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Sample records for factors-a case-cohort study

  1. Oral clefts and life style factors - a case-cohort study based on prospective Danish data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Camilla; Olsen, Jørn; Vach, Werner

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the association between oral clefts and first trimester maternal lifestyle factors based on prospective data from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The cohort includes approximately 100,000 pregnancies. In total 192 mothers gave birth to child with an oral cleft during 1997......-2003. Information on risk factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, tea, coffee, cola, and food supplements was obtained during pregnancy for these and 828 randomly selected controls. We found that first trimester maternal smoking was associated with an increased risk of oral clefts (odds ratio (OR): 1.50; 95...

  2. A Review of Published Analyses of Case-Cohort Studies and Recommendations for Future Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Stephen J.; Poulaliou, Manon; Thompson, Simon G.; White, Ian R.; Wood, Angela M.

    2014-01-01

    The case-cohort study design combines the advantages of a cohort study with the efficiency of a nested case-control study. However, unlike more standard observational study designs, there are currently no guidelines for reporting results from case-cohort studies. Our aim was to review recent practice in reporting these studies, and develop recommendations for the future. By searching papers published in 24 major medical and epidemiological journals between January 2010 and March 2013 using PubMed, Scopus and Web of Knowledge, we identified 32 papers reporting case-cohort studies. The median subcohort sampling fraction was 4.1% (interquartile range 3.7% to 9.1%). The papers varied in their approaches to describing the numbers of individuals in the original cohort and the subcohort, presenting descriptive data, and in the level of detail provided about the statistical methods used, so it was not always possible to be sure that appropriate analyses had been conducted. Based on the findings of our review, we make recommendations about reporting of the study design, subcohort definition, numbers of participants, descriptive information and statistical methods, which could be used alongside existing STROBE guidelines for reporting observational studies. PMID:24972092

  3. A review of published analyses of case-cohort studies and recommendations for future reporting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Sharp

    Full Text Available The case-cohort study design combines the advantages of a cohort study with the efficiency of a nested case-control study. However, unlike more standard observational study designs, there are currently no guidelines for reporting results from case-cohort studies. Our aim was to review recent practice in reporting these studies, and develop recommendations for the future. By searching papers published in 24 major medical and epidemiological journals between January 2010 and March 2013 using PubMed, Scopus and Web of Knowledge, we identified 32 papers reporting case-cohort studies. The median subcohort sampling fraction was 4.1% (interquartile range 3.7% to 9.1%. The papers varied in their approaches to describing the numbers of individuals in the original cohort and the subcohort, presenting descriptive data, and in the level of detail provided about the statistical methods used, so it was not always possible to be sure that appropriate analyses had been conducted. Based on the findings of our review, we make recommendations about reporting of the study design, subcohort definition, numbers of participants, descriptive information and statistical methods, which could be used alongside existing STROBE guidelines for reporting observational studies.

  4. Stratification for smoking in case-cohort studies of genetic polymorphisms and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; López, Ana García; Andersen, Per Kragh;

    2009-01-01

    The risk estimates obtained in studies of genetic polymorphisms and lung cancer differ markedly between studies, which might be due to chance or differences in study design, in particular the stratification/match of comparison group. The effect of different strategies for stratification...... and adjustment for smoking on the estimated effect of polymorphisms on lung cancer risk was explored in the case-cohort design. We used an empirical and a statistical simulation approach. The stratification strategies were: no smoking stratification, stratification for smoking status and stratification...... with smoking. In the empirical approach the risk estimates of the investigated polymorphisms differed between the three different stratification strategies. Simulated data with neither stratification nor adjustment for smoking resulted in low biases and narrow confidence intervals (CI) in the absence...

  5. Kernel machine testing for risk prediction with stratified case cohort studies.

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    Payne, Rebecca; Neykov, Matey; Jensen, Majken Karoline; Cai, Tianxi

    2016-06-01

    Large assembled cohorts with banked biospecimens offer valuable opportunities to identify novel markers for risk prediction. When the outcome of interest is rare, an effective strategy to conserve limited biological resources while maintaining reasonable statistical power is the case cohort (CCH) sampling design, in which expensive markers are measured on a subset of cases and controls. However, the CCH design introduces significant analytical complexity due to outcome-dependent, finite-population sampling. Current methods for analyzing CCH studies focus primarily on the estimation of simple survival models with linear effects; testing and estimation procedures that can efficiently capture complex non-linear marker effects for CCH data remain elusive. In this article, we propose inverse probability weighted (IPW) variance component type tests for identifying important marker sets through a Cox proportional hazards kernel machine (CoxKM) regression framework previously considered for full cohort studies (Cai et al., 2011). The optimal choice of kernel, while vitally important to attain high power, is typically unknown for a given dataset. Thus, we also develop robust testing procedures that adaptively combine information from multiple kernels. The proposed IPW test statistics have complex null distributions that cannot easily be approximated explicitly. Furthermore, due to the correlation induced by CCH sampling, standard resampling methods such as the bootstrap fail to approximate the distribution correctly. We, therefore, propose a novel perturbation resampling scheme that can effectively recover the induced correlation structure. Results from extensive simulation studies suggest that the proposed IPW CoxKM testing procedures work well in finite samples. The proposed methods are further illustrated by application to a Danish CCH study of Apolipoprotein C-III markers on the risk of coronary heart disease. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.

  6. Cognitive Functional Therapy for Disabling Nonspecific Chronic Low Back Pain: Multiple Case-Cohort Study.

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    O'Sullivan, Kieran; Dankaerts, Wim; O'Sullivan, Leonard; O'Sullivan, Peter B

    2015-11-01

    Multiple dimensions across the biopsychosocial spectrum are relevant in the management of nonspecific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP). Cognitive functional therapy is a behaviorally targeted intervention that combines normalization of movement and abolition of pain behaviors with cognitive reconceptualization of the NSCLBP problem while targeting psychosocial and lifestyle barriers to recovery. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of cognitive functional therapy for people with disabling NSCLBP who were awaiting an appointment with a specialist medical consultant. A multiple case-cohort study (n=26) consisting of 3 phases (A1-B-A2) was conducted. Measurement phase A1 was a baseline phase during which measurements of pain and functional disability were collected on 3 occasions over 3 months for all participants. During phase B, participants entered a cognitive functional therapy intervention program involving approximately 8 treatments over an average of 12 weeks. Finally, phase A2 was a 12-month, no-treatment follow-up period. Outcomes were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance or Friedman test (with post hoc Bonferroni correction) across 7 time intervals, depending on normality of data distribution. Statistically significant reductions in both functional disability and pain were observed immediately postintervention and were maintained over the 12-month follow-up period. These reductions reached clinical significance for both disability and pain. Secondary psychosocial outcomes, including depression, anxiety, back beliefs, fear of physical activity, catastrophizing, and self-efficacy, were significantly improved after the intervention. The study was not a randomized controlled trial. Although primary outcome data were self-reported, the assessor was not blinded. These promising results suggest that cognitive functional therapy should be compared with other conservative interventions for the management of disabling NSCLBP in

  7. Economic status, smoking, occupational exposure to rubber, and lung cancer: a case-cohort study.

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    Li, Ke; Yu, Shunzhang

    2002-05-01

    Recent studies tend consistently to confirm the presence of a moderate excess risk of lung cancer in the rubber industry. However, the agent responsible for the excess of lung cancer is still obscure. Also, analyses without regard to the modifying effects of sex, economic status, and smoking habit are less than satisfactory. To explore these questions, we have conducted a case-cohort study using the data of 51 lung cancer deaths in 1973-1997 and a random sample (sub-cohort) of 188 from among 1598 subjects in a rubber factory in Shanghai, China. We computed the risks of lung cancer by economic status, smoking habit, coal fumes in home, and year of first employment. We assessed lung cancer risks for occupational exposures, unadjusted and adjusted for economic status and smoking. After confounding effects of smoking and economic status were controlled, we found that rate ratios were 1.43 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.43-4.69), 1.79 (95% CI 0.64-5.03), and 3.76 (95% CI 1.44-9.86) for 1-14, 15-29, and 30-45 exposure-years in curing department, respectively. The data showed significant trends in increased risk of lung cancer with duration of exposure in tire-curing department (score test for trend:, P = 0.004). However, in front rubber processing (weighing and mixing, calendering, extruding, and milling), no significant excess risk of lung cancer was found. If it can be confirmed that nitrosamines are mainly generated in back rubber processing (curing and vulcanizing), it would be reasonable to conclude that excess risk of lung cancer in rubber industry is attributable, at least partially, to exposure to nitrosamines.

  8. A shared frailty model for case-cohort samples: parent and offspring relations in an adoption study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Liselotte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2010-01-01

    of their biological and adoptive parents were collected with the purpose of studying the association of survival between the adoptee and his/her biological or adoptive parents. Motivated by this study, we explored how to make inference in a shared frailty model for case-cohort data. Our approach was to use inverse......The Danish adoption register contains data on the 12 301 Danish nonfamilial adoptions during 1924-1947. From that register a case-cohort sample was selected consisting of all case adoptees, that is those adoptees dying before age 70 years, and a random sample of 1683 adoptees. The survival data...... probability weighting to account for the sampling in a conditional, shared frailty Poisson model and to use the robust variance estimator proposed by Moger et al. (Statist. Med. 2008; 27:1062-1074).To explore the performance of the estimation procedure, a simulation study was conducted. We studied situations...

  9. Using full-cohort data in nested case-control and case-cohort studies by multiple imputation.

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    Keogh, Ruth H; White, Ian R

    2013-10-15

    In many large prospective cohorts, expensive exposure measurements cannot be obtained for all individuals. Exposure-disease association studies are therefore often based on nested case-control or case-cohort studies in which complete information is obtained only for sampled individuals. However, in the full cohort, there may be a large amount of information on cheaply available covariates and possibly a surrogate of the main exposure(s), which typically goes unused. We view the nested case-control or case-cohort study plus the remainder of the cohort as a full-cohort study with missing data. Hence, we propose using multiple imputation (MI) to utilise information in the full cohort when data from the sub-studies are analysed. We use the fully observed data to fit the imputation models. We consider using approximate imputation models and also using rejection sampling to draw imputed values from the true distribution of the missing values given the observed data. Simulation studies show that using MI to utilise full-cohort information in the analysis of nested case-control and case-cohort studies can result in important gains in efficiency, particularly when a surrogate of the main exposure is available in the full cohort. In simulations, this method outperforms counter-matching in nested case-control studies and a weighted analysis for case-cohort studies, both of which use some full-cohort information. Approximate imputation models perform well except when there are interactions or non-linear terms in the outcome model, where imputation using rejection sampling works well. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Incidence of non-lung solid cancers in Czech uranium miners: A case-cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulich, M., E-mail: kulich@karlin.mff.cuni.cz [Department of Statistics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Sokolovska 83, CZ-186 75 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Rericha, V. [Regional Hospital Pribram (Czech Republic); Rericha, R. [Center of Epidemiological Studies, Pribram (Czech Republic); Shore, D.L. [Westat, Inc., Durham, NC (United States); Sandler, D.P. [Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, DHHS, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Objectives: Uranium miners are chronically exposed to radon and its progeny, which are known to cause lung cancer and may be associated with leukemia. This study was undertaken to evaluate risk of non-lung solid cancers among uranium miners in Pribram region, Czech Republic. Methods: A retrospective stratified case-cohort study in a cohort of 22,816 underground miners who were employed between 1949 and 1975. All incident non-lung solid cancers were ascertained among miners who worked underground for at least 12 months (n=1020). A subcohort of 1707 subjects was randomly drawn from the same population by random sampling stratified on age. The follow-up period lasted from 1977 to 1996. Results: Relative risks comparing 180 WLM (90th percentile) of cumulative lifetime radon exposure to 3 WLM (10th percentile) were 0.88 for all non-lung solid cancers combined (95% CI 0.73-1.04, n=1020), 0.87 for all digestive cancers (95% CI 0.69-1.09, n=561), 2.39 for gallbladder cancer (95% CI 0.52-10.98, n=13), 0.79 for larynx cancer (95% CI 0.38-1.64, n=62), 2.92 for malignant melanoma (95% CI 0.91-9.42, n=23), 0.84 for bladder cancer (95% CI 0.43-1.65, n=73), and 1.13 for kidney cancer (95% CI 0.62-2.04, n=66). No cancer type was significantly associated with radon exposure; only malignant melanoma and gallbladder cancer showed elevated but non-significant association with radon. Conclusions: Radon was not significantly associated with incidence of any cancer of interest, although a positive association of radon with malignant melanoma and gallbladder cancer cannot be entirely ruled out. - Research highlights: {yields} Uranium miners are chronically exposed to radon. {yields} We evaluate risk of non-lung solid cancers among uranium miners. {yields} No cancer type was significantly associated with radon exposure. {yields} Malignant melanoma and gallbladder cancer showed non-significant elevated risk.

  11. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in IL1B and the Risk of Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Danish Case-Cohort Study

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    Stegger, Jakob Gerhard; Schmidt, Erik Berg; Tjonneland, Anne;

    2012-01-01

    Background: Interleukin-1B (IL-1B) is a key pro-inflammatory cytokine that has been associated with the development of atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction. However, the prospective associations between functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL1B and incident acute coronary...... and 234 women). All cases were validated by review of medical records, and information on covariates was collected by study technicians. The study was conducted according to a case-cohort study design including ACS cases and a sex-stratified sub cohort of 1663 participants drawn randomly from the entire...... IL1B haplotypes and risk factors, respectively. Conclusions/Significance: Genetic variation in the promoter region of IL1B may not be associated with incident ACS in men or women above the age of 50 years....

  12. Early life risk factors for testicular cancer: a case-cohort study based on the Copenhagen School Health Records Register.

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    Piltoft, Johanne Spanggaard; Larsen, Signe Benzon; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Johansen, Christoffer; Baker, Jennifer L; Cederkvist, Luise; Andersen, Ingelise

    2017-02-01

    One established risk factors for testicular cancer is cryptorchidism. However, it remains unclear whether cryptorchidism is a risk factor in itself or whether the two conditions share common causes in early life (estrogen hypothesis), such as birth weight and birth order. The objective of this study is to utilize data from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register (CSHRR) to evaluate cryptorchidism, birth weight and birth order as risk factors for testicular cancer. The study population consisted of 408 cases of testicular cancer identified by a government issued identification number linkage of the entire CSHRR with the Danish Cancer Registry and a random subsample of 4819 males from the CSHRR. The study design was case-cohort and the period of follow-up between 2 April 1968 and 31 December 2003. Cryptorchidism was significantly associated with testicular cancer in crude analyses [hazard ratio (HR) = 3.60, 95% CI 2.79-4.65]. Birth weight was inversely associated with testicular cancer and no clear association with birth order was observed. The positive association between cryptorchidism and testicular cancer was only slightly attenuated controlling for birth weight and birth order and stratified on birth cohort (HR = 3.46, 95% CI 2.67-4.48). This study confirmed the robustness of the association between cryptorchidism and testicular cancer even after adjustment for birth weight and birth order. Furthermore, the study showed an inverse association between birth weight and testicular cancer.

  13. Tea consumption and incidence of type 2 diabetes in Europe: the EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study.

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    Geertruida J van Woudenbergh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In previous meta-analyses, tea consumption has been associated with lower incidence of type 2 diabetes. It is unclear, however, if tea is associated inversely over the entire range of intake. Therefore, we investigated the association between tea consumption and incidence of type 2 diabetes in a European population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study was conducted in 26 centers in 8 European countries and consists of a total of 12,403 incident type 2 diabetes cases and a stratified subcohort of 16,835 individuals from a total cohort of 340,234 participants with 3.99 million person-years of follow-up. Country-specific Hazard Ratios (HR for incidence of type 2 diabetes were obtained after adjustment for lifestyle and dietary factors using a Cox regression adapted for a case-cohort design. Subsequently, country-specific HR were combined using a random effects meta-analysis. Tea consumption was studied as categorical variable (0, >0-<1, 1-<4, ≥ 4 cups/day. The dose-response of the association was further explored by restricted cubic spline regression. Country specific medians of tea consumption ranged from 0 cups/day in Spain to 4 cups/day in United Kingdom. Tea consumption was associated inversely with incidence of type 2 diabetes; the HR was 0.84 [95%CI 0.71, 1.00] when participants who drank ≥ 4 cups of tea per day were compared with non-drinkers (p(linear trend = 0.04. Incidence of type 2 diabetes already tended to be lower with tea consumption of 1-<4 cups/day (HR = 0.93 [95%CI 0.81, 1.05]. Spline regression did not suggest a non-linear association (p(non-linearity = 0.20. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A linear inverse association was observed between tea consumption and incidence of type 2 diabetes. People who drink at least 4 cups of tea per day may have a 16% lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes than non-tea drinkers.

  14. Lactate and risk of incident diabetes in a case-cohort of the atherosclerosis risk in communities (ARIC study.

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    Stephen P Juraschek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oxidative capacity is decreased in type 2 diabetes. Whether decreased oxidative capacity is a cause or consequence of diabetes is unknown. Our purpose is to evaluate whether lactate, a marker of oxidative capacity, is associated with incident diabetes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a case-cohort study in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study at year 9 of follow-up. We evaluated lactate's association with diabetes risk factors at baseline and estimated the hazard ratio for incident diabetes by quartiles of plasma lactate in 544 incident diabetic cases and 533 non-cases. Plasma lactate showed a graded positive relationship with fasting glucose and insulin (P<0.001. The relative hazard for incident diabetes increased across lactate quartiles (P-trend ≤0.001. Following adjustment for demographic factors, medical history, physical activity, adiposity, and serum lipids, the hazard ratio in the highest quartile was 2.05 times the hazard in the lowest quartile (95% CI: 1.28, 3.28. After including fasting glucose and insulin the association became non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: Lactate, an indicator of oxidative capacity, predicts incident diabetes independent of many other risk factors and is strongly related to markers of insulin resistance. Future studies should evaluate the temporal relationship between elevated lactate and impaired fasting glucose and insulin resistance.

  15. Plasma enterolactone and incidence of endometrial cancer in a case-cohort study of Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Julie; Kyrø, Cecilie; Knudsen, Knud E B;

    2013-01-01

    in the 'Diet, Cancer and Health' cohort. The cohort study included 29 875 women aged 50-64 years enrolled between 1993 and 1997. Information on diet and lifestyle was provided by self-administrated questionnaires and blood was drawn from each participant. Time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay was used......-significant lower risk of endometrial cancer (IRR 0·93, 95 % CI 0·84, 1·04). When excluding women with low enterolactone concentrations (quartile 1) due to potential recent antibiotic use, the association became slightly stronger, but remained non-significant (IRR 0·90, 95 % CI 0·79, 1·02). Menopausal status...

  16. Gene-lifestyle interaction and type 2 diabetes: the EPIC interact case-cohort study.

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    Claudia Langenberg

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding of the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes (T2D has progressed rapidly, but the interactions between common genetic variants and lifestyle risk factors have not been systematically investigated in studies with adequate statistical power. Therefore, we aimed to quantify the combined effects of genetic and lifestyle factors on risk of T2D in order to inform strategies for prevention. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The InterAct study includes 12,403 incident T2D cases and a representative sub-cohort of 16,154 individuals from a cohort of 340,234 European participants with 3.99 million person-years of follow-up. We studied the combined effects of an additive genetic T2D risk score and modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors using Prentice-weighted Cox regression and random effects meta-analysis methods. The effect of the genetic score was significantly greater in younger individuals (p for interaction  = 1.20×10-4. Relative genetic risk (per standard deviation [4.4 risk alleles] was also larger in participants who were leaner, both in terms of body mass index (p for interaction  = 1.50×10-3 and waist circumference (p for interaction  = 7.49×10-9. Examination of absolute risks by strata showed the importance of obesity for T2D risk. The 10-y cumulative incidence of T2D rose from 0.25% to 0.89% across extreme quartiles of the genetic score in normal weight individuals, compared to 4.22% to 7.99% in obese individuals. We detected no significant interactions between the genetic score and sex, diabetes family history, physical activity, or dietary habits assessed by a Mediterranean diet score. CONCLUSIONS: The relative effect of a T2D genetic risk score is greater in younger and leaner participants. However, this sub-group is at low absolute risk and would not be a logical target for preventive interventions. The high absolute risk associated with obesity at any level of genetic risk highlights the importance of universal

  17. Cardiac-surgery associated acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy. A Spanish retrospective case-cohort study

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    Garcia-Fernandez Nuria

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute kidney injury is among the most serious complications after cardiac surgery and is associated with an impaired outcome. Multiple factors may concur in the development of this disease. Moreover, severe renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT presents a high mortality rate. Consequently, we studied a Spanish cohort of patients to assess the risk factors for RRT in cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI. Methods A retrospective case-cohort study in 24 Spanish hospitals. All cases of RRT after cardiac surgery in 2007 were matched in a crude ratio of 1:4 consecutive patients based on age, sex, treated in the same year, at the same hospital and by the same group of surgeons. Results We analyzed the data from 864 patients enrolled in 2007. In multivariate analysis, severe acute kidney injury requiring postoperative RRT was significantly associated with the following variables: lower glomerular filtration rates, less basal haemoglobin, lower left ventricular ejection fraction, diabetes, prior diuretic treatment, urgent surgery, longer aortic cross clamp times, intraoperative administration of aprotinin, and increased number of packed red blood cells (PRBC transfused. When we conducted a propensity analysis using best-matched of 137 available pairs of patients, prior diuretic treatment, longer aortic cross clamp times and number of PRBC transfused were significantly associated with CSA-AKI. Patients requiring RRT needed longer hospital stays, and suffered higher mortality rates. Conclusion Cardiac-surgery associated acute kidney injury requiring RRT is associated with worse outcomes. For this reason, modifiable risk factors should be optimised and higher risk patients for acute kidney injury should be identified before undertaking cardiac surgery.

  18. Metabolic Syndrome and Breast Cancer Risk: A Case-Cohort Study Nested in a Multicentre Italian Cohort

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    Agnoli, Claudia; Grioni, Sara; Sieri, Sabina; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Ricceri, Fulvio; Tumino, Rosario; Frasca, Graziella; Pala, Valeria; Mattiello, Amalia; Chiodini, Paolo; Iacoviello, Licia; De Curtis, Amalia; Panico, Salvatore; Krogh, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome (defined as at least three among abdominal obesity, high blood triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high blood glucose, and high blood pressure) is emerging as a risk factor for breast cancer; however few studies – most confined to postmenopausal women – have investigated associations between breast cancer risk and metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between metabolic syndrome and its components, and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal and premenopausal women. Methods We performed a case-cohort study on 22,494 women recruited in 1993-1998 to four Italian centres (Turin, Varese, Naples, Ragusa) of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and followed-up for up to 15 years. A random subcohort of 565 women was obtained and 593 breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusted for potential confounders, were estimated by Prentice-weighted Cox proportional hazards models. Results Presence of metabolic syndrome was associated with significantly increased breast cancer risk in all women (HR 1.52, 95%CI 1.14-2.02). When the analyses were repeated separately for menopausal status, the association was limited to postmenopausal women (HR 1.80, 95%CI 1.22-2.65) and absent in premenopausal women (HR 0.71, 95%CI 0.43-1.16); P for interaction between metabolic syndrome and menopausal status was 0.001. Of metabolic syndrome components, only high blood glucose was significantly associated with increased breast cancer risk in all women (HR 1.47, 95%CI 1.13-1.91) and postmenopausal women (HR 1.89, 95%CI 1.29-2.77), but not premenopausal women (HR 0.80, 95%CI 0.52-1.22; P interaction=0.004). Conclusions These findings support previous data indicating that metabolic syndrome is an important risk factor for breast cancer in postmenopausal women, but not in premenopausal women, and suggest that prevention of

  19. Polymorphisms in NFKB1 and TLR4 and Interaction with Dietary and Life Style Factors in Relation to Colorectal Cancer in a Danish Prospective Case-Cohort Study

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    Kopp, Tine Iskov; Andersen, Vibeke; Tjoøneland, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance of a balance between commensal bacteria and the mucosal immune system is crucial and intestinal dysbiosis may be a key event in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). The toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an important pattern-recognition receptor that regulates inflammation...... and barrier function in the gut by a mechanism that involves activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) transcription factor. Dietary and life style factors may impact these functions. We therefore used a Danish prospective case-cohort study of 1010 CRC cases and 1829 randomly selected participants...

  20. Risk of lymphoma and leukaemia after bacille Calmette-Guérin and smallpox vaccination: a Danish case-cohort study

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    Villumsen, Marie; Sørup, Signe; Jess, Tine

    2009-01-01

    Vaccines may have non-specific effects as suggested mainly in mortality studies from low-income countries. The objective was to examine the effects of BCG and smallpox vaccinations on subsequent risk of lymphoma and leukaemia in a Danish population experiencing rapid out-phasing of these vaccines...... cohort and analysed in a case-cohort design. BCG vaccination reduced the risk of lymphomas (HR=0.49 (95% CI: 0.26-0.93)), whereas smallpox vaccination did not (HR=1.32 (0.56-3.08)). With the small number of leukaemia cases, the analysis of leukaemia had limited power (BCG vaccination HR=0.81 (0.......31-2.16); smallpox vaccination HR=1.32 (0.49-3.53)). The present study with very reliable vaccine history information indicates a beneficial effect of BCG vaccination on the risk of lymphomas....

  1. Angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensin II receptor subtype 2 genotypes in type 1 diabetes and severe hypoglycaemia requiring emergency treatment: a case cohort study

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    Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Nielsen, Søren L; Akram, Kamran

    2009-01-01

    . METHODS: The case cohort study consisted of 108 cases of type 1 diabetic patients with severe hypoglycaemia requiring medical emergency treatment during a 1-year period and 262 consecutive controls without such events. ACE I/D and AT2R 1675G>A genotype distributions were compared between cases......AIMS: In type 1 diabetes, individual susceptibility to severe hypoglycaemia is likely to be influenced by genetic factors. We have previously reported an association of the deletion (D-) allele of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism and the A...... and controls. RESULTS: The proportion of D-allele carriers was higher amongst cases than controls (83 vs. 73%; P=0.032). In contrast, AT2R genotype distribution was similar in cases and controls. In a multiple regression analysis, D-allele carriage remained a significant risk factor for being a case [odds...

  2. Self-rated health and type 2 diabetes risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-InterAct study: a case-cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennberg, Patrik; Rolandsson, Olov; van der A, Daphne L; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Feller, Silke; Bergmann, Manuela M; Langenberg, Claudia; Sharp, Stephen J; Forouhi, Nita; Riboli, Elio; Wareham, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between self-rated health and risk of type 2 diabetes and whether the strength of this association is consistent across five European centres. Design Population-based prospective case-cohort study. Setting Enrolment took place between 1992 and 2000 in five European centres (Bilthoven, Cambridge, Heidelberg, Potsdam and Umeå). Participants Self-rated health was assessed by a baseline questionnaire in 3399 incident type 2 diabetic case participants and a centre-stratified subcohort of 4619 individuals from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct study which was drawn from a total cohort of 340 234 participants in the EPIC. Primary outcome measure Prentice-weighted Cox regression was used to estimate centre-specific HRs and 95% CIs for incident type 2 diabetes controlling for age, sex, centre, education, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption, energy intake, physical activity and hypertension. The centre-specific HRs were pooled across centres by random effects meta-analysis. Results Low self-rated health was associated with a higher hazard of type 2 diabetes after adjusting for age and sex (pooled HR 1.67, 95% CI 1.48 to 1.88). After additional adjustment for health-related variables including BMI, the association was attenuated but remained statistically significant (pooled HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.53). I2 index for heterogeneity across centres was 13.3% (p=0.33). Conclusions Low self-rated health was associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes. The association could be only partly explained by other health-related variables, of which obesity was the strongest. We found no indication of heterogeneity in the association between self-rated health and type 2 diabetes mellitus across the European centres. PMID:23471609

  3. Novel association between plasma matrix metalloproteinase-9 and risk of incident atrial fibrillation in a case-cohort study: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study.

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    Rachel R Huxley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested that biomarkers of extracellular matrix remodelling are associated with atrial fibrillation (AF, but no prospective data have yet been published. Hence, we examine whether plasma matrix metalloproteinases (MMP and their inhibitors are related to increased risk of incident AF. METHODS: We used a case-cohort design in the context of the prospective Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study. From 13718 eligible men and women free from AF in 1990-92, we selected a stratified random sample of 500 individuals without and 580 with incident AF over a mean follow-up of 11.8 years. Using a weighted proportional hazards regression model, the relationships between MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and C-terminal propeptide of collagen type-I with incident AF were examined after adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: In models adjusted for age, sex and race, all biomarkers were associated with AF, but only the relationship between plasma MMP-9 remained significant in the fully-adjusted model: each one standard deviation increase in MMP-9 was associated with 27% (95% Confidence Interval: 7% to 50% increase in risk of AF with no evidence of an interaction with race or sex. Individuals with above mean levels of MMP-9 were more likely to be male, white and current smokers. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that elevated levels of MMP-9 are independently associated with increased risk of AF. However, given the lack of specificity of MMP-9 to atrial tissue, it remains to be determined whether the observed relationship reflects the impact of atrial fibrosis or more generalized fibrosis on risk of incident AF.

  4. Placental pathology in pregnancies with maternally perceived decreased fetal movement--a population-based nested case-cohort study.

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    Brita Askeland Winje

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Decreased fetal movements (DFM are associated with fetal growth restriction and stillbirth, presumably linked through an underlying placental dysfunction. Yet, the role of placental pathology has received limited attention in DFM studies. Our main objective was to explore whether maternal perceptions of DFM were associated with placental pathology in pregnancies recruited from a low-risk total population. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Placentas from 129 DFM and 191 non-DFM pregnancies were examined according to standardized macro- and microscopic protocols. DFM was defined as any maternal complaint of DFM leading to a hospital examination. Morphological findings were timed and graded according to their estimated onset and clinical importance, and classified in line with a newly constructed Norwegian classification system for reporting placental pathology. With our population-based approach we were unable to link DFM to an overall measure of all forms of placental pathology (OR 1.3, 95% CI 0.8-2.2, p = 0.249. However, placental pathology leading to imminent delivery could be a competing risk for DFM, making separate subgroup analyses more appropriate. Our study suggests a link between DFM and macroscopic placental pathology related to maternal, uteroplacental vessels, i.e. infarctions, placental lesions (intraplacental hematomas and abruptions. Although not statistically significant separately, a compound measure showed a significant association with DFM (OR 2.4, 95%CI 1.1-5.0, p = 0.023. This association was strengthened when we accounted for relevant temporal aspects. More subtle microscopic materno-placental ischemic changes outside the areas of localized pathology showed no association with DFM (OR 0.5, 95%CI 0.2-1.4, p = 0.203. There was a strong association between placental pathology and neonatal complications (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.6-5.1, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: In our population-based study we were generally unable to link maternally

  5. Placental Pathology in Pregnancies with Maternally Perceived Decreased Fetal Movement - A Population-Based Nested Case-Cohort Study

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    Winje, Brita Askeland; Roald, Borghild; Kristensen, Nina Petrov; Frøen, J. Frederik

    2012-01-01

    Background Decreased fetal movements (DFM) are associated with fetal growth restriction and stillbirth, presumably linked through an underlying placental dysfunction. Yet, the role of placental pathology has received limited attention in DFM studies. Our main objective was to explore whether maternal perceptions of DFM were associated with placental pathology in pregnancies recruited from a low-risk total population. Methods/Principal Findings Placentas from 129 DFM and 191 non-DFM pregnancies were examined according to standardized macro- and microscopic protocols. DFM was defined as any maternal complaint of DFM leading to a hospital examination. Morphological findings were timed and graded according to their estimated onset and clinical importance, and classified in line with a newly constructed Norwegian classification system for reporting placental pathology. With our population-based approach we were unable to link DFM to an overall measure of all forms of placental pathology (OR 1.3, 95% CI 0.8–2.2, p = 0.249). However, placental pathology leading to imminent delivery could be a competing risk for DFM, making separate subgroup analyses more appropriate. Our study suggests a link between DFM and macroscopic placental pathology related to maternal, uteroplacental vessels, i.e. infarctions, placental lesions (intraplacental hematomas) and abruptions. Although not statistically significant separately, a compound measure showed a significant association with DFM (OR 2.4, 95%CI 1.1–5.0, p = 0.023). This association was strengthened when we accounted for relevant temporal aspects. More subtle microscopic materno-placental ischemic changes outside the areas of localized pathology showed no association with DFM (OR 0.5, 95%CI 0.2–1.4, p = 0.203). There was a strong association between placental pathology and neonatal complications (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.6–5.1, p<0.001). Conclusions In our population-based study we were generally unable to link

  6. Perinatal vitamin D levels are not associated with later risk of developing pediatric-onset inflammatory bowel disease: a Danish case-cohort study.

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    Thorsen, Steffen U; Jakobsen, Christian; Cohen, Arieh; Lundqvist, Marika; Thygesen, Lau C; Pipper, Christian; Ascherio, Alberto; Svensson, Jannet

    2016-08-01

    Objective Basic and epidemiologic studies on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have suggested an association between vitamin D and IBD risk. Though, the literature on IBD - especially pediatric-onset IBD - and vitamin D is still in its cradle. We therefore wanted to examine if levels of 25(OH)D at birth were associated with increased risk of developing pediatric-onset IBD. Material and methods A case-cohort study composed of cases diagnosed with Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis or indeterminate/unclassified colitis and healthy controls. Cases and controls were matched on date of birth and were born in the period 1981-2004. Cases were diagnosed before the age of 18 years. The concentration of 25(OH)D was assessed from neonatal dried blood spots using a highly sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated using conditional logistic regression and two-way ANOVA were used to test for season and birth year 25(OH)D variations. A total of 384 matched pairs were included in the statistical analyses. Results No significant association were found between levels of 25(OH)D and IBD risk in the adjusted model (OR [95% CI] (per 25 nmol/L increase), 1.12 [0.88; 1.42], p = 0.35). 25(OH)D levels were found to fluctuate significantly with season (p D were 27.1/16.5-39.5 nmol/L for cases and 25.7/16.1-39.4 nmol/L for controls. Conclusion Our study do not suggest that a window of vulnerability exist around time of birth in regards to 25(OH)D levels and later pediatric-onset IBD risk.

  7. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein -164 T > C gene polymorphism and risk of cardiovascular disease: results from the EPIC-Potsdam case-cohort study

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    di Giuseppe Romina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP is encoded by the MTTP gene that is regulated by cholesterol in humans. Previous studies investigating the effect of MTTP on ischemic heart disease have produced inconsistent results. Therefore, we have tested the hypothesis that the rare allele of the -164T > C polymorphism in MTTP alters the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD, depending on the cholesterol levels. Methods The -164T > C polymorphism was genotyped in a case-cohort study (193 incident myocardial infarction (MI and 131 incident ischemic stroke (IS cases and 1 978 non-cases nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC–Potsdam study, comprising 27 548 middle-aged subjects. The Heinz Nixdorf Recall study (30 CVD cases and 1 188 controls was used to replicate our findings. Results Genotype frequencies were not different between CVD and CVD free subjects (P = 0.79. We observed an interaction between the -164T > C polymorphism and total cholesterol levels in relation to future CVD. Corresponding stratified analyses showed a significant increased risk of CVD (HRadditve = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.07 to 1.78 for individuals with cholesterol levels additive was 1.06, 95% CI: 0.33 to 3.40 for individuals in the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study. A borderline significant decrease in CVD risk was observed in subjects with cholesterol levels ≥200 mg/dL (HRadditve = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.58 to 1.03 in the EPIC-Potsdam study. A similar trend was observed in the independent cohort (HRadditve = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.29 to 1.25. Conclusions Our study suggests an interaction between MTTP -164T > C functional polymorphism with total cholesterol levels. Thereby risk allele carriers with low cholesterol levels may be predisposed to an increased risk of developing CVD, which seems to be abolished among risk allele carriers with high cholesterol levels.

  8. Genetic variants in loci 1p13 and 9p21 and fatal coronary heart disease in a Norwegian case-cohort study.

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    Jansen, Mona Dverdal; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Myhre, Ronny; Høiseth, Gudrun; Mørland, Jørg; Næss, Øyvind; Tambs, Kristian; Magnus, Per

    2014-05-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in loci 1p13 and 9p21 have previously been found to be associated with incident coronary heart disease (CHD). This study aimed to investigate whether these SNPs show associations with fatal CHD in a population-based cohort study after adjustment for socioeconomic- and lifestyle-related CHD risk factors not commonly included in genetic association studies. Using the population-based Cohort of Norway (CONOR), a nested case-cohort study was set up and DNA from 2,953 subjects (829 cases and 2,124 non-cases) were genotyped. The association with fatal CHD was estimated for four SNPs, three from locus 1p13 and one from locus 9p21. Multivariable Cox regression was used to estimate unstratified and gender-stratified hazard ratios while adjusting for major CHD risk factors. The associations between three SNPs from locus 1p13 and non-HDL cholesterol levels were also estimated. Men homozygous for the risk alleles on rs1333049 (9p21) and rs14000 (1p13) were found to have significantly increased hazard ratios in crude and adjusted models, and the hazard ratios remained statistically significant when both genders were analyzed together. Adjustment for additional socioeconomic- and lifestyle-related CHD risk factors influenced the association estimates only slightly. No significant associations were observed between the other two SNPs in loci 1p13 (rs599839 and rs646776) and CHD mortality in either gender. Both rs599839 and rs646776 showed significant, gradual increases in non-HDL cholesterol levels with increasing number of risk alleles. This study confirms the association between 9p21 (rs1333049) and fatal CHD in a Norwegian population-based cohort. The effect was not influenced by several socioeconomic- and lifestyle-related risk factors. Our results show that 1p13 (rs14000) may also be associated with fatal CHD. SNPs at 1p13 (rs599839 and rs646776) were associated with non-HDL cholesterol levels.

  9. RANTES/CCL5 and risk for coronary events: results from the MONICA/KORA Augsburg case-cohort, Athero-Express and CARDIoGRAM studies.

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    Christian Herder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The chemokine RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted/CCL5 is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in mice, whereas less is known in humans. We hypothesised that its relevance for atherosclerosis should be reflected by associations between CCL5 gene variants, RANTES serum concentrations and protein levels in atherosclerotic plaques and risk for coronary events. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a case-cohort study within the population-based MONICA/KORA Augsburg studies. Baseline RANTES serum levels were measured in 363 individuals with incident coronary events and 1,908 non-cases (mean follow-up: 10.2±4.8 years. Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, metabolic factors and lifestyle factors revealed no significant association between RANTES and incident coronary events (HR [95% CI] for increasing RANTES tertiles 1.0, 1.03 [0.75-1.42] and 1.11 [0.81-1.54]. None of six CCL5 single nucleotide polymorphisms and no common haplotype showed significant associations with coronary events. Also in the CARDIoGRAM study (>22,000 cases, >60,000 controls, none of these CCL5 SNPs was significantly associated with coronary artery disease. In the prospective Athero-Express biobank study, RANTES plaque levels were measured in 606 atherosclerotic lesions from patients who underwent carotid endarterectomy. RANTES content in atherosclerotic plaques was positively associated with macrophage infiltration and inversely associated with plaque calcification. However, there was no significant association between RANTES content in plaques and risk for coronary events (mean follow-up 2.8±0.8 years. CONCLUSIONS: High RANTES plaque levels were associated with an unstable plaque phenotype. However, the absence of associations between (i RANTES serum levels, (ii CCL5 genotypes and (iii RANTES content in carotid plaques and either coronary artery disease or incident coronary events in

  10. Immunological and cardiometabolic risk factors in the prediction of type 2 diabetes and coronary events: MONICA/KORA Augsburg case-cohort study.

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    Christian Herder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study compares inflammation-related biomarkers with established cardiometabolic risk factors in the prediction of incident type 2 diabetes and incident coronary events in a prospective case-cohort study within the population-based MONICA/KORA Augsburg cohort. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Analyses for type 2 diabetes are based on 436 individuals with and 1410 individuals without incident diabetes. Analyses for coronary events are based on 314 individuals with and 1659 individuals without incident coronary events. Mean follow-up times were almost 11 years. Areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC, changes in Akaike's information criterion (ΔAIC, integrated discrimination improvement (IDI and net reclassification index (NRI were calculated for different models. A basic model consisting of age, sex and survey predicted type 2 diabetes with an AUC of 0.690. Addition of 13 inflammation-related biomarkers (CRP, IL-6, IL-18, MIF, MCP-1/CCL2, IL-8/CXCL8, IP-10/CXCL10, adiponectin, leptin, RANTES/CCL5, TGF-β1, sE-selectin, sICAM-1; all measured in nonfasting serum increased the AUC to 0.801, whereas addition of cardiometabolic risk factors (BMI, systolic blood pressure, ratio total/HDL-cholesterol, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, parental diabetes increased the AUC to 0.803 (ΔAUC [95% CI] 0.111 [0.092-0.149] and 0.113 [0.093-0.149], respectively, compared to the basic model. The combination of all inflammation-related biomarkers and cardiometabolic risk factors yielded a further increase in AUC to 0.847 (ΔAUC [95% CI] 0.044 [0.028-0.066] compared to the cardiometabolic risk model. Corresponding AUCs for incident coronary events were 0.807, 0.825 (ΔAUC [95% CI] 0.018 [0.013-0.038] compared to the basic model, 0.845 (ΔAUC [95% CI] 0.038 [0.028-0.059] compared to the basic model and 0.851 (ΔAUC [95% CI] 0.006 [0.003-0.021] compared to the cardiometabolic risk model, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Inclusion of multiple

  11. Interaction between interleukin-10 (IL-10 polymorphisms and dietary fibre in relation to risk of colorectal cancer in a Danish case-cohort study

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    Andersen Vibeke

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 50% of the colorectal cancer (CRC etiology has been attributed to diet. Established or suspected dietary factors modifying risk of CRC are red meat, cereals, fish, and fibre. Diet and lifestyle may be linked to cancer through inflammation. Interleukin-10 (IL-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine. We wanted to test if dietary factors and IL10 polymorphisms interact in relation to colorectal carcinogenesis. Methods The functional IL10 polymorphism C-592A (rs1800872 and the marker rs3024505 were assessed in relation to diet and lifestyle in a nested case-cohort study of 378 CRC cases and 775 randomly selected participants from a prospective study of 57,053 persons. Genotyping data on the IL10 polymorphism C-592A, smoking and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID was retrieved from Vogel et al. (Mutat Res, 2007; 624:88. Incidence rate ratios (IRR and 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI were calculated. Results No associations were found between the IL10 rs3024505 polymorphism and risk of CRC. There was interaction between rs3024505 and dietary fibre (P-value for interaction = 0.01. IL10 rs3024505 homozygous wildtype carriers were at 27% reduced risk of CRC per 10 g fibre per day (95% CI: 0.60-0.88 whereas variant carriers had no risk reduction by fibre intake. Also, interaction between IL10 C-592A and intake of fibre was found (P-value for interaction = 0.02. Among those eating IL10 polymorphisms and dietary meat, cereal, or fish intake, or between IL10 rs3024505 and smoking or NSAID use were found. Conclusions In this northern Caucasian cohort we found interaction between IL10 and dietary fibre in CRC carcinogenesis. High intake of fibre seems to protect against CRC among individuals with IL10 related genetic susceptibility to CRC. This finding should be evaluated in other prospective and population-based cohorts with different ethnic groups.

  12. Long-term risk of incident type 2 diabetes and measures of overall and regional obesity: the EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study.

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    Claudia Langenberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Waist circumference (WC is a simple and reliable measure of fat distribution that may add to the prediction of type 2 diabetes (T2D, but previous studies have been too small to reliably quantify the relative and absolute risk of future diabetes by WC at different levels of body mass index (BMI. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The prospective InterAct case-cohort study was conducted in 26 centres in eight European countries and consists of 12,403 incident T2D cases and a stratified subcohort of 16,154 individuals from a total cohort of 340,234 participants with 3.99 million person-years of follow-up. We used Prentice-weighted Cox regression and random effects meta-analysis methods to estimate hazard ratios for T2D. Kaplan-Meier estimates of the cumulative incidence of T2D were calculated. BMI and WC were each independently associated with T2D, with WC being a stronger risk factor in women than in men. Risk increased across groups defined by BMI and WC; compared to low normal weight individuals (BMI 18.5-22.4 kg/m(2 with a low WC (102/88 cm. Among the large group of overweight individuals, WC measurement was highly informative and facilitated the identification of a subgroup of overweight people with high WC whose 10-y T2D cumulative incidence (men, 70 per 1,000 person-years; women, 44 per 1,000 person-years was comparable to that of the obese group (50-103 per 1,000 person-years in men and 28-74 per 1,000 person-years in women. CONCLUSIONS: WC is independently and strongly associated with T2D, particularly in women, and should be more widely measured for risk stratification. If targeted measurement is necessary for reasons of resource scarcity, measuring WC in overweight individuals may be an effective strategy, since it identifies a high-risk subgroup of individuals who could benefit from individualised preventive action.

  13. Receptor for advanced glycation end-products and World Trade Center particulate induced lung function loss: A case-cohort study and murine model of acute particulate exposure.

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    Caraher, Erin J; Kwon, Sophia; Haider, Syed H; Crowley, George; Lee, Audrey; Ebrahim, Minah; Zhang, Liqun; Chen, Lung-Chi; Gordon, Terry; Liu, Mengling; Prezant, David J; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Nolan, Anna

    2017-01-01

    World Trade Center-particulate matter(WTC-PM) exposure and metabolic-risk are associated with WTC-Lung Injury(WTC-LI). The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) is most highly expressed in the lung, mediates metabolic risk, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms at the AGER-locus predict forced expiratory volume(FEV). Our objectives were to test the hypotheses that RAGE is a biomarker of WTC-LI in the FDNY-cohort and that loss of RAGE in a murine model would protect against acute PM-induced lung disease. We know from previous work that early intense exposure at the time of the WTC collapse was most predictive of WTC-LI therefore we utilized a murine model of intense acute PM-exposure to determine if loss of RAGE is protective and to identify signaling/cytokine intermediates. This study builds on a continuing effort to identify serum biomarkers that predict the development of WTC-LI. A case-cohort design was used to analyze a focused cohort of male never-smokers with normal pre-9/11 lung function. Odds of developing WTC-LI increased by 1.2, 1.8 and 1.0 in firefighters with soluble RAGE (sRAGE)≥97pg/mL, CRP≥2.4mg/L, and MMP-9≤397ng/mL, respectively, assessed in a multivariate logistic regression model (ROCAUC of 0.72). Wild type(WT) and RAGE-deficient(Ager-/-) mice were exposed to PM or PBS-control by oropharyngeal aspiration. Lung function, airway hyperreactivity, bronchoalveolar lavage, histology, transcription factors and plasma/BAL cytokines were quantified. WT-PM mice had decreased FEV and compliance, and increased airway resistance and methacholine reactivity after 24-hours. Decreased IFN-γ and increased LPA were observed in WT-PM mice; similar findings have been reported for firefighters who eventually develop WTC-LI. In the murine model, lack of RAGE was protective from loss of lung function and airway hyperreactivity and was associated with modulation of MAP kinases. We conclude that in a multivariate adjusted model increased sRAGE is

  14. Pre-cART Elevation of CRP and CD4+ T-cell Immune Activation Associated with HIV Clinical Progression in a Multinational Case-Cohort Study

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    Balagopal, Ashwin; Asmuth, David M.; Yang, Wei-Teng; Campbell, Thomas B.; Gupte, Nikhil; Smeaton, Laura; Kanyama, Cecilia; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Santos, Breno; Supparatpinyo, Khuanchai; Badal-Faesen, Sharlaa; Lama, Javier R.; Lalloo, Umesh G.; Zulu, Fatima; Pawar, Jyoti S; Riviere, Cynthia; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Hakim, James; Li, Xiao-Dong; Pollard, Richard B.; Semba, Richard D.; Thomas, David L.; Bollinger, Robert C.; Gupta, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the success of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), a subset of HIV-infected patients who initiate cART develop early clinical progression to AIDS; therefore some cART initiators are not fully benefitted by cART. Immune activation pre-cART may predict clinical progression in cART initiators. Methods A case-cohort study (n=470) within the multinational Prospective Evaluation of Antiretrovirals in Resource-Limited Settings (PEARLS) clinical trial (1571 HIV treatment-naïve adults who initiated cART; CD4+ T cell count <300 cells/mm3; nine countries) was conducted. A subcohort of 30 participants/country was randomly selected; additional cases were added from the main cohort. Cases (n=236 [random subcohort–36; main cohort–200]) had clinical progression (incident WHO Stage 3/4 event or death) within 96 weeks following cART initiation. Immune activation biomarkers were quantified pre-cART. Associations between biomarkers and clinical progression were examined using weighted multivariable Cox-proportional hazards models. Results Median age was 35 years, 45% were women, 49% black, 31% Asian, and 9% white. Median CD4+ T-cell count was 167 cells/mm3. In multivariate analysis, highest quartile CRP concentration (adjusted hazards ratio [aHR] 2.53, 95%CI 1.02-6.28) and CD4+ T-cell activation (aHR 5.18, 95CI 1.09-24.47) were associated with primary outcomes, compared to lowest quartiles. sCD14 had a trend towards association with clinical failure (aHR 2.24, 95%CI 0.96–5.21). Conclusions Measuring CRP and CD4+ T-cell activation may identify patients with CD4+ T cell counts < 300 cells/mm3 at risk for early clinical progression when initiating cART. Additional vigilance and symptom-based screening may be required in this subset of patients even after beginning cART. PMID:26017661

  15. Bootstrap for the case-cohort design.

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    Huang, Yijian

    2014-06-01

    The case-cohort design facilitates economical investigation of risk factors in a large survival study, with covariate data collected only from the cases and a simple random subset of the full cohort. Methods that accommodate the design have been developed for various semiparametric models, but most inference procedures are based on asymptotic distribution theory. Such inference can be cumbersome to derive and implement, and does not permit confidence band construction. While bootstrap is an obvious alternative, how to resample is unclear because of complications from the two-stage sampling design. We establish an equivalent sampling scheme, and propose a novel and versatile nonparametric bootstrap for robust inference with an appealingly simple single-stage resampling. Theoretical justification and numerical assessment are provided for a number of procedures under the proportional hazards model.

  16. Plasma advanced glycation end products are associated with incident cardiovascular events in individuals with type 2 diabetes: a case-cohort study with a median follow-up of 10 years (EPIC-NL).

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    Hanssen, Nordin M J; Beulens, Joline W J; van Dieren, Susan; Scheijen, Jean L J M; van der A, Daphne L; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Schalkwijk, Casper G

    2015-01-01

    Experimental data suggest a role for advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in cardiovascular disease (CVD), particularly in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, epidemiological evidence of an association between high plasma AGEs and increased cardiovascular risk remains inconclusive. Therefore, in a case-cohort study comprising 134 cardiovascular case subjects and a random subcohort of 218 individuals (including 65 cardiovascular case subjects), all with T2DM and nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition in the Netherlands (EPIC-NL) study, plasma levels of protein-bound Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine, Nε-(carboxyethyl)lysine, and pentosidine were measured with liquid chromatography. AGEs were loge-transformed, combined in a z-score, and the association with incident cardiovascular events was analyzed with Cox proportional hazard regression, adapted for case-cohort design (Prentice method). After multivariable adjustment (sex, age, cohort status, diabetes duration, total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol ratio, smoking, systolic blood pressure, BMI, blood pressure-, cholesterol- and glucose-lowering treatment, prior cardiovascular events, and triglycerides), higher plasma AGE z-scores were associated with higher risk of incident cardiovascular events in individuals without prior cardiovascular events (hazard ratio 1.31 [95% CI: 1.06-1.61]). A similar trend was observed in individuals with prior cardiovascular events (1.37 [0.63-2.98]). In conclusion, high plasma AGEs were associated with incident cardiovascular events in individuals with T2DM. These results underline the potential importance of AGEs in development of CVD. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  17. Association of Plasma Phospholipid n-3 and n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids with Type 2 Diabetes: The EPIC-InterAct Case-Cohort Study

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    Forouhi, Nita G.; Schulze, Matthias B.; Zheng, Jusheng; Ye, Zheng; Kröger, Janine; Wang, Laura Yun; Summerhill, Keith; Griffin, Julian L.; Feskens, Edith J. M.; Affret, Aurélie; Amiano, Pilar; Boeing, Heiner; Dow, Courtney; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W.; Gonzalez, Carlos; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J.; Khaw, Kay Tee; Kühn, Tilman; Mortensen, Lotte Maxild; Nilsson, Peter M.; Overvad, Kim; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Quirós, J. Ramón; Rolandsson, Olov; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Scalbert, Augustin; Slimani, Nadia; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L.; Riboli, Elio

    2016-01-01

    Background Whether and how n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are related to type 2 diabetes (T2D) is debated. Objectively measured plasma PUFAs can help to clarify these associations. Methods and Findings Plasma phospholipid PUFAs were measured by gas chromatography among 12,132 incident T2D cases and 15,919 subcohort participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct study across eight European countries. Country-specific hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Prentice-weighted Cox regression and pooled by random-effects meta-analysis. We also systematically reviewed published prospective studies on circulating PUFAs and T2D risk and pooled the quantitative evidence for comparison with results from EPIC-InterAct. In EPIC-InterAct, among long-chain n-3 PUFAs, α-linolenic acid (ALA) was inversely associated with T2D (HR per standard deviation [SD] 0.93; 95% CI 0.88–0.98), but eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were not significantly associated. Among n-6 PUFAs, linoleic acid (LA) (0.80; 95% CI 0.77–0.83) and eicosadienoic acid (EDA) (0.89; 95% CI 0.85–0.94) were inversely related, and arachidonic acid (AA) was not significantly associated, while significant positive associations were observed with γ-linolenic acid (GLA), dihomo-GLA, docosatetraenoic acid (DTA), and docosapentaenoic acid (n6-DPA), with HRs between 1.13 to 1.46 per SD. These findings from EPIC-InterAct were broadly similar to comparative findings from summary estimates from up to nine studies including between 71 to 2,499 T2D cases. Limitations included potential residual confounding and the inability to distinguish between dietary and metabolic influences on plasma phospholipid PUFAs. Conclusions These large-scale findings suggest an important inverse association of circulating plant-origin n-3 PUFA (ALA) but no convincing association of marine-derived n3 PUFAs (EPA and DHA) with T2D. Moreover, they

  18. Association of Plasma Phospholipid n-3 and n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids with Type 2 Diabetes: The EPIC-InterAct Case-Cohort Study.

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    Nita G Forouhi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Whether and how n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are related to type 2 diabetes (T2D is debated. Objectively measured plasma PUFAs can help to clarify these associations.Plasma phospholipid PUFAs were measured by gas chromatography among 12,132 incident T2D cases and 15,919 subcohort participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-InterAct study across eight European countries. Country-specific hazard ratios (HRs were estimated using Prentice-weighted Cox regression and pooled by random-effects meta-analysis. We also systematically reviewed published prospective studies on circulating PUFAs and T2D risk and pooled the quantitative evidence for comparison with results from EPIC-InterAct. In EPIC-InterAct, among long-chain n-3 PUFAs, α-linolenic acid (ALA was inversely associated with T2D (HR per standard deviation [SD] 0.93; 95% CI 0.88-0.98, but eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were not significantly associated. Among n-6 PUFAs, linoleic acid (LA (0.80; 95% CI 0.77-0.83 and eicosadienoic acid (EDA (0.89; 95% CI 0.85-0.94 were inversely related, and arachidonic acid (AA was not significantly associated, while significant positive associations were observed with γ-linolenic acid (GLA, dihomo-GLA, docosatetraenoic acid (DTA, and docosapentaenoic acid (n6-DPA, with HRs between 1.13 to 1.46 per SD. These findings from EPIC-InterAct were broadly similar to comparative findings from summary estimates from up to nine studies including between 71 to 2,499 T2D cases. Limitations included potential residual confounding and the inability to distinguish between dietary and metabolic influences on plasma phospholipid PUFAs.These large-scale findings suggest an important inverse association of circulating plant-origin n-3 PUFA (ALA but no convincing association of marine-derived n3 PUFAs (EPA and DHA with T2D. Moreover, they highlight that the most abundant n6-PUFA (LA is inversely

  19. No Association between HMOX1 and Risk of Colorectal Cancer and No Interaction with Diet and Lifestyle Factors in a Prospective Danish Case-Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Kopp, Tine Iskov; Tjønneland, Anne;

    2015-01-01

    Red meat is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). We wanted to evaluate whether a functional polymorphism in the HMOX1 gene encoding heme oxygenase modifies risk of CRC or interacts with diet or lifestyle factors because this would identify heme or heme iron as a risk factor of CRC. The HMOX1...... and a comparison group of 1726 randomly selected participants from a prospective study of 57,053 persons. No association between HMOX1 A-413T and CRC risk was found (TT vs. AA + TA; IRR = 1.15, 95% CI: 0.98-1.36, p = 0.10 for the adjusted estimate). No interactions were found between diet or lifestyle and HMOX1 A...

  20. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-2 P12A polymorphism and risk of acute myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke: A case-cohort study and meta-analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hadi Zafarmand

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Hadi Zafarmand1,3, Yvonne T van der Schouw1, Diederick E Grobbee1, Peter W de Leeuw2, Michiel L Bots11Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, Str 6.131, 3584 CX, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 2Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Maastricht, PO Box 5800, NL-6202 AZ, Maastricht, The Netherlands; 3Persian Gulf Health Research Center, Department of Genomic Health, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Moalem Street, Po Box 3631, Bushehr, IranBackground: The alanine allele of P12A polymorphism in PPARG gene in a few studies has been associated with a reduced or increased risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Yet, the risk relation has not been confirmed, and data on ischemic stroke (IS is scarce. We therefore investigated the role of this polymorphism on occurrence of AMI, coronary heart disease (CHD and IS.Methods and findings: We performed a case-cohort study in 15,236 initially healthy Dutch women and applied a Cox proportional hazards model to study the relation of the P12A polymorphism and AMI (n = 71, CHD (n = 211, and IS (n = 49 under different inheritance models. In addition, meta-analyses of published studies were performed. Under the dominant inheritance model, carriers of the alanine allele compared with those with the more common genotype were not at increased or decreased risk of CHD (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.58 to 1.17 and of IS (HR = 1.03; 95% CI, 0.14 to 7.74. In addition no relations were found under the recessive and additive models. Our meta-analyses corroborated these findings by showing no significant association. For AMI we found a borderline significant association under dominant (HR = 0.49; 95% CI, 0.26 to 0.94, and additive (HR = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.26 to 1.00 models which could be due to chance, because of small cases in this subgroup. The meta-analysis did not show any association

  1. The iPSYCH2012 case-cohort sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C B; Bybjerg-Grauholm, J; Pedersen, M G

    2017-01-01

    The Integrative Psychiatric Research (iPSYCH) consortium has established a large Danish population-based Case-Cohort sample (iPSYCH2012) aimed at unravelling the genetic and environmental architecture of severe mental disorders. The iPSYCH2012 sample is nested within the entire Danish population...... born between 1981 and 2005, including 1 472 762 persons. This paper introduces the iPSYCH2012 sample and outlines key future research directions. Cases were identified as persons with schizophrenia (N=3540), autism (N=16 146), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (N=18 726) and affective disorder......PSYCH2012 sample also includes longitudinal information on health, prescribed medicine, social and socioeconomic information, and analogous information among relatives. To the best of our knowledge, the iPSYCH2012 sample is the largest and most comprehensive data source for the combined study of genetic...

  2. Interactions between diet, lifestyle and IL10, IL1B, and PTGS2/COX-2 gene polymorphisms in relation to risk of colorectal cancer in a prospective Danish case-cohort study.

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    Vibeke Andersen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS: Diet contributes to colorectal cancer development and may be potentially modified. We wanted to identify the biological mechanisms underlying colorectal carcinogenesis by assessment of diet-gene interactions. METHODS: The polymorphisms IL10 C-592A (rs1800872, C-rs3024505-T, IL1b C-3737T (rs4848306, G-1464C (rs1143623, T-31C (rs1143627 and PTGS2 (encoding COX-2 A-1195G (rs689466, G-765C (rs20417, and T8473C (rs5275 were assessed in relation to risk of colorectal cancer (CRC and interaction with diet (red meat, fish, fibre, cereals, fruit and vegetables and lifestyle (non-steroid-anti-inflammatory drug use and smoking status was assessed in a nested case-cohort study of nine hundred and seventy CRC cases and 1789 randomly selected participants from a prospective study of 57,053 persons. RESULTS: IL1b C-3737T, G-1464C and PTGS2 T8473C variant genotypes were associated with risk of CRC compared to the homozygous wildtype genotype (IRR=0.81, 95%CI: 0.68-0.97, p=0.02, and IRR=1.22, 95%CI: 1.04-1.44, p=0.02, IRR=0.75, 95%CI: 0.57-0.99, p=0.04, respectively. Interactions were found between diet and IL10 rs3024505 (P-value for interaction (P(int; meat=0.04, fish=0.007, fibre=0.0008, vegetables=0.0005, C-592A (P(int; fibre=0.025, IL1b C-3737T (Pint; vegetables=0.030, NSAID use=0.040 and PTGS2 genotypes G-765C (P(int; meat=0.006, fibre=0.0003, fruit 0.004, and T8473C (P(int; meat 0.049, fruit=0.03 and A-1195G (P(int; meat 0.038, fibre 0.040, fruit=0.059, vegetables=0.025, and current smoking=0.046. CONCLUSIONS: Genetically determined low COX-2 and high IL-1β activity were associated with increased risk of CRC in this northern Caucasian cohort. Furthermore, interactions were found between IL10, IL1b, and PTGS2 and diet and lifestyle factors in relation to CRC. The present study demonstrates that gene-environment interactions may identify genes and environmental factors involved in colorectal carcinogenesis.

  3. Polymorphisms in the xenobiotic transporter Multidrug Resistance 1 (MDR1 and interaction with meat intake in relation to risk of colorectal cancer in a Danish prospective case-cohort study

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    Overvad Kim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The xenobiotic transporters, Multidrug Resistance 1 (MDR1/ABCB1 and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP/ABCG2 may restrict intestinal absorption of various carcinogens, including heterocyclic amines (HCA and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 derived prostaglandins promote gastrointestinal carcinogenesis, affecting angiogenesis, apoptosis, and invasiveness. The aim of this study was to investigate if polymorphisms in these genes were associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC, and to investigate possible interactions with lifestyle factors such as smoking, meat consumption, and NSAID use. Methods The following polymorphisms were analyzed; a synonymous MDR1 C3435T (rs1045642 in exon26, G-rs3789243-A in intron3, the functional BCRP C421A (rs2231142, the two COX-2 A-1195G (rs689466 and G-765C (rs20417 in the promoter region, and the COX-2 T8473C (rs5275 polymorphisms in the 3'-untranslated region. The polymorphisms were assessed together with lifestyle factors in a nested case-cohort study of 359 cases and a random cohort sample of 765 participants from the Danish prospective Diet, Cancer and Health study. Results Carriers of the variant allele of MDR1 intron 3 polymorphism were at 1.52-fold higher risk of CRC than homozygous wild type allele carriers (Incidence rate ratio (IRR = 1.52, 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 1.12-2.06. Carriers of the variant allele of MDR1 C3435T exon 26 had a lower risk of CRC than homozygous C-allele carriers (IRR = 0.71 (CI:0.50-1.00. There was interaction between these MDR1 polymorphisms and intake of red and processed meat in relation to CRC risk. Homozygous MDR1 C3435T C-allele carriers were at 8% increased risk pr 25 gram meat per day (CI: 1.00-1.16 whereas variant allele carriers were not at increased risk (p for interaction = 0.02. COX-2 and BCRP polymorphisms were not associated with CRC risk. There was interaction between NSAID use and MDR1 C3435T and COX-2 T

  4. A haplotype of polymorphisms in ASE-1, RAI and ERCC1 and the effects of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on risk of colorectal cancer: a danish prospective case-cohort study

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    Wallin Håkan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are the most frequent type of genetic variation in the human genome, and are of interest for the study of susceptibility to and protection from diseases. The haplotype at chromosome 19q13.2-3 encompassing the three SNPs ASE-1 G-21A, RAI IVS1 A4364G and ERCC1 Asn118Asn have been associated with risk of breast cancer and lung cancer. Haplotype carriers are defined as the homozygous carriers of RAI IVS1 A4364GA, ERCC1 Asn118AsnT and ASE-1 G-21AG. We aimed to evaluate whether the three polymorphisms and the haplotype are associated to risk of colorectal cancer, and investigated gene-environment associations between the polymorphisms and the haplotype and smoking status at enrolment, smoking duration, average smoking intensity and alcohol consumption, respectively, in relation to risk of colorectal cancer. Methods Associations between the three individual polymorphisms, the haplotype and risk of colorectal cancer were examined, as well as gene-environment interaction, in a Danish case-cohort study including 405 cases and a comparison group of 810 persons. Incidence rate ratio (IRR were estimated by the Cox proportional hazards model stratified according to gender, and two-sided 95% confidence intervals (CI and p-values were calculated based on robust estimates of the variance-covariance matrix and Wald's test of the Cox regression parameter. Results No consistent associations between the three individual polymorphisms, the haplotype and risk of colorectal cancer were found. No statistically significant interactions between the genotypes and the lifestyle exposures smoking or alcohol consumption were observed. Conclusion Our results suggest that the ASE-1 G-21A, RAI IVS1 A4364G and ERCC1 Asn118Asn polymorphisms and the previously identified haplotype are not associated with risk of colorectal cancer. We found no evidence of gene-environment interaction between the three polymorphisms and the

  5. Conditional likelihood inference in a case- cohort design: an application to haplotype analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Olli; Kulathinal, Sangita

    2007-01-01

    Under the setting of a case-cohort design, covariate values are ascertained for a smaller subgroup of the original study cohort which typically is a representative sample from a population. Individuals with a specific event outcome are selected to the second stage study group as cases and an additional subsample is selected to act as a control group. We carry out analysis of such a design using conditional likelihood where the likelihood expression is conditioned on the ascertainment to the second stage study group. Such likelihood expression involves the probability of ascertainment which need to be expressed in terms of the model parameters. We present examples of conditional likelihoods for models for categorical response and time-to-event response. We show that the conditional likelihood inference leads to valid estimation of population parameters. Our application considers joint estimation of haplotype-event association parameters and population haplotype frequencies based on SNP genotype data collected under a case-cohort design.

