most probable weight of the components. The flow diram

  13. Automation in the factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatvany, J

    1984-05-01

    There are now about 100000 computers in the manufacturing plants of the world, but the thirty-year old dream of the computer-controlled factory is only now beginning to materialize. With the advent of advanced microprocessor technology of distributed systems based on local area networking and of supervisory and diagnostic systems utilizing artificial intelligence techniques, computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) has today become a realistic aim. 6 references.

  14. SLAC B Factory computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, P.F.

    1992-02-01

    As part of the research and development program in preparation for a possible B Factory at SLAC, a group has been studying various aspects of HEP computing. In particular, the group is investigating the use of UNIX for all computing, from data acquisition, through analysis, and word processing. A summary of some of the results of this study will be given, along with some personal opinions on these topics

  15. Neutrino Factory Accelerator R and D: Status and Priorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes the status of worldwide Neutrino Factory R and D efforts. Activities are categorized as simulations, component development, and system tests. An indication of R and D tasks that remain to be accomplished is also given

  16. Argonne Tau-charm factory collider design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, L.C.; Crosbie, E.A.; Norem, J.

    1995-01-01

    The design approach and design principles for a Tau-charm Factory at Argonne were studied. These studies led to a set of preliminary parameters and tentative component features as presented in this paper

  17. Argonne Tau-charm Factory collider design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, L.C.; Crosbie, E.A.; Norem, J.; Repond, J.

    1996-01-01

    The design approach and design principles for a Tau-charm Factory at Argonne were studied. These studies led to a set of preliminary parameters and tentative component features as presented in this paper. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  18. Distortion-product otoacoustic emission reflection-component delays and cochlear tuning: Estimates from across the human lifespan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdala, Carolina; Guérit, François; Luo, Ping

    2014-01-01

    components were extracted in 184 subjects ranging in age from prematurely born neonates to elderly adults. DPOAEs were measured from 0.5–4 kHz in all age groups and extended to 8 kHz in young adults. Delay trends were effectively estimated using either energy weighting or peak picking, with the former method...

  19. Influence of material choice on cost estimation of some key components of the Sulfur Iodine thermochemical process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilardi, T.; Rodriguez, G.; Gomez, A.; Leybros, J.; Borgard, J.M.; Carles, P.; Anzieu, P.

    2006-01-01

    In the frame of the preliminary design of an sulfur/iodine thermochemical plant coupled with a 600 MWth Helium cooled High Temperature Reactor, CEA has pre-designed all the components of the I/S plant and has started to the cost estimation of all the key components with some industrial cost evaluation methods proposed by CHAUVEL or PETER and TIMMERHAUS. The purpose of the paper is to present the strong influence of material choice on final cost estimation of these key components by comparing price with standard material (steel) and the most appropriate material selected to support the strong corrosion involved by several chemical reactions of the I/S process. These results reinforce the fact that material selection must be done with the best accuracy and that it will be a key factor in the global economy of these plant investment. (authors)

  20. Application of independent component analysis for speech-music separation using an efficient score function estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishravian, Arash; Aghabozorgi Sahaf, Masoud Reza

    2012-12-01

    In this paper speech-music separation using Blind Source Separation is discussed. The separating algorithm is based on the mutual information minimization where the natural gradient algorithm is used for minimization. In order to do that, score function estimation from observation signals (combination of speech and music) samples is needed. The accuracy and the speed of the mentioned estimation will affect on the quality of the separated signals and the processing time of the algorithm. The score function estimation in the presented algorithm is based on Gaussian mixture based kernel density estimation method. The experimental results of the presented algorithm on the speech-music separation and comparing to the separating algorithm which is based on the Minimum Mean Square Error estimator, indicate that it can cause better performance and less processing time

  1. Review of Hosein Aabad Sugar Factory (HASF) Wastewater and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    evaluate the quality and quantity of wastewater of the said factory and to estimate the pollution ... appropriate for artificial recharge use, discharge in rivers and lakes or utilization in agriculture ..... These problems have a negative impact on.

  2. The use of testday models in the estimation of variance components ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernice Mostert

    Breeding value estimation for somatic cell score in South African dairy cattle ... It causes severe ... traits, occurrence of mastitis is not routinely recorded in most dairy recording .... Genetic parameters for clinical mastitis, somatic cell counts.

  3. Impact of Base Functional Component Types on Software Functional Size based Effort Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Gencel, Cigdem; Buglione, Luigi

    2008-01-01

    Software effort estimation is still a significant challenge for software management. Although Functional Size Measurement (FSM) methods have been standardized and have become widely used by the software organizations, the relationship between functional size and development effort still needs further investigation. Most of the studies focus on the project cost drivers and consider total software functional size as the primary input to estimation models. In this study, we investigate whether u...

  4. On the direct detection of multi-component dark matter: sensitivity studies and parameter estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Garcia, Juan; Scaffidi, Andre; White, Martin; Williams, Anthony G.

    2017-11-01

    We study the case of multi-component dark matter, in particular how direct detection signals are modified in the presence of several stable weakly-interacting-massive particles. Assuming a positive signal in a future direct detection experiment, stemming from two dark matter components, we study the region in parameter space where it is possible to distinguish a one from a two-component dark matter spectrum. First, we leave as free parameters the two dark matter masses and show that the two hypotheses can be significantly discriminated for a range of dark matter masses with their splitting being the critical factor. We then investigate how including the effects of different interaction strengths, local densities or velocity dispersions for the two components modifies these conclusions. We also consider the case of isospin-violating couplings. In all scenarios, we show results for various types of nuclei both for elastic spin-independent and spin-dependent interactions. Finally, assuming that the two-component hypothesis is confirmed, we quantify the accuracy with which the parameters can be extracted and discuss the different degeneracies that occur. This includes studying the case in which only a single experiment observes a signal, and also the scenario of having two signals from two different experiments, in which case the ratios of the couplings to neutrons and protons may also be extracted.

  5. TRIUMF: Kaon factory physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The second TRIUMF Kaon Factory Physics Workshop was held on 10-14 August, 1981. About a hundred physicists participated in the meeting, which consisted of fifteen invited talks and four afternoon workshop sessions, and proved to be a stimulating and productive event. The discussions centred on identifying the most important physics that could be studied with a machine providing an increase in intensity of two orders of magnitude in primary proton beam over present accelerators in the energy range 8 to 20 GeV, and on establishing some preliminary guidelines on the desirable properties of secondary beams at such a machine

  6. KEK: B factory plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    To boost the study of B mesons (carrying the heavy b quark), the Japanese KEK Laboratory is looking to construct a B-meson 'factory'. B-mesons have revealed unexpected and important quark physics. Well-known examples are the long lifetime of the B-mesons, indicating a large gap between the third and second quark generation (compared to that between the second and the first), and relatively large mixing of the neutral B-meson and its antiparticle, now interpreted as being due to a heavy sixth ('top') quark

  7. A New Method for Estimating the Number of Harmonic Components in Noise with Application in High Resolution Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoi Emanuel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to operate properly, the superresolution methods based on orthogonal subspace decomposition, such as multiple signal classification (MUSIC or estimation of signal parameters by rotational invariance techniques (ESPRIT, need accurate estimation of the signal subspace dimension, that is, of the number of harmonic components that are superimposed and corrupted by noise. This estimation is particularly difficult when the S/N ratio is low and the statistical properties of the noise are unknown. Moreover, in some applications such as radar imagery, it is very important to avoid underestimation of the number of harmonic components which are associated to the target scattering centers. In this paper, we propose an effective method for the estimation of the signal subspace dimension which is able to operate against colored noise with performances superior to those exhibited by the classical information theoretic criteria of Akaike and Rissanen. The capabilities of the new method are demonstrated through computer simulations and it is proved that compared to three other methods it carries out the best trade-off from four points of view, S/N ratio in white noise, frequency band of colored noise, dynamic range of the harmonic component amplitudes, and computing time.

  8. Quantitative milk genomics: estimation of variance components and prediction of fatty acids in bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Kristian

    The composition of bovine milk fat, used for human consumption, is far from the recommendations for human fat nutrition. The aim of this PhD was to describe the variance components and prediction probabilities of individual fatty acids (FA) in bovine milk, and to evaluate the possibilities...

  9. Efficient real time OD matrix estimation based on principal component analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djukic, T.; Flötteröd, G.; Van Lint, H.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we explore the idea of dimensionality reduction and approximation of OD demand based on principal component analysis (PCA). First, we show how we can apply PCA to linearly transform the high dimensional OD matrices into the lower dimensional space without significant loss of accuracy.

  10. Using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to estimate sugarcane yield and yield components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) yield and yield components are important traits for growers and scientists to evaluate and select cultivars. Collection of these yield data would be labor intensive and time consuming in the early selection stages of sugarcane breeding cultivar development programs with a ...

  11. A computerized method of estimation of sensor motor reaction, complicated with additional cognitive component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadij V. Ganin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is related to new integrated approach to objective computerizing evaluation of cognitive-component which delays the latent period of the sensor-motor reaction on specific visual stimuli, which carried different semantic information. It is recommended to use this method for clinical diagnostic of pathologies associated with disorders of cognitive human activity and for assessment of mental fatigue.

  12. The Three-dimensional Digital Factory for Shipbuilding Technology Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional digital factory technology research is the hotspot in shipbuilding recently. The three-dimensional digital factory technology not only focus on design the components of the product, but also discuss on the simulation and analyses of the production process.Based on the three-dimensional model, the basic data layer, application control layer and the presentation layer of hierarchical structure are established in the three-dimensional digital factory of shipbuilding in this paper. And the key technologies of three-dimensional digital factory of shipbuilding are analysed. Finally, a case study is applied and the results show that the three-dimensional digital factory will play an important role in the future.

  13. Estimation of local and regional components of drain - flow from an irrigated field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eching, S.O.; Hopmans, J.W.; Wallender, W.W.; Macyntyre, J.L.; Peters, D.

    1995-01-01

    The contribution of regional ground water and deep percolation from a furrow irrigated field to total drain flow was estimated using salt load analysis. It was found that 64% of the drain flow comes from regional ground water flow. The electrical conductivity of the drain water was highly correlated with the drain flow rate. From the field water balance with deep percolation as estimated from the salt load analysis, using yield function derived evapotranspiration, and measured changes in root zone water storage, it was shown that 14% of the crop evapotranspiration comes from ground water during the study period. 8 figs; 5 tabs; 15 refs ( Author )

  14. TWO METHODS OF ESTIMATING SEMIPARAMETRIC COMPONENT IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL KUZNET'S CURVE (EKC)

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, Krishna P.; Zapata, Hector O.

    2004-01-01

    This study compares parametric and semiparametric smoothing techniques to estimate the environmental Kuznet curve. The ad hoc functional form where income is related either as a square or a cubic function to environmental quality is relaxed in search of a better nonlinear fit to the pollution-income relationship for panel data.

  15. Preliminary estimates of dose and residual activation of selected components in ring collimation straight of the SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludewig, H.; Catalan-Lasheras, N.; Simos, N.; Walker, J.; Mallen, A.; Wei, J.; Todosow, M.

    2000-01-01

    The highest doses to components in the SNS ring are expected to be to those located in the collimation straight section. In this paper the authors present estimated doses to magnets and cable located between collimators. In addition the buildup of relatively long half-life radioactive isotopes is estimated, following machine operation and shutdown. Finally, the potential dose to operators approaching the machine following operation and shutdown for four hours is made. The results indicate that selected components might require replacement after several years of full power operation. In addition, the reflection of gamma-rays from the tunnel walls contribute a non-negligible amount to the dose of an operator in the tunnel following machine shutdown

  16. Using extended genealogy to estimate components of heritability for 23 quantitative and dichotomous traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah Zaitlen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Important knowledge about the determinants of complex human phenotypes can be obtained from the estimation of heritability, the fraction of phenotypic variation in a population that is determined by genetic factors. Here, we make use of extensive phenotype data in Iceland, long-range phased genotypes, and a population-wide genealogical database to examine the heritability of 11 quantitative and 12 dichotomous phenotypes in a sample of 38,167 individuals. Most previous estimates of heritability are derived from family-based approaches such as twin studies, which may be biased upwards by epistatic interactions or shared environment. Our estimates of heritability, based on both closely and distantly related pairs of individuals, are significantly lower than those from previous studies. We examine phenotypic correlations across a range of relationships, from siblings to first cousins, and find that the excess phenotypic correlation in these related individuals is predominantly due to shared environment as opposed to dominance or epistasis. We also develop a new method to jointly estimate narrow-sense heritability and the heritability explained by genotyped SNPs. Unlike existing methods, this approach permits the use of information from both closely and distantly related pairs of individuals, thereby reducing the variance of estimates of heritability explained by genotyped SNPs while preventing upward bias. Our results show that common SNPs explain a larger proportion of the heritability than previously thought, with SNPs present on Illumina 300K genotyping arrays explaining more than half of the heritability for the 23 phenotypes examined in this study. Much of the remaining heritability is likely to be due to rare alleles that are not captured by standard genotyping arrays.

  17. Using extended genealogy to estimate components of heritability for 23 quantitative and dichotomous traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitlen, Noah; Kraft, Peter; Patterson, Nick; Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Bhatia, Gaurav; Pollack, Samuela; Price, Alkes L

    2013-05-01

    Important knowledge about the determinants of complex human phenotypes can be obtained from the estimation of heritability, the fraction of phenotypic variation in a population that is determined by genetic factors. Here, we make use of extensive phenotype data in Iceland, long-range phased genotypes, and a population-wide genealogical database to examine the heritability of 11 quantitative and 12 dichotomous phenotypes in a sample of 38,167 individuals. Most previous estimates of heritability are derived from family-based approaches such as twin studies, which may be biased upwards by epistatic interactions or shared environment. Our estimates of heritability, based on both closely and distantly related pairs of individuals, are significantly lower than those from previous studies. We examine phenotypic correlations across a range of relationships, from siblings to first cousins, and find that the excess phenotypic correlation in these related individuals is predominantly due to shared environment as opposed to dominance or epistasis. We also develop a new method to jointly estimate narrow-sense heritability and the heritability explained by genotyped SNPs. Unlike existing methods, this approach permits the use of information from both closely and distantly related pairs of individuals, thereby reducing the variance of estimates of heritability explained by genotyped SNPs while preventing upward bias. Our results show that common SNPs explain a larger proportion of the heritability than previously thought, with SNPs present on Illumina 300K genotyping arrays explaining more than half of the heritability for the 23 phenotypes examined in this study. Much of the remaining heritability is likely to be due to rare alleles that are not captured by standard genotyping arrays.

  18. An estimation method of system failure frequency using both structure and component failure data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaragi, Kazuo; Sasaki, Ryoichi; Shingai, Sadanori; Tominaga, Kenji

    1981-01-01

    In recent years, the importance of reliability analysis is appreciated for large systems such as nuclear power plants. A reliability analysis method is described for a whole system, using structure failure data for its main working subsystem and component failure data for its safety protection subsystem. The subsystem named main working system operates normally, and the subsystem named safety protection system acts as standby or protection. Thus the main and the protection systems are given mutually different failure data; then, between the subsystems, there exists common mode failure, i.e. the component failure affecting the reliability of both two. A calculation formula for sytem failure frequency is first derived. Then, a calculation method with digraphs is proposed for conditional system failure probability. Finally the results of numerical calculation are given for the purpose of explanation. (J.P.N.)

  19. Deciding WQO for factorial languages

    KAUST Repository

    Atminas, Aistis; Lozin, Vadim V.; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2013-01-01

    A language is factorial if it is closed under taking factors (i.e. contiguous subwords). Every factorial language can be described by an antidictionary, i.e. a minimal set of forbidden factors. We show that the problem of deciding whether a factorial language given by a finite antidictionary is well-quasi-ordered under the factor containment relation can be solved in polynomial time. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  20. Deciding WQO for factorial languages

    KAUST Repository

    Atminas, Aistis

    2013-04-05

    A language is factorial if it is closed under taking factors (i.e. contiguous subwords). Every factorial language can be described by an antidictionary, i.e. a minimal set of forbidden factors. We show that the problem of deciding whether a factorial language given by a finite antidictionary is well-quasi-ordered under the factor containment relation can be solved in polynomial time. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  1. An accuracy estimation on neutron penetration calculation through concrete shield with PALLAS codes using bunched component nuclides of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasamoto, Nobuo; Kotegawa, Hiroshi

    1984-11-01

    In order to improve computational efficiency of PALLAS code, an accuracy is estimated on the neutron penetration calculation through a concrete shield, using bunched component nuclides of concrete. The calculated fast neutron flux is observed to depend weakly on how the nuclides are bunched. Contrary to this, the calculated thermal neutron fluxes are strongly dependent on the manner of bunching, mainly due to the fact that iron cross section has exceptionally large negative sensitivity to thermal neutron flux. (author)

  2. Surface layer scintillometry for estimating the sensible heat flux component of the surface energy balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Savage

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The relatively recently developed scintillometry method, with a focus on the dual-beam surface layer scintillometer (SLS, allows boundary layer atmospheric turbulence, surface sensible heat and momentum flux to be estimated in real-time. Much of the previous research using the scintillometer method has involved the large aperture scintillometer method, with only a few studies using the SLS method. The SLS method has been mainly used by agrometeorologists, hydrologists and micrometeorologists for atmospheric stability and surface energy balance studies to obtain estimates of sensible heat from which evaporation estimates representing areas of one hectare or larger are possible. Other applications include the use of the SLS method in obtaining crucial input parameters for atmospheric dispersion and turbulence models. The SLS method relies upon optical scintillation of a horizontal laser beam between transmitter and receiver for a separation distance typically between 50 and 250 m caused by refractive index inhomogeneities in the atmosphere that arise from turbulence fluctuations in air temperature and to a much lesser extent the fluctuations in water vapour pressure. Measurements of SLS beam transmission allow turbulence of the atmosphere to be determined, from which sub-hourly, real-time and in situ path-weighted fluxes of sensible heat and momentum may be calculated by application of the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. Unlike the eddy covariance (EC method for which corrections for flow distortion and coordinate rotation are applied, no corrections to the SLS measurements, apart from a correction for water vapour pressure, are applied. Also, path-weighted SLS estimates over the propagation path are obtained. The SLS method also offers high temporal measurement resolution and usually greater spatial coverage compared to EC, Bowen ratio energy balance, surface renewal and other sensible heat measurement methods. Applying the shortened surface

  3. Estimates for Genetic Variance Components in Reciprocal Recurrent Selection in Populations Derived from Maize Single-Cross Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Costa dos Reis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to obtain the estimates of genetic variance and covariance components related to intra- and interpopulation in the original populations (C0 and in the third cycle (C3 of reciprocal recurrent selection (RRS which allows breeders to define the best breeding strategy. For that purpose, the half-sib progenies of intrapopulation (P11 and P22 and interpopulation (P12 and P21 from populations 1 and 2 derived from single-cross hybrids in the 0 and 3 cycles of the reciprocal recurrent selection program were used. The intra- and interpopulation progenies were evaluated in a 10×10 triple lattice design in two separate locations. The data for unhusked ear weight (ear weight without husk and plant height were collected. All genetic variance and covariance components were estimated from the expected mean squares. The breakdown of additive variance into intrapopulation and interpopulation additive deviations (στ2 and the covariance between these and their intrapopulation additive effects (CovAτ found predominance of the dominance effect for unhusked ear weight. Plant height for these components shows that the intrapopulation additive effect explains most of the variation. Estimates for intrapopulation and interpopulation additive genetic variances confirm that populations derived from single-cross hybrids have potential for recurrent selection programs.

  4. Factorial validity of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-HSS among Spanish professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil-Monte Pedro R

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the factorial validity and internal consistency of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-HSS. METHODS: In a sample consisting of 705 Spanish professionals from diverse occupational sectors (health, education, police and so one, seven plausible factorial models hypothesized were compared using LISREL 8. RESULTS: The four-factor oblique solution and the three-factor oblique solution showed the best and similar fit. Deletion of Item 12 and Item 16, taking into consideration the suggestions in the manual, improved the goodness of fit for both models. The four-factor oblique model suggests that, in addition to Emotional Exhaustion (EE and Depersonalization (DP, Personal Accomplishment (PA consists of two components labeled here Self-Competence (Items 4, 7, 17, and 21 and the Existential Component (Items 9, 12, 18, and 19. However, the alpha coefficient was relatively low for the Self-Competence component, suggesting that it is more suitable to estimate the syndrome as a threedimensional construct. The Cronbach's alpha was satisfactory for PA (alpha =.71 and EE (alpha =.85, and moderate for DP (alpha =.58. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that the MBI-HSS offers factorial validity and its scales present internal consistency to evaluate the quality of working life for Spanish professionals.

  5. The Low-Energy Neutrino Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brass, Alan; Geer, Steve; Ellis, Malcolm; Mena, Olga; Pascoli, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    To date most studies of Neutrino Factories have focused on facilities where the energy of the muon in the storage ring has been in the range of 25-50 GeV. In this paper we present a concept for a Low-Energy (∼ 4 GeV) neutrino factory. For baselines of O(1000 km), the rich oscillation pattern at low neutrino interaction energy (0.5 - ∼3 GeV) provides the unique performance of this facility with regard to its sensitivity to CP violation and the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy. A unique neutrino detector is needed, however, in order to exploit this oscillation pattern. We will describe the basic accelerator facility, demonstrate the methodology of the analysis and give an estimate on how well the Low-Energy neutrino factory can measure θ 13 , CP violation and the mass hierarchy. We will also describe the detector concept that is used, show a preliminary analysis regarding its performance and indicate what R and D is still needed. Finally we will show how the Low-Energy neutrino factory could be a step towards an energy frontier muon collider.

  6. In-Factory Learning - Qualification For The Factory Of The Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quint, Fabian; Mura, Katharina; Gorecky, Dominic

    2015-07-01

    The Industry 4.0 vision anticipates that internet technologies will find their way into future factories replacing traditional components by dynamic and intelligent cyber-physical systems (CPS) that combine the physical objects with their digital representation. Reducing the gap between the real and digital world makes the factory environment more flexible, more adaptive, but also more complex for the human workers. Future workers require interdisciplinary competencies from engineering, information technology, and computer science in order to understand and manage the diverse interrelations between physical objects and their digital counterpart. This paper proposes a mixed-reality based learning environment, which combines physical objects and visualisation of digital content via Augmented Reality. It uses reality-based interaction in order to make the dynamic interrelations between real and digital factory visible and tangible. We argue that our learning system does not work as a stand-alone solution, but should fit into existing academic and advanced training curricula.

  7. Estimating the number of components and detecting outliers using Angle Distribution of Loading Subspaces (ADLS) in PCA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y J; Tran, T; Postma, G; Buydens, L M C; Jansen, J

    2018-08-22

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is widely used in analytical chemistry, to reduce the dimensionality of a multivariate data set in a few Principal Components (PCs) that summarize the predominant patterns in the data. An accurate estimate of the number of PCs is indispensable to provide meaningful interpretations and extract useful information. We show how existing estimates for the number of PCs may fall short for datasets with considerable coherence, noise or outlier presence. We present here how Angle Distribution of the Loading Subspaces (ADLS) can be used to estimate the number of PCs based on the variability of loading subspace across bootstrap resamples. Based on comprehensive comparisons with other well-known methods applied on simulated dataset, we show that ADLS (1) may quantify the stability of a PCA model with several numbers of PCs simultaneously; (2) better estimate the appropriate number of PCs when compared with the cross-validation and scree plot methods, specifically for coherent data, and (3) facilitate integrated outlier detection, which we introduce in this manuscript. We, in addition, demonstrate how the analysis of different types of real-life spectroscopic datasets may benefit from these advantages of ADLS. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Estimation of Frame Independent and Enhancement Components for Speech Communication over Packet Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacobello, Daniele; Murthi, Manohar N.; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a new approach to cope with packet loss in speech coders. The idea is to split the information present in each speech packet into two components, one to independently decode the given speech frame and one to enhance it by exploiting interframe dependencies. The scheme...... is based on sparse linear prediction and a redefinition of the analysis-by-synthesis process. We present Mean Opinion Scores for the presented coder with different degrees of packet loss and show that it performs similarly to frame dependent coders for low packet loss probability and similarly to frame...

  9. Time-Domain Voltage Sag State Estimation Based on the Unscented Kalman Filter for Power Systems with Nonlinear Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Cisneros-Magaña

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a time-domain methodology based on the unscented Kalman filter to estimate voltage sags and their characteristics, such as magnitude and duration in power systems represented by nonlinear models. Partial and noisy measurements from the electrical network with nonlinear loads, used as data, are assumed. The characteristics of voltage sags can be calculated in a discrete form with the unscented Kalman filter to estimate all the busbar voltages; being possible to determine the rms voltage magnitude and the voltage sag starting and ending time, respectively. Voltage sag state estimation results can be used to obtain the power quality indices for monitored and unmonitored busbars in the power grid and to design adequate mitigating techniques. The proposed methodology is successfully validated against the results obtained with the time-domain system simulation for the power system with nonlinear components, being the normalized root mean square error less than 3%.

  10. KEK: B factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    After more than three years of intensive evaluation, the Japanese government has approved the conversion of the TRISTAN electronpositron collider at the national KEK Laboratory to a two-ring asymmetric B-meson factory. The project will take about five years to complete. Initial construction will proceed while TRISTAN experiments continue datataking, expected to continue until summer 1995. When it becomes operational in 1998, the new facility (TRISTAN II) will be capable of producing more than ten million B meson pairs each year. Detailed studies of their decay properties are expected to reveal answers to the long-standing puzzle of the violation of CP symmetry - combined left-right reversal and particle-antiparticle substitution

  11. SRF for neutrino factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padamsee, H.

    2003-01-01

    The Neutrino Factory calls for nearly 500 meters of 200 MHz SRF cavities to provide 7.5 GV. Such a facility is more demanding than the largest SRF installation to date, i.e., LEP-II, where 500 m of niobium-coated copper cavities provided more than 3 GV of acceleration. Based on the high real estate gradient desired to minimize muon loss, superconducting cavities are selected to provide active gradients of 15 - 17 MV/m, and a real estate gradient of 7.5 MV/m. At such high gradients, the peak RF power demand for copper cavities would become prohibitively expensive. By virtue of low losses, SC cavities can be filled slowly (rise time 3 ms) reducing the peak power demand to roughly half MW per cell. (author)

  12. Positron Factory project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Sohei; Sunaga, Hiromi; Kaneko, Hirohisa; Kawasuso, Atsuo; Masuno, Shin-ichi; Takizawa, Haruki; Yotsumoto, Keiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    We have started drafting a construction program for the Positron Factory, in which linac-based intense monoenergetic positron beams are planned to be applied for materials science, biotechnology and basic physics and chemistry. A technical survey study confirmed the feasibility of manufacturing a dedicated electron linac of 100 kW class with a beam energy of 100 MeV, which will produce a world-highest monoenergetic positron beam of more than 10{sup 10}/sec in intensity. A self-driven rotating converter (electrons to positrons and photons) suitable for the high power electron beam was devised and successfully tested. The practicability of simultaneous extraction of multi-channel monoenergetic positron beams with multiple moderator assemblies, which had been originated on the basis of a Monte Carlo simulation, was demonstrated by an experiment using an electron linac. An efficient moderator structure, which is composed of honeycomb-like assembled moderator foils and reflectors, is also proposed. (author)

  13. Estimation of the transit dose component in high dose rate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Romero, A.; Millan Cebrian, E.; Lozano Flores, F.J.; Lope Lope, R.; Canellas Anoz, M.

    2001-01-01

    Current high dose rate brachytherapy (HDR) treatment planning systems usually calculate dose only from source stopping positions (stationary component), but fails to account for the administered dose when the source is moving (dynamic component or transit dose). Numerical values of this transit dose depends upon the source velocity, implant geometry, source activity and prescribed dose. In some HDR treatments using particular geometry the transit dose cannot be ignored because it increases the dose at the prescriptions points and also could increase potential late tissue complications as predicted by the linear quadratic model. International protocols recommend to verify this parameter. The aim of this paper has been to establish a procedure for the transit dose calculation for the Gammamed 12i equipment at the RT Department in the Clinical University Hospital (Zaragoza-Spain). A numeric algorithm was implemented based on a dynamic point approximation for the moving HDR source and the calculated results for the entrance-exit transit dose was compared with TLD measurements made in some discrete points. (author) [es

  14. An Evaluation Tool for CONUS-Scale Estimates of Components of the Water Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxe, S.; Hay, L.; Farmer, W. H.; Markstrom, S. L.; Kiang, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    Numerous research groups are independently developing data products to represent various components of the water balance (e.g. runoff, evapotranspiration, recharge, snow water equivalent, soil moisture, and climate) at the scale of the conterminous United States. These data products are derived from a range of sources, including direct measurement, remotely-sensed measurement, and statistical and deterministic model simulations. An evaluation tool is needed to compare these data products and the components of the water balance they contain in order to identify the gaps in the understanding and representation of continental-scale hydrologic processes. An ideal tool will be an objective, universally agreed upon, framework to address questions related to closing the water balance. This type of generic, model agnostic evaluation tool would facilitate collaboration amongst different hydrologic research groups and improve modeling capabilities with respect to continental-scale water resources. By adopting a comprehensive framework to consider hydrologic modeling in the context of a complete water balance, it is possible to identify weaknesses in process modeling, data product representation and regional hydrologic variation. As part of its National Water Census initiative, the U.S. Geological survey is facilitating this dialogue to developing prototype evaluation tools.

  15. Estrogen Receptor Binding Affinity of Food Contact Material Components Estimated by QSAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnovcová, Jitka; Rucki, Marián; Bendová, Hana

    2016-09-01

    The presented work characterized components of food contact materials (FCM) with potential to bind to estrogen receptor (ER) and cause adverse effects in the human organism. The QSAR Toolbox, software application designed to identify and fill toxicological data gaps for chemical hazard assessment, was used. Estrogen receptors are much less of a lock-and-key interaction than highly specific ones. The ER is nonspecific enough to permit binding with a diverse array of chemical structures. There are three primary ER binding subpockets, each with different requirements for hydrogen bonding. More than 900 compounds approved as of FCM components were evaluated for their potential to bind on ER. All evaluated chemicals were subcategorized to five groups with respect to the binding potential to ER: very strong, strong, moderate, weak binder, and no binder to ER. In total 46 compounds were characterized as potential disturbers of estrogen receptor. Among the group of selected chemicals, compounds with high and even very high affinity to the ER binding subpockets were found. These compounds may act as gene activators and cause adverse effects in the organism, particularly during pregnancy and breast-feeding. It should be considered to carry out further in vitro or in vivo tests to confirm their potential to disturb the regulation of physiological processes in humans by abnormal ER signaling and subsequently remove these chemicals from the list of approved food contact materials. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2016

  16. Estimates of covariance components for hygienic behavior in Africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Martins Costa-Maia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic and phenotypic parameters considering the genetic effect on hygienic behavior of queen and workers from 40 Africanized honeybees colonies were estimated separately. Maternal origin of queens was controlled whereas the paternal was unknown, and different groups of workers were considered in three seasons, October 2006, April 2007 and August 2007, but with the same queen. Colonies were 21 honey producers and 19 royal jelly producers. After the method of freezing capped brood, hygienic behavior was determined by the ratio between the number of dead capped brood removed at 24, 48 and 72 hours and the total number of capped brood at zero hour. Data was submitted to single and three traits analyses using Bayesian inference. Estimates of direct heritability at 24, 48 and 72 hours (0.10, 0.11 and 0.11 were identical to the motherly ones. Estimates by three trait analysis of direct heritability were 0.28, 0.15, 0.24, and of maternal heritability were 0.23, 0.29, 0.27, at 24, 48 and 72 hours, respectively. Correlations between maternal and genetic effects were 0.12, 0.09 and - 0.08 at, 24, 48 and 72 hours, respectively. Correlation between 24 and 48 hours was 0.49; between 24 and 72 hours, 0.40; and between 48 and 72 hours, 0.47. Moderate genetic correlations with the number of capped brood removed until 48 and 72 hours indicate that after the selection of a few generations, these traits can become an efficient criterion for selection in 24 hours.

  17. Reliability of piping system components. Framework for estimating failure parameters from service data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, R.; Hegedus, D.; Tomic, B.; Lydell, B.

    1997-12-01

    This report summarizes results and insights from the final phase of a R and D project on piping reliability sponsored by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI). The technical scope includes the development of an analysis framework for estimating piping reliability parameters from service data. The R and D has produced a large database on the operating experience with piping systems in commercial nuclear power plants worldwide. It covers the period 1970 to the present. The scope of the work emphasized pipe failures (i.e., flaws/cracks, leaks and ruptures) in light water reactors (LWRs). Pipe failures are rare events. A data reduction format was developed to ensure that homogenous data sets are prepared from scarce service data. This data reduction format distinguishes between reliability attributes and reliability influence factors. The quantitative results of the analysis of service data are in the form of conditional probabilities of pipe rupture given failures (flaws/cracks, leaks or ruptures) and frequencies of pipe failures. Finally, the R and D by SKI produced an analysis framework in support of practical applications of service data in PSA. This, multi-purpose framework, termed 'PFCA'-Pipe Failure Cause and Attribute- defines minimum requirements on piping reliability analysis. The application of service data should reflect the requirements of an application. Together with raw data summaries, this analysis framework enables the development of a prior and a posterior pipe rupture probability distribution. The framework supports LOCA frequency estimation, steam line break frequency estimation, as well as the development of strategies for optimized in-service inspection strategies

  18. Reliability of piping system components. Framework for estimating failure parameters from service data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, R [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Hegedus, D; Tomic, B [ENCONET Consulting GesmbH, Vienna (Austria); Lydell, B [RSA Technologies, Vista, CA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This report summarizes results and insights from the final phase of a R and D project on piping reliability sponsored by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI). The technical scope includes the development of an analysis framework for estimating piping reliability parameters from service data. The R and D has produced a large database on the operating experience with piping systems in commercial nuclear power plants worldwide. It covers the period 1970 to the present. The scope of the work emphasized pipe failures (i.e., flaws/cracks, leaks and ruptures) in light water reactors (LWRs). Pipe failures are rare events. A data reduction format was developed to ensure that homogenous data sets are prepared from scarce service data. This data reduction format distinguishes between reliability attributes and reliability influence factors. The quantitative results of the analysis of service data are in the form of conditional probabilities of pipe rupture given failures (flaws/cracks, leaks or ruptures) and frequencies of pipe failures. Finally, the R and D by SKI produced an analysis framework in support of practical applications of service data in PSA. This, multi-purpose framework, termed `PFCA`-Pipe Failure Cause and Attribute- defines minimum requirements on piping reliability analysis. The application of service data should reflect the requirements of an application. Together with raw data summaries, this analysis framework enables the development of a prior and a posterior pipe rupture probability distribution. The framework supports LOCA frequency estimation, steam line break frequency estimation, as well as the development of strategies for optimized in-service inspection strategies. 63 refs, 30 tabs, 22 figs.

  19. Characterization of selected municipal solid waste components to estimate their biodegradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayard, R; Benbelkacem, H; Gourdon, R; Buffière, P

    2018-06-15

    Biological treatments of Residual Municipal Solid Waste (RMSW) allow to divert biodegradable materials from landfilling and recover valuable alternative resources. The biodegradability of the waste components needs however to be assessed in order to design the bioprocesses properly. The present study investigated complementary approaches to aerobic and anaerobic biotests for a more rapid evaluation. A representative sample of residual MSW was collected from a Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) plant and sorted out into 13 fractions according to the French standard procedure MODECOM™. The different fractions were analyzed for organic matter content, leaching behavior, contents in biochemical constituents (determined by Van Soest's acid detergent fiber method), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Bio-Methane Potential (BMP). Experimental data were statistically treated by Principal Components Analysis (PCA). Cumulative oxygen consumption from BOD tests and cumulative methane production from BMP tests were found to be positively correlated in all waste fractions. No correlation was observed between the results from BOD or BMP bioassays and the contents in cellulose-like, hemicelluloses-like or labile organic compounds. No correlation was observed either with the results from leaching tests (Soluble COD). The contents in lignin-like compounds, evaluated as the non-extracted RES fraction in Van Soest's method, was found however to impact negatively the biodegradability assessed by BOD or BMP tests. Since cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin are the polymers responsible for the structuration of lignocellulosic complexes, it was concluded that the structural organization of the organic matter in the different waste fractions was more determinant on biodegradability than the respective contents in individual biopolymers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Estimating the implicit component of visuomotor rotation learning by constraining movement preparation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Li-Ann; Gunn, Reece; Marinovic, Welber; Carroll, Timothy J

    2017-08-01

    When sensory feedback is perturbed, accurate movement is restored by a combination of implicit processes and deliberate reaiming to strategically compensate for errors. Here, we directly compare two methods used previously to dissociate implicit from explicit learning on a trial-by-trial basis: 1 ) asking participants to report the direction that they aim their movements, and contrasting this with the directions of the target and the movement that they actually produce, and 2 ) manipulating movement preparation time. By instructing participants to reaim without a sensory perturbation, we show that reaiming is possible even with the shortest possible preparation times, particularly when targets are narrowly distributed. Nonetheless, reaiming is effortful and comes at the cost of increased variability, so we tested whether constraining preparation time is sufficient to suppress strategic reaiming during adaptation to visuomotor rotation with a broad target distribution. The rate and extent of error reduction under preparation time constraints were similar to estimates of implicit learning obtained from self-report without time pressure, suggesting that participants chose not to apply a reaiming strategy to correct visual errors under time pressure. Surprisingly, participants who reported aiming directions showed less implicit learning according to an alternative measure, obtained during trials performed without visual feedback. This suggests that the process of reporting can affect the extent or persistence of implicit learning. The data extend existing evidence that restricting preparation time can suppress explicit reaiming and provide an estimate of implicit visuomotor rotation learning that does not require participants to report their aiming directions. NEW & NOTEWORTHY During sensorimotor adaptation, implicit error-driven learning can be isolated from explicit strategy-driven reaiming by subtracting self-reported aiming directions from movement directions, or

  1. General B factory design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, M.S.

    1992-12-01

    We describe the general considerations that go into the design of an asymmetric B factory collider. Justification is given for the typical parameters of such a facility, and the physics and technology challenges that arise from these parameter choices are discussed. Cost and schedule issues for a B factory are discussed briefly. A summary of existing proposals is presented, noting their similarities and differences

  2. A Type-2 Block-Component-Decomposition Based 2D AOA Estimation Algorithm for an Electromagnetic Vector Sensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Fei Gao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a two-dimensional angle of arrival (2D AOA estimation algorithm for the electromagnetic vector sensor (EMVS array based on Type-2 block component decomposition (BCD tensor modeling. Such a tensor decomposition method can take full advantage of the multidimensional structural information of electromagnetic signals to accomplish blind estimation for array parameters with higher resolution. However, existing tensor decomposition methods encounter many restrictions in applications of the EMVS array, such as the strict requirement for uniqueness conditions of decomposition, the inability to handle partially-polarized signals, etc. To solve these problems, this paper investigates tensor modeling for partially-polarized signals of an L-shaped EMVS array. The 2D AOA estimation algorithm based on rank- ( L 1 , L 2 , · BCD is developed, and the uniqueness condition of decomposition is analyzed. By means of the estimated steering matrix, the proposed algorithm can automatically achieve angle pair-matching. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the present algorithm has the advantages of both accuracy and robustness of parameter estimation. Even under the conditions of lower SNR, small angular separation and limited snapshots, the proposed algorithm still possesses better performance than subspace methods and the canonical polyadic decomposition (CPD method.

  3. A kernel principal component analysis–based degradation model and remaining useful life estimation for the turbofan engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delong Feng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Remaining useful life estimation of the prognostics and health management technique is a complicated and difficult research question for maintenance. In this article, we consider the problem of prognostics modeling and estimation of the turbofan engine under complicated circumstances and propose a kernel principal component analysis–based degradation model and remaining useful life estimation method for such aircraft engine. We first analyze the output data created by the turbofan engine thermodynamic simulation that is based on the kernel principal component analysis method and then distinguish the qualitative and quantitative relationships between the key factors. Next, we build a degradation model for the engine fault based on the following assumptions: the engine has only had constant failure (i.e. no sudden failure is included, and the engine has a Wiener process, which is a covariate stand for the engine system drift. To predict the remaining useful life of the turbofan engine, we built a health index based on the degradation model and used the method of maximum likelihood and the data from the thermodynamic simulation model to estimate the parameters of this degradation model. Through the data analysis, we obtained a trend model of the regression curve line that fits with the actual statistical data. Based on the predicted health index model and the data trend model, we estimate the remaining useful life of the aircraft engine as the index reaches zero. At last, a case study involving engine simulation data demonstrates the precision and performance advantages of this prediction method that we propose. At last, a case study involving engine simulation data demonstrates the precision and performance advantages of this proposed method, the precision of the method can reach to 98.9% and the average precision is 95.8%.

  4. Estimation of spacial geo-stress components in rock samples by using the Kaiser effect of acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanagawa, Tadashi; Hayashi, Masao; Nakasa, Hiroyasu.

    1976-01-01

    The spacial remaining stress component of the rock core sample is experimentally obtained by using Kaiser effect of acoustic emission (AE), and the estimated ground pressure is compared with the natural ground pressure measured by the conventional over-coring method, in order to see the feasiblity of AE method. In this experiments of AE, 111 specimens were cut out in all directions of the rock cores (tuff) sampled from the place where the ground pressure was measured by the over-coring method, and the generation of AE caused by the load was measured. Whereby, the stress components in three directions are determined. As a result of comparison, t the AE method is proved to be effective enough to estimate the ground pressure of rock geo-dynamically. In the application of the Kaiser effect to the estimation of the geo-stress in rock samples, one of the most difficult problems is how to eliminate the obstruction of erroneous AE signals caused by the strong stress concentration at the end corners of the rock specimen. As the result of comparison, the values obtained by the AE method have a tendency of greater than the values obtained by the over-coring method. It is conceived that the AE method can easily detect the maximum stress value for geo historical long time, and that the stress concentration is apt to mix in AE method by boring. (Iwakiri, K.)

  5. Estimation and Comparison of Bio-Oil Components from Different Pyrolysis Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyu, Gaojin [Key Lab of Pulp and Paper Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan (China); State Key Lab of Pulp and Paper Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Wu, Shubin, E-mail: shubinwu@scut.edu.cn; Zhang, Hongdan [State Key Lab of Pulp and Paper Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China)

    2015-06-15

    In the case of development and utilization of bio-oils, a quantitative chemical characterization is necessary to evaluate its actual desired characteristics for downstream production. This paper describes an analytical approach for the determination of families of lightweight chemicals from bio-oils by using GC-MS techniques. And on this basis, new explorations in the field of influence factors, such as feedstocks, pyrolysis temperatures, and low-temperature pretreatment, on the composition and products yields of bio-oil were further investigated. Up to 40% (wt.%) of the bio-oil is successfully quantified by the current method. Chemical functionalities in the bio-oil correlate strongly with the original feedstocks because of their different chemical compositions and structure. Pyrolysis temperature plays a vital role in the yields of value-added compounds, both overall and individually. Higher temperature favored the generation of small aldehydes and acids, accompanied by a reduction of phenols. The optimal temperatures for maximum furans and ketones yields were 520 and 550°C, respectively. The low-temperature pretreatment of biomass has a good enrichment for the lightweight components of the bio-oils. In this case, much higher amounts of compounds, such as furans, ketones, and phenols were produced. Such a determination would contribute greatly to a deeper understanding of the chemical efficiency of the pyrolysis reaction and how the bio-oils could be more properly utilized.

  6. Evaluation of Algorithms for Photon Depth of Interaction Estimation for the TRIMAGE PET Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarlinghi, Niccolò; Belcari, Nicola; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Pennazio, Francesco; Sportelli, Giancarlo; Zaccaro, Emanuele; Del Guerra, Alberto

    2016-02-01

    The TRIMAGE consortium aims to develop a multimodal PET/MR/EEG brain scanner dedicated to the early diagnosis of schizophrenia and other mental health disorders. The TRIMAGE PET component features a full ring made of 18 detectors, each one consisting of twelve 8 ×8 Silicon PhotoMultipliers (SiPMs) tiles coupled to two segmented LYSO crystal matrices with staggered layers. The identification of the pixel where a photon interacted is performed on-line at the front-end level, thus allowing the FPGA board to emit fully digital event packets. This allows to increase the effective bandwidth, but imposes restrictions on the complexity of the algorithms to be implemented. In this work, two algorithms, whose implementation is feasible directly on an FPGA, are presented and evaluated. The first algorithm is driven by physical considerations, while the other consists in a two-class linear Support Vector Machine (SVM). The validation of the algorithm performance is carried out by using simulated data generated with the GAMOS Monte Carlo. The obtained results show that the achieved accuracy in layer identification is above 90% for both the proposed approaches. The feasibility of tagging and rejecting events that underwent multiple interactions within the detector is also discussed.

  7. Residual life and strength estimates of aircraft structural components with MSD/MED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ripudaman; Park, Jai H.; Atluri, Satya N.

    1994-01-01

    Economic and safe operation of the flight vehicles flying beyond their initial design life calls for an in-depth structural integrity evaluation of all components with potential for catastrophic damages. Fuselage panels with cracked skin and/or stiffening elements is one such example. A three level analytical approach is developed to analyze the pressurized fuselage stiffened shell panels with damaged skin or stiffening elements. A global finite element analysis is first carried out to obtain the load flow pattern through the damaged panel. As an intermediate step, the damaged zone is treated as a spatially three-dimensional structure modeled by plate and shell finite elements, with all the neighboring elements that can alter the stress state at the crack tip. This is followed by the Schwartz-Neumann alternating method for local analysis to obtain the relevant crack tip parameters that govern the onset of fracture and the crack growth. The methodology developed is generic in nature and aims at handling a large fraction of problem areas identified by the Industry Committee on Wide-Spread Fatigue Damage.

  8. Estimation and Comparison of Bio-Oil Components from Different Pyrolysis Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyu, Gaojin; Wu, Shubin; Zhang, Hongdan

    2015-01-01

    In the case of development and utilization of bio-oils, a quantitative chemical characterization is necessary to evaluate its actual desired characteristics for downstream production. This paper describes an analytical approach for the determination of families of lightweight chemicals from bio-oils by using GC-MS techniques. And on this basis, new explorations in the field of influence factors, such as feedstocks, pyrolysis temperatures, and low-temperature pretreatment, on the composition and products yields of bio-oil were further investigated. Up to 40% (wt.%) of the bio-oil is successfully quantified by the current method. Chemical functionalities in the bio-oil correlate strongly with the original feedstocks because of their different chemical compositions and structure. Pyrolysis temperature plays a vital role in the yields of value-added compounds, both overall and individually. Higher temperature favored the generation of small aldehydes and acids, accompanied by a reduction of phenols. The optimal temperatures for maximum furans and ketones yields were 520 and 550°C, respectively. The low-temperature pretreatment of biomass has a good enrichment for the lightweight components of the bio-oils. In this case, much higher amounts of compounds, such as furans, ketones, and phenols were produced. Such a determination would contribute greatly to a deeper understanding of the chemical efficiency of the pyrolysis reaction and how the bio-oils could be more properly utilized.

  9. A comparative experimental evaluation of uncertainty estimation methods for two-component PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomsma, Aaron; Bhattacharya, Sayantan; Troolin, Dan; Pothos, Stamatios; Vlachos, Pavlos

    2016-09-01

    Uncertainty quantification in planar particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement is critical for proper assessment of the quality and significance of reported results. New uncertainty estimation methods have been recently introduced generating interest about their applicability and utility. The present study compares and contrasts current methods, across two separate experiments and three software packages in order to provide a diversified assessment of the methods. We evaluated the performance of four uncertainty estimation methods, primary peak ratio (PPR), mutual information (MI), image matching (IM) and correlation statistics (CS). The PPR method was implemented and tested in two processing codes, using in-house open source PIV processing software (PRANA, Purdue University) and Insight4G (TSI, Inc.). The MI method was evaluated in PRANA, as was the IM method. The CS method was evaluated using DaVis (LaVision, GmbH). Utilizing two PIV systems for high and low-resolution measurements and a laser doppler velocimetry (LDV) system, data were acquired in a total of three cases: a jet flow and a cylinder in cross flow at two Reynolds numbers. LDV measurements were used to establish a point validation against which the high-resolution PIV measurements were validated. Subsequently, the high-resolution PIV measurements were used as a reference against which the low-resolution PIV data were assessed for error and uncertainty. We compared error and uncertainty distributions, spatially varying RMS error and RMS uncertainty, and standard uncertainty coverages. We observed that qualitatively, each method responded to spatially varying error (i.e. higher error regions resulted in higher uncertainty predictions in that region). However, the PPR and MI methods demonstrated reduced uncertainty dynamic range response. In contrast, the IM and CS methods showed better response, but under-predicted the uncertainty ranges. The standard coverages (68% confidence interval) ranged from

  10. A comparative experimental evaluation of uncertainty estimation methods for two-component PIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boomsma, Aaron; Troolin, Dan; Pothos, Stamatios; Bhattacharya, Sayantan; Vlachos, Pavlos

    2016-01-01

    Uncertainty quantification in planar particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement is critical for proper assessment of the quality and significance of reported results. New uncertainty estimation methods have been recently introduced generating interest about their applicability and utility. The present study compares and contrasts current methods, across two separate experiments and three software packages in order to provide a diversified assessment of the methods. We evaluated the performance of four uncertainty estimation methods, primary peak ratio (PPR), mutual information (MI), image matching (IM) and correlation statistics (CS). The PPR method was implemented and tested in two processing codes, using in-house open source PIV processing software (PRANA, Purdue University) and Insight4G (TSI, Inc.). The MI method was evaluated in PRANA, as was the IM method. The CS method was evaluated using DaVis (LaVision, GmbH). Utilizing two PIV systems for high and low-resolution measurements and a laser doppler velocimetry (LDV) system, data were acquired in a total of three cases: a jet flow and a cylinder in cross flow at two Reynolds numbers. LDV measurements were used to establish a point validation against which the high-resolution PIV measurements were validated. Subsequently, the high-resolution PIV measurements were used as a reference against which the low-resolution PIV data were assessed for error and uncertainty. We compared error and uncertainty distributions, spatially varying RMS error and RMS uncertainty, and standard uncertainty coverages. We observed that qualitatively, each method responded to spatially varying error (i.e. higher error regions resulted in higher uncertainty predictions in that region). However, the PPR and MI methods demonstrated reduced uncertainty dynamic range response. In contrast, the IM and CS methods showed better response, but under-predicted the uncertainty ranges. The standard coverages (68% confidence interval) ranged from

  11. Estimating alarm thresholds and the number of components in mixture distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burr, Tom, E-mail: tburr@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mail Stop F600, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Hamada, Michael S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mail Stop F600, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Mixtures of probability distributions arise in many nuclear assay and forensic applications, including nuclear weapon detection, neutron multiplicity counting, and in solution monitoring (SM) for nuclear safeguards. SM data is increasingly used to enhance nuclear safeguards in aqueous reprocessing facilities having plutonium in solution form in many tanks. This paper provides background for mixture probability distributions and then focuses on mixtures arising in SM data. SM data can be analyzed by evaluating transfer-mode residuals defined as tank-to-tank transfer differences, and wait-mode residuals defined as changes during non-transfer modes. A previous paper investigated impacts on transfer-mode and wait-mode residuals of event marking errors which arise when the estimated start and/or stop times of tank events such as transfers are somewhat different from the true start and/or stop times. Event marking errors contribute to non-Gaussian behavior and larger variation than predicted on the basis of individual tank calibration studies. This paper illustrates evidence for mixture probability distributions arising from such event marking errors and from effects such as condensation or evaporation during non-transfer modes, and pump carryover during transfer modes. A quantitative assessment of the sample size required to adequately characterize a mixture probability distribution arising in any context is included.

  12. A Bayesian approach to estimating variance components within a multivariate generalizability theory framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhehan; Skorupski, William

    2017-12-12

    In many behavioral research areas, multivariate generalizability theory (mG theory) has been typically used to investigate the reliability of certain multidimensional assessments. However, traditional mG-theory estimation-namely, using frequentist approaches-has limits, leading researchers to fail to take full advantage of the information that mG theory can offer regarding the reliability of measurements. Alternatively, Bayesian methods provide more information than frequentist approaches can offer. This article presents instructional guidelines on how to implement mG-theory analyses in a Bayesian framework; in particular, BUGS code is presented to fit commonly seen designs from mG theory, including single-facet designs, two-facet crossed designs, and two-facet nested designs. In addition to concrete examples that are closely related to the selected designs and the corresponding BUGS code, a simulated dataset is provided to demonstrate the utility and advantages of the Bayesian approach. This article is intended to serve as a tutorial reference for applied researchers and methodologists conducting mG-theory studies.

  13. Machine and component residual life estimation through the application of neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, M.A.; Marwala, T.; Heyns, P.S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper concerns the use of neural networks for predicting the residual life of machines and components. In addition, the advantage of using condition-monitoring data to enhance the predictive capability of these neural networks was also investigated. A number of neural network variations were trained and tested with the data of two different reliability-related datasets. The first dataset represents the renewal case where the failed unit is repaired and restored to a good-as-new condition. Data were collected in the laboratory by subjecting a series of similar test pieces to fatigue loading with a hydraulic actuator. The average prediction error of the various neural networks being compared varied from 431 to 841 s on this dataset, where test pieces had a characteristic life of 8971 s. The second dataset were collected from a group of pumps used to circulate a water and magnetite solution within a plant. The data therefore originated from a repaired system affected by reliability degradation. When optimized, the multi-layer perceptron neural networks trained with the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm and the general regression neural network produced a sum-of-squares error within 11.1% of each other for the renewal dataset. The small number of inputs and poorly mapped input space on the second dataset meant that much larger errors were recorded on some of the test data. The potential for using neural networks for residual life prediction and the advantage of incorporating condition-based data into the model was nevertheless proven for both examples

  14. Evaluation of algorithms for photon depth of interaction estimation for the TRIMAGE PET component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camarlinghi, Niccolo; Belcari, Nicola [University of Pisa (Italy); Cerello, Piergiorgio [University of Torino (Italy); Sportelli, Giancarlo [University of Pisa (Italy); Pennazio, Francesco [University of Torino (Italy); Zaccario, Emanuele; Del Guerra, Alberto [University of Pisa (Italy)

    2015-05-18

    The TRIMAGE consortium aims to develop a multimodal PET/MR/EEG brain scanner dedicated to the early diagnosis of schizophrenia and other mental health disorders. The PET component features a full ring made of 18 detectors, each one consisting of twelve 8x8 Silicon PhotoMultipliers (SiPMs) tiles coupled to two segmented LYSO crystal matrices with staggered layers. In each module, the crystals belonging to the bottom layer are coupled one to one to the SiPMs, while each crystal of the top layer is coupled to four crystals of the bottom layer. This configuration allows to increase the crystal thickness while reducing the depth of interaction uncertainty, as photons interacting in different layers are expected to produce different light patterns on the SiPMs. The PET scanner will implement the pixel/layer identification on a front-end FPGA. This will allow increasing the effective bandwidth, setting at the same time restrictions on the complexity of the algorithms to be implemented. In this work two algorithms whose implementation is feasible directly on an FPGA are presented and evaluated. The first algorithm implements a method based on adaptive thresholding, while the other uses a linear Support Vector Machine (SVM) trained to distinguish the light pattern coming from two different layers. The validation of the algorithm performance is carried out by using simulated data generated with the GAMOS Monte Carlo. The obtained results show that the achieved accuracy in layer and pixel identification is above the 90% for both the proposed approaches.

  15. Predicting microRNA precursors with a generalized Gaussian components based density estimation algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Chi-Yeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short non-coding RNA molecules, which play an important role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. There have been many efforts to discover miRNA precursors (pre-miRNAs over the years. Recently, ab initio approaches have attracted more attention because they do not depend on homology information and provide broader applications than comparative approaches. Kernel based classifiers such as support vector machine (SVM are extensively adopted in these ab initio approaches due to the prediction performance they achieved. On the other hand, logic based classifiers such as decision tree, of which the constructed model is interpretable, have attracted less attention. Results This article reports the design of a predictor of pre-miRNAs with a novel kernel based classifier named the generalized Gaussian density estimator (G2DE based classifier. The G2DE is a kernel based algorithm designed to provide interpretability by utilizing a few but representative kernels for constructing the classification model. The performance of the proposed predictor has been evaluated with 692 human pre-miRNAs and has been compared with two kernel based and two logic based classifiers. The experimental results show that the proposed predictor is capable of achieving prediction performance comparable to those delivered by the prevailing kernel based classification algorithms, while providing the user with an overall picture of the distribution of the data set. Conclusion Software predictors that identify pre-miRNAs in genomic sequences have been exploited by biologists to facilitate molecular biology research in recent years. The G2DE employed in this study can deliver prediction accuracy comparable with the state-of-the-art kernel based machine learning algorithms. Furthermore, biologists can obtain valuable insights about the different characteristics of the sequences of pre-miRNAs with the models generated by the G

  16. The eldercare factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Noel; Sharkey, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Rapid advances in service robotics together with dramatic shifts in population demographics have led to the notion that technology may be the answer to our eldercare problems. Robots are being developed for feeding, washing, lifting, carrying and mobilising the elderly as well as monitoring their health. They are also being proposed as a substitute for companionship. While these technologies could accrue major benefits for society and empower the elderly, we must balance their use with the ethical costs. These include a potential reduction in human contact, increased feeling of objectification and loss of control, loss of privacy and personal freedom as well as deception and infantilisation. With appropriate guidelines in place before the introduction of robots en masse into the care system, robots could improve the lives of the elderly, reducing their dependence and creating more opportunities for social interaction. Without forethought, the elderly may find themselves in a barren world of machines, a world of automated care: a factory for the elderly. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. The nearby supernova factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood-Vasey, W.M.; Aldering, G.; Lee, B.C.; Loken, S.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Siegrist, J.; Wang, L.; Antilogus, P.; Astier, P.; Hardin, D.; Pain, R.; Copin, Y.; Smadja, G.; Gangler, E.; Castera, A.; Adam, G.; Bacon, R.; Lemonnier, J.-P.; Pecontal, A.; Pecontal, E.; Kessler, R.

    2004-01-01

    The Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory) is an ambitious project to find and study in detail approximately 300 nearby Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) at redshifts 0.03 < z < 0.08. This program will provide an exceptional data set of well-studied SNe in the nearby smooth Hubble flow that can be used as calibration for the current and future programs designed to use SNe to measure the cosmological parameters. The first key ingredient for this program is a reliable supply of Hubble-flow SNe systematically discovered in unprecedented numbers using the same techniques as those used in distant SNe searches. In 2002, 35 SNe were found using our test-bed pipeline for automated SN search and discovery. The pipeline uses images from the asteroid search conducted by the Near Earth Asteroid Tracking group at JPL. Improvements in our subtraction techniques and analysis have allowed us to increase our effective SN discovery rate to ∼12 SNe/month in 2003

  18. Estimation of ecosystem respiration and its components by means of stable isotopes and improved closed-chamber methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brændholt, Andreas

    Ecosystem respiration (Reco) is the second largest flux of CO2 between the biosphere and the atmosphere. It consists of several components, such as plant respiration and soil respiration (Rsoil), each of which may respond differently to abiotic factors, and thus to global climate change. Rsoil...... and abiotic factors, and before estimating Rsoil fluxes over longer time scales. The work also shows that artificial turbulent air mixing may provide a method to overcome the issue with overestimated fluxes, allowing for measurements even at low atmospheric turbulence. Furthermore, the results show...

  19. Physics at e+e- factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueth, V.; MacFarlane, D.B.

    1991-02-01

    Feasible designs are well advanced for high-luminosity e + e - storage rings which produce B 0 bar B 0 pairs either at rest or, in what appears to be a more promising option, boosted in the detector frame. Facilities which could provide samples of 30--100 fb -1 per year on the Υ(4S) will be proposed in early 1991. Here we examine the principal physics goal of such B Factories, namely CP violation in the b system. Methods in a variety of channels, estimated event samples, and detector requirements are all considered. We conclude that the physics argument for an e + e - B Factory is well documented, and compelling. 50 refs., 22 figs., 10 tabs

  20. Spent fuel disassembly hardware and other non-fuel bearing components: characterization, disposal cost estimates, and proposed repository acceptance requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luksic, A.T.; McKee, R.W.; Daling, P.M.; Konzek, G.J.; Ludwick, J.D.; Purcell, W.L.

    1986-10-01

    There are two categories of waste considered in this report. The first is the spent fuel disassembly (SFD) hardware. This consists of the hardware remaining after the fuel pins have been removed from the fuel assembly. This includes end fittings, spacer grids, water rods (BWR) or guide tubes (PWR) as appropriate, and assorted springs, fasteners, etc. The second category is other non-fuel-bearing (NFB) components the DOE has agreed to accept for disposal, such as control rods, fuel channels, etc., under Appendix E of the standard utiltiy contract (10 CFR 961). It is estimated that there will be approximately 150 kg of SFD and NFB waste per average metric ton of uranium (MTU) of spent uranium. PWR fuel accounts for approximately two-thirds of the average spent-fuel mass but only 50 kg of the SFD and NFB waste, with most of that being spent fuel disassembly hardware. BWR fuel accounts for one-third of the average spent-fuel mass and the remaining 100 kg of the waste. The relatively large contribution of waste hardware in BWR fuel, will be non-fuel-bearing components, primarily consisting of the fuel channels. Chapters are devoted to a description of spent fuel disassembly hardware and non-fuel assembly components, characterization of activated components, disposal considerations (regulatory requirements, economic analysis, and projected annual waste quantities), and proposed acceptance requirements for spent fuel disassembly hardware and other non-fuel assembly components at a geologic repository. The economic analysis indicates that there is a large incentive for volume reduction.

  1. AutoPyFactory: A Scalable Flexible Pilot Factory Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero, J; Hover, J; Love, P; Stewart, G A

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the CERN LHC is one of the largest users of grid computing infrastructure, which is a central part of the experiment's computing operations. Considerable efforts have been made to use grid technology in the most efficient and effective way, including the use of a pilot job based workload management framework. In this model the experiment submits ‘pilot’ jobs to sites without payload. When these jobs begin to run they contact a central service to pick-up a real payload to execute. The first generation of pilot factories were usually specific to a single Virtual Organization (VO), and were bound to the particular architecture of that VO's distributed processing. A second generation provides factories which are more flexible, not tied to any particular VO, and provide new and improved features such as monitoring, logging, profiling, etc. In this paper we describe this key part of the ATLAS pilot architecture, a second generation pilot factory, AutoPyFactory. AutoPyFactory has a modular design and is highly configurable. It is able to send different types of pilots to sites and exploit different submission mechanisms and queue characteristics. It is tightly integrated with the PanDA job submission framework, coupling pilot flow to the amount of work the site has to run. It gathers information from many sources in order to correctly configure itself for a site and its decision logic can easily be updated. Integrated into AutoPyFactory is a flexible system for delivering both generic and specific job wrappers which can perform many useful actions before starting to run end-user scientific applications, e.g., validation of the middleware, node profiling and diagnostics, and monitoring. AutoPyFactory also has a robust monitoring system that has been invaluable in establishing a reliable pilot factory service for ATLAS.

  2. A simplified approach to estimating the distribution of occasionally-consumed dietary components, applied to alcohol intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Chernova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within-person variation in dietary records can lead to biased estimates of the distribution of food intake. Quantile estimation is especially relevant in the case of skewed distributions and in the estimation of under- or over-consumption. The analysis of the intake distributions of occasionally-consumed foods presents further challenges due to the high frequency of zero records. Two-part mixed-effects models account for excess-zeros, daily variation and correlation arising from repeated individual dietary records. In practice, the application of the two-part model with random effects involves Monte Carlo (MC simulations. However, these can be time-consuming and the precision of MC estimates depends on the size of the simulated data which can hinder reproducibility of results. Methods We propose a new approach based on numerical integration as an alternative to MC simulations to estimate the distribution of occasionally-consumed foods in sub-populations. The proposed approach and MC methods are compared by analysing the alcohol intake distribution in a sub-population of individuals at risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Results The rate of convergence of the results of MC simulations to the results of our proposed method is model-specific, depends on the number of draws from the target distribution, and is relatively slower at the tails of the distribution. Our data analyses also show that model misspecification can lead to incorrect model parameter estimates. For example, under the wrong model assumption of zero correlation between the components, one of the predictors turned out as non-significant at 5 % significance level (p-value 0.062 but it was estimated as significant in the correctly specified model (p-value 0.016. Conclusions The proposed approach for the analysis of the intake distributions of occasionally-consumed foods provides a quicker and more precise alternative to MC simulation methods, particularly in the

  3. Implementing Clinical Research Using Factorial Designs: A Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Timothy B; Smith, Stevens S; Bolt, Daniel M; Loh, Wei-Yin; Mermelstein, Robin; Fiore, Michael C; Piper, Megan E; Collins, Linda M

    2017-07-01

    Factorial experiments have rarely been used in the development or evaluation of clinical interventions. However, factorial designs offer advantages over randomized controlled trial designs, the latter being much more frequently used in such research. Factorial designs are highly efficient (permitting evaluation of multiple intervention components with good statistical power) and present the opportunity to detect interactions amongst intervention components. Such advantages have led methodologists to advocate for the greater use of factorial designs in research on clinical interventions (Collins, Dziak, & Li, 2009). However, researchers considering the use of such designs in clinical research face a series of choices that have consequential implications for the interpretability and value of the experimental results. These choices include: whether to use a factorial design, selection of the number and type of factors to include, how to address the compatibility of the different factors included, whether and how to avoid confounds between the type and number of interventions a participant receives, and how to interpret interactions. The use of factorial designs in clinical intervention research poses choices that differ from those typically considered in randomized clinical trial designs. However, the great information yield of the former encourages clinical researchers' increased and careful execution of such designs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Three-dimensional structure of Rubella virus factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontana, Juan; Lopez-Iglesias, Carmen; Tzeng, Wen-Ping; Frey, Teryl K.; Fernandez, Jose J.; Risco, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Viral factories are complex structures in the infected cell where viruses compartmentalize their life cycle. Rubella virus (RUBV) assembles factories by recruitment of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), mitochondria and Golgi around modified lysosomes known as cytopathic vacuoles or CPVs. These organelles contain active replication complexes that transfer replicated RNA to assembly sites in Golgi membranes. We have studied the structure of RUBV factory in three dimensions by electron tomography and freeze-fracture. CPVs contain stacked membranes, rigid sheets, small vesicles and large vacuoles. These membranes are interconnected and in communication with the endocytic pathway since they incorporate endocytosed BSA-gold. RER and CPVs are coupled through protein bridges and closely apposed membranes. Golgi vesicles attach to the CPVs but no tight contacts with mitochondria were detected. Immunogold labelling confirmed that the mitochondrial protein p32 is an abundant component around and inside CPVs where it could play important roles in factory activities.

  5. Very Fast Estimation of Epicentral Distance and Magnitude from a Single Three Component Seismic Station Using Machine Learning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa Gutierrez, L. H.; Niño Vasquez, L. F.; Vargas-Jimenez, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    To minimize adverse effects originated by high magnitude earthquakes, early warning has become a powerful tool to anticipate a seismic wave arrival to an specific location and lets to bring people and government agencies opportune information to initiate a fast response. To do this, a very fast and accurate characterization of the event must be done but this process is often made using seismograms recorded in at least 4 stations where processing time is usually greater than the wave travel time to the interest area, mainly in coarse networks. A faster process can be done if only one three component seismic station is used that is the closest unsaturated station respect to the epicenter. Here we present a Support Vector Regression algorithm which calculates Magnitude and Epicentral Distance using only 5 seconds of signal since P wave onset. This algorithm was trained with 36 records of historical earthquakes where the input were regression parameters of an exponential function estimated by least squares, corresponding to the waveform envelope and the maximum value of the observed waveform for each component in one single station. A 10 fold Cross Validation was applied for a Normalized Polynomial Kernel obtaining the mean absolute error for different exponents and complexity parameters. Magnitude could be estimated with 0.16 of mean absolute error and the distance with an error of 7.5 km for distances within 60 to 120 km. This kind of algorithm is easy to implement in hardware and can be used directly in the field station to make possible the broadcast of estimations of this values to generate fast decisions at seismological control centers, increasing the possibility to have an effective reactiontribute and Descriptors calculator for SVR model training and test

  6. Fast Estimation of Epicentral Distance and Magnitude from a Single Three Component Seismic Station Using Machine Learning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa Gutierrez, L. H.; Niño, L. F.; Vargas-Jimenez, C. A.

    2013-05-01

    To minimize adverse effects originated by high magnitude earthquakes, early warning has become a powerful tool to anticipate a seismic wave arrival to an specific location, bringing opportune information to people and government agencies to initiate a fast response. To do this, a very fast and accurate characterization of the event must be done but this process is often made using seismograms recorded in at least four stations where processing time is usually greater than the wave arrival time to the interest area, mainly in seismological coarse networks. A faster process can be done if only one three component seismic station, the closest unsaturated station with respect to the epicenter, is used. Here, we present a Support Vector Regression algorithm which calculates Magnitude and Epicentral Distance using only five seconds of signal since P wave onset. This algorithm was trained with 36 records of historical earthquakes, where the input included regression parameters of an exponential function estimated by least squares, of the waveform envelope and the maximum value of the observed waveform for each component in a single station. A ten-fold Cross Validation was applied for a Normalized Polynomial Kernel obtaining the mean absolute error for different exponents and complexity parameters. The Magnitude could be estimated with 0.16 units of mean absolute error and the distance with an error of 7.5 km for distances within 60 to 120 km. This kind of algorithm is easy to implement in hardware and can be used directly in the field seismological sensor to make the broadcast of estimations of these values possible to generate fast decisions at seismological control centers, increasing the possibility of having an effective reaction.

  7. A biophysical model for transcription factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canals-Hamann, Ana Z; Neves, Ricardo Pires das; Reittie, Joyce E; Iñiguez, Carlos; Soneji, Shamit; Enver, Tariq; Buckle, Veronica J; Iborra, Francisco J

    2013-01-01

    Transcription factories are nuclear domains where gene transcription takes place although the molecular basis for their formation and maintenance are unknown. In this study, we explored how the properties of chromatin as a polymer may contribute to the structure of transcription factories. We found that transcriptional active chromatin contains modifications like histone H4 acetylated at Lysine 16 (H4K16ac). Single fibre analysis showed that this modification spans the entire body of the gene. Furthermore, H4K16ac genes cluster in regions up to 500 Kb alternating active and inactive chromatin. The introduction of H4K16ac in chromatin induces stiffness in the chromatin fibre. The result of this change in flexibility is that chromatin could behave like a multi-block copolymer with repetitions of stiff-flexible (active-inactive chromatin) components. Copolymers with such structure self-organize through spontaneous phase separation into microdomains. Consistent with such model H4K16ac chromatin form foci that associates with nascent transcripts. We propose that transcription factories are the result of the spontaneous concentration of H4K16ac chromatin that are in proximity, mainly in cis

  8. Unauthorized Immigration to the United States: Annual Estimates and Components of Change, by State, 1990 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Robert; Warren, John Robert

    2013-01-01

    We describe a method for producing annual estimates of the unauthorized immigrant population in the United Sates and components of population change, for each state and D.C., for 1990 to 2010. We quantify a sharp drop in the number of unauthorized immigrants arriving since 2000, and we demonstrate the role of departures from the population (emigration, adjustment to legal status, removal by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and deaths) in reducing population growth from one million in 2000 to population losses in 2008 and 2009. The number arriving in the U.S. peaked at more than one million in 1999 to 2001, and then declined rapidly through 2009. We provide evidence that population growth stopped after 2007 primarily because entries declined and not because emigration increased during the economic crisis. Our estimates of the total unauthorized immigrant population in the U.S. and in the top ten states are comparable to those produced by DHS and the Pew Hispanic Center. For the remaining states and D.C., our data and methods produce estimates with smaller ranges of sampling error. PMID:23956482

  9. Unauthorized Immigration to the United States: Annual Estimates and Components of Change, by State, 1990 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Robert; Warren, John Robert

    2013-06-01

    We describe a method for producing annual estimates of the unauthorized immigrant population in the United Sates and components of population change, for each state and D.C., for 1990 to 2010. We quantify a sharp drop in the number of unauthorized immigrants arriving since 2000, and we demonstrate the role of departures from the population (emigration, adjustment to legal status, removal by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and deaths) in reducing population growth from one million in 2000 to population losses in 2008 and 2009. The number arriving in the U.S. peaked at more than one million in 1999 to 2001, and then declined rapidly through 2009. We provide evidence that population growth stopped after 2007 primarily because entries declined and not because emigration increased during the economic crisis. Our estimates of the total unauthorized immigrant population in the U.S. and in the top ten states are comparable to those produced by DHS and the Pew Hispanic Center. For the remaining states and D.C., our data and methods produce estimates with smaller ranges of sampling error.

  10. Photon factory activity report, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This issue is the annual report of the Photon Factory, National laboratory of High Energy Physics. First, the outline of the Photon Factory is presented. Injector linac, light source, beamlines and instrumentation, the Tristan synchrotron radiation facility at the accumulation ring, and the Tristan super light facility are described in detail. The facility is open to researchers. The user's reports are collected as well. (J.P.N.) (435 refs.)

  11. Atomic Energy (factories) rules: 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    These rules are made by the Central Government under the Factories Act, 1948 and extend to all factories engaged in carrying out the purposes of the Atomic Energy Act, 1962. The rules cover the requirements of inspecting staff, health aspects, personnel safety, personnel welfare, working hours, employment of young persons, special provisions in case of dangerous manufacturing processes or operations, supplemental rules for administrative aspects and special powers of competent authority. (M.G.B.)

  12. Photon factory activity report, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This issue is the annual report of the Photon Factory, National Laboratory of High Energy Physics. First the outline of the Photon Factory is presented. Injector linac, light source, beamlines and instrumentation, synchrotron radiation facility at the Tristan accumulation ring, and the Tristan super light facility are described in detail. The facility is open to researchers. The user's reports are collected as well. (J.P.N.)

  13. Muon colliders and neutrino factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geer, S.; /Fermilab

    2010-09-01

    Over the last decade there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture and accelerate {Omicron}(10{sup 21}) muons/year. This development prepares the way for a new type of neutrino source (Neutrino Factory) and a new type of very high energy lepton-antilepton collider (Muon Collider). This article reviews the motivation, design and R&D for Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders.

  14. AutoPyFactory: A Scalable Flexible Pilot Factory Implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Love, P; Stewart, G

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the CERN LHC is one of the largest users of grid computing infrastructure, which is a central part of the experiment’s computing operations. Considerable efforts have been made to use grid technology in the most efficient and effective way, including the use of a pilot job based workload management framework. In this model the experiment submits ’pilot’ jobs to sites without payload. When these jobs begin to run they contact a central service to retrieve a real payload to execute. The first generation of pilot factories were usually specific to a single VO, and were bound to the particular architecture of that VO’s distributed processing. A second generation provides factories which are more flexible, not tied to any particular VO, and provide new or improved features such as monitoring, logging, profiling, etc. In this paper we describe this key part of the ATLAS pilot architecture, a second generation pilot factory, AutoPyFactory. AutoPyFactory has a modular design and is hig...

  15. The tau-charm factory: Experimental perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perl, M.L.; Schindler, R.H.