  6. Polymorphisms in ATP-binding cassette transporter genes and interaction with diet and life style factors in relation to colorectal cancer in a Danish prospective case-cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopp, Tine Iskov; Andersen, Vibeke; Tjonneland, Anne;

    2015-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family transports various molecules across the enterocytes in the gut protecting the intestine against potentially harmful substances. Moreover, ABC transporters are involved in mucosal immune defence through interaction with cytokines. The study aimed...

  7. Polymorphisms in the xenobiotic transporter Multidrug Resistance 1 (MDR1) and interaction with meat intake in relation to risk of colorectal cancer in a Danish prospective case-cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Østergaard, Mette; Christensen, Jane

    2009-01-01

    prostaglandins promote gastrointestinal carcinogenesis, affecting angiogenesis, apoptosis, and invasiveness. The aim of this study was to investigate if polymorphisms in these genes were associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), and to investigate possible interactions with lifestyle factors...

  8. Leishmaniose cutânea no Norte da Argentina: fatores de risco identificados num estudo caso-coorte em três municípios de Salta Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Northern Argentina: identification of risk factors in a case-cohort study of three municipalities in Salta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Sosa-Estani

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar fatores considerados de risco para adquirir leishmaniose cutânea em Salta, área de maior transmissão da Argentina. Aplicou-se um estudo de caso-coorte com observações entre junho de 1989 e dezembro de 1992. Aos casos e aos controles selecionados se realizou: a um questionário sócio-demográfico; b descrição das características da vivenda e peridomicílio; c um exame físico de pele e mucosa nasal e bucal; d intradermorreação de Montenegro. A análise multivariada mostrou um risco significativo para fatores extradomiciliares (realizar atividades de vaqueira, dormir no lugar de trabalho, ir caçar e domiciliares (dormir fora do quarto, presença de três ou mais suínos no quintal da casa e existência de janelas sem fechaduras. Esta associação permitiu pela primeira vez em Salta (Argentina, identificar fatores de risco vinculados com a transmissão de leishmaniose na unidade domiciliária.The objective of this work was evaluate risk factors for acquiring cutaneous leishmaniasis in Salta, the region with the greatest indices of transmission in Argentina. A Case-cohort study was realized from June 1989 to December 1992. The procedures performed on cases and controls included: a socio-demographic questionnaire; b domestic and peridomestic environment description; c physical exam of skin and nasal and oral mucosal; d Montenegro Skin Test. Multivariate analysis showed a significant risk for factors outside the home (cattle management, hunting, sleeping at the work place and while at home (sleeping outside of the bedroom, presence of three or more pigs in the yard and windows that cannot be locked in the closed position. This association allowed the identification of risk factors linked to the transmission of leishmaniasis in the home for the first time in Salta (Argentina.

  9. Multiple Sclerosis Associated Risk Factors: A Case-Control Study

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    Jalal POOROLAJAL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hamadan Province is one of the high-risk regions in Iran for Multiple sclerosis (MS. A majority of the epidemiological studies conducted in Iran addressing MS are descriptive. This study was conducted to assess MS and its associated risk factors in Hamadan Province, the west of Iran.Methods: This case-control study compared 100 patients with MS (case group and 100 patients with acute infectious diseases (control group from September 2013 to March 2014. A checklist was used to assess the demographic, medical, and family history of the patients. The Friedman-Rosenman questionnaire was also used to assess personality type. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression model with Stata 11 software program.Results: The adjusted odds ratio (OR estimate of MS was 4.37 (95% CI: 2.33, 8.20 for females compared to males; 0.15 (95% CI: 0.06, 0.43 for people aged above 50 years compared to aged 14 to 29 years; 0.44 (95% CI: 0.21, 0.91 for overweight or obese people compared to normal weights. Crude OR indicated a significant association between the occurrence of MS and exclusive breast feeding, season of birth, and smoking. However, the association was not statistically significant after adjustment for other covariates.Conclusion: The risk of MS is significantly lower in male gender, obese/overweight, and old people. Furthermore, non-smoking, non-exclusive breast-feeding, and born in autumn may increase the risk of MS but need further investigation. However, long-term large prospective cohort studies are needed to investigate the true effect of the potential risk factors on MS. Keywords: Multiple sclerosis, Risk factors, Case-control study, Iran

  10. Retinopathy of prematurity and risk factors: a prospective cohort study

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    Angell Linda

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased survival of extremely low birth infants due to advances in antenatal and neonatal care has resulted in a population of infants at high risk of developing retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. Therapeutic interventions include the use of antenatal and postnatal steroids however, their effects on the severity of ROP is in dispute. In addition, it has not been investigated whether severe ROP is due to therapeutic interventions or due to the severity of illness. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between the incidence of severe retinopathy of prematurity (greater than stage 2 – International classification of ROP and mechanical ventilation, oxygen therapy, gestational age, antenatal and postnatal steroids in extremely low birth weight infants. Methods Neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit in Lansing, Michigan, during 1993–2000 were followed to determine factors influencing the development of severe retinopathy of prematurity. Ophthalmologic examinations were started at 6 weeks and followed until resolution. We used logistic regression to estimate the relative risk (odds ratio associated with risk factors of ROP. Results Of the neonates with ≤ 1500 g birth weight, admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, 85% (616/725 survived. Severe retinopathy of prematurity was detected in 7.8% of 576 neonates who had eye examinations. Neonates of lower gestational age (≤ 25 weeks and 26–28 weeks had an increased odds ratio of 8.49 and 3.19 for the development of severe retinopathy of prematurity, respectively, compared to those 29 weeks and older. Late postnatal steroid treatment starting after 3 weeks of life showed 2.9-fold increased odds ratio, in particular administration for two weeks and more (OR: 4.09, 95% CI: 1.52–11.03. With increasing antenatal steroids courses the risk of severe retinopathy of prematurity decreased, however, it was not significant. Lower gestational age

  11. Colorectal cancer incidence among female textile workers in Shanghai, China: a case-cohort analysis of occupational exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roos, A J; Ray, R M; Gao, D L; Wernli, K J; Fitzgibbons, E D; Ziding, F; Astrakianakis, G; Thomas, D B; Checkoway, H

    2005-12-01

    Previous studies have suggested increased risks of colorectal cancers among textile industry workers, potentially related to synthetic fibers. To investigate risks of colon and rectum cancers in relation to these and other textile industry exposures, we conducted a case-cohort study nested within a cohort study of female employees from the Shanghai Textile Industry Bureau (STIB). Cox proportional hazard regression modeling was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for colon and rectum cancers associated with duration of employment (e.g., 0, >0 to or =20 years) in various jobs classified according to process type and exposures to specific agents. Our findings indicate that certain long term exposures may pose increased risk of colorectal cancers, especially dyes and dye intermediates with colon cancer (> or =20 years exposure versus never, HR=3.9; 95% CI: 1.4-10.6), and maintenance occupation (HR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.0-5.7) and metals exposure (HR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.1-3.6) with rectum cancer. A decreased risk of rectum cancer was associated with exposure to natural fibers such as cotton (HR = 0.7; 95% CI: 0.5-0.9), and a trend of decreasing rectum cancer incidence was observed by category of cumulative quantitative cotton dust or endotoxin exposures, when exposures were lagged by 20 years.

  12. Radiation effects-prevalence of contributory risk factors a pilot study in Visakhapthnam steel plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshman rao, K. V.

    2004-07-01

    Integrated Steel Plants contribute significant air pollution, water pollution and solid waste generation. Diverse occupational health hazards present is steel industry pose ill effects to the industrial workers. Occupational health services and research center (OHS and RC) of this plant established in the year 1992 to protect the health and well-being of all the employees working in different occupations. the primary role OHS and RC is to conduct periodical medical examinations, monitoring of the working environments, suggest the suitable personal protective equipment to the workers, evaluate risk factors, work practices, risk management and industrial toxicological studies. Dissemination of information related to occupational health and safety to the working population through regular educational sessions at the workplaces as at training and development center (T and DC) is also part of our services. The proneness for effects of exposure to ionizing radiation is enhanced by various factors related to the family history of chronic diseases, nutritional status of the individuals, the lifestyle factors apart from psycho-social factors like illiteracy, ignorance, negligence and inadequate utilization of personal protective equipment (PPE) at workplace. To evaluate the prevalence of such contributory risk factors, a pilot study has been conducted in Visakhapatnam Steel Plant. The data is obtained through routine periodical medical examination of workers at the Occupational Health Services Center through standard format. The study revealed statistically high prevalence of the risk factors and indicated the necessity of intensifying primary prevention methods in addition to environmental control and usage of PPE. (Author)

  13. Colorectal cancer risk and dyslipidemia: a case-cohort study nested in an Italian multicentre cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agnoli, C.; Grioni, S.; Sieri, S.; Sacerdote, C.; Vineis, P.; Tumino, R.; Giurdanella, M.C.; Pala, V.; Mattiello, A.; Chiodini, P.; Iacoviello, L.; Curtis, de A.; Cattaneo, L.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dyslipidemia is an established risk factor for many diseases, but its effect on colorectal cancer risk is less clear. We investigated the association of colorectal cancer risk with plasma triglycerides, total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol in four Italian EPIC centers. Methods: We conducted a

  14. Parity, breastfeeding and risk of coronary heart disease : A pan-European case-cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Sanne A E; Van Der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Wood, Angela M.; Sweeting, Michael J.; Moons, Karel G M; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Arriola, Larraitz; Benetou, Vassiliki; Boeing, Heiner; Bonnet, Fabrice; Butt, Salma T.; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Drake, Isabel; Gavrila, Diana; Key, Timothy J.; Klinaki, Eleni; Krogh, Vittorio; Kühn, Tilman; Lassale, Camille; Masala, Giovanna; Matullo, Giuseppe; Merritt, Melissa; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Moreno-Iribas, Conchi; Nøst, Therese H.; Olsen, Anja; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Overvad, Kim; Panico, Salvatore; Redondo, M. Luisa; Tjønneland, Anne; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Tumino, Rosario; Turzanski-Fortner, Renée; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Wennberg, Patrik; Winkvist, Anna; Thompson, Simon G.; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Riboli, Elio; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Danesh, John; Butterworth, Adam S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is uncertainty about the direction and magnitude of the associations between parity, breastfeeding and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). We examined the separate and combined associations of parity and breastfeeding practices with the incidence of CHD later in life among

  15. Postoperative Delirium after elective and emergency surgery: analysis and checking of risk factors. A study protocol

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    Gagliardi Stefano

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delirum is common in hospitalized elderly patients and may be associated with increased morbidity, length of stay and patient care costs. Delirium (acute confusional state is defined as an acute disorder of attention and cognition. In elderly patients, delirium is often an early indicator of patho-physiological disturbances. Despite landmark studies dating back to the 1940s, the pathogenesis of Delirium remains poorly understood. Early investigators noted that Delirium was characterized by global cortical dysfunction that was associated predominantly with specific electroencephalographic changes. It's important to understand the risk factors and incidence of Delirium. Some of the risk factors are already identified in literature and can be summarized in the word "VINDICATE" which stands for: Vascular, Infections, Nutrition, Drugs, Injury, Cardiac, Autoimmune, Tumors, Endocrine. Aims of this study are: to re-evaluate the above mentioned clinical risk factors, adding some others selected from literature, and to test, as risk factors, a pattern of some genes associated to cognitive dysfunction and inflammation possibly related to postoperative Delirium. Design All patients admitted to our Emergency Unit who are meet our inclusion/exclusion criteria will be recruited. The arising of postoperative Delirium will select incidentally two groups (Delirium/non Delirium and the forward analysis of correlate risk factors will be performed. As in a typical observational case/control study we will consider all the exposure factors to which our population are submitted towards the outcome (presence of Delirium. Our exposures are the following: ASA, Pain (SVS; VAS, Blood gas analysis (pH; Hb; pO2; pCO2, Residence pharmacological therapy (BDZ; hypnotics; narcotic drugs; alcohol; nitrous derivates, Body temperature, Arterial pressure, Heart frequency, Breath frequency, Na, K, Creatinin, Glicemia, Albumin, Hct, White blood cells, Glasgow Coma

  16. Postoperative Delirium after elective and emergency surgery: analysis and checking of risk factors. A study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnoletti, Vanni; Ansaloni, Luca; Catena, Fausto; Chattat, Rabbih; De Cataldis, Angelo; Di Nino, Gianfranco; Franceschi, Claudio; Gagliardi, Stefano; Melotti, Rita Maria; Potalivo, Antonella; Taffurelli, Mario

    2005-05-28

    Delirum is common in hospitalized elderly patients and may be associated with increased morbidity, length of stay and patient care costs. Delirium (acute confusional state) is defined as an acute disorder of attention and cognition. In elderly patients, delirium is often an early indicator of patho-physiological disturbances. Despite landmark studies dating back to the 1940s, the pathogenesis of Delirium remains poorly understood. Early investigators noted that Delirium was characterized by global cortical dysfunction that was associated predominantly with specific electroencephalographic changes. It's important to understand the risk factors and incidence of Delirium. Some of the risk factors are already identified in literature and can be summarized in the word "VINDICATE" which stands for: Vascular, Infections, Nutrition, Drugs, Injury, Cardiac, Autoimmune, Tumors, Endocrine. Aims of this study are: to re-evaluate the above mentioned clinical risk factors, adding some others selected from literature, and to test, as risk factors, a pattern of some genes associated to cognitive dysfunction and inflammation possibly related to postoperative Delirium. All patients admitted to our Emergency Unit who are meet our inclusion/exclusion criteria will be recruited. The arising of postoperative Delirium will select incidentally two groups (Delirium/non Delirium) and the forward analysis of correlate risk factors will be performed. As in a typical observational case/control study we will consider all the exposure factors to which our population are submitted towards the outcome (presence of Delirium). Our exposures are the following: ASA, Pain (SVS; VAS), Blood gas analysis (pH; Hb; pO2; pCO2), Residence pharmacological therapy (BDZ; hypnotics; narcotic drugs; alcohol; nitrous derivates), Body temperature, Arterial pressure, Heart frequency, Breath frequency, Na, K, Creatinin, Glicemia, Albumin, Hct, White blood cells, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Cognitive state (SPMSQ

  17. HER-2 Expression in Brain Metastases from Colorectal Cancer and Corresponding Primary Tumors: A Case Cohort Series

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    Gianpiero Fasola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain metastases (BM from colorectal cancer (CRC are a rare but increasing event. Surgical resection of oligometastatic disease, including BM, may produce a survival benefit in selected patients. Previous studies described the HER-2 expression patterns in CRC patients, but its prognostic role still remains controversial. Information on the HER-2 expression in BM from CRC is currently lacking. Among the over 500 patients treated at our Department of Neurosurgery in the last 13 years (1999–2012, we identified a cohort of 50 consecutive CRC patients resected for BM. Clinical data were retrospectively reviewed using electronic hospital charts and surgical notes. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples were retrieved and histologically reviewed. HER-2 status was assessed on 4-μm sections by HerceptTest™, and scored by two pathologists according to gastric cancer HER-2 status guidelines. In score 2+ cases HER-2 gene copy number was analyzed by FISH, performed using the PathVysion HER-2 DNA Probe Kit. Median age at time of BM resection was 65 years (35–82; most patients were males (60% with a good performance status. The majority of the BM were single (74% and sited in the supratentorial area (64%; 2–4 lesions were diagnosed in 9 patients (18%, and >4 in 3 patients (6%. The rate of HER-2 positivity (defined as IHC score 3+ or IHC score 2+ and FISH gene amplification was 8.1% for the primary CRC tumors and 12% for their corresponding BM. The concordance rate between primary tumors and matched BM was 89%. Median overall survival after neurosurgery was 6.5 months for HER-2 IHC score 0 vs. 4.6 months for HER-2 IHC score 1+/2+/3+; the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.01, Log-rank test. HER-2 positivity of our case cohort was low but comparable to literature. Concordance rate of HER-2 expression between BM and corresponding primary tumors is high and similar to those reported for breast and gastric cancers. Our data suggest a

  18. A cross-cultural comparison of brand extension success factors: A meta-study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henseler, Jörg; Horvath, Csilla; Sarstedt, Marko; Zimmermann, Lorenz

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we examine the influence of cross-cultural traits on brand extension success. Drawing on prior brand extension studies from different countries, we conduct a comprehensive meta-analysis, complementing the data sets with Hofstede's cultural dimensions values. Our results show that al

  19. Interleukin-6 gene promoter polymorphisms and cardiovascular risk factors. A family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Guzmán, Iris Paola; Muñoz-Valle, José Francisco; Flores-Alfaro, Eugenia; Salgado-Goytia, Lorenzo; Salgado-Bernabé, Aralia Berenice; Parra-Rojas, Isela

    2010-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a cytokine involved in inflammatory process, as well as in glucose and lipid metabolism. Several studies of the biological relevance of IL-6 gene polymorphisms have indicated a relationship with cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to assess whether the -174 G/C and -572 G/C of IL-6 gene polymorphisms are associated with cardiovascular risk factors in Mexican families. Ninety members of 30 Mexican families, in which an index case (proband) had obesity, were included in the study. We evaluated the body composition by bioelectrical impedance. Peripheral blood samples were collected to determine biochemical and hematological parameters. High sensitivity C- reactive protein levels were measurement for nephelometric analysis. Screening for both polymorphisms studied was performed by PCR-RFLP. In the parents, both polymorphisms were in Hardy-Weinberg's equilibrium. The genotypes -174 GC/CC were associated with T2D (OR=1.23, IC(95%) 1.01-1.5) and highest levels of hsCRP (p=0.02), whereas genotype -572 GG was associated with T2D (OR=1.24, IC(95%) 1.04-1.47) with an inflammatory state determined by the increase in the leukocyte count (OR=1.24, IC(95%) 1.02-1.51). The genotypes -174 GC/CC and -572 GG may confer susceptibility for the development of subclinical inflammation and type 2 diabetes in Mexican families.

  20. Interleukin-6 Gene Promoter Polymorphisms and Cardiovascular Risk Factors. A family study

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    Iris Paola Guzmán-Guzmán

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-6 (IL-6 is a cytokine involved in inflammatory process, as well as in glucose and lipid metabolism. Several studies of the biological relevance of IL-6 gene polymorphisms have indicated a relationship with cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to assess whether the –174 G/C and –572 G/C of IL-6 gene polymorphisms are associated with cardiovascular risk factors in Mexican families. Ninety members of 30 Mexican families, in which an index case (proband had obesity, were included in the study. We evaluated the body composition by bioelectrical impedance. Peripheral blood samples were collected to determine biochemical and hematological parameters. High sensitivity C- reactive protein levels were measurement for nephelometric analysis. Screening for both polymorphisms studied was performed by PCR-RFLP. In the parents, both polymorphisms were in Hardy-Weinberg's equilibrium. The genotypes –174 GC/CC were associated with T2D (OR = 1.23, IC95% 1.01–1.5 and highest levels of hsCRP (p = 0.02, whereas genotype –572 GG was associated with T2D (OR = 1.24, IC95% 1.04–1.47 with an inflammatory state determined by the increase in the leukocyte count (OR = 1.24, IC95% 1.02–1.51. The genotypes –174 GC/CC and –572 GG may confer susceptibility for the development of subclinical inflammation and type 2 diabetes in Mexican families.

  1. Understanding the association between teenage pregnancy and inter-generational factors: a comparative and analytical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Elizabeth

    2009-04-01

    (1) to identify the number of teenage pregnant women who also have mothers who became pregnant when they were in their teenage years and (2) to explore the importance of this intergenerational experience on the teenagers themselves, their significant family, friends and society as a whole. semi-structured interviews with the subjects allowed for both breadth and depth exploration. the total research sample was 95 teenage women, which included 48 pregnant (51%) and 47 non-pregnant (49%) women. Stage 1 reports on the findings relating to the intergenerational phenomena and stage 2 focuses on related historical experiences of a further 8 interviews with subjects who had experienced this intergenerational phenomenon. The subjects in both stages of this study came from two contrasting demographic areas of the UK: North West and South East. data were analysed using an appropriate qualitative software package. The specific categories of experience were constructed using a grounded theory approach. the findings of stage 1 of the study showed that the number of teenage women who reported that they had a mother who's first baby was born to her when she was under 20 years of age was 33 (69%) for the pregnant group and 12 (26%) for the non-pregnant group. This was found to be statistically significant (chi(2)=6.51, df=1, p=teenage pregnancy. A national multi-method research study is now required to explore the breadth of intergenerational teenage pregnancy and the experiences of those families where this social construct is prevalent.

  2. Burning mouth syndrome and associated factors: A case-control retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimenos-Küstner, Eduardo; de Luca-Monasterios, Fiorella; Schemel-Suárez, Mayra; Rodríguez de Rivera-Campillo, María E; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro M; López-López, José

    2017-02-23

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) can be defined as burning pain or dysesthesia on the tongue and/or other sites of the oral mucosa without a causative identifiable lesion. The discomfort is usually of daily recurrence, with a higher incidence among people aged 50 to 60 years, affecting mostly the female sex and diminishing their quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between several pathogenic factors and burning mouth syndrome. 736 medical records of patients diagnosed of burning mouth syndrome and 132 medical records for the control group were studied retrospectively. The study time span was from January 1990 to December 2014. The protocol included: sex, age, type of oral discomfort and location, among other factors. Analysis of the association between pathogenic factors and BMS diagnosis revealed that only 3 factors showed a statistically significant association: triggers (P=.003), parafunctional habits (P=.006), and oral hygiene (P=.012). There were neither statistically significant differences in BMS incidence between sex groups (P=.408) nor association of BMS with the pathogenic factors of substance abuse (P=.915), systemic pathology (P=.685), and dietary habits (P=.904). Parafunctional habits like bruxism and abnormal movements of tongue and lips can explain the BMS main symptomatology. Psychological aspects and systemic factors should be always considered. As a multifactorial disorder, the treatment of BMS should be executed in a holistic way. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Antibiotic use, resistance development and environmental factors: a qualitative study among healthcare professionals in Orissa, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Antibiotic resistance is a major public health problem affecting both current and future generations. The influence of environmental factors on antibiotic use and resistance development in bacteria is largely unknown. This study explored the perceptions of healthcare providers on antibiotic use and resistance development in relation to environmental factors i.e. physical, natural, social and behavioural factors. Methods A qualitative interview study was conducted using face-to-face, semi-structured interviews among registered allopathic doctors, veterinarians and drug dispensers in Orissa, India. The interview transcripts were analyzed using latent content analysis. Results The main findings of this study relate to two themes: 'Interrelationship between antibiotic use, resistance development and environment' and 'Antibiotic management contributing to the development and spread of resistance'. The interviewees viewed the following as possible contributors to antibiotic use/misuse and resistance development: changes in the natural and physical environment i.e. climate variability, pollution, physiography and population growth; the socioeconomic environment affecting health-seeking behaviour and noncompliance with medication; a lack of healthcare facilities and poor professional attitudes; and ineffective law enforcement regarding medicine dispensing and disposal. Conclusions Generally, the interviewees perceived that although behavioural and social environmental factors are major contributors to resistance development, changes in the physical and natural environment also influence development of antibiotic resistance. The respondents also perceived that there is a lack of information about, and poor awareness of, what constitutes prudent use of antibiotics. They suggested a need for information, education, dissemination and proper implementation and enforcement of legislation at all levels of the drug delivery and disposal system in order to improve

  4. Recurrent tuberculosis and associated factors: A five - year countrywide study in Uzbekistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadoev, Jamshid; Asadov, Damin; Harries, Anthony D; Parpieva, Nargiza; Tayler-Smith, Katie; Isaakidis, Petros; Ali, Engy; Hinderaker, Sven Gudmund; Ogtay, Gozalov; Ramsay, Andrew; Jalolov, Avazbek; Dara, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    In Uzbekistan, despite stable and relatively high tuberculosis treatment success rates, relatively high rates of recurrent tuberculosis have recently been reported. Recurrent tuberculosis is when a patient who was treated for pulmonary tuberculosis and cured, later develops the disease again. This requires closer analysis to identify possible causes and recommend interventions to improve the situation. Using countrywide data, this study aimed to analyse trends in recurrent tuberculosis cases and describe their associations with socio-demographic and clinical factors. Countrywide retrospective cohort study comparing recurrent tuberculosis patients with all new tuberculosis patients registered within the NTP between January 2006 and December 2010 using routinely collected data. Determinants studied were baseline characteristics and treatment outcomes. Of 107,380 registered patients during the period January 2006 and December 2010, 9358 (8.7%) were recurrent cases. Between 2006 and 2008, the number of recurrent cases per annum increased from 1530 to 2081, then fell slightly thereafter from 2081 to 1888 cases. The proportion of all notified cases during this period increased from 6.5% to 9.9%. Factors associated with recurrent tuberculosis included age (35-55 years old), having smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis, residing in certain areas of Uzbekistan, having particular co-morbidities (including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and HIV), and being unemployed, a pensioner or disabled. Recurrent tuberculosis patients also had a higher likelihood of having an unfavourable treatment outcome. Despite signs of declining national tuberculosis notifications between 2006 and 2010, the relative proportion of recurrent cases appears to have increased. These findings, together with the identification of possible risk factors associated with recurrent tuberculosis, highlight various areas where Uzbekistan needs to focus its tuberculosis control efforts, particularly in

  5. [Determinants and relationship of homocysteinemia with cardiometabolic risk factors. A study in Benin, West Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mabchour, Asma; Agueh, Victoire; Delisle, Hélène

    2010-11-01

    Elevated circulating homocysteine (Hcy) is considered as an independent cardiovascular disease risk factor. Hyperhomocysteinaemia (HHcy) is influenced by nutritional, genetic, and environmental factors. The purpose of the study was to assess HHcy prevalence in Benin, its association with intakes of B-vitamins (B2, B6, B9, B12), alcohol intake, and socio-economic status (SES), and its links with other factors of cardio-metabolic risk. The cross-sectional study included 541 apparently healthy subjects, aged 25 to 65 years, from three sites: the main city, a small city and a rural area. Hcy was measured with an ELISA test kit. The HHcy cut-off was 12 μmol/L. Dietary intake was assessed with three 24-hour recalls. We used a structured questionnaire to assess alcohol consumption, demographics, and SES according to education and an amenity score as income proxy. Criteria for obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia were primarily those of World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Diabetes Federation. Mean age was 38.1 ± 10.1 years. The prevalence of HHcy was 52.2% in men and 24.7% in women. In multiple linear regression models, Hcy in men was positively associated with alcohol intake, but only alcohol in beer. In women, Hcy was negatively related to vitamin B12 intake. According to multivariate models of cardio-metabolic risk factors, HHcy was associated in women with more than twice the odds of hypertension and with high TC/HDL-c ratio. In men, Hcy was positively and independently associated with diastolic blood pressure and with LDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol in linear regression models. The prevalence of HHcy is high in Benin, when compared with other studies, and it was as expected higher in men than in women. Elevated Hcy was associated with inadequate intake of vitamin B12 in women, whereas alcohol consumption and its negative correlation with B12 intake was also involved in men. Although HHcy was independently associated with

  6. HYPERTENSION AND ITS RISK FACTORS- A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY IN RURAL AREA

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    Purnendu Kumar Singh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND An elevated arterial pressure is probably the most important public health problem in developing & developed countries. Hypertension is the commonest cardiovascular disorder and one of the major risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was conducted in rural field practice area of the Department of Community medicine Katihar Medical College, Katihar. A sample of 500 families was selected by systematic sampling technique from all the families registered at Health Centre and all the persons aged 20 years and above residing in these families were selected for the purpose of the study. RESULTS In total 1680 study subjects, 602 persons (35.8% aged 20 years & above were found to be hypertensive. It shows that hypertension increased with increasing age with peak in 60 + years category (65.6%. The prevalence was found to be 66.2% in persons with high salt intake and 31.2% and 20.3% respectively in average and low salt intake. The prevalence of hypertension was 40.3% in non-vegetarians and 34.7% among vegetarians. The prevalence was 48.4% in persons consuming saturated fats, 39.1% in those consuming unsaturated fats and 32.6% in both types of fat consumers. The prevalence of hypertension was 37.9% in those engaged in light physical activity while it was found to be 29.6% in moderate and 28.6% in heavy physical activity. It was found to be 91.2% in obese with while this was 23.4% and 18.9% respectively in normal and underweight. It showed that prevalence of hypertension was 38.3% in occasional, 40.0% in frequent and 73.1% in constant group and only 33.0% in group with no mental stress. CONCLUSION This study shows that the prevalence of hypertension was high in the subjects having low physical activity, High BMI and high saturated fat/salt intake and high level of mental stress.

  7. Lessons for public health campaigns from analysing commercial food marketing success factors: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aschemann-Witzel Jessica

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Commercial food marketing has considerably shaped consumer food choice behaviour. Meanwhile, public health campaigns for healthier eating have had limited impact to date. Social marketing suggests that successful commercial food marketing campaigns can provide useful lessons for public sector activities. The aim of the present study was to empirically identify food marketing success factors that, using the social marketing approach, could help improve public health campaigns to promote healthy eating. Methods In this case-study analysis, 27 recent and successful commercial food and beverage marketing cases were purposively sampled from different European countries. The cases involved different consumer target groups, product categories, company sizes and marketing techniques. The analysis focused on cases of relatively healthy food types, and nutrition and health-related aspects in the communication related to the food. Visual as well as written material was gathered, complemented by semi-structured interviews with 12 food market trend experts and 19 representatives of food companies and advertising agencies. Success factors were identified by a group of experts who reached consensus through discussion structured by a card sorting method. Results Six clusters of success factors emerged from the analysis and were labelled as "data and knowledge", "emotions", "endorsement", "media", "community" and "why and how". Each cluster subsumes two or three success factors and is illustrated by examples. In total, 16 factors were identified. It is argued that the factors "nutritional evidence", "trend awareness", "vertical endorsement", "simple naturalness" and "common values" are of particular importance in the communication of health with regard to food. Conclusions The present study identified critical factors for the success of commercial food marketing campaigns related to the issue of nutrition and health, which are possibly

  8. Lessons for public health campaigns from analysing commercial food marketing success factors: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Perez-Cueto, Federico J A; Niedzwiedzka, Barbara; Verbeke, Wim; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2012-02-21

    Commercial food marketing has considerably shaped consumer food choice behaviour. Meanwhile, public health campaigns for healthier eating have had limited impact to date. Social marketing suggests that successful commercial food marketing campaigns can provide useful lessons for public sector activities. The aim of the present study was to empirically identify food marketing success factors that, using the social marketing approach, could help improve public health campaigns to promote healthy eating. In this case-study analysis, 27 recent and successful commercial food and beverage marketing cases were purposively sampled from different European countries. The cases involved different consumer target groups, product categories, company sizes and marketing techniques. The analysis focused on cases of relatively healthy food types, and nutrition and health-related aspects in the communication related to the food. Visual as well as written material was gathered, complemented by semi-structured interviews with 12 food market trend experts and 19 representatives of food companies and advertising agencies. Success factors were identified by a group of experts who reached consensus through discussion structured by a card sorting method. Six clusters of success factors emerged from the analysis and were labelled as "data and knowledge", "emotions", "endorsement", "media", "community" and "why and how". Each cluster subsumes two or three success factors and is illustrated by examples. In total, 16 factors were identified. It is argued that the factors "nutritional evidence", "trend awareness", "vertical endorsement", "simple naturalness" and "common values" are of particular importance in the communication of health with regard to food. The present study identified critical factors for the success of commercial food marketing campaigns related to the issue of nutrition and health, which are possibly transferable to the public health sector. Whether or not a particular

  9. Lessons for public health campaigns from analysing commercial food marketing success factors: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Commercial food marketing has considerably shaped consumer food choice behaviour. Meanwhile, public health campaigns for healthier eating have had limited impact to date. Social marketing suggests that successful commercial food marketing campaigns can provide useful lessons for public sector activities. The aim of the present study was to empirically identify food marketing success factors that, using the social marketing approach, could help improve public health campaigns to promote healthy eating. Methods In this case-study analysis, 27 recent and successful commercial food and beverage marketing cases were purposively sampled from different European countries. The cases involved different consumer target groups, product categories, company sizes and marketing techniques. The analysis focused on cases of relatively healthy food types, and nutrition and health-related aspects in the communication related to the food. Visual as well as written material was gathered, complemented by semi-structured interviews with 12 food market trend experts and 19 representatives of food companies and advertising agencies. Success factors were identified by a group of experts who reached consensus through discussion structured by a card sorting method. Results Six clusters of success factors emerged from the analysis and were labelled as "data and knowledge", "emotions", "endorsement", "media", "community" and "why and how". Each cluster subsumes two or three success factors and is illustrated by examples. In total, 16 factors were identified. It is argued that the factors "nutritional evidence", "trend awareness", "vertical endorsement", "simple naturalness" and "common values" are of particular importance in the communication of health with regard to food. Conclusions The present study identified critical factors for the success of commercial food marketing campaigns related to the issue of nutrition and health, which are possibly transferable to the public health

  10. Migrants and malaria risk factors: a study of the Thai-Myanmar border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipmontree, Rungrawee; Fungladda, Wijitr; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Tempongko, M A Sandra B; Schelp, Frank-Peter

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate factors influencing self-reported malaria among migrants living along the Thai-Myanmar border. Songkaria Village, with 1600 inhabitants and 290 households in Sangkhla Buri District, Kanchanaburi Province, was selected for the study due to its intense malaria transmission. One hundred twenty-five households were randomly selected. Household members were interviewed about the history of malaria, socioeconomic status and knowledge and practices in regard to malaria using a structured questionnaire. Of the respondents, 10%, 42%, and 48% belonged to the Thai, Mon, and Karen ethnic groups, respectively. About 40 % of Thai and Karen migrants and almost 30% of Mon migrants reported having suffered from malaria at least once. Multivariate analysis focused on migrants. The results identified three independent factors for previous malaria: a high risk occupation, ie working primarily in the forest [odds ratio (OR), 3.55; 95% confidence interval 1.3-10.0], ability to read Thai [OR, 4.13 (1.5-11.7)], and correct knowledge about malaria symptoms [OR, 5.18 (1.1-23.5)]. Working conditions among migrants played a major role in acquiring malaria. They could not afford to apply additional preventive measures, such as using a mosquito net or repellent to be used while working. The concept of enhancing the environment for migrants to enable them to protect themselves against malaria needs to be examined. Ways and means of improving the economic conditions of migrants should be considered to minimize exposure to the vector.

  11. Low back pain in adolescent and associated factors: A cross sectional study with schoolchildren

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    Mônica R. O. G. C. M. Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of low back pain nonspecific and associated factors in schoolchildren. Method: This cross-sectional study investigated 343 adolescents, aged between 12 and 15 years, of both sexes of public schools. The questionnaire included questions regarding sociodemographic characteristics, type of school transportation, body mass index and low back pain. The outcome was defined as discomfort localized below the costal margin and above the inferior gluteal folds in the last 12 months. Results : The prevalence of low back pain in the last year was 57% (n=195 among participants, with no significant difference between the sexes (OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.37. Advancing age and body mass index were associated with the presence of low back pain in the bivariate analysis. The remaining seated at school in usual days was considered one of the main activities that trigger symptoms that lasted up to seven days for the majority (80% of adolescents. Conclusions: The high prevalence of low back pain presented, indicating that it is a common condition among these adolescents. There was no difference between the sexes, but had influence of age and body mass index. Our results point to the need for the development epidemiological studies of low back pain among children and adolescents.

  12. Severity of burn and its related factors: A study from the developing country Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adil, Syed Omair; Nisar, Nighat; Ehmer-Al-Ibran; Shafique, Kashif; Baig-Ansari, Naila

    2016-06-01

    Burns are leading cause of fatal injuries and major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The major obstacle in controlling severity is factors related to burn. This study determines frequency of burns and the factors related to it in Karachi, Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted and 384 hospitalized adult patients with burns were consecutively interviewed during August 2013 to February 2014. Information was collected on socio-demographic profile, intent of burn, severity of burn, health hazards, physical and psychological characteristics. TBSA burn of >15% was considered as higher severity of burn. Higher severity of burns was found in 76.3% patients. Multivariate analysis showed that higher severity of burns were significantly associated with age less than 25 years (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.5-4.9), never had been to school (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.7-5.9) and intentional burn (OR 20.6, 95% CI 5.0-84.9). Majority of patients had higher severity of burn. The intent of injury was intentional, age less than 25 years and no schooling were found significantly associated with higher severity of burns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  13. Increase of vitamin D assays prescriptions and associated factors: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillet, Pascal; Goyer-Joos, Anne; Viprey, Marie; Schott, Anne-Marie

    2017-09-04

    A worldwide increase in the frequency of testing for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels has been observed over the last years. Our aim was to measure the evolution in the number of vitamin D assays performed in France from 2008 to 2013 and to investigate some of the drivers that may explain this increase. Patients within the representative 1/97th sample of the French health insurance system reimbursement database (EGBS database) who had at least one 25OHD or 1-25(OH)2D assay between 2008 and 2013 were included. Trends over time in number of vitamin D assays were analysed globally and per year in a multivariable Poisson regression model with GEE. Among the 639,163 patients of the EGBS database, 118,509 (18.5%) had at least one vitamin D assay over the 6-year study period. Among the individuals tested, 52.1% had only one test. The number of vitamin D assays (25OHD or 1-25(OH)2D) increased 7.5-fold from 9,620 in 2008 to 81,641 in 2013. This study confirms the rapid and dramatic increase in vitamin D assays prescriptions and shows that this is mostly due to a global increase of the proportion of patients tested rather than an increase in repetition of tests in some individual patients.

  14. Adherence to medications and associated factors: A cross-sectional study among Palestinian hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ramahi, Rowa'

    2015-06-01

    To assess adherence of Palestinian hypertensive patients to therapy and to investigate the effect of a range of demographic and psychosocial variables on medication adherence. A questionnaire-based, cross-sectional descriptive study was undertaken at a group of outpatient clinics of the Ministry of Health, in addition to a group of private clinics and pharmacies in the West Bank. Social and demographic variables and self-reported drug adherence (Morisky scale) were determined for each patient. Low adherence with medications was present in 244 (54.2%) of the patients. The multivariate logistic regression showed that younger age (risk of poor adherence who should be targeted for interventions to achieve better blood pressure control and hence prevent complications. This study should encourage the health policy makers in Palestine to implement strategies to reduce non-compliance, and thus contribute toward reducing national health care expenditures. Better patient education and communication with healthcare professionals could improve some factors that decrease adherence such as forgetfulness and dissatisfaction with treatment. Copyright © 2014 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Underage drinking on saturday nights, sociodemographic and environmental risk factors: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galasso Laura

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive alcohol consumption in underage people is a rising phenomenon. A major proportion of the disease burden and deaths of young people in developed nations is attributable to alcohol abuse. The aim of this study was to investigate social, demographic and environmental factors that may raise the risk of Saturday night drinking and binge drinking among Italian school students. Methods The study was conducted on a sample of 845 Italian underage school students, by means of an anonymous, self-test questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to identify independent risk factors for alcohol drinking and binge drinking. Ordered logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors for harmful drinking patterns. Results The independent variables that confer a higher risk of drinking in underage students are older age classes, male sex, returning home after midnight, belonging to a group with little respect for the rules, or to a group where young people are not seen as leaders. The higher the perception of alcohol consumption by the group, the higher the risk. Spending time in bars or discos coincides with a two-fold or four-fold increase, respectively, in the risk of alcohol consumption. Conclusion Our findings show that certain environmental and social risk factors are associated with underage drinking. The most important role for preventing young people's exposure to these factors lies with the family, because only parents can exert the necessary control and provide a barrier against potentially harmful situations.

  16. Virtual water trade patterns in relation to environmental and socioeconomic factors: A case study for Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouchane, Hatem; Krol, Maarten S; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2017-09-13

    Growing water demands put increasing pressure on local water resources, especially in water-short countries. Virtual water trade can play a key role in filling the gap between local demand and supply of water-intensive commodities. This study aims to analyse the dynamics in virtual water trade of Tunisia in relation to environmental and socio-economic factors such as GDP, irrigated land, precipitation, population and water scarcity. The water footprint of crop production is estimated using AquaCrop for six crops over the period 1981-2010. Net virtual water import (NVWI) is quantified at yearly basis. Regression models are used to investigate dynamics in NVWI in relation to the selected factors. The results show that NVWI during the study period for the selected crops is not influenced by blue water scarcity. NVWI correlates in two alternative models to either population and precipitation (model I) or to GDP and irrigated area (model II). The models are better in explaining NVWI of staple crops (wheat, barley, potatoes) than NVWI of cash crops (dates, olives, tomatoes). Using model I, we are able to explain both trends and inter-annual variability for rain-fed crops. Model II performs better for irrigated crops and is able to explain trends significantly; no significant relation is found, however, with variables hypothesized to represent inter-annual variability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Anxiety symptoms among Chinese nurses and the associated factors: a cross sectional study

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    Gao Yu-Qin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nurses are an indispensable component of the work force in the health care system. However, many of them are known to work in a stressful environment which may affect their mental well-being; the situation could be worse in rapidly transforming societies such as China. The purpose of this study was to investigate anxiety symptoms and the associated factors in Chinese nurses working in public city hospitals. Methods A cross-sectional survey was performed for Chinese nurses in public city hospitals of Liaoning Province, northeast China. Seven hospitals in different areas of the province were randomly selected for the study. The Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale was used to measure anxiety symptoms. Effort-reward imbalance questionnaire and Job Content Questionnaire were used to assess the work stressors. Univariate analysis and stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to identify the factors associated with anxiety symptoms. Results All registered nurses in the seven city hospitals, totaling 1807 registered nurses were surveyed. Of the returned questionnaires, 1437 were valid (79.5% for analysis. Utilizing the total raw score ≥ 40 as the cut-off point, the prevalence of anxiety symptoms in these nurses was 43.4%. Demographic factors (education, chronic disease and life event, lifestyle factors (regular meals and physical exercise, work conditions (hospital grade, job rank, monthly salary, nurse-patient relationships, job satisfaction and intention of leaving, job content (social support and decision latitude, effort-reward imbalance and overcommitment were all significantly related to the anxiety symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed main factors associated with anxiety symptoms were lower job rank (OR 2.501, overcommitment (OR 2.018, chronic diseases (OR 1.541, worse nurse-patient relationship (OR 1.434, higher social support (OR 0.573, lower hospital grade (OR 0.629, taking regular

  18. Effects of Ramadan fasting on cardiovascular risk factors: a prospective observational study

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    Nematy Mohsen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has shown that Ramadan fasting has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors, however there are controversies. In the present study, the effect of Ramadan fasting on cardiovascular risk factors has been investigated. Method This is a prospective observational study that was carried out in a group of patients with at least one cardiovascular risk factor (including history of documented previous history of either coronary artery disease (CAD, metabolic syndrome or cerebro-vascular disease in past 10 y. Eighty two volunteers including 38 male and 44 female, aged 29–70 y, mean 54.0 ± 10 y, with a previous history of either coronary artery disease, metabolic syndrome or cerebro-vascular disease were recruited. Subjects attended the metabolic unit after at least 10 h fasting, before and after Ramadan who were been fasting for at least 10 days. A fasting blood sample was obtained, blood pressure was measured and body mass index (BMI was calculated. Lipids profile, fasting blood sugar (FBS and insulin, homocysteine (hcy, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP and complete blood count (CBC were analyzed on all blood samples. Results A significant improvement in 10 years coronary heart disease risk (based on Framingham risk score was found (13.0 ± 8 before Ramadan and 10.8 ±7 after Ramadan, P 0.001, t test.There was a significant higher HDL-c, WBC, RBC and platelet count (PLT, and lower plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-c, VLDL-c, systolic blood pressure, body mass index and waist circumference after Ramadan (P 0.05, t test. The changes in FBS, insulin,Homeostasis Model Assessment Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR, hcy, hs-CRP and diastolic blood pressure before and after Ramadan were not significant (P >0.05, t test. Conclusions This study shows a significant improvement in 10 years coronary heart disease risk score and other cardiovascular risk factors such as lipids profile

  19. TGF-alpha genotypes, oral clefts, and environmental risk factors: A population-based California study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, G.M.; Wasserman, C.R. [CA Birth Defects Monitoring Program, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lammer, E.J. [Stanford Univ., Palo Alto, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Several studies have shown a relation between genetic variation at the TGF-alpha locus and oral clefts. These studies had limited sample sizes and also lacked data on additional factors potentially related to clefting. We investigated the influence on clefting from risk factors, such as maternal smoking, dependent on TFG-alpha genotype. This was accomplished using a large population-bases case-control study of fetuses and liveborn infants with oral clefts among a 1987-89 cohort of California births (N=548,844). To obtain data on potential risk factors, telephone interviews were conducted with mothers of 731 (84.5% of eligible) cleft cases, and 734 (78.2%) nonmalformed controls. DNA was obtained from newborn screening bloodspots and genotyped by using SSCP designed to detect the Taq1 RFLP. Among mothers who completed an interview, genotyping results were available for 571 (78.1%) cases and 640 (87.2%) controls. Compared to controls, the risk estimate for TGF-alpha polymorphism as measured by the odds ratio was: 0.99 (95% confidence interval 0.64, 1.5) for isolated cleft lip {plus_minus}palate; 0.88 (0.33, 2.2) for nonisolated cleft lip {plus_minus}palate; 1.6 (0.94, 2.8) for isolated cleft palate; 1.9 (0.82, 4.3) for nonisolated cleft palate; and 2.2 (0.99, 5.0) for clefts with known etiology. This dataset also revealed 1.4 to 2-fold increased risks for maternal cigarette smoking > 19 cigs/day in early pregnancy. Among these heavy smokers, risk of clefting was even more increased for infants with the TGF-alpha polymorphism. Our data suggest an association between the TGF-alpha uncommon allele and some phenotypic subgroups as well as provide evidence for a genetic-environment interaction between maternal smoking and the variant in the etiology of clefting. The fraction of cases possibly attributed to this interaction, however, was small.

  20. Predictors of binge drinking in adolescents: ultimate and distal factors - a representative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donath Carolin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As epidemiological surveys have shown, binge drinking is a constant and wide-spread problem behavior in adolescents. It is not rare to find that more than half of all adolescents engage in this behavior when assessing only the last 4 weeks of time independent of the urbanity of the region they live in. There have been several reviews on predictors of substance consumption in adolescents in general, but there has been less high quality research on predictors of binge drinking, and most studies have not been theoretically based. The current study aimed to analyze the ultimate and distal factors predicting substance consumption according to Petraitis' theory of triadic influence. We assessed the predictive value of these factors with respect to binge drinking in German adolescents, including the identification of influence direction. Methods In the years 2007/2008, a representative written survey of N = 44,610 students in the 9th grade of different school types in Germany was carried out (net sample. The return rate of questionnaires was 88% regarding all students whose teachers or school directors had agreed to participate in the study. In this survey, prevalence of binge drinking was investigated as well as potential predictors from the social/interpersonal, the attitudinal/environmental, and the intrapersonal fields (3 factors of Petraitis. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, these variables were included after testing for multicollinearity in order to assess their ability to predict binge drinking. Results Prevalence of binge drinking in the last 30 days was 52.3% for the surveyed adolescents with a higher prevalence for boys (56.9% than for girls (47.5%. The two most influential factors found to protect against binge drinking with p p Conclusions Whereas some of the risk and protective factors for binge drinking are not surprising since they are known for substance abuse in general, there are two points that

  1. Association between migraine, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors: a population-based cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Ngoc Han; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Skytthe, Axel

    2011-01-01

    risk of migraine was significantly associated with lower level of schooling and education, retirement, unemployment, and smoking. A decreased risk of migraine was significantly associated with heavy physical exercise and intake of alcohol. Direct comparison between the subtypes showed a decreased risk...... or studying. The risk was increased for men compared to women in subjects with heavy physical exercise, intake of alcohol, and body mass index >25. Migraine was associated with several lifestyle and socioeconomic factors. Most associations such as low education and employment status were probably due...... of MA compared to MO in subjects with low education or weekly intake of alcohol. The risk of MA was increased compared to MO in unemployed or retired subjects. Direct comparison between sexes showed a decreased risk of migraine for men compared to women in subjects who were low educated, unemployed...

  2. Aortic root dimensions are predominantly determined by genetic factors: a classical twin study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celeng, Csilla; Kolossvary, Marton; Kovacs, Attila; Molnar, Andrea Agnes; Szilveszter, Balint; Karolyi, Mihaly; Jermendy, Adam L.; Karady, Julia; Merkely, Bela; Maurovich-Horvat, Pal [Semmelweis University, MTA-SE Cardiovascular Imaging Research Group, Heart and Vascular Center, Budapest (Hungary); Horvath, Tamas [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Hydrodynamic Systems, Budapest (Hungary); Tarnoki, Adam D.; Tarnoki, David L. [Semmelweis University, Department of Radiology and Oncotherapy, Budapest (Hungary); Voros, Szilard [Global Genomics Group, Atlanta, GA (United States); Jermendy, Gyoergy [Bajcsy-Zsilinszky Hospital, Medical Department, Budapest (Hungary)

    2017-06-15

    Previous studies using transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) observed moderate heritability of aortic root dimensions. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) might provide more accurate heritability estimates. Our primary aim was to assess the heritability of the aortic root with CTA. Our secondary aim was to derive TTE-based heritability and compare this with the CTA-based results. In the BUDAPEST-GLOBAL study 198 twin subjects (118 monozygotic, 80 dizygotic; age 56.1 ± 9.4 years; 126 female) underwent CTA and TTE. We assessed the diameter of the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT), annulus, sinus of Valsalva, sinotubular junction and ascending aorta. Heritability was assessed using ACDE model (A additive genetic, C common environmental, D dominant genetic, E unique environmental factors). Based on CTA, additive genetic effects were dominant (LVOT: A = 0.67, E = 0.33; annulus: A = 0.76, E = 0.24; sinus of Valsalva: A = 0.83, E = 0.17; sinotubular junction: A = 0.82, E = 0.18; ascending aorta: A = 0.75, E = 0.25). TTE-derived measurements showed moderate to no genetic influence (LVOT: A = 0.38, E = 0.62; annulus: C = 0.47, E = 0.53; sinus of Valsalva: C = 0.63, E = 0.37; sinotubular junction: C = 0.45, E = 0.55; ascending aorta: A = 0.67, E = 0.33). CTA-based assessment suggests that aortic root dimensions are predominantly determined by genetic factors. TTE-based measurements showed moderate to no genetic influence. The choice of measurement method has substantial impact on heritability estimates. (orig.)

  3. Insulin resistance and associated factors: a cross-sectional study of bank employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaroli, Luciane Bresciani; Cattafesta, Monica; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Zandonade, Eliana; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza

    2017-04-01

    Insulin resistance is characterized by the failure of target cells to respond to normal levels of circulating insulin, and this condition is related to cardiovascular disease. This study sought to evaluate the prevalence of insulin resistance and its association with markers of metabolic abnormalities and metabolic syndrome in bank employees. A cross-sectional study was performed on 498 working men and women aged ≥20 years old. The Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR) was used to determine the presence of insulin resistance based on cut-off values of ≤2.71 for normal insulin levels and >2.71 for insulin resistance, as established for the adult Brazilian population. It was observed that the 52 (10.4%) overweight individuals with insulin resistance were 4.97 times (95%CI 1.31-18.83) more likely to have high HOMA-IR values than the normal-weight participants; among those who were obese, the likelihood increased to 17.87 (95%CI 4.36-73.21). Individuals with large waist circumferences were 3.27 times (95%CI 1.03-10.38) more likely to develop insulin resistance than those who were within normal parameters. The HOMA-IR values differed between subjects with and without metabolic syndrome, with values of 2.83±2.5 and 1.10±0.81 (p=0.001), respectively. The levels of insulin, ultrasensitive C-reactive protein and uric acid were also associated with insulin resistance. The prevalence of insulin resistance among bank employees is high, and insulin resistance is associated with and serves as a marker of metabolic syndrome. Cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome-associated metabolic abnormalities were observed, and insulin resistance may be a risk factor in this group of professionals.

  4. PBDE levels in human milk: the situation in Germany and potential influencing factors - a controlled study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieth, B.; Mielke, H.; Ostermann, B.; Ruediger, T. [Federal Inst. for Risk Assessment, Berlin (Germany); Herrmann, T.; Paepke, O. [ERGO Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    An exponential increase of PBDE levels in breast milk from Sweden between 1972 and 1997 has been reported, which is in contrast to the continuous decline of other chlorinated POPs in breast milk. Also in blood samples from Germany, an increasing trend has been observed during the period from 1985 to 1999. The knowledge about human exposure pathways, which contribute to the PBDE body burden, is very limited. Consumption of food of animal origin, inhalation or ingestion of dust and further factors possibly influencing the PBDE levels in human matrices, like age, breast-feeding or smoking are under discussion. Only a few data on PBDE levels in breast milk from Germany have been published. To fill the data gaps, a controlled study was started in 2001 to characterise the PBDE levels in human milk from Germany with special efforts to identify and quantify deca-BDE-209. Furthermore, it was intended to verify potential factors possibly influencing PBDE levels. Two main hypotheses were proposed: (1) Are PBDE levels in breast milk from mothers consuming traditional food (omnivores) higher than those found in breast milk from mothers consuming vegetarian or vegan food? and (2) Are the PBDE levels found in human milk after a three-months period of breast-feeding lower than those detected at the beginning or does breast feeding result in a lower body burden, respectively? This paper summarises preliminary results. Further analytical data and results of data evaluation will be presented at the conference.

  5. Association between Coffee Consumption and Its Polyphenols with Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Andreia Machado; Steluti, Josiane; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Marchioni, Dirce Maria

    2017-03-14

    Epidemiological studies have examined the effect of coffee intake on cardiovascular disease, but the benefits and risks for the cardiovascular system remain controversial. Our objective was to evaluate the association between coffee consumption and its polyphenols on cardiovascular risk factors. Data came from the "Health Survey of São Paulo (ISA-Capital)" among 557 individuals, in São Paulo, Brazil. Diet was assessed by two 24-h dietary recalls. Coffee consumption was categorized into coffee intake. The odds were lower among individuals who drank 1-3 cups of coffee/day to elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.45; 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI): 0.26, 0.78), elevated diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (OR = 0.44; 95% CI: 0.20, 0.98), and hyperhomocysteinemia (OR = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.93). Furthermore, significant inverse associations were also observed between moderate intake of coffee polyphenols and elevated SBP (OR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.24, 0.87), elevated DBP (OR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.98), and hyperhomocysteinemia (OR = 0.29; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.78). In conclusion, coffee intake of 1-3 cups/day and its polyphenols were associated with lower odds of elevated SBP, DBP, and hyperhomocysteinemia. Thus, the moderate consumption of coffee, a polyphenol-rich beverage, could exert a protective effect against some cardiovascular risk factors.

  6. Farmers' Perceived Risks of Climate Change and Influencing Factors: A Study in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Dang, Hoa; Li, Elton; Nuberg, Ian; Bruwer, Johan

    2014-08-01

    Many countries are confronting climate change that threatens agricultural production and farmers' lives. Farmers' perceived risks of climate change and factors influencing those perceived risks are critical to their adaptive behavior and well-planned adaptation strategies. However, there is limited understanding of these issues. In this paper, we attempt to quantitatively measure farmers' perceived risks of climate change and explore the influences of risk experience, information, belief in climate change, and trust in public adaptation to those perceived risks. Data are from structured interviews with 598 farmers in the Mekong Delta. The study shows that perceived risks to production, physical health, and income dimensions receive greater priority while farmers pay less attention to risks to happiness and social relationships. Experiences of the events that can be attributed to climate change increase farmers' perceived risks. Information variables can increase or decrease perceived risks, depending on the sources of information. Farmers who believe that climate change is actually happening and influencing their family's lives, perceive higher risks in most dimensions. Farmers who think that climate change is not their concern but the government's, perceive lower risks to physical health, finance, and production. As to trust in public adaptation, farmers who believe that public adaptive measures are well co-ordinated, perceive lower risks to production and psychology. Interestingly, those who believe that the disaster warning system is working well, perceive higher risks to finance, production, and social relationships. Further attention is suggested for the quality, timing, and channels of information about climate change and adaptation.

  7. Can the Adoption of Organic Farming Be Predicted by Biogeographic Factors? A French Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pautasso

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming adoption is on the rise in many countries, due to the increased awareness of farmers, citizens, governments and other stakeholders of its more sustainable nature. Various studies have investigated the socio-economic drivers (e.g., consumer demand, support measures, agricultural policies of organic farming adoption, but less attention has been paid to whether biogeographic factors could also be associated with variation in rates of organically managed farms in certain regions within countries. We investigate whether biogeographic factors are associated with variation in the proportion of land under organic farming in French departments. The proportion of land under organic farming increased with decreasing latitude and increasing department area. Non-significant factors were number of plant taxa, proportion of Natura 2000 protected areas, connectivity, longitude, altitude and department population. These results were robust to controlling for spatial autocorrelation. Larger and southern French departments tend to have a greater adoption of organic farming, possibly because of the more extensive nature of agriculture in such regions. Biogeographic factors have been relatively neglected in investigations of the drivers of organic farming adoption, but may have an important explanatory value.

  8. Common mental disorders and associated factors: a study of women from a rural area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parreira, Bibiane Dias Miranda; Goulart, Bethania Ferreira; Haas, Vanderlei José; Silva, Sueli Riul da; Monteiro, Juliana Cristina Dos Santos; Gomes-Sponholz, Flávia Azevedo; Parreira, Bibiane Dias Miranda; Goulart, Bethania Ferreira; Haas, Vanderlei José; Silva, Sueli Riul da; Monteiro, Juliana Cristina Dos Santos; Gomes-Sponholz, Flávia Azevedo

    2017-05-25

    Identifying the prevalence of Common Mental Disorders and analyzing the influence of sociodemographic, economic, behavioral and reproductive health variables on Common Mental Disorders in women of childbearing age living in the rural area of Uberaba-MG, Brazil. An observational and cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic, economic, behavioral and reproductive health instruments were used, along with the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) to identify common mental disorders. Multiple logistic regression was used for multivariate data analysis. 280 women participated in the study. The prevalence of Common Mental Disorders was 35.7%. In the logistic regression analysis, the variables of living with a partner and education level were associated with Common Mental Disorders, even after adjusting for the other variables. Our findings evidenced an association of social and behavioral factors with Common Mental Disorders among rural women. Identification and individualized care in primary health care are essential for the quality of life of these women. Identificar a prevalência do transtorno mental comum e analisar a influência de variáveis sociodemográficas, econômicas, comportamentais e de saúde reprodutiva sobre o transtorno mental comum em mulheres em idade fértil, residentes na zona rural do município de Uberaba-MG, Brasil. Estudo observacional e transversal. Foram utilizados instrumentos de caracterização sociodemográfica, econômica, comportamental e de saúde reprodutiva, e o Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) para identificar os transtornos mentais comuns. Na análise multivariada dos dados, foi utilizada a regressão logística múltipla. Participaram do estudo 280 mulheres. A prevalência do transtorno mental comum foi de 35,7%. Na análise de regressão logística, as variáveis convivência com o companheiro e escolaridade, associaram-se ao transtorno mental comum, mesmo após o ajuste para as demais variáveis. Os achados evidenciaram a

  9. Incidence of dental caries in primary dentition and risk factors: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia CORRÊA-FARIA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objectives of this prospective, longitudinal, population-based study were to estimate the incidence of dental caries in the primary dentition, identify risk factors and determine the proportion of children receiving dental treatment, through a two-year follow up. The first dental exam was conducted with 381 children aged one to five years, at health centers during immunization campaigns; 184 of them had dental caries and 197 had no caries experience. The second exam was carried out two years later at a nursery or at home with the same individuals who participated in the first exam. The diagnosis of dental caries was performed using the dmft criteria. Parents were interviewed regarding socioeconomic indicators. Descriptive, bivariate and adjusted Poisson regression analyses were performed. Among the 381 children, 234 were reexamined after two years (non-exposed: 139; exposed: 95. The overall incidence of dental caries was 46.6%. The greatest incidence of dental caries was found in the group of children with previous caries experience (61.1%. Among the children without dental caries in the first exam, 36.7% exhibited caries in the second exam. The majority of children (72.6% received no treatment for carious lesions in the two-year interval between examinations. Children with previous dental caries (RR: 1.52, 95%CI: 1.12–2.05 had a greater risk of developing new lesions, compared with the children without previous dental caries. The incidence of dental caries was high and most of children’s caries were untreated. Previous caries experience is a risk factor for developing new carious lesions in children.

  10. Association between Coffee Consumption and Its Polyphenols with Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Machado Miranda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have examined the effect of coffee intake on cardiovascular disease, but the benefits and risks for the cardiovascular system remain controversial. Our objective was to evaluate the association between coffee consumption and its polyphenols on cardiovascular risk factors. Data came from the “Health Survey of São Paulo (ISA-Capital” among 557 individuals, in São Paulo, Brazil. Diet was assessed by two 24-h dietary recalls. Coffee consumption was categorized into <1, 1–3, and ≥3 cups/day. Polyphenol intake was calculated by matching food consumption data with the Phenol-Explorer database. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c, triglycerides, fasting glucose, and homocysteine and usual coffee intake. The odds were lower among individuals who drank 1–3 cups of coffee/day to elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP (Odds Ratio (OR = 0.45; 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI: 0.26, 0.78, elevated diastolic blood pressure (DBP (OR = 0.44; 95% CI: 0.20, 0.98, and hyperhomocysteinemia (OR = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.93. Furthermore, significant inverse associations were also observed between moderate intake of coffee polyphenols and elevated SBP (OR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.24, 0.87, elevated DBP (OR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.98, and hyperhomocysteinemia (OR = 0.29; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.78. In conclusion, coffee intake of 1–3 cups/day and its polyphenols were associated with lower odds of elevated SBP, DBP, and hyperhomocysteinemia. Thus, the moderate consumption of coffee, a polyphenol-rich beverage, could exert a protective effect against some cardiovascular risk factors.

  11. Virtual water trade patterns in relation to environmental and socioeconomic factors: a case study for Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouchane, Hatem; Krol, Maarten; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2016-04-01

    Water scarcity is among the main problems faced by many societies. Growing water demands put increasing pressure on local water resources, especially in water-short countries. Virtual water trade can play a key role in filling the gap between local demands and supply. This study aims to analyze the changes in virtual water trade of Tunisia in relation to environmental and socio-economic factors such as GDP, irrigated land, precipitation, population and water scarcity. The water footprint is estimated using Aquacrop for six crops over the period 1981-2010 at daily basis and a spatial resolution of 5 by 5 arc minutes. Virtual water trade is quantified at yearly basis. Regression models are used to investigate changes in virtual water trade in relation to various environmental and socio-economic factors. The explaining variables are selected in order to help understanding the trend and the inter-annual variability of the net virtual water import; GDP, population and irrigated land are hypothesized to explain the trend, and precipitation and water scarcity to explain variability. The selected crops are divided into three baskets. The first basket includes the two most imported crops, which are mainly rain-fed (wheat and barley). The second basket contains the two most exported crops, which are both irrigated and rain-fed (olives and dates). In the last basket we find the two highest economic blue water productive crops, which are mainly irrigated (tomatoes and potatoes). The results show the impact of each factor on net virtual water import of the selected crops during the period 1981-2010. Keywords: Virtual water, trade patterns, Aquacrop, Tunisia, water scarcity, water footprint.