    1991-09-01

    This report discusses the Tau-Charm Factory Concept; D and D S Physics at the Tau-Charm Factory; τ and ν τ Physics at the Tau-Charm Factory; and Charmonium, Gluonium and Light Quark Spectroscopy at the Tau-Charm Factory

  16. A single frequency component-based re-estimated MUSIC algorithm for impact localization on complex composite structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Shenfang; Bao, Qiao; Qiu, Lei; Zhong, Yongteng

    2015-01-01

    The growing use of composite materials on aircraft structures has attracted much attention for impact monitoring as a kind of structural health monitoring (SHM) method. Multiple signal classification (MUSIC)-based monitoring technology is a promising method because of its directional scanning ability and easy arrangement of the sensor array. However, for applications on real complex structures, some challenges still exist. The impact-induced elastic waves usually exhibit a wide-band performance, giving rise to the difficulty in obtaining the phase velocity directly. In addition, composite structures usually have obvious anisotropy, and the complex structural style of real aircrafts further enhances this performance, which greatly reduces the localization precision of the MUSIC-based method. To improve the MUSIC-based impact monitoring method, this paper first analyzes and demonstrates the influence of measurement precision of the phase velocity on the localization results of the MUSIC impact localization method. In order to improve the accuracy of the phase velocity measurement, a single frequency component extraction method is presented. Additionally, a single frequency component-based re-estimated MUSIC (SFCBR-MUSIC) algorithm is proposed to reduce the localization error caused by the anisotropy of the complex composite structure. The proposed method is verified on a real composite aircraft wing box, which has T-stiffeners and screw holes. Three typical categories of 41 impacts are monitored. Experimental results show that the SFCBR-MUSIC algorithm can localize impact on complex composite structures with an obviously improved accuracy. (paper)

  17. PCCE-A Predictive Code for Calorimetric Estimates in actively cooled components affected by pulsed power loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostinetti, P.; Palma, M. Dalla; Fantini, F.; Fellin, F.; Pasqualotto, R.

    2011-01-01

    The analytical interpretative models for calorimetric measurements currently available in the literature can consider close systems in steady-state and transient conditions, or open systems but only in steady-state conditions. The PCCE code (Predictive Code for Calorimetric Estimations), here presented, introduces some novelties. In fact, it can simulate with an analytical approach both the heated component and the cooling circuit, evaluating the heat fluxes due to conductive and convective processes both in steady-state and transient conditions. The main goal of this code is to model heating and cooling processes in actively cooled components of fusion experiments affected by high pulsed power loads, that are not easily analyzed with purely numerical approaches (like Finite Element Method or Computational Fluid Dynamics). A dedicated mathematical formulation, based on concentrated parameters, has been developed and is here described in detail. After a comparison and benchmark with the ANSYS commercial code, the PCCE code is applied to predict the calorimetric parameters in simple scenarios of the SPIDER experiment.

  18. Average Estimates of Water-Budget Components Based on Hydrograph Separation and PRISM Precipitation for Gaged Basins in the Appalachian Plateaus Region, 1900-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Groundwater Resources Program study of the Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, estimates of annual water-budget components were...

  19. Annual Estimates of Water-Budget Components Based on Hydrograph Separation and PRISM Precipitation for Gaged Basins in the Appalachian Plateaus Region, 1900-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Groundwater Resources Program study of the Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, estimates of annual water-budget components were...

  20. Efficacy of bi-component cocrystals and simple binary eutectics screening using heat of mixing estimated under super cooled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cysewski, Piotr

    2016-07-01

    The values of excess heat characterizing sets of 493 simple binary eutectic mixtures and 965 cocrystals were estimated under super cooled liquid condition. The application of a confusion matrix as a predictive analytical tool was applied for distinguishing between the two subsets. Among seven considered levels of computations the BP-TZVPD-FINE approach was found to be the most precise in terms of the lowest percentage of misclassified positive cases. Also much less computationally demanding AM1 and PM7 semiempirical quantum chemistry methods are likewise worth considering for estimation of the heat of mixing values. Despite intrinsic limitations of the approach of modeling miscibility in the solid state, based on components affinities in liquids under super cooled conditions, it is possible to define adequate criterions for classification of coformers pairs as simple binary eutectics or cocrystals. The predicted precision has been found as 12.8% what is quite accepted, bearing in mind simplicity of the approach. However, tuning theoretical screening to such precision implies the exclusion of many positive cases and this wastage exceeds 31% of cocrystals classified as false negatives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Diamond Growth in the Subduction Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau, H.; Frost, D. J.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Leroy, C.; Estève, I.

    2014-12-01

    Natural diamonds are fabulous probes of the deep Earth Interior. They are the evidence of the deep storage of volatile elements, carbon at first, but also hydrogen and chlorine trapped as hydrous fluids in inclusions. The study of diamond growth processes in the lithosphere and mantle helps for our understanding of volatile elements cycling between deep reservoirs. We know now that inclusion-bearing diamonds similar to diamonds found in nature (i.e. polycrystalline, fibrous and coated diamonds) can grow in hydrous fluids or melts (Bureau et al., GCA 77, 202-214, 2012). Therefore, we propose that the best environment to promote such diamonds is the subduction factory, where highly hydrous fluids or melts are present. When oceanic plates are subducted in the lithosphere, they carry an oceanic crust soaked with seawater. While the slabs are traveling en route to the mantle, dehydration processes generate saline fluids highly concentrated in NaCl. In the present study we have experimentally shown that diamonds can grow from the saline fluids (up to 30 g/l NaCl in water) generated in subducted slabs. We have performed multi-anvil press experiments at 6-7 GPa and from 1300 to 1400°C during 6:00 hours to 30:00 hours. We observed large areas of new diamond grown in epitaxy on pure diamond seeds in salty hydrous carbonated melts, forming coated gems. The new rims are containing multi-component primary inclusions. Detailed characterizations of the diamonds and their inclusions have been performed and will be presented. These experimental results suggest that multi-component salty fluids of supercritical nature migrate with the slabs, down to the deep mantle. Such fluids may insure the first stage of the deep Earth's volatiles cycling (C, H, halogen elements) en route to the transition zone and the lower mantle. We suggest that the subduction factory may also be a diamond factory.

  2. Investigation of cadmium pollution in the spruce saplings near the metal production factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Seyed Armin; Farajpour, Ghasem

    2016-02-01

    Toxic metals such as lead and cadmium are among the pollutants that are created by the metal production factories and disseminated in the nature. In order to study the quantity of cadmium pollution in the environment of the metal production factories, 50 saplings of the spruce species at the peripheries of the metal production factories were examined and the samples of the leaves, roots, and stems of saplings planted around the factory and the soil of the environment of the factory were studied to investigate pollution with cadmium. They were compared to the soil and saplings of the spruce trees planted outside the factory as observer region. The results showed that the quantity of pollution in the leaves, stems, and roots of the trees planted inside the factory environment were estimated at 1.1, 1.5, and 2.5 mg/kg, respectively, and this indicated a significant difference with the observer region (p metal production factory was estimated at 6.8 mg/kg in the depth of 0-10 cm beneath the level of the soil. The length of roots in the saplings planted around the factory of metal production stood at 11 and 14.5 cm in the observer region which had a significant difference with the observer region (p production processes in the factory. © The Author(s) 2013.

  3. Neutrino Factory: status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, K.

    2011-01-01

    The properties of the neutrino provide a unique window on physics beyond that described by the Standard Model. The study of sub-leading effects in neutrino oscillations has begun with the race to measure θ 13 consensus is emerging within the international community that a novel neutrino source is required to allow sensitive searches for leptonic CP violation to be carried out and the neutrino mass-hierarchy to be determined. The Neutrino Factory, in which intense neutrino beams are produced from the decay of muons, has been shown to out-perform the other proposed facilities. The physics case for the Neutrino Factory will be reviewed and the baseline design of the facility being developed by the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) collaboration will be described.

  4. Steps towards the Neutrino Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, K.

    2012-01-01

    The properties of the neutrino provide a unique window on physics beyond that described by the Standard Model. The study of sub-leading effects in neutrino oscillations has begun with the race to measure θ 13 . A consensus is emerging within the international community that a novel neutrino source is required to allow sensitive searches for leptonic CP violation to be carried out and the neutrino mass-hierarchy to be determined. The Neutrino Factory, in which intense neutrino beams are produced from the decay of muons, has been shown to out-perform the other proposed facilities. The physics case for the Neutrino Factory will be reviewed and the baseline design of the facility being developed by the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) collaboration will be described.

  5. Engineering the Polyketide Cell Factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Louise

    sufficient titers. To improve the production of polyketides biological engineering principles have been applied for the development and engineering of microbial polyketide cell factories. The two biological hosts used for heterologous polyketide production were Aspergillus nidulans and Saccharomyces...... phosphopantetheinylase (PPTase). This versatile vector system can easily be used for expression of other polyketides of interest as well as extended to express whole gene clusters. After achieving proof of principle in terms of expression, the polyketide cell factory must be optimized. The optimization can be achieved...... characterization in bioreactors revealed that the yields of 6-MSA on biomass increased albeit not significantly. As a result of this it may be argued that there is still more work to be done in terms of model building in A. nidulans. Utilizing another well-established cell factory S. cerevisiae the capabilities...

  6. Photon Factory activity report, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Photon Factory is a national synchrotron radiation research facility affiliated with the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics located in Tsukuba Science City. The Photon Factory consists of a 2.5 GeV electron/positron linear accelerator, a 2.5 GeV electron/positron storage ring, beam lines and experimental stations. All the facilities for synchrotron radiation research are open to scientists. A part of the accumulation ring of the TRISTAN main ring has been used as a synchrotron radiation source in the energy range from 5.8 to 6.5 GeV. The Photon Factory is composed of three divisions of Injector Linac, Light Source and Instrumentation. The researches of each divisions are reviewed, and the users' short reports are collected. The list of published papers with author index is also included in the publication. (K.I.) 233 refs

  7. Math for the digital factory

    CERN Document Server

    Hömberg, Dietmar; Landry, Chantal

    2017-01-01

    This volume provides a unique collection of mathematical tools and industrial case studies in digital manufacturing. It addresses various topics, ranging from models of single production technologies, production lines, logistics and workflows to models and optimization strategies for energy consumption in production. The digital factory represents a network of digital models and simulation and 3D visualization methods for the holistic planning, realization, control and ongoing improvement of all factory processes related to a specific product. In the past ten years, all industrialized countries have launched initiatives to realize this vision, sometimes also referred to as Industry 4.0 (in Europe) or Smart Manufacturing (in the United States). Its main goals are • reconfigurable, adaptive and evolving factories capable of small-scale production • high-performance production, combining flexibility, productivity, precision and zero defects • energy and resource efficiency in manufacturing None of these...

  8. Linking soil moisture balance and source-responsive models to estimate diffuse and preferential components of groundwater recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbert, M.O.; Mackay, R.; Nimmo, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Results are presented of a detailed study into the vadose zone and shallow water table hydrodynamics of a field site in Shropshire, UK. A conceptual model is developed and tested using a range of numerical models, including a modified soil moisture balance model (SMBM) for estimating groundwater recharge in the presence of both diffuse and preferential flow components. Tensiometry reveals that the loamy sand topsoil wets up via macropore flow and subsequent redistribution of moisture into the soil matrix. Recharge does not occur until near-positive pressures are achieved at the top of the sandy glaciofluvial outwash material that underlies the topsoil, about 1 m above the water table. Once this occurs, very rapid water table rises follow. This threshold behaviour is attributed to the vertical discontinuity in the macropore system due to seasonal ploughing of the topsoil, and a lower permeability plough/iron pan restricting matrix flow between the topsoil and the lower outwash deposits. Although the wetting process in the topsoil is complex, a SMBM is shown to be effective in predicting the initiation of preferential flow from the base of the topsoil into the lower outwash horizon. The rapidity of the response at the water table and a water table rise during the summer period while flow gradients in the unsaturated profile were upward suggest that preferential flow is also occurring within the outwash deposits below the topsoil. A variation of the source-responsive model proposed by Nimmo (2010) is shown to reproduce the observed water table dynamics well in the lower outwash horizon when linked to a SMBM that quantifies the potential recharge from the topsoil. The results reveal new insights into preferential flow processes in cultivated soils and provide a useful and practical approach to accounting for preferential flow in studies of groundwater recharge estimation.

  9. Linking soil moisture balance and source-responsive models to estimate diffuse and preferential components of groundwater recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Cuthbert

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Results are presented of a detailed study into the vadose zone and shallow water table hydrodynamics of a field site in Shropshire, UK. A conceptual model is presented and tested using a range of numerical models, including a modified soil moisture balance model (SMBM for estimating groundwater recharge in the presence of both diffuse and preferential flow components. Tensiometry reveals that the loamy sand topsoil wets up via preferential flow and subsequent redistribution of moisture into the soil matrix. Recharge does not occur until near-positive pressures are achieved at the top of the sandy glaciofluvial outwash material that underlies the topsoil, about 1 m above the water table. Once this occurs, very rapid water table rises follow. This threshold behaviour is attributed to the vertical discontinuity in preferential flow pathways due to seasonal ploughing of the topsoil and to a lower permeability plough/iron pan restricting matrix flow between the topsoil and the lower outwash deposits. Although the wetting process in the topsoil is complex, a SMBM is shown to be effective in predicting the initiation of preferential flow from the base of the topsoil into the lower outwash horizon. The rapidity of the response at the water table and a water table rise during the summer period while flow gradients in the unsaturated profile were upward suggest that preferential flow is also occurring within the outwash deposits below the topsoil. A variation of the source-responsive model proposed by Nimmo (2010 is shown to reproduce the observed water table dynamics well in the lower outwash horizon when linked to a SMBM that quantifies the potential recharge from the topsoil. The results reveal new insights into preferential flow processes in cultivated soils and provide a useful and practical approach to accounting for preferential flow in studies of groundwater recharge estimation.

  10. Neutrino factory plans at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Riche, J A

    2001-01-01

    The considerable interest raised by the discovery of neutrino oscillations and recent progress in studies of muon colliders has triggered interest in considering a neutrino factory at CERN. This paper explains the reference scenario, indicates the other possible choices and mentions the R&D that are foreseen.

  11. Planned e+e- factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Duff, J.

    1993-09-01

    Various Beauty and Tau-Charm factories and projects are reviewed. Different machines (TRISTAN II, PEP II, CESR-B, the Dubna project and the European project) are compared and their design and parameters are described. (K.A.) 34 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Factorial representations of path groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albeverio, S.; Hoegh-Krohn, R.; Testard, D.; Vershik, A.

    1983-11-01

    We give the reduction of the energy representation of the group of mappings from I = [ 0,1 ], S 1 , IRsub(+) or IR into a compact semi simple Lie group G. For G = SU(2) we prove the factoriality of the representation, which is of type III in the case I = IR

  13. A Review of "Infinity Factory."

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Inc., Reston, VA.

    Following a discussion of the historical background of the TV series "Infinity Factory," the goals of the television project are listed. A general description of the television series, an evaluation of the entertainment value, and an evaluation of children's attitude change are briefly presented. The program's presentation of mathematics…

  14. PowerFactory applications for power system analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Longatt, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive set of guidelines and applications of DIgSILENT PowerFactory, an advanced power system simulation software package, for different types of power systems studies. Written by specialists in the field, it combines expertise and years of experience in the use of DIgSILENT PowerFactory with a deep understanding of power systems analysis. These complementary approaches therefore provide a fresh perspective on how to model, simulate and analyse power systems. It presents methodological approaches for modelling of system components, including both classical and non-

  15. A Profile-Based Framework for Factorial Similarity and the Congruence Coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Anselma G; Furr, R Michael

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel profile-based framework for understanding factorial similarity in the context of exploratory factor analysis in general, and for understanding the congruence coefficient (a commonly used index of factor similarity) specifically. First, we introduce the profile-based framework articulating factorial similarity in terms of 3 intuitive components: general saturation similarity, differential saturation similarity, and configural similarity. We then articulate the congruence coefficient in terms of these components, along with 2 additional profile-based components, and we explain how these components resolve ambiguities that can be-and are-found when using the congruence coefficient. Finally, we present secondary analyses revealing that profile-based components of factorial are indeed linked to experts' actual evaluations of factorial similarity. Overall, the profile-based approach we present offers new insights into the ways in which researchers can examine factor similarity and holds the potential to enhance researchers' ability to understand the congruence coefficient.

  16. SatisFactory Common Information Data Exchange Model

    OpenAIRE

    CERTH

    2016-01-01

    This deliverable defines the Common Information Data Exchange Model (CIDEM). The aim of CIDEM is to provide a model of information elements (e.g. concepts, even, relations, interfaces) used for information exchange between components as well as for modelling work performed by other tasks (e.g. knowledge models to support human resources optimization). The CIDEM definition is considered as a shared vocabulary that enables to address the information needs for the SatisFactory framework components.

  17. Particle identification at an asymmetric B Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyle, P.; Eigen, G.; Hitlin, D.; Oddone, P.; Ratcliff, B.; Roe, N.; Va'vra, J.; Ypsilantis, T.

    1991-09-01

    Particle identification systems are an important component of any detector at a high-luminosity, asymmetric B Factory. In particular, excellent hadron identification is required to probe CP violation in B 0 decays to CP eigenstates. The particle identification systems discussed below also provide help in separating leptons from hadrons at low momenta. We begin this chapter with a discussion of the physics motivation for providing particle identification, the inherent limitations due to interactions and decays in flight, and the requirements for hermiticity and angular coverage. A special feature of an asymmetric B Factory is the resulting asymmetry in the momentum distribution as a function of polar angle; this will also be quantified and discussed. In the next section the three primary candidates, time-of-flight (TOF), energy loss (dE/dx), and Cerenkov counters, both ring-imaging and threshold, will be briefly described and evaluated. Following this, one of the candidates, a long-drift Cerenkov ring-imaging device, is described in detail to provide a reference design. Design considerations for a fast RICH are then described. A detailed discussion of aerogel threshold counter designs and associated R ampersand D conclude the chapter. 56 refs., 64 figs., 13 tabs

  18. CONFOUNDING STRUCTURE OF TWO-LEVEL NONREGULAR FACTORIAL DESIGNS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Junbai

    2012-01-01

    In design theory,the alias structure of regular fractional factorial designs is elegantly described with group theory.However,this approach cannot be applied to nonregular designs directly. For an arbitrary nonregular design,a natural question is how to describe the confounding relations between its effects,is there any inner structure similar to regular designs? The aim of this article is to answer this basic question.Using coefficients of indicator function,confounding structure of nonregular fractional factorial designs is obtained as linear constrains on the values of effects.A method to estimate the sparse significant effects in an arbitrary nonregular design is given through an example.

  19. Photon Factory Activity Report, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Photon Factory Activity Report no.12 deals with our activities in the period from October 1993 through September 1994. We operate two light sources at the Photon Factory; the 2.5-GeV Photon Factory storage ring, which is a dedicated light source, and the 6.5-GeV TRISTAN Accumulation Ring, which is parasitically used as a light source. We keep more than seventy experimental stations at two facilities, and accept experiments primarily according to approval by the Program Advisory Committee. The number of proposals to the Photon Factory has been still growing. Three-hundred eighty two proposals were approved by the PAC in FY1994, which is an increase by thirteen percent compared to the previous year. Remarkable was growth in biology proposals, particularly proposals in protein crystallography. In FY 1994, we accepted approximately 20,000 man-days as general users, and almost ten percent of them were from abroad. We always open the facility to users, not only domestic but also international. Recently we have been concentrating our effort to upgrading of the light sources and reconstruction of the experimental stations to keep the Photon Factory an attractive research facility in the forthcoming years. We have already started a program of reducing the emittance of the 2.5-GeV storage ring, which now operates with an emittance of 110 nm-rad, to 27 nm-rad by modifying the lattice, with the goal of operation at the reduced emittance in the fall of 1997. We also have conceived of a conversion of the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring to a dedicated light source of high energies. The on-going TRISTAN project will terminate by the end of 1995, and the TRISTAN Main Ring will be converted to a new B-Factory. At this moment, the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring will be disused as the injector to the Main Ring, and conversion of the AR to a dedicated light source becomes possible. (J.P.N.)

  20. Photon Factory Activity Report, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    Photon Factory Activity Report no.12 deals with our activities in the period from October 1993 through September 1994. We operate two light sources at the Photon Factory; the 2.5-GeV Photon Factory storage ring, which is a dedicated light source, and the 6.5-GeV TRISTAN Accumulation Ring, which is parasitically used as a light source. We keep more than seventy experimental stations at two facilities, and accept experiments primarily according to approval by the Program Advisory Committee. The number of proposals to the Photon Factory has been still growing. Three-hundred eighty two proposals were approved by the PAC in FY1994, which is an increase by thirteen percent compared to the previous year. Remarkable was growth in biology proposals, particularly proposals in protein crystallography. In FY 1994, we accepted approximately 20,000 man-days as general users, and almost ten percent of them were from abroad. We always open the facility to users, not only domestic but also international. Recently we have been concentrating our effort to upgrading of the light sources and reconstruction of the experimental stations to keep the Photon Factory an attractive research facility in the forthcoming years. We have already started a program of reducing the emittance of the 2.5-GeV storage ring, which now operates with an emittance of 110 nm-rad, to 27 nm-rad by modifying the lattice, with the goal of operation at the reduced emittance in the fall of 1997. We also have conceived of a conversion of the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring to a dedicated light source of high energies. The on-going TRISTAN project will terminate by the end of 1995, and the TRISTAN Main Ring will be converted to a new B-Factory. At this moment, the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring will be disused as the injector to the Main Ring, and conversion of the AR to a dedicated light source becomes possible. (J.P.N.)

  1. Photon Factory Activity Report, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Photon Factory Activity Report no.12 deals with our activities in the period from October 1993 through September 1994. We operate two light sources at the Photon Factory; the 2.5-GeV Photon Factory storage ring, which is a dedicated light source, and the 6.5-GeV TRISTAN Accumulation Ring, which is parasitically used as a light source. We keep more than seventy experimental stations at two facilities, and accept experiments primarily according to approval by the Program Advisory Committee. The number of proposals to the Photon Factory has been still growing. Three-hundred eighty two proposals were approved by the PAC in FY1994, which is an increase by thirteen percent compared to the previous year. Remarkable was growth in biology proposals, particularly proposals in protein crystallography. In FY 1994, we accepted approximately 20,000 man-days as general users, and almost ten percent of them were from abroad. We always open the facility to users, not only domestic but also international. Recently we have been concentrating our effort to upgrading of the light sources and reconstruction of the experimental stations to keep the Photon Factory an attractive research facility in the forthcoming years. We have already started a program of reducing the emittance of the 2.5-GeV storage ring, which now operates with an emittance of 110 nm-rad, to 27 nm-rad by modifying the lattice, with the goal of operation at the reduced emittance in the fall of 1997. We also have conceived of a conversion of the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring to a dedicated light source of high energies. The on-going TRISTAN project will terminate by the end of 1995, and the TRISTAN Main Ring will be converted to a new B-Factory. At this moment, the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring will be disused as the injector to the Main Ring, and conversion of the AR to a dedicated light source becomes possible. (J.P.N.)

  2. Radiation safety design of super KEKB factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanami, Toshiya

    2015-01-01

    The SuperKEKB factory, which was scheduled to start operation early 2015, is an electron-positron collider designed to produce an 80x10"3"4-1/cm"2/s luminosity, which is 40 times greater than the KEKB factory. Built to investigate CP violation and 'new physics' beyond the Standard Model, the facility consists of a 7-GeV electron/3.5-GeV positron linac, a 1.1- GeV positron damping ring, beam transport, and a 7-GeV electron/4-GeV positron collider. To meet this level of luminosity, the collider will be operated with a small beam size and a large crossing angle at the interaction point. According to particle tracking simulations, beam losses under these conditions will be 35 times more than those previously operated. To help optimise shielding configurations, leakage radiation and induced activity are estimated through empirical equations and detailed Monte-Carlo simulations using MARS15 code for the interaction region, beam halo collimators, emergency pathways, ducts, forward direction tunnels, and positron production target. Examples of shielding strategies are presented to reduce both leakage dose and airborne activity for several locations in the facility. (authors)

  3. Handbook factory planning and design

    CERN Document Server

    Wiendahl, Hans-Peter; Nyhuis, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This handbook introduces a methodical approach and pragmatic concept for the planning and design of changeable factories that act in strategic alliances to supply the ever-changing needs of the global market. In the first part, the change drivers of manufacturing enterprises and the resulting new challenges are considered in detail with focus on an appropriate change potential. The second part concerns the design of the production facilities and systems on the factory levels work place, section, building and site under functional, organisational, architectural and strategic aspects keeping in mind the environmental, health and safety aspects including corporate social responsibility. The third part is dedicated to the planning and design method that is based on a synergetic interaction of process and space. The accompanying project management of the planning and construction phase and the facility management for the effective utilization of the built premises close the book. -        Concise overview o...

  4. RIKEN RI Beam Factory project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Yasushige; Goto, Akira; Katayama, Takeshi [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    The RARF proposes `RIKEN RI Beam Factory` as a next facility-expanding project. The factory makes it the primary aim to provide RI (Radioactive Isotope) beams covering over the whole atomic-mass range with the world-highest intensity in a wide energy range up to several hundreds MeV/nucleon. These RI beams are generated by the fragmentation of high-intensity heavy-ion beams. For the efficient production heavy-ion energies will be boosted up to over 100 MeV/nucleon even for very heavy ions by a K2500-MeV superconducting ring cyclotron serving as a post accelerator of the existing K540-MeV ring cyclotron. A new type of experimental installation called `MUSES` (Multi-USe Experimental Storage rings) will be constructed as well. With MUSES, various types of unique colliding experiments will become possible. (author)

  5. On KEK B-Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, H.

    2009-07-01

    There are two principles which the management of a research institute like KEK must respect when dealing with such big project as B-Factory. One is the scientific merit of the project and the other is the organizational consideration which includes financial, human, technical and historical elements. Ideally, the two principles are to be fully taken into account. But, in many cases, one or the other is only partially fulfilled due to unavoidable circumstances. The lack of flexibility to respond to all possible situations is more dangerous and may lead to a disaster as in the case of SSC. I will describe the process which lead to the successful construction, operation and physics presentations of KEK B-Factory following faithfully the official records.

  6. On KEK B-factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, Hirotaka

    2009-01-01

    There are two principles which the management of a research institute like KEK must respect when dealing with such big project as B-Factory. One is the scientific merit of the project and the other is the organizational consideration which includes financial, human, technical and historical elements. Ideally, the two principles are to be fully taken into account. But, in many cases, one or the other is only partially fulfilled due to unavoidable circumstances. The lack of flexibility to respond to all possible situations is more dangerous and may lead to a disaster as in the case of SSC. I will describe the process which lead to the successful construction, operation and physics presentations of KEK B-Factory following faithfully the official records. (author)

  7. Apiary B Factory lattice design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donald, M.H.R.; Garren, A.A.

    1991-04-01

    The Apiary B Factory is a proposed high-intensity electron-positron collider. This paper will present the lattice design for this facility, which envisions two rings with unequal energies in the PEP tunnel. The design has many interesting optical and geometrical features due to the needs to conform to the existing tunnel, and to achieve the necessary emittances, damping times and vacuum. Existing hardware is used to a maximum extent. 8 figs. 1 tab

  8. A kaon factory for TRIUMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measday, D.F.

    1988-11-01

    The design study for the TRIUMF Kaon Factory has recently been funded. A short discussion of the scientific motivation is given first, followed by a brief description of the 30 GeV synchrotron which is being proposed. There will be five rings altogether using the present TRIUMF 500 MeV cyclotron as an injector. If the project is funded in 1990 the accelerators would be completed in 1995 or so, and the experimental programme would start a year later

  9. Photon Factory activity report, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The Photon Factory at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics is a national facility for scientific research utilizing synchrotron radiation. Although the Photon Factory operator the linear injector, two light sources including the 2.5 GeV storage ring and the 6.5 GeV TRISTAN accumulation Ring as well as a major fraction of their beamlines and experimental station. This report is covered the period from October 1994 to September 1995. The total number of proposals by this PAC was 399 in 1995. Facility development projects currently in progress include the following, TRISTAN Super Light Facility (TSLF) project, VUV-FEL project, KEKB project and Slow-positron Source. This report contents outline of the Photon Factory, introduction, scientific disciplines, electronic properties of condensed matters, atomic and molecular science, X-ray imaging, radiobiology using synchrotron radiation, structural properties of condensed matters, structural properties of solid surfaces and adsorbates, structure and function of proteins, theoretical researches, experimental facilities, beamlines, new instrumentation, AR Upgrade, collaborations, projects, user`s short reports, list of published papers 1994/95. (S.Y.)

  10. Photon Factory activity report, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Photon Factory at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics is a national facility for scientific research utilizing synchrotron radiation. Although the Photon Factory operator the linear injector, two light sources including the 2.5 GeV storage ring and the 6.5 GeV TRISTAN accumulation Ring as well as a major fraction of their beamlines and experimental station. This report is covered the period from October 1994 to September 1995. The total number of proposals by this PAC was 399 in 1995. Facility development projects currently in progress include the following, TRISTAN Super Light Facility (TSLF) project, VUV-FEL project, KEKB project and Slow-positron Source. This report contents outline of the Photon Factory, introduction, scientific disciplines, electronic properties of condensed matters, atomic and molecular science, X-ray imaging, radiobiology using synchrotron radiation, structural properties of condensed matters, structural properties of solid surfaces and adsorbates, structure and function of proteins, theoretical researches, experimental facilities, beamlines, new instrumentation, AR Upgrade, collaborations, projects, user's short reports, list of published papers 1994/95. (S.Y.)

  11. Photon Factory activity report, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The Photon Factory at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics is a national facility for scientific research utilizing synchrotron radiation. Although the Photon Factory operator the linear injector, two light sources including the 2.5 GeV storage ring and the 6.5 GeV TRISTAN accumulation Ring as well as a major fraction of their beamlines and experimental station. This report is covered the period from October 1994 to September 1995. The total number of proposals by this PAC was 399 in 1995. Facility development projects currently in progress include the following, TRISTAN Super Light Facility (TSLF) project, VUV-FEL project, KEKB project and Slow-positron Source. This report contents outline of the Photon Factory, introduction, scientific disciplines, electronic properties of condensed matters, atomic and molecular science, X-ray imaging, radiobiology using synchrotron radiation, structural properties of condensed matters, structural properties of solid surfaces and adsorbates, structure and function of proteins, theoretical researches, experimental facilities, beamlines, new instrumentation, AR Upgrade, collaborations, projects, user`s short reports, list of published papers 1994/95. (S.Y.)

  12. Photon Factory activity report, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Photon Factory has grown at a considerable rate, and 600 experiments are carried out in 1991, while the number of users is now 2300 including about 500 from industrial sectors. The use of synchrotron radiation increased from fundamental research to industrial development. The development at the Photon Factory is supported by the capability of the accelerators. At present, the 2.5 GeV PF ring is operated with positrons at the initial beam current of 350 mA. The total operation time was 3500 hours in the fiscal year 1990. The development of an avalanche mode photodiode, the observation of quantum beat in the experiment of nuclear Bragg scattering, the measurement of photo-electron and photo-ion spectroscopy were carried out. The conversion of TRISTAN main ring to an ultrahigh brilliance and high coherence source is planned for the future. The annual PF Symposium was held, and Professor H. Winick gave the lecture 'Ultrahigh brightness and coherent radiation from large storage rings'. In this report, the outline of the Photon Factory and the activities in Divisions of Injector Linac, Light Source and Instrumentation are described. (K.I.)

  13. Concept of data storage prototype for Super-C-Tau factory detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maximov, D.A.

    2017-01-01

    The physics program of experiments at the Super- c τ factory with a peak luminosity of 10 35 cm −2 s −1 leads to high requrements for Data Acquisition and Data Storage systems. Detector data storage is one of the key component of the detector infrastructure, so it must be reliable, highly available and fault tolerant shared storage. It is mostly oriented (from end user point of view) for sequential but mixed read and write operations and is planed to store large data blocks (files). According to CDR of Super-C-Tau factory detector data storage must have very high performance (up to 1 Tbps in both directions simultaneously) and have significant volume (tens and hundreds of Petabytes). It is decided to build a series of prototypes with growing capabilities to investigate storage and neighboring technologies. First prototype of data storage is aimed to develop and test basic components of detector data storage system such as storage devices, networks and software. This prototype is designed to be capable to work with data rate of order 10 Gbps. It is estimated that about 5 modern computers with about 50 disks in total should be enough to archive required performance. The prototype will be based on Ceph storage technology. Ceph is a distributed storage system which allows to create storage solutions with very flexible design, high availability and scalability.

  14. Golden measurements at a neutrino factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervera, A.; Donini, A.; Gavela, M.B.; Gomez Cadenas, J.J.; Hernandez, P.; Mena, O.; Rigolin, S.

    2000-01-01

    The precision and discovery potential of a neutrino factory based on muon storage rings is studied. For three-family neutrino oscillations, we analyse how to measure or severely constraint the angle θ 13 , CP-violation, MSW effects and the sign of the atmospheric mass difference Δm 2 23 . We present a simple analytical formula for the oscillation probabilities in matter, with all neutrino mass differences non-vanishing, which clarifies the subtleties involved in disentangling the unknown parameters. The appearance of 'wrong-sign muons' at three reference baselines is considered: 732 km, 3500 km, and 7332 km. We exploit the dependence of the signal on the neutrino energy, and include as well realistic background estimations and detection efficiencies. The optimal baseline turns out to be O (3000 km). Analyses combining the information from different baselines are also presented

  15. Golden measurements at a neutrino factory

    CERN Document Server

    Cervera-Villanueva, Anselmo; Gavela-Legazpi, Maria Belen; Cadenas, J J G; Hernández, Pilar; Mena, O; Rigolin, Stefano

    2000-01-01

    The precision and discovery potential of a neutrino factory based on muonstorage rings is studied. For three-family neutrino oscillations, we analysehow to measure or severely constraint the angle $\\theta_{13}$, CP violation,MSW effects and the sign of the atmospheric mass difference $\\Delta m^2_{23}$.We present a simple analytical formula for the oscillation probabilities inmatter, with all neutrino mass differences non-vanishing, which clarifies thesubtleties involved in disentangling the unknown parameters. The appearance of``wrong-sign muons'' at three reference baselines is considered: 732 km, 3500km, and 7332 km. We exploit the dependence of the signal on the neutrinoenergy, and include as well realistic background estimations and detectionefficiencies. The optimal baseline turns out to be ${\\cal O}(3000$ km).Analyses combining the information from different baselines are also presented.

  16. Usual Dietary Intakes: SAS Macros for Estimating Ratios of Two Dietary Components that are Consumed Nearly Every Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following SAS macros can be used to create a bivariate distribution of usual intake of two dietary components that are consumed nearly every day and to calculate percentiles of the population distribution of the ratio of usual intakes.

  17. Behavioral lifestyle and mental health status of Japanese factory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezoe, S; Morimoto, K

    1994-01-01

    Lifestyle factors, sometimes associated with physical health and mortality, have also been known to be associated with mental health status. This study seeks to correlate behavioral lifestyles with major components of mental health among Japanese factory workers. We administered the 28-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and a questionnaire concerning eight personal health practices to 2,132 male and 668 female factory workers at a camera-manufacturing company in Japan. There were strong negative relationships of a higher total number of favorable lifestyles as indicated by the Health Practice Index (HPI) to psychological distress and its components: somatic symptoms, anxiety-insomnia, and social dysfunction. After controlling for the effects of confounding factors that included age, marital status, and somatic condition, multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that five of the eight health factors among male workers--mental stress, nutritional balance, eating breakfast regularly, physical exercise, and working hours--were significantly related to the grade of psychological distress or its three components. Among female workers, five health practices, i.e., mental stress, physical exercise, sleeping hours, working hours, and cigarette smoking, were significantly associated with the grade of psychological distress or its three components. Good health practices might be individually and as a whole associated with better mental health status in factory workers.

  18. Information security of Smart Factories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iureva, R. A.; Andreev, Y. S.; Iuvshin, A. M.; Timko, A. S.

    2018-05-01

    In several years, technologies and systems based on the Internet of things (IoT) will be widely used in all smart factories. When processing a huge array of unstructured data, their filtration and adequate interpretation are a priority for enterprises. In this context, the correct representation of information in a user-friendly form acquires special importance, for which the market today presents advanced analytical platforms designed to collect, store and analyze data on technological processes and events in real time. The main idea of the paper is the statement of the information security problem in IoT and integrity of processed information.

  19. Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, Daniel M. [IIT, Chicago

    2015-05-29

    Muon colliders and neutrino factories are attractive options for future facilities aimed at achieving the highest lepton-antilepton collision energies and precision measurements of Higgs boson and neutrino mixing matrix parameters. The facility performance and cost depend on how well a beam of muons can be cooled. Recent progress in muon cooling design studies and prototype tests nourishes the hope that such facilities could be built starting in the coming decade. The status of the key technologies and their various demonstration experiments is summarized. Prospects "post-P5" are also discussed.

  20. Magnets for TRIUMF's KAON factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otter, A.J.; Reeve, P.A.

    1991-05-01

    The KAON Factory will require over 2000 magnets to transport protons from the existing 500 Mev cyclotron through three storage rings and two synchrotrons and deliver them to the experimental area at 30 Gev. The magnet requirements are summarized and the results of measurements on prototypes for the 50 hz Booster magnets are compared with design values. This paper will address three topics: the results of prototype work, some of the more difficult design aspects of other magnets and the tolerances required to achieve production magnets uniform to ± 2 parts in 10 4 . (Author) 10 refs., 3 figs., tab

  1. Photon Factory activity report, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Since the foundation of Photon Factory a decade age, it has played an important role as a unique synchrotron X-ray radiation source in Japan. Installation of various insertion devices, storage of intense positron beam and reduction of beam emittance were the substantial achievements in the last several years. The exploitation of the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring as a synchrotron radiation source has paved the way for a new potential of development. All these activities have brought about the increase of beamlines and the expansion of scientific fronts. Third International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation held in Tsukuba was one of the most highlighted events for the facility. In coming years, it is intended to open new research fields using the promising single bunch beam and circularly polarized wiggler radiation. The TRISTAN Main Ring also will be applied to synchrotron radiation research. The Photon Factory in a national synchrotron radiation research facility affiliated to the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, and it consists of a 2.5 GeV electron linac, a 2.5 GeV storage ring as a synchrotron light source, beam lines and experimental stations. The operation, improvement and development in respective departments are reported. (Kako, I.)