  12. Incidence of dental caries in primary dentition and risk factors: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Paixão-Gonçalves, Suzane; Paiva, Saul Martins; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2016-05-20

    The objectives of this prospective, longitudinal, population-based study were to estimate the incidence of dental caries in the primary dentition, identify risk factors and determine the proportion of children receiving dental treatment, through a two-year follow up. The first dental exam was conducted with 381 children aged one to five years, at health centers during immunization campaigns; 184 of them had dental caries and 197 had no caries experience. The second exam was carried out two years later at a nursery or at home with the same individuals who participated in the first exam. The diagnosis of dental caries was performed using the dmft criteria. Parents were interviewed regarding socioeconomic indicators. Descriptive, bivariate and adjusted Poisson regression analyses were performed. Among the 381 children, 234 were reexamined after two years (non-exposed: 139; exposed: 95). The overall incidence of dental caries was 46.6%. The greatest incidence of dental caries was found in the group of children with previous caries experience (61.1%). Among the children without dental caries in the first exam, 36.7% exhibited caries in the second exam. The majority of children (72.6%) received no treatment for carious lesions in the two-year interval between examinations. Children with previous dental caries (RR: 1.52, 95%CI: 1.12-2.05) had a greater risk of developing new lesions, compared with the children without previous dental caries. The incidence of dental caries was high and most of children's caries were untreated. Previous caries experience is a risk factor for developing new carious lesions in children.

  13. Association between Coffee Consumption and Its Polyphenols with Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Andreia Machado; Steluti, Josiane; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Marchioni, Dirce Maria

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have examined the effect of coffee intake on cardiovascular disease, but the benefits and risks for the cardiovascular system remain controversial. Our objective was to evaluate the association between coffee consumption and its polyphenols on cardiovascular risk factors. Data came from the “Health Survey of São Paulo (ISA-Capital)” among 557 individuals, in São Paulo, Brazil. Diet was assessed by two 24-h dietary recalls. Coffee consumption was categorized into food consumption data with the Phenol-Explorer database. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), triglycerides, fasting glucose, and homocysteine) and usual coffee intake. The odds were lower among individuals who drank 1–3 cups of coffee/day to elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.45; 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI): 0.26, 0.78), elevated diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (OR = 0.44; 95% CI: 0.20, 0.98), and hyperhomocysteinemia (OR = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.93). Furthermore, significant inverse associations were also observed between moderate intake of coffee polyphenols and elevated SBP (OR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.24, 0.87), elevated DBP (OR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.98), and hyperhomocysteinemia (OR = 0.29; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.78). In conclusion, coffee intake of 1–3 cups/day and its polyphenols were associated with lower odds of elevated SBP, DBP, and hyperhomocysteinemia. Thus, the moderate consumption of coffee, a polyphenol-rich beverage, could exert a protective effect against some cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:28335422

  14. [Visfatin in obese patients, relation with cardiovascular risk factors, a cross sectional study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, Daniel A; Ballesteros, María; Ruiz, Enrique; Muñoz, Carmen; Penacho, Angeles; Iglesias, Pedro; Guzmán, Antonio López; Abreu, Cristina; Maldonado, Alfonso; Delgado, Manuel; Martín, Lucía San; Puigdevall, Victor; Romero, Enrique; Sagrado, Manuel González; Izaola, Olatz; Conde, Rosa

    2011-07-23

    Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of the present study was to explore the relation of visfatin with insulin resistance, cardiovascular risk factors and anthropometry in obese patients without comorbidities. A population of 270 obese patients was analyzed in a prospective way. In all patients we performed a biochemical analysis (lipid profile, insulin, HOMA and visfatina), and a nutritional evaluation (dietary intake, conventional anthropometry and bioimpedance). Patients were divided in two groups by median visfatin value (8,32 ng/ml), group I (patients with the low values, average value 7,11 (0,7) ng/ml) and group II (patients with the high values, average value 13,5 (10,1) ng/ml). Patients in the group I had higher weight, body mass index, waist circumference, and waist to hip ratio than patients in group II. Patients in group I had lower LDL-cholesterol and C reactive protein than patients in group II. Correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between visfatin levels and LDL cholesterol (r=0.194; p<0.05) and C reactive protein (r=0.266; p<0.05) and a negative corelation with weight (r=-0.162; p<0.05). In the logistic analysis with age-, sex- and dietary intake- adjusted basal visfatin concentration as a dependent variable, the next variables remained in the model; weight with an odds ratio (OR) 0,97 (IC95% 0,95-0,99), LDL cholesterol 1,012(1,010-1.023) and C reactive protein 1,15 (1.03-1.3). LDL cholesterol and c reactive protein levels are positively correlated with visfatin levels. Weight is negatively correlated with visfatin levels, in an independent way and adjusted by age, sex and dietary intake. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Landslide hazard mapping with selected dominant factors: A study case of Penang Island, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tay, Lea Tien; Alkhasawneh, Mutasem Sh.; Ngah, Umi Kalthum [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Lateh, Habibah [School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11600 Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    Landslide is one of the destructive natural geohazards in Malaysia. In addition to rainfall as triggering factos for landslide in Malaysia, topographical and geological factors play important role in the landslide susceptibility analysis. Conventional topographic factors such as elevation, slope angle, slope aspect, plan curvature and profile curvature have been considered as landslide causative factors in many research works. However, other topographic factors such as diagonal length, surface area, surface roughness and rugosity have not been considered, especially for the research work in landslide hazard analysis in Malaysia. This paper presents landslide hazard mapping using Frequency Ratio (FR) and the study area is Penang Island of Malaysia. Frequency ratio approach is a variant of probabilistic method that is based on the observed relationships between the distribution of landslides and each landslide-causative factor. Landslide hazard map of Penang Island is produced by considering twenty-two (22) landslide causative factors. Among these twenty-two (22) factors, fourteen (14) factors are topographic factors. They are elevation, slope gradient, slope aspect, plan curvature, profile curvature, general curvature, tangential curvature, longitudinal curvature, cross section curvature, total curvature, diagonal length, surface area, surface roughness and rugosity. These topographic factors are extracted from the digital elevation model of Penang Island. The other eight (8) non-topographic factors considered are land cover, vegetation cover, distance from road, distance from stream, distance from fault line, geology, soil texture and rainfall precipitation. After considering all twenty-two factors for landslide hazard mapping, the analysis is repeated with fourteen dominant factors which are selected from the twenty-two factors. Landslide hazard map was segregated into four categories of risks, i.e. Highly hazardous area, Hazardous area, Moderately hazardous area

  16. Workload and associated factors: a study in maritime port in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; Almeida, Marlise Capa Verde de; Sant'Anna, Cynthia Fontella; Cardoso, Leticia Silveira

    2016-11-28

    to identify the effect of the mental, physical, temporal, performance, total effort and frustration demands in the overall workload, and in the same way analyze the global burden of port labor and associated factors that contribute most to their decrease or increase. a cross-sectional, quantitative study, developed with 232 dock workers. For data collection, a structured questionnaire with descriptive, occupational, smoking and illicit drug use variables was applied, as well as variables on the load on the tasks undertaken at work, based on the questionnaire NASA Task Load Index. For data analysis, we used the analysis of the Poisson regression model. the demands physical demand and total effort showed greater effect on the overall workload, indicating high overall load on port work (134 employees - 58.8%). The following remained associated statistically with high levels of workload: age (p = 0.044), to be employee of the wharfage (p = 0.006), work only at night (p = 0.025), smoking (p = 0.037) and use of illegal drugs (p = 0.029). the workload in this type of activity was high, and the professional category and work shift the factors that contributed to the increase, while the age proved to be a factor associated with a decrease. identificar o efeito das demandas mental, física, temporal, de desempenho, esforço total e frustração na carga global de trabalho, da mesma maneira que analisar a carga global de trabalho portuário e fatores associados que mais contribuem para sua diminuição ou aumento. estudo transversal, quantitativo, desenvolvido com 232 trabalhadores portuários. Para a coleta de dados, foi aplicado um questionário estruturado com variáveis de caracterização, ocupacional, tabagismo e uso de drogas ilícitas, além de variáveis sobre a carga nas tarefas desenvolvidas no trabalho, com base no questionário NASA Task Load Index. Para análise dos dados, utilizou-se a análise do modelo de regressão de Poisson. as demandas exigência f

  17. Tissue engineered bone using select growth factors: A comprehensive review of animal studies and clinical translation studies in man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Gothard

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing socio-economic need for effective strategies to repair damaged bone resulting from disease, trauma and surgical intervention. Bone tissue engineering has received substantial investment over the last few decades as a result. A multitude of studies have sought to examine the efficacy of multiple growth factors, delivery systems and biomaterials within in vivo animal models for the repair of critical-sized bone defects. Defect repair requires recapitulation of in vivo signalling cascades, including osteogenesis, chondrogenesis and angiogenesis, in an orchestrated spatiotemporal manner. Strategies to drive parallel, synergistic and consecutive signalling of factors including BMP-2, BMP-7/OP-1, FGF, PDGF, PTH, PTHrP, TGF-β3, VEGF and Wnts have demonstrated improved bone healing within animal models. Enhanced bone repair has also been demonstrated in the clinic following European Medicines Agency and Food and Drug Administration approval of BMP-2, BMP-7/OP-1, PDGF, PTH and PTHrP. The current review assesses the in vivo and clinical data surrounding the application of growth factors for bone regeneration. This review has examined data published between 1965 and 2013. All bone tissue engineering studies investigating in vivo response of the growth factors listed above, or combinations thereof, utilising animal models or human trials were included. All studies were compiled from PubMed-NCBI using search terms including ‘growth factor name’, ‘in vivo’, ‘model/animal’, ‘human’, and ‘bone tissue engineering’. Focus is drawn to the in vivo success of osteoinductive growth factors incorporated within material implants both in animals and humans, and identifies the unmet challenges within the skeletal regenerative area.

  18. Tea consumption and incidence of type 2 diabetes in Europe: the EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feskens, E.J.M.; Groenendijk-van Woudenbergh, G.J.; Kuijsten, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background In previous meta-analyses, tea consumption has been associated with lower incidence of type 2 diabetes. It is unclear, however, if tea is associated inversely over the entire range of intake. Therefore, we investigated the association between tea consumption and incidence of type 2 diabet

  19. Tea Consumption and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in Europe : The EPIC-InterAct Case-Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woudenbergh, Geertruida J.; Kuijsten, Anneleen; Drogan, Dagmar; van der A, Daphne L.; Romaguera, Dora; Ardanaz, Eva; Amiano, Pilar; Barricarte, Aurelio; Beulens, Joline W. J.; Boeing, Heiner; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Dahm, Christina C.; Chirlaque, M-Doleres; Clavel, Fran-coise; Crowe, Francesca L.; Eomois, Piia-Piret; Fagher-azzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W.; Halkjaer, Jytte; Khaw, Kay T.; Masala, Giovanna; Mattiello, Amalia; Nilsson, Peter; Overvad, Kim; Quiros, J. Ramon; Rolandsson, Olov; Romieu, Isabelle; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Schulze, Matthias B.; Slimani, Nadia; Sluijs, Ivonne; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Teucher, Birgit; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; Forouhi, Nita G.; Sharp, Stephen; Langenberg, Claudia; Feskens, Edith J. M.; Riboli, Elio; Wareham, Nicholas J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In previous meta-analyses, tea consumption has been associated with lower incidence of type 2 diabetes. It is unclear, however, if tea is associated inversely over the entire range of intake. Therefore, we investigated the association between tea consumption and incidence of type 2 diabe

  20. Dietary protein intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes in Europe: the EPIC-InterAct Case-Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, van M.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Mensink, M.R.; Sluijs, van der I.; Molina, E.; Amiano, P.; Ardanaz, E.; Balkau, B.; Beulens, J.W.J.; Boeing, H.; The InterAct Consortium, A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The long-term association between dietary protein and type 2 diabetes incidence is uncertain. We aimed to investigate the association between total, animal, and plant protein intake and the incidence of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The prospective European Prospective Inves

  1. Multicentre evaluation of multidisciplinary team meeting agreement on diagnosis in diffuse parenchymal lung disease: a case-cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsh, Simon L F; Wells, Athol U; Desai, Sujal R;

    2016-01-01

    . This difference is of particular importance, because accurate and consistent diagnoses of IPF are needed if clinical outcomes are to be optimised. Inter-multidisciplinary team agreement for a diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis is low, highlighting an urgent need for standardised diagnostic guidelines......-multidisciplinary team agreement for the diagnosis of diffuse parenchymal lung disease. METHODS: We did a multicentre evaluation of clinical data of patients who presented to the interstitial lung disease unit of the Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Foundation Trust (London, UK; host institution) and required...... multidisciplinary team meeting (MDTM) characterisation between March 1, 2010, and Aug 31, 2010. Only patients whose baseline clinical, radiological, and, if biopsy was taken, pathological data were undertaken at the host institution were included. Seven MDTMs, consisting of at least one clinician, radiologist...

  2. [Experimental study of core binding factor a1 gene-modified rabbit skin fibroblasts enhance bone defect repair].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, De-chang; Deng, Lian-fu; Yang, Qing-ming; Tan, Yan-bin; Lü, Xue-min; Zhang, Wei; Feng, Wei; He, Ya-feng; Liang, Jing; Zhu, Ya-ping; Qi, Jin; Zhou, Qi; Wang, Jun

    2007-11-15

    To investigate bone defect healing by true bone ceramic complex carrying core binding factor a1 (Cbfa1) gene modified rabbit skin fibroblasts. Transfect rabbit skin fibroblasts (RSF) with both eukaryotic expression vector pSG5 which could express Cbfa1 gene and pSG5. After being cultured for 48 h, the transfected RSF were seeded into true bone ceramic (TBC) of 2 cm in length and 4 mm in diameter to construct pSG5-Cbfa1/RSF/TBC complex and pSG5/RSF/TBC complex. Forty-eight bone defect model rabbits were randomized into four groups, each has 6 rabbits (12 radius), due to different treatment. group I: with pSG5-Cbfa1/RSF/TBC complex, group II: with pSG5/RSF/TBC complex, group III: with TBC, Group IV: empty control. After being seeded and cultured for about 24 h the complexes were implanted into 2 cm long bone defects in the middle of bilateral radius of rabbits. The radius were inspected by X-ray and then the specimens were collected at the end of the fourth and twelfth weeks after operation. Then, the specimens were decalcified and histologically investigated with Hematoxylin eosin staining and Masson staining methods. Newly synthesized trabecular bone was inspected by image analysis system and the strength of bone defect area treated with graft-implantation was tested with biomechanical method-three point bending test. In group I, trabecular bone was actively synthesized to generate a great amount of trabecular bone and osteon. Preliminary union and bone defect healing were completed with good biomechanical characteristics. There were no newly synthesized trabecular in the other three groups, and bone defect healing were not discovered. The amount of newly synthesized trabecular bone and the results of biomechanical testing differed significantly between group I and the other three (P < 0.01). The efficacy of group I was significantly better than that of the other three groups. True bone ceramic complex composed with Cbfa1 gene modified rabbit skin fibroblasts can

  3. Farmers’ Cognition of Circular Agriculture and its Influencing Factors: A Case Study of Wannian County in Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying; YANG; Xiaohua; PAN

    2014-01-01

    Based on the current situation of agricultural development and agricultural material utilization in Wannian County of Jiangxi Province,we mainly use the form of questionnaire survey and design the relevant questions,to study the farmers’ awareness of circular agriculture and its influencing factors. The study results show that some factors have a significant impact on farmers’ awareness of circular agriculture,such as householders’ age,education level,the proportion of agricultural income to household income,having attended agriculture-related lectures,and whether to be concerned about the information related to agriculture. Through the study in this article,we aim to provide better theoretical reference for the development and study of circular agriculture in Wannian County of Jiangxi Province.

  4. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with minor beta thalassemia and its related factors: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Gozashti, Mohammad Hossein; Hasanzadeh, Ali; Mashrouteh, Mahdieh

    2014-01-01

    Background Atherosclerotic disorders, hypertension and lipid profile alterations are of a lower prevalence in patients with minor beta thalassemia. On the other hand, nowadays, metabolic syndrome is considered as one of the major risk factors of developing cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, the present study was performed to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with minor beta thalassemia. Methods In this case-control study, body length, weight and waist circumference, ...

  5. Migrants in industrial zones - Push and pull factors. A case study in industrial zones in Bac Ninh province, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo Trung, Thanh; Lebailly, Philippe; Nguyen Thi, Dien

    2015-01-01

    Since migration was mentioned as a pattern of development, the debates have never ended. In Vietnam, the industrial zone has been developed rapidly for more than 20 years. However, the rate of migrant labor is high. Based on push and pull theory of migration the study is to find the reasons that push or pull rural labors to migrate to industrial zones. By surveying 190 migrants in industrial zone, the study found that the employment in the zones is not stable in the long run. Migration not al...

  6. Migrants in industrial zones - Push and pull factors. A case study in industrial zones in Bac Ninh province, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo Trung, Thanh; Lebailly, Philippe; Nguyen Thi, Dien

    2015-01-01

    Since migration was mentioned as a pattern of development, the debates have never ended. In Vietnam, the industrial zone has been developed rapidly for more than 20 years. However, the rate of migrant labor is high. Based on push and pull theory of migration the study is to find the reasons that push or pull rural labors to migrate to industrial zones. By surveying 190 migrants in industrial zone, the study found that the employment in the zones is not stable in the long run. Migration not al...

  7. Cleft lip and palate and related factors: A 10 years study in university hospitalised patients at Mashhad - Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Noorollahian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral-facial clefts including cleft lip and palate are the most common congenital malformations of the head and neck. Environmental factors such as maternal hormonal disorders, use of psychiatric medications, vitamin and folic acid deficiency, hypoxia, cigarette smoking and maternal obesity and overweight can affect the incidence of these disorders. In Iran, one of the associated problems is a lack of accurate statistics regarding the present status of the patients, which can cause a disturbance in the health programmes of Ministry of Health and Medical Education. The aim of this study was to report the status of 398 cases of cleft lip and palate in Sheikh and Imam Reza Hospitals of Mashhad over a 10-year period. Materials and Methods: This retrospective descriptive study was performed using data collection method and included the evaluation of the recorded files and completing the data forms. In this study, the file records of 398 patients referring to Mashhad Sheikh and Imam Reza (P.U.H Hospitals were studied, from the beginning of 2002 to the end of 2011; the obtained data from the files were collected and classified. Results: The highest frequency was related to cleft palate alone (40.7%; frequencies were lower regarding the cleft lip and palate and cleft lip alone (34.41% and 24.87%, respectively. Approximately, half of the patients were from rural areas of the city and had articulation disorders. Most of the patients were the first-born children of the family and their parents were consanguineously married; about one-third of the patients had a family history of the disease. Conclusion: According to the results of the present study, cleft lip is more frequent in males and cleft palate is more prevalent in females; the obtained results are consistent with the global statistics.

  8. Cleft lip and palate and related factors: A 10 years study in university hospitalised patients at Mashhad — Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorollahian, Morteza; Nematy, Mohsen; Dolatian, Atiyeh; Ghesmati, Hengameh; Akhlaghi, Saeed; Khademi, Gholam Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral-facial clefts including cleft lip and palate are the most common congenital malformations of the head and neck. Environmental factors such as maternal hormonal disorders, use of psychiatric medications, vitamin and folic acid deficiency, hypoxia, cigarette smoking and maternal obesity and overweight can affect the incidence of these disorders. In Iran, one of the associated problems is a lack of accurate statistics regarding the present status of the patients, which can cause a disturbance in the health programmes of Ministry of Health and Medical Education. The aim of this study was to report the status of 398 cases of cleft lip and palate in Sheikh and Imam Reza Hospitals of Mashhad over a 10-year period. Materials and Methods: This retrospective descriptive study was performed using data collection method and included the evaluation of the recorded files and completing the data forms. In this study, the file records of 398 patients referring to Mashhad Sheikh and Imam Reza (P.U.H) Hospitals were studied, from the beginning of 2002 to the end of 2011; the obtained data from the files were collected and classified. Results: The highest frequency was related to cleft palate alone (40.7%); frequencies were lower regarding the cleft lip and palate and cleft lip alone (34.41% and 24.87%, respectively). Approximately, half of the patients were from rural areas of the city and had articulation disorders. Most of the patients were the first-born children of the family and their parents were consanguineously married; about one-third of the patients had a family history of the disease. Conclusion: According to the results of the present study, cleft lip is more frequent in males and cleft palate is more prevalent in females; the obtained results are consistent with the global statistics. PMID:26712297

  9. Validity and reliability of the braden scale and the influence of other risk factors: a multi-centre prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfens, R J; Van Achterberg, T; Bal, R M

    2000-08-01

    The Braden scale is one of the most intensively studied risk assessment scales used in identifying the risk of developing pressure sores. However, not all studies show that the sensitivity and specificity of this scale is sufficient. This study, therefore, investigated whether adding new risk factors can enhance the sensitivity and specificity of the Braden scale. The Braden scale was tested in a prospective multi-centre design. The nurses of 11 wards filled in the Braden scale every 5 days for each patient who was admitted without pressure sores and who had a probable stay of at least 10 days. Based on a literature study and in-depth interviews with experts, the Braden scale was extended by the risk factor blood circulation. In addition, other risk factors, which are more or less stable patient characteristics, were measured during the admission of the patient. Independent research assistants measured the presence of pressure sores twice a week. As the external criterion for the risk of developing pressure sores, the presence of pressure sores and/or the use of preventive activities was used. Results showed that the original Braden scale was a reliable instrument and that the sensitivity and specificity was sufficient. However, reformulating the factors moisture and nutrition, and adding the risk factor age could enhance the sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, results showed that the factors sensory perception, and friction and shear were especially important risk factors for the Braden scale. In fact, using only the factors sensory perception, friction and shear, moisture (a reformulated factor) and age give the highest explained variance of the risk of developing pressure sores. The added risk factor blood circulation, did not enhance the sensitivity and specificity of the original Braden scale. Suggestions are given on how to use risk assessment scales in practice.

  10. Geriatric Disability and Associated Risk Factors: A Community Based Study in a Rural Area of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar Mandal

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Similar to developed countries, aging is increasedin India. Because of the epidemiology and demographictransition phase, chronic diseases and disabilitiesalong with health costs are increasing day by day. As socialfactors and chronic diseases are the major reasons for geriatricdisability, the present study was done with the following objectives:to assess and compare the socio-demographic characteristicsamong the disabled and non-disabled geriatric population,and to find out the association between sociodemographicand chronic diseases with functional disabilityamong the study population.Methods: A cross-sectional study was done in a rural communityof West Bengal, India. House to house visit, clinicalexamination, observation, and interview were done with a predesigned,pre-tested proforma. Epi Info and SPSS softwarewere used for statistical analysis.Results: A total of 458 people had chronic conditions and theprevalence of disability was 17.47%. Among the sociodemographicvariables, age, female sex, marital status, literacystatus, and family composition and among the chronic diseases,tuberculosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, ischemicheart disease, osteoarthritis, neuropathy, acid peptic disorder,prostatic hypertrophy, and osteoporosis were found as risk factorsof disability in binary logistic regression analysis. 71.2% ofthe disabilities were explained by these risk factors.Conclusion: The data highlighted the different risk factorsassociated with disability. No single measure rather multidimensionalapproach should be the model for the preventionof disability.

  11. IBD-related work disability in the community: Prevalence, severity and predictive factors. A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Alexis; Sicilia, Beatriz; Vergara, Mercedes; Figuerola, Ariadna; Motos, Jaume; Sastre, Adoración; Villoria, Albert; Gomollón, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Data on the prevalence of work disability in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are heterogeneous. As most studies have been performed in selected, often severe, IBD patients, the true prevalence of disability in the community remains controversial. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the prevalence and severity of disability and its predictive factors in a community-based IBD population. Patients and methods Patients recorded in the community-based IBD register at the Hospital Universitario de Burgos were contacted. After informed consent they completed a set of questionnaires including demographic, clinical, disability and quality of life data. The statistical study was performed using SPSS 21. Results A total of 293 patients were included – 151 Crohn's disease (CD), 142 ulcerative colitis (UC), 137 female, mean age: 45 ± 11 years, mean time since diagnosis: 10.6 ± 11 years. Twelve patients (4.1%) had a work-disability pension. In addition, 93 (32%) of all patients had an officially recognized disability degree, which was generally moderate (n = 73, 25%) or severe (N = 16, 5%). Age, time since IBD diagnosis, CD, perianal disease, incontinence, active disease, the need for anti-TNF or psychological treatment, previous surgeries and the number of diagnostic tests and medical visits in the previous year were predictors of disability. Major predictors of qualifying for a disability pension were age, IBD activity, incontinence, need for biological drugs and ostomy. Conclusion Mild to moderate work disability is frequent in IBD. However, only a minority of patients develop severe disability qualifying them for a pension. PMID:26279841

  12. Self-perceived need for dental treatment and related factors. A cross-sectional population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Freitas Gomes e SILVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study compared adolescents’ self-perceived need for orthodontic treatment with the normative need for such treatment and investigated associations between socioeconomic and demographic variables and self-perceptions of dental malocclusion. This cross-sectional study involved 1015 schoolchildren aged 12–15 years in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil. The following data were collected using a questionnaire and an orthodontic examination card: demographic and identifying data, socioeconomic data, educational levels of family, household income, economic classification criteria, and self-reported skin color behavioral data, and oral health data. Normative occlusal condition was examined using the Angle classification and Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI. Data were analyzed using the chi-squared test (to analyze differences in the frequency distribuition of qualitative variables and Poisson regression (to stimate associations between the perceived need of orthodontic treatment and study covariates, with a 5% significance level. Schoolchildren’s self-perceived need for orthodontic treatment was associated with sex (p = 0.022 and the normative need for treatment (p = 0.004. Among socioeconomic, demographic, and oral health variables, only sex [prevalence ratio (PR = 1.15; 95% confidence interval (95%CI = 1.04–1.28; p = 0.009] and the normative need for orthodontic treatment (PR = 1.19; 95%CI = 1.08–1.32; p < 0.001 were associated with the perception of malocclusion, with female adolescents reporting a greater need for orthodontic treatment. Female adolescents seems to be more sensitive to oral health problems. The results suggest that the DAI score might reflect a self-perceived need for orthodontic treatment and the Angle classification might overestimate the orthodontic treatment need.

  13. Reliable and simple spectrophotometric determination of sun protection factor: A case study using organic UV filter-based sunscreen products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Soo In; Liu, Shuanghui; Brooks, Geoffrey J; Lanctot, Yves; Gruber, James V

    2017-08-23

    Current in vitro SPF screening method for plant oil body (oleosome)-based SPF products possesses significant inconsistency and low reliability in the SPF rating. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability and reproducibility of spectrophotometrically determined sun protection factor (SPF) from oleosome-based SPF products. The secondary objective was the data comparison of the spectrophotometric measurements against in vivo SPF testing to establish a reliable in vitro test method as a screening assay. Octyl methoxycinnamate (UVB filter) and avobenzone (UVA filter) were loaded into safflower oil bodies and formulated into oil-in-water emulsion-based finished products. To evaluate the reliability between in vivo and spectrophotometric test methods, samples were dispatched to a clinical laboratory, and the reported SPF values were compared with spectrophotometric test results. The observed SPF from the in vivo and spectrophotometric test results demonstrated a high correlation for SPF 30 products. Proportional correlation between the two evaluation methods was observed for SPF 15 and 50 products with slightly lesser accuracy with a smaller number of population tested in the clinical studies. A reliable spectrophotometric screening method for oil body-based SPF formulas has been developed using two broadly used organic UV sunscreen actives as a case study. The results demonstrated a high level of reproducibility and reliability compared to the US FDA-guided in vivo SPF testing method. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Socket preservation using demineralized freezed dried bone allograft with and without plasma rich in growth factor: A canine study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mogharehabed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The accelerating effect of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGFs in the healing of extraction sockets has been demonstrated by some studies. The aim of the present study was to histologically and histomorphometrically evaluate whether bone formation would increase by the combined use of PRGF and demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA. Materials and Methods: In four female dogs, the distal root of the second, third and fourth lower premolars were extracted bilaterally and the mesial roots were preserved. The extraction sockets were randomly divided into DFDBA + PRGF, DFDBA + saline or control groups. Two dogs were sacrificed after 2 weeks and two dogs were sacrificed after 6 weeks. The extraction sockets were evaluated from both histological and histomorphometrical aspects. The data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney followed by Kruskal-Wallis tests using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA. Significant levels were set at 0.05. Results: The least decrease in socket height was observed in the DFDBA + PRGF group (0.73 ± 0.42 mm. The least decrease in the coronal portion was observed in the DFDBA + PRGF group (1.38 ± 1.35 mm². The least decrease in the middle surface was observed in the DFDBA group (0.61 ± 0.80 mm². The least decrease in the apical portion was observed in the DFDBA group (0.34 ± 0.39 mm². Conclusion: The present study showed better socket preservation subsequent to the application of DFDBA and PRGF combination in comparison with the two other groups. However, the difference was not statistically significant.

  15. PREVALENCE OF RISK FACTORS FOR HEPATITIS C AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS: a population-based study in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Timm KVITKO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Context The hepatitis C is a severe public health problem worldwide because its consequences. Studies which aim at determining the prevalence of risk factors are really important to understand the problem. Objective To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with some risk factors for the disease in a community, called Restinga, located in the city of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Method This paper is based on a population-based cross-sectional study, with systematic sampling and proportional to the size of census tracts in which 3,391 adults answered a standardized questionnaire. Results The prevalence of blood transfusion among the people who were interviewed was 14.98%, 60.83% of those had it before 1993. A total of 16.16% of the people had a tattoo, 7.23% wore a piercing, 1.09% said they had already injected illicit drugs and 12.39% reported previous hospitalization. Prevalence ratios showed that tattoos were more common among young people, piercings among women and illicit drugs among men. Conclusions To summarize, the recognition of risk factors for hepatitis C enables proper screening of possible carriers of the hepatitis C virus, thus enabling a reduction in virus shedding. However, being only possible if health services are prepared to deal with hepatitis C virus, through education and public awareness.

  16. Trends in teenage termination of pregnancy and its risk factors: a population-based study in Finland, 1987-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppälahti, S; Gissler, M; Mentula, M; Heikinheimo, O

    2012-09-01

    What are the current trends in teenage termination of pregnancy (TOP) and its risk factors? The incidence of teenage TOP fluctuated substantially during the study period and the incidence of repeat TOP among adolescents increased markedly in the 2000s. Teenage pregnancy is associated with difficulties in psychological, sexual and overall health. The proportion of teenage pregnancies resulting in termination varies by country and time, but only few countries have reliable statistics on TOPs. This nationwide retrospective register study included all the TOPs (n= 52 968) and deliveries (n= 58 882) in Finland between 1987 and 2009 among girls pregnancy. The cohorts were divided into three subgroups; 13-15- (n= 6087), 16-17- (n= 18 826) and 18-19- (n= 28 055) year-olds. After an initial steady decline, the incidence of teenage TOP increased by 44% between 1993 (8.0/1000) and 2003 (11.5/1000), and thereafter declined by 16% until 2009 (9.7/1000). The incidence was higher in older adolescents, but the trends were alike in all age groups. Early TOPs (performed at teenage TOP seems to rapidly reflect changes in national sexual and reproductive health services and policy. The rising rate of repeat TOP is alarming and may represent a sign of marginalization among these girls. All efforts to maintain a low rate of teenage pregnancy are welcomed.

  17. A correlation between low back pain and associated factors: a study involving 772 patients who had undergone general physical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Min A; Shim, Woo Seok; Kim, Myung Hee; Gwak, Mi Sook; Hahm, Tae Soo; Kim, Gaab Soo; Kim, Chung Su; Choi, Yoon Ho; Park, Jeong Heon; Cho, Hyun Sung; Kim, Tae Hyeong

    2006-12-01

    Many factors are associated with the development of low back pain. Among them, exercise, obesity, smoking, age, educational level and stress are the most common. This study examined the association of these factors with low back pain. An additional aim was to determine a procedure for preventing low back pain. This study analyzed the responses to a questionnaire sent to 772 individuals who had undergone a medical examination at this hospital in 2003 and excluded the individuals who had shown symptoms or their test results indicated a particular disease. Assuming that there were no variables, individuals who exercised regularly 3-4 times per week would have a lower chance of having low back pain than those who did not exercise regularly. The analysis revealed that individuals with a college degree or higher education have a lower chance of experiencing low back pain than those with only a high school education or even college drop-outs. When the other variables were constant, age, extent of obesity (body mass index), smoking and level of stress were not found to affect the development of low back pain. The level of education was associated with the development of low back pain. However, regular exercise 3-4 times per week or more would be most effective in reducing the incidence and duration of low back pain.

  18. Effects of an extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field on stress factors: a study in Dictyostelium discoideum cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaroli, Andrea; Chessa, Maria Giovanna; Bavestrello, Giorgio; Bianco, Bruno

    2013-08-01

    The development of technologies that generate environmental electromagnetic fields (EMFs) has led public opinion and the scientific community to debate upon the existence of possible effects caused by man-made EMFs on the human population and, more generally, on terrestrial ecosystems. Protozoa are known to be excellent bioassay systems in bioelectromagnetic studies because of their features that combine the reliability of in vivo results with the practicality of in vitro ones. For this reason, we examined the possible stressful effects of a 50-Hz, 300-μT extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on the protozoan Dictyostelium discoideum, which was used as it is included in the eight bioassay alternatives to vertebrate models for the study of human disease by the U.S. National Institutes of Health. Our results show how a 24-h exposure of D. discoideum cells to ELF-EMF can affect the net fission rate, the activity and presence of the pseudocholinesterase as well as the presence of the heat shock protein-70, while no change in the catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities was observed. However, this effect seems to be transient and all the altered parameters returned to their respective control value after a 24-h stay under dummy exposure conditions.

  19. Low Physical Activity and Its Association with Diabetes and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Nationwide, Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugnara, Laura; Murillo, Serafín; Novials, Anna; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; Soriguer, Federico; Goday, Albert; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso; Castaño, Luis; Gaztambide, Sonia; Valdés, Sergio; Franch, Josep; Castell, Conxa; Vendrell, Joan; Casamitjana, Roser; Bosch-Comas, Anna; Bordiú, Elena; Carmena, Rafael; Catalá, Miguel; Delgado, Elias; Girbés, Juan; López-Alba, Alfonso; Martínez-Larrad, Maria Teresa; Menéndez, Edelmiro; Mora-Peces, Inmaculada; Pascual-Manich, Gemma; Serrano-Ríos, Manuel; Gomis, Ramon; Ortega, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Low physical activity (PA), or sedentary lifestyle, is associated with the development of several chronic diseases. We aimed to investigate current prevalence of sedentariness and its association with diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors. PA was evaluated in a population-based, cross-sectional, randomly sampled study conducted in 2009–2010 in Spain. International Physical Activity Questionnaire (SF-IPAQ) was used to assess PA. 4991 individuals (median age 50 years, 57% women) were studied. Prevalence of sedentariness was 32.3% for men and 39% for women (p < 0.0001). Sex differences were particularly notable (age*sex interaction, p = 0.0024) at early and older ages. Sedentary individuals had higher BMI (28 vs. 27 kg/m2) and obesity prevalence (37 vs. 26%). Low PA was present in 44, 43, and 38% of individuals with known diabetes (KDM), prediabetes/unknown-diabetes (PREDM/UKDM), and normal glucose regulation (p = 0.0014), respectively. No difference between KDM and PREDM/UKDM (p = 0.72) was found. Variables independently associated (p < 0.05) with sedentariness were age, sex, BMI, central obesity, Mediterranean diet adherence, smoking habit, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and dyslipidemia. Low PA is on the rise in Spain, especially among women. Sedentariness is associated with several cardiovascular risk factors and may be responsible for the increasing prevalence of obesity and diabetes in this country. PMID:27532610

  20. Low Physical Activity and Its Association with Diabetes and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Nationwide, Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugnara, Laura; Murillo, Serafín; Novials, Anna; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; Soriguer, Federico; Goday, Albert; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso; Castaño, Luis; Gaztambide, Sonia; Valdés, Sergio; Franch, Josep; Castell, Conxa; Vendrell, Joan; Casamitjana, Roser; Bosch-Comas, Anna; Bordiú, Elena; Carmena, Rafael; Catalá, Miguel; Delgado, Elias; Girbés, Juan; López-Alba, Alfonso; Martínez-Larrad, Maria Teresa; Menéndez, Edelmiro; Mora-Peces, Inmaculada; Pascual-Manich, Gemma; Serrano-Ríos, Manuel; Gomis, Ramon; Ortega, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Low physical activity (PA), or sedentary lifestyle, is associated with the development of several chronic diseases. We aimed to investigate current prevalence of sedentariness and its association with diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors. PA was evaluated in a population-based, cross-sectional, randomly sampled study conducted in 2009-2010 in Spain. International Physical Activity Questionnaire (SF-IPAQ) was used to assess PA. 4991 individuals (median age 50 years, 57% women) were studied. Prevalence of sedentariness was 32.3% for men and 39% for women (p obesity prevalence (37 vs. 26%). Low PA was present in 44, 43, and 38% of individuals with known diabetes (KDM), prediabetes/unknown-diabetes (PREDM/UKDM), and normal glucose regulation (p = 0.0014), respectively. No difference between KDM and PREDM/UKDM (p = 0.72) was found. Variables independently associated (p obesity, Mediterranean diet adherence, smoking habit, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and dyslipidemia. Low PA is on the rise in Spain, especially among women. Sedentariness is associated with several cardiovascular risk factors and may be responsible for the increasing prevalence of obesity and diabetes in this country.

  1. Urban-Rural Differences in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: A Cross-Sectional Study of Schoolchildren in Wuhan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayne McCarthy

    Full Text Available China's rapid population growth and urban migration has developed healthcare inequity across the urban-rural divide. Past studies comparing cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factor prevalence amongst urban-rural Chinese children are sparse and conflicting. We examined the association between urban-rural residence and risk of offspring CVD in Chinese children.A cross-sectional study was conducted in Wuhan, China, during May and June 2010. CVD risk factors include; waist circumference (WC, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, fasting blood glucose (FBG, triglycerides (TG, high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol, body mass index (BMI, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF, metabolic syndrome (MetS, and metabolic risk score (MRS. Analysis of covariance and multivariable logistic regression were used to estimate associations between urban-rural residence and offspring CVD risks.A total of 579 Chinese children (338 boys and 241 girls aged 9.6 (0.7 years participated in this study. Rural boys had significantly lower CRF and higher FBG, TG, and MRS, while urban boys had significantly higher LDL and DBP. Rural girls had significantly higher BMI, FBG, and TG, as well as lower CRF. Rural children were at increased risks for decreased CRF, elevated MRS, and TG, (OR:2.04, 95%CI:1.29-3.25, (OR:2.33, 95%CI:1.50-3.62, and (OR:2.40, 95%CI:1.62-3.57, respectively. Rural girls and mothers were at increased risks for overweight(OR:7.19, 95%CI:1.64-31.6/obesity (OR:1.683, 95%CI:1.01-2.82. However, rural boys and fathers were less likely to have overweight(OR:0.62, 95%CI:0.34-1.12/obesity (OR:0.68, 95%CI:0.48-0.97.Rural residence was significantly associated with increased CVD risks amongst Chinese children. It is important to provide interventions aiming at China's urban-rural healthcare inequity and community-based approaches that reduce familial CVD risk.

  2. Early menopause, association with tobacco smoking, coffee consumption and other lifestyle factors: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundby Johanne

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early onset of menopause is a risk factor for several health problems. The objective was primarily to investigate the association between early menopause and current, past active and passive smoking. A second aim was to investigate the association between coffee and alcohol consumption and early menopause. Methods The present population-based cross-sectional study included a sub-sample of 2123 postmenopausal women born in 1940–41 who participated in the Oslo Health Study. Early menopause was defined as menopause occurring at an age of less than 45 years. We applied logistic regression analyses (crude and adjusted odds ratio (OR to examine the association between early menopause and selected lifestyle factors. Results Current smoking was significantly associated with early menopause (adj. OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.11–2.28. Stopping smoking more than 10 years before menopause considerably reduced the risk of early menopause (adj. OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.05–0.33. Total exposure to smoking (the product of number of cigarettes per day and time as a smoker was positively related to early menopause and, at the highest doses, nearly doubled the odds (adj. OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.12–3.30. These data suggest a possible dose-response relationship between total exposure to smoking and early menopause, but no dose-response relationship was detected for the other variables examined. We found no significant association of coffee or alcohol consumption with early menopause. Of the lifestyle factors tested, high educational level (adj. OR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.34–0.72 and high social participation (adj. OR, 0.60, 95% CI, 0.39–0.98 were negatively associated with early menopause. Conclusion This cross-sectional study shows an association between current smoking and early menopause. The data also suggest that the earlier a woman stops smoking the more protected she is from early menopause. Early menopause was not significantly associated with passive

  3. Duration of cognitive dysfunction after concussion, and cognitive dysfunction as a risk factor: a population study of young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teasdale, T W; Engberg, A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish how long cognitive dysfunction lasts after concussion, and the extent to which it may be a predisposing risk factor for concussion, by examining the prevalence of cognitive dysfunction among young men who have sustained concussion. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING......: Denmark. SUBJECTS: 1220 young men who had been admitted to hospital for concussion between the ages of 16 and 24 (identified in a national register of admissions) and who had also been cognitively tested by the Danish conscription draft board. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Score on the draft board's cognitive...... screening test, dichotomised as dysfunctional or non-dysfunctional (20.4% of the general population of Danish men appearing before the draft board had a dysfunctional score). RESULTS: 700 of the 1220 men had been tested after sustaining concussion; 520 had been tested before concussion. Four (50...

  4. Youth suicide attempts and the dose-response relationship to parental risk factors: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, E; Goldney, R D; Beautrai, A L;

    2011-01-01

    illness and low level of income were all significant independent risk factors for offspring's suicide attempts. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of the effect of multiple risk factors on the likelihood of suicide attempts in children and adolescents is important for risk assessment. Dose-response effects......BACKGROUND: There is a lack of specific knowledge about the dose-response effect of multiple parental risk factors for suicide attempts among children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to determine the dose-response effect of multiple parental risk factors on an offspring's risk...... to each case and a link to the offspring's biological parents was established. RESULTS: There was a dose-response relationship between the number of exposures and the risk of suicide attempts, with the increased risk seeming to be a multiplicative effect. Parental suicide, suicide attempt, psychiatric...

  5. Method of evaluating the impact of ERP implementation critical success factors - a case study in oil and gas industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajic, Gordana; Stankovski, Stevan; Ostojic, Gordana; Tesic, Zdravko; Miladinovic, Ljubomir

    2014-01-01

    The so far implemented enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems have in many cases failed to meet the requirements regarding the business process control, decrease of business costs and increase of company profit margin. Therefore, there is a real need for an evaluation of the influence of ERP on the company's performance indicators. Proposed in this article is an advanced model for the evaluation of the success of ERP implementation on organisational and operational performance indicators in oil-gas companies. The recommended method establishes a correlation between a process-based method, a scorecard model and ERP critical success factors. The method was verified and tested on two case studies in oil-gas companies using the following procedure: the model was developed, tested and implemented in a pilot gas-oil company, while the results were implemented and verified in another gas-oil company.

  6. Prevalence of Fracture in Healthy Iranian Children Aged 9–18 Years and Associated Risk Factors; A Population Based Study

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    Marjan Jeddi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of fractures and associated risk factors in healthy Iranian children and adolescents. Methods: In this cross sectional population based study, 478 healthy Iranian children and adolescents aged 9–18 years old participated. Baseline data and bone mineral content and density have been determined. One questionnaire was completed for all individuals including previous history of fracture, its location, and level of trauma. Albumin, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, and vitamin D levels were measured. Results: We found a prevalence of 12.9% for fracture. (34.5% for girls and 65.5% for boys; about 71% suffered long bone fracture with distal forearm as the most common site. Totally 58% of the boys and 54% of the girls had fracture with low-energy trauma. The fracture group had lower bone mineral apparent density in the lumbar spine (0.19±0.04 vs. 0.20±0.03, p=0.04, lower serum albumin (4.6±0.5 vs 4.8±0.4, p=0.02, and higher serum alkaline phosphatase level (446±174 vs. 361±188, p=0.02 compared with non-fracture subjects. By logistic regression analysis, we found a significant association for sex, and bone mineral content of the lumbar spine with fracture (p=0.003, p=0.039. Conclusion: Compared to other studies, our subjects had lower rate of fracture. We found an association between low bone density and fracture in children and adolescents. This finding has important implications for public health. Further research may contribute to recognition of preventive measures.

  7. Different patterns of boys' externalizing behavior and their relation to risk factors: a longitudinal study of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemmler, M; Lösel, F

    2010-01-01

    Childrens' externalizing behaviors such as aggression, delinquency and impulsivity are serious problems in many societies. In previous person-oriented analyses we found two types of externalizing problems in boys. One pattern contained externalizing problems only, whereas the other type showed both externalizing and internalizing problems (anxiety, depression etc.). The present study addressed these two groups in a prospective longitudinal design. It was investigated whether the previous descriptive findings remained stable over time and, in particular, whether the two types differed in important risk factors for antisocial behavior. The sample consisted of 198 boys from the Erlangen-Nuremberg Development and Prevention Study. The first assessment took place in kindergarten and the second 3.4 years later in elementary school. The behavior problems were assessed by ratings of kindergarten teachers and elementary school teachers using the Social Behavior Questionnaire (SBQ). The risk factors were low socio-economic status of the family, birth complications, physical punishment in parenting behavior, difficult temperament, low intelligence, and aggression-prone social information processing of the child. Approximately 15% of the boys revealed externalizing behavior problems. A variable-oriented analysis showed significant stability over time. In a person-oriented Configural Frequency Analysis the 'externalizing only' and the 'combined externalizing and internalizing' pattern could be replicated. For five of the six risk factors we found significant differences between the boys with behavior problems and a non-deviant group. However, the two different patterns of externalizing problems differed only in intelligence (lower for the group with combined problems). The results confirm models of cumulative biological, psychological and social risks for antisocial behavior over time. Furthermore, specified analyses of the two types and their relation to proactive and reactive

  8. The relation of metabolic syndrome according to five definitions to cardiovascular risk factors - a population-based study

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    Lai Ming-May

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP, International Diabetes Federation (IDF, American Heart Association and National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI, World Health Organization (WHO, and the European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance (EGIR definitions of metabolic syndrome (MetS have been commonly used by studies, little is known about agreement among these five definitions. We examined the agreement among these five definitions and explored their relationship with risk factors of cardiovascular disease in a Taiwan population. Methods A total of 1305 subjects aged 40 years and over in Taiwan were analyzed. Biomedical markers and anthropometric indices were measured. Agreement among definitions was determined by the kappa statistic. Logistic regression models were fit to estimate the odds of a high cardiovascular risk group for five definitions of MetS. Results The agreement among the NCEP, IDF, and AHA/NHLBI definitions was from substantial to very good, and agreement between the WHO and EGIR definitions was also substantial. All MetS definitions were significantly associated prevalence of microalbuminuria, elevated highly sensitive CRP (hs-CRP, and arterial stiffness only in women. In men, MetS by NCEP and AHA/NHLBI was associated with elevated level of hs-CRP and arterial stiffness. MetS by WHO and EGIR were significantly associated with microalbuminuria. And MetS by WHO was the only MetS definition that significantly associated with prevalence of arterial stiffness (OR: 2.75, 95% CI: 1.22-6.19. Conclusions The associations of these five definitions with cardiovascular risk factors were similar in women, and it was evident that the five definitions performed better in women than in men, with higher ORs observed in relation to arterial stiffness, elevated hs-CRP, and higher Framingham risk scores.

  9. Urinary concentrations of parabens and their association with demographic factors: A population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hui-Seung; Kyung, Min-Sik; Ko, Ahra; Park, Jae-Hong; Hwang, Myung-Sil; Kwon, Ji-Eun; Suh, Jin-Hyang; Lee, Hee-Seok; Moon, Gui Im; Hong, Jin-Hwan; Hwang, In Gyun

    2016-04-01

    Parabens are broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents used in a range of consumer products, including personal care products, cosmetics, and food. Recently, the widespread use of parabens has raised concerns about the potential health risks associated with their endocrine-disrupting effect. In the present study, 2541 urine samples were collected and analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of the concentrations of methyl paraben (MeP), ethyl paraben (EtP), propyl paraben (PrP) and butyl paraben (BuP). The detection rate and geometric mean concentrations of parabens in the general population followed the order MeP (97.7%; 116ng/mL)>EtP (97.2%; 24.7ng/mL)>PrP (96.7%; 11.0ng/mL)>BuP (83.5%; 1.13ng/mL). The composition profiles showed that MeP and EtP accounted for >90% of the urinary paraben concentration. We performed statistical analysis in order to evaluate differences between demographic variables and urinary concentrations. Our results showed that adjusted proportional change of MeP, PrP, and BuP in adults were 2.67-6.13 times higher in females than in males. The urinary concentrations of PrP in adults increased significantly with age. The adjusted proportional changes of MeP and PrP in adults were associated with increased body mass index (BMI). The adjusted proportional changes of BuP and PrP in children and adolescents were 1.44 and 1.69 times higher in females than in males. However, there was no clear association between paraben concentrations and demographic variables in the children and adolescents groups. The estimated daily intake (EDIurine) of MeP and EtP in adults were 301μg/kg bw/day, which is lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI; 10mg/kg bw/day). In summary, our results revealed that the general population in Korea was exposed to parabens during 2009-2010, and most Koreans are exposed to parabens. The urinary levels of parabens varied by age group with demographic factors in the Korean population. The results of

  10. Prevalence of falls among community-dwelling elderly and its associated factors: A cross-sectional study in Perak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeong, U Y; Tan, S Y; Yap, J F; Choo, W Y

    2016-01-01

    Fall is a major cause of injuries and can increase the risk of early mortality among elderly. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of falls among community-dwelling elderly in rural Malaysia and its associated factors. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey in five randomly selected districts in the state of Perak, Malaysia. A total of 250 households were randomly selected. A total of 811 individuals aged 60 years or more were recruited and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Information about socio-demographic, history of falls in the past 1 year, medical history, drug history and physical activity level were enquired. The prevalence of falls in the past 1 year among community-dwelling elderly was reported to be 4.07%. Indigenous elderly (Adjusted odd ratio, AOR = 6.06, 95% CI = 1.10-33.55, p = 0.039) and living alone (AOR = 2.60, 95% CI = 1.04-6.50, p = 0.042) were shown to be factors associated with falls. Physical activity level, number of co-morbidities and number of medications used were not associated with falls. Elderly of indigenous ethnicity and living alone are the main factors associated with falls in this population. Indigenous people may be at higher risk, which warrant further investigation with a larger sample to improve the precision of estimates.

  11. Healthy gestational weight gain prevalence and associated risk factors: A population-based study in the far South of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Patricia MARMITT

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To measure and identify the factors associated with healthy weight gain during pregnancy in the municipality of Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Methods This was a population-based, cross-sectional study that included all parturient women from the municipality who gave birth at its maternity hospitals in 2013. Information was collected by interview with the mothers in the first 48 hours following parturition and from the prenatal care cards. Healthy weight gain was evaluated according to the Institute of Medicine guidelines. Data analysis used Poisson regression with robust variance using previous hierarchical model. Results Among the 1,784 pregnant participants, 89% attended at least six prenatal care visits, and 32% had healthy weight gain during pregnancy. Higher education level and fewer children resulted in a higher prevalence ratio for healthy weight gain (p=0.003 and p=0.029, respectively. Underweight women at conception had a higher proportion of healthy weight gain (p<0.001. Despite extensive coverage, prenatal care did not affect healthy weight gain during pregnancy (p=0.104. Conclusion The low proportion of women with healthy gestational weight gain suggests a need of better prenatal care services. Women who are overweight, have lower education levels, and had had multiple pregnancies at conception need special attention.

  12. Physical activity level in Achilles tendinosis is associated with blood levels of pain-related factors: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagge, J; Gaida, J E; Danielson, P; Alfredson, H; Forsgren, S

    2011-12-01

    Physical activity affects the pain symptoms for Achilles tendinosis patients. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and their receptors have been detected in human Achilles tendon. This pilot study aimed to compare serum BDNF and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor I (sTNFRI) levels in Achilles tendinosis patients and healthy controls and to examine the influence of physical activity, and BMI and gender, on these levels. Physical activity was measured with a validated questionnaire, total physical activity being the parameter analyzed. Physical activity was strongly correlated with BDNF among tendinosis women [Spearman's rho (ρ)=0.90, Ptendinosis and control men. Physical activity was significantly correlated with sTNFRI in the entire tendinosis group and among tendinosis men (ρ=0.65, P=0.01), but not in the entire control group or among control men (ρ=0.04, P=0.91). Thus, the physical activity pattern is related to the TNF and BDNF systems for tendinosis patients but not controls, the relationship being gender dependent. This is new information concerning the relationship between physical activity and Achilles tendinosis, which may be related to pain for the patients. This aspect should be further evaluated using larger patient materials. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Ecosystem service trade-offs and their influencing factors: A case study in the Loess Plateau of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qiang; Zhao, Wenwu; Fu, Bojie; Ding, Jingyi; Wang, Shuai

    2017-12-31

    Soil erosion control (SEC), carbon sequestration (CAS), and soil moisture (SMO) strongly interact in the semi-arid Loess Plateau. Since SMO has supportive effects on SEC and CAS, it can be considered as ecosystem service (ES), and there is an immediate need to coordinate the relationships among these ecosystem services (ESs) to promote the sustainability of vegetation recovery. In this study, we quantified the ESs, ES trade-offs, and the environmental factors in 151 sample plots in the Ansai watershed, and we used a redundancy analysis (RDA) to clarify the effects of environmental factors on these ESs and their trade-offs. The results were as follows: (1) the general trend in the SEC of vegetation types was Robinia pseudoacacia (CH)>native grass (NG)>small arbor (ST)>Hippophae rhamnoides (SJ)>artificial grass (AG)>Caragana korshinskii (NT)>apple orchard (GY)>crop (CP); the CAS trend was CH>SJ>NT>AG>CP>ST>GY>NG; and the SMO trend was CP>NG>GY>AG>SJ>ST>CH>NT. (2) For SEC-SMO trade-offs, the influence of vegetation type, altitude, silt and sand composition was dominant. The arrangement of NG, AG, and SJ could decrease the extent of the trade-offs. (3) For CAS-SMO trade-offs, vegetation coverage and types were the dominant factors, but the effects were not complex. The extent of these trade-offs was lowest for NT, and that for SJ was the second lowest. (4) Considering the relationships among the three ESs, SJ was the most appropriate afforestation plant. Combing the vegetation types, slope position, slope gradient, and soil properties could regulate these ES relationships. The dominant factors influencing ES trade-offs varied among the different soil layers, so we must consider the corresponding influencing factors to regulate ESs. Moreover, manual management measures were also important for coordinating the ES relationships. Our research provides a better understanding of the mechanisms influencing the relationships among ESs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  14. The interaction of cadmium with atrial natriuretic factor: A study in in vivo and in vitro models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giridhar, J.

    1990-01-01

    The involvement of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) and its receptor in cadmium(Cd)-induced cardiovascular alterations and neurotoxicity is not known. This study examines the mechanisms underlying Cd-induced changes in the ANF peptide and its receptor in cardiovascular toxicity. In rats on short term Cd exposure (0.01, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg, i.p., twice a day for 7 days and a maintenance period of 30 days), atrial ANF levels decreased significantly in the Cd 1 mg/kg group; plasma ANF levels were unchanged. Hypothalamic ANF content decreased significantly in 0.1-1.0 mg/kg Cd groups. Plasma renin activity and concentration were unchanged by Cd treatment. However, plasma aldosterone was significantly decreased in Cd 1.0 mg/kg group. Binding of [sup 125]I-ANF to its receptors in kidney, adrenals and aorta was not significantly altered. Cd treatment decreased urine volume indicating nephrotoxicity. Neuromodulation by ANF involved significant decrease in K[sup +] stimulated [[sup 3]H]NE release in rat hypothalamic slices. This action is proposed to be mediated by ANF-B receptors. 8Br-cGMP mimicked this action. In Cd treated animals (0.5 mg/kg twice a day for 7 days and maintained for 30 days), ANF neuromodulation in the hypothalmus was blocked, even though Cd content was undetectable. Cd preincubated (0.5 mM) slices showed a 49.1% block in neurotransmitter release indicating that Cd may block calcium channels leading to decreased K[sup +]-stimulated release of [[sup 3]H]NE. Hence, Cd-induced cardiovascular toxicity and neurotoxicity may be partly mediated by alteration in the release and possibly the synthesis of ANF peptide, disruption of ANF function through alterations in receptor dynamics and possibly alteration in cellular calcium homeostasis and membrane integrity. Central ANF function is sensitive to Cd and this effect may be partly resposible for the cardiovascular and neurotoxic responses to CD.

  15. STUDY OF DEPRESSION AMONG ADOLESCENT STUDENTS OF RURAL MAHARASHTRA AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelke Umesh S, Kunkulol Rahul R, Phalke Vaishali D, Narwane Sandeep P, Patel Prashant C

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder that appears in adolescents. It has an adverse effect on physical as well as mental health. Many adolescents remain undiagnosed due to no accessibility to clinics. Objectives: To study demographic factors and their association with depression among adolescents of rural Maharashtra. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 300 students (30 of either sex from 8th to 12th class. 6 item KADS (Kutcher Adolescent Depression Scale, BG Prasad’s modified socioeconomic scale and demographic data were collected from volunteers. Results: 6.66% of students were screened positive for depression by the scale. No statistical difference was found in number of students with depression with respect to sex, class and socioeconomic status. However the residence and type of family showed significant difference in number students of depression. Conclusion: the KADS is a good screening tool for depression and should be implemented for adolescents studying in rural areas for prevention and early treatment of depression.

  16. RANTES/CCL5 and risk for coronary events: Results from the MONICA/KORA Augsburg case-cohort, Athero-express and CARDIoGRAM studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Kathiresan (Sekar); M.P. Reilly (Muredach); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); H. Schunkert (Heribert); J. Erdmann (Jeanette); F.L. Moll (Frans); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); A. Hall (Anne); C. Hengstenberg (Christian); I.R. König (Inke); R. Laaksonen (Reijo); R. McPherson (Ruth); J.R. Thompson (John); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); A. Ziegler (Andreas); W. Koenig (Wolfgang); L. Chen (Li); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); E. Halperin (Eran); X. Li (Xiaohui); K. Musunuru (Kiran); M. Preuss (Michael); A. Schillert (Arne); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); B.F. Voight (Benjamin); G.A. Wells (George); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); H. Holm (Hilma); R. Roberts (Robert); A.F.R. Stewart (Alexandre); S.P. Fortmann (Stephen); A. Go (Attie); M.A. Hlatky (Mark); C. Iribarren (Carlos); J.W. Knowles (Joshua); R.H. Myers (Richard); T. Quertermous (Thomas); S. Sidney (Steven); N. Risch; H. Tang (Hui); S. Blankenberg (Stefan); T. Zeller (Tanja); P.S. Wild (Philipp); R.B. Schnabel (Renate); C. Sinning (Christoph); K.J. Lackner (Karl); L. Tiret (Laurence); V. Nicaud; F. Cambien (François); H. Bickel (Horst); H.J. Rupprecht; C. Perret (Claire); C. Proust (Carole); T. Munzel (Thomas); M. Barbalic (maja); J.C. Bis (Joshua); I.Y.-D. Chen (Ida Yii-Der); A. Dehghan (Abbas); S. Demissie-Banjaw (Serkalem); A.R. Folsom (Aaron); N.L. Glazer (Nicole); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); T.B. Harris (Tamara); S.R. Heckbert (Susan); D. Levy (Daniel); T. Lumley (Thomas); K. Marciante (Kristin); A.C. Morrison (Alanna); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); K. Rice (Kenneth); J.I. Rotter (Jerome); D.S. Siscovick (David); N.L. Smith (Nicholas); G.D. Smith; K.D. Taylor (Kent); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); K.A. Volcik (Kelly); J. Whitteman (Jaqueline); V.S. Ramachandran (Vasan); A. Hofman (Albert); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); S. Gretarsdottir (Solveig); J.R. Gulcher (Jeffrey); A. Kong (Augustine); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); G. Thorgeirsson (Gudmundur); K. Andersen (Karl); M. Fischer (Marcus); A. Großhennig (Anika); W. Lieb (Wolfgang); P. Linsel-Nitschke (Patrick); K. Stark (Klaus); S. Schreiber (Stefan); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); Z. Aherrahrou (Zouhair); P. Bruse (Petra); A. Doering (Angela); T. Illig (Thomas); N. Klopp (Norman); C. Loley (Christina); A. Medack (Anja); C. Meisinger (Christa); T. Meitinger (Thomas); J. Nahrstedt (Janja); A. Peters (Annette); A.K. Wagner (Arnika); C. Willenborg (Christina); B. Böhm; H. Dobnig (Harald); T.B. Grammer (Tanja); M.M. Hoffmann (Michael); M. Kleber (Martina); W. März (Winfried); A. Meinitzer (Andreas); B. Winkelmann; D.T. Pilz (Daniela); W. Renner (Wilfried); H. Scharnagl (Hubert); T. Stojakovic (Tatjana); A. Tomaschitz (Andreas); K. Winkler (Karl); C. Guiducci (Candace); N.P. Burtt (Noël); S.B. Gabriel (Stacey); R. Elosua (Roberto); L. Peltonen (Leena Johanna); V. Salomaa (Veikko); S.M. Schwartz (Stephen); O. Melander (Olle); D. Altshuler (David); S. Dandona (Sonny); O. Jarinova (Olga); L. Qu (Liming); A. Wilensky (Asaf); W. Matthai (William); H. Hakonarson (Hakon); J. Devaney (Joseph); M.S. Burnett; A.D. Pichard; K.M. Kent (Kenneth); L.F. Satler; J.M. Lindsay (Joseph); R. Waksman (Ron); C.W. Knouff (Christopher); D. Waterworth (Dawn); M.C. Walker (Max); V. Mooser (Vincent); S.E. Epstein (Stephen); D.J. Rader (Daniel); P.S. Braund (Peter); C.P. Nelson (Christopher P.); B.J. Wright (Benjamin); A.J. Balmforth (Anthony); S.G. Ball (Stephen)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The chemokine RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted)/CCL5 is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in mice, whereas less is known in humans. We hypothesised that its relevance for atherosclerosis should be reflected by

  17. Practical experience of ustekinumab in the treatment of psoriasis: experience from a multicentre, retrospective case cohort study across the U.K. and Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    Background There are limited data on the use of ustekinumab outside of clinical trials. Objectives To assess the efficacy and safety of ustekinumab in patients with severe psoriasis attending 10 dermatology centres in the U.K. and Ireland. Methods A retrospective case-note review of 129 patients with psoriasis treated with ustekinumab. Results Baseline Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) was 22.9 +\\/- 10.1 (mean +\\/- SD). After 16 weeks of treatment with ustekinumab PASI 75 (75% reduction in PASI) was observed in 63.0% (n = 80\\/127) of patients, although four patients required concomitant therapy at the 16-week time point. Previous biologic use did show a small, non-significant trend towards treatment failure. A PASI 75 response was seen in 29.4% (n = 5\\/17) of individuals weighing 90-100 kg and treated with the standard 45 mg ustekinumab dose compared with PASI 75 of 70.3%, 71.4%, 75.0% and 55.6% for weight groups < 80, 80-90, 100-110 and > 110 kg, respectively (P = 0.024). Ustekinumab therapy was well tolerated; serious adverse events were observed in 2.3% (n = 3\\/129) of patients. Conclusions Ustekinumab is a novel biologic agent for psoriasis. When used in everyday clinical practice it demonstrates high levels of short-term therapeutic efficacy with an acceptable short-term safety profile.

  18. RANTES/CCL5 and risk for coronary events: Results from the MONICA/KORA Augsburg case-cohort, Athero-express and CARDIoGRAM studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Kathiresan (Sekar); M.P. Reilly (Muredach); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); H. Schunkert (Heribert); J. Erdmann (Jeanette); F.L. Moll (Frans); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); A. Hall (Anne); C. Hengstenberg (Christian); I.R. König (Inke); R. Laaksonen (Reijo); R. McPherson (Ruth); J.R. Thompson (John); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); A. Ziegler (Andreas); W. Koenig (Wolfgang); L. Chen (Li); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); E. Halperin (Eran); X. Li (Xiaohui); K. Musunuru (Kiran); M. Preuss (Michael); A. Schillert (Arne); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); B.F. Voight (Benjamin); G.A. Wells (George); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); H. Holm (Hilma); R. Roberts (Robert); A.F.R. Stewart (Alexandre); S.P. Fortmann (Stephen); A. Go (Attie); M.A. Hlatky (Mark); C. Iribarren (Carlos); J.W. Knowles (Joshua); R.H. Myers (Richard); T. Quertermous (Thomas); S. Sidney (Steven); N. Risch; H. Tang (Hui); S. Blankenberg (Stefan); T. Zeller (Tanja); P.S. Wild (Philipp); R.B. Schnabel (Renate); C. Sinning (Christoph); K.J. Lackner (Karl); L. Tiret (Laurence); V. Nicaud; F. Cambien (François); H. Bickel (Horst); H.J. Rupprecht; C. Perret (Claire); C. Proust (Carole); T. Munzel (Thomas); M. Barbalic (maja); J.C. Bis (Joshua); I.Y.-D. Chen (Ida Yii-Der); A. Dehghan (Abbas); S. Demissie-Banjaw (Serkalem); A.R. Folsom (Aaron); N.L. Glazer (Nicole); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); T.B. Harris (Tamara); S.R. Heckbert (Susan); D. Levy (Daniel); T. Lumley (Thomas); K. Marciante (Kristin); A.C. Morrison (Alanna); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); K. Rice (Kenneth); J.I. Rotter (Jerome); D.S. Siscovick (David); N.L. Smith (Nicholas); G.D. Smith; K.D. Taylor (Kent); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); K.A. Volcik (Kelly); J. Whitteman (Jaqueline); V.S. Ramachandran (Vasan); A. Hofman (Albert); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); S. Gretarsdottir (Solveig); J.R. Gulcher (Jeffrey); A. Kong (Augustine); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); G. Thorgeirsson (Gudmundur); K. Andersen (Karl); M. Fischer (Marcus); A. Großhennig (Anika); W. Lieb (Wolfgang); P. Linsel-Nitschke (Patrick); K. Stark (Klaus); S. Schreiber (Stefan); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); Z. Aherrahrou (Zouhair); P. Bruse (Petra); A. Doering (Angela); T. Illig (Thomas); N. Klopp (Norman); C. Loley (Christina); A. Medack (Anja); C. Meisinger (Christa); T. Meitinger (Thomas); J. Nahrstedt (Janja); A. Peters (Annette); A.K. Wagner (Arnika); C. Willenborg (Christina); B. Böhm; H. Dobnig (Harald); T.B. Grammer (Tanja); M.M. Hoffmann (Michael); M. Kleber (Martina); W. März (Winfried); A. Meinitzer (Andreas); B. Winkelmann; D.T. Pilz (Daniela); W. Renner (Wilfried); H. Scharnagl (Hubert); T. Stojakovic (Tatjana); A. Tomaschitz (Andreas); K. Winkler (Karl); C. Guiducci (Candace); N.P. Burtt (Noël); S.B. Gabriel (Stacey); R. Elosua (Roberto); L. Peltonen (Leena Johanna); V. Salomaa (Veikko); S.M. Schwartz (Stephen); O. Melander (Olle); D. Altshuler (David); S. Dandona (Sonny); O. Jarinova (Olga); L. Qu (Liming); A. Wilensky (Asaf); W. Matthai (William); H. Hakonarson (Hakon); J. Devaney (Joseph); M.S. Burnett; A.D. Pichard; K.M. Kent (Kenneth); L.F. Satler; J.M. Lindsay (Joseph); R. Waksman (Ron); C.W. Knouff (Christopher); D. Waterworth (Dawn); M.C. Walker (Max); V. Mooser (Vincent); S.E. Epstein (Stephen); D.J. Rader (Daniel); P.S. Braund (Peter); C.P. Nelson (Christopher P.); B.J. Wright (Benjamin); A.J. Balmforth (Anthony); S.G. Ball (Stephen)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The chemokine RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted)/CCL5 is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in mice, whereas less is known in humans. We hypothesised that its relevance for atherosclerosis should be reflected by associat

  19. Neonatal Vitamin D Levels in Relation to Risk of Overweight at 7 Years in the Danish D-Tect Case-Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla B; Lundqvist, Marika; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2017-01-01

    , neither in the crude model (OR (CI) 1.00 (0.99; 1.00)) nor in a model adjusted for maternal ethnicity, educational level, civil status, parity, season and year of birth, and offspring ponderal index (OR (CI) 1.00 (0.99; 1.01)). CONCLUSION: Risk of overweight at 7 years of age was not associated...

  20. Transition in health status from childhood to adulthood and associated risk factors: A 13 year interval follow-up study in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oosthuizen, MA

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews the health status and lifestyle aspects of young adults who participated as 10-year-old children in the Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) during 1990, and of whom the health status, as children of ten years old...

  1. Body Mass Index (BMI) status and relevant factors: A cross-sectional study in students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2015

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Obesity is one of the most important problems of modern society, and body mass index (BMI) is a tool to indicate overweight and obesity in adults. Obesity is directly associated with many non-communicable diseases. So for this reason, it was designed a study to assess overweight and obesity in Kooy dormitory students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2015. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 342 students (210 girls and 132 boys) selected by ...

  2. Academic Failure of First-Year Engineering and Technological Students in India and Assessment of Motivation Factors--A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheruvalath, Reena

    2012-01-01

    This study has been conducted to show that there is a recent trend in engineering colleges in India that students who are considered to be highly intelligent show poor academic performance during their 1st year. This article is proposed to examine the role of motivation factors such as teaching methods and learning material in the academic…

  3. Chronic kidney disease itself is a causal risk factor for stroke beyond traditional cardiovascular risk factors: a nationwide cohort study in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chun Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. In Taiwan, CVD is dominated by strokes but there is no robust evidence for a causal relationship between CKD and stroke. This study aimed to explore such causal association. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide retrospective cohort study based on the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from 2004 to 2007. Each patient identified was individually tracked for a full three years from the index admission to identify those in whom any type of stroke developed. The study cohort consisted of patients hospitalized with a principal diagnosis of CKD and no traditional cardiovascular risk factors at baseline (n = 1393 and an age-matched control cohort of patients hospitalized for appendectomies (n = 1393, a surrogate for the general population. Cox proportional hazard regression and propensity score model were used to compare the three-year stroke-free survival rate of the two cohorts after adjustment for possible confounding factors. RESULTS: There were 256 stroke patients, 156 (11.2% in the study cohort and 100 (7.2% in the control cohort. After adjusting for covariates, patients with primary CKD had a 1.94-fold greater risk for stroke (95% CI, 1.45-2.60; p<0.001 based on Cox regression and a 1.68-fold greater risk for stroke (95% CI, 1.25-2.25; p = 0.001 based on propensity score. This was still the case for two cohorts younger than 75 years old and without traditional cardiovascular risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: This study of Taiwanese patients indicates that CKD itself is a causal risk factor for stroke beyond the traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Primary CKD patients have higher risk for stroke than the general population and all CKD patients, irrespective of the presence or severity of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, should be made aware of the stroke risk and monitored for stroke prevention.

  4. Burnout in intensive care units - a consideration of the possible prevalence and frequency of new risk factors: a descriptive correlational multicentre study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The provision of Intensive Care (IC) can lead to a health care provider’s physical, psychological and emotional exhaustion, which may develop into burnout. We notice the absence of specific studies regarding this syndrome in Portuguese Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Our main objective is to study the incidence and risk factors of burnout in Portuguese ICUs. Methods A self-fulfilment questionnaire containing 3 items: (i) socio-demographic data of the study population; (ii) experiences in the workplace; (iii) Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) - was applied to evaluate the influence of distinct factors on the prevalence of burnout among physicians and nurses working in ICUs. Results Three hundred professionals (82 physicians and 218 nurses) from ten ICUs were included in the study, out of a total of 445 who were eligible. There was a high rate of burnout among professionals working in Portuguese ICUs, with 31% having a high level of burnout. However, when burnout levels among nurses and physicians were compared, no significant difference was found. Using multivariate analysis, we identified gender as being a risk factor, where female status increases the risk of burnout. In addition, higher levels of burnout were associated with conflicts and ethical decision making regarding withdrawing treatments. Having a temporary work contract was also identified as a risk factor. Conversely, working for another service of the same health care institution acts as a protective factor. Conclusions A high rate of burnout was identified among professionals working in Portuguese ICUs. This study highlights some new risk factors for burnout (ethical decision making, temporary work contracts), and also protective ones (maintaining activity in other settings outside the ICU) that were not previously reported. Preventive and interventive programmes to avoid and reduce burnout syndrome are of paramount importance in the future organization of ICUs and should take the above results

  5. Neglected Intestinal Parasites, Malnutrition and Associated Key Factors: A Population Based Cross-Sectional Study among Indigenous Communities in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajoo, Yamuna; Ambu, Stephen; Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian; Rajoo, Komalaveni; Tey, Siew Chang; Lu, Chan Woon; Ngui, Romano

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) have been recognized as one of the most significant causes of illness among disadvantaged communities. Many studies have been conducted on the prevalence of IPIs in Malaysia. However, these studies mostly focused on the indigenous groups in Peninsular Malaysia. The present study was conducted to provide the current baseline data on prevalence of IPIs, anaemia, malnutrition and associated risk factors among the indigenous communities in Sarawak, situation at northwest Borneo island of Malaysia. A cross sectional study was conducted among the longhouses communities. Stool samples were obtained and examined for the presence of IPIs using microscopy technique. Haemoglobin measurement was done using a portable haemoglobin analyzer. Malnutrition (i.e., stunting, underweight and wasting) was assessed using the WHO Anthro software. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS software. A total of 341participants took part in this study. The overall prevalence of IPIs was 57.5%. Multivariate analysis indicated that the absence of toilets (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1-2.7; p = 0.002) and close contact with animals (OR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.3-2.9; p = 0.027) as significant predictors for IPIs. The incidence of anaemia was 36.4%. The incidence of underweight, wasting and stunting were 22.2%, 5.6% and 35.4%, respectively. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that low level of parental education attainment (OR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.2-3.0; p = 0.006) was identified as significant predictor for anaemia. The incidence of wasting was significantly associated with mild anaemia (OR = 1.2; 95% CI = 0.9-1.7; p = 0.024). Low household income was identified as significant predictor for stunting (OR = 2.1; 95% CI = 9.8-22.2; p = 0.001) and underweight (OR = 1.9; 95% CI = 5.6-18.7; p = 0.037), respectively. Essentially, the present study highlighted that intestinal parasitic infections, anaemia and malnutrition are still prevalent among rural indigenous community

  6. The Burden of Diarrheal Diseases among Children under Five Years of Age in Arba Minch District, Southern Ethiopia, and Associated Risk Factors: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, Shikur; Tamiru, Dessalegn

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. In Ethiopia diarrhea is the second cause for clinical presentation among under five-year child population next to pneumonia and it is also more common in rural than in urban areas. Methods. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Arba Minch District. Data were collected using structured questionnaire by trained data collectors. To identify predictors of diarrhea the negative binomial regression model was used to predict and control the effect of confounders. Res...

  7. Internet addiction: Prevalence and risk factors: A cross-sectional study among college students in Bengaluru, the Silicon Valley of India

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Internet is a widely used tool known to foster addictive behavior, and Internet addiction threatens to develop into a major public health issue in the near future in a rapidly developing country like India. Objective: This cross-sectional study intends to estimate prevalence, understand patterns, and evaluate risk factors for Internet addiction among college students in the city of Bengaluru, India. Materials and Methods: Out of a total of 554 data samples from eight colleges ...

  8. Lean Startup: A success factor? A quantitative study of how use of the Lean Startup framework affects the success of Norwegian high-tech startups.

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Lean Startup is a framework for entrepreneurship that has gained considerable popularity among entrepreneurs, yet the framework has not been thoroughly scrutinized in academic circles. This thesis aims to fill this gap in two ways. First, by comparing Lean Startup to more established models on entrepreneurship in a theoretical perspective. Second, by conducting an empirical study of how Lean Startup influences entrepreneurial success in practice. In our theoretical review, we found that while...

  9. Association between relocation and changes in cardiometabolic risk factors: a longitudinal study in tsunami survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to determine changes in atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk factors with and without serious disaster-related mental and socioeconomic problems represented by relocation (REL). Design A longitudinal survey. Setting Multiphasic health check-ups for the general population affected by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. Participants A total 6528 disaster survivors in heavily tsunami-damaged municipalities were recruited. Two sequential surveys we...

  10. Execution of diagnostic testing has a stronger effect on emergency department crowding than other common factors: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahisa Kawano

    Full Text Available STUDY OBJECTIVE: We compared the effects of execution of diagnostic tests in the emergency department (ED and other common factors on the length of ED stay to identify those with the greatest impacts on ED crowding. METHODS: Between February 2010 and January 2012, we conducted a cross-sectional, single-center study in the ED of a large, urban, teaching hospital in Japan. Patients who visited the ED during the study period were enrolled. We excluded (1 patients scheduled for admission or pharmaceutical prescription, and (2 neonates requiring intensive care transferred from other hospitals. Multivariate linear regression was performed on log-transformed length of ED stay in admitted and discharged patients to compare influence of diagnostic tests and other common predictors. To quantify the range of change in length of ED stay given a unit change of the predictor, a generalized linear model was used for each group. RESULTS: During the study period, 55,285 patients were enrolled. In discharged patients, laboratory blood tests had the highest standardized β coefficient (0.44 among common predictors, and increased length of ED stay by 72.5 minutes (95% CI, 72.8-76.1 minutes. In admitted patients, computed tomography (CT had the highest standardized β coefficient (0.17, and increased length of ED stay by 32.7 minutes (95% CI, 40.0-49.9 minutes. Although other common input and output factors were significant contributors, they had smaller standardized β coefficients in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Execution of laboratory blood tests and CT had a stronger influence on length of ED stay than other common input and output factors.

  11. Association between intake of dairy products and short-term memory with and without adjustment for genetic and family environmental factors: A twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Soshiro; Tanaka, Haruka; Omura, Kayoko; Honda, Chika; Hayakawa, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have indicated associations between intake of dairy products and better cognitive function and reduced risk of dementia. However, these studies did not adjust for genetic and family environmental factors that may influence food intake, cognitive function, and metabolism of dairy product nutrients. In the present study, we investigated the association between intake of dairy products and short-term memory with and without adjustment for almost all genetic and family environmental factors using a genetically informative sample of twin pairs. A cross-sectional study was conducted among twin pairs aged between 20 and 74. Short-term memory was assessed as primary outcome variable, intake of dairy products was analyzed as the predictive variable, and sex, age, education level, marital status, current smoking status, body mass index, dietary alcohol intake, and medical history of hypertension or diabetes were included as possible covariates. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were performed by treating twins as individuals and regression analyses were used to identify within-pair differences of a twin pair to adjust for genetic and family environmental factors. Data are reported as standardized coefficients and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Analyses were performed on data from 78 men and 278 women. Among men, high intake of dairy products was significantly associated with better short-term memory after adjustment for the possible covariates (standardized coefficients = 0.22; 95% CI, 0.06-0.38) and almost all genetic and family environmental factors (standardized coefficients = 0.38; 95% CI, 0.07-0.69). Among women, no significant associations were found between intake of dairy products and short-term memory. Subsequent sensitivity analyses were adjusted for small samples and showed similar results. Intake of dairy product may prevent cognitive declines regardless of genetic and family environmental factors in men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd

  12. Musculoskeletal pain in Arctic indigenous and non-indigenous adolescents, prevalence and associations with psychosocial factors: A population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Eckhoff, Christian; Kvernmo, Siv

    2014-01-01

    Background Pain is common in otherwise healthy adolescents. In recent years widespread musculoskeletal pain, in contrast to single site pain, and associating factors has been emphasized. Musculoskeletal pain has not been examined in Arctic indigenous adolescents. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of widespread musculoskeletal pain and its association with psychosocial factors, with emphasis on gender- and ethnic differences (Sami vs. non-Sami), and the influence of pain rela...

  13. Determinants of the components of arterial pressure among older adults--the role of anthropometric and clinical factors: a multi-continent study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Koyanagi, Ai; Garin, Noe; Olaya, Beatriz; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Miret, Marta; Chatterji, Somnath; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Koskinen, Seppo; Leonardi, Matilde; Haro, Josep Maria

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors associated with different components of arterial blood pressure in nine nationally-representative samples of people aged ≥50 years. Data were available for 53,289 people aged ≥18 years who participated in the SAGE (WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health) study conducted in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, and South Africa, and the COURAGE (Collaborative Research on Ageing in Europe) study conducted in Finland, Poland, and Spain, between 2007 and 2012. Standard procedures were used to obtain diastolic and systolic blood pressure (DBP, SBP) measurements to identify hypertensive participants, and to determine mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP). The analytical sample consisted of 42,116 people aged 50 years or older. South Africa had the highest prevalence of hypertension (78.3%), and the highest measurements of MAP ± SD (113.6 ± 36.4 mmHg), SBP ± SD (146.4 ± 49.5 mmHg), and DBP ± SD (97.2 ± 33.9 mmHg). In the adjusted models, dose-dependent positive associations between Body Mass Index (BMI) and MAP or PP were observed in most countries (p < 0.05). Diabetes was positively associated with PP in most countries but the association between diabetes and MAP was less consistent. Stroke was associated with both higher MAP and PP in China, Ghana, and South Africa (p < 0.05). Obesity and diabetes remain important modifiable risk factors for arterial peripheral resistance and stiffness as reflected by MAP and PP respectively. Controlling arterial pressure abnormalities after stroke events may be important for secondary prevention, particularly in developing countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence and association of female weight status and dietary habits with sociodemographic factors: a cross-sectional study in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, Atika; Westergren, Albert; Berggren, Vanja; Ekblom, Örjan; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M

    2015-04-01

    Research about the prevalence of underweight and overweight/obesity in the Saudi Arabian female population is limited. The aim of the present study was to examine the dietary habits and the prevalence of underweight and overweight/obesity and associated factors among female university students. A cross-sectional study. A university centre for female students in south-western Saudi Arabia. The study involved 663 randomly selected female university students who self-reported their physical activities, nutritional habits and socio-economic factors. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with the students' BMI, dietary variables, underweight and overweight/obesity. The majority of the university females were normal weight (56.9%), but a high prevalence of underweight (19.2%) and overweight/obesity (23.8%) occurred. Social factors significantly associated with BMI were the presence of obese parents and siblings as well as physical activity levels, marital status, number of sisters, father's level of education and more frequent intake of French fries/potato chips (>3 times/week). Several variables were found to correlate with dietary habits, underweight and overweight/obesity. Of special interest is the association between the number of siblings and the participants' BMI and dietary intake in both negative and positive ways. The findings of this research have implications for health promotion and prevention of malnutrition among college-aged females. Health-care providers and policy makers need to involve the whole family when promoting females' physical activity. The study serves as an evidence-based background for planning and implementation of interventions targeting improvement of highly educated populations' nutritional habits.

  15. Suicide rate in relation to the Human Development Index and other health related factors: A global ecological study from 91 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, Salman; Armanmehr, Vajihe; Nematollahi, Shahrzad; Rezaeian, Shahab; Khazaei, Somayeh

    2017-06-01

    There has been no worldwide ecological study on suicide as a global major public health problem. This study aimed to identify the variations in suicide specific rates using the Human Development Index (HDI) and some health related variables among countries around the world. In this ecological study, we obtained the data from the World Bank Report 2013. The analysis was restricted to 91 countries for which both the epidemiologic data from the suicide rates and HDI were available. Overall, the global prevalence of suicide rate was 10.5 (95% confidence intervals: 8.8, 12.2) per 100,000 individuals, which significantly varied according to gender (16.3 in males vs. 4.6 in females, phuman development (11.64/100,000 individuals in very high development countries, 7.93/100,000 individuals in medium development countries, and 13.94/100,000 individuals in high development countries, p=0.004). In conclusion, the suicide rate varies greatly between countries with different development levels. Our findings also suggest that male gender and HDI components are associated with an increased risk of suicide behaviors. Hence, detecting population subgroups with a high suicide risk and reducing the inequality of socioeconomic determinants are necessary to prevent this disorder around the world. Copyright © 2017 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Physical Activity on Prescription (PAP), in patients with metabolic risk factors. A 6-month follow-up study in primary health care.

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    Lundqvist, Stefan; Börjesson, Mats; Larsson, Maria E H; Hagberg, Lars; Cider, Åsa

    2017-01-01

    There is strong evidence that inadequate physical activity (PA) leads to an increased risk of lifestyle-related diseases and premature mortality. Physical activity on prescription (PAP) is a method to increase the level of PA of patients in primary care, but needs further evaluation. The aim of this observational study was to explore the association between PAP-treatment and the PA level of patients with metabolic risk factors and the relationship between changes in the PA level and health outcomes at the 6 month follow-up. This study included 444 patients in primary care, aged 27-85 years (56% females), who were physically inactive with at least one component of metabolic syndrome. The PAP-treatment model included: individualized dialogue concerning PA, prescribed PA, and a structured follow-up. A total of 368 patients (83%) completed the 6 months of follow-up. Of these patients, 73% increased their PA level and 42% moved from an inadequate PA level to sufficient, according to public health recommendations. There were significant improvements (p≤ 0.05) in the following metabolic risk factors: body mass index, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein. There were also significant improvements regarding health-related quality of life, assessed by the Short Form 36, in: general health, vitality, social function, mental health, role limitation-physical/emotional, mental component summary, and physical component summary. Regression analysis showed a significant association between changes in the PA level and health outcomes. During the first 6-month period, the caregiver provided PAP support 1-2 times. This study indicates that an individual-based model of PAP-treatment has the potential to change people's PA behavior with improved metabolic risk factors and self-reported quality of life at the 6 month follow-up. Thus, PAP seems to be feasible in a clinical primary care practice, with minimum effort

  17. Decision tree-based modelling for identification of potential interactions between type 2 diabetes risk factors: a decade follow-up in a Middle East prospective cohort study

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    Ramezankhani, Azra; Hadavandi, Esmaeil; Pournik, Omid; Shahrabi, Jamal; Azizi, Fereidoun; Hadaegh, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    Objective The current study was undertaken for use of the decision tree (DT) method for development of different prediction models for incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and for exploring interactions between predictor variables in those models. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS). Methods A total of 6647 participants (43.4% men) aged >20 years, without T2D at baselines ((1999–2001) and (2002–2005)), were followed until 2012. 2 series of models (with and without 2-hour postchallenge plasma glucose (2h-PCPG)) were developed using 3 types of DT algorithms. The performances of the models were assessed using sensitivity, specificity, area under the ROC curve (AUC), geometric mean (G-Mean) and F-Measure. Primary outcome measure T2D was primary outcome which defined if fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was ≥7 mmol/L or if the 2h-PCPG was ≥11.1 mmol/L or if the participant was taking antidiabetic medication. Results During a median follow-up of 9.5 years, 729 new cases of T2D were identified. The Quick Unbiased Efficient Statistical Tree (QUEST) algorithm had the highest sensitivity and G-Mean among all the models for men and women. The models that included 2h-PCPG had sensitivity and G-Mean of (78% and 0.75%) and (78% and 0.78%) for men and women, respectively. Both models achieved good discrimination power with AUC above 0.78. FPG, 2h-PCPG, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were the most important factors to incidence of T2D in both genders. Among men, those with an FPG≤4.9 mmol/L and 2h-PCPG≤7.7 mmol/L had the lowest risk, and those with an FPG>5.3 mmol/L and 2h-PCPG>4.4 mmol/L had the highest risk for T2D incidence. In women, those with an FPG≤5.2 mmol/L and WHtR≤0.55 had the lowest risk, and those with an FPG>5.2 mmol/L and WHtR>0.56 had the highest risk for T2D incidence. Conclusions Our study emphasises the utility of DT for exploring interactions between

  18. Seropositivity of Lyme borreliosis and associated risk factors: a population-based study in Children and Adolescents in Germany (KiGGS.

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    Manuel Dehnert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lyme borreliosis (LB caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex is the most common tick-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. Data on the distribution and on risk factors in Germany are sketchy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Blood samples of a nationwide population-based cross-sectional study from 2003-2006 in children and adolescents aged 1 to 17 years in Germany (KiGGS were analysed (n = 12,614 to assess the seroprevalence of anti-Borrelia antibodies. Data from standardized interviews were used to assess potential risk factors. First, sera were screened for anti-Borrelia antibodies by ELISA. The overall prevalence was 4.8% (95% confidence interval (CI 4.3-5.4%. Positive and borderline ELISA test results were confirmed by a line blot revealing a combined prevalence of 4.0% (95% CI 3.6-4.5%. Seroprevalence of ELISA was significantly higher in males (odds ratio (OR = 1.37; CI 1.15-1.63 and in the southern part of Germany (OR = 1.41; CI 1.09-1.83, but significantly lower in children and adolescents with migration background (OR = 0.33; CI 0.24-0.44. Study participants from households with cats had a higher chance of seropositivity (OR = 6.7; CI 5.6-8.0. In a multivariable model the odds of seropositivity increases by 11% for every year of age for boys and 6% for girls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This survey is the first nationwide, representative seroprevalence survey of LB in children and young adolescents. The study shows that infections with Borrelia burgdorferi are endemic in all parts of Germany despite regional differences. Even at a young age children are exposed to tick bites including seropositivity. Encouraging a thorough check for ticks and promptly removal of ticks are the key public health strategies to reduce the risk of LB and other tick-borne diseases in children and adolescents. Further epidemiological studies are warranted to better understand the burden of disease related to LB.

  19. Maternal postnatal care utilization and associated factors: A community-based study among women of child-bearing age in Lagos, Nigeria

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    I P Okafor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Nigeria has one of the highest maternal and child death rates in the world. Postnatal care is one of the major interventions recommended to reduce maternal and newborn deaths globally. The aim of this study is to determine the utilization of postnatal health services and identify the factors which affect this utilization among mothers of under-fives in Lagos. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study among women of child bearing age in Lagos using structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. Six hundred women selected by multi stage sampling method were interviewed and data analyzed with EPI-info Version 3.5.1. Results: Two thirds (66.2% of the respondents utilized postnatal health services. Factors which significantly influenced postnatal health services utilization were: number of children (p=0.031, maternal education (p=0.001, religion (Fisher′s exact p= 0.004, number of antenatal care visits (p<0.001 and skilled attendance at birth (p<0.001. Maternal occupation and time taken to the health facility were not significant determinants of utilization. Conclusion: Utilization of postnatal care services was high but not optimal. Interventions to increase family planning use and improve maternal educational status should be undertaken as well as increasing use of focused antenatal care and skilled delivery services.

  20. Spatial Heterogeneity of Soil Moisture and the Scale Variability of Its Influencing Factors: A Case Study in the Loess Plateau of China

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    Mingyue Zhao

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture is an important factor for vegetation restoration and ecosystem sustainability in the Loess Plateau of China. The strong spatial heterogeneity of soil moisture is controlled by many environmental factors, including topography and land use. Moreover, the spatial patterns and soil hydrological processes depend on the scale of the site being investigated, which creates a challenge for soil moisture forecasts. This study was conducted at two scales: watershed and small watershed. The goal of the study was to investigate the spatial variability in soil moisture and the scale effect of its controlling factors, as well as to provide references for soil moisture forecasting and studies of scale transformation. We took samples at 76 sites in the Ansai watershed and at 34 sites in a typical small watershed within the Ansai watershed in August. Next, we measured the soil moisture in five equal layers from a depth of 0–100 cm and recorded the land use type, location on the hill slope, slope, aspect, elevation and vegetation cover at the sampling sites. The results indicated that soil moisture was negatively correlated with relative elevation, slope and vegetation cover. As depth increased, the correlations among slope, aspect and soil moisture increased. At the small watershed and watershed scales, the soil moisture was highest in cultivated land, followed by wild grassland and lowest in garden plots, woodland and shrubland. The soil moisture was distributed similarly with respect to the location on the hill slope at both scales: upper slope < middle-upper slope < middle slope < middle-lower slope < lower slope. The deep layer soil moisture value of the slope top was high, being close to the soil moisture in the lower slope. Therefore, wild grassland or low-density woodland should be prioritized for farmland recovery in the Ansai watershed, and the locations on the hill slope, slope and elevation should be combined to configure different

  1. Mosses as an integrating tool for monitoring PAH atmospheric deposition: comparison with total deposition and evaluation of bioconcentration factors. A year-long case-study.

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    Foan, Louise; Domercq, Maria; Bermejo, Raúl; Santamaría, Jesús Miguel; Simon, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) atmospheric deposition was evaluated at a remote site in Northern Spain using moss biomonitoring with Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) Schimp., and by measuring the total deposition fluxes of PAHs. The year-long study allowed seasonal variations of PAH content in mosses to be observed, and these followed a similar trend to those of PAH fluxes in total deposition. Generally, atmospheric deposition of PAHs is greater in winter than in summer, due to more PAH emissions from domestic heating, less photoreactivity of the compounds, and intense leaching of the atmosphere by wet deposition. However, fractionation of these molecules between the environmental compartments occurs: PAH fluxes in total deposition and PAH concentrations in mosses are correlated with their solubility (r=0.852, pPAH fluxes can be estimated with moss biomonitoring data if the bioconcentration or 'enriching' factors are known.

  2. Internet addiction: Prevalence and risk factors: A cross-sectional study among college students in Bengaluru, the Silicon Valley of India

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    Sharmitha Krishnamurthy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Internet is a widely used tool known to foster addictive behavior, and Internet addiction threatens to develop into a major public health issue in the near future in a rapidly developing country like India. Objective: This cross-sectional study intends to estimate prevalence, understand patterns, and evaluate risk factors for Internet addiction among college students in the city of Bengaluru, India. Materials and Methods: Out of a total of 554 data samples from eight colleges selected through multistage cluster sampling, 515 samples were analyzed. Young′s 20-item Internet Addiction Test (IAT, an inventory including demographic factors and patterns of internet use, was administered. Results: This study of college students aged 16-26 years (mean ± SD 19.2 ± 2.4 years, with marginally high female representation (56%, identified 34% [95% confidence interval (CI 29.91-38.09%] and 8% (95%, CI 5.97-10.63% as students with mild and moderate Internet addiction respectively. Binary logistic regression found Internet addiction to be associated with male gender [adjusted odds ratio (AOR 1.69, 95% CI, 1.081- 2.65, P = 0.021], continuous availability online (AOR 1.724, 95% CI, 1.018-2.923, P = 0.042, using the Internet less for coursework/assignments (AOR 0.415, 95% CI, 0.263-0.655, P < 0.001, making new friendships online (AOR 1.721, 95% CI, 1.785-2.849, P = 0.034, getting into relationships online (AOR 2.283, 95% CI, 1.424-3.663, P = 0.001. Conclusion: The results highlight the vulnerability of college students to Internet addiction. The findings provide explanations on the addictive behavior of the internet users, support the inclusion of "Internet Addiction" in the DSM-VI, and open up new paths for further research.

  3. Doctors' experience of coordination across care levels and associated factors. A cross-sectional study in public healthcare networks of six Latin American countries.

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    Vázquez, María-Luisa; Vargas, Ingrid; Garcia-Subirats, Irene; Unger, Jean-Pierre; De Paepe, Pierre; Mogollón-Pérez, Amparo Susana; Samico, Isabella; Eguiguren, Pamela; Cisneros, Angelica-Ivonne; Huerta, Adriana; Muruaga, María-Cecilia; Bertolotto, Fernando

    2017-06-01

    Improving coordination between primary care (PC) and secondary care (SC) has become a policy priority in recent years for many Latin American public health systems looking to reinforce a healthcare model based on PC. However, despite being a longstanding concern, it has scarcely been analyzed in this region. This paper analyses the level of clinical coordination between PC and SC experienced by doctors and explores influencing factors in public healthcare networks of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Uruguay. A cross-sectional study was carried out based on a survey of doctors working in the study networks (348 doctors per country). The COORDENA questionnaire was applied to measure their experiences of clinical management and information coordination, and their related factors. Descriptive analyses were conducted and a multivariate logistic regression model was generated to assess the relationship between general perception of care coordination and associated factors. With some differences between countries, doctors generally reported limited care coordination, mainly in the transfer of information and communication for the follow-up of patients and access to SC for referred patients, especially in the case of PC doctors and, to a lesser degree, inappropriate clinical referrals and disagreement over treatments, in the case of SC doctors. Factors associated with a better general perception of coordination were: being a SC doctor, considering that there is enough time for coordination within consultation hours, job and salary satisfaction, identifying the PC doctor as the coordinator of patient care across levels, knowing the doctors of the other care level and trusting in their clinical skills. These results provide evidence of problems in the implementation of a primary care-based model that require changes in aspects of employment, organization and interaction between doctors, all key factors for coordination. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published

  4. Understanding of crop phenology using satellite-based retrievals and climate factors - a case study on spring maize in Northeast China plain

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    Shuai, Yanmin; Xie, Donghui; Wang, Peijuan; Wu, Menxin

    2014-03-01

    Land surface phenology is an efficient bio-indicator for monitoring terrestrial ecosystem variation in response to climate change. Numerous studies point out climate change plays an important role in modulating vegetation phenological events, especially in agriculture. In turn, surface changes caused by geo-biological processes can affect climate transition regionally and perhaps globally, as concluded by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2001. Large amounts of research concluded that crops, as one of the most sensitive bio-indicators for climate change, can be strongly influenced by local weather such as temperature, moisture and radiation. Thus, investigating the details of weather impact and the feedback from crops can help improve our understanding of the interaction between crops and climate change at satellite scale. Our efforts start from this point, via case studies over the famous agriculture region in the Northeast China's plain to examine the response of spring maize under temperature and moisture stress. MODIS-based daily green vegetation information together with frequent field specification of the surface phenology as well as continuous measurements of the routine climatic factors during seven years (2003-2009) is used in this paper. Despite the obvious difference in scale between satellite estimations and field observations, the inter- and intra-annual variation of maize in seven-years' growth was captured successfully over three typical spring maize regions (Fuyu, Changling, and Hailun) in Northeast China. The results demonstrate that weather conditions such as changes of temperature and moisture stress provide considerable contribution to the year-to-year variations in the timing of spring maize phenological events.

  5. Characterisation of terminal sire sheep farm systems, based on a range of environmental factors: a case study in the context of genotype by environment interactions using Charollais lambs.

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    McLaren, A; Lambe, N R; Morgan-Davies, C; Mrode, R; Brotherstone, S; Conington, J; Morgan-Davies, J; Bunger, L

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to define different terminal sire flock environments, based on a range of environmental factors, and then investigate the presence of genotype by environment interactions (G×E) between the environments identified. Data from 79 different terminal sire flocks (40 Texel, 21 Charollais and 18 Suffolk), were analysed using principal coordinate and non-hierarchical cluster analyses, the results of which identified three distinct environmental cluster groups. The type of grazing, climatic conditions and the use of vitamins and mineral supplements were found to be the most important factors in the clustering of flocks. The presence of G×E was then investigated using data from the Charollais flocks only. Performance data were collected for 12 181 lambs, between 1990 and 2010, sired by 515 different sires. Fifty six of the sires had offspring in at least two of the three different cluster groups and pedigree information was available for a total of 161 431 animals. Traits studied were the 21-week old weight (21WT), ultrasound muscle depth (UMD) and log transformed backfat depth (LogUFD). Heritabilities estimated for each cluster, for each trait, ranged from 0.32 to 0.45. Genetic correlations estimated between Cluster 1 and Cluster 2 were all found to be significantly lower than unity, indicating the presence of G×E. They were 0.31 (±0.17), 0.68 (±0.14) and 0.18 (±0.21) for 21WT, UMD and LogUFD, respectively. Evidence of sires re-ranking across clusters was also observed. Providing a suitable strategy can be identified, there is potential for the optimisation of future breeding programmes, by taking into account the G×E observed. This would enable farmers to identify and select animals with an increased knowledge as to how they will perform in their specific farm environment thus reducing any unexpected differences in performance.

  6. On Language Acquisition Amongst Children and on Maternal Sensitivity in Families Subject to Risk Factors and those Free of Risk Factors. A Study in Ecuador

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    Amelie Abarca

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Risk factors can lead to disturbance of all areas of a child's development, and thus also of language acquisition and to problems in early relationships between parent and child. In the event of multiple risk factors, as it is often the case amongst people living in poverty, the burden of risks and therefore the probability of developmental disturbance rises (Laucht, Esser & Schmidt, 1998; Wustmann, 2004.In the present study a sample amongst families living in poverty (San Pedro, Ecuador was compared with a sample taken from middle-class families (Quito, Ecuador. An examination was carried out whether there was a varying number of risk factors and whether there were differences in the language competence of the child as well as in the mother's sensitivity. There was a further examination of whether there was a correlation between maternal sensitivity and communicative competences. The results indicate a negative influence of risk conditions on the language acquisition of the children and on the intuitive and sensitive maternal competences. In the risk group, the results showed a preponderance of delays and disturbances in language development of the children. The mothers from the risk sample group displayed less sensitivity than the control group. There was also a correlation between maternal sensitivity and individual areas of competence. This study shows that it is necessary to ascertain the delays in children's language acquisition and mother-child interaction, particularly amongst families with serious burdens and multiple risk factors. Ascertaining these developmental risks can be used for prevention or intervention which can reduce the risk of negative consequences and aid positive adaptation.

  7. Impact of implementing electronic clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis, control and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors: A pre-post controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comin, Eva; Catalan-Ramos, Arantxa; Iglesias-Rodal, Manuel; Grau, Maria; Del Val, Jose Luis; Consola, Alicia; Amado, Ester; Pons, Angels; Mata-Cases, Manel; Franzi, Alicia; Ciurana, Ramon; Frigola, Eva; Cos, Xavier; Davins, Josep; Verdu-Rotellar, Jose M

    To evaluate the impact of computerized clinical practice guidelines on the management, diagnosis, treatment, control, and follow-up of the main cardiovascular risk factors: hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pre-post controlled study. Catalonia, autonomous community located in north-eastern Spain. Individuals aged 35-74 years assigned to general practitioners of the Catalan Health Institute. The intervention group consisted of individuals whose general practitioners had accessed the computerized clinical practice guidelines at least twice a day, while the control group consisted of individuals whose general practitioner had never accessed the computerized clinical practice guidelines platform. The Chi-squared test was used to detect significant differences in the follow-up, control, and treatment variables for all three disorders (hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus) between individuals assigned to users and non-users of the computerized clinical practice guidelines, respectively. A total of 189,067 patients were included in this study, with a mean age of 56 years (standard deviation 12), and 55.5% of whom were women. Significant differences were observed in hypertension management, treatment and control; type 2 diabetes mellitus management, treatment and diagnoses, and the management and control of hypercholesterolaemia in both sexes. Computerized clinical practice guidelines are an effective tool for the control and follow-up of patients diagnosed with hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolaemia. The usefulness of computerized clinical practice guidelines to diagnose and adequately treat individuals with these disorders remains unclear. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. The potential ecotoxicological impact of pharmaceutical and personal care products on humans and freshwater, based on USEtox™ characterization factors. A Spanish case study of toxicity impact scores.

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    Ortiz de García, Sheyla; García-Encina, Pedro A; Irusta-Mata, Rubén

    2017-07-26

    Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) are being increasingly included in Life Cycle Assessment studies (LCAs) since they have brought into evidence both human and ecological adverse effects due to their presence in different environmental compartments, wastewater facilities and industry. Therefore, the main goal of this research was to estimate the characterization factors (CFs) of 27 PPCPs widely used worldwide in order to incorporate their values into Life Cycle Impact Assessment studies (LCIA) or to generate a toxicity impact score ranking. Physicochemical properties, degradation rates, bioaccumulation, ecotoxicity and human health effects were collected from experimental data, recognized databases or estimated using EPI Suite™ and the USEtox™ software, and were subsequently used for estimating CFs. In addition, a Spanish toxicity impact score ranking was carried out for 49 PPCPs using the 27 newly calculated CFs, and 22 CFs already available in the literature, besides the data related to the occurrence of PPCPs in the environment in Spain. It has been highlighted that emissions into the continental freshwater compartment showed the highest CFs values for human effects (ranging from 10(-9) to 10(-3)Cases·kg(-1)), followed by emissions into the air (10(-9) to 10(-5)Cases·kg(-1)), soil (10(-11) to 10(5)Cases·kg(-1)) and seawater (10(-12) to 10(-4)Cases·kg(-1)). CFs regarding the affectation of freshwater aquatic environments were the highest of those proceeding from emissions into continental freshwater (between 1 to 10(4)PAF·m(3)·day·kgemission(-1)) due to the direct contact between the source of emission and the compartment affected, followed by soil (among 10(-1) to 10(4)PAF·m(3)·day·kgemission(-1)), and air (among 10(-2) to 10(4)PAF·m(3)·day·kgemission(-1)) while the lowest were the CFs of continental seawater (among 10(-28) to 10(-3)PAF·m(3)·day·kgemission(-1)). Freshwater aquatic ecotoxicological CFs are much higher than human

  9. Gender aspects of the relationship between migraine and cardiovascular risk factors: A cross-sectional evaluation in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

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    Goulart, Alessandra C; Santos, Itamar S; Lotufo, Paulo A; Benseñor, Isabela M

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) and migraine is controversial and might be different in both genders. These associations were evaluated in Brazilian middle-aged men and women from the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The cross-sectional relationship between our main outcome, which was migraine headache (definite, probable and overall), and CVRF was evaluated in the total sample and according to gender. We calculated frequencies and odds ratios (95% CI) for this relationship using binary and multinomial logistic regression analyses in crude, age-adjusted and multivariable models adjusted by potential confounders. Of 14,953 individuals who completed the data about headache and CVRF, the frequency of one-year migraine was of 29.5% (22.5% in women and 7.0% in men). In the multivariable-adjusted regression analyses, an inverse association between hypertension (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.36-0.79), metabolic syndrome (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.43-0.99) and definite migraine were confirmed for men, but not for women. In the opposite direction, a positive association between migraine headaches (definite, probable and overall) and dyslipidemia (overall migraine OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.13-1.38) was observed only for women, but not for men. A gender influence on the relationship between migraine and CVRF was verified in the ELSA-Brasil. © International Headache Society 2015.

  10. "Blue flags", development of a short clinical questionnaire on work-related psychosocial risk factors - a validation study in primary care.

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    Post Sennehed, Charlotte; Gard, Gunvor; Holmberg, Sara; Stigmar, Kjerstin; Forsbrand, Malin; Grahn, Birgitta

    2017-07-24

    Working conditions substantially influence health, work ability and sick leave. Useful instruments to help clinicians pay attention to working conditions are lacking in primary care (PC). The aim of this study was to test the validity of a short "Blue flags" questionnaire, which focuses on work-related psychosocial risk factors and any potential need for contacts and/or actions at the workplace. From the original"The General Nordic Questionnaire" (QPSNordic) the research group identified five content areas with a total of 51 items which were considered to be most relevant focusing on work-related psychosocial risk factors. Fourteen items were selected from the identified QPSNordic content areas and organised in a short questionnaire "Blue flags". These 14 items were validated towards the 51 QPSNordic items. Content validity was reviewed by a professional panel and a patient panel. Structural and concurrent validity were also tested within a randomised clinical trial. The two panels (n = 111) considered the 14 psychosocial items to be relevant. A four-factor model was extracted with an explained variance of 25.2%, 14.9%, 10.9% and 8.3% respectively. All 14 items showed satisfactory loadings on all factors. Concerning concurrent validity the overall correlation was very strong rs = 0.87 (p development of the "Blue flags" questionnaire. In summary, the overall validity is considered acceptable. Testing in clinical contexts and in other patient populations is recommended to ensure predictive validity and usefulness.

  11. Association of perceived stress with stressful life events, lifestyle and sociodemographic factors: a large-scale community-based study using logistic quantile regression.

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    Feizi, Awat; Aliyari, Roqayeh; Roohafza, Hamidreza

    2012-01-01

    The present paper aimed at investigating the association between perceived stress and major life events stressors in Iranian general population. In a cross-sectional large-scale community-based study, 4583 people aged 19 and older, living in Isfahan, Iran, were investigated. Logistic quantile regression was used for modeling perceived stress, measured by GHQ questionnaire, as the bounded outcome (dependent), variable, and as a function of most important stressful life events, as the predictor variables, controlling for major lifestyle and sociodemographic factors. This model provides empirical evidence of the predictors' effects heterogeneity depending on individual location on the distribution of perceived stress. The results showed that among four stressful life events, family conflicts and social problems were more correlated with level of perceived stress. Higher levels of education were negatively associated with perceived stress and its coefficients monotonically decrease beyond the 30th percentile. Also, higher levels of physical activity were associated with perception of low levels of stress. The pattern of gender's coefficient over the majority of quantiles implied that females are more affected by stressors. Also high perceived stress was associated with low or middle levels of income. The results of current research suggested that in a developing society with high prevalence of stress, interventions targeted toward promoting financial and social equalities, social skills training, and healthy lifestyle may have the potential benefits for large parts of the population, most notably female and lower educated people.

  12. Association of Perceived Stress with Stressful Life Events, Lifestyle and Sociodemographic Factors: A Large-Scale Community-Based Study Using Logistic Quantile Regression

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    Awat Feizi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The present paper aimed at investigating the association between perceived stress and major life events stressors in Iranian general population. Methods. In a cross-sectional large-scale community-based study, 4583 people aged 19 and older, living in Isfahan, Iran, were investigated. Logistic quantile regression was used for modeling perceived stress, measured by GHQ questionnaire, as the bounded outcome (dependent, variable, and as a function of most important stressful life events, as the predictor variables, controlling for major lifestyle and sociodemographic factors. This model provides empirical evidence of the predictors’ effects heterogeneity depending on individual location on the distribution of perceived stress. Results. The results showed that among four stressful life events, family conflicts and social problems were more correlated with level of perceived stress. Higher levels of education were negatively associated with perceived stress and its coefficients monotonically decrease beyond the 30th percentile. Also, higher levels of physical activity were associated with perception of low levels of stress. The pattern of gender’s coefficient over the majority of quantiles implied that females are more affected by stressors. Also high perceived stress was associated with low or middle levels of income. Conclusions. The results of current research suggested that in a developing society with high prevalence of stress, interventions targeted toward promoting financial and social equalities, social skills training, and healthy lifestyle may have the potential benefits for large parts of the population, most notably female and lower educated people.

  13. After-shift Musculoskeletal Disorder Symptoms in Female Workers and Work-related Factors: A Cross-sectional Study in a Seafood Processing Factory in Vietnam

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    Thuy Thi Thu Tran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The seafood processing industry has been developing and providing marked contribution to Vietnam’s economic growth in recent years. However, information on working conditions and their impacts to workers’ health in this sector, focusing on musculoskeletal problems in female workers, has been poorly documented.Objectives:This paper examines the prevalence of after-shift musculoskeletal disorder symptoms (A-MSDS and work-related factors in female workers in a seafood processing factory in Vietnam.Materials and Methods:As part of a comprehensive study, a cross-sectional survey was implemented in one seafood processing factory in the center of Vietnam in 2014. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 394 female workers to collect information about their A-MSDS state, demographic characteristics, health status and work conditions. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression were applied to describe and analyse the results.Results:Nearly four-fifths of female workers experienced MSDs in at least one body part (77.7% and 20.1% of them had MSDs in all investigated regions. The prevalence of A-MSDS in different body parts markedly varied, with the proportion of pain in the hips and lower extremities being as high as 53.3%, followed by pain in the shoulders and upper extremities (42.6%and the neck (41.1%. A humid working environment, exposure to vibration and chemicals as well as taxing task demands and work organizations were found to significantly contribute to the increased risk of after-shift musculoskeletal disorders in female workers.Conclusion:Approximately 80% of female workers in the seafood processing factory experienced musculoskeletal pains after work, especially in the hips, extremities, neck and shoulders which were contributed by work conditions and task demands.

  14. Social support received by multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients and related factors: a cross-sectional study in Zhejiang Province, People's Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen B

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bin Chen,1 Yin Peng,1 Lin Zhou,1 Chengliang Chai,1 Hui-Chi Yeh,2 Songhua Chen,1 Fei Wang,1 Mingwu Zhang,1 Tieniu He,1 Xiaomeng Wang1 1Department of Tuberculosis Control and Prevention, Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Binjiang District, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2Politics & International Relations, Social Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK Objectives: The objective of this study is to assess the social support received by patients diagnosed with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB in Zhejiang Province, People’s Republic of China and the factors that may have influenced it. Methods: A total of 220 MDR-TB patients participated in the questionnaire-based survey, and the data from 212 valid questionnaires were analyzed. The respondents reported their sociodemographic status, disease features, and attitudes toward the disease. The social support rating scale was used to measure the patients’ social support scores. An Independent Samples t-test, one-way analysis of variance, and a multiple linear regression model were used to analyze the related factors for the social support scores. Result: The average social support score of each MDR-TB patient was 32.56±7.86. Participants who were single, widowed or divorced, retired, and had fewer family members and lower family income were found to have lower social support scores. Participants unwilling to disclose their disease tended to have less social support (31.59<34.23, P=0.010. Participants who perceived great help from health care workers reported higher social support rating scale scores than those who perceived no help (35.36>29.89, P=0.014. Conclusion: MDR-TB patients in Zhejiang Province were shown to have a low level of social support. Patients who were not married, had smaller families, and lower family income received less social support, suggesting that family harmony could be an important source of social support. Patients

  15. Concurrent radiotherapy and intrathecal methotrexate for treating leptomeningeal metastasis from solid tumors with adverse prognostic factors: A prospective and single-arm study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhenyu; Yang, Guozi; He, Hua; Zhao, Gang; Yuan, Tingting; Li, Yu; Shi, Weiyan; Gao, Pengxiang; Dong, Lihua; Li, Yunqian

    2016-10-15

    clinical study, the authors combined intrathecal methotrexate with involved-field radiotherapy in a concomitant regimen, showing that the approach can potentially improve quality of life for patients with adverse prognostic factors. Concurrent radiotherapy-bolstered IC by contributing to prolonged remission of neurological symptoms and increasing OS. The findings suggest that the concomitant regimen could be an optimal treatment option for LM.

  16. Variaciones en la prevención del riesgo cardiovascular: estudio poblacional Variation in the prevention of cardiovascular risk factors. A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ruiz Pérez

    2003-02-01

    colectivos en los que se realiza con menos frecuencia para acercarse a los encontrados entre los médicos y enfermeros. Los esfuerzos deberían ir encaminados a mejorar la introducción de los programas de prevención en los centros de salud.Background: Published studies on clinical practice variability have mainly focussed on variability in the rates of hospitalization and surgical procedures. The objective of this study was to evaluate variability in the measurement of cholesterolemia and blood pressure in four professional groups and in the general population. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was performed by mail in the city of Valencia (Spain. Five population groups were selected: physicians, nurses, lawyers, architects and the general population. The sample was obtained by random sampling of each group. Results: Of all the questionnaires returned, only those returned by individuals surveyed (1,755 and their partners (1,296 were used (total: 3,050. The frequency of preventive cholesterolemia measurement was greater among nurses (55.7% and physicians (54.1% than among architects (38.9%, lawyers (38.2% and the general population (35.1%. The frequency of preventive blood pressure measurement was also greater among physicians (47.7% and nurses (42.2% followed by architects (39.4% and lawyers (38.8% and was lower among the general population (32.2%. After adjusting by sex, age group, marital status, level of education, and employment, only lawyers (RR = 0.79; 95% CI, 0.6-0.9 and architects (RR = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.68-0.88 showed a significantly lower probability of determining cholesterol levels than physicians (basal category and nurses (RR = 1.05; 95% CI, 0.93-1.18. The general population showed the lowest probability of measuring blood pressure (RR = 0.8; 95% CI, 0.65-0.97, although the differences were statistically significant only when compared with physicians. Conclusions: Preventive practices should be increased among groups in which they are less frequently performed

  17. Dietary patterns associated with male lung cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balder, H.F.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this article was to study the association between dietary patterns and lung cancer incidence in the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer. The baseline measurement of this prospective case cohort study that was completed by 58,279 men in 1986 included a self-administered quest

  18. Dietary patterns associated with male lung cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balder, H.F.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this article was to study the association between dietary patterns and lung cancer incidence in the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer. The baseline measurement of this prospective case cohort study that was completed by 58,279 men in 1986 included a self-administered

  19. Endogenous estradiol and risk of dementia in women and men : The Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, MI; Launer, LJ; de Jong, FH; Ruitenberg, A; Stijnen, T; van Swieten, JC; Hofman, A; Witteman, JCM; Pols, HAP; Breteler, MMB

    2003-01-01

    We determined whether higher endogenous estradiol levels were associated with lower risk of dementia in older men and women not using hormonal replacement therapy, using a case-cohort design within the Rotterdam Study, a population-based follow-up study on chronic diseases, including dementia, in 7,

  20. Endogenous estradiol and risk of dementia in women and men : The Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, MI; Launer, LJ; de Jong, FH; Ruitenberg, A; Stijnen, T; van Swieten, JC; Hofman, A; Witteman, JCM; Pols, HAP; Breteler, MMB

    We determined whether higher endogenous estradiol levels were associated with lower risk of dementia in older men and women not using hormonal replacement therapy, using a case-cohort design within the Rotterdam Study, a population-based follow-up study on chronic diseases, including dementia, in

  1. A haplotype of polymorphisms in ASE-1, RAI and ERCC1 and the effects of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on risk of colorectal cancer: a Danish prospective case-cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rikke D; Sørensen, Mette; Tjønneland, Anne

    2008-01-01

    cancer, and investigated gene-environment associations between the polymorphisms and the haplotype and smoking status at enrolment, smoking duration, average smoking intensity and alcohol consumption, respectively, in relation to risk of colorectal cancer. METHODS: Associations between the three...... of colorectal cancer were found. No statistically significant interactions between the genotypes and the lifestyle exposures smoking or alcohol consumption were observed. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the ASE-1 G-21A, RAI IVS1 A4364G and ERCC1 Asn118Asn polymorphisms and the previously identified...... haplotype are not associated with risk of colorectal cancer. We found no evidence of gene-environment interaction between the three polymorphisms and the haplotype and smoking intensity and alcohol consumption, respectively, in relation to the risk of colorectal cancer. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-null...

  2. Genetic polymorphisms in the hypothalamic pathway in relation to subsequent weight change - the DIOGenes Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huaidong, D.U.; Vimaleswaran, K.S.; Angquist, L.; Hansen, R.D.; A, van der D.L.; Holst, C.; Tjonneland, A.; Overvad, K.; Uhre Jakobsen, M.; Boeing, H.; Meidtner, K.; Palli, D.; Masala, G.; Bouatia-Naji, N.; Saris, W.H.M.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Wareham, N.J.; Sorensen, T.I.A.; Loos, R.J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding the components involved in the hypothalamic pathway may influence weight gain and dietary factors may modify their effects. \\\\ Aim: We conducted a case-cohort study to investigate the associations of SNPs in candidate genes with

  3. Influence of Factor V Leiden on susceptibility to and outcome from critical illness: a genetic association study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, Thomas; Ejrnaes, Karen; Juul, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    . METHODS: A genetic association study involving four case cohorts comprising two Gram negative sepsis, one invasive pneumococcal disease and one intensive care unit cohort with a total of 1,249 patients. Controls were derived from a population-based cohort study (N = 8,147). DNA from patients and controls...

  4. Literature-based genetic risk scores for coronary heart disease : the Cardiovascular Registry Maastricht (CAREMA) Prospective Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaathorst, A.A.; Lu Yingchang (Kevin), Y.; Heijmans, B.T.; Dolle, M.E.; Bohringer, S.; Putter, de H.; Imholz, S.; Merry, A.H.; Greevenbroek, M.M.; Jukema, J.W.; Gorgels, A.P.; Brandt, van den P.A.; Muller, M.R.; Schouten, L.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Boer, J.M.A.; Slagboom, P.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background-Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) or CHD risk factors (RF). Using a case-cohort study within the prospective Cardiovascular Registry Maastricht (CAREMA) cohort, we tested if genet

  5. Meat consumption and K-ras mutations in sporadic colon and rectal cancer in The Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, M.; Weijenberg, M.P.; Goeij, A.F.P.M. de; Roemen, G.M.J.M.; Lentjes, M.H.F.M.; Bruïne, A.P. de; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2005-01-01

    Case-cohort analyses were performed on meat and fish consumption in relation to K-ras mutations in 448 colon and 160 rectal cancers that occurred during 7.3 years of follow-up, excluding the first 2.3 years, and 2948 subcohort members of The Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer. Adjusted inci

  6. Association between circulating vitamin K1 and coronary calcium progression in community-dwelling adults: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    While animal studies found vitamin K treatment reduced vascular calcification, human data are limited. Using a case-cohort design, we determined the association between vitamin K status and coronary artery calcium (CAC) progression in the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Serum phylloquinone (v...

  7. Mediterranean diet and type 2 diabetes risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study: the InterAct project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feskens, E.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the association between adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) and risk of developing type 2 diabetes, across European countries. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We established a case-cohort study including 11,994 incident type 2 diabetic case subjects and a stratified s

  8. Mediterranean diet and type 2 diabetes risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study: the InterAct project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feskens, E.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the association between adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) and risk of developing type 2 diabetes, across European countries. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We established a case-cohort study including 11,994 incident type 2 diabetic case subjects and a stratified

  9. The prospective association between total and type of fish intake and type 2 diabetes in 8 European countries : EPIC-InterAct Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, Pinal S.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Kuijsten, Anneleen; Schulze, Matthias B.; van Woudenbergh, Geertruida J.; Ardanaz, Eva; Amiano, Pilar; Arriola, Larraitz; Balkau, Beverley; Barricarte, Aurelio; Beulens, Joline W. J.; Boeing, Heiner; Buijsse, Brian; Crowe, Francesca L.; de Lauzon-Guillan, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W.; Gonzalez, Carlos; Grioni, Sara; Halkjaer, Jytte; Maria Huerta, Jose; Key, Timothy J.; Kuehn, Tilman; Masala, Giovanna; Nilsson, Peter; Overvad, Kim; Panico, Salvatore; Ramon Quiros, Jose; Rolandsson, Olov; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Schmidt, Erik B.; Slimani, Nadia; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.; Teucher, Birgit; Tjonneland, Anne; Tormo, Maria-Jose; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Sharp, Stephen J.; Langenberg, Claudia; Feskens, Edith J. M.; Riboli, Elio; Wareham, Nicholas J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic evidence of an association between fish intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is inconsistent and unresolved. Objective: The objective was to examine the association between total and type of fish intake and T2D in 8 European countries. Design: This was a case-cohort study, nest

  10. Long-term dietary sodium, potassium and fluid intake; Exploring potential novel risk factors for renal cell cancer in the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deckers, I.A.G.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Engeland, M. van; Soetekouw, P.M.M.B.; Baldewijns, M.M.L.L.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Schouten, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background:As sodium, potassium and fluid intake are related to hypertension, an established risk factor for renal cell cancer (RCC), they may be independent risk factors for RCC.Methods:The Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS) with case-cohort design included 120 852 participants aged 55-69 years. At ba

  11. Mitochondrial nucleoid and transcription factor A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanki, Tomotake; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Narie; Takio, Koji; Alam, Tanfis Istiaq; Hamasaki, Naotaka; Kang, Dongchon

    2004-04-01

    Nuclear DNA is tightly packed into nucleosomal structure. In contrast, human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) had long been believed to be rather naked because mitochondria lack histone. Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), a member of a high mobility group (HMG) protein family and a first-identified mitochondrial transcription factor, is essential for maintenance of mitochondrial DNA. Abf2, a yeast counterpart of human TFAM, is abundant enough to cover the whole region of mtDNA and to play a histone-like role in mitochondria. Human TFAM is indeed as abundant as Abf2, suggesting that TFAM also has a histone-like architectural role for maintenance of mtDNA. When human mitochondria are solubilized with non-ionic detergent Nonidet-P40 and then separated into soluble and particulate fractions, most TFAM is recovered from the particulate fraction together with mtDNA, suggesting that human mtDNA forms a nucleoid structure. TFAM is tightly associated with mtDNA as a main component of the nucleoid.

  12. Qualidade do ambiente e fatores associados: um estudo em crianças de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Quality of the environment and associated factors: a pediatric study in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Duarte Martins

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Descrever e identificar fatores que possam estar associados à qualidade do ambiente e características das crianças expostas, em Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Trata-se de um estudo prospectivo de caráter populacional, incluindo 630 crianças da coorte de nascimentos de 1993. No ano de 1998 avaliou-se, entre outras informações, a qualidade do ambiente, medida através do Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment. Os dados foram analisados por meio de análise univariada. A associação entre as variáveis e o desfecho foi avaliada por meio das razões de prevalência, dos intervalos de confiança em 95% e do qui-quadrado. Realizou-se a regressão logística seguindo modelo hierarquizado. Constatou-se que 97 crianças (15% viviam em ambiente negativo. Encontraram-se oito fatores de risco associados à qualidade do ambiente: baixa renda familiar mensal, baixa escolaridade materna, sexo masculino, casas com mais de sete residentes, número de irmãos maior ou igual a quatro, uso de tabaco na gestação, crianças que dormem na cama dos pais aos 4 anos e mães com presença de transtornos psiquiátricos.This study aims to describe and identify factors associated with environmental quality and characteristics of children exposed to environmental risk factors in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This was a prospective, population-based study, including 630 children from the 1993 birth cohort. During the year 1998, environmental quality and other information were assessed using the Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment. Data were submitted to univariate analysis. The association between the variables and the outcome was evaluated through prevalence ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and chi-square. Logistic regression was performed according to a hierarchical model. Some 97 children (15% were living in negative environments. Eight risk factors were associated with environmental quality: low monthly family

  13. Features and Impacting Factors-A Case Study of Police Duties in Tourist District of Gulangyu%鼓浪屿景区警务工作特征及其影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董斌彬; 郑向敏; 殷杰; 李实

    2015-01-01

    识别景区警务工作的特征及其影响因素是提升景区安全管理的基础。厦门鼓浪屿2009年1月至2014年5月的13035个接警案例显示:游客集聚的街区路面、商铺以及旅馆是案件的高发地区,案件以财产侵犯为主,且多发于旅游旺季。景区警务影响模型实证检验发现,旅游收入、居民旅游及外出消费价格指数的增加将导致景区接处警的增加。鼓浪屿景区应从防控财产性犯罪,增强游客安全意识,合理配置警力,升级景区服务4个层面加强景区警务工作。%Identifying the features and impacting factors of police duties in a tourist district is the basis to enhance its security. A case study of the 13035 calls to the Police at Gulangyu from January 2009 to May 2014 indicates that neighborhoods, roads and stores teeming with tourists are high incidence areas of crimes. Most cases involved robbery and took place in the peak tourist season. A Police-controlled impact modal indicated that alarm calls in tourist district went up with the increase of tourism revenues, the greater number of trips and travels, and the rising consumer price index. Security of Gulangyu tourist district can be enhanced though property crime prevention, enhances awareness of the safety on tourists, sufficient police force, and upgraded service and facilities there.

  14. Extrauterine growth retardation in premature infants and the risk factors:a retrospective study%早产儿宫外生长迟缓发生情况及相关危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳洁; 肖绪武; 刁敬军; 王莉; 侯莹

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the incidence and the risk factors of premature neonates associated with extrauterine growth retardation (EUGR). Methods 184 premature neonates born in the Maternal and Children's Hospital, Dalian in 2008 were monitored the weights. The incidence of EUGR was calculated and logistic regression analysis was applied to investigate the risk factors correlating with EUGR. Results By weight, the incidence of intrauterine growth restriction retardation (defined as measured growth parameters < 10th percentile on the growth curves, IUGR) of the 184 infants was 20. 1% on birth, the incidence of postnatal growth retardation was 46. 2% at discharge. The risk factors correlating with EUGR were low gestational age ( OR = 6. 62 ), low birth weight ( OR = 24. 02), intrauterine growth restriction ( OR = 3. 56), the complications after birth ( OR = 2. 14), P < 0. 05. Conclusion The causes of EUGR are muti-factorial, the risk factors for EUGR were low gestational age, low birth weight, intrauterine growth restriction on birth, and the complications after birth.%目的 探讨早产儿宫外生长迟缓(EUGR)发生情况及相关危险因素.方法 选择本院2008年出生的早产儿,生后进行体重监测,分析EUGR发生情况,应用Logistic多元回归分析EUGR的相关危险因素.结果 184例早产儿出生时以体重计,宫内生长受限(低于同胎龄第10百分位点,IUGR)的发生率20.1%,出院时EUGR的发生率46.2%.出院时表现为EUGR的患儿围产期有关的危险因素包括低胎龄(OR=6.62)、低出生体重(OR=24.02)、出生时IUGR(OR=3.56)及生后并发症(OR =2.14),P均<0.05.结论 EUGR的发生与多因素有关,其相关的危险因素有低胎龄、低体重、IUGR及住院期间并发症.