  2. Analytical Formulation for Sizing and Estimating the Dimensions and Weight of Wind Turbine Hub and Drivetrain Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Y. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Parsons, T. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dykes, K. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Veers, P. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-06-09

    This report summarizes the theory, verification, and validation of a new sizing tool for wind turbine drivetrain components, the Drivetrain Systems Engineering (DriveSE) tool. DriveSE calculates the dimensions and mass properties of the hub, main shaft, main bearing(s), gearbox, bedplate, transformer if up-tower, and yaw system. The level of fi¬ delity for each component varies depending on whether semiempirical parametric or physics-based models are used. The physics-based models have internal iteration schemes based on system constraints and design criteria. Every model is validated against available industry data or finite-element analysis. The verification and validation results show that the models reasonably capture primary drivers for the sizing and design of major drivetrain components.

  3. Information Management for Factory Planning and Design

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Danfang

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to the manufacturing industry for the improvement of information management within the factory planningand design domain, and for more efficient factory planning and design. Currently the manufacturing industry lacks sufficient methods for capturing, structuring, and representing information and knowledge for easy access, exchange, integration and reuse within the domain. Therefore the focus of this thesis is on information and knowledge management within factory plan...

  4. WQO is Decidable for Factorial Languages

    KAUST Repository

    Atminas, Aistis

    2017-08-08

    A language is factorial if it is closed under taking factors, i.e. contiguous subwords. Every factorial language can be described by an antidictionary, i.e. a minimal set of forbidden factors. We show that the problem of deciding whether a factorial language given by a finite antidictionary is well-quasi-ordered under the factor containment relation can be solved in polynomial time. We also discuss possible ways to extend our solution to permutations and graphs.

  5. Preserving the Modernist Vertical Urban Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Rappaport

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay is adapted in part, from the section, “Modern Factory Architecture” case studies from Nina Rappaport’s book Vertical Urban Factory, published by Actar this spring. Vertical Urban Factory began as an architecture studio, and then an exhibition, which opened in New York in 2011 and traveled to Detroit and Toronto in 2012. Last year the show was displayed at Archizoom at EPFL in Lausanne; Industry City, Brooklyn; and the Charles Moore School of Architecture at Kean University, in New Jersey. The project continues as a think tank evaluating factory futures and urban industrial potential.

  6. ISSUES ON USING PRICE INDICES FOR ESTIMATING GDP AND ITS COMPONENTS AT CONSTANT PRICES ACCORDING TO SNA METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Prykhodko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines requirements and methodological approaches to the calculation of price indices (deflators in the national accounts. It gives estimation for the level and dynamics of price indicators. It proposes on improving the calculation of price indices (deflators in the national accounts of Ukraine.

  7. A factorial experiment on image quality and radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norrman, E.; Persliden, J.

    2005-01-01

    To find if factorial experiments can be used in the optimisation of diagnostic imaging, a factorial experiment was performed to investigate some of the factors that influence image quality, kerma area product (KAP) and effective dose (E). In a factorial experiment the factors are varied together instead of one at a time, making it possible to discover interactions between the factors as well as major effects. The factors studied were tube potential, tube loading, focus size and filtration. Each factor was set to two levels (low and high). The influence of the factors on the response variables (image quality, KAP and E) was studied using a direct digital detector. The major effects of each factor on the response variables were estimated as well as the interaction effects between factors. The image quality, KAP and E were mainly influenced by tube loading, tube potential and filtration. There were some active interactions, for example, between tube potential and filtration and between tube loading and filtration. The study shows that factorial experiments can be used to predict the influence of various parameters on image quality and radiation dose. (authors)

  8. Does the GPM mission improve the systematic error component in satellite rainfall estimates over TRMM? An evaluation at a pan-India scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beria, Harsh; Nanda, Trushnamayee; Singh Bisht, Deepak; Chatterjee, Chandranath

    2017-12-01

    The last couple of decades have seen the outburst of a number of satellite-based precipitation products with Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) as the most widely used for hydrologic applications. Transition of TRMM into the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) promises enhanced spatio-temporal resolution along with upgrades to sensors and rainfall estimation techniques. The dependence of systematic error components in rainfall estimates of the Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG), and their variation with climatology and topography, was evaluated over 86 basins in India for year 2014 and compared with the corresponding (2014) and retrospective (1998-2013) TRMM estimates. IMERG outperformed TRMM for all rainfall intensities across a majority of Indian basins, with significant improvement in low rainfall estimates showing smaller negative biases in 75 out of 86 basins. Low rainfall estimates in TRMM showed a systematic dependence on basin climatology, with significant overprediction in semi-arid basins, which gradually improved in the higher rainfall basins. Medium and high rainfall estimates of TRMM exhibited a strong dependence on basin topography, with declining skill in higher elevation basins. The systematic dependence of error components on basin climatology and topography was reduced in IMERG, especially in terms of topography. Rainfall-runoff modeling using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model over two flood-prone basins (Mahanadi and Wainganga) revealed that improvement in rainfall estimates in IMERG did not translate into improvement in runoff simulations. More studies are required over basins in different hydroclimatic zones to evaluate the hydrologic significance of IMERG.

  9. Does the GPM mission improve the systematic error component in satellite rainfall estimates over TRMM? An evaluation at a pan-India scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Beria

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The last couple of decades have seen the outburst of a number of satellite-based precipitation products with Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM as the most widely used for hydrologic applications. Transition of TRMM into the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM promises enhanced spatio-temporal resolution along with upgrades to sensors and rainfall estimation techniques. The dependence of systematic error components in rainfall estimates of the Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG, and their variation with climatology and topography, was evaluated over 86 basins in India for year 2014 and compared with the corresponding (2014 and retrospective (1998–2013 TRMM estimates. IMERG outperformed TRMM for all rainfall intensities across a majority of Indian basins, with significant improvement in low rainfall estimates showing smaller negative biases in 75 out of 86 basins. Low rainfall estimates in TRMM showed a systematic dependence on basin climatology, with significant overprediction in semi-arid basins, which gradually improved in the higher rainfall basins. Medium and high rainfall estimates of TRMM exhibited a strong dependence on basin topography, with declining skill in higher elevation basins. The systematic dependence of error components on basin climatology and topography was reduced in IMERG, especially in terms of topography. Rainfall-runoff modeling using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC model over two flood-prone basins (Mahanadi and Wainganga revealed that improvement in rainfall estimates in IMERG did not translate into improvement in runoff simulations. More studies are required over basins in different hydroclimatic zones to evaluate the hydrologic significance of IMERG.

  10. Photon Factory activity report, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The Photon Factory made great strides in 1987. The low emittance operation of the PF ring was achieved in March, and resulted favorably in the increase of brilliance from 2 to 20 times for all the beam lines with high beam stability. At the same time, the installation of inserted devices was under way for all available straight sections of the ring. A 54-pole wiggler-undulator has been commissioned at BL-16. The devices to be inserted in the near future are a multipole wiggler for BL-13, an undulator for BL-19, and an undulator for circular polarized radiation at BL-28. The construction of beam lines continued, and four new beam lines, BL-6, BL-9, BL-16 and BL-17, are now in operation, BL-13 and BL-19 are under construction, and BL-3, BL-5, BL-18, BL-20 and BL-28 are in the design stage. Since its inauguration with four beam lines in 1982, the Photon Factory has grown rapidly, and approaches the goal of operating the PF ring with positrons in full use of its 24 beam ports and the straight sections for inserted devices. The total operation time was limited to 3,000 hours by the budget for fiscal year 1987, and about 80 % of the operation hours were devoted to the experiments of users. The nearly perfect operation of the 400 m long linac has continued in 1987, and has supplied both electrons and positrons to the TRISTAN collision experiment. The light source of a 2.5 GeV electron storage ring was normally operated. (Kako, I.)

  11. Preliminary study on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal properties of mobile phone components for dose estimation in radiation accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byeong Ryong; Ha, Wi Ho; Park, Sun Hoo; Lee, Jin Kyeong; Lee, Seung Sook [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    We have investigated the EPR signal properties in 12 components of two mobile phones (LCD, OLED) using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer in this study.EPR measurements were performed at normal atmospheric conditions using Bruker EXEXSYS-II E500 spectrometer with X-band bridge, and samples were irradiated by {sup 137}C{sub s} gamma-ray source. To identify the presence of radiation-induced signal (RIS), the EPR spectra of each sample were measured unirradiated and irradiated at 50 Gy. Then, dose-response curve and signal intensity variating by time after irradiation were measured. As a result, the signal intensity increased after irradiation in all samples except the USIM plastic and IC chip. Among the samples, cover glass(CG), lens, light guide plate(LGP) and diffusion sheet have shown fine linearity (R{sup 2} > 0.99). Especially, the LGP had ideal characteristics for dosimetry because there were no signal in 0 Gy and high rate of increase in RIS. However, this sample showed weakness in fading. Signal intensity of LGP and Diffusion Sheet decreased by 50% within 72 hours after irradiation, while signals of Cover Glass and Lens were stably preserved during the short period of time. In order to apply rapidly EPR dosimetry using mobile phone components in large-scale radiation accidents, further studies on signal differences for same components of the different mobile phone, fading, pretreatment of samples and processing of background signal are needed. However, it will be possible to do dosimetry by dose-additive method or comparative method using unirradiated same product in small-scale accident.

  12. Food Consumption Patterns Of The Ozyorsk Population In 1948-1966, Important For Estimating Peroral Component Of Internal Exposure Doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokrov, Y.; Martyushov, V.Z.; Stukalov, Pavel M.; Ivanov, I.A.; Beregich, D.A.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2008-01-01

    Results of reconstruction of food consumption patterns are presented for the residents of Ozyorsk for the period of 1948-1966. The reconstruction was performed on the basis analysis of the archive data. The given period of time is characterized by maximum releases into the atmosphere from the Mayak PA sources, and, therefore, it is considered to be the most significant period for calculating peroral component contribution to effective exposure doses to the population. The paper describes main foodstuff suppliers (regions) and their economic indices, as well as delivery rates and consumption rates for most important foodstuffs (primarily whole milk).

  13. Method for estimating failure probabilities of structural components and its application to fatigue problem of internally cooled superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibui, M.

    1989-01-01

    A new method for fatigue-life assessment of a component containing defects is presented such that a probabilistic approach is incorporated into the CEGB two-criteria method. The present method assumes that aspect ratio of initial defect, proportional coefficient of fatigue crack growth law and threshold stress intensity range are treated as random variables. Examples are given to illustrate application of the method to the reliability analysis of conduit for an internally cooled cabled superconductor (ICCS) subjected to cyclic quench pressure. The possible failure mode and mechanical properties contributing to the fatigue life of the thin conduit are discussed using analytical and experimental results. 9 refs., 9 figs

  14. Estimation of Properties of Pure Components Using Improved Group-Contribution+ (GC+) Based Models and Uncertainty Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hukkerikar, Amol; Sarup, Bent; Abildskov, Jens

    and uncertainty analysis, in general, is developed and used. In total 21 properties of pure components, which include normal boiling point, critical constants, normal melting point among others have been analysed. The statistical analysis of the model performance for these properties is highlighted through...... several illustrative examples. Important issues related to property modeling such as thermodynamic consistency of the predicted properties (relation of normal boiling point versus critical temperature etc.) are analysed. The developed methodology is simple, yet sound and effective and provides not only...

  15. A Tau-Charm Factory at CEBAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seth, K.K. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    1994-04-01

    It is proposed that a Tau Charm Factory represents a natural extension of CEBAF into higher energy domains. The exciting nature of the physics of charm quarks and tau leptons is briefly reviewed and it is suggested that the concept of a linac-ring collider as a Tau Charm Factory at CEBAF should be seriously studied.

  16. Estimation of metal temperature of MCrAlY coated IN738 components based on interdiffusion behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Kristian Vinter; Hald, John

    2006-01-01

    Interdiffusion at the interface between a Co-36.5Ni-17.5Cr-8Al-0.5Y, MCrAlY coating and the underlying IN738 superalloy was studied in a large matrix of specimens isothermally heat treated up to 12,000 hours at temperatures 875°C, 925°C or 950°C. Microstructural investigations and calculated phas....... The developed model was used to estimate metal temperatures for a service exposed, first stage gas turbine blade....

  17. A Fuzzy Collaborative Forecasting Approach for Forecasting the Productivity of a Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chi Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Productivity is always considered as one of the most basic and important factors to the competitiveness of a factory. For this reason, all factories have sought to enhance productivity. To achieve this goal, we first need to estimate the productivity. However, there is considerable degree of uncertainty in productivity. For this reason, a fuzzy collaborative forecasting approach is proposed in this study to forecast the productivity of a factory. First, a learning model is established to estimate the future productivity. Subsequently, the learning model is converted into three equivalent nonlinear programming problems to be solved from various viewpoints. The fuzzy productivity forecasts by different experts may not be equal and should therefore be aggregated. To this end, the fuzzy intersection and back propagation network approach is applied. The practical example of a dynamic random access memory (DRAM factory is used to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  18. Isolation of EPR spectra and estimation of spin-states in two-component mixtures of paramagnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabbra, Sonia; Smith, David M; Bode, Bela E

    2018-04-26

    The presence of multiple paramagnetic species can lead to overlapping electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signals. This complication can be a critical obstacle for the use of EPR to unravel mechanisms and aid the understanding of earth abundant metal catalysis. Furthermore, redox or spin-crossover processes can result in the simultaneous presence of metal centres in different oxidation or spin states. In this contribution, pulse EPR experiments on model systems containing discrete mixtures of Cr(i) and Cr(iii) or Cu(ii) and Mn(ii) complexes demonstrate the feasibility of the separation of the EPR spectra of these species by inversion recovery filters and the identification of the relevant spin states by transient nutation experiments. We demonstrate the isolation of component spectra and identification of spin states in a mixture of catalyst precursors. The usefulness of the approach is emphasised by monitoring the fate of the chromium species upon activation of an industrially used precatalyst system.

  19. Electrophoretic analysis of different human growth hormone preparations:characterization and molecular weight estimation of isohormones and other proteic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, I.

    1979-01-01

    Twelve human growth hormone (hGH) preparations were studied on analytical polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis with the purpose of evaluating degree of homogeneity of the extracts, the geometric mean radius (R) sup(-) and the molecular weight (MW) of the protein hormone. A standard curve was used for ten proteins of known molecular weight, where the square root of the retardation coefficient (K sub(R)) was plotted against R sup(-). Five isohormones were identified and defined as charge isomers, based on their different relative free mobility and on their similar R sup(-)(1.81-1.97 nm) and MW (20300-26000 d) values. The heterogeneity of all preparations was due to the presence in general of three isohormones. In five preparations, isohormones B, C 1 and C 2 , were predominant. In recent hGH (IEA) preparations by the method of ROOS, the isohormones C 2 , D and E were identified while in an older one, isohormones E and E 1 were detected. From two to five minor components were found in all samples. Moreover the same type of analysis was carried out on several fractions from protein peaks II and III eluting from Sephadex G 100 purification of three hGH (IEA) extracts. The isohormones start to appear in peak II and their relative concentration is in agreement with the peak III profile read at 280 nm. Practically all secondary components were present in peak II and in most of peak III, showing a type of heterogeneity due to hGH polymeric forms and a relatively small presence of contaminants. (Author) [pt

  20. Photon Factory activity report, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    At the Photon Factory about 500 experiments are now running annually with about 50 experimental stations, the total operation time of the 2.5 GeV storage ring was 3400 hour in 1989, and the number of users was more than 2000, including 300 scientists from industry. This wide usage of synchrotron radiation has been supported by good performance of the accelerators. The positron beam current of the linac was increased for rapid injection (injection time: 20 min). The entire roof of the Light Source building was covered with thermal insulator (urethane-foam). This has greatly improved the beam stability of the ring. It has been operated at an initial ring current of 350 mA with a life time of 20 hours. Distinctive instrumentation at the Photon Factory has expanded to various fields such as angle-resolved ion-spectroscopy, dispersive EXAFS, trace impurity X-ray fluorescence analysis, plane-wave topography, structure analysis under high pressure, and imaging plates. Recently, experiments of protein structure analysis have been carried out extensively; Sakabe developed a new type of Weissenberg camera for protein crystallography, and about 50 experiments have been done for the past six months by a combination of Sakabe camera and imaging plates. The 2.5 GeV light source is now at an entrance of its harvest season. The TRISTAN Accumulation Ring has been used throughout this year in a time sharing basis with the TRISTAN experiment; twenty minutes for injection to TRISTAN Main Ring and 2 hours for SR experiment. The main subject has been magnetic Compton scattering with circularly polarized wiggler radiation. Such experiences enable us to expand our perspective for research in the following decade; we are investigating the possibility of operating the TRISTAN Main Ring at 6-8 GeV with 6000-pole undulaters, resulting in an extremely brilliant radiation source (Emittance: 0.1 nm·rad at 5 GeV with damping rings). (J.P.N.)

  1. Design and manufacture NCS instruments for cement factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thanh Tuy; Nguyen Tien Dung; Dang Nguyet Anh; Nguyen Phuc; Khuong Thanh Tuan; Luong Duc Long; Pham Trong Quyen

    2003-01-01

    The ministry project 'Design and manufacture some of NCS instruments for cement factories' is a part of instrumentation for cement production in Vietnam. The objectives of the project include: 1/Design and manufacture the automatic control system for cement raw material mixing, connected to components X-ray analyzer through serial port of PC; 2/Design and manufacture the automatic discharge control system using gamma rays. The instruments, made by the project , for controlling the conveyor belt weighing machine can be easily improved for various types of conveyor belt weighing machines. Their mobility and software equipped can be adapted for requirement of modern cement production technology. The instruments are operating well in some cement factories and they are helping in quality control. (NHA)

  2. R and D Toward a Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the use of muon beams to create either an intense source of decay neutrinos aimed at a detector located 3000-7500 km away (a Neutrino Factory), or a Muon Collider that produces high-luminosity collisions at the energy frontier. R and D aimed at producing these facilities has been under way for more than 10 years. This paper will review experimental results from MuCool, MERIT, and MICE and indicate the extent to which they will provide proof-of-principle demonstrations of the key technologies required for a Neutrino Factory or Muon Collider. Progress in constructing components for the MICE experiment will also be described.

  3. The factorial structure of pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Z; Blaszczynski, A

    1996-03-01

    Pathological gambling has been characterised by DSM-III-R and DSM-IV as a disorder of impulse control with a proportion of gamblers identified as meeting criteria for a co-morbid diagnosis of Antisocial Personality Disorder. To date, empirical evidence in support of the notion that pathological gamblers as a group manifest elevated traits of impulsivity remains equivocal. Principal components analysis was used to investigate relationships between the constructs of impulsivity, psychopathy, DSM-III-R criteria for Antisocial Personality Disorder, psychological distress, criminal offending behavior and a range of other common psychological measures employed with pathological gamblers. The sample comprised 115 pathological gamblers, 80 consecutive gamblers seeking treatment from a general hospital psychiatric inpatient behavior therapy unit, and 35 volunteer Gamblers Anonymous attenders. Four primary factors were determined: psychological distress, sensation seeking, crime and liveliness, and impulsive-antisocial. Results suggest that pathological gambling consists of a number of discrete and reproducible factorial structures. The impulsive antisocial factor was found to be associated with gambling behavior and indices of poor psychosocial functioning.

  4. The Gamma Factory proposal for CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold

    2015-01-01

    This year, 2015, marks the centenary of the publication of Einsteins Theory of General Relativity and it has been named the International Year of Light and light-based technologies by the UN General Assembly. It is thus timely to discuss the possibility of broadening the present CERN research program by including a new component based on a novel concept of the light source which could pave a way towards a multipurpose Gamma Factory. The proposed light source could be realized at CERN by using the infrastructure of the existing accelerators. It could push the intensity limits of the presently operating light-sources by at least 7 orders of magnitude, reaching the flux of the order of 10^17 photons/s, in the particularly interesting gamma-ray energy domain of 1 < Ephoton < 400 MeV. This domain is out of reach for the FEL-based light sources. The energy-tuned, quasi-monochromatic gamma beams, together with the gamma-beam-driven, high intensity secondary beams of polarized positrons, polarized muons, neutro...

  5. E+e- linear collider B-barB factory for rare B decay studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    We outline the physics goals of a B-barB factory to produce greater than 10 8 B 0 /sub d/, B/sup +- / per year. Emphasis is placed on the search for large CP violating effects in rare B decays. An e + e - linear collider is proposed for the B-barB factory and a preliminary estimate of the parameters of the machine that might reach L = 10 34 cm -2 sec -1 is given

  6. Estimation of subsurface-fracture orientation with the three-component crack-wave measurement; Kiretsuha sanjiku keisoku ni yoru chika kiretsumen no hoko suitei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagano, K; Sato, K [Muroran Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan); Niitsuma, H [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    This paper reports experiments carried out to estimate subsurface-fracture orientation with the three-component crack-wave measurement. The experiments were performed by using existing subsurface cracks and two wells in the experimental field. An air gun as a sound source was installed directly above a subsurface crack intersection in one of the wells, and a three-component elastic wave detector was fixed in the vicinity of a subsurface crack intersection in the other well. Crack waves from the sound source were measured in a frequency bandwidth from 150 to 300 Hz. A coherence matrix was constituted relative to triaxial components of vibration in the crack waves; a coherent vector was sought that corresponds to a maximum coherent value of the matrix; and the direction of the longer axis in an ellipse (the direction being perpendicular to the crack face) was approximated in particle motions of the crack waves by using the vector. The normal line direction of the crack face estimated by using the above method was found to agree nearly well with the direction of the minimum crust compression stress measured in the normal line direction of the crack face existed in core samples collected from the wells, and measured at nearly the same position as the subsurface crack. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Estimation of available water capacity components of two-layered soils using crop model inversion: Effect of crop type and water regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreelash, K.; Buis, Samuel; Sekhar, M.; Ruiz, Laurent; Kumar Tomer, Sat; Guérif, Martine

    2017-03-01

    Characterization of the soil water reservoir is critical for understanding the interactions between crops and their environment and the impacts of land use and environmental changes on the hydrology of agricultural catchments especially in tropical context. Recent studies have shown that inversion of crop models is a powerful tool for retrieving information on root zone properties. Increasing availability of remotely sensed soil and vegetation observations makes it well suited for large scale applications. The potential of this methodology has however never been properly evaluated on extensive experimental datasets and previous studies suggested that the quality of estimation of soil hydraulic properties may vary depending on agro-environmental situations. The objective of this study was to evaluate this approach on an extensive field experiment. The dataset covered four crops (sunflower, sorghum, turmeric, maize) grown on different soils and several years in South India. The components of AWC (available water capacity) namely soil water content at field capacity and wilting point, and soil depth of two-layered soils were estimated by inversion of the crop model STICS with the GLUE (generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation) approach using observations of surface soil moisture (SSM; typically from 0 to 10 cm deep) and leaf area index (LAI), which are attainable from radar remote sensing in tropical regions with frequent cloudy conditions. The results showed that the quality of parameter estimation largely depends on the hydric regime and its interaction with crop type. A mean relative absolute error of 5% for field capacity of surface layer, 10% for field capacity of root zone, 15% for wilting point of surface layer and root zone, and 20% for soil depth can be obtained in favorable conditions. A few observations of SSM (during wet and dry soil moisture periods) and LAI (within water stress periods) were sufficient to significantly improve the estimation of AWC

  8. Joint estimation of the fast and thermal components of a high neutron flux with a two on-line detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filliatre, P.; Oriol, L.; Jammes, C.; Vermeeren, L.

    2009-01-01

    A fission chamber with a 242 Pu deposit is the best suited detector for on-line measurements of the fast component of a high neutron flux (∼10 14 ncm -2 s -1 or more) with a significant thermal component. To get the fast flux, it is, however, necessary to subtract the contribution of the thermal neutrons, which increases with fluence because of the evolution of the isotopic content of the deposit. This paper presents an algorithm that permits, thanks to measurements provided by a 242 Pu fission chamber and a detector for thermal neutrons, to estimate the thermal and the fast flux at any time. An implementation allows to test it with simulated data.

  9. Joint estimation of the fast and thermal components of a high neutron flux with a two on-line detector system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filliatre, P. [CEA, DEN, SPEx/LDCI, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Laboratoire Commun d' Instrumentation CEA-SCK-CEN (France)], E-mail: philippe.filliatre@cea.fr; Oriol, L.; Jammes, C. [CEA, DEN, SPEx/LDCI, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Laboratoire Commun d' Instrumentation CEA-SCK-CEN (France); Vermeeren, L. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Laboratoire Commun d' Instrumentation CEA-SCK-CEN (France)

    2009-05-21

    A fission chamber with a {sup 242}Pu deposit is the best suited detector for on-line measurements of the fast component of a high neutron flux ({approx}10{sup 14}ncm{sup -2}s{sup -1} or more) with a significant thermal component. To get the fast flux, it is, however, necessary to subtract the contribution of the thermal neutrons, which increases with fluence because of the evolution of the isotopic content of the deposit. This paper presents an algorithm that permits, thanks to measurements provided by a {sup 242}Pu fission chamber and a detector for thermal neutrons, to estimate the thermal and the fast flux at any time. An implementation allows to test it with simulated data.

  10. Estimating the maritime component of aerosol optical depth and its dependency on surface wind speed using satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Lehahn

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Six years (2003–2008 of satellite measurements of aerosol parameters from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and surface wind speeds from Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT, the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E, and the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I, are used to provide a comprehensive perspective on the link between surface wind speed and marine aerosol optical depth over tropical and subtropical oceanic regions. A systematic comparison between the satellite derived fields in these regions allows to: (i separate the relative contribution of wind-induced marine aerosol to the aerosol optical depth; (ii extract an empirical linear equation linking coarse marine aerosol optical depth and wind intensity; and (iii identify a time scale for correlating marine aerosol optical depth and surface wind speed. The contribution of wind induced marine aerosol to aerosol optical depth is found to be dominated by the coarse mode elements. When wind intensity exceeds 4 m/s, coarse marine aerosol optical depth is linearly correlated with the surface wind speed, with a remarkably consistent slope of 0.009±0.002 s/m. A detailed time scale analysis shows that the linear correlation between the fields is well kept within a 12 h time frame, while sharply decreasing when the time lag between measurements is longer. The background aerosol optical depth, associated with aerosols that are not produced in-situ through wind driven processes, can be used for estimating the contributions of terrestrial and biogenic marine aerosol to over-ocean satellite retrievals of aerosol optical depth.

  11. SatisFactory Final System Evaluation Report

    OpenAIRE

    Sunlight SA

    2018-01-01

    The present document is a deliverable of the SatisFactory project, funded by the European Commission’s Directorate-General for Research and Innovation (DG RTD), under its Horizon 2020 Research and innovation programme (H2020). The main objective of this deliverable is to report on the SatisFactory Final System Evaluation, with regards to the industrial pilots at COMAU and SUNLIGHT. The evaluation of SatisFactory platform is based on the implementation of the business scenarios where each tool...

  12. STANFORD (SLAC): B factory construction begins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1994-03-15

    At a ceremony marking the start of construction, members of the US Congress and Secretary of Energy Hazel O'Leary hailed the new Asymmetric B Factory as the key to continued vitality of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Being built in collaboration with the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the B factory is a $177 million upgrade of the existing PEP electron-positron collider. Scheduled for completion in 1998, the B factory will generate many millions of B mesons, allowing, among other physics, an intensive search for the phenomena of CP violation in the decays of these particles.

  13. STANFORD (SLAC): B factory construction begins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    At a ceremony marking the start of construction, members of the US Congress and Secretary of Energy Hazel O'Leary hailed the new Asymmetric B Factory as the key to continued vitality of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Being built in collaboration with the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the B factory is a $177 million upgrade of the existing PEP electron-positron collider. Scheduled for completion in 1998, the B factory will generate many millions of B mesons, allowing, among other physics, an intensive search for the phenomena of CP violation in the decays of these particles

  14. Factorial correlators: angular scaling within QCD jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschanski, R.

    2001-01-01

    Factorial correlators measure the amount of dynamical correlation in the multiplicity between two separated phase-space windows. We present the analytical derivation of factorial correlators for a QCD jet described at the double logarithmic (DL) accuracy. We obtain a new angular scaling property for properly normalized correlators between two solid-angle cells or two rings around the jet axis. Normalized QCD factorial correlators scale with the angular distance and are independent of the window size. Scaling violations are expected beyond the DL approximation, in particular from the subject structure. Experimental tests are feasible, and thus would be welcome. (orig.)

  15. Deficits and Solutions in the Development of Modular Factory Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Achim Kampker; Peter Burggräf; Moritz Krunke; Hanno Voet

    2017-01-01

    As a reaction to current challenges in factory planning, many companies think about introducing factory standards to lower planning times and decrease planning costs. If these factory standards are set-up with a high level of modularity, they are defined as modular factory systems. This paper deals with the main current problems in the application of modular factory systems in practice and presents a solution approach with its basic models. The methodology is based on methods from factory pla...

  16. A Discussion on Uncertainty Representation and Interpretation in Model-Based Prognostics Algorithms based on Kalman Filter Estimation Applied to Prognostics of Electronics Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celaya, Jose R.; Saxen, Abhinav; Goebel, Kai

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses several aspects of uncertainty representation and management for model-based prognostics methodologies based on our experience with Kalman Filters when applied to prognostics for electronics components. In particular, it explores the implications of modeling remaining useful life prediction as a stochastic process and how it relates to uncertainty representation, management, and the role of prognostics in decision-making. A distinction between the interpretations of estimated remaining useful life probability density function and the true remaining useful life probability density function is explained and a cautionary argument is provided against mixing interpretations for the two while considering prognostics in making critical decisions.

  17. Independent component analysis applied to pulse oximetry in the estimation of the arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) - a comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Duun, Sune Bro; Larsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    We examine various independent component analysis (ICA) digital signal processing algorithms for estimating the arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) as measured by a reflective pulse oximeter. The ICA algorithms examined are FastICA, Maximum Likelihood ICA (ICAML), Molgedey and Schuster ICA (ICAMS......), and Mean Field ICA (ICAMF). The signal processing includes pre-processing bandpass filtering to eliminate noise, and post-processing by calculating the SpO2. The algorithms are compared to the commercial state-of-the-art algorithm Discrete Saturation Transform (DST) by Masimo Corporation...

  18. Heritability and variance components estimates for growth traits in Saudi Ardi goat and Damascus goat and their crosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K M Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the genetic and non-genetic factors and their interactions affecting growth rate and body weights at birth, weaning and at 6 months of age in Saudi Ardi, Damascus goats and their crosses.Methods: Crossbreeding program between Saudi Ardi(A goats with Damascus(D was carried out to improve the meat productivity of Ardi goats through crossbreeding. The pedigree records of the body weights were obtained from 754 kids (397 males and 357 females produced from 46 Sires and 279 Dams. Birth weight, weaning weigh and 6 months weight as well as average daily gain during different growth stages from birth to weaning (D1, weaning to 6 months (D2 and from birth to 6 months of age (D3 were recorded during winter/autumn and summer/spring. Data were classified according to breed, generation, sex, season, year, and type of birth. Data were analyzed using GLM procedure for the least-squares means of the fixed factors. Heritability and genetic parameters were estimated with derivative-free restricted maximum likelihood procedures using the MTDFREML program.Results: The percentages of variations were moderate for body weights and high for daily gains. Genetic groups had a highly significant (P<0.01 effect on the body weights traits. Damascus goats had higher (P<0.01 birth and weaning weights, but ½D½A group kids had a higher (P<0.01 body weight at 6 months. The genetic groups had a significant effects on the daily weight gains for D1 (P<0.01 and D3 (P<0.05 periods, whereas, it had no effects on D2 period. The fixed effects of sex, season, year and type of birth were significant differences for body weights. Male kids were heavier (P<0.01 than females for different growth stages. Body weights and daily gains during winter/autumn were significantly higher (P<0.01 than summer/ spring. Kids born and raised as singles were significantly (P<0.01 heavier than those were born as twins or triplets. The genetic and phenotypic correlations between birth

  19. The factory as a battlefield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Chávez Mac Gregor

    Full Text Available The crisis of labour is also one of representation. Some contemporary artists working with moving images have been questioning how to represent capital, labour and the worker. Isaac Julien or Harun Farocki, for example, have focused on interlacing characters - from fiction or reality - with geopolitical spaces in order to present the entanglement of the economical new order with the new forms of labour. The South African artist Simon Gush has shifted from this trend in order to present labour without directly representing the workers. In his artwork there is no longer a search for the political subject as a historical force or for the individuals who occupied its place; instead he leads viewers to a critical reading of an object, allowing a staging of the past from the viewpoint of the present. That is what I think Red does. In this article I explore Gush's connections with Marx, Benjamin and Steyerl to show how Gush's work is part of a critical tradition that has abandoned the subject as the privileged instance of political agency; turning the emphasis of the modern schema upside down, it focuses on the object as the force of emancipation. I would like to suggest that Gush used an object, Mandela's red Mercedes-Benz, to produce another image so that the story told is not necessarily that of a symbol of pacification, but one in which the factory was a battlefield. In this way I explore the emancipatory potencies of the object. What I propose is a reading of Red from the point of view of a return to the thing, where the latter becomes a political force.

  20. PEP-II: An asymmetric B factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    In this report, the authors have described an updated conceptual design for the high-luminosity Asymmetric B Factory (PEP-II) to be built in the PEP tunnel culmination of more than four years of effort aimed at the design and construction of an asymmetric e + e - collider capable of achieving a luminosity of L = 3 x 10 33 cm -2 s -1 . All aspects of the conceptual design were scrutinized in March 1991 by a DOE technical review committee chaired by Dr. L. Edward Temple. The design was deemed feasible and capable of achieving its physics goals. Furthermore, the cost estimate, schedule, and management plan for the project were fully endorsed by the committee. This updated conceptual design report captures the technical progress since the March 1991 review and reflects the lower cost estimate corresponding to the improved design. Although the PEP-II design has continued to evolve, no technical scope changes have been made that invalidate the conclusion of the DOE review. The configuration adopted utilizes two storage rings, an electron ring operating at 9 GeV and a positron ring at 3.1 GeV, each with a circumference of 2200 m. The high-energy ring is an upgrade of the PEP storage ring at SLAC; all PEP magnets and most power supplies will be reused. The upgrade consists primarily of replacing the PEP vacuum chamber and RF system with newly designed versions optimized for the high-current environment of PEP-II. The low-energy ring will be newly constructed and will be situated atop the high-energy ring in the PEP tunnel. Utilities already installed in the PEP tunnel are largely sufficient to operate the two PEP-II storage rings

  1. Travelling cranes for heavy reactor component handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champeil, M.

    1977-01-01

    Structure and operating machinery of two travelling cranes (600 t and 450 t) used in the Framatome factory for handling heavy reactor components are described. When coupled, these cranes can lift loads up to 1000 t [fr

  2. METABOLIC MODELLING IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF CELL FACTORIES BY SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Jouhten

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cell factories are commonly microbial organisms utilized for bioconversion of renewable resources to bulk or high value chemicals. Introduction of novel production pathways in chassis strains is the core of the development of cell factories by synthetic biology. Synthetic biology aims to create novel biological functions and systems not found in nature by combining biology with engineering. The workflow of the development of novel cell factories with synthetic biology is ideally linear which will be attainable with the quantitative engineering approach, high-quality predictive models, and libraries of well-characterized parts. Different types of metabolic models, mathematical representations of metabolism and its components, enzymes and metabolites, are useful in particular phases of the synthetic biology workflow. In this minireview, the role of metabolic modelling in synthetic biology will be discussed with a review of current status of compatible methods and models for the in silico design and quantitative evaluation of a cell factory.

  3. Physics opportunities for a B Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, H.R.

    1992-02-01

    In the short time allotted for this talk it is not possible to review all the physics opportunities offered by a B Factory. I focus on the physics of CP Violation and the resulting tests of the Standard Model

  4. Benthic carbonate factories of the Phanerozoic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlager, W.

    2003-01-01

    Marine carbonate precipitation occurs in three basic modes: abiotic (or quasi-abiotic), biotically induced, and biotically controlled. On a geologic scale, these precipitation modes combine to form three carbonate production systems, or "factories" in the benthic environment: (1) tropical

  5. The physics of the B factories

    CERN Document Server

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Kroeger, W; Krokovny, P; Kronenbitter, B; Kroseberg, J; Kubo, T; Kuhr, T; Kukartsev, G; Kulasiri, R; Kulikov, A; Kumar, R; Kumar, S; Kumita, T; Kuniya, T; Kunze, M; Kuo, C C; Kuo, T -L; Kurashiro, H; Kurihara, E; Kurita, N; Kuroki, Y; Kurup, A; Kutter, P E; Kuznetsova, N; Kvasnička, P; Kyberd, P; Kyeong, S H; Lacker, H M; Lae, C K; Lamanna, E; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Landi, L; Lang, M I; Lange, D J; Lange, J S; Langenegger, U; Langer, M; Lankford, A J; Lanni, F; Laplace, S; Latour, E; Lau, Y P; Lavin, D R; Layter, J; Lebbolo, H; LeClerc, C; Leddig, T; Leder, G; Diberder, F Le; Lee, C L; Lee, J; Lee, J S; Lee, M C; Lee, M H; Lee, M J; Lee, S -J; Lee, S E; Lee, S H; Lee, Y J; Lees, J P; Legendre, M; Leitgab, M; Leitner, R; Leonardi, E; Leonidopoulos, C; Lepeltier, V; Leruste, Ph; Lesiak, T; Levi, M E; Levy, S L; Lewandowski, B; Lewczuk, M J; Lewis, P; Li, H; Li, H B; Li, S; Li, X; Li, Y; Gioi, L Li; Libby, J; Lidbury, J; Lillard, V; Lim, C L; Limosani, A; Lin, C S; Lin, J Y; Lin, S W; Lin, Y S; 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Bevan, Adrian; Golob, Bostjan; Mannel, Thomas; Prell, Soeren; Yabsley, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    This work is on the Physics of the B Factories. Part A of this book contains a brief description of the SLAC and KEK B Factories as well as their detectors, BaBar and Belle, and data taking related issues. Part B discusses tools and methods used by the experiments in order to obtain results. The results themselves can be found in Part C.