  15. First-line single-agent panitumumab in frail elderly patients with wild-type KRAS metastatic colorectal cancer and poor prognostic factors: A phase II study of the Spanish Cooperative Group for the Treatment of Digestive Tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre, J; Massuti, B; Pulido, G; Guillén-Ponce, C; Benavides, M; Manzano, J L; Reboredo, M; Rivera, F; Grávalos, C; Safont, M J; Martínez Villacampa, M; Llovet, P; Dotor, E; Díaz-Rubio, E; Aranda, E

    2015-07-01

    Frail elderly patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) are not candidates for chemotherapy. Monotherapy with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibodies may be an option for these patients with few systemic toxic effects. Single-arm, multicentre, phase II trial including patients ⩾ 70y ears with wild-type (WT) KRAS (exon 2) mCRC, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) status ⩽ 3, KPC (Köhne Prognostic Classification)--defined intermediate or high risk status, frailty and/or ineligibility for chemotherapy. Patients received panitumumab until progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary end-point was progression free survival (PFS) rate at 6 months. The study included 33 patients (intention-to-treat (ITT) population). Median age: 81 years; sex: 66.7% male; high-risk KPC status: 45.4%. Median treatment duration was 14 weeks and 6-month PFS rate was 36.4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 20.0-52.8). The objective response rate: 9.1% (95% CI: 0-18.9) (all partial responses), and there were 18 stable diseases (54.5%). Median PFS was 4.3 months (95% CI: 2.8-6.4) and median overall survival (OS) was 7.1 months (95% CI: 5.0-12.3). There were no deaths or grade 4-5 adverse events (AEs) related to panitumumab and the most common grade 3-related AE was rash acneiform (15.2%). A significant association between clinical response and RAS status was observed (P=0.037). In the WT RAS subgroup (WT exons 2, 3, and 4 of KRAS and NRAS, N = 15), 6-month PFS rate was 53.3% (95% CI: 30.1-75.2) and median PFS and OS were 7.9 and 12.3 months, respectively. Single-agent panitumumab is active and well tolerated and may be a therapeutic option for high-risk frail elderly patients with WT RAS tumours considered not candidates for chemotherapy (clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01126112). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bacterial community biodiversity in estuaries and its controlling factors:a case study in Chesapeake Bay%河口细菌群落多样性及其控制因素:以切萨皮克湾为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阚金军; 孙军

    2011-01-01

    Estuaries are among the most productive and dynamic aquatic ecosystems on earth, due to the mixing of fresh and salt waters and significant recycling of nutrients and organic matters. Sitting in a transitional zone, bacterial communities in an estuary typically harbor representatives of both freshwater and marine groups: Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gatnmaproteobacteria, Cyanobacteria (Synechococcus), Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia. In addition, estuaries such as Chesapeake Bay also contain their own unique bacterial signatures including the SARI 1 group, Roseobacter, SAR86, and Actinobacteria subclades, suggesting the ecological adaptation of organisms endemic to the Bay or perhaps, to large temperate estuaries in general. Relative to spatial variations, remarkable seasonal shifts and recurring annual patterns were identified in Chesapeake Bay bacterial communities. Besides water residence time and bacterial growth rate, many other factors are potential driving forces for the microbial diversity and bacterial population dynamics we observed. Temporal variations in bacterial communities were best explained by change in chlorophyll a (Chi a) and water temperature, while other factors such as dissolved oxygen, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate, and viral abundance also appeared to contribute to seasonal succession. Recently, the applications of community-based genomics and postgenomics (transcriptomics and proteomics) have allowed us to study the comprehensive gene diversity and gene expression directly from natural microbial communities. We predict that further studies and analyses of these genes and proteins will deliver new discoveries regarding the composition and function of microbial communities in aquatic environments.%咸淡水的混合和重要营养盐与有机物的再循环,使得河口成为地球上生产力较高而动态变化明显的水生生态系统.一个典型的河口区断面中,细菌群落包含了一些从

  17. 社会因素与上消化道癌的病例对照研究%A case-control study of social factors a nd upper digestive tract cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁建华; 李苏平; 高长明; 周建农; 苏平; 吴建中; 臧宇; 刘燕婷; 周学富; 丁保国; 王儒洪

    2001-01-01

    Objective In order to inv estigate the social factors of upper dig esti ve tract cancer in Taixing area.Meth ods  A population-based case-control study wa s carried out,involving 591 cases of eso phageal cancer,360 cases of liver cancer ,430 cases of stomach cancer,all being n ewly diagnosed and controls matches with age,sex and resident area.Result Multip le logistic regression analysis show ed that common social risk factors of up per digestive tract cancer in Taixing ar ea were higher comsumption of alcohol an d long-term melancholy.Moreover,it was f ound that increased risk for stomach can cer was associated with the depressed em otional state,less consumption of fresh vegetables and fruit;irregular eating co uld increase risk for liver cancer;risk factors of esophageal cancer were deppre ssed emotional state,eating habit of qui ck and irregular food intake such as eat ing salty and over-heated diet;good soci al relationships might decrease the risk of esophageal cancer.Conclusion It is n ecessary to prevent such social facots a s was mentioned above in Taixing area.%目的为探索泰兴市上消化道癌发生的有关社会因素。方法选择591例食管癌、360例肝癌和430例胃癌新发病例按年龄、性别和居住地进行以人群为基础1∶1 配对的病例对照研究。结果多因素logistic回归分析显示,泰兴市上消化道癌共同的社会危险因素是饮酒和性格忧郁。此外结果还发现胃癌危险性的增加与精神压抑、吃新鲜蔬菜和水果少有关;三餐不按时可增加患肝癌的危险性,食管癌的危险因素是精神压抑、进食速度快、三餐不按时以及口味嗜咸和喜吃烫食,而良好的人际关系则有益降低发生食管癌的危险。结论在当地针对上述社会因素进行干预预防十分必要。

  18. Cycling to school and cardiovascular risk factors: a longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Wedderkopp, Niels; Kristensen, Peter Lund

    2011-01-01

    Cycling to school may potentially increase physical activity level in sedentary children. Transport to school occur twice a day and could improve cardiovascular health in children. Commuter cycling is associated with lower mortality and cardiovascular disease rate in adults, but limited evidence...

  19. Postpartum depression risk factors: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedrahmati, Maryam; Kazemi, Ashraf; Kheirabadi, Gholamreza; Ebrahimi, Amrollah; Bahrami, Masood

    2017-01-01

    Postpartum depression is a debilitating mental disorder with a high prevalence. The aim of this study was review of the related studies. In this narrative review, we report studies that investigated risk factors of postpartum depression by searching the database, Scopus, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Uptodate, Proquest in the period 2000-2015 published articles about the factors associated with postpartum depression were assessed in Farsi and English. The search strategy included a combination of keywords include postpartum depression and risk factors or obstetrical history, social factors, or biological factors. Literature review showed that risk factors for postpartum depression in the area of economic and social factors, obstetrical history, and biological factors, lifestyle and history of mental illness detected. Data from this study can use for designing a screening tools for high-risk pregnant women and for designing a prevention programs.

  20. Nucleon Form Factors - A Jefferson Lab Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Arrington, Kees de Jager, Charles F. Perdrisat

    2011-06-01

    The charge and magnetization distributions of the proton and neutron are encoded in their elastic electromagnetic form factors, which can be measured in elastic electron--nucleon scattering. By measuring the form factors, we probe the spatial distribution of the proton charge and magnetization, providing the most direct connection to the spatial distribution of quarks inside the proton. For decades, the form factors were probed through measurements of unpolarized elastic electron scattering, but by the 1980s, progress slowed dramatically due to the intrinsic limitations of the unpolarized measurements. Early measurements at several laboratories demonstrated the feasibility and power of measurements using polarization degrees of freedom to probe the spatial structure of the nucleon. A program of polarization measurements at Jefferson Lab led to a renaissance in the field of study, and significant new insight into the structure of matter.

  1. Research Quality and Newsworthiness of Published Articles are Partial Predictors of Journal Impact Factors. A Review of: Lokker, C., Haynes, R. B., Chu, R., McKibbon, K. A., Wilczynski, N. L., & Walter, S. D. (2012. How well are journal and clinical article characteristics associated with the journal impact factor?A retrospective cohort study. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 100(1, 28-33. doi:10.3163/1536-5050.100.1.006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Martin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – Determine what characteristics ofa journal’s published articles can be used topredict the journal impact factor (JIF.Design – A retrospective cohort study.Setting – The researchers are located atMcMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario,Canada.Subjects – The sample consisted of 1,267clinical research articles from 103 evidencebased and clinical journals which werepublished in 2005 and indexed in theMcMaster University Premium LiteratUreService (PLUS database and those samejournals’ JIF from 2007.Method – The articles were divided 60:40 intoa derivation set (760 articles and 99 journalsand a validation set (507 articles and 88journals. Ten variables which could influenceJIF were developed and a multiple linearregression was run on the derivation set andthen applied to the validation set.Main Results – The four variables found to besignificant were the number of databaseswhich indexed the journal, the number ofauthors, the quality of research, and the“newsworthiness” of the journal’s publishedarticles. Conclusion – The quality of research and newsworthiness at time of publication of a journal’s articles can predict the journal impact factor with 60% accuracy.

  2. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A Is Associated with Chronic Mountain Sickness in the Andean Population

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Jose R.; Alvarez, Giancarlo; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Ju Preciado, Hugo F.; Macarlupu, Jose-Luis; Rivera-Ch, Maria; Rodriguez, Jorge; Favier, Judith; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne-Paule; Richalet, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Espinoza, Jose R., Giancarlo Alvarez, Fabiola León-Velarde, Hugo F. Ju Preciado, Jose-Luis Macarlupu, Maria Rivera-Ch, Jorge Rodriguez, Judith Favier, Anne-Paule Gimenez-Roqueplo, and Jean-Paul Richalet. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A is associated with chronic mountain sickness in Andean population. High Alt Med Biol. 15:146–154, 2014.—A study of chronic mountain sickness (CMS) with a candidate gene—vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA)—was carried out in a Peruvian population l...

  3. Vascular endothelial growth factor a in eyes with uveal melanoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Missotten, G.S.; Notting, I.C.; Schlingemann, R.O.; Zijlmans, H.J.; Lau, C.; Eilers, P.H.; Keunen, J.E.E.; Jager, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the presence of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) in the aqueous humor of eyes with uveal melanoma and to identify its source. METHODS: The VEGF-A concentrations were determined in aqueous humor samples obtained after enucleation from 74 eyes with untreated uveal

  4. Polymorphisms in genes involved in the inflammatory response and interaction with NSAID use or smoking in relation to lung cancer risk in a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Ulla; Christensen, Jane; Wallin, Håkan;

    2008-01-01

    polymorphism and factors, which modify an inflammatory response, such as smoking status, duration, and intensity, and use of NSAID. The functional SNPs IL-1B T-31C, IL6 G-174C, IL8 T-251A, IL10 C-592T, COX2 C8473T, COX2 A-1195G and PPARgamma2 Pro(12)Ala were included. A case-cohort study including 428 lung...

  5. Factoring, a Financing Alternative for Romanian Exporters During Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Dugan Silvia; Pepenel Madelaine-Lorelai

    2011-01-01

    Factoring, a product used in dynamic business environments worldwide, is a quick solution for the issue of working capital locked in the loan provider, ensuring a productive use of financial resources. During the economic crisis and given the very limited access to traditional financing schemes, factoring may be a suitable alternative for some companies in Romania, particularly those operating in the provision of goods or services. Factoring is therefore a solution to short-term finance compa...

  6. Z factor: a new index for measuring academic research output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Min

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With rapid progress in scientific research activities and growing competition for funding resources, it becomes critical to effectively evaluate an individual researcher's annual academic performance, or their cumulative performance within the last 3–5 years. It is particularly important for young independent investigators, and is also useful for funding agencies when determining the productivity and quality of grant awardees. As the funding becomes increasingly limited, having an unbiased method of measuring recent performance of an individual scientist is clearly needed. Here I propose the Z factor, a new and useful way to measure recent academic performance.

  7. 意大利汉语初学者汉字基本笔顺书写规律及其相关因素研究∗%A study of the writing rule of the Chinese-character stroke order and its related factors:A study of Italian Chinese-learning beginners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晨; 冯丽萍

    2016-01-01

    Stroke order is an important part of the Chinese-character writing.This paper gives a case study of Italian Chinese-learning beginners in their native country and analyzes the development of their basic stroke-order writing with investigations,interviews and dictations.It concludes that al-though the rule “left-falling strokes before right-falling strokes”can be fairly well handled at the be-ginning,some mistakes still remain at the end of the semester.The mastery of the rule “horizontal strokes before vertical strokes”reveals in its development a linear relationship between the beginning and the end of the semester.The first stoke also plays a significant role in their stroke-order writing. Moreover,the accuracy of strokes exerts some influence on the accuracy of their dictation.%笔画顺序是汉字书写的重要组成部分。文章以在母语环境下初学汉语的意大利学习者为研究对象,通过纵向的笔顺书写情况调查、访谈、听写等方法,探究意大利汉语初学者汉字基本笔顺书写的规律与发展情况。研究结果显示:学习者对“先撇后捺”笔顺规则的掌握在初期即较好,但是到学期末的汉字书写中仍存在错误;“先横后竖”规则的正确性从学期初到学期末呈线性发展;其基本笔顺规则的使用较大程度地受到“横”“撇”笔画是否为起笔的影响;学生的笔顺正确率影响其汉字听写正确率。

  8. The hyperbolic factor: A measure of time inconsistency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.I.M. Rohde (Kirsten)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMany studies have found that discounting is hyperbolic rather than constant. Hyperbolic discounting induces time-inconsistent behavior and is becoming increasingly popular in economic applications. Most studies that provide evidence in favor of hyperbolic discounting either are merely

  9. The hyperbolic factor: A measure of time inconsistency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.I.M. Rohde (Kirsten)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMany studies have found that discounting is hyperbolic rather than constant. Hyperbolic discounting induces time-inconsistent behavior and is becoming increasingly popular in economic applications. Most studies that provide evidence in favor of hyperbolic discounting either are merely qu

  10. Impact of school policies on non-communicable disease risk factors - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ankur; Bassi, Shalini; Nazar, Gaurang P; Saluja, Kiran; Park, MinHae; Kinra, Sanjay; Arora, Monika

    2017-04-04

    Globally, non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are identified as one of the leading causes of mortality. NCDs have several modifiable risk factors including unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use and alcohol abuse. Schools provide ideal settings for health promotion, but the effectiveness of school policies in the reduction of risk factors for NCD is not clear. This study reviewed the literature on the impact of school policies on major NCD risk factors. A systematic review was conducted to identify, collate and synthesize evidence on the effectiveness of school policies on reduction of NCD risk factors. A search strategy was developed to identify the relevant studies on effectiveness of NCD policies in schools for children between the age of 6 to 18 years in Ovid Medline, EMBASE, and Web of Science. Data extraction was conducted using pre-piloted forms. Studies included in the review were assessed for methodological quality using the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) quality assessment tool. A narrative synthesis according to the types of outcomes was conducted to present the evidence on the effectiveness of school policies. Overall, 27 out of 2633 identified studies were included in the review. School policies were comparatively more effective in reducing unhealthy diet, tobacco use, physical inactivity and inflammatory biomarkers as opposed to anthropometric measures, overweight/obesity, and alcohol use. In total, for 103 outcomes independently evaluated within these studies, 48 outcomes (46%) had significant desirable changes when exposed to the school policies. Based on the quality assessment, 18 studies were categorized as weak, six as moderate and three as having strong methodological quality. Mixed findings were observed concerning effectiveness of school policies in reducing NCD risk factors. The findings demonstrate that schools can be a good setting for initiating positive changes in reducing NCD risk factors, but more research is

  11. Immobilization increases interleukin-6, but not tumour necrosis factor-a, release from the leg during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reihmane, Dace; Hansen, Andreas Vigelsø; Jensen, Martin Gram;

    2013-01-01

    Data on interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) release during acute exercise are not conclusive, and information is lacking about the impact of physical inactivity. Some studies have shown an increase, but others report no changes in IL-6 and TNF-a release during exercise. We...

  12. The number and kind of invariant personality (Q) factors: a partial replication of Eysenck and Eysenck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagg, P R; Hammond, S B

    1976-06-01

    A study by Eysenck & Eysenck (1969) investigated the invariance across sex of factors derived from the Eysenck, Cattell and Guilford personality inventories. They found only neuroticism and extraversion invariant. The present study was designed as a partial replication of their study, but employed simpler, common-sense methods that gave the more moderate sized factors a chance to demonstrate the extent of their invariance across sex. Four invariant factors were found: the first two, neuroticism and sociability, were large and demonstrated almost complete invariance across sex; the third and fourth factors were moderate-sized and showed less, but substantial invariance across sex. They were called 'sensitivity v. practicality' and 'group-centred morality v. self-centred independence'.

  13. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A is associated with chronic mountain sickness in the Andean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Jose R; Alvarez, Giancarlo; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Preciado, Hugo F Ju; Macarlupu, Jose-Luis; Rivera-Ch, Maria; Rodriguez, Jorge; Favier, Judith; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne-Paule; Richalet, Jean-Paul

    2014-06-01

    A study of chronic mountain sickness (CMS) with a candidate gene--vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA)--was carried out in a Peruvian population living at high altitude in Cerro de Pasco (4380 m). The study was performed by genotyping of 11 tag SNPs encompassing 2.2 kb of region of VEGFA gene in patients with a diagnosis of CMS (n = 131; 49.1 ± 12.7 years old) and unrelated healthy controls (n = 84; 47.2 ± 13.4 years old). The VEGFA tag SNP rs3025033 was found associated with CMS (p Cerro de Pasco population and HapMap3 population (Fst > 0.36, p < 0.01), suggesting selection is operating on the VEGF gene. Our results suggest that VEGFA is associated with CMS in long-term residents at high altitude in the Peruvian Andes.

  14. Nurses’ working motivation sources and related factors: A questionnaire survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Bodur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Motivation is an important issue for personnel management in health care settings, as it is related to both performance and intention to quit. Objectives: The study was aimed to determine nurses’ working motivation sources and related factors in hospitals. Design: Descriptive study. Settings: A state university hospital and a public hospital in Turkey. Participants: Two hundred and two nurses were randomly selected from each department in a university and in a public hospital. Methods: Data were collected using a socio-demographic questionnaire and the Motivation Sources Inventory and were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: Among five motivation sources, internal self-concept-based motivation was the highest and intrinsic process motivation was the lowest in nurses. There was a significant relation between scores of some motivation sources and managerial experience, income level, satisfaction from the unit, staff roles, and perception of work stress. Conclusions: Intrinsic process motivation, instrumental motivation, and external self-concept-based motivation sources may be improved to increase nurses’ total motivation.

  15. Hepatic Shock Differential Diagnosis and Risk Factors: A Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimanpour, Hassan; Safari, Saeid; Rahmani, Farzad; Nejabatian, Arezu; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2015-10-01

    Liver as an important organ has a vital role in physiological processes in the body. Different causes can disrupt normal function of liver. Factors such as hypo-perfusion, hypoxemia, infections and some others can cause hepatic injury and hepatic shock. Published research resources from 2002 to May 2015 in some databases (PubMed, Scopus, Index Copernicus, DOAJ, EBSCO-CINAHL, Science direct, Cochrane library and Google scholar and Iranian search database like SID and Iranmedex) were investigated for the present study. Different causes can lead to hepatic shock. Most of these causes can be prevented by early resuscitation and treatment of underlying factors. Hepatic shock is detected in ill patients, especially those with hemodynamic disorders. It can be prevented by early treatment of underlying disease. There is no definite treatment for hepatic shock and should be managed conservatively. Hepatic shock in patients can increase the mortality rate.

  16. Prevalência e fatores associados à violência entre parceiros íntimos: um estudo de base populacional em Lages, Santa Catarina, Brasil, 2007 Prevalence of intimate partner violence and associated factors: a population-based study in Lages, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Jaqueline Anacleto

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Estimou-se a prevalência da violência entre parceiros íntimos e os fatores associados em Lages, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Realizou-se um estudo transversal de base populacional domiciliar com mulheres de 20-59 anos (n = 1.042, da zona urbana. As prevalências de agressão verbal, violência física menor e violência física grave foram estimadas pelo questionário Conflict Tactics Scales - Form R. Questões sobre aspectos sócio-econômicos e demográficos foram investigadas. As associações foram testadas pelo teste do qui-quadrado de Pearson e o de tendência linear. A prevalência de violência entre casais para agressão verbal, agressão física menor e agressão física grave foram de 79%, 14,9% e 9,3%, respectivamente. Casais com menos de trinta anos, com renda per capita inferior a meio salário mínimo mensal e vivendo em locais com mais de dois indivíduos por cômodo dormitório apresentaram maiores prevalências das violências mensuradas quando comparados com casais mais velhos, com maior rendimento e menor aglomeração, respectivamente. Programas preventivos, além de estudos qualitativos, podem ser estratégias efetivas para melhor compreender a violência entre parceiros íntimos.The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of intimate partner violence and associated factors in Lages, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. A population-based household study included 20-59-year-old women (n = 1,042 living in the urban area. The Conflict Tactics Scales - Form R was used to investigate verbal aggression, minor physical violence, and severe physical violence. A questionnaire covering socioeconomic and demographic variables was applied. Pearson qui-square and linear trend test were used to test associations. Prevalence rates for verbal aggression and minor and severe physical abuse within couples were 79.0%, 14.9%, and 9.3%, respectively. Couples under 30 years of age, with per capita income less than half the minimum wage

  17. Socioeconomic development, family income, and psychosocial risk factors: a study of families with children in public elementary school Desenvolvimento socioeconômico, renda monetária familiar e fatores de risco psicossociais: um estudo com famílias da rede pública do ensino fundamental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Gonçalves de Assis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to evaluate the effects of Brazil's recent economic growth on the monetary income, consumption patterns, and risk exposures of families with children enrolled in the public elementary school system in São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The article analyzes the following information on families of 447 children that participated in two waves in a longitudinal study: social stratum, per capita family income, evolution in income over a three-year period, and psychosocial factors. The findings showed a 74.8% increase in the families' income, accompanied by an increase in the consumption of material assets and access to health services. This increase should not be interpreted as a guarantee of improved living and health conditions, since it was spent on basic products and needs that do not substantially affect the families' form of social inclusion. Psychosocial risk factors were frequent among the families, but decreased during the study period, which may either reflect the improved family situation or result from the later stage in child development.O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar os reflexos do recente crescimento econômico brasileiro sobre o rendimento monetário, o padrão de consumo familiar e os riscos em que vivem famílias da rede pública do Ensino Fundamental do Município de São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. São analisadas as seguintes informações sobre as famílias de 447 crianças que participaram de duas ondas de estudo longitudinal: estrato social, renda familiar per capita, evolução de renda no período e fatores psicossociais. Os resultados indicam incremento financeiro em 74,8% das famílias, acompanhado de aumento no consumo de bens materiais e no acesso a serviços de saúde. Esse crescimento não pode ser tomado como garantia de melhoria nas condições de vida e saúde, já que é gasto com a aquisição de produtos e necessidades básicas que não chegam a afetar substancialmente a

  18. Bitter pit in apples: pre- and postharvest factors: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Jemrić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bitter pit is a physiological disorder that significantly reduces the quality of apples. Although it has been detected since the beginning of the last century, still there is little known about the mechanism of its occurrence. According to numerous studies, bitter pit is formed as a result of calcium deficiency in the fruit. Some authors cite the high concentration of gibberellins, later in the production season, most probably caused by excessive activity of the roots, as the chief causative factor. Beside Ca, there are several factors that can also contribute to its development, like imbalance among some mineral elements (N, P, K and Mg, cultivar, rootstock, the ratio of vegetative and generative growth, post-harvest treatments and the storage methods. There are some prediction models available that can estimate the risk of bitter pit in apples, but even those are not always reliable. The aim of this review was to encompass the pre and postharvest factors which cause bitter pit and point out the directions for solving this problem.

  19. Hepatocyte growth factor, a biomarker of macroangiopathy in diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroyuki; Konya; Masayuki; Miuchi; Kahori; Satani; Satoshi; Matsutani; Taku; Tsunoda; Yuzo; Yano; Tomoyuki; Katsuno; Tomoya; Hamaguchi; Jun-Ichiro; Miyagawa; Mitsuyoshi; Namba

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerotic involvements are an essential causal element of prospect in diabetes mellitus(DM), with carotid atherosclerosis(CA) being a common risk-factor for prospective crisis of coronary artery diseases(CAD) and/or cerebral infarction(CI) in DM subjects. From another point of view, several reports have supplied augmenting proof that hepatocyte growth factor(HGF) has a physiopathological part in DM involvements. HGF has been a mesenchymal-derived polyphenic factor which modulates development, motion, and morphosis of diverse cells, and has been regarded as a humor intermediator of epithelial-mesenchymal interplays. The serum concentrations of HGF have been elevated in subjects with CAD and CI, especially during the acute phase of both disturbances. In our study with 89 type 2 DM patients, the association between serum concentrationsof HGF and risk-factors for macrovascular complicationsinclusive of CA were examined. The average of serumHGF levels in the subjects was more elevated than thereference interval. The serum HGF concentrations associated positively with both intimal-media thickness(IMT)(r = 0.24, P = 0.0248) and plaque score(r = 0.27, P =0.0126), indicating a relationship between the elevatedHGF concentrations and advancement of CA involvements. Multivariate statistical analysis accentuated thatserum concentrations of HGF would be associated inde-pendently with IMT(standardized = 0.28, P = 0.0499).The review indicates what is presently known regardingserum HGF might be a new and meaningful biomarkerof macroangiopathy in DM subjects.

  20. The Heterogeneity of Manufacturing Agglomeration and Its Influencing Factors---A Study Based on Employment Lorenz Curves and Their Decompositions%制造业集聚的异质性及影响因素--基于就业洛伦兹曲线及其分解的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃成林; 种照辉; 任建辉

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of the era of industry 4. 0,China had launched the plan of“China manufac-turing 2025”,in order to achieve the goal of becoming a powerful manufacturing country. Studying the influ-ence factors of manufacturing agglomeration has important implications for the local government to develop the direction of manufacturing industry based on the local manufacturing base and traffic conditions,and have been important issues during the 13th Five - Year Plan period. Based on the employment Lorenz curves and their decompositions by subsector and improve accessibility index,the paper studies the spatial clustering character-istics of four kinds of technology intensive manufacturing industry and the influence factors. The results show that the degree of agglomeration of manufacturing industry is positively related to the degree of technology. De-composing the Lorenz curve by technology intensive degree and traffic conditions,we find that the better the regional manufacturing base is,the more conducive to attracting high,medium and high industries agglomer-ate. The impact of regional traffic conditions is that,the high technology - intensive manufacturing and middle high technology - intensive manufacturing agglomerate on space with good traffic conditions,low technology -intensive manufacturing industries tend to agglomerate on space with middle traffic conditions,while the impact of traffic conditions on middle low technology - intensive manufacturing industry agglomeration shows no obvi-ous regularity. The above conclusions have the reference value for the central government to guide the transfer of industries and the local government to make choice of industry selection.%随着工业4.0时代的到来,我国推出了“中国制造2025”规划。分析各类制造业集聚的影响因素,是研究新集聚格局形成与区域制造业转型升级需要重视的理论问题,也对地方政府根据本地制造业基础及交通条件选择制造业

  1. Spatial Distribution of Urban Catering Industry and Its Influenced Factors: A Case Study of Xiamen City%城市餐饮业的空间格局及影响因素分析——以厦门市为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒舍玉; 王润; 孙艳伟; 刘健; 肖黎姗

    2012-01-01

    Based on Xiamen catering industry census data and field investigation, this study analyzes the spatial structure of catering industry in Xiamen with the aid of spatial analysis tools in Arc GIS software, taking street as the study unit. It is found that there are significant differences for spatial distribution of catering industry between inside and outside of Xiamen Island. Inside the island, spatial distribution of the catering industry presents a concentric-circles-style development, the number of restaurants gradually decreases from the center of the island to outward areas. In each street of the island, the catering industry gathers as zonal and cluster modalities. The results of correlation analysis between influence factors show that: there is positive correlation between the spatial distribution of catering industry and urban residential area or commercial land; the city's public facilities areas, residential village's areas limit the development of catering industry. The mid-class restaurants can represent the development characteristics of catering industry, and their spatial distribution has positive correlation with the population density. The proportion of the tertiary industry has a decisive role on the grade distribution of catering industry. Road network density plays a decisive role on the distribution of small catering units.%以厦门市餐饮业普查数据为基础,结合实地考察,运用ArcGIS空间分析,以街道为研究单位分析了厦门市餐饮业的空间格局.结果发现,厦门市的餐饮业分布岛内岛外差异显著,以厦门岛为核心呈现圈层式发展,岛内从城市中心向外递减,各街道内餐饮业主要以组团式集聚和带状分布相结合的方式出现.综合考虑区域经济水平、人口密度、交通便捷程度、城市空间格局等与餐饮业分布有关的影响因素,运用SPSS进行相关性分析,结果表明:餐饮业的空间分布与城镇住宅面积、商业服务用地关联度

  2. Prevalence of childhood stress and associated factors: a study of schoolchildren in a city in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil Prevalência de estresse infantil e fatores associados: um estudo com escolares em uma cidade do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Rosi Sbaraini

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This was a cross-sectional school-based study of 883 fourth-grade elementary schoolchildren at private (5, municipal (18, and State (11 schools in a city in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The objective was to identify the prevalence of childhood stress and its associated factors. The assessment used the Lipp & Lucarelli Childhood Stress Scale (2005 and a parental questionnaire. The results showed 18.2% stress prevalence in the schoolchildren. Factors associated with stress according to bivariate analysis were: gender (female, age (> 10 years, type of school (public, parents' marital status (not married, family relationship (fair/bad, social interaction (fair/bad, child's autonomous activities (lack of, and parents schooling' (elementary. After Cox regression, gender and social interaction remained in the final model as the factors associated with stress, demonstrating that girls and children with fair or bad social interaction had an increased likelihood of stress. The results point to the importance of early detection of childhood stress and the need for preventive measures to relieve the suffering caused by stress in so many children.Trata-se de estudo de base escolar, com delineamento transversal, que avaliou 883 crianças que estudavam na 4ª série do Ensino Fundamental das escolas particulares (5, municipais (18 e estaduais (11 de uma cidade do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. O objetivo foi identificar prevalência e fatores associados ao estresse infantil. Os instrumentos utilizados foram: Escala de Estresse Infantil e questionário dirigido aos pais. Os resultados mostraram prevalência de estresse em 18,2% dos escolares. Os fatores associados ao desfecho na análise bivariada foram: sexo (feminino, idade (mais de dez anos, tipo de escola (pública, situação conjugal dos pais (não casados, relacionamento familiar (regular/ruim, convívio social (regular/ruim, atividades de autonomia (não possui e escolaridade da mãe e do pai

  3. Violência física e fatores associados: estudo de base populacional no sul do Brasil Violencia física y factores asociados: estudio de base poblacional en el sur de Brasil Physical violence and associated factors: a population-based study in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian dos Santos Palazzo

    2008-08-01

    ísica en la poblacion fue significativa, con consecuencias emocionales e impacto en los servicios de salud, requiriendo capacitación de los profesionales del área.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of physical violence and its association with sociodemographic aspects, stressful life events, and the use of health services due to emotional problems. METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted with a sample of 1,954 14-year-old or older inhabitants of the city of Canoas (Southern Brazil. They were selected by means of conglomerate sampling according to a pre-established system. Data were obtained in visits to households by means of a confidential semi-structured questionnaire. A bivariate analysis was carried out through multinomial logistic regression, and the multivariate analysis by polytomous logistic regression, categorizing the outcome by age group. RESULTS: The findings show a prevalence of 9.7% (CI 95%: 8.37;11.03 and association with: women 20 years old and older (OR=2.74; CI 95%: 1.52;4.94; higher schooling rate (p0.001. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of physical violence in the population was significant, resulting in important emotional consequences and impact on health services, requiring capacity building of the professionals in the field.

  4. 北京城中村儿童户外体力活动环境影响因子分析——以大有庄、骚子营邻里为例%Children's Outdoor Physical Activities in Beijing “Urban-Village” Neighborhood Subjected to Environmental Factors: A Case Study on Dayouzhuang and Saoziying Neighborhood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冬; 韩西丽

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, lacking of children involvement in new district planning or old district renovation, and lacking of understanding of children's environmental preferences of residential neighborhood made most of the residential neighborhoods not attractive enough for children to be engaged in physical activities. This leads to a series of children's health problems. This study explored 6-12 years old children's perception of opportunities for outdoor physical activities in two urban-village neighborhoods in Beijing to promote understanding of the environmental impact on children's physical activities. Cognitive Mapping reveals that children's perception of the structure of neighborhood environment includes three models, "activity places & activity path ", "path" , and "scene", in which the first model is corresponding to higher level of children's outdoor physical activities than the others. Poor sanitation and motorvehicles are negative environmental factors which weaken children's perception of the opportunities for outdoor physical activity. Play and sports facilities, water landscape, flowers and trees, natural pavement and benches are positive environmental factors which promote children's perception of the opportunity for outdoor physical activity. This research can provide useful information for urban-villages renovation in Beijing and other cities in the future.%在我国,近年来无论是新区建设还是旧区改造都缺少儿童参与,成人化设计导致城市邻里空间不足以吸引儿童开展体力活动,产生了一系列儿童健康问题.本研究选取北京市海淀区大有庄、骚子营社区,运用感知地图方法,对6~12岁儿童户外活动环境感知及理想邻里环境意向进行调查分析,共获取儿童感知地图38份.研究结果显示:儿童对邻里空间的感知结构包括3种模式,即“活动场所+活动路径”、“路径”和“场景”;第一种模式对应的儿童户外体力活动水平较后两

  5. ERPs KEY SUCCESS FACTORS: A CASE STUDY INVOLVING A PROBLEMATIC IMPLANTATION IN A MID-SIZE MANUFACTURING ENTERPRISE FATORES-CHAVE NA IMPLANTAÇÃO DE ERPS: ESTUDO DE UM CASO PROBLEMÁTICO EM UMA MÉDIA INDÚSTRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Leal Jamil

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Although Information Systems' literature contains more ERP success cases, it is not rare to notice unsuccessful ERP deployments that extend over years and consume much more financial and human resources than expected. One of the reasons for that is related to the fact that ERP implementation is a social-technical multifaceted and complex process. The key success factors for ERP deployment comprises varied features such as strategic planning, project management, consulting team performance, user involvement, and top management support. This paper intends to investigate an ERP deployment case that is considered unsuccessful due to the low level of user satisfaction. The ERP's key success factors presented in literature were compared to the characteristics of this actual ERP implementation. The case study was performed in a medium-size aluminium and copper recycling industry located in the Belo Horizonte metropolitan area, the capital of Minas Gerais state, in Brazil. The research results provided evidence that the unsuccessful ERP project was partially generated by the insufficient presence of critical success factors suggested in the ERP literature. Embora a literatura contenha mais casos de sucesso de ERP, não é raro constatar implantações mal sucedidas que se estendem por vários anos e consomem muito mais recursos humanos e financeiros do que o esperado. Um dos motivos pelos quais isso ocorre é o fato de que a implantação de um ERP é um processo sócio-técnico complexo e multifacetado. Os fatores-chave de sucesso na implantação de sistemas ERP contemplam variados aspectos tais como planejamento estratégico, gerência do projeto, atuação da equipe de consultoria externa, envolvimento de usuários, apoio da alta administração, entre outros. O presente trabalho se propõe a investigar uma implantação de ERP percebida como razoavelmente mal sucedida em função do baixo grau de satisfação dos seus usuários. Os fatores-chave de

  6. 慢性肾病对患者认知功能的影响及其相关因素的初步研究%Impact of chronic kidney disease on patients' cognitive function and its related factors: a preliminary study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴静; 邓志宽; 赵景宏; 黄云剑; 冯兵

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on patients' cognitive function and its related factors.Methods A total of 266 patients diagnosed with 3-5 stage CKD,age > 18 years,enrolled as outpatients or inpatients in our nephrology department from June 2014 to June 2015,were subjected this study.According to the value of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR),the patients were divided into stage 3 CKD group (CKD3) (60 mL/min > eGFR≥ 30 mL/min,n =92),stage 4 CKD group (CKD4) (30 mL/min >eGFR≥ 15 mL/min,n=96) and stage 5 CKD group (CKD5) (eGFR < 15 mL/min,n =78).Eighty cases of control were recruited from hospital staffs following the criteria:normal appearance,eGFR > 90 mL/min and matched age,sex,and education level with the patients.Minimental state examination (MMSE) was performed to evaluate the subjects' cognitive function.The levels of serum creatinine (Cr),urea nitrogen (UN),uric acid (UA),cholesterol (CHE),high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C),and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were determined by OLYMPUS AU2700 automatic biochemical analyzer.Hemoglobin (Hb) level was examined by XFA9500 automatic blood cell analyzer.All data were analyzed using statistical software SSPS 13.0.Results The overall incidence of cognitive impairment in stage 3-5 CKD groups was remarkably higher (33.1%) than that of the control (7.5%).Moreover,the incidence of cognitive impairment was increased along the CKD stage from 3 to 5.In the CKD-4 and-5 groups the increased incidence was statistically significant (P < 0.01).In addition,the MMSE score was significantly decreased from stage 3 to 5 compared to the control (CKD 3 group,P < 0.05;CKD-4 and-5 groups,P < 0.01).The MMSE score was negatively correlated with the factors of age,UN,Cr and UA (P < 0.01),but positively correlated with Hb (P < 0.05) and eGFR (P < 0.01).Conclusion CKD affects the patients' cognitive function significantly.The incidence and

  7. Structural studies on B2-glycoprotein I and von Willebrand factor A3 domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, B.

    2000-01-01

    The integrity of blood circulation is a prerequisite for life; its malfunctioning is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. For that reason the haemostatic system is a critical component of homeostasis. In Chapter I an overview is given of the biophysical and biochemical

  8. Shelter dogs and their destiny. A retrospective analysis to identify predictive factors - a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Cannas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Consequences of a long stay in dog shelter have particular signifi cance, because, since 1991, the Italian law (14/08/1991, n.281 prohibits euthanasia of dogs unless “they are seriously ill, incurable or proven dangerous”. Caught dogs are recovered for a quarantine period in the sanitary kennel, if they are not returned to the owner, they are moved to shelters until adoption or death. The aim of this work was to identify the relationship between dogs characteristics and their destiny in order to define useful predictors to better manage the stay of dogs in shelter. We analysed the records of all dogs recovered in a sanitary kennel from 2005 to 2010 and subsequently moved to shelters (n=771. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed in order to investigate possible factors that might affect adoptability of sheltered dogs. The characteristics of dogs that spent more time in PVCS, before being transfer to the CR, were: large size, male gender and age between 11 months and 2 years (p ≤ 0,05. Male dogs spent more days in CR, as opposed to female (p ≤ 0,05. In our sample 76% dogs were adopted, 18% were still in the shelter, 4% died and 2% were euthanized. Female dogs were adopted more than males; young dogs more than elderly (over seven years; sizes medium and small more than large. It would be interesting use the data from this research and complete them with information regarding dogs behaviour, to better manage dogs during the stay in shelter and to improve their relocation.

  9. Attainment Gap and Responsible Factors: A Quantitative Study in Secondary Schools in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodosiou-Zipiti, Galatia; Lamprianou, Iasonas; West, Mel; Muijs, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The population in Cyprus, a recent European Union member, has become much more heterogeneous during the past decade. Here, we examine the attainment patterns of minority and native students enrolled in six secondary schools from different cities in Cyprus, and identify factors responsible for these patterns. The combination of examined factors has…

  10. Hospitality environmental factors: a study of the consumption experience of homosexuals in the Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yákara Vasconcelos Pereira Leite

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación tiene el objetivo general de identificar los factores ambientales de la hospitalidad que impulsan los homosexuales entrevistados a vivieren experiencias memorables de consumo en los hoteles y hostales. Se utilizó el enfoque cualitativo de tipo descriptivo. Desde esta perspectiva, gays de dos Estados del Nordeste de Brasil fueron entrevistados. Los relatos se presentaron a fin de mejorar la formación de categorías. En cuanto a los resultados, se consideróque la experiencia de consumo se almacena como un rendimiento positivo o negativo debido afactores relacionados con la prestación de servicios y la infraestructura. Por lo tanto, se constató que el entorno de servicios de hospitalidad influye en el consumo de los homosexuales entrevistados a punto de hacerla memorable.

  11. Bone Mass, Body Mass Index, and Lifestyle Factors: A Case Study of Walailak University Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapheeporn KHWANCHUEA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To assess bone mineral density (BMD and explore lifestyle factors affecting BMD in 310 staff of Walailak University aged 25 - 45 years (men = 23.23 % and women 76.77 %. BMD was evaluated by Quantitative ultrasound (QUS analysis at the left distal-third radius. Anthropometric data including body mass index (BMI and waist circumferences (WC were measured, and lifestyle behaviors were also explored using the questionnaire. BMD status of both men and women showed similar results, 14.84 and 0.97 % of both genders were determined to have osteopenia and osteoporosis, respectively. Important data demonstrated the highest numbers of younger women aged 25 - 30 with osteopenia (30.61 %. Anthropometric results showed that 44.83 % of all subjects represented abnormal BMI (BMI < 18.5 and BMI  ³  23, and percentages of the men who had BMI more than 23 (51.39 % were larger than those of the women (30.67 %. In contrast, only 26.45 % of both genders demonstrated abnormal WC, and the numbers for women were higher. Descriptive data of beverage consumption showed that most of men and women subjects had caffeine and carbonated beverage intakes less than 7 cups per week (73.61 and 87.82 % and less than 3 cups per week (95.83 and 97.06 % respectively, whereas only 9.72 and 26.89 % of men and women consumed more than 3 packs of milk per week. Results of lifestyle behaviors showed that almost all subjects preferred exercise, but only 47.22 and 31.09 % of men and women exercises 3 or more times per week. The multivariate analysis showed that BMD status is significantly associated with age group and BMI (OR = 3.30, CI, 1.086 – 6.3747 and OR = 0.43, CI, 0.2697 – 0.9805, respectively after adjusting for age and gender. Normal BMI and older age group are the potential determinants, and other risk factors such as caffeine and carbonated beverages are sufficient concerns in adults.

  12. Attainment Gap and Responsible Factors: A Quantitative Study in Secondary Schools in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodosiou-Zipiti, Galatia; Lamprianou, Iasonas; West, Mel; Muijs, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The population in Cyprus, a recent European Union member, has become much more heterogeneous during the past decade. Here, we examine the attainment patterns of minority and native students enrolled in six secondary schools from different cities in Cyprus, and identify factors responsible for these patterns. The combination of examined factors has…

  13. Structural studies on the von Willebrand factor A1 and A3 domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, R.A.P.

    2003-01-01

    Von Willebrand factor (VWF), a multimeric plasma glycoprotein, mediates platelet adhesion to sites of vascular damage. In this proces, the VWF-A3 domain binds to collagen in the vessel wall. This is followed by binding of the VWF-A1 domain to platelet receptor glycoprotein (Gp) Ibalpha. The investig

  14. Job strain and cardiovascular risk factors: a cross sectional study of employed Danish men and women.

    OpenAIRE

    Netterstrøm, B; Kristensen, T S; Damsgaard, M T; Olsen, O; Sjøl, A.

    1991-01-01

    As part of the World Health Organisation initiated MONICA project, 2000 men and women aged 30, 40, 50, and 60 from the general population were invited to undergo a medical examination with special emphasis on cardiovascular disease. A total of 1504 (75%) participated, 1209 of whom were employed. The participants answered a questionnaire on working, social, and health conditions and underwent clinical examinations that included the measurement of blood pressure and serum cholesterol, triglycer...

  15. Hospitality environmental factors: a study of the consumption experience of homosexuals in the Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yákara Vasconcelos Pereira Leite

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The overall goal of this research is identifying environmental factors in hospitality that lead the interviewed homosexuals to memorable consumer experiences at hotels and inns. This research was conducted under descriptive qualitative approach. According to this perspective, gays from two states of the northeast of Brazil were interviewed. The narratives were presented in order to enhance the formation of categories. Regarding results, it was observed that the experience of consumption is memorized as positive or negative due to the performance of factors related to service provision and infrastructure. Therefore, it was noticed that the hospitality servicescape influences the consumption experience of the interviewed homosexuals to a point that it becomes memorable.

  16. The X-factor: A longitudinal study of calibration in young novice drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Craen, S.

    2010-01-01

    It is often assumed that young novice drivers overestimate their driving skills and underestimate the risks in traffic; and therefore insufficiently adapt their driving behaviour (e.g. speed or headway) to the specific situation. This balancing of skills and task demands has been called calibration.

  17. Analysis of Rural Development Factors: A Case Study of Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shunxi; YAN; Xiaolei; WANG; Xiaoguang; LI

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of survey,drawing on economic growth theory,we analyze the main form of exogenous growth and regional applicability in Hebei Province,and point out that some exogenous driving forces are effective ways to accelerate rural construction,such as " the promotion of agriculture by industry" and " developing the rural areas with the aid of the urban areas". However,human capital,technology,incentive institutional arrangement,agricultural industry clusters and other endogenous growth factors are fundamental to sustainable development of rural construction,so it is necessary to make them play a fundamental role in increasing farmers’ income and promoting agricultural development.

  18. Structural studies on B2-glycoprotein I and von Willebrand factor A3 domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, B.

    2001-01-01

    The integrity of blood circulation is a prerequisite for life; its malfunctioning is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. For that reason the haemostatic system is a critical component of homeostasis. In Chapter I an overview is given of the biophysical and biochemical

  19. Human mitochondrial transcription factor A functions in both nuclei and mitochondria and regulates cancer cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Bin [Department of Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu (Japan); Department of Urology, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu (Japan); Department of Urology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Izumi, Hiroto; Yasuniwa, Yoshihiro; Akiyama, Masaki; Yamaguchi, Takahiro [Department of Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu (Japan); Fujimoto, Naohiro; Matsumoto, Tetsuro [Department of Urology, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu (Japan); Wu, Bin [Department of Urology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Tanimoto, Akihide [Department of Pathology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Science, Kagoshima (Japan); Sasaguri, Yasuyuki [Pathology and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu (Japan); Kohno, Kimitoshi, E-mail: k-kohno@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu (Japan)

    2011-04-29

    Highlights: {yields} Mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA) localizes in nuclei and binds tightly to the nuclear chromatin. {yields} mtTFA contains two putative nuclear localization signals (NLS) in the HMG-boxes. {yields} Overexpression of mtTFA enhances the growth of cancer cells, whereas downregulation of mtTFA inhibits their growth by regulating mtTFA target genes, such as baculoviral IAP repeat-containing 5 (BIRC5; also known as survivin). {yields} Knockdown of mtTFA expression induces p21-dependent G1 cell cycle arrest. -- Abstract: Mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA) is one of the high mobility group protein family and is required for both transcription from and maintenance of mitochondrial genomes. However, the roles of mtTFA have not been extensively studied in cancer cells. Here, we firstly reported the nuclear localization of mtTFA. The proportion of nuclear-localized mtTFA varied among different cancer cells. Some mtTFA binds tightly to the nuclear chromatin. DNA microarray and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that mtTFA can regulate the expression of nuclear genes. Overexpression of mtTFA enhanced the growth of cancer cell lines, whereas downregulation of mtTFA inhibited their growth by regulating mtTFA target genes, such as baculoviral IAP repeat-containing 5 (BIRC5; also known as survivin). Knockdown of mtTFA expression induced p21-dependent G1 cell cycle arrest. These results imply that mtTFA functions in both nuclei and mitochondria to promote cell growth.

  20. Self-pathology, the five-factor model, and bloated specific factors: A cautionary tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltmanns, Joshua R; Widiger, Thomas A

    2016-04-01

    The five-factor model (FFM) is widely regarded as a useful model for the structure of both normal and maladaptive personality traits. However, recent factor analytic studies have suggested that deficits in the sense of self fall outside the FFM. The current study replicates and extends these findings, illustrating that factors can be situated outside a higher-order domain by including a relatively large number of closely related scales, forming what is known as a bloated specific factor. A total of 1,553 participants (M age = 37.8 years, SD = 13.1) were recruited across 3 studies. One measure of self-pathology (including 15 scales) and 2 measures of the FFM were administered, along with 17 measures of anxiousness and 12 measures of social withdrawal/sociability. Across 2 independent samples and 2 different measures of the FFM, deficits in the sense of self separated from neuroticism when all 15 scales of self-pathology were included. However, self-pathology loaded with FFM neuroticism when only a subset of the self-pathology scales was included. This finding was replicated with measures of social withdrawal/sociability, although only partially replicated with measures of anxiousness. Implications of these findings for past and future factor analytic studies of the structure of psychopathology are discussed.

  1. The Prognostic Value of Haplotypes in the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A Gene in Colorectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Torben F., E-mail: torben.hansen@slb.regionsyddanmark.dk; Spindler, Karen-Lise G. [Department of Oncology, Vejle Hospital, Vejle (Denmark); Andersen, Rikke F. [Department of Biochemistry, Vejle Hospital, Vejle (Denmark); Lindebjerg, Jan [Department of Clinical Pathology, Vejle Hospital, Vejle (Denmark); Kølvraa, Steen [Department of Clinical Genetics, Vejle Hospital, Vejle (Denmark); Brandslund, Ivan [Department of Biochemistry, Vejle Hospital, Vejle (Denmark); Jakobsen, Anders [Department of Oncology, Vejle Hospital, Vejle (Denmark)

    2010-06-28

    New prognostic markers in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) are a prerequisite for individualized treatment. Prognostic importance of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) gene has been proposed. The objective of the present study was to investigate the prognostic importance of haplotypes in the VEGF-A gene in patients with CRC. The study included 486 patients surgically resected for stage II and III CRC, divided into two independent cohorts. Three SNPs in the VEGF-A gene were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction. Haplotypes were estimated using the PHASE program. The prognostic influence was evaluated using Kaplan-Meir plots and log rank tests. Cox regression method was used to analyze the independent prognostic importance of different markers. All three SNPs were significantly related to survival. A haplotype combination, responsible for this effect, was present in approximately 30% of the patients and demonstrated a significant relationship with poor survival, and it remained an independent prognostic marker after multivariate analysis, hazard ratio 2.46 (95% confidence interval 1.49–4.06), p < 0.001. Validation was provided by consistent findings in a second and independent cohort. Haplotype combinations call for further investigation.

  2. Intravenous immunoglobulin reduces serum tumor necrosis factor a in patients with Guillain-Barre Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben S

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tumor necrosis factor a TNF-alpha has a possible role in the pathogenesis of the Guillain-Barre' syndrome (GBS. Aims: To study the effect of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg on serum TNF-alpha concentrations in patients with GBS. Material and Methods: The effect of IVIg on TNF-alpha was evaluated in 36 patients with GBS. Serum TNF-alpha concentration was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The sera of 22 (61% patients with GBS showed elevated concentrations of TNF-alpha (35-182 pg/ml and these sera were individually incubated in vitro with IVIg (0.25mg/ml at 37°C for 24 hours. Results: The serum TNF-alpha concentrations in the 22 GBS patients with elevated levels showed a steady decline (60.34—19.78 pg/ml following incubation with IVIg. These 22 patients also received IVIg therapy, and serum TNF-alpha concentrations showed a significant decline (65.5—9.75 pg/ml at the end of the therapy. At the time of discharge from the hospital, there was a positive correlation between neurological recovery and decline in TNF-alpha concentrations in these 22 GBS patients. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that elevated levels of TNF-alpha occur in a proportion of patients with GBS and in these patients elevated serum TNF-alpha levels decline with IVIg therapy.

  3. Premature Death of Adult Adoptees: Analyses of a Case-Cohort Sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Liselotte; Andersen, Per Kragh; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2005-01-01

    survival analysis; Cox proportional hazard; Kalbfleisch and Lawless estimator; cause-specific deaths......survival analysis; Cox proportional hazard; Kalbfleisch and Lawless estimator; cause-specific deaths...

  4. Negative transcriptional regulation of mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) by nuclear TFAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Jin; Kang, Young Cheol; Park, Wook-Ha; Jeong, Jae Hoon; Pak, Youngmi Kim, E-mail: ykpak@khu.ac.kr

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • TFAM localizes in nuclei and mitochondria of neuronal cells. • Nuclear TFAM does not bind the Tfam promoter. • Nuclear TFAM reduced the Tfam promoter activity via suppressing NRF-1 activity. • A novel self-negative feedback regulation of Tfam gene expression is explored. • FAM may play different roles depending on its subcellular localizations. - Abstract: The nuclear DNA-encoded mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is synthesized in cytoplasm and transported into mitochondria. TFAM enhances both transcription and replication of mitochondrial DNA. It is unclear, however, whether TFAM plays a role in regulating nuclear gene expression. Here, we demonstrated that TFAM was localized to the nucleus and mitochondria by immunostaining, subcellular fractionation, and TFAM-green fluorescent protein hybrid protein studies. In HT22 hippocampal neuronal cells, human TFAM (hTFAM) overexpression suppressed human Tfam promoter-mediated luciferase activity in a dose-dependent manner. The mitochondria targeting sequence-deficient hTFAM also repressed Tfam promoter activity to the same degree as hTFAM. It indicated that nuclear hTFAM suppressed Tfam expression without modulating mitochondrial activity. The repression required for nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1), but hTFAM did not bind to the NRF-1 binding site of its promoter. TFAM was co-immunoprecipitated with NRF-1. Taken together, we suggest that nuclear TFAM down-regulate its own gene expression as a NRF-1 repressor, showing that TFAM may play different roles depending on its subcellular localizations.

  5. Health Promotion Behavior of Chinese International Students in Korea Including Acculturation Factors: A Structural Equation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Jung; Yoo, Il Young

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explain the health promotion behavior of Chinese international students in Korea using a structural equation model including acculturation factors. A survey using self-administered questionnaires was employed. Data were collected from 272 Chinese students who have resided in Korea for longer than 6 months. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The p value of final model is .31. The fitness parameters of the final model such as goodness of fit index, adjusted goodness of fit index, normed fit index, non-normed fit index, and comparative fit index were more than .95. Root mean square of residual and root mean square error of approximation also met the criteria. Self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturative stress and acculturation level had direct effects on health promotion behavior of the participants and the model explained 30.0% of variance. The Chinese students in Korea with higher self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturation level, and lower acculturative stress reported higher health promotion behavior. The findings can be applied to develop health promotion strategies for this population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Mitochondrial transcription factor A regulation of mitochondrial degeneration in experimental diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Krish; Anjaneyulu, Muragundla; Inoue, Tatsuya; Choi, Joungil; Sagi, Avinash Rao; Chen, Chen; Ide, Tamomi; Russell, James W

    2015-07-15

    Oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage in peripheral neurons is considered to be important in the development of diabetic neuropathy. Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) wraps mtDNA and promotes mtDNA replication and transcription. We studied whether overexpression of TFAM reverses experimental peripheral diabetic neuropathy using TFAM transgenic mice (TFAM Tg) that express human TFAM (hTFAM). Levels of mouse mtDNA and the total TFAM (mouse TFAM + hTFAM) in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) increased by approximately twofold in the TFAM Tg mice compared with control (WT) mice. WT and TFAM Tg mice were made diabetic by the administration of streptozotocin. Neuropathy end points were motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities, mechanical allodynia, thermal nociception, and intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD). In the DRG neurons, mtDNA copy number and damage to mtDNA were quantified by qPCR, and TFAM levels were measured by Western blot. Mice with 16-wk duration of diabetes developed motor and sensory nerve conduction deficits, behavioral deficits, and intraepidermal nerve fiber loss. All of these changes were mostly prevented in diabetic TFAM Tg mice and were independent of changes in blood parameters. Mice with 16 wk of diabetes had a 40% decrease in mtDNA copy number compared with nondiabetic mice (P diabetic TFAM Tg mice reached the same level as that of WT nondiabetic mice. In comparison, there was upregulation of mtDNA and TFAM in 6-wk diabetic mice, suggesting that TFAM activation could be a therapeutic strategy to treat peripheral neuropathy.

  7. The mitochondrial transcription factor A functions in mitochondrial base excision repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canugovi, Chandrika; Maynard, Scott; Bayne, Anne-Cécile V

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is an essential component of mitochondrial nucleoids. TFAM plays an important role in mitochondrial transcription and replication. TFAM has been previously reported to inhibit nucleotide excision repair (NER) in vitro but NER has not yet been detected i...

  8. Molecular Fluorescence Endoscopy Targeting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A for Improved Colorectal Polyp Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjalma, Jolien J; Garcia-Allende, P Beatriz; Hartmans, Elmire; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Anton G; Boersma-van Ek, Wytske; Glatz, Jürgen; Koch, Maximilian; van Herwaarden, Yasmijn J; Bisseling, Tanya M; Nagtegaal, Iris D; Timmer-Bosscha, Hetty; Koornstra, Jan Jacob; Karrenbeld, Arend; Kleibeuker, Jan H; van Dam, Gooitzen M; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Nagengast, Wouter B

    2016-03-01

    Small and flat adenomas are known to carry a high miss-rate during standard white-light endoscopy. Increased detection rate may be achieved by molecular fluorescence endoscopy with targeted near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent tracers. The aim of this study was to validate vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted fluorescent tracers during ex vivo colonoscopy with an NIR endoscopy platform. VEGF-A and EGFR expression was determined by immunohistochemistry on a large subset of human colorectal tissue samples--48 sessile serrated adenomas/polyps, 70 sporadic high-grade dysplastic adenomas, and 19 hyperplastic polyps--and tissue derived from patients with Lynch syndrome--78 low-grade dysplastic adenomas, 57 high-grade dysplastic adenomas, and 31 colon cancer samples. To perform an ex vivo colonoscopy procedure, 14 mice with small intraperitoneal EGFR-positive HCT116(luc) tumors received intravenous bevacizumab-800CW (anti-VEGF-A), cetuximab-800CW (anti-EGFR), control tracer IgG-800CW, or sodium chloride. Three days later, 8 resected HCT116(luc) tumors (2-5 mm) were stitched into 1 freshly resected human colon specimen and followed by an ex vivo molecular fluorescence colonoscopy procedure. Immunohistochemistry showed high VEGF-A expression in 79%-96% and high EGFR expression in 51%-69% of the colorectal lesions. Both targets were significantly overexpressed in the colorectal lesions, compared with the adjacent normal colon crypts. During ex vivo molecular fluorescence endoscopy, all tumors could clearly be delineated for both bevacizumab-800CW and cetuximab-800CW tracers. Specific tumor uptake was confirmed with fluorescent microscopy showing, respectively, stromal and cell membrane fluorescence. VEGF-A is a promising target for molecular fluorescence endoscopy because it showed a high protein expression, especially in sessile serrated adenomas/polyps and Lynch syndrome. We demonstrated the feasibility to visualize

  9. Down-regulation of transcription elogation factor A (SII like 4 (TCEAL4 in anaplastic thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyamoto Shizuyo

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC is one of the most aggressive human malignancies and appears to arise mainly from transformation of pre-existing differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC. However, the carcinogenic mechanism of anaplastic transformation remains unclear. Previously, we investigated specific genes related to ATC based on gene expression profiling using cDNA microarray analysis. One of these genes, transcription elongation factor A (SII-like 4 (TCEAL4, encodes a member of the transcription elongation factor A (SII-like gene family. The detailed function of TCEAL4 has not been described nor has any association between this gene and human cancers been reported previously. Methods To investigate the role of TCEAL4 in ATC carcinogenesis, we examined expression levels of TCEAL4 in ACLs as well as in other types of thyroid cancers and normal human tissue. Results Expression of TCEAL4 was down-regulated in all 11 ACLs as compared to either normal thyroid tissues or papillary and follicular thyroid cancerous tissues. TCEAL4 was expressed ubiquitously in all normal human tissues tested. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first report of altered TCEAL4 expression in human cancers. We suggest that loss of TCEAL4 expression might be associated with development of ATC from DTC. Further functional studies are required.

  10. Risk alleles of USF1 gene predict cardiovascular disease of women in two prospective studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Upstream transcription factor 1 (USF1 is a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor controlling several critical genes in lipid and glucose metabolism. Of some 40 genes regulated by USF1, several are involved in the molecular pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Although the USF1 gene has been shown to have a critical role in the etiology of familial combined hyperlipidemia, which predisposes to early CVD, the gene's potential role as a risk factor for CVD events at the population level has not been established. Here we report the results from a prospective genetic-epidemiological study of the association between the USF1 variants, CVD, and mortality in two large Finnish cohorts. Haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms exposing all common allelic variants of USF1 were genotyped in a prospective case-cohort design with two distinct cohorts followed up during 1992-2001 and 1997-2003. The total number of follow-up years was 112,435 in 14,140 individuals, of which 2,225 were selected for genotyping based on the case-cohort study strategy. After adjustment for conventional risk factors, we observed an association of USF1 with CVD and mortality among females. In combined analysis of the two cohorts, female carriers of a USF1 risk haplotype had a 2-fold risk of a CVD event (hazard ratio [HR] 2.02; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16-3.53; p = 0.01 and an increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR 2.52; 95% CI 1.46-4.35; p = 0.0009. A putative protective haplotype of USF1 was also identified. Our study shows how a gene identified in exceptional families proves to be important also at the population level, implying that allelic variants of USF1 significantly influence the prospective risk of CVD and even all-cause mortality in females.

  11. Risk of thyroid cancer after exposure to fertility drugs: results from a large Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, C.G.; Jensen, A.; Sharif, H.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Findings from the few epidemiological studies that have investigated thyroid cancer risk after fertility drugs have been inconclusive. Using data from the largest cohort of infertile women to date, we examined the effects of fertility drugs on thyroid cancer risk. METHODS: A cohort...... of 54 362 women with infertility problems referred to Danish fertility clinics in the period 1963-1998 was established. A detailed data collection including information about type and amount of treatment was conducted. Using case-cohort techniques, we calculated rate ratios (RRs) of thyroid cancer...... associated with different fertility drugs after adjustment for age at first live birth. RESULTS: A total of 29 thyroid cancers were identified during follow-up through 2000. Use of clomiphene [RR = 2.28; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-4.82] or progesterone (RR = 10.14; 95% CI: 1.93-53.33) was associated...

  12. AN ALGORITHM FOR CONSTRUCTING ORTHOGONAL ARMLET MULTI-WAVELETS WITH MULTIPLICITY r AND DILATION FACTOR a

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Xiaohui; Wang Gang; Wang Baoqin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to construct an orthogonal Armlet multi-wavelets with multiplicity r and dilation factor a.Firstly,the definition of Armlets with dilation factor a is proposed in this paper.Based on the Two-scale Similar Transform (TST),the notion of the Para-unitary A-scale Similar Transform (PAST) is introduced,and we also give the transform on the all two-scale matrix symbols of the multi-wavelets with dilation a.Then we show that the PAST and the transform on the matrix symbols of the multi-wavelets keep the orthogonality of the multi-wavelets system.We discuss the condition that a- 1 multi-wavelets corresponding to the multi-scaling functions are all Armlets.After performing the PAST and the transform on the matrix symbols of the multi-wavelets,the multi-scaling function can be balanced and the corresponding multi-wavelets can be Armlets at the same time.The construction of Armlets with high order is also discussed.At last,by a given example,we can conclude that the algorithm is feasible and efficient.

  13. Nonselective matrix metalloproteinase but not tumor necrosis factor-a inhibition effectively preserves the early critical colon anastomotic integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ågren, Magnus S.; Andersen, Thomas L.; Andersen, Line;

    2011-01-01

    Increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of colorectal anastomotic leakage. Tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) induces MMPs and may influence anastomosis repair.......Increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of colorectal anastomotic leakage. Tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) induces MMPs and may influence anastomosis repair....

  14. The association between dietary energy density and type 2 diabetes in Europe: results from the EPIC-InterAct Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia W van den Berg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Observational studies implicate higher dietary energy density (DED as a potential risk factor for weight gain and obesity. It has been hypothesized that DED may also be associated with risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D, but limited evidence exists. Therefore, we investigated the association between DED and risk of T2D in a large prospective study with heterogeneity of dietary intake. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A case-cohort study was nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC study of 340,234 participants contributing 3.99 million person years of follow-up, identifying 12,403 incident diabetes cases and a random subcohort of 16,835 individuals from 8 European countries. DED was calculated as energy (kcal from foods (except beverages divided by the weight (gram of foods estimated from dietary questionnaires. Prentice-weighted Cox proportional hazard regression models were fitted by country. Risk estimates were pooled by random effects meta-analysis and heterogeneity was evaluated. Estimated mean (sd DED was 1.5 (0.3 kcal/g among cases and subcohort members, varying across countries (range 1.4-1.7 kcal/g. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking, physical activity, alcohol intake, energy intake from beverages and misreporting of dietary intake, no association was observed between DED and T2D (HR 1.02 (95% CI: 0.93-1.13, which was consistent across countries (I(2 = 2.9%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this large European case-cohort study no association between DED of solid and semi-solid foods and risk of T2D was observed. However, despite the fact that there currently is no conclusive evidence for an association between DED and T2DM risk, choosing low energy dense foods should be promoted as they support current WHO recommendations to prevent chronic diseases.

  15. Association of serum uric acid and incident nonspine fractures in elderly men: the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Nancy E; Parimi, Neeta; Lui, Li-Yung; Wise, Barton L; Yao, Wei; Lay, Yu-An Evan; Cawthon, Peggy M; Orwoll, Eric

    2014-07-01

    Uric acid (UA) is produced from purines by the enzyme xanthine oxidase, and elevated levels may cause arthritis and kidney stones. Conversely, UA also appears to function as an antioxidant and may protect against the oxidative stress associated with aging and disease. We performed a prospective fracture case-cohort study to understand the relation of UA and fracture risk in older men enrolled in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study. In the cohort of 5994 men aged 65 years and older attending the baseline MrOS examination, we evaluated a subgroup 1680 men in a case-cohort study design. The analytic group included 387 men with incident nonspine fractures (73 hip) and a random sample of 1383. Serum UA was measured in baseline serum samples. Modified proportional hazards models that account for case-cohort study design were used to estimate the relative hazards (RH) of hip and nonspine fracture in men for serum UA. Models were adjusted for age, race, clinic site, body mass index, vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, walking speed, Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) score, frailty, and total. Subjects with incident nonspine fractures were older, had lower total hip bone mineral density (BMD), and higher serum phosphorus. There was an 18% decreased risk of nonspine fractures (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.71-0.93; p = 0.003) per 1 SD increase of baseline serum and 34% decreased risk of nonspine fractures in quartile 4 of UA versus quartiles 1, 2, and 3 (95% CI 0.49-0.89; p = 0.028) compared with nonfracture cases after multivariate adjustment. Hip fractures were not significantly associated with UA. Total hip BMD was significantly higher in the group of men with high UA levels compared with lower UA levels and increased linearly across quartiles of UA after multivariate adjustment (p for trend = 0.002). In summary, higher serum UA levels were associated with a reduction in risk of incident nonspine fractures but not hip fractures and higher hip BMD.

  16. Mediterranean Diet and Type 2 Diabetes Risk in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the association between adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) and risk of developing type 2 diabetes, across European countries. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We established a case-cohort study including 11,994 incident type 2 diabetic case subjects and a stratified subcohort of 15,798 participants selected from a total cohort of 340,234 participants with 3.99 million person-years of follow-up, from eight European cohorts participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The relative Mediterranean diet score (rMED) (score range 0–18) was used to assess adherence to MDP on the basis of reported consumption of nine dietary components characteristic of the Mediterranean diet. Cox proportional hazards regression, modified for the case-cohort design, was used to estimate the association between rMED and risk of type 2 diabetes, adjusting for confounders. RESULTS The multiple adjusted hazard ratios of type 2 diabetes among individuals with medium (rMED 7–10 points) and high adherence to MDP (rMED 11–18 points) were 0.93 (95% CI 0.86–1.01) and 0.88 (0.79–0.97), respectively, compared with individuals with low adherence to MDP (0–6 points) (P for trend 0.013). The association between rMED and type 2 diabetes was attenuated in people <50 years of age, in obese participants, and when the alcohol, meat, and olive oil components were excluded from the score. CONCLUSIONS In this large prospective study, adherence to the MDP, as defined by rMED, was associated with a small reduction in the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in this European population. PMID:21788627

  17. Expression and Purification of Mitochondrial RNA Polymerase and Transcription Factor A from Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, John P; Arnold, Jamie J; Salminen, Tiina S; Kaguni, Laurie S; Cameron, Craig E

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial gene expression is essential in all organisms. Our understanding of mitochondrial transcription on a biochemical level has been limited by the inability to purify the individual protein components involved in mitochondrial gene expression. Recently, new systems have been identified that permit purification of these proteins from bacteria. However, the generalizability of these systems is not clear. Here, we have applied the technology from the Cameron lab to express and purify mitochondrial RNA polymerase and transcription factor A from Drosophila melanogaster. We show that the use of SUMO system to produce SUMO fusion proteins in bacteria is effective not only for the human and mouse proteins, but also for the fly proteins. The application of this system to produce the mitochondrial proteins from other organisms should permit detailed understanding of mitochondrial transcription from any organism.

  18. Prevalência de atividade física no lazer e fatores associados: estudo de base populacional em São Paulo, Brasil, 2008-2009 Prevalencia de actividad física durante el tiempo libre y factores asociados: estudio de base poblacional en São Paulo, Brasil, 2008-2009 Prevalence of leisure-time physical activity and associated factors: a population-based study in São Paulo, Brazil, 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóvis Arlindo de Sousa

    2013-02-01

    en el ocio. Los hallazgos de este trabajo apuntan la importancia de incentivar la actividad física en el ocio, asociada al sexo masculino, mayor renta, edades más jóvenes entre 12 y 29 años, no fumar e informar no sentirse cansado(a frecuentemente.The purpose of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of self-reported leisure-time physical activity and related factors in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, 2008-2009. A population- based cross-sectional study interviewed 2,691 individuals of both sexes, 12 years or older. A two-stage cluster (census tract, household random sample provided data using home interviews in 2008 and 2009. Leisure-time physical activity was measured with IPAQ, long version. Complex sample-adjusted descriptive statistics provided prevalence estimates, chi-square tests screened associations, and prevalence ratios (PR expressed effects. Multiple Poisson regression was used to ascertain adjusted effects, and design effects were calculated. Of the interviewees, 16.4% (95%CI: 14.3-18.7 reported leisure-time physical activity. The findings indicate the importance of encouraging leisure-time physical activity, which was associated with male sex, higher income, younger age (12 to 29 years, not smoking, and not reporting frequent fatigue.

  19. Idade materna como fator de risco: estudo com primigestas na faixa etária igual ou superior a 28 anos La edad materna como un factor de riesgo: estudio com primigestas en la facha etaria igual o superior a 28 años Maternal age as a risk factor: a study on first time pregnant women with age equal or higher than 28 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Maria Garcia de Lima Parada

    1999-10-01

    después de controlado el tipo de parto, para las siguientes complicaciones perinatales: taquipnea transitoria del recien nacido, cianosis generalizada ao nacer e infección neonatal.This is a transverse-type designed study with the aim analise maternal age as a risk factor, and as not a risk factor, through the verification of incidents during pregnancy, birth and puerperium of first time pregnant women with age equal or higher than 28 years old; as well as birth conditions and discharge of their newborns, comparing them with a group of first time pregnant women from 20 to 27 years old. The study was carried out in Botucatu, São Paulo, from January, 1990 to June, 1995. The statistical analysis, discussed at the level of 5% of significance, was developed through Mann-Whitney test, Goodman test and the evaluation of relative risk and corrected relative risk through Mantel-Haenszel technique. We concluded that maternal age equal or higher than 28 years old, is not a pregnancy, puerperal and intrapartum risk factor, although, on the other hand, it was a risk factor even after controlled parturition for the following perinatal incidents: newborn tachypnea, generalized cyanosis at birth and neonatal infection.

  20. Long-Term Outcomes of Systemic Lupus Erythematous Patients after Pregnancy: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ting-Fang; Chuang, Ya-Wen; Lin, Cheng-Li; Yu, Tung-Min; Chung, Mu-Chi; Li, Chi-Yuan; Chung, Chi-Jung; Ho, Wen-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Background Data on long-term maternal outcomes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are lacking. The study aimed to explore the relationships among SLE, pregnancy, outcomes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and overall mortality. Methods We established a retrospective cohort study consisting of four cohorts: pregnant (case cohort) and nonpregnant SLE patients, as well as pregnant and nonpregnant non-SLE patients. One case cohort and three comparison cohorts were matched by age at first pregnancy and index date of pregnancy by using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Dataset. All study subjects were selected based on the index date to the occurrence of ESRD or overall death. Cox proportional hazard regression models and Kaplan–Meier curves were used in the analysis. Results SLE pregnant patients exhibited significantly increased risk of ESRD after adjusting for other important confounders, including immunosuppressant and parity (HR = 3.19, 95% CI: 1.35–7.52 for pregnant non-SLE; and HR = 2.77, 95% CI: 1.24–6.15 for nonpregnant non-SLE patients). No significant differences in ESRD incidence were observed in pregnant and nonpregnant SLE patients. Pregnant SLE patients exhibited better clinical condition at the baseline and a significantly lower risk of overall mortality than nonpregnant SLE patients. Conclusions Our data support current recommendations for SLE patients to avoid pregnancy until disease activity is quiescent. Multicenter recruitment and clinical information can be used to further examine the association of SLE and ESRD (or mortality) after pregnancy. PMID:27992461

  1. Pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum kinase activation promotes medulloblastoma cell migration and invasion through induction of vascular endothelial growth factor A.

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    Stephanie Jamison

    Full Text Available Evidence is accumulating that activation of the pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress adapts tumor cells to the tumor microenvironment and enhances tumor angiogenesis by inducing vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A. Recent studies suggest that VEGF-A can act directly on certain tumor cell types in an autocrine manner, via binding to VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2, to promote tumor cell migration and invasion. Although several reports show that PERK activation increases VEGF-A expression in medulloblastoma, the most common solid malignancy of childhood, the role that either PERK or VEGF-A plays in medulloblastoma remains elusive. In this study, we mimicked the moderate enhancement of PERK activity observed in tumor patients using a genetic approach and a pharmacologic approach, and found that moderate activation of PERK signaling facilitated medulloblastoma cell migration and invasion and increased the production of VEGF-A. Moreover, using the VEGFR2 inhibitor SU5416 and the VEGF-A neutralizing antibody to block VEGF-A/VEGFR2 signaling, our results suggested that tumor cell-derived VEGF-A promoted medulloblastoma cell migration and invasion through VEGFR2 signaling, and that both VEGF-A and VEGFR2 were required for the promoting effects of PERK activation on medulloblastoma cell migration and invasion. Thus, these findings suggest that moderate PERK activation promotes medulloblastoma cell migration and invasion through enhancement of VEGF-A/VEGFR2 signaling.

  2. Microalbuminuria and its relation to cardiovascular disease and risk factors. A population-based study of 1254 hypertensive individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Borch-Johnsen, K

    1997-01-01

    subjects. The frequency of cardiovascular disease was similar in the two groups. In contrast, when analysed as a continuous variable, a one unit increase in the logarithmically transformed urinary albumin excretion significantly increased the likelihood of cardiovascular disease (odds ratio [95% confidence......, and reversely related to the use of antihypertensive drugs. In a major health screening at the State University Hospital in Copenhagen, including urinary albumin excretion, glomerular filtration rate, blood pressure (BP), electrocardiogram, body mass index, plasma lipoproteins, fibrinogen, and albumin......, and information regarding a history of acute myocardial infarction, smoking, and antihypertensive drugs, 1254 participants without diabetes mellitus or renal/urinary tract disease had arterial hypertension. Age range was 30-70 years. Microalbuminuria (nocturnal urinary albumin excretion >15 microg/min) occurred...

  3. The Wow Factor? A Comparative Study of the Development of Student Music Teachers' Talents in Scotland and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, Alastair; Stollery, Peter; McMillan, Ros

    2005-01-01

    For some time there has been debate about differing perspectives on musical gift and musical intelligence. One view is that musical gift is innate: that it is present in certain individuals from birth and that the task of the teacher is to develop the potential which is there. A second view is that musical gift is a complex concept which includes…

  4. Furthering the understanding of olfaction, prevalence of loss of smell and risk factors: a population-based survey (OLFACAT study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullol, Joaquim; Alobid, Isam; Mariño-Sánchez, Franklin; Quintó, Llorenç; de Haro, Josep; Bernal-Sprekelsen, Manuel; Valero, Antonio; Picado, Cèsar; Marin, Concepció

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate olfaction in general population, prevalence of olfactory dysfunction and related risk factors. Design Cross-sectional population-based survey, distributing four microencapsulated odorants (rose, banana, musk and gas) and two self-administered questionnaires (odour description; epidemiology/health status). Setting The survey was distributed to general population through a bilingual (Catalan, Spanish) newspaper in Catalonia (Spain), on December 2003. Participants Newspaper readers of all ages and gender; 9348 surveys were analysed from the 10 783 returned. Main outcome measures Characteristics of surveyed population, olfaction by age and gender, smell self-perception and smell impairment risk factors. Terms normosmia, hyposmia and anosmia were used when participants detected, recognised or identified all four, one to three or none of the odours, respectively. Results Survey profile was a 43-year-old woman with medium–high educational level, living in a city. Olfaction was considered normal in 80.6% (detection), 56% (recognition/memory) and 50.7% (identification). Prevalence of smell dysfunction was 19.4% for detection (0.3% anosmia, 19.1% hyposmia), 43.5% for recognition (0.2% anosmia, 43.3% hyposmia) and 48.8% for identification (0.8% anosmia, 48% hyposmia). Olfaction was worse (psmell detection decline however smell recognition and identification increased up to fourth decade and declined after the sixth decade of life. Risk factors for anosmia were: male gender, loss of smell history and poor olfactory self-perception for detection; low educational level, poor self-perception and pregnancy for recognition; and older age, poor self-perception and history of head trauma and loss of smell for identification. Smoking and exposure to noxious substances were mild protective factors for smell recognition. Conclusions Sense of smell in women is better than in men suggesting a learning process during life with deterioration in older ages. Poor self-perception, history of smell loss, head trauma and pregnancy are potential risk factors for olfactory disorders. PMID:23135536

  5. Knowledge and Health Practices of High School Students with Respect to Heart Disease Risk Factors--A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Marianne T.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Examines questionnaire responses of ninth- and twelfth-grade students to investigate the level of knowledge possessed by high school students concerning cardiovascular disease. Results are summarized of student knowledge pertaining to personal life-style associated with smoking, obesity, exercise, and dietary habits. (CS)

  6. Self-perception of sexual life and associated factors: a population study conducted in women aged 50 or more years

    OpenAIRE

    Valadares,Ana Lúcia Ribeiro; Machado,Vanessa de Souza Santos; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia; Osis, Maria José; Sousa, Maria Helena; Pinto-Neto,Aarão Mendes

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of women aged 50 years or more who are sexually active and their self-perception with respect to their sexual lives. Associated factors were also assessed. METHODS: A cross-sectional, population-based, self-reported household survey involving 622 Brazilian women aged 50 years or more. Sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral factors were evaluated. The sexual life self-perception was classified as very good, good, fair, poor, or very poor. Data were analy...

  7. Repeat induced abortion - a matter of individual behaviour or societal factors? A cross-sectional study among Swedish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makenzius, Marlene; Tydén, Tanja; Darj, Elisabeth; Larsson, Margareta

    2011-10-01

    Almost 40% of all induced abortions in Sweden are repeat abortions; little is known about the risk factors. To investigate differences between women who had a first-time abortion and those with repeat abortion, and to identify factors associated with repeat abortion. A questionnaire was answered by 798 abortion-seeking women in Sweden during 2009. A regression model was used to assess risk factors for repeat abortions. In the age range 20-49 years, 41% of women had experienced at least one previous abortion. Risk factors for repeat abortion were parity (OR 2.57), lack of emotional support (OR 2.09), unemployment or sick leave (OR 1.65), tobacco use (OR 1.56), and low educational level (OR 1.5). Some women (n = 55) considered economic support and work opportunities could have enabled them to continue the pregnancy. Increased Sex and Relationship Education (SRE), easy access to high-quality contraception and counselling, were suggested (n = 86) as interventions for preventing unintended pregnancies. Even in a country with long established SRE and a public health policy to enhance sexual and reproductive health over a third of women requesting abortion have experienced one previously and the rate is maintained. Some specific factors are identified but, overall, a picture of vulnerability among women seeking repeat abortion stands out that needs to be considered in the prevention of unintended pregnancies.

  8. Characterisation of gastric cancer and its relation to environmental factors: a case study in Shenqiu County, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hongyan; Xu, Duanyang; Shi, Xiaoming; Xu, Jianwei; Zhuang, Dafang; Yang, Gonghuan

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of spatial analysis of gastric cancer and its relation to environmental conditions in Shenqiu County, China. Retrospective data on gastric cancer mortality (GCM) were analysed at various spatial scales, with its relation to environmental factors explored at an appropriate scale. The results considered 2 × 2 km(2) grid as the optimal level for characterising GCM due to the highest Moran's I (I = 0.68, p environmental conditions. We suggest that preventive measures for controlling the environment-related malignant neoplasm should not be limited in the regions suffering from this disease but be reasonably extended to surrounding areas.

  9. Attenuation of arsenic in a karst subterranean stream and correlation with geochemical factors: a case study at Lihu, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liankai; Yang, Hui; Tang, Jiansheng; Qin, Xiaoqun; Yu, Au Yik

    2014-11-01

    Arsenic (As) pollutants generated by human activities in karst areas flow into subterranean streams and contaminate groundwater easily because of the unique hydrogeological characteristics of karst areas. To elucidate the reaction mechanisms of arsenic in karst subterranean streams, physical-chemical analysis was conducted by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer and an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. The results show that inorganic species account for most of the total arsenic, whereas organic arsenic is not detected or occurs in infinitesimal amounts. As(III) accounts for 51.0%±9.9% of the total inorganic arsenic. Arsenic attenuation occurs and the attenuation rates of total As, As(III) and As(V) in the Lihu subterranean stream are 51%, 36% and 59%, respectively. To fully explain the main geochemical factors influencing arsenic attenuation, SPSS 13.0 and CANOCO 4.5 bundled with CanoDraw for Windows were used for simple statistical analysis and redundancy analysis (RDA). Eight main factors, i.e., sediment iron (SFe), sediment aluminum (SAl), sediment calcium (SCa), sediment organic matter (SOM), sediment manganese (SMn), water calcium (WCa(2+)), water magnesium (WMg(2+)), and water bicarbonate ion (WHCO3(-)) were extracted from thirteen indicators. Their impacts on arsenic content rank as: SFe>SCa>WCa(2+)>SAl>WHCO3(-)>SMn>SOM>WMg(2+). Of these factors, SFe, SAl, SCa, SOM, SMn, WMg(2+) and WCa(2+) promote arsenic attenuation, whereas WHCO3(-) inhibits it. Further investigation revealed that the redox potential (Eh) and pH are adverse to arsenic removal. The dramatic distinction between karst and non-karst terrain is that calcium and bicarbonate are the primary factors influencing arsenic migration in karst areas due to the high calcium concentration and alkalinity of karst water.

  10. Lower-normal TSH is associated with better metabolic risk factors: a cross-sectional study on spanish men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background and aims: Subclinical thyroid conditions, defined by normal thyroxin (T4) but abnormal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, may be associated with cardiovascular and metabolic risk. More recently, TSH levels within the normal range have been suggested to be associated with metabolic ...

  11. The spatial distribution of commuting CO2 emissions and the influential factors: A case study in Xi'an, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Yuan Liu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As the transport sector is a major source of greenhouse gas emissions, the effect of urbanization on transport CO2 emissions in developing cities has become a key issue under global climate change. Examining the case of Xi'an, this paper aims to explore the spatial distribution of commuting CO2 emissions and influencing factors in the new, urban industry zones and city centers considering Xi'an's transition from a monocentric to a polycentric city in the process of urbanization. Based on household survey data from 1501 respondents, there are obvious differences in commuting CO2 emissions between new industry zones and city centers: City centers feature lower household emissions of 2.86 kg CO2 per week, whereas new industry zones generally have higher household emissions of 3.20 kg CO2 per week. Contrary to previous research results, not all new industry zones have high levels of CO2 emissions; with the rapid development of various types of industries, even a minimum level of household emissions of 2.53 kg CO2 per week is possible. The uneven distribution of commuting CO2 emissions is not uniformly affected by spatial parameters such as job–housing balance, residential density, employment density, and land use diversity. Optimum combination of the spatial parameters and travel pattern along with corresponding transport infrastructure construction may be an appropriate path to reduction and control of emissions from commuting.

  12. A maintenance performance measurement framework that includesmaintenenace human factors: a case study from the electricity transmission industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peach, Rina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two to three decades, maintenance management has undergone a paradigm shift; it is no longer seen as a necessary evil, but as an integral part of the business process that creates value for the organisation. The next step in the evolution of maintenance management is a maintenance performance measurement that includes human factors. The human factors in maintenance are well- known in the aviation industry, as it gained momentum in the early 1990s after a series of serious aviation accidents. Other industries, however, have been slow to integrate the human factor in their maintenance performance measurements. This paper discusses the results of a research project that investigated the use and importance of maintenance management performance measurements that focus specifically on human factors as part of the overall performance management system. From the research presented in this paper, ‘motivation’ and ‘competence’ were identified as the most important human performance factors in the maintenance of electricity transmission systems.

  13. Neoangiogenesis in early cervical cancer: Correlation between color Doppler findings and risk factors. A prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazaira Jesús

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present article was to evaluate whether angiogenic parameters as assessed by transvaginal color Doppler ultrasound (TVCD may predict those prognostic factors related to recurrence. Methods A total of 27 patients (mean age: 51.3 years, range: 29 to 85 with histologically proven early stage invasive cervical cancer were evaluated by TVCD prior to surgery. Subjective assessment of the amount of vessels within the tumor (scanty-moderate or abundant and pulsatility index (PI were recorded. All patients underwent radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection. Postoperative treatment (RT or chemoradiotherapy was given according to risk factors (positive lymph nodes, parametrial and vaginal margin involvement, depth stromal invasion, lymph-vascular space involvement Results Tumors with "abundant" vascularization were significantly associated with pelvic lymph node metastases, depth stromal invasion > 10 mm, lymph-vascular space involvement, tumor diameter > 17.5 mm, and parametrial involvement. Postoperative treatment was significantly more frequent in patients with "abundant" vascularization (OR: 20.8, 95% CIs: 2 to 211. The presence of scanty-moderate vascularization with a PI 0.82 or PI Conclusion The results are consistent with a relationship between tumor angiogenesis and prognostic factors for recurrence in early cervical cancer. "Abundant" vascularization and PI

  14. Treatment of Ebola Virus Infection With a Recombinant Inhibitor of Factor Vlla/Tissue Factor: A Study in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-13

    pH with an i-STAT Portable Clinical Analyzer (i-STAT Corportation, Princeton, NJ, USA). Concentra- tions of albumin, amylase , alanine aminotransferase...SC, Shephard EG, Kirsch RE. Fibrin degradation product D-dimer induces the synthesis and release of biologically active IL-1 beta , IL-6 and

  15. The routine utilization of dental care during pregnancy in Eastern China and the key underlying factors: a Hangzhou City study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, W.; Guo, J.; Li, X.; Zhao, Y.; Chen, H.; Wu, G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Oral diseases are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The routine utilization of dental care (RUDC) during pregnancy is an effective way to improve pregnant women’s oral health, and thus safeguard the health of their babies. As China has one fifth of the world’s population, it is

  16. The routine utilization of dental care during pregnancy in eastern China and the key underlying factors: a Hangzhou City study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sun

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Oral diseases are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The routine utilization of dental care (RUDC during pregnancy is an effective way to improve pregnant women's oral health, and thus safeguard the health of their babies. As China has one fifth of the world's population, it is especially meaningful to encourage RUDC there. However, the status of RUDC in China and the key underlying factors are largely unknown. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey investigated the current status of RUDC during pregnancy and the key underlying factors in Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Province, eastern China. We collected participants' demographics, individual oral-hygiene behaviors, individual lifestyle, oral-health conditions and attitudes, and also their RUDC during pregnancy. Binary Logistic Regression Analysis was used to analyze the key underlying factors. RESULTS: Only 16.70% of the participants reported RUDC during pregnancy. The percentage of RUDC was significantly lower among pregnant women with the following characteristics: aged 30 or less, an annual household income under $8,000, brushing once a day or less, never flossing or rinsing the mouth, paying no attention to pregnancy-related oral-health knowledge, and being dissatisfied with one's individual dental hygiene behavior. CONCLUSIONS: RUDC during pregnancy is very low in eastern China and is greatly influenced not only by a woman's age, annual income, individual hygiene behavior, but also by her attention and attitudes to oral health. To improve this population's access to and use of dental care during pregnancy, appropriate programs and policies are urgently needed.

  17. Furthering the understanding of olfaction, prevalence of loss of smell and risk factors: a population-based survey (OLFACAT study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullol, Joaquim; Alobid, Isam; Mariño-Sánchez, Franklin; Quintó, Llorenç; de Haro, Josep; Bernal-Sprekelsen, Manuel; Valero, Antonio; Picado, Cèsar; Marin, Concepció

    2012-01-01

    To investigate olfaction in general population, prevalence of olfactory dysfunction and related risk factors. Cross-sectional population-based survey, distributing four microencapsulated odorants (rose, banana, musk and gas) and two self-administered questionnaires (odour description; epidemiology/health status). The survey was distributed to general population through a bilingual (Catalan, Spanish) newspaper in Catalonia (Spain), on December 2003. Newspaper readers of all ages and gender; 9348 surveys were analysed from the 10 783 returned. Characteristics of surveyed population, olfaction by age and gender, smell self-perception and smell impairment risk factors. Terms normosmia, hyposmia and anosmia were used when participants detected, recognised or identified all four, one to three or none of the odours, respectively. Survey profile was a 43-year-old woman with medium-high educational level, living in a city. Olfaction was considered normal in 80.6% (detection), 56% (recognition/memory) and 50.7% (identification). Prevalence of smell dysfunction was 19.4% for detection (0.3% anosmia, 19.1% hyposmia), 43.5% for recognition (0.2% anosmia, 43.3% hyposmia) and 48.8% for identification (0.8% anosmia, 48% hyposmia). Olfaction was worse (phistory and poor olfactory self-perception for detection; low educational level, poor self-perception and pregnancy for recognition; and older age, poor self-perception and history of head trauma and loss of smell for identification. Smoking and exposure to noxious substances were mild protective factors for smell recognition. Sense of smell in women is better than in men suggesting a learning process during life with deterioration in older ages. Poor self-perception, history of smell loss, head trauma and pregnancy are potential risk factors for olfactory disorders.

  18. Perceived and actual key success factors: A study of the yoghurt market in Denmark, Germany and the United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Sørensen, Elin

    /high degree of innovativeness, extensive marketing activities, (abundant) financial resources, s production, good logistics management, good product portfolio management, non-complex organisation, low retail prices, good relations with trade, extensive market knowledge. 4. According to managers' perceptions......Executive summary 1. We define a key success factor as a skill or resource that a business can invest in, which, on the market the business is operating on, explains a major part of the observable differences in perceived value and/or relative costs. The key success factors as perceived by managers...... need not be identical with the actual key success factors in a market. 2. Depth interviews with managers in yoghurt-producing companies in Denmark, Germany and the United Kingdom showed considerable variation in both substance and degree of detail in their perceptions of the determinants of success...

  19. The Wow Factor? A Comparative Study of the Development of Student Music Teachers' Talents in Scotland and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, Alastair; Stollery, Peter; McMillan, Ros

    2005-01-01

    For some time there has been debate about differing perspectives on musical gift and musical intelligence. One view is that musical gift is innate: that it is present in certain individuals from birth and that the task of the teacher is to develop the potential which is there. A second view is that musical gift is a complex concept which includes…

  20. Mendelian randomization study of B-type natriuretic peptide and type 2 diabetes: evidence of causal association from population studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Pfister

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic and epidemiological evidence suggests an inverse association between B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP levels in blood and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D, but the prospective association of BNP with T2D is uncertain, and it is unclear whether the association is confounded. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analysed the association between levels of the N-terminal fragment of pro-BNP (NT-pro-BNP in blood and risk of incident T2D in a prospective case-cohort study and genotyped the variant rs198389 within the BNP locus in three T2D case-control studies. We combined our results with existing data in a meta-analysis of 11 case-control studies. Using a Mendelian randomization approach, we compared the observed association between rs198389 and T2D to that expected from the NT-pro-BNP level to T2D association and the NT-pro-BNP difference per C allele of rs198389. In participants of our case-cohort study who were free of T2D and cardiovascular disease at baseline, we observed a 21% (95% CI 3%-36% decreased risk of incident T2D per one standard deviation (SD higher log-transformed NT-pro-BNP levels in analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, smoking, family history of T2D, history of hypertension, and levels of triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The association between rs198389 and T2D observed in case-control studies (odds ratio = 0.94 per C allele, 95% CI 0.91-0.97 was similar to that expected (0.96, 0.93-0.98 based on the pooled estimate for the log-NT-pro-BNP level to T2D association derived from a meta-analysis of our study and published data (hazard ratio = 0.82 per SD, 0.74-0.90 and the difference in NT-pro-BNP levels (0.22 SD, 0.15-0.29 per C allele of rs198389. No significant associations were observed between the rs198389 genotype and potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide evidence for a potential causal role of the BNP

  1. The human mitochondrial transcription factor A is a versatile G-quadruplex binding protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyonnais, Sébastien; Tarrés-Soler, Aleix; Rubio-Cosials, Anna; Cuppari, Anna; Brito, Reicy; Jaumot, Joaquim; Gargallo, Raimundo; Vilaseca, Marta; Silva, Cristina; Granzhan, Anton; Teulade-Fichou, Marie-Paule; Eritja, Ramon; Solà, Maria

    2017-01-01

    The ability of the guanine-rich strand of the human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to form G-quadruplex structures (G4s) has been recently highlighted, suggesting potential functions in mtDNA replication initiation and mtDNA stability. G4 structures in mtDNA raise the question of their recognition by factors associated with the mitochondrial nucleoid. The mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), a high-mobility group (HMG)-box protein, is the major binding protein of human mtDNA and plays a critical role in its expression and maintenance. HMG-box proteins are pleiotropic sensors of DNA structural alterations. Thus, we investigated and uncovered a surprising ability of TFAM to bind to DNA or RNA G4 with great versatility, showing an affinity similar than to double-stranded DNA. The recognition of G4s by endogenous TFAM was detected in mitochondrial extracts by pull-down experiments using a G4-DNA from the mtDNA conserved sequence block II (CSBII). Biochemical characterization shows that TFAM binding to G4 depends on both the G-quartets core and flanking single-stranded overhangs. Additionally, it shows a structure-specific binding mode that differs from B-DNA, including G4-dependent TFAM multimerization. These TFAM-G4 interactions suggest functional recognition of G4s in the mitochondria. PMID:28276514

  2. The structure of the TFIIH p34 subunit reveals a von Willebrand factor A like fold.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik R Schmitt

    Full Text Available RNA polymerase II dependent transcription and nucleotide excision repair are mediated by a multifaceted interplay of subunits within the general transcription factor II H (TFIIH. A better understanding of the molecular structure of TFIIH is the key to unravel the mechanism of action of this versatile protein complex within these vital cellular processes. The importance of this complex becomes further evident in the context of severe diseases like xeroderma pigmentosum, Cockayne's syndrome and trichothiodystrophy, that arise from single point mutations in TFIIH subunits. Here we describe the structure of the p34 subunit of the TFIIH complex from the eukaryotic thermophilic fungus Chaetomium thermophilum. The structure revealed that p34 contains a von Willebrand Factor A (vWA like domain, a fold which is generally known to be involved in protein-protein interactions. Within TFIIH p34 strongly interacts with p44, a positive regulator of the helicase XPD. Putative protein-protein interfaces are analyzed and possible binding sites for the p34-p44 interaction suggested.

  3. Regulation of adipogenesis and osteogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells by vascular endothelial growth factor A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendsen, A D; Olsen, B R

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) differentiate into bone-forming osteoblasts and marrow adipocytes is crucial to develop strategies for the treatment of several bone diseases. Age-related bone loss resulting in osteopenia and osteoporosis has been associated with reduced numbers of osteoblasts and increased numbers of adipocytes, likely originating from differentiation defects in BMSCs. Although many factors involved in the complex regulation of osteoblast and adipocyte cell lineages have previously been identified, their functional interactions in the context of BMSC differentiation and maintenance of bone homeostasis during ageing are unknown. Recent discoveries have provided important new insights into the mechanisms by which the nuclear envelope protein lamin A and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF) mutually control BMSC fate. Particularly interesting is the finding that VEGF in this context functions as an intracellular protein, unaffected by neutralizing antibodies, and not as a secreted growth factor. These insights may not only facilitate the identification of new targets for treating bone diseases but also lead to improved design of tissue engineering approaches aimed at stimulating bone regeneration and repair. © 2015 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  4. Limited polymorphism in Plasmodium falciparum ookinete surface antigen, von Willebrand factor A domain-related protein from clinical isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisen Damon P

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As malaria becomes increasingly drug resistant and more costly to treat, there is increasing urgency to develop effective vaccines. In comparison to other stages of the malaria lifecycle, sexual stage antigens are under less immune selection pressure and hence are likely to have limited antigenic diversity. Methods Clinical isolates from a wide range of geographical regions were collected. Direct sequencing of PCR products was then used to determine the extent of polymorphisms for the novel Plasmodium falciparum sexual stage antigen von Willebrand Factor A domain-related Protein (PfWARP. These isolates were also used to confirm the extent of diversity of sexual stage antigen Pfs28. Results PfWARP was shown to have non-synonymous substitutions at 3 positions and Pfs28 was confirmed to have a single non-synonymous substitution as previously described. Conclusion This study demonstrates the limited antigenic diversity of two prospective P. falciparum sexual stage antigens, PfWARP and Pfs28. This provides further encouragement for the proceeding with vaccine trials based on these antigens.

  5. Multiple functions of the von Willebrand Factor A domain in matrilins: secretion, assembly, and proteolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanbe Katsuaki

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The von Willebrand Factor A (vWF A domain is one of the most widely distributed structural modules in cell-matrix adhesive molecules such as intergrins and extracellular matrix proteins. Mutations in the vWF A domain of matrilin-3 cause multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED, however the pathological mechanism remains to be determined. Previously we showed that the vWF A domain in matrilin-1 mediates formation of a filamentous matrix network through metal-ion dependent adhesion sites in the domain. Here we show two new functions of the vWF A domain in cartilage-specific matrilins (1 and 3. First, vWF A domain regulates oligomerization of matrilins. Insertion of a vWF A domain into matrilin-3 converts the formation of a mixture of matrilin-3 tetramer, trimer, and dimer into a tetramer only, while deletion of a vWF A domain from matrilin-1 converts the formation of the native matrilin-1 trimer into a mixture of trimer and dimer. Second, the vWF A domain protects matrilin-1 from proteolysis. We identified a latent proteolytic site next to the vWF A2 domain in matrilin-1, which is sensitive to the inhibitors of matrix proteases. Deletion of the abutting vWF A domain results in degradation of matrilin-1, presumably by exposing the adjacent proteolytic site. In addition, we also confirmed the vWF A domain is vital for the secretion of matrilin-3. Secretion of the mutant matrilin-3 harbouring a point mutation within the vWF A domain, as occurred in MED patients, is markedly reduced and delayed, resulting from intracellular retention of the mutant matrilin-3. Taken together, our data suggest that different mutations/deletions of the vWF A domain in matrilins may lead to distinct pathological mechanisms due to the multiple functions of the vWF A domain.

  6. Effects of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution on respiratory and cardiovascular mortality in the Netherlands: the NLCS-AIR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunekreef, Bert; Beelen, Rob; Hoek, Gerard; Schouten, Leo; Bausch-Goldbohm, Sandra; Fischer, Paul; Armstrong, Ben; Hughes, Edward; Jerrett, Michael; van den Brandt, Piet

    2009-03-01

    Evidence is increasing that long-term exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with deaths from cardiopulmonary diseases. In a 2002 pilot study, we reported clear indications that traffic-related air pollution, especially at the local scale, was related to cardiopulmonary mortality in a randomly selected subcohort of 5000 older adults participating in the ongoing Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS) on diet and cancer. In the current study, referred to as NLCS-AIR, our objective was to obtain more precise estimates of the effects of traffic-related air pollution by analyzing associations with cause-specific mortality, as well as lung cancer incidence, in the full cohort of approximately 120,000 subjects. Cohort members were 55 to 69 years of age at enrollment in 1986. Follow-up was from 1987 through 1996 for mortality (17,674 deaths) and from late 1986 through 1997 for lung cancer incidence (2234 cases). Information about potential confounding variables and effect modifiers was available from the questionnaire that subjects completed at enrollment and from publicly available data (including neighborhood-scale information such as income distributions). The NLCS was designed for a case-cohort approach, which makes use of all the cases in the full cohort, while data for the random subcohort are used to estimate person-time experience in the study. Full information on confounders was available for the subjects in the random subcohort and for the emerging cases of mortality and lung cancer incidence during the follow-up period, and in NLCS-AIR we used the case-cohort approach to examine the relation between exposure to air pollution and cause-specific mortality and lung cancer. We also specified a standard Cox proportional hazards model within the full cohort, for which information on potential confounding variables was much more limited. Exposure to air pollution was estimated for the subjects' home addresses at baseline in 1986. Concentrations were estimated for

  7. Association of serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and incident fractures in older men: the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Nancy E; Parimi, Neeta; Corr, Maripat; Yao, Wei; Cauley, Jane A; Nielson, Carrie M; Ix, Joseph H; Kado, Deborah; Orwoll, Eric

    2013-11-01

    Normal mineral metabolism is critical for skeletal integrity, and recently serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels were found to be directly related to overall fracture risk in elderly Swedish men. To confirm this association, we performed a prospective case-cohort study to understand the relation of FGF23 and fracture risk in older white men enrolled in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study. In the cohort of 5994 men attending the baseline MrOS examination, we evaluated a subgroup of 387 men with incident nonvertebral fracture including 73 hip fractures and a sample of 1385 men randomly selected from the cohort with baseline mineral and calcium hormone measurements. FGF23 was measured in baseline serum samples by ELISA (Millipore, Billerica, MA, USA). Modified Cox proportional hazards models that account for case-cohort study design were used to estimate the relative hazards (RH) of fracture in men across quartiles of FGF23. Subjects were also stratified by renal function, and RH per strata was estimated in men with the highest quartile of FGF23 compared with quartiles 3, 2, and 1. Overall, there was no difference in risk of nonspine or hip fracture by baseline FGF23. However, associations differed by strata of eGFRCrCy . Among men with eGFRCrCys 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (304/1370 fractures) the RH was 0.91 (95% CI 0.66-1.25) after adjustment for age, clinic site, body mass index, race, total hip bone mineral density, vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, alcohol use, physical activity, fracture history, and serum phosphorus. Serum FGF23 levels are not associated with incident fractures in elderly men overall. However, higher levels of serum FGF23 are associated with fracture risk in those with poor renal function.

  8. Maternal use of fertility drugs and risk of cancer in children--a nationwide population-based cohort study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hargreave, Marie; Jensen, Allan; Nielsen, Thor Schütt Svane

    2015-01-01

    and follicle-stimulating hormone], gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs, human chorionic gonadotropins, progesterone and other fertility drugs). We found no statistically significant association between maternal use of fertility drugs and risk for overall cancer in childhood or young adulthood. However......Large population-based studies are needed to examine the effect of maternal use of fertility drugs on the risk of cancer in children, while taking into account the effect of the underlying infertility. A cohort of 123,322 children born in Denmark between 1964 and 2006 to 68,255 women who had been...... evaluated for infertility was established. We used a case-cohort design and calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for cancer in childhood (0-19 years) and in young adulthood (20-29 years) associated with maternal use of six groups of fertility drugs (clomiphene, gonadotropins [i.e., human menopausal gonadotropins...

  9. Fibrinogen binding sites P336 and Y338 of clumping factor A are crucial for Staphylococcus aureus virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Josefsson

    Full Text Available We have earlier shown that clumping factor A (ClfA, a fibrinogen binding surface protein of Staphylococcus aureus, is an important virulence factor in septic arthritis. When two amino acids in the ClfA molecule, P(336 and Y(338, were changed to serine and alanine, respectively, the fibrinogen binding property was lost. ClfAP(336Y(338 mutants have been constructed in two virulent S. aureus strains Newman and LS-1. The aim of this study was to analyze if these two amino acids which are vital for the fibrinogen binding of ClfA are of importance for the ability of S. aureus to generate disease. Septic arthritis or sepsis were induced in mice by intravenous inoculation of bacteria. The clfAP(336Y(338 mutant induced significantly less arthritis than the wild type strain, both with respect to severity and frequency. The mutant infected mice developed also a much milder systemic inflammation, measured as lower mortality, weight loss, bacterial growth in kidneys and lower IL-6 levels. The data were verified with a second mutant where clfAP(336 and Y(338 were changed to alanine and serine respectively. When sepsis was induced by a larger bacterial inoculum, the clfAP(336Y(338 mutants induced significantly less septic death. Importantly, immunization with the recombinant A domain of ClfAP(336SY(338A mutant but not with recombinant ClfA, protected against septic death. Our data strongly suggest that the fibrinogen binding activity of ClfA is crucial for the ability of S. aureus to provoke disease manifestations, and that the vaccine potential of recombinant ClfA is improved by removing its ability to bind fibrinogen.

  10. Posttranslational modification of mitochondrial transcription factor A in impaired mitochondria biogenesis: implications in diabetic retinopathy and metabolic memory phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Julia M; Mishra, Manish; Kowluru, Renu A

    2014-04-01

    Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is one of the key regulators of the transcription of mtDNA. In diabetes, despite increase in gene transcripts of TFAM, its protein levels in the mitochondria are decreased and mitochondria copy numbers become subnormal. The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanism(s) responsible for decreased mitochondrial TFAM in diabetes. Using retinal endothelial cells, we have investigated the effect of overexpression of cytosolic chaperone, Hsp70, and TFAM on glucose-induced decrease in mitochondrial TFAM levels, and the transcription of mtDNA-encoded genes, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) and cytochrome b (Cytb). To investigate the role of posttranslational modifications in subnormal mitochondrial TFAM, ubiquitination of TFAM was assessed, and the results were confirmed in the retina from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. While overexpression of Hsp70 failed to prevent glucose-induced decrease in mitochondrial TFAM and transcripts of ND6 and Cytb, overexpression of TFAM ameliorated decrease in its mitochondrial protein levels and transcriptional activity. TFAM was ubiquitinated by high glucose, and PYR-41, an inhibitor of ubiquitination, prevented TFAM ubiquitination and restored the transcriptional activity. Similarly, TFAM was ubiquitinated in the retina from diabetic rats, and it continued to be modified after reinstitution of normal glycemia. Our results clearly imply that the ubiquitination of TFAM impedes its transport to the mitochondria resulting in subnormal mtDNA transcription and mitochondria dysfunction, and inhibition of ubiquitination restores mitochondrial homeostasis. Reversal of hyperglycemia does not provide any benefit to TFAM ubiquitination. Thus, strategies targeting posttranslational modification could provide an avenue to preserve mitochondrial homeostasis, and inhibit the development/progression of diabetic retinopathy.

  11. 40 CFR Table 28 to Subpart G of... - Deck Seam Length Factors a (SD) for Internal Floating Roof Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deck Seam Length Factors a (SD) for Internal Floating Roof Tanks 28 Table 28 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... specific information is available, these factors can be assumed to represent the most common bolted...

  12. Prognostic impact of placenta growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor A in patients with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maae, Else; Olsen, Dorte Aalund; Steffensen, Karina Dahl;

    2012-01-01

    Placenta growth factor (PlGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) are angiogenic growth factors interacting competitively with the same receptors. VEGF-A is essential in both normal and pathologic conditions, but the functions of PlGF seem to be restricted to pathologic conditions...

  13. Prognostic impact of placenta growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor A in patients with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maae, Else; Olsen, Dorte Aalund; Dahl Steffensen, Karina

    2012-01-01

    Background: Placenta growth factor (PlGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) are angiogenic growth factors interacting competitively with the same receptors. VEGF-A is essential in both normal and pathologic conditions, but the functions of PlGF seem to be restricted to pathologic ...

  14. The substantive nature of psycholexical personality factors : A comparison across languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peabody, D; De Raad, B

    2002-01-01

    The psycholexical approach to personality structure in American English has led to the Big Five factors. The present study considers whether this result is similar or different in other languages. Instead of placing the usual emphasis on quantitative indices, this study examines the substantive natu

  15. A prospective study of thyroid function, bone loss, and fractures in older men: The MrOS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Avantika C; Harrison, Stephanie; Fink, Howard A; Samuels, Mary H; Cawthon, Peggy M; Zmuda, Joseph M; Orwoll, Eric S; Bauer, Douglas C

    2013-03-01

    Excess thyroid hormone is associated with increased bone loss and fracture risk in older women, but few data exist for men. We sought to determine if thyroid function is independently associated with bone loss and fracture risk in older men. Data were analyzed from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study, a cohort of community-dwelling U.S. men aged 65 years and older. Using a case-cohort design, fasting baseline serum archived at -80°C was assayed for thyroid-stimulating hormone (thyrotropin) (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) in 397 men with confirmed nonspine fracture, including 157 hip fractures, and 1420 randomly selected men without fracture. TSH and FT4 were analyzed as continuous variables and as thyroid function categories (subclinical hyperthyroid, euthyroid, and subclinical hypothyroid). Hip dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Hologic QDR4500) was measured at baseline and after a mean follow-up of 4.6 years. Incident nonspine fractures were centrally adjudicated. Bone loss was evaluated with multivariate regression methods and fractures risk was evaluated using hazard models that accounted for the case-cohort sampling, adjusted for age, clinic-site, body mass index (BMI), race, physical activity, corticosteroid use, smoking, alcohol intake, and thyroid medication use. In fully adjusted analyses, TSH was not associated with risk of nonspine fracture (relative hazard [RH] 0.92 per SD decrease in TSH; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74-1.14), but was significantly associated with risk of hip fracture (RH 1.31; 95% CI, 1.01-1.71), which persisted among normal range TSH values (RH 1.21; 95% CI, 1.00-1.47). There was no association between TSH or FT4 and bone loss, and fracture risk did not differ significantly by thyroid function category. We conclude that although neither TSH nor FT4 are associated with bone loss, lower serum TSH may be associated with an increased risk of hip fractures in older men.

  16. The substantive nature of psycholexical personality factors: a comparison across languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peabody, Dean; De Raad, Boele

    2002-10-01

    The psycholexical approach to personality structure in American English has led to the Big Five factors. The present study considers whether this result is similar or different in other languages. Instead of placing the usual emphasis on quantitative indices, this study examines the substantive nature of the factors. Six studies in European languages were used to develop a taxonomy of content categories. The English translations of the relevant terms were then classified under this taxonomy. The results support the generality of Big Five Factor III (Conscientiousness). Factors IV (Emotional Stability) and V (Intellect) generally did not cohere. Factors I (Extraversion) and II (Agreeableness) tended to split when this was necessary to produce 5 factors. The analysis was extended to several additional studies.

  17. PROFILE OF ACADEMICALLY BACKWARD STUDENTS AND PROBABLE CONTRIBUTING FACTORS: A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubhale Ashish

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Academic backwardness exists almost in every institute. In institutes providing professional education, the problem is on higher scale with more seriousness and complications. For the academic backwardness, multiple reasons like financial, family, personal stressors are contemplated. This study is an attempt to recognize the problem areas in these students which will help us to take some preventive measures. AIMS: To find the probable causes of repeated failure in the university examination at an individual, family and institutional level. OBJECTIVES: To find prevalence of psychological morbidity. To identify stressors. To identify the reasons for irregularity. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Retrospective cohort type of study, done in a Rural Medical college. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Academically backward students identified according to MUHS criteria. Data collection done from previous college records, open ended semi structured proforma with a personal individual interview with GHQ. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Qualitative research methodology was used. RESULTS: Poor study pattern, poor concentration and time management issues were observed in 45.45%. Poor English comprehension, personal illness, family problems, poor coping in negative stressful emotional life events, boredom in repeating the same subject studies were also noted. Prevalence of depression and anxiety was observed in 40.91%. Substance use was observed in 18.18%.59.1% were found to have more general health problems on GHQ. At family level parental divorce, interpersonal stressors with parents and at institutional level, poor attendance in revision classes and practical’s were noted. CONCLUSIONS: Psychological problems were more prevalent as compared to previously reported studies, which may be attributed to the fact that the study group consisted only of academically backward students.

  18. Efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine for stroke modifiable risk factors: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wenbo; Lauche, Romy; Ferguson, Caleb; Frawley, Jane; Adams, Jon; Sibbritt, David

    2017-01-01

    The vast majority of stroke burden is attributable to its modifiable risk factors. This paper aimed to systematically summarise the evidence of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) interventions on stroke modifiable risk factors for stroke prevention. A literature search was conducted via the MEDLINE, CINAHL/EBSCO, SCOPUS, and Cochrane Database from 1996 to 2016. Randomised controlled trials or cross-over studies were included. Risk of bias was assessed according to the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. A total of 46 trials (6895 participants) were identified regarding the use of CHM interventions in the management of stroke risk factors, including 12 trials for hypertension, 10 trials for diabetes, eight trials for hyperlipidemia, seven trials for impaired glucose tolerance, three trials for obesity, and six trials for combined risk factors. Amongst the included trials with diverse study design, an intervention of CHM as a supplement to biomedicine and/or a lifestyle intervention was found to be more effective in lowering blood pressure, decreasing blood glucose level, helping impaired glucose tolerance reverse to normal, and/or reducing body weight compared to CHM monotherapy. While no trial reported deaths amongst the CHM groups, some papers do report moderate adverse effects associated with CHM use. However, the findings of such beneficial effects of CHM should be interpreted with caution due to the heterogeneous set of complex CHM studied, the various control interventions employed, the use of different participants' inclusion criteria, and low methodological quality across the published studies. The risk of bias of trials identified was largely unclear in the domains of selection bias and detection bias across the included studies. This study showed substantial evidence of varied CHM interventions improving the stroke modifiable risk factors. More rigorous research examining the use of CHM products for sole or multiple major stroke risk factors are warranted.

  19. KM Critical Success Factors: A Comparison of Perceived Importance Versus Implementation in Malaysian ICT Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Siong Choy

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This research examines the level of perception and implementation of 11 identified knowledge management (KM) success factors and their differences among the information and communication technology (ICT) companies operating in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: The survey data was obtained from a study of 427 middle managers from 194…

  20. Linking Socioeconomic Status to Social Cognitive Career Theory Factors: A Partial Least Squares Path Modeling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie-Tsuen; Hsieh, Hui-Hsien

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contributions of socioeconomic status (SES) in predicting social cognitive career theory (SCCT) factors. Data were collected from 738 college students in Taiwan. The results of the partial least squares (PLS) analyses indicated that SES significantly predicted career decision self-efficacy (CDSE);…

  1. Adiponectin trajectories before type 2 diabetes diagnosis: Whitehall II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabák, Adam G; Carstensen, Maren; Witte, Daniel R; Brunner, Eric J; Shipley, Martin J; Jokela, Markus; Roden, Michael; Kivimäki, Mika; Herder, Christian

    2012-12-01

    The role of adiponectin in the natural history of diabetes is not well characterized. We set out to characterize prediagnosis trajectories of adiponectin in individuals who develop type 2 diabetes. In a case-cohort study (335 incident diabetes case and 2,474 noncase subjects) nested in the Whitehall II study, serum adiponectin was measured up to three times per participant (1991-1993, 1997-1999, and 2003-2004). Multilevel models adjusted for age and ethnicity were fitted to assess 13-year trajectories of log-transformed adiponectin preceding diabetes diagnosis or a randomly selected time point during follow-up (year(0)) based on 755/5,095 (case/noncase) person-examinations. Adiponectin levels were lower in diabetes case than in noncase subjects (median 7,141 [interquartile range 5,187-10,304] vs. 8,818 [6,535-12,369] ng/mL at baseline, P obesity, whereas the sex-specific slope differences were independent of obesity. Lower adiponectin levels were observed already a decade before the diagnosis of diabetes. The marked sex difference in trajectories suggests that sex-specific mechanisms affect the association between adiponectin levels and diabetes development.

  2. Women's empowerment in Pakistan-definitions and enabling and disenabling factors: a secondary data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante-Gavino, Maria Irma; Rattani, Salma; Khan, Kausar

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore Pakistani women's definition of women's empowerment, including its enabling and disenabling factors. Through understanding empowerment, interventions may be developed for women to be empowered. Transcriptions of 35 interviews from a previous study were reanalyzed through secondary data analysis. The themes of economic stability, social acceptability, educational achievement, and family harmony emerged for the concept of definition of empowerment. Themes for enabling factors were strength of personality and openness of mind. Disenabling factors had sociocultural influences, religious misinterpretations, and dominant ideology as themes. Pakistani women hold on to their customs, traditions, and religion tenaciously. The views of empowerment leading to the themes were expressed as true for their lives.

  3. The HEXACO Honesty-Humility, Agreeableness, and Emotionality factors: a review of research and theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Michael C; Lee, Kibeom; de Vries, Reinout E

    2014-05-01

    We review research and theory on the HEXACO personality dimensions of Honesty-Humility (H), Agreeableness (A), and Emotionality (E), with particular attention to the following topics: (1) the origins of the HEXACO model in lexical studies of personality structure, and the content of the H, A, and E factors in those studies; (2) the operationalization of the H, A, and E factors in the HEXACO Personality Inventory-Revised; (3) the construct validity of self-reports on scales measuring the H factor; (4) the theoretical distinction between H and A; (5) similarity and assumed similarity between social partners in personality, with a focus on H and A; (6) the extent to which H (and A and E) variance is represented in instruments assessing the "Five-Factor Model" of personality; and (7) the relative validity of scales assessing the HEXACO and Five-Factor Model dimensions in predicting criteria conceptually relevant to H, A, and E.

  4. The Role of Health Education in Reducing Cardiovascular Diseases Risk Factors: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Mahdi Hazavehei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases are one of the 10 leading causes of death in the world and the first leading cause of death in Iran. Controlling the risk factors for these diseases can reduce more than 50% of disabilities resulted from these illnesses. In this regard, it is important to consider the behaviors associated with individuals’ lifestyles. The purpose of this study is to review the studies that have used educational interventions in order to reduce risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, based on methods, application of models, and theories of health education and health promotion and the effect of intervention on reducing risk factors. Methods: Electronic search of databases was performed using the key words in English and Persian. Databases reviewed were, Scientific Information Database (SID, Iran Medex, PubMed, Ebsco and Cochrane. The databases search was conducted from February 2012 to May 2012. Results: Interventions to reduce risk factors of cardiovascular diseases were divided into two types based on use of models and theories of health education and without use of models and theories of health education. In the 19 articles reviewed, 9 studies were conducted based on theories and models of health education,and 10 studies did not use theories and models of health education. Conclusion: The results indicate that training based on theories and models of health education and using the standardized programs have a greater impact on reducing risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. Time, place and length of intervention, the characteristics of the individuals and use of modern methods of training are important for some of the audience with regard to the effectiveness of the training in order to reduce risk factors.

  5. Prioritization of Revenue Management Factors:A Synthetic Extent Analysis Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Emre GULER

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents a novel approach for revealing the success factors of revenue management practices in hospitality industry. Our study aims to point out the favorably contributing ‘ingredients’ of a successful revenue management application. We investigate what revenue managers have learned from their past experience by using real empirical data and fuzzy synthetic evaluation procedure. Researchers and practitioners may regard this work as a functional benchmark analyzing a functi...

  6. Occupational health and metabolic risk factors: A pilot intervention for transport workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen L. Naug

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Heavy vehicle transport workers have a high risk of obesity and obesity-related disorders including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Sedentary nature of their work makes a healthy work and lifestyle balance difficult to achieve. Educational interventions that promote behavioral changes have been shown to be effective in various group settings. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of metabolic risk factors among a population of urban bus drivers; to deliver a 3-month educational intervention specifically tailored for the workplace environment of transport workers; and to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention through quantitative measurements and qualitative feedback. Material and Methods: Thirty-three bus drivers from depots in south Queensland were recruited for the study. Baseline metabolic data were collected through anthropometric measurements, blood collection and diet/lifestyle questionnaires. Metabolic risk factors that were analyzed included: waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, blood triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. Three interactive seminars were delivered over a 3-month period. At the end of the period, data collection was repeated. Results: At the commencement of the study, 35% of the participants exhibited ≥ 3 of the metabolic risk factors that characterize metabolic syndrome. This is higher than the reported prevalence in the general Australian population (22.1%. A total 21 of the 33 participants remained committed to the intervention and provided pre and post intervention data. Of these, 28% (N = 6 showed a decrease in one or more of the risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome. There was a significant increase in the average HDL-C after the intervention. Qualitative feedback indicated that the workers benefited from the program, especially regarding their awareness of the risks associated with their profession. Conclusions: This pilot

  7. Decomposing Indigenous life expectancy gap by risk factors: a life table analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yuejen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The estimated gap in life expectancy (LE between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians was 12 years for men and 10 years for women, whereas the Northern Territory Indigenous LE gap was at least 50% greater than the national figures. This study aims to explain the Indigenous LE gap by common modifiable risk factors. Methods This study covered the period from 1986 to 2005. Unit record death data from the Northern Territory were used to assess the differences in LE at birth between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations by socioeconomic disadvantage, smoking, alcohol abuse, obesity, pollution, and intimate partner violence. The population attributable fractions were applied to estimate the numbers of deaths associated with the selected risks. The standard life table and cause decomposition technique was used to examine the individual and joint effects on health inequality. Results The findings from this study indicate that among the selected risk factors, socioeconomic disadvantage was the leading health risk and accounted for one-third to one-half of the Indigenous LE gap. A combination of all six selected risks explained over 60% of the Indigenous LE gap. Conclusions Improving socioeconomic status, smoking cessation, and overweight reduction are critical to closing the Indigenous LE gap. This paper presents a useful way to explain the impact of risk factors of health inequalities, and suggests that reducing poverty should be placed squarely at the centre of the strategies to close the Indigenous LE gap.

  8. Inter-relationships between arteriosclerotic risk factors: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, H S; Seo, W S

    2000-08-01

    This study was performed to clarify the overall inter-relationships between the arteriosclerotic risk factors, including smoking, alcoholic consumption, obesity, serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels, high density lipoprotein, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure using a meta analysis method. The subjects of this study were included in 24 primary studies reported in Korea since 1980, which concerned arteriosclerotic risk factors. The results show that smoking is significantly associated with total cholesterol (R = .04), triglyceride (R = .10) and HDL-cholesterol (R = -.06). Alcohol consumption is also significantly and positively associated with all three serum lipid parameters: cholesterol (R = .04), triglyceride (R = .08) and HDL-cholesterol (R = .10). The effect of smoking and alcohol consumption on cholesterol levels were found to be almost equal. However, smoking has a predominant effect on triglyceride, whereas, alcohol consumption exerts an influence primarily on the HDL-cholesterol level. Obesity was positively correlated with cholesterol (R = .25) and triglyceride (R = .21), however, it was negatively correlated with HDL-cholesterol (R = -.14). It appears that the serum lipid parameter, which shows strongest correlation with obesity, is the total cholesterol level. Obesity also showed a significant correlation with systolic (R = .19) and diastolic blood pressure (R = .13). Blood pressure was also positively correlated with cholesterol (R = .18) and triglyceride (R = .26), however, it correlated negatively with HDL-cholesterol (R = -.23). In conclusion, the overall inter-relationships between the arteriosclerotic risk factors; smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity, serum lipid level and blood pressure were all found to be significant.

  9. E2F3 transcription factor: A promising biomarker in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ahmed, Hala Abdel; Nada, Ola

    2017-01-01

    Many researches aiming to explore the pathogenesis of lung cancer have extensively studied the molecular alteration in such disease. In the present study we measured the blood E2F3 mRNA using real-time RT-PCR technique in order to evaluate its clinical significance in early diagnosis and monitoring of lung cancer. This case-control study included 50 lung cancer patients, 20 patients with benign lung diseases and 20 healthy controls. Relative quantification of blood E2F3 mRNA was done by real-time RT-PCR. Blood E2F3 mRNA levels were significantly higher in lung cancer patients when compared to either patients with benign lung diseases or healthy subjects. This elevation was significant in those with metastatic lung cancer as compared to those with localized lung cancer. At a cutoff^{(2-Δ Δ CT)} 1.5, blood E2F3 mRNA was able to distinguish malignant from benign lung conditions with a diagnostic sensitivity of 100%; while at a cutoff^{(2-Δ Δ CT)} 5.3, blood E2F3 mRNA discriminated localized from metastatic lung cancer with a sensitivity of 93.6%. Blood E2F3 mRNA is a sensitive diagnostic marker in lung cancer; moreover, it is a promising prognostic marker capable of efficiently discriminating early from late stages of the disease.

  10. Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Grandy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study examined the association between self-reported weight change and quality of life, and exercise and weight management behaviors among individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods. In the US SHIELD study, respondents reported whether they had lost or gained weight compared with 1 year earlier and completed the SHIELD-WQ-9 quality of life questionnaire as well as provided information on their exercise and weight management behaviors in the past 12 months. Results. Sixteen percent of the respondents reported gaining weight (n=460, and 30% reported losing weight (n=895. More respondents who reported losing weight exercised regularly, limited calorie and fat intake, and increased fiber, fruit, and vegetable intake compared with respondents who reported gaining weight (P<0.01. For all nine aspects of daily life, a significantly greater proportion of respondents who reported losing weight reported improved well-being (12%–44% compared with respondents who reported gaining weight (P<0.0001. Conclusions. Self-reported weight loss was associated with improved well-being, better exercise, and weight management behaviors among individuals with T2DM.

  11. Adult human dental pulp stem cells promote blood-brain barrier permeability through vascular endothelial growth factor-a expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winderlich, Joshua N; Kremer, Karlea L; Koblar, Simon A

    2016-06-01

    Stem cell therapy is a promising new treatment option for stroke. Intravascular administration of stem cells is a valid approach as stem cells have been shown to transmigrate the blood-brain barrier. The mechanism that causes this effect has not yet been elucidated. We hypothesized that stem cells would mediate localized discontinuities in the blood-brain barrier, which would allow passage into the brain parenchyma. Here, we demonstrate that adult human dental pulp stem cells express a soluble factor that increases permeability across an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier. This effect was shown to be the result of vascular endothelial growth factor-a. The effect could be amplified by exposing dental pulp stem cell to stromal-derived factor 1, which stimulates vascular endothelial growth factor-a expression. These findings support the use of dental pulp stem cell in therapy for stroke. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Clumping factor A, von Willebrand factor-binding protein and von Willebrand factor anchor Staphylococcus aureus to the vessel wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, J; Liesenborghs, L; Peetermans, M; Veloso, T R; Missiakas, D; Schneewind, O; Mancini, S; Entenza, J M; Hoylaerts, M F; Heying, R; Verhamme, P; Vanassche, T

    2017-02-09

    Essentials Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) binds to endothelium via von Willebrand factor (VWF). Secreted VWF-binding protein (vWbp) mediates S. aureus adhesion to VWF under shear stress. vWbp interacts with VWF and the Sortase A-dependent surface protein Clumping factor A (ClfA). VWF-vWbp-ClfA anchor S. aureus to vascular endothelium under shear stress.