  6. Male pre- and post-pubertal castration effect on live weight, components of empty body weight, estimated nitrogen excretion and efficiency in Piemontese hypertrofic cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Biagini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of sexual neutering and age of castration on empty body weight (EBW components and estimated nitrogen excretion and efficiency, a trial was carried out on 3 groups of double-muscled Piemontese calves: early castrated (EC, 5th month of age, late castrated (LC, 12th month of age and intact males (IM, control group. Animals were fed at the same energy and protein level and slaughtered at 18th month of age. Live and slaughtering performances and EBW components were recorded, whereas N excretion was calculated by difference between diet and weight gain N content. In live and slaughtering performances, IM showed higher final, carcass and total meat weight than EC and LC (P<0.01. In EBW components, IM showed higher blood and head weight than EC and LC (P<0.01 and 0.05 respectively, and differences were found between EC and LC for head weights (P<0.01. IM showed higher body crude protein (BCP than EC and LC (P<0.01 and 0.05 respectively, but BCP/EBW ratio was higher only in IM than EC (P<0.05. Estimated N daily gain was higher in IM than EC and LC (P<0.01. Only LC showed higher excretion than IM (P<0.05, and N efficiency was higher in IM than EC and LC (P<0.05 and 0.01 respectively. In conclusion, for the Piemontese hypertrophied cattle castration significantly increases N excretion (+7% and reduces N efficiency (-15%, leading to a lower level of sustainability.

  7. Radiocarbon dating of magnetic and non magnetic soil fractions as a method to estimate the heterotrophic component of soil respiration in a primary forest of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiti, T.; Certini, G.; Marzaioli, F.; Valentini, R.

    2012-04-01

    We estimated the heterotrophic component (Rh) of soil respiration in a primary forest of Ghana by radiocarbon dating, a method we already successfully applied in temperate and Mediterranean forests. In this case, given the advanced stage of alteration of tropical soils, which are thus rich in oxides, we implemented the method on soil fractions obtained by High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS), hence based on different degrees of magnetic susceptibility. In particular, we separated an organic pool associated with magnetic minerals (e.g iron oxides) from an organic pool engaged with non-magnetic minerals. This non destructive method of fractionation, often applied to the finest fraction of soil (clay), is here attempted on the bulk fine earth (sieved at 2 mm and further at 0.5 mm ,so as to have two size fractions: 2 to 0.5 mm and aggregates. Surprisingly, the non magnetic fraction is not influenced at all by the bomb C (negative delta 14) already at a depth of 5-15 cm and, even, at 15-30 cm all the four fractions have pre-bomb C, which means relatively high radiocarbon age. The finest fractions are the main contributors to the Rh flux, particularly the magnetic fraction (analysis of the bulk soil alone, and only by means of a SOC fractionation the Rh flux can be estimated quite accurately. This alternative approach for estimating the Rh component of CO2 from soils of tropical areas is currently being applied in 10 tropical forest sites in western and central Africa in the context of the ERC Africa GHG project, and together with measurements of the C inputs annually entering the soil will allow determining the sink-source capacity of primary forest soils.

  8. Assessing body image in anorexia nervosa using biometric self-avatars in virtual reality: Attitudinal components rather than visual body size estimation are distorted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölbert, S C; Thaler, A; Mohler, B J; Streuber, S; Romero, J; Black, M J; Zipfel, S; Karnath, H-O; Giel, K E

    2018-03-01

    Body image disturbance (BID) is a core symptom of anorexia nervosa (AN), but as yet distinctive features of BID are unknown. The present study aimed at disentangling perceptual and attitudinal components of BID in AN. We investigated n = 24 women with AN and n = 24 controls. Based on a three-dimensional (3D) body scan, we created realistic virtual 3D bodies (avatars) for each participant that were varied through a range of ±20% of the participants' weights. Avatars were presented in a virtual reality mirror scenario. Using different psychophysical tasks, participants identified and adjusted their actual and their desired body weight. To test for general perceptual biases in estimating body weight, a second experiment investigated perception of weight and shape matched avatars with another identity. Women with AN and controls underestimated their weight, with a trend that women with AN underestimated more. The average desired body of controls had normal weight while the average desired weight of women with AN corresponded to extreme AN (DSM-5). Correlation analyses revealed that desired body weight, but not accuracy of weight estimation, was associated with eating disorder symptoms. In the second experiment, both groups estimated accurately while the most attractive body was similar to Experiment 1. Our results contradict the widespread assumption that patients with AN overestimate their body weight due to visual distortions. Rather, they illustrate that BID might be driven by distorted attitudes with regard to the desired body. Clinical interventions should aim at helping patients with AN to change their desired weight.

  9. A Data-driven Study of RR Lyrae Near-IR Light Curves: Principal Component Analysis, Robust Fits, and Metallicity Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdu, Gergely; Dékány, István; Catelan, Márcio; Grebel, Eva K.; Jurcsik, Johanna

    2018-04-01

    RR Lyrae variables are widely used tracers of Galactic halo structure and kinematics, but they can also serve to constrain the distribution of the old stellar population in the Galactic bulge. With the aim of improving their near-infrared photometric characterization, we investigate their near-infrared light curves, as well as the empirical relationships between their light curve and metallicities using machine learning methods. We introduce a new, robust method for the estimation of the light-curve shapes, hence the average magnitudes of RR Lyrae variables in the K S band, by utilizing the first few principal components (PCs) as basis vectors, obtained from the PC analysis of a training set of light curves. Furthermore, we use the amplitudes of these PCs to predict the light-curve shape of each star in the J-band, allowing us to precisely determine their average magnitudes (hence colors), even in cases where only one J measurement is available. Finally, we demonstrate that the K S-band light-curve parameters of RR Lyrae variables, together with the period, allow the estimation of the metallicity of individual stars with an accuracy of ∼0.2–0.25 dex, providing valuable chemical information about old stellar populations bearing RR Lyrae variables. The methods presented here can be straightforwardly adopted for other classes of variable stars, bands, or for the estimation of other physical quantities.

  10. Synchrotron radiation leakage from the B-factory beam pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, T.M.; Nelson, W.R.; Ipe, N.

    1990-01-01

    The high-energy ring (HER) of the B-Factory, running at an energy of 9 GeV, generates the synchrotron spectrum when applied to a ring with the PEP bending radius. The B-Factory HER may also run at 12 GeV, producing the harder spectrum. Depending upon beam-pipe material and thickness, some of this radiation may escape and deposit energy in the surrounding material. This was originally pointed out in PEP-109 during the initial design of PEP, and subsequently verified by measurements at both PEP and PETRA at DESY. Of concern to the B Factory is magnet insulation, though other adjacent materials such as wire insulation and cooling water hoses are even more radiosensitive. Radiation damage to magnets is a function of the type of material used in the potting compound. The PEP magnets, which hopefully can be used for the high-energy ring of the B-Factory, are insulated with an epoxy composed of DER-332, DER-732, NMA and aluminum oxide. It is estimated that this epoxy compound should tolerate doses near the 10 10 rad range. To summarize the results of these calculations, 0.87 cm of copper is needed at the point of maximum dose from 12-GeV operation in order to reach the dose criterion if a rectangular beam pipe is used. The copper needs to be only 0.7-cm thick for an octagonal beam pipe and the same energy. For 9-GeV operation, an octagonal copper pipe needs only to be 0.25-cm thick. An octagonal aluminum pipe that is 0.5-cm thick also needs 0.3 cm of lead on the outside to reach the same criterion for 12-GeV operation. For 9-GeV operation, the aluminum pipe still requires a lead liner

  11. Working Conditions and Factory Survival: Evidence from Better Factories Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, Raymond; Brown, Drusilla; Dehejia, Rajeev

    2016-01-01

    A large and growing literature has identified several conditions, including exporting, that contribute to plant survival. A prevailing sentiment suggests that anti-sweatshop activity against plants in developing countries adds the risk of making survival more difficult by imposing external constraints that may interfere with optimizing behavior. Using a relatively new plant-level panel dataset from Cambodia, this paper applies survival analysis to estimate the relationship between changes in ...

  12. The Experiment Factory: standardizing behavioral experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa V Sochat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The administration of behavioral and experimental paradigms for psychology research is hindered by lack of a coordinated effort to develop and deploy standardized paradigms. While several frameworks (de Leeuw (2015; McDonnell et al. (2012; Mason and Suri (2011; Lange et al. (2015 have provided infrastructure and methods for individual research groups to develop paradigms, missing is a coordinated effort to develop paradigms linked with a system to easily deploy them. This disorganization leads to redundancy in development, divergent implementations of conceptually identical tasks, disorganized and error-prone code lacking documentation, and difficulty in replication. The ongoing reproducibility crisis in psychology and neuroscience research (Baker (2015; Open Science Collaboration (2015 highlights the urgency of this challenge: reproducible research in behavioral psychology is conditional on deployment of equivalent experiments. A large, accessible repository of experiments for researchers to develop collaboratively is most efficiently accomplished through an open source framework. Here we present the Experiment Factory, an open source framework for the development and deployment of web-based experiments. The modular infrastructure includes experiments, virtual machines for local or cloud deployment, and an application to drive these components and provide developers with functions and tools for further extension. We release this infrastructure with a deployment (http://www.expfactory.org that researchers are currently using to run a set of over 80 standardized web-based experiments on Amazon Mechanical Turk. By providing open source tools for both deployment and development, this novel infrastructure holds promise to bring reproducibility to the administration of experiments, and accelerate scientific progress by providing a shared community resource of psychological paradigms.

  13. Simultaneous estimation of cross-validation errors in least squares collocation applied for statistical testing and evaluation of the noise variance components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnabian, Behzad; Mashhadi Hossainali, Masoud; Malekzadeh, Ahad

    2018-02-01

    The cross-validation technique is a popular method to assess and improve the quality of prediction by least squares collocation (LSC). We present a formula for direct estimation of the vector of cross-validation errors (CVEs) in LSC which is much faster than element-wise CVE computation. We show that a quadratic form of CVEs follows Chi-squared distribution. Furthermore, a posteriori noise variance factor is derived by the quadratic form of CVEs. In order to detect blunders in the observations, estimated standardized CVE is proposed as the test statistic which can be applied when noise variances are known or unknown. We use LSC together with the methods proposed in this research for interpolation of crustal subsidence in the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico. The results show that after detection and removing outliers, the root mean square (RMS) of CVEs and estimated noise standard deviation are reduced about 51 and 59%, respectively. In addition, RMS of LSC prediction error at data points and RMS of estimated noise of observations are decreased by 39 and 67%, respectively. However, RMS of LSC prediction error on a regular grid of interpolation points covering the area is only reduced about 4% which is a consequence of sparse distribution of data points for this case study. The influence of gross errors on LSC prediction results is also investigated by lower cutoff CVEs. It is indicated that after elimination of outliers, RMS of this type of errors is also reduced by 19.5% for a 5 km radius of vicinity. We propose a method using standardized CVEs for classification of dataset into three groups with presumed different noise variances. The noise variance components for each of the groups are estimated using restricted maximum-likelihood method via Fisher scoring technique. Finally, LSC assessment measures were computed for the estimated heterogeneous noise variance model and compared with those of the homogeneous model. The advantage of the proposed method is the

  14. Higher order mode damping in Kaon factory RF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enegren, T.; Poirier, R.; Griffin, J.; Walling, L.; Thiessen, H.A.; Smythe, W.R.

    1989-05-01

    Proposed designs for Kaon factory accelerators require that the rf cavities support beam currents on the order of several amperes. The beam current has Fourier components at all multiples of the rf frequency. Empty rf buckets produce additional components at all multiples of the revolution frequency. If a Fourier component of the beam coincides with the resonant frequency of a higher order mode of the cavity, which is inevitable if the cavity has a large frequency swing, significant excitation of this mode can occur. The induced voltage may then excite coupled bunch mode instabilities. Effective means are required to damp higher order modes without significantly affecting the fundamental mode. A mode damping scheme based on coupled transmission lines has been investigated and is report

  15. Green factories for liquid fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, G.J.; Calvin, M.

    1978-04-01

    Various plants that could be and are being used for the production of synthetic fuels are discussed. Among these are Hevea brasiliensis, Euphorbia tirucalli, and Euphorbia lathyris. Advantages of fuel production from renewable plant resources are presented; cost estimates are included. (JGB)

  16. Use of system code to estimate equilibrium tritium inventory in fusion DT machines, such as ARIES-AT and components testing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Merrill, B.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • With the use of a system code, tritium burn-up fraction (f burn ) can be determined. • Initial tritium inventory for steady state DT machines can be estimated. • f burn of ARIES-AT, CFETR and FNSF-AT are in the range of 1–2.8%. • Respective total tritium inventories of are 7.6 kg, 6.1 kg, and 5.2 kg. - Abstract: ITER is under construction and will begin operation in 2020. This is the first 500 MW fusion class DT device, and since it is not going to breed tritium, it will consume most of the limited supply of tritium resources in the world. Yet, in parallel, DT fusion nuclear component testing machines will be needed to provide technical data for the design of DEMO. It becomes necessary to estimate the tritium burn-up fraction and corresponding initial tritium inventory and the doubling time of these machines for the planning of future supply and utilization of tritium. With the use of a system code, tritium burn-up fraction and initial tritium inventory for steady state DT machines can be estimated. Estimated tritium burn-up fractions of FNSF-AT, CFETR-R and ARIES-AT are in the range of 1–2.8%. Corresponding total equilibrium tritium inventories of the plasma flow and tritium processing system, and with the DCLL blanket option are 7.6 kg, 6.1 kg, and 5.2 kg for ARIES-AT, CFETR-R and FNSF-AT, respectively

  17. Use of system code to estimate equilibrium tritium inventory in fusion DT machines, such as ARIES-AT and components testing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, C.P.C., E-mail: wongc@fusion.gat.com [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Merrill, B. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • With the use of a system code, tritium burn-up fraction (f{sub burn}) can be determined. • Initial tritium inventory for steady state DT machines can be estimated. • f{sub burn} of ARIES-AT, CFETR and FNSF-AT are in the range of 1–2.8%. • Respective total tritium inventories of are 7.6 kg, 6.1 kg, and 5.2 kg. - Abstract: ITER is under construction and will begin operation in 2020. This is the first 500 MW{sub fusion} class DT device, and since it is not going to breed tritium, it will consume most of the limited supply of tritium resources in the world. Yet, in parallel, DT fusion nuclear component testing machines will be needed to provide technical data for the design of DEMO. It becomes necessary to estimate the tritium burn-up fraction and corresponding initial tritium inventory and the doubling time of these machines for the planning of future supply and utilization of tritium. With the use of a system code, tritium burn-up fraction and initial tritium inventory for steady state DT machines can be estimated. Estimated tritium burn-up fractions of FNSF-AT, CFETR-R and ARIES-AT are in the range of 1–2.8%. Corresponding total equilibrium tritium inventories of the plasma flow and tritium processing system, and with the DCLL blanket option are 7.6 kg, 6.1 kg, and 5.2 kg for ARIES-AT, CFETR-R and FNSF-AT, respectively.

  18. Using GRACE Amplitude Data in Conjunction with the Spatial Distribution of Groundwater Recharge to Estimate the Components of the Terrestrial Water Storage Anomaly across the Contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, W. E.; Reitz, M.; Zell, W.

    2017-12-01

    The GRACE satellite project by NASA has been mapping the terrestrial water storage anomaly (TWSA) across the globe since 2002. To date most of the studies using this data have focused on estimating long-term storage declines in groundwater aquifers or the cryosphere. In this study we are focusing on using the amplitude of the seasonal storage signal to estimate the sources and values of the different water components that are contributing to the TWSA signal across the contiguous United States (CONUS). Across the CONUS the TWSA seasonal amplitude observed by GRACE varies by a factor of ten or more (from 1 to 10+ cm of liquid water equivalent). For a seasonal sinusoidal recharge rate, the change in storage in either the soil (unsaturated zone beneath the root zone) or groundwater (by water-table fluctuation) is limited to the amplitude of the recharge rate divided by π or 2π, respectively. We compiled the GRACE signal for the 18 major HUC watersheds across the CONUS and compared them to estimates of seasonal recharge-rate amplitudes based on a recent map of recharge rates generated by the USGS. The ratios of the recharge to GRACE amplitudes suggest that all but two of the HUCs must have other substantial sources of storage change in addition to soil or groundwater. The most likely additional sources are (1) winter snowpack, (2) seasonal irrigation withdrawals, and/or (3) surface water (rivers or reservoirs). Estimates of the seasonal amplitudes of these three signals across the CONUS suggest they can explain the remaining GRACE seasonal signal that cannot be explained by soil or groundwater fluctuations. Each of these signals has its own unique spatial distribution, with snowpack limited to the northern states, surface water limited to large rivers or reservoirs, and irrigation as a dominant signal limited to arid to semi-arid agricultural regions. Use of the GRACE seasonal signal shows promise in constraining the hydraulic diffusivities of surficial aquifer

  19. Factorials of real negative and imaginary numbers - A new perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thukral, Ashwani K

    2014-01-01

    Presently, factorials of real negative numbers and imaginary numbers, except for zero and negative integers are interpolated using the Euler's gamma function. In the present paper, the concept of factorials has been generalised as applicable to real and imaginary numbers, and multifactorials. New functions based on Euler's factorial function have been proposed for the factorials of real negative and imaginary numbers. As per the present concept, the factorials of real negative numbers, are complex numbers. The factorials of real negative integers have their imaginary part equal to zero, thus are real numbers. Similarly, the factorials of imaginary numbers are complex numbers. The moduli of the complex factorials of real negative numbers, and imaginary numbers are equal to their respective real positive number factorials. Fractional factorials and multifactorials have been defined in a new perspective. The proposed concept has also been extended to Euler's gamma function for real negative numbers and imaginary numbers, and beta function.

  20. Estimation of Genetic Variance Components Including Mutation and Epistasis using Bayesian Approach in a Selection Experiment on Body Weight in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widyas, Nuzul; Jensen, Just; Nielsen, Vivi Hunnicke

    Selection experiment was performed for weight gain in 13 generations of outbred mice. A total of 18 lines were included in the experiment. Nine lines were allotted to each of the two treatment diets (19.3 and 5.1 % protein). Within each diet three lines were selected upwards, three lines were...... selected downwards and three lines were kept as controls. Bayesian statistical methods are used to estimate the genetic variance components. Mixed model analysis is modified including mutation effect following the methods by Wray (1990). DIC was used to compare the model. Models including mutation effect...... have better fit compared to the model with only additive effect. Mutation as direct effect contributes 3.18% of the total phenotypic variance. While in the model with interactions between additive and mutation, it contributes 1.43% as direct effect and 1.36% as interaction effect of the total variance...

  1. Analysis of scaled-factorial-moment data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seibert, D.

    1990-01-01

    We discuss the two standard constructions used in the search for intermittency, the exclusive and inclusive scaled factorial moments. We propose the use of a new scaled factorial moment that reduces to the exclusive moment in the appropriate limit and is free of undesirable multiplicity correlations that are contained in the inclusive moment. We show that there are some similarities among most of the models that have been proposed to explain factorial-moment data, and that these similarities can be used to increase the efficiency of testing these models. We begin by calculating factorial moments from a simple independent-cluster model that assumes only approximate boost invariance of the cluster rapidity distribution and an approximate relation among the moments of the cluster multiplicity distribution. We find two scaling laws that are essentially model independent. The first scaling law relates the moments to each other with a simple formula, indicating that the different factorial moments are not independent. The second scaling law relates samples with different rapidity densities. We find evidence for much larger clusters in heavy-ion data than in light-ion data, indicating possible spatial intermittency in the heavy-ion events

  2. Baby factories taint surrogacy in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinde, Olusesan Ayodeji; Makinde, Olufunmbi Olukemi; Olaleye, Olalekan; Brown, Brandon; Odimegwu, Clifford O

    2016-01-01

    The practice of reproductive medicine in Nigeria is facing new challenges with the proliferation of 'baby factories'. Baby factories are buildings, hospitals or orphanages that have been converted into places for young girls and women to give birth to children for sale on the black market, often to infertile couples, or into trafficking rings. This practice illegally provides outcomes (children) similar to surrogacy. While surrogacy has not been well accepted in this environment, the proliferation of baby factories further threatens its acceptance. The involvement of medical and allied health workers in the operation of baby factories raises ethical concerns. The lack of a properly defined legal framework and code of practice for surrogacy makes it difficult to prosecute baby factory owners, especially when they are health workers claiming to be providing services to clients. In this environment, surrogacy and other assisted reproductive techniques urgently require regulation in order to define when ethico-legal lines have been crossed in providing surrogacy or surrogacy-like services. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Estimation of Th, Cs, Sr, I, Co, Fe, Zn, Ca and K in major food components using neutron activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Suma; Bhati, Sharda

    2010-01-01

    The concentration of some radiologically and nutritionally important trace elements: Th, Cs, Sr, I, Co, Fe, Zn, Ca and K were determined in major food components such as cereals, pulses, vegetables, fruits, milk etc. The trace elements in food samples were determined using neutron activation analysis technique which involves instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis. Whereas, the trace elements Th, Cs, K and Sr, are important in radiation protection; Fe and Zn are of importance in nutrition studies and Ca and I have dual importance, both in nutrition and radiation protection. The results of analysis show that among the food materials, higher concentrations of Th, Cs, Sr, K, Fe, Zn and Co were found in cereals and pulses. In case of Ca, the milk appears to be the main contributor towards its dietary intake. The estimated concentrations of the trace elements in food components can be employed in determining the daily dietary intake of these elements which in turn can be used for their biokinetic studies. (author)

  4. Estimates of insulin sensitivity and β-cell function in children and adolescents with and without components of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frithioff-Bøjsøe, Christine; Trier, Cæcilie; Esmann Fonvig, Cilius

    2017-01-01

    measures of insulin sensitivity and β-cell function were assessed by the OGTT-derived indices: the Matsuda index, the insulinogenic index, and the oral disposition index. The severity of MetS was assessed by measures of waist circumference, blood pressure, and fasting levels of triglycerides, high......-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glucose. RESULTS: The 83 children were allocated to one of three groups according to the number of components of MetS: the median body mass index standard deviation score was 0.2 (range -0.6-2.9) in the low MetS risk group (n=36), 2.8 (0.1-4.1) in the high MetS risk group (n=25......INTRODUCTION: The accumulation of components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a disturbed glucose metabolism in obese children. AIM OF STUDY: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between MetS and estimates of insulin sensitivity and β-cell function...

  5. A multilevel model to estimate the within- and the between-center components of the exposure/disease association in the EPIC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sera, Francesco; Ferrari, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    In a multicenter study, the overall relationship between exposure and the risk of cancer can be broken down into a within-center component, which reflects the individual level association, and a between-center relationship, which captures the association at the aggregate level. A piecewise exponential proportional hazards model with random effects was used to evaluate the association between dietary fiber intake and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in the EPIC study. During an average follow-up of 11.0 years, 4,517 CRC events occurred among study participants recruited in 28 centers from ten European countries. Models were adjusted by relevant confounding factors. Heterogeneity among centers was modelled with random effects. Linear regression calibration was used to account for errors in dietary questionnaire (DQ) measurements. Risk ratio estimates for a 10 g/day increment in dietary fiber were equal to 0.90 (95%CI: 0.85, 0.96) and 0.85 (0.64, 1.14), at the individual and aggregate levels, respectively, while calibrated estimates were 0.85 (0.76, 0.94), and 0.87 (0.65, 1.15), respectively. In multicenter studies, over a straightforward ecological analysis, random effects models allow information at the individual and ecologic levels to be captured, while controlling for confounding at both levels of evidence.

  6. A multilevel model to estimate the within- and the between-center components of the exposure/disease association in the EPIC study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Sera

    Full Text Available In a multicenter study, the overall relationship between exposure and the risk of cancer can be broken down into a within-center component, which reflects the individual level association, and a between-center relationship, which captures the association at the aggregate level. A piecewise exponential proportional hazards model with random effects was used to evaluate the association between dietary fiber intake and colorectal cancer (CRC risk in the EPIC study. During an average follow-up of 11.0 years, 4,517 CRC events occurred among study participants recruited in 28 centers from ten European countries. Models were adjusted by relevant confounding factors. Heterogeneity among centers was modelled with random effects. Linear regression calibration was used to account for errors in dietary questionnaire (DQ measurements. Risk ratio estimates for a 10 g/day increment in dietary fiber were equal to 0.90 (95%CI: 0.85, 0.96 and 0.85 (0.64, 1.14, at the individual and aggregate levels, respectively, while calibrated estimates were 0.85 (0.76, 0.94, and 0.87 (0.65, 1.15, respectively. In multicenter studies, over a straightforward ecological analysis, random effects models allow information at the individual and ecologic levels to be captured, while controlling for confounding at both levels of evidence.

  7. Pseudomonas putida as a microbial cell factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigneswaran, Vinoth

    for sustainable production of chemicals, which can be achieved by microbial cell factories. The work presented in this PhD thesis elucidates the application of Pseudomonas putida as a microbial cell factory for production of the biosurfactant rhamnolipid. The rhamnolipid production was achieved by heterologous...... phase. The genomic alterations were identified by genome sequencing and revealed parallel evolution. Glycerol was also shown to be able to support biofilm growth and as a result of this it can be used as an alternative substrate for producing biochemicals in conventional and biofilm reactors. The use...... of biofilm as a production platform and the usage of glycerol as a feedstock show the potential of using microbial cell factories in the transition toward sustainable production of chemicals. Particularly, the applicability of biofilm as a production platform can emerge as a promising alternative...

  8. Ergonomic analysis jobs in recovered factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, Gabriela; Zotta, Gastón

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of the deep economic crisis in Argentina on 2001, the recovery of companies through to the creation of the Cooperatives Working Self-Management or Factories Recovered by its workers was constituted as one of the ways in which the salaried disobeyed the increasing unemployment. When the companies turn into recovered factories they tend to leave of side practices that have been seen like imposed by the previous organization and not understanding them as a primary condition for the execution of his tasks. Safety and ergonomics are two disciplines that are no longer considered relevant to the daily work. Therefore this investigation aims to revalue, undergo semantic to give back to a place in every organization analyzed. This research developed a self-diagnostic tool for working conditions, and the environment, present in the recovered factories.

  9. A conceptual design of circular Higgs factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yunhai

    2016-11-30

    Similar to a super B-factory, a circular Higgs factory (CHF) will require strong focusing systems near the interaction points and a low-emittance lattice in the arcs to achieve a factory luminosity. At electron beam energy of 125 GeV, beamstrahlung effects during the collision pose an additional challenge to the collider design. In particular, a large momentum acceptance at the 2% level is necessary to retain an adequate beam lifetime. This turns out to be the most challenging aspect in the design of a CHF. In this paper, an example will be provided to illustrate the beam dynamics in a CHF, emphasizing the chromatic optics. Basic optical modules and advanced analysis will be presented. Most importantly, we will show that 2% momentum aperture is achievable.

  10. Estimation of Energy Balance Components over a Drip-Irrigated Olive Orchard Using Thermal and Multispectral Cameras Placed on a Helicopter-Based Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Ortega-Farías

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out to implement a remote sensing energy balance (RSEB algorithm for estimating the incoming solar radiation (Rsi, net radiation (Rn, sensible heat flux (H, soil heat flux (G and latent heat flux (LE over a drip-irrigated olive (cv. Arbequina orchard located in the Pencahue Valley, Maule Region, Chile (35°25′S; 71°44′W; 90 m above sea level. For this study, a helicopter-based unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV was equipped with multispectral and infrared thermal cameras to obtain simultaneously the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and surface temperature (Tsurface at very high resolution (6 cm × 6 cm. Meteorological variables and surface energy balance components were measured at the time of the UAV overpass (near solar noon. The performance of the RSEB algorithm was evaluated using measurements of H and LE obtained from an eddy correlation system. In addition, estimated values of Rsi and Rn were compared with ground-truth measurements from a four-way net radiometer while those of G were compared with soil heat flux based on flux plates. Results indicated that RSEB algorithm estimated LE and H with errors of 7% and 5%, respectively. Values of the root mean squared error (RMSE and mean absolute error (MAE for LE were 50 and 43 W m−2 while those for H were 56 and 46 W m−2, respectively. Finally, the RSEB algorithm computed Rsi, Rn and G with error less than 5% and with values of RMSE and MAE less than 38 W m−2. Results demonstrated that multispectral and thermal cameras placed on an UAV could provide an excellent tool to evaluate the intra-orchard spatial variability of Rn, G, H, LE, NDVI and Tsurface over the tree canopy and soil surface between rows.

  11. The TRIUMF KAON factory accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.K.

    1989-11-01

    To accelerate a 100 μA proton beam from the TRIUMF H - cyclotron to 30 GeV a five-ring accelerator complex is proposed. Each accelerator is followed by a storage ring for time-matching - the cw cyclotron by the Accumulator, the 3 GeV 50 Hz Booster by the Collector, and the 30 GeV 10 Hz Driver by the Extender - the latter providing the slow-extracted beam for coincidence experiments. Under the current $11 million pre-construction study prototypes are being built of various components of the Booster ring - fast-cycling dipole and quadrupole magnets, a dual-frequency magnet power supply, ceramic beam pipes, rf cavities (both parallel and perpendicular bias versions) and an extraction kicker. In addition the lattice designs for all five rings and the shielding and remote handling requirements are being reviewed. These activities will allow construction to start in 1990

  12. Hadronic atoms at a kaon factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, M.

    1982-01-01

    Beyond doubt, the advent of a kaon factory will be of immense significance for the study of hadronic atoms. Here we will discuss some classes of experiments that certainly can and will be done at a kaon factory, as well as some very interesting possibilities which deserve investigation. Among the certains we include the observation of hadronic x rays from kaonic and μ - atoms, for both Z greater than one and for the isotopes of hydrogen, mainly for strong interaction information. More conjectural is the possibility of measuring Xi - and Ω - x rays

  13. Nuclear physics at the KAON factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitching, R.

    1989-05-01

    The author surveys the range of nuclear physics issues which can be addressed with a high intensity hadron facility such as the KAON factory. He discusses hadron spectroscopy, kaon scattering, hypernuclear physics, spin physics, and nuclear physics with neutrinos. Nuclear Physics is defined rather broadly, encompassing the study of strongly interacting systems, and including the structure of individual hadrons, hadron-hadron interactions, hadronic weak and electromagnetic currents (in nuclei too), conventional nuclear structure, and exotic nuclei. The basic theme is how the KAON Factory can shed light on non-perturbative QCD and its relation to conventional nuclear physics

  14. Particle physics prospects for the KAON factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryman, D.

    1989-05-01

    The Kaon Factory at TRIUMF will produce beams of kaons, antiprotons, neutrinos and other particles with a hundred-fold increase in intensity over existing machines in the 30 GeV region. This will make possible new high precision experiments designed to test current ideas as well as high sensitivity measurements which could potentially reveal new effects. A sample of particle physics experiments involving rare kaon decays, CP and T violation studies, neutrino properties and reactions and light quark spectroscopy which might take advantage of the new opportunities presented by the Kaon Factory is discussed

  15. BABAR - the detector for the PEP II B Factory at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueth, V.

    1994-09-01

    BABAR refers to the detector that is being designed for the PEP II B-Factory at SLAC to perform a comprehensive study of CP violation in B meson decays. The design requirements and the principal detector components are briefly described. A summary of the expected physics performance is presented

  16. Factoriality of representations of the group of paths on SU(n)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albeverio, S.

    We prove factoriality in the cyclic component of the vacuum for the energy representation of SU(n)-valued paths groups. The main tool is a lemma concerning generic pairs of Cartan subalgebras in the Lie algebra su(n) of SU(n) groups. (orig.)

  17. Turkish Version of the Survey of Attitudes toward Statistics: Factorial Structure Invariance by Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikaya, Esma Emmioglu; Ok, Ahmet; Aydin, Yesim Capa; Schau, Candace

    2018-01-01

    This study examines factorial structure and the gender invariance of the Turkish version of the Survey of Attitudes toward Statistics (SATS-36). The SATS-36 has 36 items measuring six components: affect, cognitive competence, value, difficulty, effort, and interest. Data were collected from 347 university students. Results showed that the Turkish…

  18. Prevalence of Reduced Kidney Function by Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate Using an Equation Based on Creatinine and Cystatin C in Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ho Kang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIt is known that metabolic syndrome (MetS is associated with chronic kidney disease. We evaluated and compared the prevalence of reduced kidney function in MetS and its components by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR using an equation based on creatinine (eGFRcr, cystatin C (eGFRcys, and combined creatinine-cystatin C (eGFRcr-cys in Korean adults.MethodsWe analyzed data from 3,649 adults who participated in a comprehensive health examination.ResultsMean values of eGFRcys were higher compared with mean values of eGFRcr (96.1±18.2 mL/min/1.73 m2 vs. 91.2±13.6 mL/min/1.73 m2 in total subjects. The prevalence of reduced kidney function increased with age (9.6% for eGFRcys vs. 5.8% for eGFRcr-cys vs. 4.9% for eGFRcr, in subjects aged ≥60 years, and significantly increased with MetS, abdominal obesity, hypertension, high triglyceride, low high density lipoprotein (HDL, and high insulin resistance. The prevalence of MetS, abdominal obesity, hypertension, high insulin resistance, low HDL, and hepatic steatosis was significantly increased in subjects with reduced kidney function. This increased prevalence and the odds ratio of reduced kidney function for prevalence of MetS was highest for eGFRcys, followed by those of eGFRcr-cys, and eGFRcr.ConclusionThe prevalence of reduced kidney function by eGFR was significantly increased in subjects with MetS and its related components. eGFRcys and eGFRcr-cys were superior to eGFRcr in detecting reduced kidney function.

  19. BERKELEY/STANFORD: B factory plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    For the past several years, accelerator physicists at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) have been involved in the design of an Asymmetric B Factory to be sited in the tunnel of the PEP electron-positron collider at SLAC

  20. KEKB B-Factory, the luminosity frontier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oide, Katsunobu

    2009-01-01

    The experiment at the KEKB B-Factory, as well as PEP-II, brought the final blow on the 2008 Nobel Prize in Physics for the Kobayashi-Maskawa theory. A few key issues will be described on the design and performance of KEKB to make the world's highest luminosity possible. (author)

  1. The Energy Factory; EnergieFabriek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Boomen, M.; Van den Dungen, G.J.; Elias, T.; Jansen, M. [Universiteit van Amsterdam UvA, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-05-15

    The Energy Factory is a collaboration of 26 Dutch local water boards in which options for energy saving and energy production are examined. According to the authors, the initiative of the Energy Factory will lead to a reframing of the role of the water boards. Moreover, they explain how the PPP concept (People, Planet, Profit) may act as platform for negotiations between actors who are involved in the Energy Factory. In addition, the PPP concept is used to demonstrate that the Energy Factory will lead to larger social involvement, social entrepreneurship and growing profits [Dutch] De Energiefabriek is een samenwerkingsverband van 26 waterschappen in Nederland waarin wordt gezocht naar mogelijkheden om energie te besparen en zelf energie te produceren. Volgens de auteurs van deze notitie leidt het initiatief van de Energiefabriek tot een reframing van de rol van waterschappen. Daarnaast leggen ze uit hoe het PPP-concept (People, Profit, Planet) kan fungeren als platform voor onderhandelingen tussen de actoren die betrokken zijn bij de Energiefabriek. Verder wordt met het PPP-concept aangetoond dat de Energiefabriek leidt tot ruimere maatschappelijke betrokkenheid, maatschappelijk ondernemen en winstvergroting.

  2. Racetrack lattices for the TRIUMF KAON factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servranckx, R.V.; Wienands, U.; Craddock, M.K.; Rees, G.H.

    1989-03-01

    Separated-function racetrack lattices have been developed for the KAON Factory accelerators that have more flexibility than the old circular lattices. Straight sections with zero dispersion are provided for rf cavities and fast injection and extraction, and with controlled dispersion for H - injection and slow extraction. In addition the new lattices have fewer depolarizing resonances than the old circular lattices

  3. Factory automation for heavy electric equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokutani, Takashi; Ninomiya, Iwao; Hatayama, Naokatsu; Kato, Hiroshi; Yano, Hideaki.

    1986-01-01

    The heightening of productivity in the factories manufacturing heavy electric equipment has been advanced so far by the rationalization of direct workings such as NC, robots and the adoption of FMS (flexible manufacturing system). However, as CAD advances, the effective utilization of these data and the expansion to future CIM (computer integrated manufacture) have become to be demanded. In the Hitachi Works of Hitachi Ltd., it was decided to advance the synthetic rationalization by adopting FA (factory automation) system. Steam turbine blades, pipings for nuclear power plants and motor coils were taken up as the objects since these are important parts, and for the purpose of the drastic heightening of QA level, the heightening of accuracy and the shortening of processes, the synchronization with field installation schedule and the creation of safe working place environment, the FA projects for these three sections were simultaneously planned. When the automation of non-mass production factories is promoted, there are the unmanned factories combining FMS lines for relatively many products and those characterized by FMC of shortening preparation time for small lot products, and this is the examples of the former. The system constitution for FA and the production management combined with it are described. The high reliability of the optical network was regarded as important. (Kako, I.)

  4. Employment and Training Problems in New Factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    Does management in newly established factories using highly advanced technology meet special problems in recruitment and training of their workers? Are the traditional training systems supplying the skilled manpower required for running highly sophisticated plants? These were the basic questions asked when the present study was started in seven…

  5. The Mathematics of Symmetrical Factorial Designs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Mathematics of Symmetrical Factorial Designs. Mausumi Bose (nee Sen) obtained her MSc degree in. Statistics from the Calcutta. University and PhD degree from the Indian Statistical. Institute. She is on the faculty of the Indian. Statistical Institute. Her main field of research interest is design and analysis of experiments.

  6. A tau -- charm -- factory at Argonne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, E.; Fields, T.; Grosnick, D.; Norem, J.; Repond, J.; Schoessow, P.

    1994-01-01

    Depending on the beam energy setting, the τ -- charm -- factory will be optimized to study physics with τ leptons, with charmed mesons, or with charmonium states. This report gives a short overview of the physics of these topics. Also discussed are the detectors and the costs associated with this project

  7. Plant factories; crop transpiration and energy balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graamans, Luuk; Dobbelsteen, van den Andy; Meinen, Esther; Stanghellini, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    Population growth and rapid urbanisation may result in a shortage of food supplies for cities in the foreseeable future. Research on closed plant production systems, such as plant factories, has attempted to offer perspectives for robust (urban) agricultural systems. Insight into the explicit role

  8. Factorial and reduced K-means reconsidered

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, Marieke E.; Ceulemans, Eva; Kiers, Henk A. L.; Vichi, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    Factorial K-means analysis (FKM) and Reduced K-means analysis (RKM) are clustering methods that aim at simultaneously achieving a clustering of the objects and a dimension reduction of the variables. Because a comprehensive comparison between FKM and RKM is lacking in the literature so far, a

  9. Undergraduate Students' Initial Conceptions of Factorials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Elise; Erickson, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Counting problems offer rich opportunities for students to engage in mathematical thinking, but they can be difficult for students to solve. In this paper, we present a study that examines student thinking about one concept within counting, factorials, which are a key aspect of many combinatorial ideas. In an effort to better understand students'…

  10. The Idea Factory: An Interactive Intergroup Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosh, Lisa; Leach, Evan

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines the Idea Factory exercise, an interactive exercise designed to help participants examine group, individual, and organizational factors that affect intergroup conflict. Specific emphasis is placed on exploring the relationship between intra- and intergroup dynamics and identifying managerial practices that foster effective…

  11. Business plan Feed Factory Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij, A.G.; Wilschut, S.

    2015-01-01

    This business plan focuses on the establishment of a poultry feed factory, one of the essential elements of a sustainable and profitable poultry meat value chain. There is a growing demand for poultry meat in the Tete Province, and currently a large part of the consumed broilers come from other

  12. MODEL PENGELOLAAN TEACHING FACTORY SEKOLAH MENENGAH KEJURUAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Burhan R Wijaya

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify and develop management models Factory Teaching Vocational School through a series of tests and validation of the model with the approach of reasearch and Development. Teaching Factory Management Models at Vocational Schools is a concept that combines learning management approach learning Competency Based Training (CBT and Production Based Training (PBT in the real atmosphere so that the process of achieving competence or skill skills life skills (life skills in accordance with the standards of graduate work in the industrial world. In particular, this study aims to formulate design management model development Teaching Factory Vocational School. To achieve the research objectives above using the approach of Research and Development, through preliminary studies, design development models, testing and validation. Preliminary study phase is planned to take the flow / stage as follows: the study of literature, study / collection of field data, and a description and analysis of field findings (factual, namely: (1 the description of the characteristics of vocational school with a standard performance indicators that can be poured as the content of the development of Teaching Factory, (2 description of the characteristics and potential development group management model Tefa as an outcome groups to develop and implement management models Tefa for Vocational Schools (3 description of the characteristics of potential stakeholders to support the development and implementation TEFA management model, and (4 preparation of the management model TEFA for Vocational Schools excellence and innovative. Trial design done on a limited scale model group. Then the model was accompanied by outcome group to develop and implement a model TEFA for Vocational Schools to determine whether the model developed can be applied correctly. Data analysis in this study, the preliminary study stage, the findings or the facts about productive learning

  13. Residues leaching from 'Factory of barren ores'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakhmatov, N.; Khakimov, N.; Nazarov, Kh.M.; Barotov, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present work is safe management of residues from Factory of Barren Ores, their reprocessing, expenditures reduction for remediation of Istiklol city former uranium tailings. For this purpose, some experiences were adopted - Factory of Barren Ores tailing use for filling up the open pit where water with uranium content 3-5 mg/l is located. Factory of Barren Ores waste are passed through heap leaching and have some amount of uranium salts dissolved in water. Thus, we propose to dissolve uranium from Factory of Barren Ores wastes with uranium bearing water flowing out from gallery and filling up the open-pit by radioactive wastes. In so doing, uranium content flowing out from gallery will increase twice, and further, passing them through apricot's shell, as a sorbent, we will clean the water against radionuclides. Residue samples with uranium content 0,015% from Factory of Barren Ores and uranium bearing waters from gallery 1 with uranium content 0,0025 g/l were used for laboratory tests. After which, a slurry was prepared by means of residue mixing with water in ratio of solid and liquid phases (S:L) - 1:2 and 9,7 ml of sulfuric acid (Ρ=1,82) was added which corresponds consumption by H 2 SO 4 176,54 kg/t. For the first test, leaching was carried out during 4 hours at ph=1,6 at room temperature. For the second test, leaching was carried out at 60 d eg C a nd ph=1,6 during 4 hours. Slurry heating and mixing was carried out by means of magnetic mixer. The basic residue leaching indicators are provided in this article.

  14. FFAG Designs for the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, J.S.; Machida, S.

    2009-05-04

    The International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (IDS-NF) aims to produce a design report for a neutrino factory. One component of that design is a linear nonscaling fixed-field alternating gradient accelerator (FFAG) that will accelerate to the final energy of 25 GeV. An FFAG is used to reduce the machine cost by maximizing the number of passes made through the RF cavities. We present some design options for this FFAG, individually optimized for cost. We study the addition of nonlinear magnets to the lattice to improve the performance of the lattice and consider the negative effects of doing so.

  15. Integrated environmental management of wastewater discharged from a cluster of five textile factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Gohary, F. A.; Nasr, F. A.; Abdel Baset, N.; Shoush, M.; Ali, H. I.

    2009-01-01

    The study focuses on the cleaner production opportunities for a cluster of five factories discharging their wastewater into agricultural drain prior to wastewater treatment the financial and environmental benefits accrued upon the implementation of the proposed cleaner production schemes have been estimated. This was followed by a laboratory study to propose the appropriate treatment system. (Author)

  16. Spin-orbit ZORA and four-component Dirac-Coulomb estimation of relativistic corrections to isotropic nuclear shieldings and chemical shifts of noble gas dimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska, Marzena; Kupka, Teobald; Stobiński, Leszek; Faber, Rasmus; Lacerda, Evanildo G; Sauer, Stephan P A

    2016-02-05

    Hartree-Fock and density functional theory with the hybrid B3LYP and general gradient KT2 exchange-correlation functionals were used for nonrelativistic and relativistic nuclear magnetic shielding calculations of helium, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon dimers and free atoms. Relativistic corrections were calculated with the scalar and spin-orbit zeroth-order regular approximation Hamiltonian in combination with the large Slater-type basis set QZ4P as well as with the four-component Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian using Dyall's acv4z basis sets. The relativistic corrections to the nuclear magnetic shieldings and chemical shifts are combined with nonrelativistic coupled cluster singles and doubles with noniterative triple excitations [CCSD(T)] calculations using the very large polarization-consistent basis sets aug-pcSseg-4 for He, Ne and Ar, aug-pcSseg-3 for Kr, and the AQZP basis set for Xe. For the dimers also, zero-point vibrational (ZPV) corrections are obtained at the CCSD(T) level with the same basis sets were added. Best estimates of the dimer chemical shifts are generated from these nuclear magnetic shieldings and the relative importance of electron correlation, ZPV, and relativistic corrections for the shieldings and chemical shifts is analyzed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Status of neutrino factory and muon collider R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, M.S.

    2001-01-01

    A significant worldwide R and D effort is presently directed toward solving the technical challenges of producing, cooling, accelerating, storing, and eventually colliding beams of muons. Its primary thrust is toward issues critical to a Neutrino Factory, for which R and D efforts are under way in the U.S., via the Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration (MC); in Europe, centered at CERN; and in Japan, at KEK. Under study and experimental development are production targets handling intense proton beams (1-4 MW), phase rotation systems to reduce beam energy spread, cooling channels to reduce transverse beam emittance for the acceleration system, and storage rings where muon decays in a long straight section provide a neutrino beam for a long-baseline (3000 km) experiment. Critical experimental activities include development of very high gradient normal conducting RF (NCRF) and superconducting RF (SCRF) cavities, high-power liquid-hydrogen absorbers, and high-field superconducting solenoids. Components and instrumentation that tolerate the intense decay products of the muon beam are being developed for testing. For a high-luminosity collider, muons must be cooled longitudinally as well as transversely, requiring an emittance exchange scheme. In addition to the experimental R and D effort, sophisticated theoretical and simulation tools are needed for the design. Here, the goals, present status, and future R and D plans in these areas will be described

  18. Neutrino factory and muon collider collaboration R and D activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, Michael S.; Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaborat

    2001-01-01

    The Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration (MC) comprises about 140 U.S. and non-U.S. accelerator and particle physicists. The MC is carrying out an R and D program aimed at validating the critical design concepts required for the construction of such machines. We are committed to encouraging international cooperation and coordination of the R and D effort. Main activities of the MC include a Targetry program, a MUCOOL program, a component development program, and a theory and simulation effort. Moreover, the MC has participated in several feasibility studies for a complete Neutrino Factory facility, with the aim of identifying any additional R and D activities needed to prepare a Zeroth-order Design Report (ZDR) in about two years and a Conceptual Design report (CDR) about two years thereafter. In this paper, the R and D goals in each area will be indicated, and the present status and future plans of the R and D program will be described

  19. The Gamma Factory — new research opportunities for CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    In this talk I shall discuss the recent initiative of broadening the present CERN research programme by including a new component exploiting a novel concept of the light source. The proposed, partially stripped ion beam driven, light source is the backbone of the Gamma Factory initiative. It could be realized at CERN by using the infrastructure of the already existing accelerators. It could push the intensity limits of the presently operating light-sources by at least 7 orders of magnitude, reaching the flux of the order of 10^17 photons/s, in the particularly interesting gamma-ray energy domain of 0.1 — 400 MeV. The partially stripped ion beams, the unprecedented-intensity energy-tuned gamma beams, together with the gamma-beam-driven secondary beams of polarized positrons, polarized muons, neutrinos, neutrons and radioactive ions constitute the basic research tools of the Gamma Factory. A broad spectrum of new research opportunities, in a vast domain of uncharted fundamental and applied physics territories...

  20. The control of radioactivity in the working environment in the factories for production of phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajdacic, B.N.; Gnjatovic, S.S.; Vujovic, P.V.

    1980-01-01

    The results of dosimetric control in factories for the production of phosphoric acid and phosphate fertilizers in Serbia, and of the measurement of the total beta radioactivity of samples collected in these factories, are presented. An increase in the radiation dose, even up to 1000 times background, has been found at certain places in the plant. These results serve as a basis for conclusions on the existence, variation and collection of the radioactive component in particular phases of the technological process for the production of phosphate fertilizers. An attempt is made on the basis of the results obtained in three plants to evaluate the degree of danger in the working environment and in the area surrounding the factories and to propose protective measures. (Author)

  1. Flow-based approach for holistic factory engineering and design

    OpenAIRE

    Constantinescu, C.; Westkämper, E.

    2010-01-01

    The engineering of future factories requires digital tools along life cycle phases from investment planning to ramp-up. Manufacturers need scientific-based integrated highly dynamic data management systems for the participative and integrated factory planning. The paper presents a new approach for the continuously integrated product design, factory and process planning, through a service-oriented architecture for the implementation of digital factory tools. A first prototype of the digital fa...

  2. An Interactive Simulation Tool for Production Planning in Bacon Factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard

    1994-01-01

    The paper describes an interactive simulation tool for production planning in bacon factories. The main aim of the tool is to make it possible to combine the production plans of all parts of the factory......The paper describes an interactive simulation tool for production planning in bacon factories. The main aim of the tool is to make it possible to combine the production plans of all parts of the factory...

  3. Hearing Threshold Level Inworkers of Meybod Tile Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Nourani

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Occupational exposure to excessive noise is commonly encountered in a large number of industries in Iran. This study evaluated the hearing threshold and hearing loss in Meybod tile factory workers. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 371 tile factoryworkers during summer and autumn of 2005. Current noise exposure was estimated using sound level meter .A specially formatted questionnaire was used. Totoscophc examination and conductive air audiometery were used to assess the hearing loss in each subject .Finally data was analyzed using SPSS version 11.5. Results: Occupational noise increased mean of hearing threshold at all frequencies which was significant at 3, 4 KHz in both ears (p<0.05.Prevalence of hearing impairment at high and low frequencies were 39.2% and 46.5%.Prevalence of occupational NIHL was 12.9% and the odds of NIHL significantly increased with noise exposure of more than 10 years. The hearing threshold was worse in both ears of workers with tinnitus. Conclusion: High prevalence of hearing loss and NIHL emphasizes on the necessity of hearing conservational programs in tile factory workers.

  4. The Virtual Factory Teaching System (VFTS): Project Review and Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlauskas, E. J.; Boyd, E. F., III; Dessouky, M. M.

    This paper presents a review of the Virtual Factory Teaching (VFTS) project, a Web-based, multimedia collaborative learning network. The system allows students, working alone or in teams, to build factories, forecast demand for products, plan production, establish release rules for new work into the factory, and set scheduling rules for…

  5. e sup + e sup - Factories: PEP-II, KEKB, DAPHINE

    CERN Document Server

    Guiducci, S

    2001-01-01

    In 1999 two B-factories, PEP-II and KEK, and a PHI-factory, DAPHINE, started their physics experiments. A status report of the three factories is presented. A description of the interaction regions, strongly influenced by the detector requirements, and of the machine background in the detectors is presented.

  6. The Physics of the B Factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevan, A.J. [Queen Mary Univ., London (United Kingdom); Golob, B. [Ljubljana Univ. (Slovenia). Faculty of Mathematics and Physics; J. Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mannel, T. [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Theoretische Physik 1; Collaboration: BABAR Collaboration; Belle Collaboration; and others

    2014-11-15

    The inspiration for this book came from Fran@cois le Diberder. During his term as spokesperson for BABAR he laid down a vision for the two B Factory detector collaborations, BABAR and Belle, to work together on a book that would describe the methodologies used and physics results obtained by those experiments. A key ideal emphasized from the outset was that this book should be written from a pedagogical perspective; it should be of interest to the student and expert alike. This vision was presented during a BABAR collaboration meeting on the island of Elba in May 2008 and a follow up Belle collaboration meeting at KEK, with visiting colleagues from the BABAR collaboration, and was embraced by the community. A number of workshops involving people from the theoretical community as well as the two collaborations were held on four continents over the following years. The resulting book, ''The Physics of the B Factories'', is a testament to the way that this concept captured the zeitgeist on both sides of the Pacific Ocean. This book is divided into three parts, the first of which provides a brief description of the B Factories, including a short (though not exhaustive) historical perspective, as well as descriptions of the detectors, ancillary data acquisition systems and data (re)processing systems that were built by the two detector collaborations in the late 1990's. The second part of the book discusses tools and methods that are frequently used when analyzing the data collected. These range from details of low level reconstruction algorithms and abstract summaries of statistical methods to high level prescriptions used when evaluating systematic uncertainties on measurements of observables. The third part of the book is devoted to physics results. This includes sufficient theoretical discussion in order for the reader to understand the context of the work being described. We are indebted to our colleagues from the theoretical community who

  7. The Physics of the B Factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevan, A.J.; Golob, B.; Mannel, T.

    2014-01-01

    The inspiration for this book came from Fran@cois le Diberder. During his term as spokesperson for BABAR he laid down a vision for the two B Factory detector collaborations, BABAR and Belle, to work together on a book that would describe the methodologies used and physics results obtained by those experiments. A key ideal emphasized from the outset was that this book should be written from a pedagogical perspective; it should be of interest to the student and expert alike. This vision was presented during a BABAR collaboration meeting on the island of Elba in May 2008 and a follow up Belle collaboration meeting at KEK, with visiting colleagues from the BABAR collaboration, and was embraced by the community. A number of workshops involving people from the theoretical community as well as the two collaborations were held on four continents over the following years. The resulting book, ''The Physics of the B Factories'', is a testament to the way that this concept captured the zeitgeist on both sides of the Pacific Ocean. This book is divided into three parts, the first of which provides a brief description of the B Factories, including a short (though not exhaustive) historical perspective, as well as descriptions of the detectors, ancillary data acquisition systems and data (re)processing systems that were built by the two detector collaborations in the late 1990's. The second part of the book discusses tools and methods that are frequently used when analyzing the data collected. These range from details of low level reconstruction algorithms and abstract summaries of statistical methods to high level prescriptions used when evaluating systematic uncertainties on measurements of observables. The third part of the book is devoted to physics results. This includes sufficient theoretical discussion in order for the reader to understand the context of the work being described. We are indebted to our colleagues from the theoretical community who have helped us achieve

  8. Portable Material Culture and Death Factory Auschwitz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian T. Myers

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Like any other factory, the death factory of Auschwitz consumed primary materials and produced secondary products. Unique to Auschwitz, though, is that the primary material consumed was human life; not just the life of the breathing human body, but also the material possessions associated with that life. The detritus of this most efficient genocide – clothing, jewellery, food, corpses – was appropriated and put to new uses by the SS and the prisoners. Others have recognised the various postwar material cultural outcomes of the camp: the writing, the film, the theatre, the art, the tourism. This article, however, demonstrates that the material culture of Auschwitz is not a phenomenon exclusive to the postwar era. It focuses on the fact that inside the camp during the war, despite the landscape of death and deprivation, intimate interaction between humans and material culture continued.

  9. JINR tau-charm factory design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perel'shtejn, E.; Aleksandrov, V.; Antropov, V.

    1993-01-01

    The review on tau-charm factory in JINR (Dubna) is presented. The structure scheme of tau-charm factory is described. The problems on injection complex are discussed: the composition, the working regime and parameters. The magnetic lattice of a booster is described. A versatile magnet lattice is used in tau-charm collider. It can realize both conventional flat beam scheme and monochromatization scheme. The results of chromaticity correction in high emittance lattice are presented. The list of parameters of tau-charm collider is given. The technical proposal of magnetic elements of booster and collider and their power supplies is made, as well as RF power supply in collider and vacuum system in its periodic cell. 12 refs.; 12 figs.; 3 tabs

  10. B factory rf system design issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, M.S.

    1992-06-01

    We discuss the issues of relevance to the design of a B factory RF system. First, the general parameter regime is outlined, and the reasons behind certain commonly made choices are indicated. This regime involves high beam currents, and many relatively short bunches. Next, the physics difficulties associated with coupled-bunch instabilities are described briefly. We then describe in general terms the alternative approaches taken by various B factory designers, the motivation for these choices, and the technical issues raised by them. Technical solutions have been proposed for both the room-temperature and the superconducting RF scenarios, and considerable R ampersand D is being carried out worldwide to confirm and optimize these solutions

  11. B factory RF system design issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    We discuss the issues of relevance to the design of a B factory RF system. First, the general parameter regime is outlined, and the reasons behind certain commonly made choices are indicated. This regime involves high beam currents, and many relatively short bunches. Next, the physics difficulties associated with coupled-bunch instabilities are described briefly. We then describe in general terms the alternative approaches taken by various B factory designers, the motivation for these choices, and the technical issues raised by them. Technical solutions have been proposed for both the room-temperature and the superconducting RF scenarios, and considerable R ampersand D is being carried out worldwide to confirm and optimize these solutions

  12. Project of integrity assessment of flawed components with structural discontinuity (IAF). Data book for estimation stress intensity factor. Surface crack on ICM housing for penetration in reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    The project of Integrity Assessment of Flawed Components with Structural Discontinuity (IAF) was entrusted to Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corporation (JAPEIC) from Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) and started from FY 2001. And then, it was taken over to Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) which was established in October 2003 and carried out until FY 2007. In the IAF project, weld joints between nickel based alloys and low alloy steels around penetrations in reactor vessel, safe-end of nozzles and shroud supports were selected from among components and pipe arrangements in nuclear power plants, where high residual stresses were generated due to welding and complex structure. Residual stresses around of the weld joints were estimated by finite element analysis method (FEM) with a general modeling method, then the reasonability and the conservativeness was evaluated. In addition, for postulated surface crack of stress corrosion cracking (SCC), a simple calculation method of stress intensity factor (K) required to estimate the crack growth was proposed and the effectiveness was confirmed. JNES compiled results of the IAF project into Data Books of Residual Stress Analysis of Weld Joint, and Data Book of Simplified Stress Intensity Factor Calculation for Penetration of Reactor as typical Structure Discontinuity, respectively. Data Books of Residual Stress Analysis in Weld Joint. 1. Butt Weld Joint of Small Diameter Cylinder (4B Sch40) (JNES-RE-2012-0005), 2. Dissimilar Metal Weld Joint in Safe End (One-Side Groove Joint (JNES-RE-2012-0006), 3. Dissimilar Metal Weld Joint in Safe End (Large Diameter Both-Side Groove Joint) (JNES-RE-2012-0007), 4. Weld Joint around Penetrations in Reactor Vessel (Insert Joint) (JNES-RE-2012-0008), 5. Weld Joint in Shroud Support (H8, H9, H10 and H11 Welds) (JNES-RE-2012-0009), 6. Analysis Model of Dissimilar Metal Weld Joint Applied Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT) (JNES-RE-2012-0010). Data Book of

  13. Neutrino Factory Targets and the MICE Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walaron, Kenneth A.

    2007-01-01

    The future of particle physics in the next 20 years must include detailed study of neutrinos. The first proof of physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics is evident in results from recent neutrino experiements which imply that neutrinos have mass and flavour mixing. The Neutrino Factory is the leading contender to measure precisely the neutrino mixing parameters to probe beyond the Standard Model physics.

  14. Review of proposed kaon factory facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macek, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    A number of proton accelerator facilities, popularly called ''Kaon Factories,'' have been proposed to extend the intensity frontier from about 1 GeV to higher energies in the range of 15 to 45 GeV. Seven proposed facilities - LAMPF II, TRIUMF II, SIN II, AGS II, KEK, MUNICH, and KYOTO - are reviewed with emphasis on capabilities of the experimental facilities. Costs and the choice of energy and current are also discussed. 7 refs., 29 figs., 7 tabs

  15. Design studies for the Positron Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, S.; Sunaga, H.; Kaneko, H.; Masuno, S.; Kawasuso, A.; Sakai, T.; Takizawa, H.; Yotsumoto, K.; Honda, Y.; Tagawa, S.

    1996-01-01

    In the design study for the Positron Factory, a feasibility of simultaneous extraction of multi-channel monoenergetic positron beams, which had been proposed at the previous conference (Linac 94), was demonstrated by an experiment using an electron linac. On the basis of the experimental result, an efficient moderator structure, which is composed of honeycomb-like assembled moderator foils and reflectors, is proposed. (author)

  16. Muon front end for the neutrino factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. T. Rogers

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the neutrino factory, muons are produced by firing high-energy protons onto a target to produce pions. The pions decay to muons and pass through a capture channel known as the muon front end, before acceleration to 12.6 GeV. The muon front end comprises a variable frequency rf system for longitudinal capture and an ionization cooling channel. In this paper we detail recent improvements in the design of the muon front end.

  17. Muon front end for the neutrino factory

    CERN Document Server

    Rogers, C T; Prior, G; Gilardoni, S; Neuffer, D; Snopok, P; Alekou, A; Pasternak, J

    2013-01-01

    In the neutrino factory, muons are produced by firing high-energy protons onto a target to produce pions. The pions decay to muons and pass through a capture channel known as the muon front end, before acceleration to 12.6 GeV. The muon front end comprises a variable frequency rf system for longitudinal capture and an ionization cooling channel. In this paper we detail recent improvements in the design of the muon front end.

  18. LAMPF: the meson factory. A LASL monograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allred, J.C.

    1977-08-01

    A general and simplified introduction to the entire concept of LAMPF is given in terms of its experimental capabilities. Parts of the current experimental program are used as illustrative examples. Topics discussed include: (1) the evolution of the meson factory; (2) accelerator construction; (3) strong focusing; (4) accelerator innovations at LAMPF; (5) photons and pions; (6) muons as nuclear probes; (7) nuclear chemistry; (8) radiobiology and medical applications; (9) radioisotope production; (10) materials testing; and (11) LAMPF management and users group. (PMA)

  19. Collective issues related to B-factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestrikov, D.V.

    1993-02-01

    This report reviews the limitations on the performance of the planned B- and Φ-factories due to the collective interactions of stored bunches. Together with the traditional revision of the limitations due to the single- and multi-bunch interaction with surrounding electrodes, we briefly discuss in this report the limitations on the performance due to collective beam-beam instabilities of colliding beams and instabilities due to the collective interaction of beams with the ions. (author)

  20. LAMPF: the meson factory. A LASL monograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allred, J.C.

    1977-08-01

    A general and simplified introduction to the entire concept of LAMPF is given in terms of its experimental capabilities. Parts of the current experimental program are used as illustrative examples. Topics discussed include: (1) the evolution of the meson factory; (2) accelerator construction; (3) strong focusing; (4) accelerator innovations at LAMPF; (5) photons and pions; (6) muons as nuclear probes; (7) nuclear chemistry; (8) radiobiology and medical applications; (9) radioisotope production; (10) materials testing; and (11) LAMPF management and users group

  1. The Factory of the Future, Group Exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, Lionel T.

    2016-01-01

    3D Printing, The factory of the future, Lieu du Design (centre for Design), Paris This exhibition dedicated entirely to 3D printing technology was billed as “the first in France wholly devoted to exploring the interdisciplinary and multifaceted topic of 3D printing technology and its undeniable influence on everything from industry, to economics, to creative and social issues, demonstrated to the public through achievements in the fields of 3D design, 3D printed architecture, 3D printed fa...

  2. Cell factories for a sustainable world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindtler, Jens William

    2016-01-01

    The Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Biosustainability (CFB) is a university research center under the Technical University of Denmark within the field of design, engineering and construction of superior cell factories for the production of biopharmaceuticals, anti-infective compounds, industrial......-spectrum inhibitors against multi-drug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacterial pathogens using co-Adaptive Laboratory Evolution, 3. Design and engineering of E. coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae for biobased production of various classes of chemicals. CFB has 230 employees....

  3. A tau-charm-factory at Argonne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norem, J.; Repond, J.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we explore the possibility of building a tau-charm-factory at the Argonne National Laboratory. A tau-charm-factory is an e + e - collider with a center-of-mass energy between 3.0 GeV and 5.0 GeV and a luminosity of at least 1 x 10 33 cm -2 s -1 . Once operational, the facility will produce large samples of τ pairs, charm mesons, and charmonium with either negligible or well understood backgrounds. This will lead to high precision measurements in the second generation quark and the third generation lepton sectors that cannot be done at other facilities. Basic physical properties and processes, such as the tau neutrino mass, rare tau decays, charm decay constants, rare charm meson decays, neutral D 0 -- meson mixing, and many more will be studied with unique precision. An initial design of the collider including the injector system is described. The design shows that a luminosity of at least 1 x 10 33 cm -2 s -1 can be achieved over the entire center-of-mass energy range of the factory

  4. Ultrastructural Characterization of Zika Virus Replication Factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Cortese

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary: A global concern has emerged with the pandemic spread of Zika virus (ZIKV infections that can cause severe neurological symptoms in adults and newborns. ZIKV is a positive-strand RNA virus replicating in virus-induced membranous replication factories (RFs. Here we used various imaging techniques to investigate the ultrastructural details of ZIKV RFs and their relationship with host cell organelles. Analyses of human hepatic cells and neural progenitor cells infected with ZIKV revealed endoplasmic reticulum (ER membrane invaginations containing pore-like openings toward the cytosol, reminiscent to RFs in Dengue virus-infected cells. Both the MR766 African strain and the H/PF/2013 Asian strain, the latter linked to neurological diseases, induce RFs of similar architecture. Importantly, ZIKV infection causes a drastic reorganization of microtubules and intermediate filaments forming cage-like structures surrounding the viral RF. Consistently, ZIKV replication is suppressed by cytoskeleton-targeting drugs. Thus, ZIKV RFs are tightly linked to rearrangements of the host cell cytoskeleton. : Cortese et al. show that ZIKV infection in both human hepatoma and neuronal progenitor cells induces drastic structural modification of the cellular architecture. Microtubules and intermediate filaments surround the viral replication factory composed of vesicles corresponding to ER membrane invagination toward the ER lumen. Importantly, alteration of microtubule flexibility impairs ZIKV replication. Keywords: Zika virus, flavivirus, human neural progenitor cells, replication factories, replication organelles, microtubules, intermediate filaments, electron microscopy, electron tomography, live-cell imaging

  5. Engineering Robustness of Microbial Cell Factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhiwei; Nielsen, Jens; Zhou, Yongjin J

    2017-10-01

    Metabolic engineering and synthetic biology offer great prospects in developing microbial cell factories capable of converting renewable feedstocks into fuels, chemicals, food ingredients, and pharmaceuticals. However, prohibitively low production rate and mass concentration remain the major hurdles in industrial processes even though the biosynthetic pathways are comprehensively optimized. These limitations are caused by a variety of factors unamenable for host cell survival, such as harsh industrial conditions, fermentation inhibitors from biomass hydrolysates, and toxic compounds including metabolic intermediates and valuable target products. Therefore, engineered microbes with robust phenotypes is essential for achieving higher yield and productivity. In this review, the recent advances in engineering robustness and tolerance of cell factories is described to cope with these issues and briefly introduce novel strategies with great potential to enhance the robustness of cell factories, including metabolic pathway balancing, transporter engineering, and adaptive laboratory evolution. This review also highlights the integration of advanced systems and synthetic biology principles toward engineering the harmony of overall cell function, more than the specific pathways or enzymes. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Neutrinos: from the Workshop to the Factory

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Over the next 5 years much work will be done to reach a theoretical and practical description of a neutrino factory. How could this project turn out to be an interesting future option for CERN? Neutrino beams travelling from CERN to the Canary Islands? And to the Svalbard archipelago in Norway? Or even to the Pyhaesalmi Mine in Finland? Why neutrinos? And why so far? The answers provide one of CERN's next challenging options: the construction of a high-energy muon storage ring to provide neutrino beams. This project, nicknamed 'neutrino factory', now figures in CERN's middle term plan as a recognized and supported research and development project. International collaborations, with other European laboratories and also with America and Japan, are now being set up. Long baseline locations for neutrino oscillations studies at a CERN based neutrino factory. Early in its history, LEP established that there exist just three kinds of light neutrinos, those associated with the electron, muon, and tau leptons. For a...

  7. An asymmetric B factory based on PEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-01

    In this report we describe a design for a high-luminosity Asymmetric B Factory to be built in the PEP tunnel on the SLAC site. This proposal, a collaborative effort SLAC, LBL, and LLNL, is the culmination of more than two years of effort aimed at the design and construction of an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collider capable of achieving a luminosity of L = 3 {times} 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. The configuration adopted utilizes two storage rings, and electron ring operating at 9 GeV and a positron ring at 3.1 GeV, each with a circumference of 2200 m. The high-energy ring is an upgrade of the PEP storage ring at SLAC; all PEP magnets and most power supplies will be reused. The upgrade consists primarily of replacing the PEP vacuum chamber and RF system with newly designed versions optimized for the high-current environment of the B Factory. The low-energy ring will be newly constructed and will be situated atop the high-energy ring in the PEP tunnel. Utilities already installed in the PEP tunnel are largely sufficient to operate the two B Factory storage rings.

  8. An asymmetric B factory based on PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    In this report we describe a design for a high-luminosity Asymmetric B Factory to be built in the PEP tunnel on the SLAC site. This proposal, a collaborative effort SLAC, LBL, and LLNL, is the culmination of more than two years of effort aimed at the design and construction of an asymmetric e + e - collider capable of achieving a luminosity of L = 3 x 10 33 cm -2 s -1 . The configuration adopted utilizes two storage rings, and electron ring operating at 9 GeV and a positron ring at 3.1 GeV, each with a circumference of 2200 m. The high-energy ring is an upgrade of the PEP storage ring at SLAC; all PEP magnets and most power supplies will be reused. The upgrade consists primarily of replacing the PEP vacuum chamber and RF system with newly designed versions optimized for the high-current environment of the B Factory. The low-energy ring will be newly constructed and will be situated atop the high-energy ring in the PEP tunnel. Utilities already installed in the PEP tunnel are largely sufficient to operate the two B Factory storage rings

  9. Factorial complexity and Morally Debatable Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimaldo Muchotrigo, Mirian P.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, from the scientific and professional practice point of view, comes out the necessity to know more about moral permissiveness, as it seems to be an increase in “moral relativism”.. Because it, it this is important to have tools to collect valid and reliable information about moral in social situations defined as social and personal behavior issue. This paper presents a technical note of The Morally Debatable Behaviors Scale (MDBS from Harding & Phillips (1986, which was developed in USA and mainly focused on young people and adults. This technical note makes direct reference to a recent Latin American study (Merino & Grimaldo, 2010; this article focuses on the internal structure and the problems associated with evidences of factorial complexity among items of the MDBS. This means that the interpretation of scores is not factorially simple and could not be achieved by a conceptual distinction between the latent constructs applied to the study sample.. The results in the previous study of the factorial complexity leads the researcher to decide whether an instrument for measuring this aspect may contain a reasonable amount of complexity that is consistent with what is in reality, or look for the unidimensional and simple structure.

  10. Female Factory Workers in Charlotte Elizabeth Tonna’s Quest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Carla

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Female workers represent a fundamental component of the workforce to the extent that it is true that the Industrial Revolution owes them a huge debt. However, despite the unfair exploitation of many women in factories in which conditions resembled manslaughter, they have been often neglected and reduced to liminal characters by Victorian novelists. An interesting exception in the early Victorian period is represented by the writer Charlotte Elizabeth Tonna, whose fiction works as a medium of social criticism. Her semi-fictional The Wrongs of Woman is a reform novel which sheds a controversial light on female working conditions. On the one hand she indeed deplores the inhuman treatment of female labourers, but on the other hand she also argues that female employment provokes a consequent increase in male unemployment! My paper aims to investigate the role of Tonna’s text and her attempt to alleviate working-class suffering.

  11. Magnet design studies for the TRIUMF KAON factory proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otter, A.J.; Ellstrom, L.; Haddock, C.; Harold, M.; Reeve, P.; Sasaki, H.; Schwandt, P.

    1989-10-01

    TRIUMF is engaged on a one year Project Definition Study of its KAON factory proposal. This proposal calls for a total of 1800 magnets to be installed in three storage rings, two synchrotrons, beam transfer lines and experimental facilities to increase the present beam from 200 μA at 500 MeV to 100 μA at 30 GeV. The paper discusses the current design status concentrating on the ac booster synchrotron ring magnets which will be driven by biased dc current modulated at 50 Hz. Methods of estimating the core losses for this excitation, the coil eddy current losses and design and fabrication features of prototypes will be presented

  12. Confirmatory factorial analysis of TEOSQp / Análise factorial confirmatória do TEOSQp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder M. Fernandes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research assessed the reliability, factorial validity and measurement invariance (by gender of the Portuguese version of TEOSQ –Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (Fonseca & Biddle, 2001. Data were collected from 1010 physical education students with a mean age of 15.42 ( SD=1.91. Factorial and invariance measurements were tested via confirmatory factorial analysis. Results supported internal consistency for the two proposed subscales (task and ego. Based on modification indices and theoretical justification the TEOSQ p was reduced to 12 items with better goodness-of-fit indices for the oblique model. The results of gender invariance did not provide full empirical support to the multi-group equivalence assumption, being suggested that TEOSQ p does not measure in the same way goal orientations for boys (orthogonal model and girls (oblique model. In light of these results, conceptual, empirical and practical issues were discussed.

  13. Ionizing radiation and genetic risks. Part VIII. The concept of mutation component and its use in risk estimation for multifactorial diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denniston, C. [Laboratory of Genetics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison (United States); Chakraborty, R. [Human Genetics Center, University of Texas School of Public Health, P.O. Box 20334, Houston, TX (United States); Sankaranarayanan, K. [Department of Radiation Genetics and Chemical Mutagenesis, Sylvius Laboratories, Leiden University Medical Centre, Wassenaarseweg 72, 2333 AL Leiden (Netherlands)

    1998-08-31

    Multifactorial diseases, which include the common congenital abnormalities (incidence: 6%) and chronic diseases with onset predominantly in adults (population prevalence: 65%), contribute substantially to human morbidity and mortality. Their transmission patterns do not conform to Mendelian expectations. The model most frequently used to explain their inheritance and to estimate risks to relatives is a Multifactorial Threshold Model (MTM) of disease liability. The MTM assumes that: (1) the disease is due to the joint action of a large number of genetic and environmental factors, each of which contributing a small amount of liability, (2) the distribution of liability in the population is Gaussian and (3) individuals whose liability exceeds a certain threshold value are affected by the disease. For most of these diseases, the number of genes involved or the environmental factors are not fully known. In the context of radiation exposures of the population, the question of the extent to which induced mutations will cause an increase in the frequencies of these diseases has remained unanswered. In this paper, we address this problem by using a modified version of MTM which incorporates mutation and selection as two additional parameters. The model assumes a finite number of gene loci and threshold of liability (hence, the designation, Finite-Locus Threshold Model or FLTM). The FLTM permits one to examine the relationship between broad-sense heritability of disease liability and mutation component (MC), the responsiveness of the disease to a change in mutation rate. Through the use of a computer program (in which mutation rate, selection, threshold, recombination rate and environmental variance are input parameters and MC and heritability of liability are output estimates), we studied the MC-heritability relationship for (1) a permanent increase in mutation rate (e.g., when the population sustains radiation exposure in every generation) and (2) a one-time increase in

  14. The Tau-Charm Factory in the ERA of B-Factories and CESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beers, L.V.; Perl, M.L.

    1994-10-01

    This paper is a collection of presentations made at a conference on tau-charm factories, held at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center and Stanford University on August 15-16, 1994. The papers presented summarize the physics which can be learned from such a facility, the advantages it would present over planned B-factories and large centers such as CESR, and the types of decay modes which could be observed. More detailed studies of tau physics are opened up, as well as charmonium and charmed systems. Seperate presentations to the proceedings are indexed individually into the database

  15. Recent developments at the TRIUMF meson factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.K.

    1976-10-01

    The TRIUMF meson factory, which is based on a 6-sector isochronous cyclotron accelerating H - ions to 520 MeV, has been operating since December 1974. Two proton beams are extracted simultaneously to feed the two experimental areas. Characteristics of the beams and beam lines are given. Work is also proceeding on (i) additional beam lines, (ii) a 180 kW beam dump and thermal neutron source, (iii) a medium resolution proton spectrometer, and (iv) adding third harmonic flat-topping to the RF to permit separation of the internal orbits and reduction of the energy spread of the extracted beam to 0.1 MeV. (author)

  16. RI beam factory project at RIKEN

    CERN Document Server

    Motobayashi, T

    2003-01-01

    Construction of the RI beam factory project in the first phase has started. The aim of the project is to provide intense radio-isotopes (RI) beams at energies of several hundred MeV/nucleon in a wide range of atomic masses. These beams will be produced by the projectile fragmentation of primary beams accelerated by a cascade of the existing ring cyclotron and a series of new ring cyclotrons. Improvements of the existing facility made for the new cyclotron complex have extended the energy range of available beams, which already opened new domains of study.