  13. Recombinant Mitochondrial Transcription Factor A with N-terminal Mitochondrial Transduction Domain Increases Respiration and Mitochondrial Gene Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Iyer, Shilpa; Thomas, Ravindar R.; Portell, Francisco R.; Dunham, Lisa D.; Quigley, Caitlin K.; Bennett, James P

    2009-01-01

    We developed a scalable procedure to produce human mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) modified with an N-terminal protein transduction domain (PTD) and mitochondrial localization signal (MLS) that allow it to cross membranes and enter mitochondria through its “mitochondrial transduction domain” (MTD=PTD+MLS). Alexa488-labeled MTD-TFAM rapidly entered the mitochondrial compartment of cybrid cells carrying the G11778A LHON mutation. MTD-TFAM reversibly increased respiration and levels ...

  14. Mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) gene sequencing and mitochondrial evaluation in inherited retinal dysplasia in miniature schnauzer dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Bianca S.; Forsyth, George W.; Sandmeyer, Lynne S.; Grahn, Bruce H.

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of retinal dysplasia in miniature schnauzer dogs and it has been proposed that affected dogs have altered mitochondrial numbers, size, and morphology. To test these hypotheses the Tfam gene of affected and normal miniature schnauzer dogs with retinal dysplasia was sequenced and lymphocyte mitochondria were quantified, measured, and the morphology was compared in normal and affected dogs using transmission elec...

  15. Effects of vitamin D on blood pressure and cardiovascular risk factors: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, Stefan; Gaksch, Martin; Kienreich, Katharina; Grübler, Martin; Verheyen, Nicolas; Fahrleitner-Pammer, Astrid; Treiber, Gerlies; Drechsler, Christiane; Ó Hartaigh, Bríain; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Schwetz, Verena; Aberer, Felix; Mader, Julia; Scharnagl, Hubert; Meinitzer, Andreas; Lerchbaum, Elisabeth; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Zittermann, Armin; März, Winfried; Tomaschitz, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for arterial hypertension, but randomized controlled trials showed mixed effects of vitamin D supplementation on blood pressure (BP). We aimed to evaluate whether vitamin D supplementation affects 24-hour systolic ambulatory BP monitoring values and cardiovascular risk factors. The Styrian Vitamin D Hypertension Trial is a single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted from June 2011 to August 2014 at the endocrine outpatient clinic of the Medical University of Graz, Austria. We enrolled 200 study participants with arterial hypertension and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels below 30 ng/mL. Study participants were randomized to receive either 2800 IU of vitamin D3 per day as oily drops (n=100) or placebo (n=100) for 8 weeks. Primary outcome measure was 24-hour systolic BP. Secondary outcome measures were 24-hour diastolic BP, N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, QTc interval, renin, aldosterone, 24-hour urinary albumin excretion, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and pulse wave velocity. A total of 188 participants (mean [SD] age, 60.1 [11.3] years; 47% women; 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 21.2 [5.6] ng/mL) completed the trial. The mean treatment effect (95% confidence interval) for 24-hour systolic BP was -0.4 (-2.8 to 1.9) mm Hg (P=0.712). Triglycerides increased significantly (mean change [95% confidence interval], 17 [1-33] mg/dL; P=0.013), but no further significant effects were observed for secondary outcomes. Vitamin D supplementation in hypertensive patients with low 25-hydroxyvitamin D has no significant effect on BP and several cardiovascular risk factors, but it was associated with a significant increase in triglycerides. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02136771. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Children's health and parental socioeconomic factors: a population-based survey in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savolainen Piia H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic inequalities in health are a global problem, not only among the adult population but also among children. However, studies concerning young children especially are rare. The aim of this study was to describe the health of Finnish children under 12 years of age, and the socioeconomic factors associated with health. The socioeconomic factors were parental education level, household net income, and working status. Methods A population-based survey among Finnish children aged under 12 years (n = 6,000 was conducted in spring 2007. A questionnaire was sent to parents, and a response rate of 67% was achieved. Each child's health was explored by asking a parent to report the child's health status on a 5-point Likert scale, current symptoms from a symptoms list, and current disease(s diagnosed by a physician. The final three outcome measures were poor health, the prevalences of psychosomatic symptoms, and long-term diseases. Data were analysed using Pearson's Chi-Square tests, and logistic regression analysis with 95% confidence intervals (CIs. P-values ≤0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results In total, 3% of parents reported that their child's health status was poor. The prevalences of psychosomatic symptoms and long-term diseases were both 11%. The probability for poor health status was lowest among children aged 3-6 and 7-11 years, and for psychosomatic symptoms among 3-6-year-old children, whereas the odds ratios for long-term diseases was highest among children aged 7-11 years. Parental socioeconomic factors were not associated with the children's health. Conclusions Most of the children were reported by their parent to have good health status, and approximately one tenth had experienced some psychosomatic symptoms or long-term diseases. Our study suggests that parental socioeconomic factors are not associated with the health of children aged under 12 years in Finland.

  17. Women in Saudi Arabia and the Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashael K. Alshaikh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cardiovascular disease (CVD is one of the leading causes of death in Saudi Arabia. Saudi women in particular are more susceptible as there are sociocultural restrictions on female physical activities that may lead to high prevalence of CVD risks, especially obesity, and physical inactivity. This study aims to systematically review the published articles related to the prevalence of CVD risk among women in Saudi Arabia. The search strategy covers all published articles that assess the risk factor of CVD in Saudi Arabia from January 2000 to December 2015, using the following sources: Medline, Embase, and PsycINFO. A total of 61 studies were included. Results. Prevalence among Saudi women of smoking ranged from 1.1% to 9.1%, hypertension was 21.8%, diabetes ranged from 9.6% to 27.6%, overweight was 27%, and obesity was 40.23%, and physical inactivity ranged from 53.2% to 98.1%. Hypercholesterolemia prevalence on Saudi women on average was 24.5%, while metabolic syndrome ranged from 13.6% to 40.3%. Conclusion. The prevalence of CVD risk factors is high among women in Saudi Arabia especially in obesity and physical inactivity. Public health authorities must implement solutions from a gender specific aspect to reverse the trend and decrease the prevalence of CVDs among Saudi women.

  18. Women in Saudi Arabia and the Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshaikh, Mashael K; Filippidis, Filippos T; Baldove, Juren P; Majeed, Azeem; Rawaf, Salman

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death in Saudi Arabia. Saudi women in particular are more susceptible as there are sociocultural restrictions on female physical activities that may lead to high prevalence of CVD risks, especially obesity, and physical inactivity. This study aims to systematically review the published articles related to the prevalence of CVD risk among women in Saudi Arabia. The search strategy covers all published articles that assess the risk factor of CVD in Saudi Arabia from January 2000 to December 2015, using the following sources: Medline, Embase, and PsycINFO. A total of 61 studies were included. Results. Prevalence among Saudi women of smoking ranged from 1.1% to 9.1%, hypertension was 21.8%, diabetes ranged from 9.6% to 27.6%, overweight was 27%, and obesity was 40.23%, and physical inactivity ranged from 53.2% to 98.1%. Hypercholesterolemia prevalence on Saudi women on average was 24.5%, while metabolic syndrome ranged from 13.6% to 40.3%. Conclusion. The prevalence of CVD risk factors is high among women in Saudi Arabia especially in obesity and physical inactivity. Public health authorities must implement solutions from a gender specific aspect to reverse the trend and decrease the prevalence of CVDs among Saudi women.

  19. Overweight and obesity in Indonesia: prevalence and risk factors-a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmi, C N; Li, M; Alison Baur, L

    2017-06-01

    Overweight/obesity is a problem faced by both high- and low- and middle-income countries. This review aimed to report published data on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Indonesian children, adolescents, and adults, along with the associated risk factors. Literature review. We conducted a literature search for articles published in English (through Medline via OvidSP, Scopus, Global Health via OvidSP and Web of Science electronic databases) and Indonesian languages (several websites, direct contact with Indonesian public health researchers, practitioners and Ministry of Health staff) from earliest to March 2016. We screened the results and ensured the quality of included studies with Loney's tools for critically appraising prevalence or incidence studies. We included 17 papers on the topic which were available in full text and passed the critical appraisal process. The prevalence of overweight/obesity has increased over the past two decades in Indonesian children, adolescents and adults. Prevalence rates are higher in boys than girls among children, but higher in females in the adolescent and adult age groups. The prevalence of overweight/obesity is also higher in those living in urban areas and with higher income or education. Overweight/obesity is a serious public health problem in Indonesia with a continuing increase in its prevalence. Interventions at the household level and beyond are needed to successfully lower the prevalence of overweight/obesity in the country. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prostaglandin E2 and vascular endothelial growth factor A mediate angiogenesis of human ovarian follicular endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trau, Heidi A.; Brännström, Mats; Curry, Thomas E.; Duffy, Diane M.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Which receptors for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) mediate angiogenesis in the human follicle around the time of ovulation? SUMMARY ANSWER PGE2 and VEGFA act via multiple PGE2 receptors (PTGERs) and VEGF receptors (VEGFRs) to play complementary roles in follicular angiogenesis. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Production of PGE2 and VEGFA by the follicle are prerequisites for ovulation. PGE2 is an emerging regulator of angiogenesis and has not been examined in the context of the human ovulatory follicle. VEGFA is an established regulator of follicular angiogenesis. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Ovarian biopsies containing the ovulatory follicle were obtained from 11 women of reproductive age (30–45 years) undergoing surgery for laparoscopic sterilization. In some cases, women received hCG to substitute for the ovulatory LH surge before ovarian biopsy. In addition, aspirates from four women of reproductive age (18–31 years) undergoing gonadotrophin stimulation for oocyte donation were obtained for isolation of human ovarian microvascular endothelial cells (hOMECs). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Ovarian biopsies were utilized for immunocytochemical detection of von Willebrand factor to identify endothelial cells. hOMECs were cultured with PGE2, PTGER receptor selective agonists, VEGFA, or VEGFR selective agonists. hOMECs were assessed for proliferation by Ki67 immunocytochemistry. hOMEC migration was determined by counting cells which migrated through a porous membrane in vitro. Sprout formation was quantified by determining sprout number and length from photographs take after culture of hOMECs in a 3-dimensional matrix. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Endothelial cells were not observed within the granulosa cell layer of human ovulatory follicles prior to an ovulatory dose of hCG and were first seen amongst granulosa cells 18–34 h after hCG. In vitro, PGE2 enhanced migration and sprout formation but

  1. Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erum Zahir

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical properties like density, viscosity, boiling point, saponification value (SV, iodine value (IV,and peroxide value (PV of Corn and Mustard oils were studied to evaluate the compositional quality of oils and also to investigate the effect on the use of same oil for repeated frying as it ultimately changes the physicochemical, nutritional and sensory properties of the oil. FT-IR spectroscopy was used to evaluate the degree of oxidation after heating and frying processes. Results revealed that due to the temperature change in the oil there is a notable difference in the spectral band which showed that the proportions of the fatty acids were changed. The spectra of Corn oil at the boiling point and at multiple frying times with a piece of potato showed frequencies in range of 2852.7–2926.0 cm−1 while in Mustard oil an additional peak was observed at 3633.8 cm−1 which exhibits the secondary oxidized product formation.

  2. The corticosteroid hormone induced factor: a new modulator of KCNQ1 channels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Thomas; Grunnet, Morten; Rasmussen, Hanne B

    2006-01-01

    laevis oocytes, but recently CHIF has attracted attention as a modulatory subunit of the Na,K-pump. In renal and intestinal epithelia, the expression of CHIF is dramatically up-regulated in response to aldosterone stimulation, and regulation of epithelial ion channels by CHIF is an attractive hypothesis....... To study a potential regulatory effect of the CHIF subunit on KCNQ1 channels, co-expression experiments were performed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and mammalian CHO-K1 cells. Electrophysiological characterization was obtained by two-electrode voltage-clamp and patch-clamp, respectively. In both expression...... systems, we find that CHIF drastically modulates the KCNQ1 current; in the presence of CHIF, the KCNQ1 channels open at all membrane potentials. Thereby, CHIF is the first accessory subunit shown to be capable of modulating both the Na,K-pump and an ion channel. To find a possible physiological function...

  3. Production of tumor necrosis factor-a is increased in urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neni Susilaningsih

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common source of bacteriemia. The most common cause of UTI is Escherichia coli (E. coli. Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-á gene polymorphism has been reported to be responsible for an excessive production of TNF-á and eventual disruption of pro-inflammatory cytokine regulation. The aim of this study was to compare TNF-á serum levels and TNF-á allele polymorphisms in patients with UTI due to E.coli and in non- UTI controls. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted at Dr. Kariadi Central Hospital and the Center for Biomedical Research, Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University, Semarang. In 68 patients with UTI the TNF-á serum levels were determined by means of ELISA and compared to those of non-UTI controls (n=55. TNFá- 308G>A gene polymorphism was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length using the NcoI enzyme. Fragments were visualized on polyacrylamide gel with silver staining. RESULTS TNF-á serum level in patients with UTI had a median of 8.9 pg/mL, which was significantly higher than the median of 3.7 pg/mL in the control group (pA gene polymorphisms found in the patient group were G/G=61 (90%, G/A=7(10% and A/A=0, while in the control group were G/G=48 (87%, G/A=7 (13% and A/A =0. There was no significant differences (p=0.578 in gene polymorphisms between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS TNF-á serum levels in patients with UTI due to E. coli were significantly higher than in non-UTI controls, but for the TNF-á-380 gene polymorphisms no significant difference was found between the two groups. There are presumably more important factors than host genotype that influence UTI pathogenesis.

  4. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A165b prevents diabetic neuropathic pain and sensory neuronal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse, Richard P; Beazley-Long, Nicholas; Ved, Nikita; Bestall, Samuel M; Riaz, Hamza; Singhal, Priya; Ballmer Hofer, Kurt; Harper, Steve J; Bates, David O; Donaldson, Lucy F

    2015-10-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy affects up to half of diabetic patients. This neuronal damage leads to sensory disturbances, including allodynia and hyperalgesia. Many growth factors have been suggested as useful treatments for prevention of neurodegeneration, including the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family. VEGF-A is generated as two alternative splice variant families. The most widely studied isoform, VEGF-A165a is both pro-angiogenic and neuroprotective, but pro-nociceptive and increases vascular permeability in animal models. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats develop both hyperglycaemia and many of the resulting diabetic complications seen in patients, including peripheral neuropathy. In the present study, we show that the anti-angiogenic VEGF-A splice variant, VEGF-A165b, is also a potential therapeutic for diabetic neuropathy. Seven weeks of VEGF-A165b treatment in diabetic rats reversed enhanced pain behaviour in multiple behavioural paradigms and was neuroprotective, reducing hyperglycaemia-induced activated caspase 3 (AC3) levels in sensory neuronal subsets, epidermal sensory nerve fibre loss and aberrant sciatic nerve morphology. Furthermore, VEGF-A165b inhibited a STZ-induced increase in Evans Blue extravasation in dorsal root ganglia (DRG), saphenous nerve and plantar skin of the hind paw. Increased transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel activity is associated with the onset of diabetic neuropathy. VEGF-A165b also prevented hyperglycaemia-enhanced TRPA1 activity in an in vitro sensory neuronal cell line indicating a novel direct neuronal mechanism that could underlie the anti-nociceptive effect observed in vivo. These results demonstrate that in a model of Type I diabetes VEGF-A165b attenuates altered pain behaviour and prevents neuronal stress, possibly through an effect on TRPA1 activity.

  5. Elastase induces lung epithelial cell autophagy through placental growth factor: a new insight of emphysema pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Hsin-Han; Cheng, Shih-Lung; Chung, Kuei-Pin; Kuo, Mark Yen-Ping; Yeh, Cheng-Chang; Chang, Bei-En; Lu, Hsuan-Hsuan; Wang, Hao-Chien; Yu, Chong-Jen

    2014-09-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a devastating disease, which is associated with increasing mortality and morbidity. Therefore, there is a need to clearly define the COPD pathogenic mechanism and to explore effective therapies. Previous studies indicated that cigarette smoke (CS) induces autophagy and apoptosis in lung epithelial (LE) cells. Excessive ELANE/HNE (elastase, neutrophil elastase), a factor involved in protease-antiprotease imbalance and the pathogenesis of COPD, causes LE cell apoptosis and upregulates the expression of several stimulus-responsive genes. However, whether or not elastase induces autophagy in LE cell remains unknown. The level of PGF (placental growth factor) is higher in COPD patients than non-COPD controls. We hypothesize that elastase induces PGF expression and causes autophagy in LE cells. In this study, we demonstrated that porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) induced PGF expression and secretion in LE cells in vitro and in vivo. The activation of MAPK8/JNK1 (mitogen-activated protein kinase 8) and MAPK14/p38alpha MAPK signaling pathways was involved in the PGF mediated regulation of the TSC (tuberous sclerosis complex) pathway and autophagy in LE cells. Notably, PGF-induced MAPK8 and MAPK14 signaling pathways mediated the inactivation of MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin), the upregulation of MAP1LC3B/LC3B (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 β) and the increase of autophagosome formation in mice. Furthermore, the PPE-induced autophagy promotes further apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. In summary, elastase-induced autophagy promotes LE cell apoptosis and pulmonary emphysema through the upregulation of PGF. PGF and its downstream MAPK8 and MAPK14 signaling pathways are potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of emphysema and COPD.

  6. Mucin secretion activity of gastric cancer as a prognostic factor: a clinicopathological analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrochen-Domin, Izolda; Zembala-Nożyńska, Ewa; Tukiendorf, Andrzej; Lange, Dariusz; Nowara, Elżbieta

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study Gastric cancer is characterized by varying secretion of mucus. Mucin producing gastric carcinoma (MUC) is thought to be a histological subtype with a worse prognosis. The aim of this study was to compare the clinicopathological differences between MUC and other types of gastric carcinoma without secretion of mucus (NMUC). Material and methods We reviewed two groups of patients with pathologically confirmed gastric cancer: 34 patients with MUC and 36 cases with NMUC. Patients’ sex, age, tumor location, stage of disease and type in the Lauren classification were examined. We analyzed the presence of lymph node metastasis, peritoneal dissemination and liver metastasis. Additionally, treatment response, toxicity and survival rates were evaluated. Results We observed a statistically significant relationship between MUC subtype and patients’ sex: MUC was found mostly in women (p = 0.017). There were no significant differences between the two gastric cancer groups according to age, tumor location, size of tumor or stage of disease. In the NMUC group the rate of liver metastasis was significantly higher (p = 0.001). The overall survival rate and progression-free survival for MUC patients were lower than those for NMUC patients. There was no significant difference in survival rates between the two groups. In analysis of logistic regression we distinguished significantly advantageous (number of chemotherapy cycles) and disadvantageous parameters (advanced stage in TNM), which influenced the chemotherapy effect. Conclusions The MUC type itself is not an unequivocally negative prognostic agent. Poor prognosis was correlated with more advanced stages at diagnosis, particularly with dissemination of cancer. PMID:23788870

  7. Tissue factor: A potent stimulator of Von Willebrand factor synthesis by human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiring, Muriel; Allers, W.; Le Roux, E.

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation and dysfunction of endothelial cells are thought to be triggers for the secretion of Von Willebrand factor. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and the coagulation factors, tissue factor and thrombin on the release and cleavage potential of ultra-large von Willebrand factor (ULVWF) and its cleavage protease by cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). HUVEC were treated with IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α, tissue factor (TF) and thrombin, and combinations thereof for 24 hours under static conditions. The cells were then exposed to shear stress after which the VWF-propeptide levels and the VWF cleavage protease, ADAMTS13 content were measured. All treatments and their combinations, excluding IL-6, significantly stimulated the secretion of VWF from HUVEC. The VWF secretion from the HUVEC was stimulated most by the combination of TF with TNF-α. Slightly lower levels of ADAMTS13 secretion were found with all treatments. This may explain the thrombogenicity of patients with inflammation where extremely high VWF levels and slightly lower ADAMTS13 levels are present.

  8. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor-A potential diagnostic tool in severe burn injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieb, Gerrit; Simons, David; Piatkowski, Andrzej; Bernhagen, Jürgen; Steffens, Guy; Pallua, Norbert

    2010-05-01

    Serum macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and procalcitonin (PCT) concentrations as well as leucocyte numbers were evaluated in a retrospective study with 23 patients with severe burn injuries. The MIF and PCT concentrations as well as the number of leucocytes (LEU) were monitored over a period of 5 days. The total body surface area (TBSA) and sepsis-related organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores were also evaluated. The MIF, PCT concentrations and leucocyte counts were profoundly increased in all patients with severe burn wounds. At the time of admission into the intensive care unit, no significant differences were observed for the MIF and PCT levels between patients with a TBSApatients with a TBSA>60% (Group 2). After 48 h, however, the MIF and PCT levels reached very high levels in a subgroup of the patients, whereas these levels became normal again in other subgroups. The group of patients with a TBSA>60% was, therefore, subdivided in three groups (subgroups 2a-c). The MIF and PCT data pairs in these subgroups appeared to correlate in an inhomogeneous manner. These levels in the subgroup 2a (i.e., lethal within 5 days) were strongly elevated over those observed in Group 1 (TBSAburn inflammation and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) or sepsis with lethal outcome.

  9. FOXP3 Transcription Factor: A Candidate Marker for Susceptibility and Prognosis in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra Fiori Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC is a relevant subgroup of neoplasia which presents negative phenotype of estrogen and progesterone receptors and has no overexpression of the human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2. FOXP3 (forkhead transcription factor 3 is a marker of regulatory T cells (Tregs, whose expression may be increased in tumor cells. This study aimed to investigate a polymorphism (rs3761548 and the protein expression of FOXP3 for a possible involvement in TNBC susceptibility and prognosis. Genetic polymorphism was evaluated in 50 patients and in 115 controls by allele-specific PCR (polymerase chain reaction. Protein expression was evaluated in 38 patients by immunohistochemistry. It was observed a positive association for homozygous AA (OR = 3.78; 95% CI = 1.02–14.06 in relation to TNBC susceptibility. Most of the patients (83% showed a strong staining for FOXP3 protein in the tumor cells. In relation to FOXP3-positive infiltrate, 47% and 58% of patients had a moderate or intense intratumoral and peritumoral mononuclear infiltrate cells, respectively. Tumor size was positively correlated to intratumoral FOXP3-positive infiltrate (P=0.026. In conclusion, since FOXP3 was positively associated with TNBC susceptibility and prognosis, it seems to be a promising candidate for further investigation in larger TNBC samples.

  10. Capsular contracture - What are the risk factors? A 14 year series of 1400 consecutive augmentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancey, Anne; Nassimizadeh, Abdul; Levick, Paul

    2012-02-01

    The modern era of breast augmentation and reconstruction began in 1963, with the introduction of silicone implants by Cronin and Gerow. To date, the demand for cosmetic augmentation continues to increase exponentially. However, whilst the surgical techniques and quality of mammary prosthesis have improved dramatically in recent years, patients are still confronted with significant potential complications. We performed a retrospective study of 1400 consecutive primary breast augmentations performed between March 1995 and March 2009 by a single surgeon. We specifically examined the incidence of capsular contracture and the possible causative factors. Follow up ranged from 1 to 16 years. The mean age at the time of surgery was 32.8 years and fill volume was between 195 ml and 800 ml. Our capsular contracture rate was in the order of 26.9%. BMI >30, fill volumes >350 ml, smoking and alcohol consumption did not significantly increase capsular contracture rate. Implant type, pregnancy, infection and delayed haematoma significantly increased the risk of capsular contracture. Our series has given us a unique insight into the frequency of capsular contracture and identified several risk factors. To our knowledge, this is the first report of pregnancy having a significant effect on capsular contracture. We now counsel patients thoroughly into the detrimental effects of pregnancy on the implant. Copyright © 2011 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Male breast cancer in Morocco: Epidemiology and prognostic factors. A report of 140 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoui Slimani, K; Debbagh, A; Sbitti, Y; Errihani, H; Ichou, M

    2016-11-01

    Male breast cancer is rare; it constitutes 0.2-1.5 % of all malignant tumors in men and 1 % of all breast cancers. The goal of this retrospective study is to analyze the epidemiologic, clinic, therapeutic and evolutive profiles of this disease in 140 cases collected at the National Institute of Oncology and military hospital in Rabat, Morocco, between the years 1998 and 2007. The mean age was 61 years. A high incidence of overweight was found. The most frequent clinical presentation was a firm subareolar lump in 83 % of cases. The most common pathological type was an infiltrating ductal carcinoma (93 %). Hormone receptors were positive in 86 % of cases. Eighty-five percent of patients underwent simple mastectomy and axillary dissection, 68 % chest wall irradiation after surgery, 54 % received chemotherapy and 82 % hormonal therapy. Median follow-up was 91.1 months. The estimated 5-year and 10-year overall survival was respectively 68 % and 74 %. The management of male and female breast carcinoma is the same, as well as their prognosis at equal stages. Future research for better understanding of this disease are needed to improve the management and prognosis of male patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Hepatocyte growth factor, a determinant of airspace homeostasis in the murine lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Calvi

    Full Text Available The alveolar compartment, the fundamental gas exchange unit in the lung, is critical for tissue oxygenation and viability. We explored hepatocyte growth factor (HGF, a pleiotrophic cytokine that promotes epithelial proliferation, morphogenesis, migration, and resistance to apoptosis, as a candidate mediator of alveolar formation and regeneration. Mice deficient in the expression of the HGF receptor Met in lung epithelial cells demonstrated impaired airspace formation marked by a reduction in alveolar epithelial cell abundance and survival, truncation of the pulmonary vascular bed, and enhanced oxidative stress. Administration of recombinant HGF to tight-skin mice, an established genetic emphysema model, attenuated airspace enlargement and reduced oxidative stress. Repair in the TSK/+ mouse was punctuated by enhanced akt and stat3 activation. HGF treatment of an alveolar epithelial cell line not only induced proliferation and scattering of the cells but also conferred protection against staurosporine-induced apoptosis, properties critical for alveolar septation. HGF promoted cell survival was attenuated by akt inhibition. Primary alveolar epithelial cells treated with HGF showed improved survival and enhanced antioxidant production. In conclusion, using both loss-of-function and gain-of-function maneuvers, we show that HGF signaling is necessary for alveolar homeostasis in the developing lung and that augmentation of HGF signaling can improve airspace morphology in murine emphysema. Our studies converge on prosurvival signaling and antioxidant protection as critical pathways in HGF-mediated airspace maintenance or repair. These findings support the exploration of HGF signaling enhancement for diseases of the airspace.

  13. [Dietary habits of adolescents and associated cardiovascular risk factors: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, David Franciole de Oliveira; Lyra, Clélia de Oliveira; Lima, Severina Carla Vieira Cunha

    2016-04-01

    The scope of this study was to conduct a systematic review to establish the major dietary habits of adolescents and the corresponding association with cardiovascular risk factors. Research was performed in the LILACS, SciELO, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases in addition to a manual search for original articles published between 2005 and 2014. Of the 371 entries identified; 26 fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were covered in the review. The main dietary habits observed were Western (61%) Healthy (42%) and Traditional (38%). Western dietary habits were positively associated with total cholesterol and SM, while Healthy dietary habits were inversely associated with fasting glycaemia, DBP and SM and positively with HDL-C, all of the aforementioned associations with very low (D) quality of evidence in accordance with the GRADE rating. The Traditional dietary habits were considered a risk factor for hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and hypertriglyceridemia and protection for physical activity and eutrophic BMI. Although these results need to be analyzed with caution, due to the low quality of evidence, there is a clear need for actions aimed at promoting healthy dietary habits in adolescents in order to contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular risk factors.

  14. Ovulation-inducing factor: a protein component of llama seminal plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanca Wilfredo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously, we documented the presence of ovulation-inducing factor (OIF in the seminal plasma of llamas and alpacas. The purpose of the study was to define the biochemical characteristics of the molecule(s in seminal plasma responsible for inducing ovulation. Methods In Experiment 1, llama seminal plasma was centrifuged using filtration devices with nominal molecular mass cut-offs of 30, 10 and 5 kDa. Female llamas (n = 9 per group were treated i.m. with whole seminal plasma (positive control, phosphate-buffered saline (negative control, or the fraction of seminal plasma equal or higher than 30 kDa, 10 to 30 kDa, 5 to 10 kDa, or Results In Experiment 1, all llamas in the equal or higher than 30 kDa and positive control groups ovulated (9/9 in each, but none ovulated in the other groups (P Conclusions We conclude that ovulation-inducing factor (OIF in llama seminal plasma is a protein molecule that is resistant to heat and enzymatic digestion with proteinase K, and has a molecular mass of approximately equal or higher than 30 kDa.

  15. The synergy factor: a statistic to measure interactions in complex diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Combarros Onofre

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One challenge in understanding complex diseases lies in revealing the interactions between susceptibility factors, such as genetic polymorphisms and environmental exposures. There is thus a need to examine such interactions explicitly. A corollary is the need for an accessible method of measuring both the size and the significance of interactions, which can be used by non-statisticians and with summarised, e.g. published data. The lack of such a readily available method has contributed to confusion in the field. Findings The synergy factor (SF allows assessment of binary interactions in case-control studies. In this paper we describe its properties and its novel characteristics, e.g. in calculating the power to detect a synergistic effect and in its application to meta-analyses. We illustrate these functions with real examples in Alzheimer's disease, e.g. a meta-analysis of the potential interaction between a BACE1 polymorphism and APOE4: SF = 2.5, 95% confidence interval: 1.5–4.2; p = 0.0001. Conclusion Synergy factors are easy to use and clear to interpret. Calculations may be performed through the Excel programmes provided within this article. Unlike logistic regression analysis, the method can be applied to datasets of any size, however small. It can be applied to primary or summarised data, e.g. published data. It can be used with any type of susceptibility factor, provided the data are dichotomised. Novel features include power estimation and meta-analysis.

  16. The changes of negative-regulatory factors A20, IRF-4 and TRAF4 of toll-like receptor signal pathways in immunological pathogenesis of Kawasaki disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO BING WANG; CHENG RONG LI; JUN YANG; YING ZHU

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the role of negative-regulatory factors A20, IRF-4 and TRAF4 of the toll-like receptor (TLR) signal pathways in immunological pathogenesis of Kawasaki disease (KD), 48 children with Kawasaki disease, 16 children with infectious disease (ID) and 16 age-matched healthy children were studied. Reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR were used to evaluate the expression levels of negative-regulatory and effective factors in toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signal pathways and proinflammatory factors in peripheral blood monocyte/maerophage (MC). In this study, expression levels of TLR4, MD-2, MyD88, IRAK-4, TRAF6, TAK1, TAB1 and TAB2 Mrna in KD group were detected to be elevated significantly during acute phase of KD. Transcription levels of negative-regulatory factors A20, IRF-4 and TRAF4 Mrna in KD or ID patients increased remarkably. However, expressions of IRF-4 and TRAF4 in KD patients were detected to be lower than that in ID patients, except that transcription levels of A20 were found to be higher than that in ID patients. Simultaneously, expressions of proinflammatory cytokines such as L-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in KD patients were significantly elevated compared with those in ID patients. Furthermore, it was found that stimulation of lipopelysaccharide (LPS)remarkably up-regulated the expressions of negative-regulatory factors A20, IRF-4 and TRAF4 in KD patients or healthy volunteers. The Mrna levels of all the three factors in KD patients were found to be lower than that in the latter. In addition, transcription levels of IRF-4 and TRAF4 in KD patients with coronary artery lesion (KD-CAL+ ) were detected to be lower than those in KD patients without coronary artery lesion (KD-CAL-) during acute phase, while that of A20 in KD-CAL+ group were lower than that in the latter. And the levels of expressions of proinflammatory eytokines in KD-CAL+ group were found to be higher than those in KD-CAL- group ( P<0.01 ). These findings suggest that

  17. Prevalence of Non-Volitional Sex Types and Associated Factors: A National Sample of Young People.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole H T M Dukers-Muijrers

    Full Text Available Non-volitional sex (NVS in young people continues to be a major public health problem with long-term negative health outcomes. For the first time, the prevalence of different types of NVS and associated factors are compared between young people with same-sex sexual activities and those who have not.We obtained data from 10,401 young women and men (aged 12 to 25 years who participated in a population study on sexual health, the Netherlands. We calculated and compared the prevalence of six types of NVS between women who had sex with men (yWSM or women (yWSW, and men who had sex with women (yMSW or men (yMSM. In sexually experienced participants (n = 5986 logistic regression analyses were applied to assess associations with NVS by assault or penetration. Analyses were weighted to represent the Dutch population.The prevalence of NVS ranged from 1% to 61%, depending on type. Prevalence was higher for young women (any: 40.6% than men (any: 20.4%, and highest for yMSM and yWSW. Prevalence of NVS by assault or penetration was related to a range of socio-demographic, behavioral and social factors, which were largely similar regardless of sex or same-sex-experiences. The NVS perpetrators were in over 70% of cases known to the victim; 1 in 4 cases of NVS by penetration were accompanied by violence.A substantial proportion of young people in the Netherlands have experienced NVS. Medical professionals, educators and caregivers should integrate services to continue to address NVS by targeting young people's multifaceted risk profiles and evidenced based interventions for doing so are needed.

  18. App Usage Factor: A Simple Metric to Compare the Population Impact of Mobile Medical Apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Thomas Lorchan; Wyatt, Jeremy C

    2015-08-19

    One factor when assessing the quality of mobile apps is quantifying the impact of a given app on a population. There is currently no metric which can be used to compare the population impact of a mobile app across different health care disciplines. The objective of this study is to create a novel metric to characterize the impact of a mobile app on a population. We developed the simple novel metric, app usage factor (AUF), defined as the logarithm of the product of the number of active users of a mobile app with the median number of daily uses of the app. The behavior of this metric was modeled using simulated modeling in Python, a general-purpose programming language. Three simulations were conducted to explore the temporal and numerical stability of our metric and a simulated app ecosystem model using a simulated dataset of 20,000 apps. Simulations confirmed the metric was stable between predicted usage limits and remained stable at extremes of these limits. Analysis of a simulated dataset of 20,000 apps calculated an average value for the app usage factor of 4.90 (SD 0.78). A temporal simulation showed that the metric remained stable over time and suitable limits for its use were identified. A key component when assessing app risk and potential harm is understanding the potential population impact of each mobile app. Our metric has many potential uses for a wide range of stakeholders in the app ecosystem, including users, regulators, developers, and health care professionals. Furthermore, this metric forms part of the overall estimate of risk and potential for harm or benefit posed by a mobile medical app. We identify the merits and limitations of this metric, as well as potential avenues for future validation and research.

  19. Transition Form Factors: A Unique Opportunity to Connect Non-Perturbative Strong Interactions to QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gothe, Ralf W. [University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Meson-photoproduction measurements and their reaction-amplitude analyses can establish more sensitively, and in some cases in an almost model-independent way, nucleon excitations and non-resonant reaction amplitudes. However, to investigate the strong interaction from explored — where meson-cloud degrees of freedom contribute substantially to the baryon structure — to still unexplored distance scales — where quark degrees of freedom dominate and the transition from dressed to current quarks occurs — we depend on experiments that allow us to measure observables that are probing this evolving non-perturbative QCD regime over its full range. Elastic and transition form factors are uniquely suited to trace this evolution by measuring elastic electron scattering and exclusive single-meson and double-pion electroproduction cross sections off the nucleon. These exclusive measurements will be extended to higher momentum transfers with the energy-upgraded CEBAF beam at JLab to study the quark degrees of freedom, where their strong interaction is responsible for the ground and excited nucleon state formations. After establishing unprecedented high-precision data, the imminent next challenge is a high-quality analysis to extract these relevant electrocoupling parameters for various resonances that then can be compared to state-of-the-art models and QCD-based calculations. Recent results will demonstrate the status of the analysis and of their theoretical descriptions, and an experimental and theoretical outlook will highlight what shall and may be achieved in the new era of the 12-GeV upgraded transition form factor program.

  20. Burns in Tanzania: morbidity and mortality, causes and risk factors: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outwater, Anne H; Ismail, Hawa; Mgalilwa, Lwidiko; Justin Temu, Mary; Mbembati, Naboth A

    2013-01-01

    Burn injuries in low and middle income countries still remain a significant health problem, even though numbers of burn injuries in high income countries have decreased showing that such events are not "accidents" but are usually preventable. WHO states that the vast majority (over 95%) of fire-related burns occur in low and middle income countries. Burn injuries are a major cause of prolonged hospital stays, disfigurement, disability, and death in Africa Region. Evidence shows that prevention strategies can work. However prevention strategies need to be tailored to the specific environment taking into account local risk factors and available resources. An examination of the patterns and causes of burns should allow site specific recommendations for interventions. This literature review, specific to the United Republic of Tanzania, was conducted by researching PubMed, SafetyLit, and African Journals on Line data bases for primary sources using key words plus . Two sets of student data collected as part of Bachelor's degree final dissertations at Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences were used. In all, twenty two primary sources were found. Risk factors for burn morbidity in Tanzania are: 1/ a young age, especially years 1-3, 2/ home environment, especially around cooking fires, 3/ epilepsy, during seizures, and 4/ perceived inevitability of the incident. It was expected that ground level cooking fires would be found to be a risk factor, but several studies have shown non-significant results about raised cooking fires, types of fuel used, and cooking appliances. Risk factors for burn mortality are: being male, between 20-30 years of age, and being punished for alleged thieving by community mobs. An important factor in reducing burn morbidity, especially in children, is to educate people that burns are preventable in most cases and that most burns occur in the home around cooking fires. Children need to be kept away from fires. Epileptics should be

  1. Mechanically stable nanostructures with desirable characteristic field enhancement factors: a response from scale invariance in electrostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assis, Thiago A.; Dall'Agnol, Fernando F.

    2016-11-01

    This work presents an accurate numerical study of the electrostatics of a system formed by individual nanostructures mounted on support substrate tips, which provides a theoretical prototype for applications in field electron emission or for the construction of tips in probe microscopy that requires high resolution. The aim is to describe the conditions to produce structures mechanically robust with desirable field enhancement factor (FEF). We modeled a substrate tip with a height h 1, radius r 1 and characteristic FEF {γ }1, and a top nanostructure with a height h 2, radius {r}2\\lt {r}1 and FEF {γ }2, for both hemispheres on post-like structures. The nanostructure mounted on the support substrate tip then has a characteristic FEF, {γ }{{C}}. Defining the relative difference {η }{{R}}=({γ }{{C}}-{γ }1)/({γ }3-{γ }1), where {γ }3 corresponds to the reference FEF for a hemisphere of the post structure with a radius {r}3={r}2 and height {h}3={h}1+{h}2, our results show, from a numerical solution of Laplace’s equation using a finite element scheme, a scaling {η }{{R}}=f(u\\equiv λ {θ }-1), where λ \\equiv {h}2/{h}1 and θ ={r}1/{r}2. Given a characteristic variable u c, for u\\ll {u}{{c}}, we found a power law {η }{{R}}˜ {u}κ , with κ ≈ 0.55. For u\\gg {u}{{c}}, {η }{{R}}\\to 1, which led to conditions where {γ }{{C}}\\to {γ }3. As a consequence of scale invariance, it is possible to derive a simple expression for {γ }{{C}} and to predict the conditions needed to produce related systems with a desirable FEF that are robust owing to the presence of the substrate tip. Finally, we discuss the validity of Schottky’s conjecture (SC) for these systems, showing that, while to obey SC is indicative of scale invariance, the opposite is not necessarily true. This result suggests that a careful analysis must be performed before attributing SC as an origin of giant FEF in experiments.

  2. Tumor necrosis factor-a and its role as a mediator in myocardial infarction:A brief review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Tian; Yun-Chuan Yuan; Jia-Yi Li; Michael R. Gionfriddo; Rong-Chong Huang

    2015-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) contributes to myocardial infarction (MI) injury. Polymorphism of TNF-a gene promoter region and secretion and release of TNF-a and its transformation by a series of signaling pathways are all changed at different points of pathophysiological process in MI. Researches also investigated TNF-a antagonists and their potential therapeutic role in the setting of MI and heart failure at both molecular and clinical level. This article briefly reviews TNF-a and its mechanism as a mediator in MI. Copyright © 2015, Chinese Medical Association Production. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of KeAi Communications Co., Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  3. Nab-paclitaxel Efficacy in the Orthotopic Model of Human Breast Cancer Is Significantly Enhanced By Concurrent Anti–Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A Therapy

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    Lisa D. Volk

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Nab-paclitaxel is an albumin-bound 130-nm particle form of paclitaxel that has shown an improved efficacy in experimental tumor models and clinical studies compared with solvent-based paclitaxel. Anti–vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A antibody bevacizumab is known to enhance antitumor activity of cytotoxic drugs. This study evaluated the effects of combined nab-paclitaxel and bevacizumab therapy on growth and metastatic spread of orthotopic breast tumors. Cytotoxic and clonogenic assays measured VEGF-A–dependent modulation of nabpaclitaxel toxicity on cultured tumor cells. Antitumor effects were assessed in mice with luciferase-tagged, wellestablished MDA-MB-231 tumors (250–310 mm3 treated with one, two, or three cycles of nab-paclitaxel (10 mg/ kg, daily for five consecutive days, bevacizumab (2–8 mg/kg, twice a week, or with combination of both drugs. VEGF-A protected MDA-MB-231 cells against nab-paclitaxel cytotoxicity, whereas bevacizumab sensitized cells to the effect of the drug. Combined bevacizumab and nab-paclitaxel treatment synergistically inhibited tumor growth and metastasis resulting in up to 40% of complete regressions of well-established tumors. This therapy also decreased the incidence of lymphatic and pulmonary metastases by 60% and 100%, respectively. The significant increase in the cure of tumor-bearing mice in the nab-paclitaxel/bevacizumab combined group compared with mice treated with single drugs strongly advocates for implementing such strategy in clinics.

  4. Prospective study of serum B vitamins levels and oesophageal and gastric cancers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jiansong; Murphy, Gwen; Fan, Jinhu; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Taylor, Philip R.; Selhub, Jacob; Qiao, Youlin; Abnet, Christian C.

    2016-01-01

    B vitamins play an essential role in DNA synthesis and methylation, and may protect against oesophageal and gastric cancers. In this case-cohort study, subjects were enrolled from the General Population Nutrition Intervention Trial in Linxian, China. Subjects included 498 oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs), 255 gastric cardia adenocarcinomas (GCAs), and an age- and sex-matched sub-cohort of 947 individuals. Baseline serum riboflavin, pyridoxal phosphate (PLP), folate, vitamin B12, and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) were measured for all subjects. We estimated the associations with Cox proportional hazard models, with adjustment for potential confounders. Compared to those in the lowest quartile of serum riboflavin, those in the highest had a 44% lower risk of OSCC (HR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.41 to 0.75). Serum vitamin B12 as a continuous variable was observed to be significantly inversely associated with OSCC (HR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.89 to 1.01, P for score test = 0.041). Higher serum FMN levels were significantly associated with increased risk of OSCC (HR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.16) and GCA (HR: 1.09, 95% CI: 1.00 to 1.20). Our study prompted that B vitamins have the potential role as chemopreventive agents for upper gastrointestinal cancers. PMID:27748414

  5. Lack of association between the tagging SNP A+930-->G of SOCS3 and type 2 diabetes mellitus: meta-analysis of four independent study populations.

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    Antje Fischer-Rosinsky

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 (SOCS3 provides a link between cytokine action and their negative consequences on insulin signalling. Thus SOCS3 is a potential candidate gene for type 2 diabetes (T2DM. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Based on HapMap we identified the polymorphism A+930-->G (rs4969168 as a haplotype tagging SNP (htSNP sufficiently covering the genetic variation of the whole gene. We therefore examined the association between rs4969168 within SOCS3 and T2DM in three independent study populations; one prospective case-cohort study and two cross-sectional study populations. Due to the low frequency of individuals being homozygous for the polymorphism a dominant model of inheritance was assumed. The case-cohort study with 2,957 individuals (764 of them with incident T2DM showed no effect of the polymorphism on diabetes risk (hazard ratio (95%CI: 0.86 (0.66-1.13; p = 0.3. Within the MeSyBePo-study population 325 subjects had T2DM from a total of 1,897 individuals, while the second cross-sectional cohort included 851 cases of T2DM within a total of 1653 subjects. According to the results in the prospective study, no association with T2DM was found (odds ratio (95%CI: 0.78 (0.54-1.12 for MesyBepo and 1.13 (0.90-1.42 for the Leipzig study population. There was also no association with metabolic subtraits such as insulin sensitivity (p = 0.7, insulin secretion (p = 0.8 or the hyperbolic relation of both, the disposition index (p = 0.7. In addition, no evidence for interaction with BMI or sex was found. We subsequently performed a meta-analysis, additionally including the publicly available data from the T2DM-subcohort of the WTCCC (n = 4,855. The overall odds ratio within that meta-analysis was 0.96 (0.88-1.06. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There is no strong effect of the common genetic variation within the SOCS3 gene on the development of T2DM.

  6. Molecular cloning, expression analysis and miRNA prediction of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFAa and VEGFAb) in pond loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, an air-breathing fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Weiwei; Liang, Xiao; Huang, Songqian; Cao, Xiaojuan

    2016-12-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) is the most studied and the best characterized member of the VEGF family and is a key regulator of angiogenesis via its ability to affect the proliferation, migration, and differentiation of endothelial cells. In this study, the full-length cDNAs encoding VEGFAa and VEGFAb from pond loach, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, were isolated. The VEGFAa is constituted by an open reading frame (ORF) of 570bp encoding for a peptide of 189 amino acid residues, a 639bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and a 2383bp 3' UTR. The VEGFAb is constituted by an ORF of 687bp encoding for a peptide of 228 amino acid residues, a 560bp 5' UTR and a 1268bp 3' UTR. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the VEGFAa and VEGFAb of pond loach were conserved in vertebrates. Expression levels of VEGFAa and VEGFAb were detected by RT-qPCR at different development stages of pond loach and in different tissues of 6-month-old, 12-month-old and 24-month-old pond loach. Moreover, eight predicted miRNAs (miR-200, miR-29, miR-218, miR-338, miR-103, miR-15, miR-17 and miR-223) targeting VEGFAa and VEGFAb were validated by an intestinal air-breathing inhibition experiment. This study will be of value for further studies into the function of VEGFA and its corresponding miRNAs, which will shed a light on the vascularization and accessory air-breathing process in pond loach.

  7. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A165b Is Protective and Restores Endothelial Glycocalyx in Diabetic Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltean, Sebastian; Qiu, Yan; Ferguson, Joanne K; Stevens, Megan; Neal, Chris; Russell, Amy; Kaura, Amit; Arkill, Kenton P; Harris, Kirstie; Symonds, Clare; Lacey, Katja; Wijeyaratne, Lihini; Gammons, Melissa; Wylie, Emma; Hulse, Richard P; Alsop, Chloe; Cope, George; Damodaran, Gopinath; Betteridge, Kai B; Ramnath, Raina; Satchell, Simon C; Foster, Rebecca R; Ballmer-Hofer, Kurt; Donaldson, Lucy F; Barratt, Jonathan; Baelde, Hans J; Harper, Steven J; Bates, David O; Salmon, Andrew H J

    2015-08-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of ESRD in high-income countries and a growing problem across the world. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is thought to be a critical mediator of vascular dysfunction in diabetic nephropathy, yet VEGF-A knockout and overexpression of angiogenic VEGF-A isoforms each worsen diabetic nephropathy. We examined the vasculoprotective effects of the VEGF-A isoform VEGF-A165b in diabetic nephropathy. Renal expression of VEGF-A165b mRNA was upregulated in diabetic individuals with well preserved kidney function, but not in those with progressive disease. Reproducing this VEGF-A165b upregulation in mouse podocytes in vivo prevented functional and histologic abnormalities in diabetic nephropathy. Biweekly systemic injections of recombinant human VEGF-A165b reduced features of diabetic nephropathy when initiated during early or advanced nephropathy in a model of type 1 diabetes and when initiated during early nephropathy in a model of type 2 diabetes. VEGF-A165b normalized glomerular permeability through phosphorylation of VEGF receptor 2 in glomerular endothelial cells, and reversed diabetes-induced damage to the glomerular endothelial glycocalyx. VEGF-A165b also improved the permeability function of isolated diabetic human glomeruli. These results show that VEGF-A165b acts via the endothelium to protect blood vessels and ameliorate diabetic nephropathy.

  8. Interaction of human mitochondrial transcription factor A in mitochondria: its involvement in the dynamics of mitochondrial DNA nucleoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasashima, Katsumi; Endo, Hitoshi

    2015-12-01

    Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is a key regulator of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). TFAM interacts with itself and forms dimers; however, the precise interaction domain in vivo has not yet been determined. We herein showed that human TFAM formed oligomers in mitochondria by in situ chemical cross-linking. We used the separated fluorescent protein, monomeric Kusabira-Green, as a reporter to monitor their self-association in mitochondria. This reporter successfully detected the TFAM-TFAM interaction in cells as fluorescent signals on mitochondria. We also found that the N-terminal high-mobility group box domain was sufficient for this interaction. The expression of the dimer-defective mutant induced enlarged mtDNA nucleoids, suggesting the importance of dimerization in the distribution of mtDNA. The reporter system also supported the association and mixture between independent nucleoids through TFAM by a cell fusion assay using hemagglutinating virus of Japan. We here, for the first time, visualized the interaction of TFAM molecules in mitochondria and proposed its implications for the dynamics of mtDNA nucleoids.

  9. Inhibitory effect of 2 '-o-methoxyethyl-modified antisense oligonucleotides targeting vascular endothelial growth factor A on SKOV3 human ovarian cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Yi-bing; WEN Ze-qing; ZHAO Xing-bo; YAN Lei; ZHANG Chun-hua; WANG Fei

    2011-01-01

    Background Ovarian cancers are often at an advanced stage at diagnosis because early detection is difficult. The poor prognosis of ovarian cancers highlights the crucial need to develop better therapeutic agents and strategies. The objective of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of a new modified antisense oligonucleotides targeting vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells.Methods Antisense oligonucleotides targeting VEGF-A was designed, synthesized and transfected into SKOV3ovarian cancer cells. Western blotting and real-time RT-PCR were used to analyze the inhibitory effects of antisense oligonucleotides on VEGF-A protein and mRNA expression. Transwell matrix assay was used to detect cell migration inhibition.Results The antisense oligonucleotides targeting VEGF-A significantly decreased VEGF-A protein and mRNA expression and inhibited cell migration in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells.Conclusions This new modified antisense oligonucleotides targeting VEGF-A can decrease VEGF-A expression and inhibit cell migration in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells. This new oligonucleotides may be a promising therapeutic agent for ovarian cancers.

  10. Matrine-induced apoptosis of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells via in vitro vascular endothelial growth factor-A/extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 pathway inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, M; He, G; Wang, R; Shi, S; Chen, J; Ye, Y; Xie, L; Yi, X; Tang, A

    2014-07-01

    Matrine, a main active extract from Sophora flavescens Ait, has been demonstrated to exert anticancer effects on various cancer cell lines, such as malignant melanoma, breast cancer, and lung cancer. However, it is currently unclear whether matrine could also elicit an inhibitory effect on growth of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), let alone the possible molecular mechanisms. Therefore, in a previous study, we investigated matrine-induced proliferation inhibition and apoptosis in NPC cells. It was shown that proliferation of human NPC cells (CNE1 and CNE2) was significantly diminished by matrine in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and apoptosis was induced in both 2 NPC cells, particularly in CNE2 cells. Moreover, the increased apoptosis rate in matrine-treated CNE2 cells confirmed the proapoptotic activity of matrine. We further found that matrine treatment dose- and time-dependently reduced the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), and inactivated extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2), followed by increased expression of downstream target caspase-3. Overall, we conclude that matrine could induce apoptosis of human NPC cells via VEGF-A/ERK1/2 pathway, which supports the potential use of matrine in clinically treating NPC.

  11. Analysis of Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A and Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1alpha in Patients Operated on Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honguero Martínez, Antonio Francisco; Arnau Obrer, Antonio; Figueroa Almánzar, Santiago; León Atance, Pablo; Guijarro Jorge, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Recent studies show that expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1α) favours expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), and these biomarkers are linked to cellular proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis in different cancers. We analyze expression of HIF-1α and VEGF-A to clinicopathologic features and survival of patients operated on stage I non-small-cell lung cancer. Methodology. Prospective study of 52 patients operated on with stage I. Expression of VEGF-A and HIF-1α was performed through real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results. Mean age was 64.7 and 86.5% of patients were male. Stage IA represented 23.1% and stage IB 76.9%. Histology classification was 42.3% adenocarcinoma, 34.6% squamous cell carcinoma, and 23.1% others. Median survival was 81.0 months and 5-year survival 67.2%. There was correlation between HIF-1α and VEGF-A (P = 0.016). Patients with overexpression of HIF-1α had a tendency to better survival with marginal statistical significance (P = 0.062). Patients with overexpression of VEGF-A had worse survival, but not statistically significant (P = 0.133). Conclusion. The present study revealed that VEGF-A showed correlation with HIF-1α. HIF-1α had a tendency to protective effect with a P value close to statistical significance. VEGF-A showed a contrary effect but without statistical significance. PMID:26316946

  12. Analysis of Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A and Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1alpha in Patients Operated on Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Francisco Honguero Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Recent studies show that expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1α favours expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A, and these biomarkers are linked to cellular proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis in different cancers. We analyze expression of HIF-1α and VEGF-A to clinicopathologic features and survival of patients operated on stage I non-small-cell lung cancer. Methodology. Prospective study of 52 patients operated on with stage I. Expression of VEGF-A and HIF-1α was performed through real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Results. Mean age was 64.7 and 86.5% of patients were male. Stage IA represented 23.1% and stage IB 76.9%. Histology classification was 42.3% adenocarcinoma, 34.6% squamous cell carcinoma, and 23.1% others. Median survival was 81.0 months and 5-year survival 67.2%. There was correlation between HIF-1α and VEGF-A (P=0.016. Patients with overexpression of HIF-1α had a tendency to better survival with marginal statistical significance (P=0.062. Patients with overexpression of VEGF-A had worse survival, but not statistically significant (P=0.133. Conclusion. The present study revealed that VEGF-A showed correlation with HIF-1α. HIF-1α had a tendency to protective effect with a P value close to statistical significance. VEGF-A showed a contrary effect but without statistical significance.

  13. Construction of a New Fusion Protein Vector Associated to Fibronectin Binding Protein A and Clumping Factor A derived from Staphylococcus aureus NCTC8325

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshid Faghri

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of many nosocomial and community acquired infections. According to many reports, antibiotic therapy can not guarantee the eradication of S. aureus infections. Thus designing an adhesin based vaccine could restrain the S. aureus infections. This study designed for construction of a new fusion protein vaccine against S. aureus infections based on adhesin molecules fibronectin binding protein A (FnBPA and clumping factor A (ClfA. Materials and Methods Bioinformatic experiments were performed using Oligo analyzer and DNAMAN softwares. The fragments corresponding to fnbA binding domain and a C-terminal fragment from clfA were amplified from S. aureus NCTC8325 genomic DNA. Purified PCR products and the vector, pET15b, were digested with NcoI and BamHI. The digested PCR products were hybridized together and then ligated to digested vector. Finally incomplete construct was assembled by Taq DNA polymerase. To quick confirmation of cloning procedure the new construct designated pfnbA-clfA was digested with NcoI and BamHI. To further verification, the product was sent for sequencing. Results The data based on bioinformatic analysis showed no homology between fusion protein and human proteins. Digestion of new vector with NcoI and BamHI confirmed the ligation of fusion protein sequence into pET15b. Sequencing results verified the integrity of target sequences. Conclusion This study is the first effort to construct a new fusion protein vector based on S. aureus adhesins using a new design. This project is being continued to study the expression and biological activity of the fusion protein in a cell culture model.

  14. Body mass index and risk of subtypes of head-neck cancer: the Netherlands Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maasland, Denise H. E.; Brandt, Piet A. van den; Kremer, Bernd; Schouten, Leo J.

    2015-01-01

    Low body mass index (BMI) has been associated with risk of head-neck cancer (HNC), but prospective data are scarce. We investigated the association between BMI, BMI at age 20 years and change in BMI during adulthood with risk of HNC and HNC subtypes. 120,852 participants completed a questionnaire on diet and other cancer risk factors, including anthropometric measurements, at baseline in 1986. After 20.3 years of follow-up, 411 HNC (127 oral cavity cancer (OCC), 84 oro-/hypopharyngeal cancer (OHPC), and 197 laryngeal cancer (LC)) cases and 3,980 subcohort members were available for case-cohort analysis using Cox proportional hazards models. BMI at baseline was inversely associated with risk of HNC overall, with a multivariate rate ratio of 3.31 (95% CI 1.40–7.82) for subjects with a BMI < 18.5 kg/m2, compared to participants with a BMI of 18.5 to 25 kg/m2. Among HNC subtypes, this association was strongest for OCC and OHPC. The association between BMI at age 20 and HNC risk appeared to be positive. In this large prospective cohort study, we found an inverse association between BMI at baseline and HNC risk. For BMI at age 20, however, a positive rather than inverse association was found. PMID:26634678

  15. Body mass index and risk of subtypes of head-neck cancer: the Netherlands Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maasland, Denise H E; van den Brandt, Piet A; Kremer, Bernd; Schouten, Leo J

    2015-12-04

    Low body mass index (BMI) has been associated with risk of head-neck cancer (HNC), but prospective data are scarce. We investigated the association between BMI, BMI at age 20 years and change in BMI during adulthood with risk of HNC and HNC subtypes. 120,852 participants completed a questionnaire on diet and other cancer risk factors, including anthropometric measurements, at baseline in 1986. After 20.3 years of follow-up, 411 HNC (127 oral cavity cancer (OCC), 84 oro-/hypopharyngeal cancer (OHPC), and 197 laryngeal cancer (LC)) cases and 3,980 subcohort members were available for case-cohort analysis using Cox proportional hazards models. BMI at baseline was inversely associated with risk of HNC overall, with a multivariate rate ratio of 3.31 (95% CI 1.40-7.82) for subjects with a BMI risk appeared to be positive. In this large prospective cohort study, we found an inverse association between BMI at baseline and HNC risk. For BMI at age 20, however, a positive rather than inverse association was found.

  16. Physical activity, occupational sitting time, and colorectal cancer risk in the Netherlands cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Colinda C J M; Hughes, Laura A E; van Engeland, Manon; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; van den Brandt, Piet A; Weijenberg, Matty P

    2013-03-15

    We investigated occupational energy expenditure and sitting time in the longest held job (in men only), nonoccupational physical activity, and former sports participation in relation to colorectal cancer endpoints. The Netherlands Cohort Study includes 120,852 participants who completed a self-administered questionnaire in 1986 when they were aged 55-69 years. By 2002, 1,819 male and 1,366 female colorectal cancer cases were available for case-cohort analyses. In men, higher occupational energy expenditure levels and fewer occupational sitting hours were associated with decreased hazard ratios for colon cancer, particularly distal colon cancer (occupational energy expenditure of ≥12 vs. cancer endpoints in men, and it was inversely associated with colon cancer in women, particularly distal colon cancer (>90 vs. ≤30 minutes/day, HR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.50, 0.96; P for trend = 0.06), and rectal cancer (>90 vs. ≤30 minutes/day, HR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.90; P for trend = 0.02). In conclusion, regular long-term physical activity and fewer sitting hours may protect against colon cancer, particularly distal colon cancer; results for rectal cancer were mixed.

  17. Mutations in TFAM, encoding mitochondrial transcription factor A, cause neonatal liver failure associated with mtDNA depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Ashlee R; Simon, Mariella T; Stover, Alexander; Eftekharian, Shaya; Khanlou, Negar; Wang, Hanlin L; Magaki, Shino; Lee, Hane; Partynski, Kate; Dorrani, Nagmeh; Chang, Richard; Martinez-Agosto, Julian A; Abdenur, Jose E

    2016-09-01

    In humans, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndromes are a group of genetically and clinically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorders that arise as a consequence of defects in mtDNA replication or nucleotide synthesis. Clinical manifestations are variable and include myopathic, encephalomyopathic, neurogastrointestinal or hepatocerebral phenotypes. Through clinical exome sequencing, we identified a homozygous missense variant (c.533C>T; p.Pro178Leu) in mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) segregating in a consanguineous kindred of Colombian-Basque descent in which two siblings presented with IUGR, elevated transaminases, conjugated hyperbilirubinemia and hypoglycemia with progression to liver failure and death in early infancy. Results of the liver biopsy in the proband revealed cirrhosis, micro- and macrovesicular steatosis, cholestasis and mitochondrial pleomorphism. Electron microscopy of muscle revealed abnormal mitochondrial morphology and distribution while enzyme histochemistry was underwhelming. Electron transport chain testing in muscle showed increased citrate synthase activity suggesting mitochondrial proliferation, while respiratory chain activities were at the lower end of normal. mtDNA content was reduced in liver and muscle (11% and 21% of normal controls respectively). While Tfam mRNA expression was upregulated in primary fibroblasts, Tfam protein level was significantly reduced. Furthermore, functional investigations of the mitochondria revealed reduced basal respiration and spare respiratory capacity, decreased mtDNA copy number and markedly reduced nucleoids. TFAM is essential for transcription, replication and packaging of mtDNA into nucleoids. Tfam knockout mice display embryonic lethality secondary to severe mtDNA depletion. In this report, for the first time, we associate a homozygous variant in TFAM with a novel mtDNA depletion syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of a Novel Class I Transcription Factor A (CITFA) Subunit That Is Indispensable for Transcription by the Multifunctional RNA Polymerase I of Trypanosoma brucei

    KAUST Repository

    Nguyen, T. N.

    2012-10-26

    Trypanosoma brucei is the only organism known to have evolved a multifunctional RNA polymerase I (pol I) system that is used to express the parasite\\'s ribosomal RNAs, as well as its major cell surface antigens, namely, the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) and procyclin, which are vital for establishing successful infections in the mammalian host and the tsetse vector, respectively. Thus far, biochemical analyses of the T. brucei RNA pol I transcription machinery have elucidated the subunit structure of the enzyme and identified the class I transcription factor A (CITFA). CITFA binds to RNA pol I promoters, and its CITFA-2 subunit was shown to be absolutely essential for RNA pol I transcription in the parasite. Tandem affinity purification (TAP) of CITFA revealed the subunits CITFA-1 to -6, which are conserved only among kinetoplastid organisms, plus the dynein light chain DYNLL1. Here, by tagging CITFA-6 instead of CITFA-2, a complex was purified that contained all known CITFA subunits, as well as a novel proline-rich protein. Functional studies carried out in vivo and in vitro, as well as a colocalization study, unequivocally demonstrated that this protein is a bona fide CITFA subunit, essential for parasite viability and indispensable for RNA pol I transcription of ribosomal gene units and the active VSG expression site in the mammalian-infective life cycle stage of the parasite. Interestingly, CITFA-7 function appears to be species specific, because expression of an RNA interference (RNAi)-resistant CITFA-7 transgene from Trypanosoma cruzi could not rescue the lethal phenotype of silencing endogenous CITFA-7.