  17. The physics case of the Neutrino Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Cadenas, J J [IFIC, CSIC-UV, Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: gomez@ific.uv.es

    2008-11-01

    I discuss the physics case of the standard Neutrino Factory facility coupled to an iron detector to exploit the so-called 'Golden-Channel'. The performance of the facility is impressive, although it is not free from degeneracies arising from a combination of physics and instrumental limitations. Nevertheless, one could explore at great depth the parameter of the leptonic mixing matrix as well as the mass hierarchy. Best performance is obtained with two baselines (one of them very long) and an improved magnetic detector with low energy detection threshold.

  18. Advanced manufacturing: optimising the factories of tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippon, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Faced with competition Patrick Philippon - Les Defis du CEA no.179 - April 2013 from the emerging countries, the competitiveness of the industrialised nations depends on the ability of their industries to innovate. This strategy necessarily entails the reorganisation and optimisation of the production systems. This is the whole challenge for 'advanced manufacturing', which relies on the new information and communication technologies. Interactive robotics, virtual reality and non-destructive testing are all technological building blocks developed by CEA, now approved within a cross-cutting programme, to meet the needs of industry and together build the factories of tomorrow. (author)

  19. Tau/Charm Factory Accelerator Report

    OpenAIRE

    M. E. BiaginiINFN, Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Italy; R. BoniINFN, Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Italy; M. BoscoloINFN, Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Italy; A. ChiarucciINFN, Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Italy; R. CiminoINFN, Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Italy; A. ClozzaINFN, Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Italy; A. DragoINFN, Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Italy; S. GuiducciINFN, Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Italy; C. LigiINFN, Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Italy; G. MazzitelliINFN, Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Italy; R. RicciINFN, Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Italy; C. SanelliINFN, Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Italy; M. SerioINFN, Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Italy; A. StellaINFN, Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Italy; S. TomassiniINFN, Laboratori Nazionali Frascati, Italy

    2014-01-01

    The present Report concerns the current status of the Italian Tau/Charm accelerator project and in particular discusses the issues related to the lattice design, to the accelerators systems and to the associated conventional facilities. The project aims at realizing a variable energy Flavor Factory between 1 and 4.6 GeV in the center of mass, and succeeds to the SuperB project from which it inherits most of the solutions proposed in this document. The work comes from a cooperation involving t...

  20. Racetrack lattices for the TRIUMF KAON factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servranckx, R.V.; Craddock, M.K.

    1989-05-01

    Separated-function racetrack lattices have been developed for the KAON Factory accelerators that have more flexibility than the old circular lattices. The arcs of the large rings have a regular FODO structure with a superimposed six-fold symmetric modulation of the betafunction in order to raise γ t to infinity. In the small rings, γ t is kept high enough by choosing a sufficiently large phase advance in the arcs. Straight sections with zero dispersion are provided for rf cavities and fast injection and extraction, and with controlled dispersion for H - injection and slow extraction. The ion-optical properties of the lattices and the results from tracking studies are discussed

  1. Tests of CPT invariance at neutrino factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilenky, Samoil M.; Freund, Martin; Lindner, Manfred; Ohlsson, Tommy; Winter, Walter

    2002-01-01

    We investigate possible tests of CPT invariance on the level of event rates at neutrino factories. We do not assume any specific model but phenomenological differences in the neutrino-antineutrino masses and mixing angles in a Lorentz invariance preserving context, such as could be induced by physics beyond the standard model. We especially focus on the muon neutrino and antineutrino disappearance channels in order to obtain constraints on the neutrino-antineutrino mass and mixing angle differences; we found, for example, that the sensitivity |m 3 -m(bar sign) 3 |(less-or-similar sign)1.9x10 -4 eV could be achieved

  2. Evaluation of the Adequacy of GMP to Control Microbial Hazards in Dairy Factories in Fars Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Abdi no

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Pre-requisite programs (PRPs are “primary conditions and requirements essential for HACCP operations, which are crucial in food safety programs”. The present study was conducted to evaluate the impact of implementation of PRPs on the microbial parameters of pasteurized milk (according to the National Standard of Iran. Effectiveness of HACCP operation requirements and efficiency of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP were also evaluated in control of the above-mentioned microbial parameters. Materials and Methods: According to the approved checklist of the Vice-chancellor in Food and Drug affairs, PRPs of 26 factories were evaluated from March 2014 to March 2015 in two-month intervals, and their total and component scores were obtained along with the microbial parameters of pasteurized milk. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEEs were used to determine the significance of total score and the impact of its components on controlling microbial hazards. Results: There was a reverse significant relation between the total scores of the PRPs and microbial hygiene indices (total and coliform count which approves the effectiveness of operating the programs in controlling the mentioned microorganisms. Efficiency of each pre-requisite program was different in controlling the microbial parameters. Good Laboratory Practice (GLP had a prominent effect on controlling of the index microorganisms of hygienic operations. Overall, the results showed a little probability of contamination with E. coli in the pasteurized milk samples of Fars Province for which the statistical analysis was ignored. Conclusions: The exact operation of PRPs resulted in reduction of microbial parameters in a way that increasing the total score of PRPs led to decrease in microbial parameters of total count (TC, coliforms, molds and yeasts. The findings further suggest the application of this checklist in evaluation and prediction of microbial parameters. Keywords

  3. Rare B decays at B factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trabelsi, Karim

    2010-01-01

    Radiative and Electroweak Penguin Decays are Flavor Changing Neutral Currents (FCNC) occurring in the Standard Model only at the loop level. They are characterized by high sensitivity to New Physics (they can appear in the loop with size comparable to leading SM contributions) and they are Complementary to the direct production of new particles expected at LHC. Huge datasets collected at the two B- factories, BaBar and Belle, have made it possible to explore precisely these decays in exclusive channels and inclusive measurements. b →sγ, b→dγ, b→s l + l - , B + →τν, B→Dτν etc measured provide tests of SM predictions and interesting BSM constraints: Charged Higgs bounds from b →sγ, B + →τν, B + →Dτν; Constraints on Wilson coefficients C 7 , C 9 and C 10 ; and Constraints on |V td |/|V ts |. They provide interesting signatures: B(B + →τ + ν) direct measurement versus CKM fit; and large forward-backward asymmetry of K* l + l - . Final Belle/BaBar data samples are yet to be analyzed and even more interesting results are expected at Super B factories with two orders of magnitude larger data samples

  4. Muon Acceleration: Neutrino Factory and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogacz, Alex [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2018-03-01

    We summarize the current state of a concept for muon acceleration aimed at a future Neutrino Factory and extendable to Higgs Factory. The main thrust of these studies was to reduce the overall cost while maintaining performance by exploring the interplay between the complexity of the cooling systems and the acceptance of the accelerator complex. To ensure adequate survival for the short-lived muons, acceleration must occur at high average gradient. The need for large transverse and longitudinal acceptances drives the design of the acceleration system to an initially low RF frequency, e.g., 325 MHz, which is then increased to 650 MHz as the transverse size shrinks with increasing energy. High-gradient normal conducting RF cavities at these frequencies require extremely high peak-power RF sources. Hence superconducting RF (SRF) cavities are chosen. We consider an SRF-efficient design based on a multi-pass (4.5) ?dogbone? RLA, extendable to multi-pass FFAG-like arcs.

  5. The rehabilitation of ancient gas factory sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costes, J.M.; Hua, C.

    1996-01-01

    In France, the inheritance of ancient town gas factories, mainly under the responsibility of Gaz de France, has left pollutants in the soils of their sites. The aim of the national company is to control these pollutants. Several hundred of town gas factories were exploited in France from 1798 (date of the invention of the process by Lebon) to the end of the 60's. The town gas, obtained from high temperature pyrogenic decomposition of coal, led to by-products which were stored or mixed with the soil. This paper describes the environmental and quality policy carried out by Gaz de France to characterize and remove the pollutants (coke, clinker, tar, phenols, ammoniated water, hydrogen sulphide, cyanides, benzene, toluene, xylenes..) to evaluate the risks of exposure of contaminants and their possible impact on human health. A method with 17 criteria was elaborated to characterize the sites and the rehabilitation comprises three steps: the environmental audit (evaluation of the concentration of pollutants and of their possible environmental and human impact), the complementary analysis (extension of the contaminated area, nature and concentration of pollutants, geologic and hydrogeologic characterisation of the site), and the rehabilitation itself when necessary (confinement or elimination of pollutants using thermal, physico-chemical or biological treatments). (J.S.)

  6. Optimization of a furniture factory layout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Kanduč

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of optimizing a factory floor layout in a Slovenian furniture factory. First, the current state of the manufacturing system is analyzed by constructing a discrete event simulation (DES model that reflects the manufacturing processes. The company produces over 10,000 different products, and their manufacturing processes include approximately 30,000 subprocesses. Therefore, manually constructing a model to include every subprocess is not feasible. To overcome this problem, a method for automated model construction was developed to construct a DES model based on a selection of manufacturing orders and relevant subprocesses. The obtained simulation model provided insight into the manufacturing processes and enable easy modification of model parameters for optimizing the manufacturing processes. Finally, the optimization problem was solved: the total distance the products had to traverse between machines was minimized by devising an optimal machine layout. With the introduction of certain simplifications, the problem was best described as a quadratic assignment problem. A novel heuristic method based on force-directed graph drawing algorithms was developed. Optimizing the floor layout resulted in a significant reduction of total travel distance for the products.

  7. INDOOR THERMAL CONDITION OF FACTORY BUILDING IN BANGLADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammed Abdullah Al Sayem Khan; Mohd. Hamdan Ahmad; Tareef Hayat Khan

    2011-01-01

    Bangladesh is a developing country and has a lot of factories for different products for local use and also export to abroad. Garments industries are one of the top most items of exported items. A huge number of populations are working in garments industries. But these factories are not well designed in sense of the thermal environment. Workers experiences sickness related to indoor environment. The productions of these factories are affected due to employees’ health condition. The research i...

  8. Estimation and correlation of strengthening components to the evolution of microstructure following cold work and articial aging in AA6111 aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quainoo, G K; Yannacopoulos, S; Sargent, C M

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the contributions of the various strengthening components following the application of cold work and precipitation in AA6111 has been evaluated and correlated by means of tensile testing and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show a considerable improvement in yield and tensile strength with increasing level of cold work. The component of strength developed from cold work and precipitation respectively increases with increasing level of cold work. The recovery strength (softening) also increases with increasing level of cold work. TEM showed a strong interaction of strengthening precipitates with dislocations. The density of dislocation tangles is shown to increase with increasing degree of cold work.

  9. Incorporating Cutting Edge Scientific Results from the Margins-Geoprisms Program into the Undergraduate Curriculum: The Subduction Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penniston-Dorland, S.; Stern, R. J.; Edwards, B. R.; Kincaid, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    The NSF-MARGINS Program funded a decade of research on continental margin processes. The NSF-GeoPRISMS Mini-lesson Project, funded by NSF-TUES, is designed to integrate fundamental results from the MARGINS program into open-source college-level curriculum. Three Subduction Factory (SubFac) mini-lessons were developed as part of this project. These include hands-on examinations of data sets representing 3 key components of the subduction zone system: 1) Heat transfer in the subducted slab; 2) Metamorphic processes happening at the plate interface; and 3) Typical magmatic products of arc systems above subduction zones. Module 1: "Slab Temperatures Control Melting in Subduction Zones, What Controls Slab Temperature?" allows students to work in groups using beads rolling down slopes as an analog for the mathematics of heat flow. Using this hands-on, exploration-based approach, students develop an intuition for the mathematics of heatflow and learn about heat conduction and advection in the subduction zone environment. Module 2: "Subduction zone metamorphism" introduces students to the metamorphic rocks that form as the subducted slab descends and the mineral reactions that characterize subduction-related metamorphism. This module includes a suite of metamorphic rocks available for instructors to use in a lab, and exercises in which students compare pressure-temperature estimates obtained from metamorphic rocks to predictions from thermal models. Module 3: "Central American Arc Volcanoes, Petrology and Geochemistry" introduces students to basic concepts in igneous petrology using the Central American volcanic arc, a MARGINS Subduction Factory focus site, as an example. The module relates data from two different volcanoes - basaltic Cerro Negro (Nicaragua) and andesitic Ilopango (El Salvador) including hand sample observations and major element geochemistry - to explore processes of mantle and crustal melting and differentiation in arc volcanism.

  10. On the use of metabolic control analysis in the optimization of cyanobacterial biosolar cell factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermayr, S Andreas; Hellingwerf, Klaas J

    2013-09-26

    Oxygenic photosynthesis will have a key role in a sustainable future. It is therefore significant that this process can be engineered in organisms such as cyanobacteria to construct cell factories that catalyze the (sun)light-driven conversion of CO2 and water into products like ethanol, butanol, or other biofuels or lactic acid, a bioplastic precursor, and oxygen as a byproduct. It is of key importance to optimize such cell factories to maximal efficiency. This holds for their light-harvesting capabilities under, for example, circadian illumination in large-scale photobioreactors. However, this also holds for the "dark" reactions of photosynthesis, that is, the conversion of CO2, NADPH, and ATP into a product. Here, we present an analysis, based on metabolic control theory, to estimate the optimal capacity for product formation with which such cyanobacterial cell factories have to be equipped. Engineered l-lactic acid producing Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 strains are used to identify the relation between production rate and enzymatic capacity. The analysis shows that the engineered cell factories for l-lactic acid are fully limited by the metabolic capacity of the product-forming pathway. We attribute this to the fact that currently available promoter systems in cyanobacteria lack the genetic capacity to a provide sufficient expression in single-gene doses.

  11. Factorial-moment and fractal analyses of γ families from atmospheric cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalmakhelidze, M. E.; Roinishvili, N. N.; Svanidze, M. S.; Khizanishvili, L. A.; Chadranyan, L. Kh.

    1997-01-01

    Methods of factorial moments and fractal dimensions are used to analyze γ families from nuclear-electromagnetic cascades in the atmosphere. The analysis aims at estimating the sensitivity of these methods to multiparticle density fluctuations in γ families as considered in spaces of various variables. The mean characteristics of factorial and fractal moments in the azimuthal plane are studied and compared with those of the statistical ensemble of random families. It is shown that fluctuations of the photon distribution in the azimuthal angle Φ are of a dynamic origin. The mean model parameters are analyzed as functions of the radius vector R, an analog of pseudorapidity, and the product ER (E is the energy of an individual photon), an analog of the transverse momentum. Particle densities for two-dimensional partitions into both rings (in the radius R) and sectors (in the azimuthal angle Φ), d 2 N/dΦdR, are also considered. The distributions of various factorial and fractal features of individual γ families are compared with those for the statistical ensemble of random families. Correlations of these features for a γ family treated in terms of different variables (sectors and rings) are studied. Correlations between different factorial-fractal parameters of γ families are analyzed

  12. Concentration and distribution of elements in plants and soils near phosphate processing factories, Pocatello, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severson, R.C.; Gough, L.P.

    1976-01-01

    The processing of phosphatic shale near Pocatello, Idaho has a direct influence on the element content of local vegetation and soil. Samples of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. subsp. tridentata) and cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) show important negative relations between the concentration of certain elements (Cd, Cr, F, Ni, P, Se, U, V, and Zn) and distance from phosphate processing factories. Plant tissues within 3 km of the processing factories contain unusually high amounts of these elements except Ni and Se. Important negative relations with distance were also found for certain elements (Be, F, Fe, K, Li, Pb, Rb, Th, and Zn) in A-horizon soil. Amounts of seven elements (Be, F, Li, Pb, Rb, Th, and Zn) being contributed to the upper 5 cm of the soil by phosphate processing, as well as two additional elements (U and V) suspected as being contributed to soil, were estimated, with F showing the greatest increase (about 300 kg/ha) added to soils as far as 4 km downwind from the factories. The greatest number of important relations for both plants and soils was found downwind (northeast) of the processing factories

  13. Gauging and Etude Radio exposures in Tartous Cement Factory and Naphtha Strainer of Banias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mala, T.; Soufan, A. A.; Bofroud, T.

    2009-01-01

    The radio activity level was measured in both Tartous cement factory and naphtha strainer of Banias by using an electronic strumming EPD produced by E urisy F rance company and digelerat-50 strumming produced by C ope E nglish Company. It was [0.090-0.097]μSv/h that is concert with the background level of radioactivity. Some samples were taken from different places at studying areas and the radioactivity was estimated by using Gamma-ray spectroscopy. (author)

  14. Análise factorial confirmatória do TEOSQp Confirmatory factorial analysis of TEOSQp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder M. Fernandes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O propósito do presente estudo foi avaliar a confiabilidade, a validade factorial e a invariância (por sexo da versão portuguesa do TEOSQ (Fonseca & Biddle, 2001. Integraram a amostra 1010 estudantes com uma média de idade de 15,42 anos. A análise factorial e da invariância foi avaliada através da análise factorial confirmatória. Os resultados corroboram a proposta de uma estrutura de duas subescalas (tarefa e ego. Com base nos índices de modificação e justificação teórica, o TEOSQ p foi reduzido a 12-itens, com melhores índices de adequação para o modelo oblíquo. Os resultados relativos à invariância por sexo não apresentaram apoio empírico total para a assumpção de equivalência multi-grupo, sugerindo que o TEOSQ p não parece avaliar as orientações cognitivas do mesmo modo, para os indivíduos do sexo masculino (modelo ortogonal e feminino (modelo oblíquo. Face aos resultados obtidos, foram discutidas as implicações conceptuais, empíricas, assim como os aspectos de carácter aplicado.The present research assessed the reliability, factorial validity and measurement invariance (by gender of the Portuguese version of TEOSQ -Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (Fonseca & Biddle, 2001. Data were collected from 1010 physical education students with a mean age of 15.42 ( SD=1.91. Factorial and invariance measurements were tested via confirmatory factorial analysis. Results supported internal consistency for the two proposed subscales (task and ego. Based on modification indices and theoretical justification the TEOSQ p was reduced to 12 items with better goodness-of-fit indices for the oblique model. The results of gender invariance did not provide full empirical support to the multi-group equivalence assumption, being suggested that TEOSQ p does not measure in the same way goal orientations for boys (orthogonal model and girls (oblique model. In light of these results, conceptual, empirical and practical

  15. [Demodicosis of dogs--a factorial disease?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothe, R

    1989-09-01

    Demodex canis is a normal resident of the intact canine skin, being present in small numbers in virtually every dog. Most animals are only carriers of the mites and do not develop clinical symptoms, therefore, demodectic mange has already to be considered as a factorial disease. The modus operandi of transition of clinically inapparent colonization of the mites into a disease may be explained according to investigations so far published multifactorially and thereby essentially as consequences of primary or secondary immunodepression. A primary immunodepression is initially based most probably on a hereditary defect of T-cells and is subsequently reinforced by substances, which are presumably synthesized and liberated not only by mites but also by secondary bacterial agents. A secondary immunodepression operates as trigger mechanism of a clinical manifestation after corticosteroid or cytostatic therapy or in course of underlying diseases of potentially immunodepressive nature, i.e., malignant neoplasia, hepatopathies, hyperadrenocorticism and lymphosarcoma.

  16. ATHEROSCLEROSIS DISEASE: A MULTI-FACTORIAL PATHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcieli da Luz Giroldo1; Arienne Serrano Alves1; Francielle Baptista1

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis or arterial stiffening is a gradual disease that restricts the normal blood flow in different areas of body and maylead to secondary illnesses as myocardial infarction and cerebral stroke. Innumerable factors are related to the development ofatherosclerosis, among them are the dyslipidemia; genetic factors; arterial hypertension; diabetes mellitus; obesity; smoking;lack of exercise; pulmonary infection by Chlamydia and stress. Due to multi-factorial atherosclerosis characteristics,innumerable drugs, with differentiated mechanisms of action, are being elaborated to be used in prevention and control of thisdisease. However, beyond the pharmacological therapy, a balanced diet, physical activity and elimination of risk habits, assmoking, also are need for controlling atherosclerosis progression, as well as for the increase of expectative and quality of life

  17. Nuclear structure physics at RI beam factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Takaharu

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear structure physics is becoming extremely interesting owing to recent development of RI beam factories. Among various interesting developments in this field, I will focus upon two subjects. One is the breaking of the usual magic numbers in unstable nuclei, and the other is the invention of a new method for quantum many-body problems: Quantum Monte Carlo diagonalization method (QMCD). For the first subject, I will discuss the vanishing of N=8 and 20 magic numbers in 11 Li and 32 Mg, respectively. For the latter, I will present brief description of the theory and results of some applications including the one to 64 Ge, a proton-rich unstable nucleus. (author)

  18. The B-factory project at KEK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurokawa, Shin-ichi; Satoh, Kotaro

    1993-01-01

    The B-Factory project at KEK aims at constructing an accelerator complex which enables us to detect the CP-violation effect of B-mesons. It is a two-ring electron-positron collider of 3.5x8 GeV in the existing TRISTAN tunnel. The design peak luminosity is 10 34 cm -2 s -1 , which will be realized in two steps: from a small-angle collision with a luminosity of 2x10 33 cm -2 s -1 to a large-angle crab-crossing scheme with the final luminosity of 10 34 cm -2 s -1 . Progress of design work and present status of R and D are reported. (author)

  19. N-Nitrosamines in the factory environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fajen, J M; Fine, D H; Rounbehler, D P

    1980-01-01

    Under the NIOSH-sponsored contract, a total of 40 surveys were conducted at 28 manufacturing plants. The industries investigated were the fish, dye, leather, rubber and manufacturers and users of cutting fluids. NDELA, NMOR, NDMA and NDPhA were found in the air of several factories. In a chrome tannery, NDMA was identified at levels as high as 47 micrograms/m3 and NMOR was found at 27 micrograms/m3 in a rubber tire plant. This study has resulted in an increased understanding of man's exposure to exogenous N-nitrosamines. It is conceivable, from the information obtained in this study, that nitrosamine exposure comparable to that in the tire and rubber industry exists in other industries not yet surveyed. NIOSH is continuing its research on nitrosamines in the industrial environment. A full, industry-wide report on the 40 plant surveys is being compiled for publication.

  20. Lattices for the TRIUMF KAON factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servranckx, R.V.; Craddock, M.K.

    1989-09-01

    Separated-function racetrack lattices have been developed for the KAON Factory accelerators that have more flexibility than the old circular lattices. The arcs of the large rings have a regular FODO structure with a superimposed six-fold symmetric modulation of the betafunction in order to raise γ t to infinity. Straight sections with zero dispersion are provided for rf cavities and fast injection and extraction, and with controlled dispersion for H - injection and slow extraction. For the small rings, sixfold symmetric circular lattices with high γ t are retained. In the Accumulator lattice, a straight section with double waist and controlled η function allows for H - injection and phase-space painting. The ion-optical properties of the lattices and the results from tracking studies are discussed

  1. Intense muon beams and neutrino factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsa, Z.

    2000-01-01

    High intensity muon sources are needed in exploring neutrino factories, lepton flavor violating muon processes, and lower energy experiments as the stepping phase towards building higher energy μ + μ - colliders. We present a brief overview, sketch of a neutrino source, and an example of a muon storage ring at BNL with detector(s) at Fermilab, Sudan, etc. Physics with low energy neutrino beams based on muon storage rings (μSR) and conventional Horn Facilities are described and compared. CP violation Asymmetries and a new Statistical Figure of Merit to be used for comparison is given. Improvements in the sensitivity of low energy experiments to study Flavor changing neutral currents are also included

  2. Producción escrita: Estructura factorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Esperanza HERRERA GARCÍA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio se planteó con la idea de comprobar de forma empírica si los indicadores lingüísticos obtenidos en investigaciones realizadas sobre comprensión lectora aparecían también como significativos en el análisis de la producción escrita. Si bien la investigación psicológica ha demostrado en numerosas ocasiones la relación existente entre comprensión y producción en el sentido de una maduración anterior de la primera con respecto a la segunda, podemos considerar a priori la existencia de indicadores que nos permitan medir ambos aspectos. Para ello buscamos la estructura factorial que presentan los indicadores lingüísticos que vamos a considerar y comprobaremos si presenta los factores encontrados en comprensión lectora.

  3. Targeting population heterogeneity for optimal cell factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heins, Anna-Lena; Carlqvist, Magnus; Helmark, S.

    the heterogeneity level of the population. To further investigate these phenomena and gain a deeper understanding of population heterogeneity, Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth reporter strains based on the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) were constructed which enabled us to perform single cell level...... analysis, and thereby created the possibility to map population heterogeneity. A factorial design with pH, glucose concentration and oxygen level was performed in batch cultivations using the growth reporter strains to evaluate the effect of those environmental factors on heterogeneity level and amount......To achieve an efficient production process, it is essential to optimize both the strain and the cultivation conditions. Traditionally, a microbial population has been considered homogeneous in optimization studies of fermentation processes. However, research has shown that a typical microbial...

  4. High-gravity brewing utilizing factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Almeida

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of factors can influence the behavior of yeast during fermentation. Some of these factors (initial wort concentration, initial pH and percentage of corn syrup in the composition of the wort were studied in order to determine their influence on the productivity of fermentation. Fermentations were carried out at 25ºC utilizing a 2³ factorial design of these factors. The results showed that the percentage of corn syrup had no influence on process productivity, whereas initial pH and especially initial wort concentration did. It can be concluded that using pH and initial wort concentration values higher than those utilized in this work (5.5 and 20ºP, respectively will result in a higher productivity.

  5. Present status of positron factory project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, S.; Sunaga, H.; Kaneko, H.; Tachibana, H.; Yotsumoto, K.; Okamoto, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, JAERI, has been promoting design studies for the 'Positron Factory', in which linac-based intense monoenergetic positron beams are planned to be applied to advanced materials characterization and new fields of basic research. A tentative goal of the beam intensity is 10 10 s -1 , which is assumed to be realized with an electron linac of 100 kW class with a beam energy around 100 to 150 MeV. We performed a technical survey on the dedicated linac. It confirmed technical feasibility of manufacturing the state-of-the-art machine. We have been carrying out a design study of the target. A new concept of the target design is proposed, which is expected to supply intense slow positron beams simultaneously for multiple beam channels, on the basis of Monte Carlo simulations. (author)

  6. Achille Maramotti, between factory and collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Pirozzi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes Achille Maramotti’s figure and links between entrepreneurship and his passion for art and contemporary collections: from the desire to expose his private collection inside Max Mara factory to create a collection that was the mirror of the artistic experiments of his time. The article analyzes the critical contributions in the development of Maramotti Collection and, in particular, the relationship between Achille Maramotti and Mario Diacono that, as the Emilian collector, is expert and admirer of European and American painting of the second half of the twentieth century. Achille Maramotti, sons and daughter are considered among the most influential collectors in the world, and represents a successful example of contemporary art collection linked to the image and business management; the Max Mara fashion house.

  7. KEKB and PEP-II B Factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeman, J.T.

    1997-01-01

    Two asymmetric B-Factories KEKB at KEK and PEP-II at SLAC are under construction, designed to study CP violation in the b-quark sector with a center of mass energy of 10.58 GeV. These two new accelerators are high luminosity two-ring two-energy e + e - colliders with one interaction point. There are many challenging accelerator physics and engineering issues associated with the high beam currents and high luminosities of these rings. The chosen solutions to these issues and the general parameters of the two rings are described in detail side-by-side. KEKB and PEP-II are well into the installation phase and are both scheduled to be completed in 1998. The particle physics programs are scheduled to start in 1999

  8. Status of the TRIUMF KAON factory proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.K.

    1988-03-01

    Over the last year considerable progress has been achieved on both technical and political fronts. Hardware studies have continued on both magnet power supplies and on rf cavities - the latter work gaining an extra dimension from a recently-instituted formal collaboration with LAMPF. A racetrack-shaped lattice is being considered in conjunction with a three-element slow extraction system in an effort to reduce losses to the 0.1% level. British Columbia has agreed to fund the buildings and tunnels (Cdn $87M) and is making the KAON Factory its tope priority project with the Canadian federal government. A joint federal-provincial delegation has traveled abroad and found that a number of countries would consider significant contributions to the cost. Government approval contingent upon such contributions is anticipated later in 1988, together with preconstruction R and D funds

  9. Improved premises for cell factory development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Karina Marie

    The sustainable manufacturing of medicines, materials and chemicals is enabled with biotechnology, and the key to the development of new processes, as well as improvement of existing ones, lies in our fundamental understanding of the biological systems we manipulate. Recombinant protein production...... is at the core of biotechnology and numerous molecular tools and bacterial strains have been developed over the past four decades for this purpose. Understanding of the genetic code and our ability to manipulate genetic material, paves the way for the microbial cell factory development that enables production......, and building a platform for enhanced expression of certain plant genes in bacteria. The relevance of the conducted research to the field of biotechnology is covered, as well as necessary scientific background and history. Specifically, the surprisingly minor effects of tRNA overexpression on the production...

  10. Evolution of the Factory 1975-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Since it was founded in 1973. Equipos Nucleares (ENSA) has been actively present in the nuclear market. This was the reason for its creation and for which it was organized from the very beginning, by designing a company with a nuclear structure and mentality. The author reviews the history and evolution of the Factory- more than a workshop- and describes its different stages, which were strongly affected by the unexpected evolution of a diminishing market- an inexistent market the likes to say- and also stresses the extraordinary difficulty of its work and the determination to remain in the nuclear market. He acknowledges the people and the culture of ENSA emphasizing their dedication, generosity, flexibility, training and enthusiasm, and stresses their stake in being the best and to attain excellence in the quality of supplies, meeting deadlines and customer satisfaction, identifying these as fundamental factors of the company's legacy. Having a better Factory is possible by improving its technological capability through researching and developing its processes, automating and robotizing manufacturing and inspection activities, and simplifying its operating systems. A result of these efforts is the continuous international presence as a supplier and collaborator with the world's leading designers, which has consolidated it as a reference supplier on the American market. Of not is the supply to the market of its different product lines a result of combining its design and manufacturing capabilities with its flexibility and size, all of which contribute to ENSA's wealth, diversity and appeal. ENSA is aware of the forthcoming resurgence of the new nuclear market. It is preparing for the future by renewing and upgrading its manufacturing facilities and implementing new systems techniques- Lean Manufacturing and Six Sigma-into its Annual Improvement Plans to favor and drive its technological capability and competitiveness and to respond to the increasingly demanding

  11. Estimating the gasoline components and formulations toxicity to microalgae (Tetraselmis chuii) and oyster (Crassostrea rhizophorae) embryos: An approach to minimize environmental pollution risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paixao, J.F.; Nascimento, I.A.; Pereira, S.A.; Leite, M.B.L.; Carvalho, G.C.; Silveira, J.S.C.; Reboucas, M.; Matias, G.R.A.; Rodrigues, I.L.P.

    2007-01-01

    Even though petrochemical contamination frequently occurs in the form of oil spills, it is thought that a greater danger to coastal habitats is posed by chronic petrochemical toxicity associated with urban run-off, in which gasoline water-soluble-fraction (WSF) plays an important role. The hypothesis of the entrepreneurs, who were associated to the scientists uncharged of this research, was that recycled petrochemical waste may provide different gasoline formulations, having different toxic properties; the correlation between the gasoline formulations and their components' toxicological effects might contribute to the reformulation of the products, in such a way that the gasoline generated could be less toxic and less harmful to the environment. The aim of this research was to determine the toxic effects of 14 different types of gasoline (formulated, in accordance with National Petroleum Agency standards, from petrochemical waste), on Tetraselmis chuii (microalgae culture) and Crassostrea rhizophorae (embryos). Microalgae and oyster embryos were exposed to different gasoline formulations water-soluble fractions (WSF) at a range of concentrations (0%, 4.6%, 10.0%, 22.0%, 46.0%, and 100%), for 96 and 24 h, respectively. The tests were carried out under controlled conditions. End-points have been CI50-96h (concentration causing 50% growth inhibition in microalgae cultures) and EC50-24h (concentration causing abnormalities on 50% of the exposed embryos). Through these procedures, gasoline formulations, which represent the lowest environmental risk, were selected. Bioassays carried out on the 8 different gasoline components aimed to correlate gasoline toxicity with the toxic potential of its components. The analysis of principal components showed that the C9DI, a mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons of 9 carbon atoms, had the highest level of toxic potential, followed by C9S (a mixture of aromatics with 9-11 carbon atoms) and heavy naphtha. The results showed gasoline

  12. National Studies as a Component of the World Health Organization Initiative to Estimate the Global and Regional Burden of Foodborne Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin J Lake

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO initiative to estimate the global burden of foodborne diseases established the Foodborne Diseases Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG in 2007. In addition to global and regional estimates, the initiative sought to promote actions at a national level. This involved capacity building through national foodborne disease burden studies, and encouragement of the use of burden information in setting evidence-informed policies. To address these objectives a FERG Country Studies Task Force was established and has developed a suite of tools and resources to facilitate national burden of foodborne disease studies. This paper describes the process and lessons learned during the conduct of pilot country studies under the WHO FERG initiative.Pilot country studies were initiated in Albania, Japan and Thailand in 2011 and in Uganda in 2012. A brief description of each study is provided. The major scientific issue is a lack of data, particularly in relation to disease etiology, and attribution of disease burden to foodborne transmission. Situation analysis, knowledge translation, and risk communication to achieve evidence-informed policies require specialist expertise and resources.The FERG global and regional burden estimates will greatly enhance the ability of individual countries to fill data gaps and generate national estimates to support efforts to reduce the burden of foodborne disease.

  13. A Multilevel Model to Estimate the Within- and the Between-Center Components of the Exposure/Disease Association in the EPIC Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sera, Francesco; Ferrari, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    In a multicenter study, the overall relationship between exposure and the risk of cancer can be broken down into a within-center component, which reflects the individual level association, and a between-center relationship, which captures the association at the aggregate level. A piecewise exponential proportional hazards model with random effects was used to evaluate the association between dietary fiber intake and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in the EPIC study. During an average follow-up o...

  14. Proceedings of the Workshop on CP Violation at KAON Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, J.N.

    1989-07-01

    These proceedings contain the written version of eight talks delivered at the Workshop on CP Violation at KAON Factory. The articles contain reviews on the exploration of CP violation effects associated with the s-quark. Discussion on the use of intense kaon fluxes, which will be available at the proposed KAON Factory, are included

  15. Factory Gate Pricing: An Analysis of the Dutch Retail Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.M. le Blanc; F. Cruijssen (Frans); H.A. Fleuren; M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractFactory Gate Pricing (FGP) is a relatively new phenomenon in retail distribution. Under FGP, products are no longer delivered at the retailer distribution center, but collected by the retailer at the factory gates of the suppliers. Owing to both the asymmetry in the distribution networks

  16. Factory Gate Pricing : An Analysis of the Dutch Retail Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Blanc, H.M.; Cruijssen, F.C.A.M.; Fleuren, H.A.; de Koster, M.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Factory Gate Pricing (FGP) is a relatively new phenomenon in retail distribution.Under FGP, products are no longer delivered at the retailer distribution center, but collected by the retailer at the factory gates of the suppliers.Owing to both the asymmetry in the distribution networks (the supplier

  17. Parametric study of a target factory for laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherohman, J.W.; Meier, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of a target factory leading to the derivation of production rate equations has provided the basis for a parametric study. Rate equations describing the production of laser fusion targets have been developed for the purpose of identifying key parameters, attractive production techniques and cost scaling relationships for a commercial target factory

  18. Why and how to normalize the factorial moments of intermittency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschanski, R.

    1990-01-01

    The normalization of factorial moments of intermittency, which is often the subject of controverses, is justified and (re-)derived from the general assumption of multi-Poissonian statistical noise in the production of particles at high-energy. Correction factors for the horizontal vs. Vertical analyses are derived in general cases, including the factorial multi-bin correlation moments

  19. Review of U.S. Neutrino Factory Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2005-01-01

    We summarize the status of the two U.S. feasibility studies carried out by the Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration (NFMCC) along with recent improvements to Neutrino Factory design developed during the American Physical Society (APS) Neutrino Physics Study. Suggested accelerator topics for the International Scoping Study (ISS) are also indicated

  20. Element Content of Surface and Underground Water Sources around a Cement Factory Site in Calabar, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund Richard Egbe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cement production is associated with heavy metal emissions and environmental pollution by cement dust. The degree of contamination of drinking water sources by major and trace elements present in cement dust generated by united cement factory (UNICEM is still uncertain. This study estimated the element content of ground and surface water samples (hand-dug wells, boreholes and streams around the factory site to determine the impact of cement dust exposure on the water levels of these elements. Methods: This study was conducted at UNICEM at Mfamosing, Akamkpa local government area, Cross River State, Nigeria. Drinking water samples (5 from each location were collected from the cement factory quarry site camp, 3 surrounding communities and Calabar metropolis (45 km away from factory serving as control. The lead (Pb, copper (Cu, manganes (Mn, iron (Fe, cadmium (Cd, selenium (Se, chromium (Cr, zinc (Zn and arsenic (As levels of samples were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and LSD post hoc at P = 0.05. Results: As and Pb content of samples from camp were above the WHO recommendations of 0.01mg/l and 0.01mg/l respectively. Chromium and cadmium content of all water samples were above and others below WHO recommendations. Water levels of Mn, Fe, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Ca and Si were significantly elevated (though below WHO recommendations in camp than other locations (P<0.05. Conclusion: Production of cement results in As, Pb, Cr and cd contamination of drinking water sources near the factory. Treatment of all drinking water sources is recommended before public use to avert deleterious health consequences.

  1. Convenient method for estimating underground s-wave velocity structure utilizing horizontal and vertical components microtremor spectral ratio; Bido no suiheido/jogedo supekutoru hi wo riyoshita kan`i chika s ha sokudo kozo suiteiho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H; Yoshioka, M; Saito, T [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-05-01

    Studies were conducted about the method of estimating the underground S-wave velocity structure by inversion making use of the horizontal/vertical motion spectral ratio of microtremors. For this purpose, a dynamo-electric velocity type seismograph was used, capable of processing the east-west, north-south, and vertical components integratedly. For the purpose of sampling the Rayleigh wave spectral ratio, one out of all the azimuths was chosen, whose horizontal motion had a high Fourier frequency component coherency with the vertical motions. For the estimation of the underground S-wave velocity structure, parameters (P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity, density, and layer thickness) were determined from the minimum residual sum of squares involving the observed microtremor spectral ratio and the theoretical value calculated by use of a model structure. The known boring data was utilized for the study of the S-wave velocity in the top layer, and it was determined using an S-wave velocity estimation formula for the Morioka area constructed using the N-value, depth, and geological classification. It was found that the optimum S-wave velocity structure even below the top layer well reflects the S-wave velocity obtained by the estimation formula. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Estimation of Rayleigh-wave spectral ratio from microtremors using a three-component single-station seismograph; Itten sanseibun bido kansoku ni motozuita Rayleigh ha shinpukuhi no suitei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H; Mizutani, K; Saito, t [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-10-22

    Discussions were given on the possibility of estimating Rayleigh-wave spectral ratio utilizing phase difference between horizontal movements and vertical movements by using a three-component single-station seismograph. The test has selected as an observation point a location in the city of Kushiro where a pulp and paper mill generating microtremors is the focal point, and the underground structure at that point has been estimated by using the vertical array observation method. The observation system has used three components of a velocity type seismograph having a natural period of one second, an amplifier and an analog data recorder. As a result of the discussions, the following matters were made clear: the spectral ratio with a phase difference of 90 degrees agrees with the frequency at a peak trough of the theoretical Rayleigh-wave spectral ratio; the values of the spectral ratio at the phase difference of 90 degrees and the values of the theoretical Rayleigh-wave spectral ratio correspond well excepting in frequency bands of the peak trough; and these results suggest that the Rayleigh-wave spectral ratio may be estimated by utilizing the phase difference between horizontal movements and vertical movements. Estimation of the underground structure by using the inverse analysis of this Rayleigh-wave spectral ratio is expected in the future. 6 refs., 5 figs., tab.

  3. Parameter Estimation of a Reliability Model of Demand-Caused and Standby-Related Failures of Safety Components Exposed to Degradation by Demand Stress and Ageing That Undergo Imperfect Maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Martorell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One can find many reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM models proposed in the literature. However, such models become more complex day after day, as there is an attempt to capture equipment performance in a more realistic way, such as, explicitly addressing the effect of component ageing and degradation, surveillance activities, and corrective and preventive maintenance policies. Then, there is a need to fit the best model to real data by estimating the model parameters using an appropriate tool. This problem is not easy to solve in some cases since the number of parameters is large and the available data is scarce. This paper considers two main failure models commonly adopted to represent the probability of failure on demand (PFD of safety equipment: (1 by demand-caused and (2 standby-related failures. It proposes a maximum likelihood estimation (MLE approach for parameter estimation of a reliability model of demand-caused and standby-related failures of safety components exposed to degradation by demand stress and ageing that undergo imperfect maintenance. The case study considers real failure, test, and maintenance data for a typical motor-operated valve in a nuclear power plant. The results of the parameters estimation and the adoption of the best model are discussed.

  4. The Experience Factory: Strategy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, Victor R.; Caldiera, Gianluigi

    1995-01-01

    The quality movement, that has had in recent years a dramatic impact on all industrial sectors, has recently reached the system and software industry. Although some concepts of quality management, originally developed for other product types, can be applied to software, its specificity as a product which is developed and not produced requires a special approach. This paper introduces a quality paradigm specifically tailored on the problem of the systems and software industry. Reuse of products, processes and experiences originating from the system life cycle is seen today as a feasible solution to the problem of developing higher quality systems at a lower cost. In fact, quality improvement is very often achieved by defining and developing an appropriate set of strategic capabilities and core competencies to support them. A strategic capability is, in this context, a corporate goal defined by the business position of the organization and implemented by key business processes. Strategic capabilities are supported by core competencies, which are aggregate technologies tailored to the specific needs of the organization in performing the needed business processes. Core competencies are non-transitional, have a consistent evolution, and are typically fueled by multiple technologies. Their selection and development requires commitment, investment and leadership. The paradigm introduced in this paper for developing core competencies is the Quality Improvement Paradigm which consists of six steps: (1) Characterize the environment, (2) Set the goals, (3) Choose the process, (4) Execute the process, (5) Analyze the process data, and (6) Package experience. The process must be supported by a goal oriented approach to measurement and control, and an organizational infrastructure, called Experience Factory. The Experience Factory is a logical and physical organization distinct from the project organizations it supports. Its goal is development and support of core competencies

  5. Evaluación de la estructura factorial del Cuestionario de Valores Interpersonales (SIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Merino Soto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El artículo evalúa la estructura factorial bajo los efectos del método ipsativo de respuesta, estudiados en el nivel de las subescalas del Cuestionario de Valores Interpersonales de Gordon (SIV, y las relaciones entre ellas, en una muestra de adolescentes entre 15 y 17 años de ambos sexos y procedentes de un colegio privado y estatal, representativos de los niveles socioeconómicos medio y bajo. Aunque el SIV ha sido una herramienta extensamente utilizada, no se reportado previamente un análisis de su estructura factorial en muestras Latinoamericanas. Mediante el análisis de componentes principales y el análisis factorial con un enfoque confirmatorio, se han identificado relaciones bipolares entre Independencia y Benevolencia, y Soporte y Conformidad. Se obtuvo también la confirmación del modelo de valores interpersonales propuesto por L. V. Gordon. En el análisis se consideró un aspecto que artificialmente puede haber influido en el patrón de correlaciones entre los componentes, esto es el método ipsativo de las preguntas del SIV. Finalmente, se discute sobre las medidas ipsativas y sus consecuencias en la interpretación de sus resultados. The present study evaluates the factorial structure, in the level of the subscales, of the Survey of Interpersonal Values (SIV, and the relationships among them, in a sample of adolescents between 15 and 17 years old of both sexes and from a private and public school, representative of low and middle socioeconomic levels. Although the SIV has been a widely used tool, there is no report of an analysis of its factorial structure in Latin-American samples. By means of the principal components analysis and the factorial analysis with a confirmatory approach, bipolar relationships have been identified between Independence and Benevolence, and Support and Conformity. The confirmation of the pattern of interpersonal values proposed by L. V. Gordon was also accomplished. An aspect considered in the

  6. Cheating Admission Self Report Scale: Evidence of Factorial Validity and Precision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdiney Veloso Gouveia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to adapt the Cheating Admission Self Report Scale (CASRSto the Brazilian context and collect evi-dence on factorial validity and internal consistency. 441 students participated (M=16 years, 54.6% females, randomly divided in two groups. All responded to CASRS and to demographic questions. The analysis of the main components demonstrated a bifactor structure, whose factors presented Cronbach’s alphas (α greater than .80 (G1. This structure was corroborated by means of confirmatory factor analysis (for example, CFI=.87 and RMSEA=.08. The scale was shown to be psychometrically adequate and there was evidence of factorial validity and internal consistency; the scale can be used to measure plagiarism in the academic context.

  7. Operation and Recent Developments of the Photon Factory Advanced Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Miyajima, Tsukasa; Ebihara, Kiyokazu; Haga, Kaiichi; Harada, Kentaro; Hori, Yoichiro; Ieiri, Takao; Isagawa, Shigeru; Kageyama, Tatsuya; Kasuga, Toshio; Katoh, Tadahiko; Kawata, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Mitsuo; Kobayashi, Yukinori; Kudo, Kikuo; Mitsuhashi, Toshiyuki; Nagahashi, Shinya; Nakamura, Tatsuro; Nakanishi, Hiroshi; Nogami, Takashi; Obina, Takashi; Ohsawa, Yasunobu; Ono, Masaaki; Ozaki, Toshiyuki; Sakai, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Yutaka; Sakanaka, Shogo; Sato, Masayuki; Satoh, Masato; Shioya, Tatsuro; Suetake, Masaaki; Sugahara, Ryuhei; Tadano, Mikito; Takahashi, Takeshi; Takasaki, Seiji; Tanimoto, Yasunori; Tejima, Masaki; Tsuchiya, Kimichika; Uchiyama, Takashi; Ueda, Akira; Umemori, Kensei; Xing Cheng, Wei; Yamamoto, Noboru; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Yoshimoto, S

    2005-01-01

    The Photon Factory Advanced Ring (PF-AR) is a synchrotron light source dedicated to X-ray research. The PF-AR is usually operated at a beam energy of 6.5 GeV, but a 5.0 GeV mode is also available for medical application. In 6.5 GeV mode the typical lifetime of 15 hrs and the beam current of 60 mA with a single-bunch have been archived. Almost full-time single-bunch operation for pulse X-ray characterize the PF-AR. However, single-bunch high-current caused several problems to be solved, including the temperature rise of the some of the vacuum component, a pressure increase in the ring, and a sudden drop in lifetime. In order to avoid these issues the developments of new methods have been continued. In this paper, the status and the recent developments of the PF-AR will be presented. It concerns: the successful operation with two-bunch high-current in 5.0 GeV mode; varying the vertical beam size for the medical application; modulating the RF acceleration phase in order to elongate the length of bunch; stabilizi...

  8. Beam position monitoring system for the proposed asymmetric B Factory at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrin, J.L.

    1992-10-01

    The beam position monitor system of the B Factory is drastically different from the actual PEP system. We present a description of the new configuration and list the features which have been adopted to make this system a highly reliable diagnostic tool. An electrode geometry is suggested, based on the maximum-acceptable power extracted from the beam, and the measurement resolution is estimated by assuming some practical bandwidth and the noise level. Finally, an estimate of the system precision is made by adding up what is expected to be the most significant systematic errors

  9. Hospitals as factories of medical garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Sarah

    2017-12-01

    Over the course of the twentieth century, as hospitals cleaned up, they came to produce more and more rubbish. Beginning in the 1970s and gaining pace in the 1980s and 1990s, single-use plastic items (syringes, blood bags, tubing) saturated everyday medical practice across the globe. This essay brings the question of plastic to bear upon the longer history of twentieth century sanitary science. The widespread adoption of single-use disposable medical plastics consolidated a century's worth of changes in medical hygiene. As strange as it may seem today, the initial uptake of medical plastics was not driven primarily by concerns about hygiene. Plastic began as a mid-century technology of convenience and durability. It was not until the end of the twentieth century that it morphed into a powerful symbol and instrument of medical hygiene. Today, both patients and practitioners have embraced plastic as an indispensable technology of clean medicine. The procession of single-use medical plastics through everyday medicine now comprises a constant, if disposable, infrastructure of medical hygiene. This new processional infrastructure of disposable hygiene has produced another, albeit unintended, consequence. This new regime has exponentially increased hospitals' material outputs. In so doing, plastic has refigured the ecologies of everyday medicine. Plastic hygiene has rendered hospitals factories of medical garbage.

  10. New Physics at a Super Flavor Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Browder, Thomas E; Pirjol, Dan; Soni, Amarjit; Zupan, Jure

    2009-01-01

    The potential of a Super Flavor Factory (SFF) for searches of New Physics is reviewed. While very high luminosity B physics is assumed to be at the core of the program, its scope for extensive charm and tau studies are also emphasized. The possibility to run at the Upsilon(5S) as well as at the Upsilon(4S) is also very briefly discussed; in principle, this could provide very clean measurements of B_s decays. The strength and reach of a SFF is most notably due to the possibility of examining an impressive array of very clean observables. The angles and the sides of the unitarity triangle can be determined with unprecedented accuracy. These serve as a reference for New Physics (NP) sensitive decays such as B^+ ->tau^+ nu and penguin dominated hadronic decay modes, providing tests of generic NP scenarios with an accuracy of a few percent. Besides, very precise studies of direct and time dependent CP asymmetries in radiative B decays and forward-backward asymmetry studies in B -> X_s l^+ l^- and numerous null tes...

  11. THE MICROBIAL ANALYSIS IN A BREAD FACTORY IN DAMBOVITA COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Maracinaru

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the degree of microbial charge of the air in a bread factory. In food industry theair represents one of the biggest riscs of microbiological contamination (with bacteria, yeast, mildew of food productswith repercusions in the sanitary area (intoxications as well as in industrial area (modification of organolepticproperties of products, rebutting in fabrication, depositing problems, etc. For food industry it is very important that theair is not filled with microorganisms, because these microorganisms are moving in this space and they arrive on rawmaterial and on the finished product.The product about to be fabricated can constitute the medium of culture for themulticplication of microorganisms if the conditions of temperature and humidity are favourable. Generally one mustavoid as much as possible the phenomenon of stagnation of products in contact with surfaces and air.Thebacteorological analysis of air happens usually and especially in rooms where the aerial transmitting of infections mustbe avoided because it constitutes a means of control of sanitary conditions.For the bacterial content of air there are nostandards so far. There have been made propositions based on researches with the help of which we can estimate thedegree of contamination of the air in production spaces.In food industry the number of mezofil germs must not surpass600/ m3 and the fungus 300/m3.

  12. Other components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter includes descriptions of electronic and mechanical components which do not merit a chapter to themselves. Other hardware requires mention because of particularly high tolerance or intolerance of exposure to radiation. A more systematic analysis of radiation responses of structures which are definable by material was given in section 3.8. The components discussed here are field effect transistors, transducers, temperature sensors, magnetic components, superconductors, mechanical sensors, and miscellaneous electronic components

  13. Exposure to firework chemicals from production factories in pregnant women and risk of preterm birth occurrence in Liuyang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xun; Tan, Hongzhuan; Luo, Meiling; Wu, Xinrui; Huang, Xin; Zhou, Shujin; Shen, Lin; He, Yue; Liu, Yi; Hu, Li; Chen, Mengshi; Hu, Shimin; Wen, Shi Wu

    2018-01-01

    In the production of fireworks, various pollutants including particles of metals and organic compounds are released into the environment. Although the adverse effects of these air pollutants are known, the impact on pregnant women residing in this area remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to examine the association between maternal exposure to fireworks production chemicals and frequency of preterm birth in Liuyang, China. Maternal exposure to fireworks production was estimated at the residential district level and assessed using factory density, which was defined as the number of fireworks factories per 1000 residents in each district. The association of maternal exposure to particulates released from fireworks production plants with frequency of preterm birth was determined using data obtained from a cohort study conducted in Liuyang, China. Data were analyzed utilizing linear regression and logistic regression. There was no significant association between factory density and spontaneous preterm or medically induced preterm birth. Unexpectedly, pregnant women residing in areas with higher density of fireworks factories were at a reduced risk of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). Data demonstrated that residential density of fireworks factories appeared to be negatively correlated with preterm birth rate as evidenced by PPROM. At present, it is difficult to reconcile the inverse relationship between firework chemical exposure and frequency of preterm births as ambient particulate inhalation is known to adversely affect preterm birth occurrence.

  14. Earthquakes Sources Parameter Estimation of 20080917 and 20081114 Near Semangko Fault, Sumatra Using Three Components of Local Waveform Recorded by IA Network Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madlazim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The 17/09/2008 22:04:80 UTC and 14/11/2008 00:27:31.70 earthquakes near Semangko fault were analyzed to identify the fault planes. The two events were relocated to assess physical insight against the hypocenter uncertainty. The datas used to determine source parameters of both earthquakes were three components of local waveform recorded by Geofon broadband IA network stations, (MDSI, LWLI, BLSI and RBSI for the event of 17/09/2008 and (MDSI, LWLI, BLSI and KSI for the event of 14/11/2008. Distance from the epicenter to all station was less than 5°. Moment tensor solution of two events was simultaneously analyzed by determination of the centroid position. Simultaneous analysis covered hypocenter position, centroid position and nodal planes of two events indicated Semangko fault planes. Considering that the Semangko fault zone is a high seismicity area, the identification of the seismic fault is important for the seismic hazard investigation in the region.

  15. Make your company a talent factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready, Douglas A; Conger, Jay A

    2007-06-01

    Despite the great sums of money companies dedicate to talent management systems, many still struggle to fill key positions - limiting their potential for growth in the process. Virtually all the human resource executives in the authors' 2005 survey of 40 companies around the world said that their pipeline of high-potential employees was insufficient to fill strategic management roles. The survey revealed two primary reasons for this. First, the formal procedures for identifying and developing next-generation leaders have fallen out of sync with what companies need to grow or expand into new markets. To save money, for example, some firms have eliminated positions that would expose high-potential employees to a broad range of problems, thus sacrificing future development opportunities that would far outweigh any initial savings from the job cuts. Second, HR executives often have trouble keeping top leaders' attention on talent issues, despite those leaders' vigorous assertions that obtaining and keeping the best people is a major priority. If passion for that objective doesn't start at the top and infuse the culture, say the authors, talent management can easily deteriorate into the management of bureaucratic routines. Yet there are companies that can face the future with confidence. These firms don't just manage talent, they build talent factories. The authors describe the experiences of two such corporations - consumer products icon Procter & Gamble and financial services giant HSBC Group -that figured out how to develop and retain key employees and fill positions quickly to meet evolving business needs. Though each company approached talent management from a different direction, they both maintained a twin focus on functionality (rigorous talent processes that support strategic and cultural objectives) and vitality (management's emotional commitment, which is reflected in daily actions).

  16. Overview of the nearby supernova factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldering, Greg; Adam, Gilles; Antilogus, Pierre; Astier, Pierre; Bacon, Roland; Bongard, S.; Bonnaud, C.; Copin, Yannick; Hardin, D.; Howell, D. Andy; Lemmonnier, Jean-Pierre; Levy, J.-M.; Loken, S.; Nugent, Peter; Pain, Reynald; Pecontal, Arlette; Pecontal, Emmanuel; Perlmutter, Saul; Quimby, Robert; Schahmaneche, Kyan; Smadja, Gerard; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael

    2002-01-01

    The Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory) is an international experiment designed to lay the foundation for the next generation of cosmology experiments (such as CFHTLS, wP, SNAP and LSST) which will measure the expansion history of the Universe using Type Ia supernovae. The SNfactory will discover and obtain frequent lightcurve spectrophotometry covering 3200-10000 (angstrom) for roughly 300 Type Ia supernovae at the loW--redshift end of the smooth Hubble flow. The quantity, quality, breadth of galactic environments, and homogeneous nature of the SNfactory dataset will make it the premier source of calibration for the Type Ia supernova width-brightness relation and the intrinsic supernova colors used for K-correction and correction for extinction by host-galaxy dust. This dataset will also allow an extensive investigation of additional parameters which possibly influence the quality of Type Ia supernovae as cosmological probes. The SNfactory search capabilities and folloW--up instrumentation include wide-field CCD imagers on two 1.2-m telescopes (via collaboration with the Near Earth Asteroid Tracking team at JPL and the QUEST team at Yale), and a two-channel integral-field-unit optical spectrograph/imager being fabricated for the University of Hawaii 2.2-m telescope. In addition to ground-based folloW--up, UV spectra for a subsample of these supernovae will be obtained with HST. The pipeline to obtain, transfer via wireless and standard internet, and automatically process the search images is in operation. Software and hardware development is now underway to enable the execution of folloW--up spectroscopy of supernova candidates at the Hawaii 2.2-m telescope via automated remote control of the telescope and the IFU spectrograph/imager

  17. Sensitivity analysis of a parameterization of the stomatal component of the DO{sub 3}SE model for Quercus ilex to estimate ozone fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Rocio [Ecotoxicology of Air Pollution, CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: rocio.alonso@ciemat.es; Elvira, Susana [Ecotoxicology of Air Pollution, CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: susana.elvira@ciemat.es; Sanz, Maria J. [Fundacion CEAM, Charles Darwin 14, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: mjose@ceam.es; Gerosa, Giacomo [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, via Musei 41, 25121 Brescia (Italy)], E-mail: giacomo.gerosa@unicatt.it; Emberson, Lisa D. [Stockholm Environment Institute, University of York, York YO 10 5DD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: lde1@york.ac.uk; Bermejo, Victoria [Ecotoxicology of Air Pollution, CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: victoria.bermejo@ciemat.es; Gimeno, Benjamin S. [Ecotoxicology of Air Pollution, CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: benjamin.gimeno@ciemat.es

    2008-10-15

    A sensitivity analysis of a proposed parameterization of the stomatal conductance (g{sub s}) module of the European ozone deposition model (DO{sub 3}SE) for Quercus ilex was performed. The performance of the model was tested against measured g{sub s} in the field at three sites in Spain. The best fit of the model was found for those sites, or during those periods, facing no or mild stress conditions, but a worse performance was found under severe drought or temperature stress, mostly occurring at continental sites. The best performance was obtained when both f{sub phen} and f{sub SWP} were included. A local parameterization accounting for the lower temperatures recorded in winter and the higher water shortage at the continental sites resulted in a better performance of the model. The overall results indicate that two different parameterizations of the model are needed, one for marine-influenced sites and another one for continental sites. - No redundancy between phenological and water-related modifying functions was found when estimating stomatal behavior of Holm oak.

  18. Non-inductive components of electromagnetic signals associated with L'Aquila earthquake sequences estimated by means of inter-station impulse response functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Di Lorenzo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available On 6 April 2009 at 01:32:39 UT a strong earthquake occurred west of L'Aquila at the very shallow depth of 9 km. The main shock local magnitude was Ml = 5.8 (Mw = 6.3. Several powerful aftershocks occurred the following days. The epicentre of the main shock occurred 6 km away from the Geomagnetic Observatory of L'Aquila, on a fault 15 km long having a NW-SE strike, about 140°, and a SW dip of about 42°. For this reason, L'Aquila seismic events offered very favourable conditions to detect possible electromagnetic emissions related to the earthquake. The data used in this work come from the permanent geomagnetic Observatories of L'Aquila and Duronia. Here the results concerning the analysis of the residual magnetic field estimated by means of the inter-station impulse response functions in the frequency band from 0.3 Hz to 3 Hz are shown.

  19. Sensitivity analysis of a parameterization of the stomatal component of the DO3SE model for Quercus ilex to estimate ozone fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Rocio; Elvira, Susana; Sanz, Maria J.; Gerosa, Giacomo; Emberson, Lisa D.; Bermejo, Victoria; Gimeno, Benjamin S.

    2008-01-01

    A sensitivity analysis of a proposed parameterization of the stomatal conductance (g s ) module of the European ozone deposition model (DO 3 SE) for Quercus ilex was performed. The performance of the model was tested against measured g s in the field at three sites in Spain. The best fit of the model was found for those sites, or during those periods, facing no or mild stress conditions, but a worse performance was found under severe drought or temperature stress, mostly occurring at continental sites. The best performance was obtained when both f phen and f SWP were included. A local parameterization accounting for the lower temperatures recorded in winter and the higher water shortage at the continental sites resulted in a better performance of the model. The overall results indicate that two different parameterizations of the model are needed, one for marine-influenced sites and another one for continental sites. - No redundancy between phenological and water-related modifying functions was found when estimating stomatal behavior of Holm oak

  20. PEP-II: An asymmetric B factory. Conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    In this report, the authors have described an updated conceptual design for the high-luminosity Asymmetric B Factory (PEP-II) to be built in the PEP tunnel culmination of more than four years of effort aimed at the design and construction of an asymmetric e{sub +}e{sub {minus}} collider capable of achieving a luminosity of L = 3 {times} 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. All aspects of the conceptual design were scrutinized in March 1991 by a DOE technical review committee chaired by Dr. L. Edward Temple. The design was deemed feasible and capable of achieving its physics goals. Furthermore, the cost estimate, schedule, and management plan for the project were fully endorsed by the committee. This updated conceptual design report captures the technical progress since the March 1991 review and reflects the lower cost estimate corresponding to the improved design. Although the PEP-II design has continued to evolve, no technical scope changes have been made that invalidate the conclusion of the DOE review. The configuration adopted utilizes two storage rings, an electron ring operating at 9 GeV and a positron ring at 3.1 GeV, each with a circumference of 2200 m. The high-energy ring is an upgrade of the PEP storage ring at SLAC; all PEP magnets and most power supplies will be reused. The upgrade consists primarily of replacing the PEP vacuum chamber and RF system with newly designed versions optimized for the high-current environment of PEP-II. The low-energy ring will be newly constructed and will be situated atop the high-energy ring in the PEP tunnel. Utilities already installed in the PEP tunnel are largely sufficient to operate the two PEP-II storage rings.

  1. Spectro-photometric calibration of the SuperNova Integral Field Spectrograph in the Nearby Supernova Factory collaboration framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buton, Clement

    2009-01-01

    Ten years ago, type Ia supernovae used as distances indicators led to the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the universe. Today, a second generation of surveys has significantly increased the high-redshift type Ia supernovae sample. The low-redshift sample was however still limiting the cosmological analysis using SNe. In this framework, the Nearby Supernova Factory has followed 200 nearby type Ia supernovae using the dedicated Supernovae Integral Field Spectrograph with spectro-photometric capacities. My PhD thesis has been carried out at the Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon and at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in the framework of the international cosmological project SNfactory. In order to reach the design spectrophotometric accuracy, attention has been focused on several key aspects of the calibration procedure, including: determination of a dedicated point spread function for 3D point source extraction, estimating the nightly photometric quality, derivation of the nightly sky extinction over the extended optical domain, its modeling in terms of physical components and its variability within a given night. A full multi-standards calibration pipeline has been implemented using approximately 4000 observations of spectrophotometric standard stars taken throughout the night over nearly 500 individual nights. Preliminary scientific results of the whole SNfactory collaboration will be presented at the end of this thesis. (author)

  2. Estimating the unknown components of nutrient mass balances for forestry plantations in mine rehabilitation, upper Hunter Valley, New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercuri, A M; Duggin, J A; Daniel, H; Lockwood, P V; Grant, C D

    2006-04-01

    Commercial forestry plantations as a postmining land use in the Upper Hunter Valley of New South Wales, Australia are restricted by both the poor nutrient availability of mining substrates and low regional rainfall. An experiment was conducted to investigate whether municipal waste products and saline groundwater from coal mining operations could improve early tree growth without impacting on the environment through salt accumulation and/or nutrient enrichment and changes in groundwater quality. Potential impacts were investigated by quantifying the nutrient cycling dynamics within the plantation using an input-output mass balance approach for exchangeable calcium (Ca(2+)), exchangeable magnesium (Mg(2+)), exchangeable potassium (K(+)), exchangeable sodium (Na(+)), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P). Measured inputs to and outputs from the available nutrient pool in the 0-30 cm of the overburden subsystem were used to estimate the net effect of unmeasured inputs and outputs (termed "residuals"). Residual values in the mass balance of the irrigated treatments demonstrated large leaching losses of exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, and Na. Between 96% and 103% of Na applied in saline mine-water irrigation was leached below the 0-30-cm soil profile zone. The fate of these salts beyond 30 cm is unknown, but results suggest that irrigation with saline mine water had minimal impact on the substrate to 30 cm over the first 2 years since plantation establishment. Accumulations of N and P were detected for the substrate amendments, suggesting that organic amendments (particularly compost) retained the applied nutrients with very little associated losses, particularly through leaching.

  3. Noise Reduction, Atmospheric Pressure Admittance Estimation and Long-Period Component Extraction in Time-Varying Gravity Signals Using Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linsong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Time-varying gravity signals, with their nonlinear, non-stationary and multi-scale characteristics, record the physical responses of various geodynamic processes and consist of a blend of signals with various periods and amplitudes, corresponding to numerous phenomena. Superconducting gravimeter (SG records are processed in this study using a multi-scale analytical method and corrected for known effects to reduce noise, to study geodynamic phenomena using their gravimetric signatures. Continuous SG (GWR-C032 gravity and barometric data are decomposed into a series of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs using the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD method, which is proposed to alleviate some unresolved issues (the mode mixing problem and the end effect of the empirical mode decomposition (EMD. Further analysis of the variously scaled signals is based on a dyadic filter bank of the IMFs. The results indicate that removing the high-frequency IMFs can reduce the natural and man-made noise in the data, which are caused by electronic device noise, Earth background noise and the residual effects of pre-processing. The atmospheric admittances based on frequency changes are estimated from the gravity and the atmospheric pressure IMFs in various frequency bands. These time- and frequency-dependent admittance values can be used effectively to improve the atmospheric correction. Using the EEMD method as a filter, the long-period IMFs are extracted from the SG time-varying gravity signals spanning 7 years. The resulting gravity residuals are well correlated with the gravity effect caused by the _ polar motion after correcting for atmospheric effects.

  4. Training Workers for the Factory of the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, J. Anthony

    1989-01-01

    In the factory of the future, emphasis on quality and increased productivity creates a competitive advantage. People and computers work together in all major activities. Training is a major factor in creating that competitive advantage. (JOW)

  5. PARTICLE FACTORIES: Tau-charm in the spotlight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1991-07-15

    Following earlier workshops in Stanford (1989) and in Orsay (1990), some hundred physicists from Europe and the United States met from 29 April to 2 May in Seville, Spain, to consolidate plans for a Tau-Charm Factory.

  6. Measurement of CP violation at a Neutrino Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez-Cadenas, J J

    2001-01-01

    The prospects of measuring CP violation in the leptonic sector using the intense neutrino beams arising from muon decay in the straight sections of a muon accumulator ring (the so-called neutrino factory) are discussed.

  7. PARTICLE FACTORIES: Tau-charm in the spotlight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Following earlier workshops in Stanford (1989) and in Orsay (1990), some hundred physicists from Europe and the United States met from 29 April to 2 May in Seville, Spain, to consolidate plans for a Tau-Charm Factory

  8. Fluorine in plants in the areas of Yugoslav aluminum factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivos, J.; Ciszek, H.; Rezek, A.; Marjanovic, L.

    1970-01-01

    Distribution of fluorine in the areas around aluminum production facilities was investigated. The plants in areas around the factories did indeed show increased levels of fluorine. Distribution patterns were found to be affected by wind and precipitation patterns.

  9. Architectural design of experience based factory model for software ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    architectural design. Automation features are incorporated in the design in which workflow system and intelligent agents are integrated, and the facilitation of cloud environment is empowered to further support the automation. Keywords: architectural design; knowledge management; experience factory; workflow;

  10. High concentrations of heavy metals in PM from ceramic factories of Southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez de la Campa, Ana M.; de la Rosa, Jesús D.; González-Castanedo, Yolanda; Fernández-Camacho, Rocío; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier; Pio, Casimiro

    2010-06-01

    In this study, physicochemical characterization of Atmospheric Particulate Matter (PM) was performed in an urban-industrial site background (Bailén, Southern Spain), highly influenced by the impact of emission plumes from ceramic factories. This area is considered one of the towns with the highest PM 10 levels and average SO 2 concentration in Spain. A three stages methodology was used: 1) real-time measurements of levels of PM 10 and gaseous pollutants, and sampling of PM; 2) chemical characterization using ICP-MS, ICP-OES, CI and TOT, and source apportionment analysis (receptor modelling) of PM; and 3) chemical characterization of emission plumes derived from representative factories. High ambient air concentrations were found for most major components and trace elements compared with other industrialized towns in Spain. V and Ni are considered fingerprints of PM derived from the emissions of brick factories in this area, and were shown to be of particular interest. This highlights the high V and Ni concentrations in PM 10 (122 ngV/m 3 and 23.4 ngNi/m 3), with Ni exceeding the 2013 annual target value for the European Directive 2004/107/EC (20 ng/m 3). The methodology of this work can be used by Government departments responsible for Environment and Epidemiology in planning control strategies for improving air quality.

  11. Mainz/PSI φ-factory design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streun, A.

    1991-01-01

    Design considerations for a φ-factory with a Luminosity of the order of 10 33 cm -2 s -1 lead to the concept of a multi-bunch round beam double storage ring with superconducting solenoids for micro-beta focusing and beam rotation. Simulations of the beam-beam-interaction indicate, that significantly higher beam-beam-parameters may become possible with round beams. A rough draft design of a round beam φ-factory is presented. (orig.)

  12. Synchronous method and engineering tool for the strategic factory planning

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Rahman, O.; Jaeger, J.; Constantinescu, C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the approach to combine two reference methods and engineering tools, for "Factory Performance and Investment Planning«as well as "Value Added Ideal Production Network Planning". The resulted synchronous method aims to support factories in the strategic planning as well as in the network planning. The corresponding engineering tool is employed for assessment planning, sales planning, capacity planning and production costs planning under the consideration of dynamic and stoc...

  13. Russian factory inspection (1882-1918): cui bono?

    OpenAIRE

    Volodin , Andrei Y.

    2008-01-01

    This study deals with history of important state institution in late Russian Empire - factory inspection. Such aspects of institutional development as evolution of legislative regulations, growth of staff, and complication of functions (and particularly, mediation in labour conflicts) are scrutinized. This paper presents some results on Russian experience of labour law implementation seeking to determine and evaluate the role and efficiency of Russian factory inspectors in conflicting triangl...

  14. Development of Rotational Smart Lighting Control System for Plant Factory

    OpenAIRE

    Won-Sub Lee; Sung-Gaun Kim

    2012-01-01

    Rotational Smart Lighting Control System can supply the quantity of lighting which is required to run plants by rotating few LED and Fluorescent instead of that are used in the existing plant factories.The initial installation of the existing plants factory is expensive, so in order to solve the problem with smart lighting control system was developed. The beam required intensity for the growth of crops, Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density(PPFD)is calculated; and the numbe...

  15. Factorial moment and fractal analysis of γ families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalmakhelidze, M.Eh.; Roinishvili, N.N.; Svanidze, M.S.; Khizanishvili, L.A.; Chadranyan, L.Kh.

    1997-01-01

    Factorial and fractal methods were applied to nuclear-electromagnetic cascades in the atmosphere (γ families) to find sensitivity of these methods to multiparticle fluctuations in γ families. Averaged parameters of factorial and fractal methods of the real families were compared with the same quantities for the statistical set of random families. The correlations between the same parameters for families divided into sectors and into rings are studied. The correlations between different parameters for the same families divided into sectors are investigated

  16. Virtual Factory Framework for Supporting Production Planning and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibira, Deogratias; Shao, Guodong

    2017-01-01

    Developing optimal production plans for smart manufacturing systems is challenging because shop floor events change dynamically. A virtual factory incorporating engineering tools, simulation, and optimization generates and communicates performance data to guide wise decision making for different control levels. This paper describes such a platform specifically for production planning. We also discuss verification and validation of the constituent models. A case study of a machine shop is used to demonstrate data generation for production planning in a virtual factory.

  17. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  18. INDOOR THERMAL CONDITION OF FACTORY BUILDING IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Abdullah Al Sayem Khan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is a developing country and has a lot of factories for different products for local use and also export to abroad. Garments industries are one of the top most items of exported items. A huge number of populations are working in garments industries. But these factories are not well designed in sense of the thermal environment. Workers experiences sickness related to indoor environment. The productions of these factories are affected due to employees’ health condition. The research is done in two different methods. One is empirical data collection using thermal data loggers and the other is questionnaire survey on the spots for three factory buildings. The field study was conducted in four different months of the same year during winter and summer period. Expected findings of this research are that the indoor environment is not comfortable for works at day time during summer season. This research will help the factory workers in providing a comfortable thermal environment and also help the employers or factory owners to increase their production margin.

  19. Black hole as a wormhole factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Won Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There have been lots of debates about the final fate of an evaporating black hole and the singularity hidden by an event horizon in quantum gravity. However, on general grounds, one may argue that a black hole stops radiation at the Planck mass (ħc/G1/2∼10−5 g, where the radiated energy is comparable to the black hole's mass. And also, it has been argued that there would be a wormhole-like structure, known as “spacetime foam”, due to large fluctuations below the Planck length (ħG/c31/2∼10−33 cm. In this paper, as an explicit example, we consider an exact classical solution which represents nicely those two properties in a recently proposed quantum gravity model based on different scaling dimensions between space and time coordinates. The solution, called “Black Wormhole”, consists of two different states, depending on its mass parameter M and an IR parameter ω: For the black hole state (with ωM2>1/2, a non-traversable wormhole occupies the interior region of the black hole around the singularity at the origin, whereas for the wormhole state (with ωM2<1/2, the interior wormhole is exposed to an outside observer as the black hole horizon is disappearing from evaporation. The black hole state becomes thermodynamically stable as it approaches the merging point where the interior wormhole throat and the black hole horizon merges, and the Hawking temperature vanishes at the exact merge point (with ωM2=1/2. This solution suggests the “Generalized Cosmic Censorship” by the existence of a wormhole-like structure which protects the naked singularity even after the black hole evaporation. One could understand the would-be wormhole inside the black hole horizon as the result of microscopic wormholes created by “negative” energy quanta which have entered the black hole horizon in Hawking radiation process; the quantum black hole could be a wormhole factory! It is found that this speculative picture may be consistent with the

  20. Insulin-like growth factor-I, physical activity, and control of cellular anabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nindl, Bradley C

    2010-01-01

    The underlying mechanisms responsible for mediating the beneficial outcomes of exercise undoubtedly are many, but the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) system is emerging as an important and central hormonal axis that plays a significant role concerning cellular anabolism. This introductory article summarizes the intent and the content for papers presented as part of a 2008 American College of Sports Medicine national symposium entitled "Insulin-like Growth Factor-I, Physical Activity, and Control of Cellular Anabolism." The individual authors and their papers are as follows: Jan Frystyk authoring "The relationship between exercise and the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I axis," Greg Adams authoring "IGF-I signaling in skeletal muscle and the potential for cytokine interactions," and Brad Nindl authoring "Insulin-like growth factor-I as a biomarker of health, fitness, and training status." These papers focus on 1) different assay methodologies for IGF-I within the paradigm of exercise studies, 2) research demonstrating that intracellular signaling components associated with several proinflammatory cytokines have the potential to interact with anabolic signaling processes in skeletal muscle, and 3) an overview of IGF-I as a biomarker related to exercise training, muscle and bone remodeling, body composition, cognition, and cancer. When summed in total, the contribution that these papers will make will undoubtedly involve bringing attention to the vast regulatory complexity of the IGF-I system and will hopefully convince the reader that the IGF-I system warrants further detailed scientific inquiry to resolve many unanswered questions and paradoxical experimental findings. The IGF-I system remains one of the most intriguing and captivating marvels of human physiology that seems central in mediating numerous adaptations from physical activity.