  19. Association of early repolarization pattern on ECG with risk of cardiac and all-cause mortality: a population-based prospective cohort study (MONICA/KORA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz F Sinner

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early repolarization pattern (ERP on electrocardiogram was associated with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac arrest in a case-control study and with cardiovascular mortality in a Finnish community-based sample. We sought to determine ERP prevalence and its association with cardiac and all-cause mortality in a large, prospective, population-based case-cohort study (Monitoring of Cardiovascular Diseases and Conditions [MONICA]/KORA [Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg] comprised of individuals of Central-European descent. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Electrocardiograms of 1,945 participants aged 35-74 y, representing a source population of 6,213 individuals, were analyzed applying a case-cohort design. Mean follow-up was 18.9 y. Cause of death was ascertained by the 9th revision of the International Classification of Disease (ICD-9 codes as documented in death certificates. ERP-attributable effects on mortality were determined by a weighted Cox proportional hazard model adjusted for covariables. Prevalence of ERP was 13.1% in our study. ERP was associated with cardiac and all-cause mortality, most pronounced in those of younger age and male sex; a clear ERP-age interaction was detected (p = 0.005. Age-stratified analyses showed hazard ratios (HRs for cardiac mortality of 1.96 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-3.68, p = 0.035 for both sexes and 2.65 (95% CI 1.21-5.83, p = 0.015 for men between 35-54 y. An inferior localization of ERP further increased ERP-attributable cardiac mortality to HRs of 3.15 (95% CI 1.58-6.28, p = 0.001 for both sexes and to 4.27 (95% CI 1.90-9.61, p<0.001 for men between 35-54 y. HRs for all-cause mortality were weaker but reached significance. CONCLUSIONS: We found a high prevalence of ERP in our population-based cohort of middle-aged individuals. ERP was associated with about a 2- to 4-fold increased risk of cardiac mortality in individuals between 35 and 54 y. An inferior

  20. Prediction of incident hip fracture with the estimated femoral strength by finite element analysis of DXA Scans in the study of osteoporotic fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lang; Palermo, Lisa; Black, Dennis M; Eastell, Richard

    2014-12-01

    A bone fractures only when loaded beyond its strength. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of femoral strength, as estimated by finite element (FE) analysis of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, with incident hip fracture in comparison to hip bone mineral density (BMD), Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX), and hip structure analysis (HSA) variables. This prospective case-cohort study included a random sample of 1941 women and 668 incident hip fracture cases (295 in the random sample) during a mean ± SD follow-up of 12.8 ± 5.7 years from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (n = 7860 community-dwelling women ≥67 years of age). We analyzed the baseline DXA scans (Hologic 1000) of the hip using a validated plane-stress, linear-elastic finite element (FE) model of the proximal femur and estimated the femoral strength during a simulated sideways fall. Cox regression accounting for the case-cohort design assessed the association of estimated femoral strength with hip fracture. The age-body mass index (BMI)-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) per SD decrease for estimated strength (2.21; 95% CI, 1.95-2.50) was greater than that for total hip (TH) BMD (1.86; 95% CI, 1.67-2.08; p  0.05), FRAX scores (range, 1.32-1.68; p hip BMD or FRAX scores. The association of estimated strength with incident hip fracture was strong (Harrell's C index 0.770), significantly better than TH BMD (0.759; p  0.05). Similar findings were obtained for intracapsular and extracapsular fractures. In conclusion, the estimated femoral strength from FE analysis of DXA scans is an independent predictor and performs at least as well as FN BMD in predicting incident hip fracture in postmenopausal women. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  1. Synthesis and evaluation of a conjugate vaccine composed of Staphylococcus aureus poly-N-acetyl-glucosamine and clumping factor A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Maira-Litrán

    Full Text Available The increasing frequency, severity and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus infections has made the development of immunotherapies against this pathogen more urgent than ever. Previous immunization attempts using monovalent antigens resulted in at best partial levels of protection against S. aureus infection. We therefore reasoned that synthesizing a bivalent conjugate vaccine composed of two widely expressed antigens of S. aureus would result in additive/synergetic activities by antibodies to each vaccine component and/or in increased strain coverage. For this we used reductive amination, to covalently link the S. aureus antigens clumping factor A (ClfA and deacetylated poly-N-β-(1-6-acetyl-glucosamine (dPNAG. Mice immunized with 1, 5 or 10 µg of the dPNAG-ClfA conjugate responded in a dose-dependent manner with IgG to dPNAG and ClfA, whereas mice immunized with a mixture of ClfA and dPNAG developed significantly lower antibody titers to ClfA and no antibodies to PNAG. The dPNAG-ClfA vaccine was also highly immunogenic in rabbits, rhesus monkeys and a goat. Moreover, affinity-purified, antibodies to ClfA from dPNAG-ClfA immune serum blocked the binding of three S. aureus strains to immobilized fibrinogen. In an opsonophagocytic assay (OPKA goat antibodies to dPNAG-ClfA vaccine, in the presence of complement and polymorphonuclear cells, killed S. aureus Newman and, to a lower extent, S. aureus Newman ΔclfA. A PNAG-negative isogenic mutant was not killed. Moreover, PNAG antigen fully inhibited the killing of S. aureus Newman by antisera to dPNAG-ClfA vaccine. Finally, mice passively vaccinated with goat antisera to dPNAG-ClfA or dPNAG-diphtheria toxoid conjugate had comparable levels of reductions of bacteria in the blood 2 h after infection with three different S. aureus strains as compared to mice given normal goat serum. In conclusion, ClfA is an immunogenic carrier protein that elicited anti-adhesive antibodies that fail to

  2. A biphasic endothelial stress-survival mechanism regulates the cellular response to vascular endothelial growth factor A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latham, Antony M.; Odell, Adam F. [Endothelial Cell Biology Unit, School of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Mughal, Nadeem A. [Leeds Vascular Institute, Leeds General Infirmary, Great George Street, Leeds LS1 3EX (United Kingdom); Issitt, Theo; Ulyatt, Clare; Walker, John H. [Endothelial Cell Biology Unit, School of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Homer-Vanniasinkam, Shervanthi [Leeds Vascular Institute, Leeds General Infirmary, Great George Street, Leeds LS1 3EX (United Kingdom); Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan, E-mail: s.ponnambalam@leeds.ac.uk [Endothelial Cell Biology Unit, School of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2012-11-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) is an essential cytokine that regulates endothelial function and angiogenesis. VEGF-A binding to endothelial receptor tyrosine kinases such as VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 triggers cellular responses including survival, proliferation and new blood vessel sprouting. Increased levels of a soluble VEGFR1 splice variant (sFlt-1) correlate with endothelial dysfunction in pathologies such as pre-eclampsia; however the cellular mechanism(s) underlying the regulation and function of sFlt-1 are unclear. Here, we demonstrate the existence of a biphasic stress response in endothelial cells, using serum deprivation as a model of endothelial dysfunction. The early phase is characterized by a high VEGFR2:sFlt-1 ratio, which is reversed in the late phase. A functional consequence is a short-term increase in VEGF-A-stimulated intracellular signaling. In the late phase, sFlt-1 is secreted and deposited at the extracellular matrix. We hypothesized that under stress, increased endothelial sFlt-1 levels reduce VEGF-A bioavailability: VEGF-A treatment induces sFlt-1 expression at the cell surface and VEGF-A silencing inhibits sFlt-1 anchorage to the extracellular matrix. Treatment with recombinant sFlt-1 inhibits VEGF-A-stimulated in vitro angiogenesis and sFlt-1 silencing enhances this process. In this response, increased VEGFR2 levels are regulated by the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and PKB/Akt signaling pathways and increased sFlt-1 levels by the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. We conclude that during serum withdrawal, cellular sensing of environmental stress modulates sFlt-1 and VEGFR2 levels, regulating VEGF-A bioavailability and ensuring cell survival takes precedence over cell proliferation and migration. These findings may underpin an important mechanism contributing to endothelial dysfunction in pathological states. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endothelial cells mount a stress response under conditions of low serum. Black

  3. PPAR gamma Pro(12)Ala polymorphism and risk of acute coronary syndrome in a prospective study of Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Segel, Stine; Dethlefsen, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Background: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) plays a key role in the regulation of the energy balance, adipocyte differentiation and lipid biosynthesis. The aim was to inve......Background: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) plays a key role in the regulation of the energy balance, adipocyte differentiation and lipid biosynthesis. The aim...... was to investigate if the polymorphism PPAR gamma 2 Pro(12)Ala, which encodes a less efficient transcription factor, was associated with risk of acute coronary disease and if there were interactions between this polymorphism and factors that modify PPAR gamma activity, such as alcohol intake, smoking, and use of non......-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicine. Methods: A case-cohort study including 1031 ACS cases and a sub-cohort of 1703 persons was nested within the population-based prospective study Diet, Cancer and Health of 57,053 individuals. Results: Homozygous male variant allele carriers of PPAR gamma 2 Pro(12)Ala were...

  4. The spatial distribution of commuting CO2 emissions and the influential factors:A case study in Xi'an, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yuan-Yuan; WANG Yuan-Qing; AN Rui; LI Chao

    2015-01-01

    As the transport sector is a major source of greenhouse gas emissions, the effect of urbanization on transport CO2 emissions in developing cities has become a key issue under global climate change. Examining the case of Xi'an, this paper aims to explore the spatial distribution of commuting CO2 emissions and influencing factors in the new, urban industry zones and city centers considering Xi'an's transition from a monocentric to a polycentric city in the process of urbanization. Based on household survey data from 1501 respondents, there are obvious differences in commuting CO2 emissions between new industry zones and city centers: City centers feature lower household emissions of 2.86 kg CO2 per week, whereas new industry zones generally have higher household emissions of 3.20 kg CO2 per week. Contrary to previous research results, not all new industry zones have high levels of CO2 emissions;with the rapid development of various types of industries, even a minimum level of household emissions of 2.53 kg CO2 per week is possible. The uneven distribution of commuting CO2 emissions is not uniformly affected by spatial parameters such as jobehousing balance, residential density, employment density, and land use diversity. Optimum combination of the spatial parameters and travel pattern along with corresponding transport infrastructure construction may be an appropriate path to reduction and control of emissions from commuting.

  5. Digital Divides and Socio-Demographic Factors: A Longitudinal Quantitative Study of Internet Users in U.S. from 2000 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    This research attempted to reveal the existence of digital divides, their relationships to users' socio-demographics, and the Internet adoption and usage patterns. It was a longitudinal investigation targeted to the adults eighteen years or older in the household setting from the nation-wide surveys conducted in the United States between 2000…

  6. Digital Divides and Socio-Demographic Factors: A Longitudinal Quantitative Study of Internet Users in U.S. from 2000 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    This research attempted to reveal the existence of digital divides, their relationships to users' socio-demographics, and the Internet adoption and usage patterns. It was a longitudinal investigation targeted to the adults eighteen years or older in the household setting from the nation-wide surveys conducted in the United States between 2000…

  7. HIV and/or AIDS-related deaths and modifiable risk factors: A descriptive study of medical admissions at Oshakati Intermediate Hospital in Northern Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.K. Mgori

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: High rates of HIV infection have decreased life expectancy in many African countries. Regardless of worldwide efforts to escalate treatment, care and prevention strategies, the number of deaths due to AIDS-related disorders is still high. Local healthcare workers suspect that there are modifiable factors in the care of HIV and/or AIDS patients which can be identified and improved.Aim: To describe the HIV and/or AIDS-related causes of adult mortality and identify modifiable factors amongst patients admitted to Oshakati Intermediate Hospital, northern Namibia.Methods: Data was extracted retrospectively and coded using the modified CoDe protocol for AIDS. Modifiable factors relating to the patient, health system or clinical care were identified using a standardised data collection tool.Results: A total of 177 HIV and/or AIDS patients were identified, 94 (53.1% were male and 120 (68% had a CD4 count of less than 200 cells/mL. The common HIV-related causes of death were tuberculosis (25.9%, renal failure (15.8%, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (11.3%, cryptococcal meningitis (9%, HIV wasting syndrome (7.9% and AIDS-defining malignancy (7.9%. The analysis revealed 281 modifiable factors; patient-related factors were the most common (153 [54.4%], followed by health system factors (97 [34.5%] and healthcare personnel factors (31 [11%].Conclusion: Our findings have highlighted the challenges in overall HIV and/or AIDS inpatient care and surrounding primary care facilities. The identification of specific modifiable factors can be used to reduce mortality by providing training as well as rational monitoring, planning and resource allocation.

  8. The Primary Resistance of Helicobacter pylori in Taiwan after the National Policy to Restrict Antibiotic Consumption and Its Relation to Virulence Factors-A Nationwide Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh-Ming Liou

    Full Text Available The Taiwan Government issued a policy to restrict antimicrobial usage since 2001. We aimed to assess the changes in the antibiotic consumption and the primary resistance of H. pylori after this policy and the impact of virulence factors on resistance.The defined daily dose (DDD of antibiotics was analyzed using the Taiwan National Health Insurance (NHI research database. H. pylori strains isolated from treatment naïve (N=1395 and failure from prior eradication therapies (N=360 from 9 hospitals between 2000 and 2012 were used for analysis. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by agar dilution test. Genotyping for CagA and VacA was determined by PCR method.The DDD per 1000 persons per day of macrolides reduced from 1.12 in 1997 to 0.19 in 2008, whereas that of fluoroquinolones increased from 0.12 in 1997 to 0.35 in 2008. The primary resistance of amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, and tetracycline remained as low as 2.2%, 7.9%, 23.7%, and 1.9% respectively. However, the primary levofloxacin resistance rose from 4.9% in 2000-2007 to 8.3% in 2008-2010 and 13.4% in 2011-2012 (p=0.001. The primary resistance of metronidazole was higher in females than males (33.1% vs. 18.8%, p<0.001, which was probably attributed to the higher consumption of nitroimidazole. Neither CagA nor VacA was associated with antibiotic resistance.The low primary clarithromycin and metronidazole resistance of H. pylori in Taiwan might be attributed to the reduced consumption of macrolides and nitroimidazole after the national policy to restrict antimicrobial usage. Yet, further strategies are needed to restrict the consumption of fluoroquinolones in the face of rising levofloxacin resistance.

  9. Serum levels of TWEAK and scavenger receptor CD163 in type 1 diabetes mellitus: relationship with cardiovascular risk factors. a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Llauradó

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To test the usefulness of serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (sTWEAK and soluble scavenger receptor CD163 (sCD163 as markers of subtle inflammation in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM without clinical cardiovascular (CV disease and to evaluate their relationship with arterial stiffness (AS. METHODS: Sixty-eight patients with T1DM and 68 age and sex-matched, healthy subjects were evaluated. Anthropometrical variables and CV risk factors were recorded. Serum concentrations of sTWEAK and sCD163 were measured. AS was assessed by aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV. All statistical analyses were stratified by gender. RESULTS: T1DM patients showed lower serum concentrations of sTWEAK (Men: 1636.5 (1146.3-3754.8 pg/mL vs. 765.9 (650.4-1097.1 pg/mL; p<0.001. Women: 1401.0 (788.0-2422.2 pg/mL vs. 830.1 (562.6-1175.9 pg/mL; p = 0.011 compared with their respective controls. Additionally, T1DM men had higher serum concentrations of sCD163 (285.0 (247.7-357.1 ng/mL vs. 224.8 (193.3-296.5 ng/mL; p = 0.012 compared with their respective controls. sTWEAK correlated negatively with aPWV in men (r = -0.443; p<0.001. However, this association disappeared after adjusting for potential confounders. In men, the best multiple linear regression model showed that the independent predictors of sTWEAK were T1DM and WHR (R(2 = 0.640; p<0.001. In women, T1DM and SBP were the independent predictors for sTWEAK (R(2 = 0.231; p = 0.001. CONCLUSION: sTWEAK is decreased in T1DM patients compared with age and sex-matched healthy subjects after adjusting for classic CV risk factors, although sTWEAK levels may be partially influenced by some of them. Additionally, T1DM men have higher serum concentrations of sCD163. These results point out an association between the inflammatory system and CV risk in T1DM.

  10. Vitamin D deficiency in older adults and its associated factors: a cross-sectional analysis of the Mexican Health and Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Vega, María Fernanda; García-Peña, Carmen; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel; Pérez-Zepeda, Mario Ulises

    2017-12-01

    Vitamin D deficiency was common in older adults from a country with adequate sun exposure. The variables associated with this deficiency provide insight into the next steps needed to characterize older adults with this deficiency and to treat it accordingly.

  11. Few gender differences in specialty preferences and motivational factors: A cross-sectional Swedish study on last-year medical students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diderichsen, S.; Johansson, E.E.; Verdonk, P.; Lagro-Janssen, T.; Hamberg, K.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Today, women constitute about half of medical students in several Western societies, yet women physicians are still underrepresented in surgical specialties and clustered in other branches of medicine. Gender segregation in specialty preference has been found already in medical school. I

  12. Impact of implementing electronic clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis, control and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors: A pre-post controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Comin

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions: Computerized clinical practice guidelines are an effective tool for the control and follow-up of patients diagnosed with hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolaemia. The usefulness of computerized clinical practice guidelines to diagnose and adequately treat individuals with these disorders remains unclear.

  13. Role of nuclear factor kappa B and reactive oxygen species in the tumor necrosis factor-a-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of MCF-7 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dong

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The microenvironment of the tumor plays an important role in facilitating cancer progression and activating dormant cancer cells. Most tumors are infiltrated with inflammatory cells which secrete cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a. To evaluate the role of TNF-a in the development of cancer we studied its effects on cell migration with a migration assay. The migrating cell number in TNF-a -treated group is about 2-fold of that of the control group. Accordingly, the expression of E-cadherin was decreased and the expression of vimentin was increased upon TNF-a treatment. These results showed that TNF-a can promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT of MCF-7 cells. Further, we found that the expression of Snail, an important transcription factor in EMT, was increased in this process, which is inhibited by the nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB inhibitor aspirin while not affected by the reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenger N-acetyl cysteine. Consistently, specific inhibition of NFkB by the mutant IkBa also blocked the TNF-a-induced upregulation of Snail promoter activity. Thus, the activation of NFkB, which causes an increase in the expression of the transcription factor Snail is essential in the TNF-a-induced EMT. ROS caused by TNF-a seemed to play a minor role in the TNF-a-induced EMT of MCF-7 cells, though ROS per se can promote EMT. These findings suggest that different mechanisms might be responsible for TNF-a - and ROS-induced EMT, indicating the need for different strategies for the prevention of tumor metastasis induced by different stimuli.

  14. ‘Omics’ biomarkers associated with chronic low back pain: protocol of a retrospective longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegri, Massimo; Klersy, Catherine; Wang, Wei; Sim, Moira; Gieger, Christian; Manz, Judith; Pemberton, Iain K; MacDougall, Jane; Williams, Frances MK; Van Zundert, Jan; Buyse, Klaas; Lauc, Gordan; Gudelj, Ivan; Primorac, Dragan; Skelin, Andrea; Aulchenko, Yurii S; Karssen, Lennart C; Kapural, Leonardo; Rauck, Richard; Fanelli, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic low back pain (CLBP) produces considerable direct costs as well as indirect burdens for society, industry and health systems. CLBP is characterised by heterogeneity, inclusion of several pain syndromes, different underlying molecular pathologies and interaction with psychosocial factors that leads to a range of clinical manifestations. There is still much to understand in the underlying pathological processes and the non-psychosocial factors which account for differences in outcomes. Biomarkers that may be objectively used for diagnosis and personalised, targeted and cost-effective treatment are still lacking. Therefore, any data that may be obtained at the ‘-omics’ level (glycomics, Activomics and genome-wide association studies—GWAS) may be helpful to use as dynamic biomarkers for elucidating CLBP pathogenesis and may ultimately provide prognostic information too. By means of a retrospective, observational, case-cohort, multicentre study, we aim to investigate new promising biomarkers potentially able to solve some of the issues related to CLBP. Methods and analysis The study follows a two-phase, 1:2 case–control model. A total of 12 000 individuals (4000 cases and 8000 controls) will be enrolled; clinical data will be registered, with particular attention to pain characteristics and outcomes of pain treatments. Blood samples will be collected to perform -omics studies. The primary objective is to recognise genetic variants associated with CLBP; secondary objectives are to study glycomics and Activomics profiles associated with CLBP. Ethics and dissemination The study is part of the PainOMICS project funded by European Community in the Seventh Framework Programme. The study has been approved from competent ethical bodies and copies of approvals were provided to the European Commission before starting the study. Results of the study will be reviewed by the Scientific Board and Ethical Committee of the PainOMICS Consortium. The

  15. Risk of subsequent asthma in children with febrile seizures: a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Ya; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Ku, Yi-Chia; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2014-12-01

    No study has reported a relationship between febrile seizures and asthma; thus, we examined the association between these two disorders. We identified 991 cases of children with febrile seizures as the case cohort, and the control group was matched according to age, sex, urbanization level, and their parents' occupation at a 1:4 ratio. We applied the Cox proportional hazards regression model to estimate the hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for asthma among the children with febrile seizures. After 11 years of follow-up, the asthma incidence in the febrile seizure group was approximately 5% higher than that in the control group (log-rank test, P febrile seizure group was 1.41 times higher than that in the control group (95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.65; P febrile seizure-related medical visits (one to two visits vs more than four visits; P Febrile seizures may be associated with an increase in the risk of future asthma occurrence in children. We observed a significantly higher cumulative incidence of asthma occurrence in children with more febrile seizure-related medical visits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Intensive Periodontal Treatment Reduces Risk of Infection-Related Hospitalization in Hemodialysis Population: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Ting; Lin, Cheng-Li; Yu, Tung-Min; Wu, Ming-Ju; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-08-01

    Periodontal disease (PD) is prevalent and correlated with malnutrition and inflammation in patients on hemodialysis (HD). Periodontal therapy improves systemic inflammatory and nutritional markers in HD population. The relationship between intensive PD therapy and clinical infectious outcomes in patients on HD remains unclear.In total, 4451 patients who underwent HD and intensive PD treatment between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2010 were selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database as the case cohort. The comparison cohort was selected by matching a patient without PD with each PD treated patient at a 1:1 ratio according to a propensity score. The rates of hospitalizations for infectious diseases for both cohorts were analyzed and compared.Compared with the comparison cohort, the hazard ratio (HR) of hospitalization for overall infectious diseases was 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.66-0.78, P intensive PD treatment cohort. The intensive PD treated cohort had a significantly lower risk of acute and subacute infective endocarditis (HR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.35-0.84, P intensive PD treatment of patients with HD was associated with reduced risks of overall infectious diseases, acute and subacute infective endocarditis, pneumonia, and osteomyelitis. Our study concurs the role of a conventional intervention in enhancing infectious diseases outcomes.

  17. Prevalent false positives of azoospermia factor a (AZFa) microdeletions caused by single-nucleotide polymorphism rs72609647 in the sY84 screening of male infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Wu; Hui-Juan Shi; Guo-Wu Chen; Tao-Fei Yan; Hui Wang; Yu-Ling Liu; Zheng Li; Shi-Wei Duan; Fei Sun; Yun Feng

    2011-01-01

    Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been widely used to detect Y-chromosome microdeletions,which is one of the major causes of male infertility.Both the European Academy of Andrology (EAA) and the European Molecular Genetics Quality Network (EMQN) have recommended the use of sY84 and sY86 markers for the detection of azoospermia factor a (AZFa) microdeletion during DNA testing for male infertility.In this study,a large-scale analysis of AZF microdeletion in a total of 630 Chinese males,including healthy semen donors (n=200),infertile males with normal sperm count (n=226) and patients with either nonobstructive azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia (n=204),was performed.A series of nine sequence-tagged site (STS) markers from the AZF region of the Y chromosome was used to detect microdeletions.All primers were designed based on the recommendations of the National Center for Biotechnology Information.An unusually high incidence (73/630,11.6%) of sY84-absent but sY86-present genotypes was observed in the AZFa microdeletion screening.Sequencing the sY84-flanking region revealed a total of 73 patients with sY84-absent but sY86-present genotypes have a T-to-G transversion at the fifth base from the 5' end of the reverse sY84 primer.These prevalent false positives,which were not only observed in infertile men,but also observed in donors,resulted from a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) named rs72609647 in the targeting sequence of the reverse sY84 primer.Our study suggests that a pre-screening of existence of rs72609647 polymorphism can prevent the frequent false positive results of AZFa microdeletions detection in the infertile Chinese males.Given the SNP rs72609647 was recently found in a deep sequencing of a Chinese individual,the current EAA and EMQN standards may need to be scrutinized among different populations to avoid the potential genetic variations in the primer binding sequences.

  18. The decision not to initiate breastfeeding--women's reasons, attitudes and influencing factors--a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchan, Marjorie; Foureur, Maralyn; Davis, Deborah

    2011-07-01

    Breastfeeding is the biological feeding norm for human babies. Encouraging breastfeeding is a primary health promotion strategy, with studies demonstrating the risks of artificial baby milks. Each year approximately 10% of the women who give birth in New South Wales decide not to initiate breastfeeding, and the demographic characteristics of this group of women have previously been identified. This paper reviews the literature to explore the factors that influence women's decisions about breastfeeding, and their reasons for not initiating breastfeeding. The review revealed there are relatively few studies that explore the experiences of women who decide not to initiate breastfeeding, especially in the Australian context.

  19. The M-Factor, a Bilingual Asset for Plurilinguals? Learners' Representations, Discourse Strategies and Third Language Acquisition in Institutional Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bono, Mariana; Stratilaki, Sofia

    2009-01-01

    Within the framework of our research on learners' language practices and representations, this contribution explores how their representations about language uses and language learning shape the processes of learning and communication in school settings. More precisely, we will study learners' representations regarding the existence of a…

  20. The M-Factor, a Bilingual Asset for Plurilinguals? Learners' Representations, Discourse Strategies and Third Language Acquisition in Institutional Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bono, Mariana; Stratilaki, Sofia

    2009-01-01

    Within the framework of our research on learners' language practices and representations, this contribution explores how their representations about language uses and language learning shape the processes of learning and communication in school settings. More precisely, we will study learners' representations regarding the existence of a…

  1. Are Affective Factors a Good Predictor of Science Achievement? Examining the Role of Affective Factors Based on PISA 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Murat; Caglak, Serdar; Erdogan, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how affective factors like attitude and motivation contribute to science achievement in PISA 2006 using linear structural modeling. The data set of PISA 2006 collected from 4942 fifteen-year-old Turkish students (2290 females, 2652 males) was used for the statistical analyses. A total of 42 selected items on a four point…

  2. The Importance of Physical Fitness versus Physical Activity for Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors: A Cross-Sectional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Deborah Rohm; Steinhardt, Mary A.

    1993-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined relationships among physical fitness, physical activity, and risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) in male police officers. Data from screenings and physical fitness assessments indicated physical activity must be sufficient to influence fitness before obtaining statistically significant risk-reducing…

  3. Polymorphisms in genes involved in the inflammatory response and interaction with NSAID use or smoking in relation to lung cancer risk in a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Ulla; Christensen, Jane; Wallin, Håkan;

    2007-01-01

    polymorphism and factors, which modify an inflammatory response, such as smoking status, duration, and intensity, and use of NSAID. The functional SNPs IL-1B T-31C, IL6 G-174C, IL8 T-251A, IL10 C-592T, COX2 C8473T, COX2 A-1195G and PPARgamma2 Pro(12)Ala were included. A case-cohort study including 428 lung...... cancer cases and a sub-cohort of 800 persons was nested within a population-based prospective study of 57,053 individuals. Variant allele carriers of IL-1B T-31C were at increased risk of lung cancer (IRR=1.51, 95% CI=1.08-2.12). There was interaction between the polymorphism COX-2 T8473C and smoking...... cases. There was interaction between IL-1B T-31C, COX-2 A-1195G and PPARgamma2 Pro(12)Ala and NSAID use in relation to lung cancer risk. For the two latter, NSAID use was only associated with a lower cancer risk among homozygous wild type allele carriers. p for interaction was 3x10(-6) for COX-2 A-1195G...

  4. Polymorphisms in genes involved in the inflammatory response and interaction with NSAID use or smoking in relation to lung cancer risk in a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Ulla; Christensen, Jane; Wallin, Håkan

    2008-01-01

    polymorphism and factors, which modify an inflammatory response, such as smoking status, duration, and intensity, and use of NSAID. The functional SNPs IL-1B T-31C, IL6 G-174C, IL8 T-251A, IL10 C-592T, COX2 C8473T, COX2 A-1195G and PPARgamma2 Pro(12)Ala were included. A case-cohort study including 428 lung...... cancer cases and a sub-cohort of 800 persons was nested within a population-based prospective study of 57,053 individuals. Variant allele carriers of IL-1B T-31C were at increased risk of lung cancer (IRR=1.51, 95% CI=1.08-2.12). There was interaction between the polymorphism COX-2 T8473C and smoking...... status. Thus, non-smoking variant allele carriers were at 5.75-fold (95% CI=1.25-26.43) higher risk of lung cancer than for homozygous wild type allele carriers. Lung cancer risk was similar for all genotype carriers among past and current smokers. There were, however, very few non-smoking lung cancer...

  5. Unique and Varied Contributions of Traditional CVD Risk Factors: A Systematic Literature Review of CAD Risk Factors in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foody, Joanne; Huo, Yong; Ji, Linong; Zhao, Dong; Boyd, Dylan; Meng, Hai Jin; Shiff, Susan; Hu, Dayi

    2013-01-01

    This study is the first systematic review of risk factors for stroke in China and supports the importance of current public health initiatives to manage the risk factors appropriately to reduce risk of stroke in high risk patients. Additionally, this study has been co-authored by prominent Chinese and US physicians and researchers with expertise in cardiovascular disease, neurologic disorders, epidemiology, and real world data. While there have been several systematic reviews of real world associations of risk factors for coronary artery disease, none focus specifically on the population of China, where there is growing evidence that such risk factors are poorly treated or uncontrolled, especially in rural areas. To better understand the impact of traditional cardiovascular risk factors on risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) in China, a systematic review of all Chinese observational studies published in either English or Chinese in MEDLINE and EMBASE over the last 5 years was performed and the association between any of 5 traditional risk factors (ie, hypertension, diabetes, elevated lipid levels, obesity, and smoking) and the risk of CAD was studied. The study found a consistent relationship between lipid levels and CAD. Higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol values were associated with greater risk of CAD, with an odds ratio as high as 3.31. Other factors found to be significant contributors to the risk of CAD included hypertension (crude odds ratio range of 1.40-5.11), diabetes (1.50-5.97), and smoking (1.37-5.19). An association between obesity and CAD in China was observed, but the evidence supporting this was considered weak due to the paucity of studies found as part of this review. This review provides a systematic summary of CAD risk factors in China and demonstrates the important differences that exist in CAD risk factors between countries and regions. Approaches to reduce CAD globally must take into account the unique risk factors that drive CAD in

  6. Unique and Varied Contributions of Traditional CVD Risk Factors: A Systematic Literature Review of CAD Risk Factors in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foody, JoAnne; Huo, Yong; Ji, Linong; Zhao, Dong; Boyd, Dylan; Meng, Hai Jin; Shiff, Susan; Hu, Dayi

    2013-01-01

    This study is the first systematic review of risk factors for stroke in China and supports the importance of current public health initiatives to manage the risk factors appropriately to reduce risk of stroke in high risk patients. Additionally, this study has been co-authored by prominent Chinese and US physicians and researchers with expertise in cardiovascular disease, neurologic disorders, epidemiology, and real world data. While there have been several systematic reviews of real world associations of risk factors for coronary artery disease, none focus specifically on the population of China, where there is growing evidence that such risk factors are poorly treated or uncontrolled, especially in rural areas. Background To better understand the impact of traditional cardiovascular risk factors on risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) in China, a systematic review of all Chinese observational studies published in either English or Chinese in MEDLINE and EMBASE over the last 5 years was performed and the association between any of 5 traditional risk factors (ie, hypertension, diabetes, elevated lipid levels, obesity, and smoking) and the risk of CAD was studied. Methods and results The study found a consistent relationship between lipid levels and CAD. Higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol values were associated with greater risk of CAD, with an odds ratio as high as 3.31. Other factors found to be significant contributors to the risk of CAD included hypertension (crude odds ratio range of 1.40–5.11), diabetes (1.50–5.97), and smoking (1.37–5.19). An association between obesity and CAD in China was observed, but the evidence supporting this was considered weak due to the paucity of studies found as part of this review. Conclusions This review provides a systematic summary of CAD risk factors in China and demonstrates the important differences that exist in CAD risk factors between countries and regions. Approaches to reduce CAD globally must take into

  7. MMPI-2 Profile of French Transsexuals: The Role of Sociodemographic and Clinical Factors. A cross-sectional design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonierbale, Mireille; Baumstarck, Karine; Maquigneau, Aurélie; Gorin-Lazard, Audrey; Boyer, Laurent; Loundou, Anderson; Auquier, Pascal; Lançon, Christophe

    2016-04-12

    The assessment of co-existing psychological and psychiatric disorders is advocated in the Standards of Care for the health of transsexual people. This study aimed to determine the psychopathological characteristics of transsexuals based on a large sample of French individuals and to identify whether these characteristics differed according to the individual's sociodemographic or clinical characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine the psychopathological characteristics of transsexuals from a large sample of French individuals and whether these differed by sociodemographic or clinical characteristics. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a French public university hospital. The inclusion criteria were 18 years or older, diagnosis of gender dysphoria, and eligibility for a standardized sex reassignment procedure. Personality characteristics were assessed using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2 (MMPI-2). A total of 108 individuals provided a valid MMPI-2 between January 2007 and December 2010. The final sample had a median age of 31 years and included 54 (50%) Female-to-Male individuals. In multivariate models, hormonal therapy status was significantly related to the scales of MMPI-2 (Psychasthenia and Masculinity/Femininity). Personality assessment can help a multidisciplinary gender dysphoria team detect potential psychopathological factors of vulnerability.

  8. Probable Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in Kenya and Its Associated Risk Factors: A Cross-Sectional Household Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Rachel; Othieno, Caleb; Omollo, Raymond; Ongeri, Linnet; Sifuna, Peter; Mboroki, James Kingora; Kiima, David; Ogutu, Bernhards

    2015-10-26

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence of probable post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and its associated risk factors in a general household population in Kenya. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional household survey of mental disorders and their associated risk factors. The participants received a structured epidemiological assessment of common mental disorders, and symptoms of PTSD, accompanied by additional sections on socio-demographic data, life events, social networks, social supports, disability/activities of daily living, quality of life, use of health services, and service use. The study found that 48% had experienced a severe trauma, and an overall prevalence rate of 10.6% of probable PTSD, defined as a score of six or more on the trauma screening questionnaire (TSQ). The conditional probability of PTSD was 0.26. Risk factors include being female, single, self-employed, having experienced recent life events, having a common mental disorder (CMD)and living in an institution before age 16. The study indicates that probable PTSD is prevalent in this rural area of Kenya. The findings are relevant for the training of front line health workers, their support and supervision, for health management information systems, and for mental health promotion in state boarding schools.

  9. Probable Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in Kenya and Its Associated Risk Factors: A Cross-Sectional Household Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Jenkins

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the prevalence of probable post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, and its associated risk factors in a general household population in Kenya. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional household survey of mental disorders and their associated risk factors. The participants received a structured epidemiological assessment of common mental disorders, and symptoms of PTSD, accompanied by additional sections on socio-demographic data, life events, social networks, social supports, disability/activities of daily living, quality of life, use of health services, and service use. The study found that 48% had experienced a severe trauma, and an overall prevalence rate of 10.6% of probable PTSD, defined as a score of six or more on the trauma screening questionnaire (TSQ. The conditional probability of PTSD was 0.26. Risk factors include being female, single, self-employed, having experienced recent life events, having a common mental disorder (CMDand living in an institution before age 16. The study indicates that probable PTSD is prevalent in this rural area of Kenya. The findings are relevant for the training of front line health workers, their support and supervision, for health management information systems, and for mental health promotion in state boarding schools.

  10. A spatiotemporal dengue fever early warning model accounting for nonlinear associations with meteorological factors: a Bayesian maximum entropy approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chieh-Han; Yu, Hwa-Lung; Chien, Lung-Chang

    2014-05-01

    Dengue fever has been identified as one of the most widespread vector-borne diseases in tropical and sub-tropical. In the last decade, dengue is an emerging infectious disease epidemic in Taiwan especially in the southern area where have annually high incidences. For the purpose of disease prevention and control, an early warning system is urgently needed. Previous studies have showed significant relationships between climate variables, in particular, rainfall and temperature, and the temporal epidemic patterns of dengue cases. However, the transmission of the dengue fever is a complex interactive process that mostly understated the composite space-time effects of dengue fever. This study proposes developing a one-week ahead warning system of dengue fever epidemics in the southern Taiwan that considered nonlinear associations between weekly dengue cases and meteorological factors across space and time. The early warning system based on an integration of distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) and stochastic Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) analysis. The study identified the most significant meteorological measures including weekly minimum temperature and maximum 24-hour rainfall with continuous 15-week lagged time to dengue cases variation under condition of uncertainty. Subsequently, the combination of nonlinear lagged effects of climate variables and space-time dependence function is implemented via a Bayesian framework to predict dengue fever occurrences in the southern Taiwan during 2012. The result shows the early warning system is useful for providing potential outbreak spatio-temporal prediction of dengue fever distribution. In conclusion, the proposed approach can provide a practical disease control tool for environmental regulators seeking more effective strategies for dengue fever prevention.

  11. Overcoming SMEs Challenges through Critical Success Factors: A Case of SMEs in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takalani Ramukumba

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available SMEs comprise over 90% of African business operations and contribute to over 50% of African employment and Growth Domestic Product (GDP. SMEs sector has shown positive signs in South Africa, Mauritius and North Africa. In South Africa, SMEs constitute 55% of all jobs. Research of Bowler, Dawood and Page (2007 reveal that 40% of new business ventures fail in their first year, 60% in their second year, and 90% in their first 10 years of existence. It seems that a number of challenges have been identified as contributing to the failure of SMEs in South Africa and worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to identify some of the critical success factors for the SMEs to improve their performance in order to overcome the challenges they are faced within the competitive market environment. The research problem of this study emanates from the current high business failure rate. The research investigates what are the critical success factors that can help these SMEs to be sustainable and have positive growth so to limit the high business failure rate in South Africa. The research established that attracting repeat customers and the performance of the product are the critical success factors that can lead to the sustenance of these SMEs. The study concluded that the resource-constraint SMEs need to focus on critical success factors to build competitive advantage to stay competitive amidst the challenges from globalisation and liberalisation. This study will make further contribution on understanding these critical success factors as they are central to business success, especially in South Africa where it is estimated that the failure rate of small, medium and micro enterprises (SMEs is between 70% and 80% (Brink and Cant, 2009.

  12. EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-a AND THEIR RECEPTOR IN HUMAN PITUITARY TUMORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To explore the role of growth factor autocrine stimulation in the pathogenesis of human pituitary tumors. Methods: The expression of EGF, TGF-a and EGFR were studied by immunohisto-chemical method on paraffin-embedded sections of 30 cases pituitary tumor. Results: EGFR and its ligands EGF, TGF-a expressed in majority of pituitary tumors. The expression of EGFR and its ligands varied with cells' intensity, density and type. Conclusion: The EGF autocrine stimulating exerted in the pituitary tumor development process, that tyrosine kinases inhibitors may be useful for pituitary tumors treatment.

  13. Repair of alveolar cleft defect with mesenchymal stem cells and platelet derived growth factors: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnia, Hossein; Khojasteh, Arash; Soleimani, Masoud; Tehranchi, Azita; Atashi, Amir

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the enhancing effect of recombinant platelet derived growth factor on human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in secondary alveoloplasty. Three patients with 4 alveolar defects were selected for this study. Mesenchymal stem cells were cultured from a posterior iliac bone aspirate. MSCs were mounted on biphasic scaffolds and combined with platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) in the operating room to make a triad of the scaffold, growth factor, and cells. The triads were placed in anterior maxillary cleft defects and closed with lateral advancement gingival flaps. The postoperative cleft bone volume was measured with cone beam computed tomography scans. A mean of 51.3% fill of the bone defect was calculated 3 months post-operation. Our data suggests the use of recombinant platelet derived growth factor with hMSCs may enhance the regeneration capacity of the cells. Copyright © 2011 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: patterns of response to disease-modifying therapies and associated factors: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Maria José; de Sá, João; Sousa, Lívia

    2014-12-01

    Current treatments for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) are only partially effective. The objective of this study was to characterize treatment response in RRMS patients in Portugal to 12-month therapy with first-line disease-modifying therapies. In this retrospective study, neurologists at participating centers completed survey questionnaires using records of patients with RRMS who had received first-line treatment with one of five European Medicine Agency-approved agents in the 12 months prior to inclusion in the survey. Sub-optimal responders included patients treated for at least 1 year, and who had ≥1 relapse(s) or an increase of 1.5 points on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS; if baseline EDSS was 0) or an increase of ≥0.5 points (baseline EDSS ≥1). Optimal responders included patients treated for at least 1 year without relapse and who had an increase of EDSS (if baseline EDSS was 0) or no increase in EDSS (baseline EDSS ≥1). Data for 1,131 patients from 15 centers were analyzed. Twenty-six percent (95% confidence interval 23-28%) of patients had sub-optimal treatment response. Duration of therapy (P EDSS score (P EDSS score at baseline and did not differ among therapies. Neurologists should closely monitor patients to optimize treatment strategies and better control disease, improving prognosis.

  15. Soluble ST2 associates with diabetes but not established cardiovascular risk factors: a new inflammatory pathway of relevance to diabetes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley M Miller

    Full Text Available Preliminary data mostly from animal models suggest the sST2/IL-33 pathway may have causal relevance for vascular disease and diabetes and thus point to a potential novel inflammatory link to cardiometabolic disease. However, the characterisation of sST2 levels in terms of metabolic or vascular risk in man is completely lacking. We sought to address this gap via a comprehensive analysis of risk factor and vascular correlates of sST2 in a cross-sectional study (pSoBid. We measured sST2 in plasma in 639 subjects and comprehensively related it to cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors and imaged atherosclerosis measures. Circulating sST2 levels increased with age, were lower in women and in highest earners. After adjusting for age and gender, sST2 levels associated strongly with markers of diabetes, including triglycerides [effect estimate (EE per 1 standard deviation increase in sST2:1.05 [95%CI 1.01,1.10], liver function (alanine aminotransaminase [ALT] and γ-glutamyl transferase [GGT]: EE 1.05 [1.01,1.09] and 1.13 [1.07,1.19] respectively, glucose (1.02 [1.00,1.03] and sICAM-1 (1.05 [1.02,1.07]. However, sST2 levels were not related to smoking, cholesterol, blood pressure, or atheroma (carotid intima media thickness, plaque presence. These results suggest that sST2 levels, in individuals largely without vascular disease, are related principally to markers associated with diabetes and ectopic fat and add support for a role of sST2 in diabetes. Further mechanistic studies determining how sST2 is linked to diabetes pathways may offer new insights into the inflammatory paradigm for type 2 diabetes.

  16. Natural epigenetic protection against the I-factor, a Drosophila LINE retrotransposon, by remnants of ancestral invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dramard, Xavier; Heidmann, Thierry; Jensen, Silke

    2007-03-21

    Transposable elements are major components of most eukaryotic genomes. Such sequences are generally defective for transposition and have little or no coding capacity. Because transposition can be highly mutagenic, mobile elements that remain functional are tightly repressed in all living species. Drosophila pericentromeric heterochromatin naturally contains transposition-defective, non-coding derivatives of a LINE retrotransposon related to the I-factor. The I-factor is a good model to study the regulation of transposition in vivo because, under specific conditions, current functional copies of this mobile element can transpose at high frequency, specifically in female germ cells, with deleterious effects including female sterility. However, this high transpositional activity becomes spontaneously repressed upon ageing or heat treatment, by a maternally transmitted, transgenerational epigenetic mechanism of unknown nature. We have analyzed, by quantitative real time RT-PCR, the RNA profile of the transposition-defective I-related sequences, in the Drosophila ovary during ageing and upon heat treatment, and also in female somatic tissues and in males, which are not permissive for I-factor transposition. We found evidence for a role of transcripts from these ancestral remnants in the natural epigenetic protection of the Drosophila melanogaster genome against the deleterious effects of new invasions by functional I-factors. These results provide a molecular basis for a probably widespread natural protection against transposable elements by persisting vestiges of ancient invasions.

  17. Expression and Purification of Functional Human Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A121; the Most Important Angiogenesis Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Kazemi-Lomedasht

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Angiogenesis or formation of new blood vessels is an essential process for tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF and its receptors play an important role in angiogenesis-dependent tumors. VEGF-A is the most important factor in angiogenesis process. Human VEGF-A gene consists of eight exons that undergoes alternative exon splicing and produce five different proteins consisting of 121, 145, 165, 189 and 206 amino acids (named VEGF121, VEGF145, VEGF165, VEGF189, and VEGF206. Methods: In this study, VEGF121 gene synthesized and cloned into the pET-26b plasmid. The recombinant plasmid was transferred into appropriate expression strain of BL-21. Expression of VEGF121 induced by IPTG (Isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside and confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western-Blotting. Recombinant VEGF121 was purified by nickel affinity chromatography. HUVECs (Human Umbilical Vein Endothelia Cells cells were isolated from umbilical vein and the effect of VEGF121 on tube formation of endothelial cells was investigated. Results: SDS-PAGE and Western-Blotting results verified the purification of VEGF121. The final yield of recombinant protein was about 5mg per liter. Endothelial cell tube formation assay results showed that VEGF121 leads to tube formation of endothelial cell on matrix and induces angiogenesis in vitro. Conclusion: Recombinant VEGF121 is important factor in tube formation of endothelial cell, so it could be used in different cancer researches and angiogenesis assay.

  18. Examining the Cervical Screening Behaviour of Women Aged 50 or above and Its Predicting Factors: A Population-Based Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen W. H. Chan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Under-screening may increase the risk of cervical cancer in middle-aged women. This study aimed to investigate cervical cancer screening behaviour and its predictors among women aged 50 years or above. A population-based sample of 959 women was recruited by telephone from domestic households in Hong Kong, using random methods, and a structured questionnaire developed to survey participants. Multivariable logistic regressions were performed to examine the factors independently associated with cervical screening behaviour. Nearly half the sample (48% had never had a cervical smear test. Multivariable analyses showed that age, educational level, marital status, family history of cancer, smoking status, use of complementary therapy, recommendation from health professionals, and believing that regular visits to a doctor or a Chinese herbalist were good for their health were predictors of cervical screening behaviour. Misconceptions concerned with menopause may reduce women’s perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer, especially if they are 50 or above, and exert a negative effect on their screening behaviour. Healthcare professionals should actively approach these high-risk groups–older unmarried women, smokers, those less educated and who are generally not much concerned with their health.

  19. Acetylation-dependent regulation of essential iPS-inducing factors: a regulatory crossroad for pluripotency and tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiangpeng; Liu, Pengda; Lau, Alan W; Liu, Yueyong; Inuzuka, Hiroyuki

    2014-10-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be generated from somatic cells by coexpression of four transcription factors: Sox2, Oct4, Klf4, and c-Myc. However, the low efficiency in generating iPS cells and the tendency of tumorigenesis hinder the therapeutic applications for iPS cells in treatment of human diseases. To this end, it remains largely unknown how the iPS process is subjected to regulation by upstream signaling pathway(s). Here, we report that Akt regulates the iPS process by modulating posttranslational modifications of these iPS factors in both direct and indirect manners. Specifically, Akt directly phosphorylates Oct4 to modulate the Oct4/Sox2 heterodimer formation. Furthermore, Akt either facilitates the p300-mediated acetylation of Oct4, Sox2, and Klf4, or stabilizes Klf4 by inactivating GSK3, thus indirectly modulating stemness. As tumorigenesis shares possible common features and mechanisms with iPS, our study suggests that Akt inhibition might serve as a cancer therapeutic approach to target cancer stem cells.

  20. Microhomology-mediated microduplication in the y chromosomal azoospermia factor a region in a male with mild asthenozoospermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumi, Momori; Ishikawa, Hiromichi; Tanaka, Yoko; Saito, Kazuki; Kobori, Yoshitomo; Okada, Hiroshi; Saito, Hidekazu; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Matsubara, Yoichi; Ogata, Tsutomu; Fukami, Maki; Miyado, Mami

    2014-01-01

    Y chromosomal azoospermia factor (AZF) regions AZFa, AZFb and AZFc represent hotspots for copy number variations (CNVs) in the human genome; yet the number of reports of AZFa-linked duplications remains limited. Nonallelic homologous recombination has been proposed as the underlying mechanism of CNVs in AZF regions. In this study, we identified a hitherto unreported microduplication in the AZFa region in a Japanese male individual. The 629,812-bp duplication contained 22 of 46 exons of USP9Y, encoding the putative fine tuner of spermatogenesis, together with all exons of 3 other genes/pseudogenes. The breakpoints of the duplication resided in the DNA/TcMar-Tigger repeat and nonrepeat sequences, respectively, and were associated with a 2-bp microhomology, but not with short nucleotide stretches. The breakpoint-flanking regions were not enriched with GC content, palindromes, or noncanonical DNA structures. Semen analysis of the individual revealed a normal sperm concentration and mildly reduced sperm motility. The paternal DNA sample of the individual was not available for genetic analysis. The results indicate that CNVs in AZF regions can be generated by microhomology-mediated break-induced replication in the absence of known rearrangement-inducing DNA features. AZFa-linked microduplications likely permit production of a normal amount of sperm, although the precise clinical consequences of these CNVs await further investigation.

  1. Coleusin factor, a novel anticancer diterpenoid, inhibits osteosarcoma growth by inducing bone morphogenetic protein-2-dependent differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Shuo; Sun, Bo; Lu, Ran; Wang, Jingze

    2014-06-01

    Coleusin factor is a diterpenoid compound isolated from the root of a tropical plant, Coleus forskohlii. Although Coleusin factor has been reported to suppress proliferation of and induce apoptosis in several types of cancer cells, the effects of Coleusin factor on osteosarcoma and the underlying mechanism are still not fully understood. In this study, we show that Coleusin factor treatment potently inhibits the growth of osteosarcoma cells associated with G(1) cell-cycle arrest. Interestingly, apoptosis and cell death are not induced. Instead, Coleusin factor causes osteosarcoma cells to exhibit typical properties of differentiated osteoblasts, including a morphologic alteration resembling osteoblasts, the expression of osteoblast differentiation markers, elevated alkaline phosphatase activity, and increased cellular mineralization. Coleusin factor treatment significantly increases the expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), a crucial osteogenic regulator, and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), one of the key transcription factors of the BMP pathway. When BMP-2 signaling is blocked, Coleusin factor fails to inhibit cell proliferation and to induce osteoblast differentiation. Thus, upregulation of BMP-2 autocrine is critical for Coleusin factor to induce osteoblast differentiation and exert its anticancer effects on osteosarcoma. Importantly, administration of Coleusin factor inhibits the growth of osteosarcoma xenografted in nude mice without systemic or immunologic toxicity. Osteosarcoma is a highly aggressive cancer marked by the loss of normal differentiation. Coleusin factor represents a new type of BMP-2 inducer that restores differentiation in osteosarcoma cells. It may provide a promising therapeutic strategy against osteosarcoma with minimal side effects.

  2. Effects of Prenatal Multiple Micronutrient Supplementation on Fetal Growth Factors: A Cluster-Randomized, Controlled Trial in Rural Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernand, Alison D.; Schulze, Kerry J.; Nanayakkara-Bind, Ashika; Arguello, Margia; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Ali, Hasmot; Wu, Lee; West, Keith P.; Christian, Parul

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal multiple micronutrient (MM) supplementation improves birth weight through increased fetal growth and gestational age, but whether maternal or fetal growth factors are involved is unclear. Our objective was to examine the effect of prenatal MM supplementation on intrauterine growth factors and the associations between growth factors and birth outcomes in a rural setting in Bangladesh. In a double-blind, cluster-randomized, controlled trial of MM vs. iron and folic acid (IFA) supplementation, we measured placental growth hormone (PGH) at 10 weeks and PGH and human placental lactogen (hPL) at 32 weeks gestation in maternal plasma (n = 396) and insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and IGF binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) in cord plasma (n = 325). Birth size and gestational age were also assessed. Early pregnancy mean (SD) BMI was 19.5 (2.4) kg/m2 and birth weight was 2.68 (0.41) kg. There was no effect of MM on concentrations of maternal hPL or PGH, or cord insulin, IGF-1, or IGFBP-1. However, among pregnancies of female offspring, hPL concentration was higher by 1.1 mg/L in the third trimester (95% CI: 0.2, 2.0 mg/L; p = 0.09 for interaction); and among women with height pregnancy nutritional status and sex of the offspring, but this should be examined in other studies. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00860470 PMID:26431336

  3. Elevated Vascular Endothelia Growth Factor-A in the Serum and Peritoneal Fluid of Patients with Endometriosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongbo WANG; Nowiah Gorpudolo; Yanhui LI; Dilu FENG; Zehua WANG; Yuan ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    There has been emergence of evidence suggesting that specific variants of the vascular en-dothelia growth factor (VEGF) family, based on their ability to regulate angiogenesis, would be pivotal in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. This study was aimed at determining whether high levels of VEGF-A could be found in the serum and peritoneal fluid (PF) of patients with endometriosis. VEGF-A levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in serum and PF from 46 pa-tients with surgically confirmed endometriosis, and 40 controls with no clinical evidence of the disease or detectable endometriotic lesions at the time of surgical examination. The results showed the mean VEGF-A levels were significantly higher in the serum and PF of patients with endometriosis than in the controls. The VEGF-A levels in the serum and PF of patients with severe endometriosis (stages Ⅲ-Ⅳ) were significantly higher than in those with minimal endometriosis (P<0.001). It was concluded that endometriosis was associated with significant modulation in the levels of circulating VEGF-A.

  4. Alcohol consumption, physical activity, and chronic disease risk factors: a population-based cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoussé Luc

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether the association of alcohol consumption and cardiovascular disease is the product of confounding and the degree to which this concern applies to other behaviors are unclear. Methods Using the 2003 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a population-based telephone survey of adults in the US, we compared chronic disease risk factors between 123,359 abstainers and 126,674 moderate drinkers, defined as intake of ≤ 2 drinks per day among men and ≤ 1 drink per day among women, using age- and sex- and multivariable-adjusted models. We also compared sedentary and active individuals, defined as moderate physical activity ≥ 30 minutes per day for ≥ 5 days per week, or vigorous activity for ≥ 20 minutes per day on ≥ 3 days. Results Chronic disease risk factors and features of unhealthy lifestyle were generally more prevalent among abstainers than drinkers in age- and sex-adjusted analyses, but these differences were generally attenuated or eliminated by additional adjustment for race and education. For low fruit and vegetable intake, divorced marital status, and absence of a personal physician, adjustment for race and education reversed initially positive age- and sex-adjusted associations with abstention. Comparison of sedentary and active individuals produced similar findings, with generally lower levels of risk factors among more physical active individuals. Conclusion The differences between abstainers and drinkers are attenuated after adjustment for limited sociodemographic features, and sedentary and active individuals share a similar pattern. Although observational studies of both factors may be susceptible to uncontrolled confounding, our results provide no evidence that moderate drinking is unique in this regard. Ultimately, randomized trials of all such lifestyle factors will be needed to answer these questions definitively.

  5. Anti-tumor necrosis factor-a for the treatment of steroid-refractory acute graft-versus-host disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Nogueira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Allogeneic stem cell transplantation has been increasingly performed for a variety of hematologic diseases. Clinically significant acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD occurs in 9 to 50% of patients who receive allogeneic grafts, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. There is no standard therapy for patients with acute GVHD who do not respond to steroids. Studies have shown a possible benefit of anti-TNF-a (infliximabfor the treatment of acute GVHD. We report here on the outcomes of 10 recipients of related or unrelated stem cell transplants who received 10 mg/kg infliximab, iv, once weekly for a median of 3.5 doses (range: 1-6 for the treatment of severe acute GVHD and who were not responsive to standard therapy. All patients had acute GVHD grades II to IV (II = 2, III = 3, IV = 5. Overall, 9 patients responded and 1 patient had progressive disease. Among the responders, 3 had complete responses and 6 partial responses. All patients with cutaneous or gastrointestinal involvement responded, while only 2 of 6 patients with liver disease showed any response. None of the 10 patients had any kind of immediate toxicity. Four patients died, all of them with sepsis. Six patients are still alive after a median follow-up time of 544 days (92-600 after transplantation. Considering the severity of the cases and the bad prognosis associated with advanced acute GVHD, we find our results encouraging. Anti-TNF-a seems to be a useful agent for the treatment of acute GVHD.

  6. Dual regulation of adipose triglyceride lipase by pigment epithelium-derived factor: a novel mechanistic insight into progressive obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhiyu; Qi, Weiwei; Li, Cen; Lu, Juling; Mao, Yuling; Yao, Yachao; Li, Lei; Zhang, Ting; Hong, Honghai; Li, Shuai; Zhou, Ti; Yang, Zhonghan; Yang, Xia; Gao, Guoquan; Cai, Weibin

    2013-09-05

    Both elevated plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and accumulating triglyceride in adipose tissue are observed in the process of obesity and insulin resistance. This contradictory phenomenon and its underlying mechanisms have not been thoroughly elucidated. Recent studies have demonstrated that pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) contributes to elevated plasma FFA and insulin resistance in obese mice via the activation of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). However, we found that PEDF downregulated adipose ATGL protein expression despite of enhancing lipolysis. Plasma PEDF and FFA were increased in associated with a progressive high-fat-diet, and those outcomes were also accompanied by fat accumulation and a reduction in adipose ATGL. Exogenous PEDF injection downregulated adipose ATGL protein expression and elevated plasma FFA, while endogenous PEDF neutralization significantly rescued the adipose ATGL reduction and also reduced plasma FFA in obese mice. PEDF reduced ATGL protein expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. Small interfering RNA-mediated PEDF knockdown and antibody-mediated PEDF blockage increased endogenous ATGL expression, and PEDF overexpression downregulated ATGL. PEDF resulted in a decreased half-life of ATGL and regulated ATGL degradation via ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation pathway. PEDF stimulated lipolysis via ATGL using ATGL inhibitor bromoenol lactone, and PEDF also downregulated G0/G1 switch gene 2 (G0S2) expression, which is an endogenous inhibitor of ATGL activation. Overall, PEDF attenuated ATGL protein accumulation via proteasome-mediated degradation in adipocytes, and PEDF also promoted lipolysis by activating ATGL. Elevated PEDF may contribute to progressive obesity and insulin resistance via its dual regulation of ATGL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Quality of Life among Family Caregivers of Patients on Hemodialysis and its Relevant Factors: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Azam Sajadi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Family caregivers are considered as hidden patients experiencing physical and mental disorders. This affects the quality of not only their lives but also the health care provided to patients.This study aimed to investigate the quality of life (QOL and its related factors among the caregivers of patients undergoing hemodialysis. Methods: This systematic review was conducted based on the eight-step guidelines presented by the York University. The databases relevant to the medical field including Nursing and Allied Health, Web of Science, Scopus, Pubmed, Embase, PsycINFO and Psychology Library were used. Finally, 12 articles observing the inclusion criteria and with regard to the research questions were found. The data obtained from these articles were summarized, classified, and analyzed. Results: QOL among Family Caregivers of Patients on Hemodialysis is low, compared to the general population; however, their QOL is higher than the patients under their care. Factors relevant to the QOL for caregivers including age, gender, perceived social support, perceived burden of care, affliction with other diseases (lupus, hypertension, hypothyroidism and depression, intellectual understanding of the limitations of the patient’s disease in their daily life, employment of adaptation strategies, better marital relationships, accepting self and family relationship with the patient (mother and wife. Furthermore, the factors associated with care takers affecting the quality of caregivers’ lives were age, QOL and the type of treatment. Conclusions: Caregivers of patients undergoing hemodialysis enjoyed low QOL. Since there is a direct relationship between family caregivers’ quality and patients’ QOL, health care system and health policy makers should pay more attention to family caregivers.

  8. Effects of Lactobacillus salivarius-containing tablets on caries risk factors: a randomized open-label clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Tetsuyo; Suzuki, Nao; Yoneda, Masahiro; Hirofuji, Takao

    2014-09-02

    To evaluate the effects of the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus salivarius on caries risk factors. The study was performed in 64 healthy volunteers to evaluate the effects of L. salivarius-containing tablets on caries risk factors. The participants were divided randomly into four groups, and took tablets containing L. salivarius WB21, L. salivarius TI 2711, Ovalgen® DC (antibody against glucosyltransferase from Streptococcus mutans), or xylitol. Levels of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli, amount of salivary flow, salivary pH, and salivary buffering capacity were assessed before and after taking the tablets. Subsequently, a short-term administration trial using L. salivarius WB21-containing tablets was performed in eight healthy volunteers. The participants took L. salivarius WB21-containing tablets (2.0 × 10(9) colony forming units/day) for 2 weeks, and the numbers of mutans streptococci in saliva were counted. The levels of mutans streptococci seemed to decrease in the L. salivarius WB21, TI 2711, and Ovalgen® DC groups compared to the xylitol group, with no significant differences between the groups. Lactobacilli levels significantly increased in the L. salivarius WB21 and TI 2711 groups compared to the other groups. Concerning salivary flow and salivary pH, no significant differences were observed between the groups. The salivary buffering capacity significantly increased in the L. salivarius TI 2711 group (P = 0.003) and Ovalgen® DC group (P = 0.002) compared to the xylitol group. The short-term administration trial showed that the L. salivarius WB21-containing tablets significantly decreased the number of mutans streptococci (P = 0.039). L. salivarius-containing tablets were suggested to increase resistance to caries risk factors. UMIN000013160 (registration date: February 14, 2014).

  9. Is the performance of MRI in preoperative staging of breast cancer independent of clinical and histological factors? A subgroup analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira Gómez, C; Zamora Romero, J; Gil de Miguel, A; Chiva de Agustín, M; Plana Farrás, M N; Martínez González, J

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether preoperative breast MRI is more useful in patients according to their breast density, age, menopausal status, and biopsy findings of carcinoma in situ. We retrospectively studied 264 patients treated for breast cancer who had undergone mammography, ultrasonography, and MRI. We compared the size of the tumor on the three techniques and the sensitivity of the techniques for detecting additional lesions both in the overall group and in subgroups of patients classified according to their breast density, age, menopausal status, and histological findings of intraductal carcinoma. The definitive histological diagnosis was used as the gold standard. MRI was the technique that was most concordant with the histological findings for the size of the lesion, and it was also the technique that detected the most additional lesions. With MRI, we observed no differences in lesion size between the overall group and the subgroups in which MRI provided added value. Likewise, we observed no differences in the number of additional lesions detected in the overall group except for multicentric lesions, which was larger in older patients (P=.02). In the subgroup of patients in which MRI provided added value, the sensitivity for bilateral lesions was higher in patients with fatty breasts (P=.04). Multifocal lesions were detected significantly better in premenopausal patients (P=.03). MRI is better than mammography and better than ultrasonography for establishing the size of the tumor and for detecting additional lesions. Our results did not identify any subgroups in which the technique was more useful. Copyright © 2013 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation and Morbidity and Mortality-Related Factors: a 5-Year Experience in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, André Luiz Silveira; Salgado, Constantino González; Mourilhe-Rocha, Ricardo; Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Lima, Luciana Cristina Lima Correia; de Mattos, Nelson Durval Ferreira Gomes; Rabischoffsky, Arnaldo; Fagundes, Francisco Eduardo Sampaio; Colafranceschi, Alexandre Siciliano; Carvalho, Luiz Antonio Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Background Transcatheter aortic valve implantation has become an option for high-surgical-risk patients with aortic valve disease. Objective To evaluate the in-hospital and one-year follow-up outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Methods Prospective cohort study of transcatheter aortic valve implantation cases from July 2009 to February 2015. Analysis of clinical and procedural variables, correlating them with in-hospital and one-year mortality. Results A total of 136 patients with a mean age of 83 years (80-87) underwent heart valve implantation; of these, 49% were women, 131 (96.3%) had aortic stenosis, one (0.7%) had aortic regurgitation and four (2.9%) had prosthetic valve dysfunction. NYHA functional class was III or IV in 129 cases (94.8%). The baseline orifice area was 0.67 ± 0.17 cm2 and the mean left ventricular-aortic pressure gradient was 47.3±18.2 mmHg, with an STS score of 9.3% (4.8%-22.3%). The prostheses implanted were self-expanding in 97% of cases. Perioperative mortality was 1.5%; 30-day mortality, 5.9%; in-hospital mortality, 8.1%; and one-year mortality, 15.5%. Blood transfusion (relative risk of 54; p = 0.0003) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (relative risk of 5.3; p = 0.036) were predictive of in-hospital mortality. Peak C-reactive protein (relative risk of 1.8; p = 0.013) and blood transfusion (relative risk of 8.3; p = 0.0009) were predictive of 1-year mortality. At 30 days, 97% of patients were in NYHA functional class I/II; at one year, this figure reached 96%. Conclusion Transcatheter aortic valve implantation was performed with a high success rate and low mortality. Blood transfusion was associated with higher in-hospital and one-year mortality. Peak C-reactive protein was associated with one-year mortality. PMID:27192383

  11. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation and Morbidity and Mortality-Related Factors: a 5-Year Experience in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Silveira Souza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation has become an option for high-surgical-risk patients with aortic valve disease. Objective: To evaluate the in-hospital and one-year follow-up outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Methods: Prospective cohort study of transcatheter aortic valve implantation cases from July 2009 to February 2015. Analysis of clinical and procedural variables, correlating them with in-hospital and one-year mortality. Results: A total of 136 patients with a mean age of 83 years (80-87 underwent heart valve implantation; of these, 49% were women, 131 (96.3% had aortic stenosis, one (0.7% had aortic regurgitation and four (2.9% had prosthetic valve dysfunction. NYHA functional class was III or IV in 129 cases (94.8%. The baseline orifice area was 0.67 ± 0.17 cm2 and the mean left ventricular-aortic pressure gradient was 47.3±18.2 mmHg, with an STS score of 9.3% (4.8%-22.3%. The prostheses implanted were self-expanding in 97% of cases. Perioperative mortality was 1.5%; 30-day mortality, 5.9%; in-hospital mortality, 8.1%; and one-year mortality, 15.5%. Blood transfusion (relative risk of 54; p = 0.0003 and pulmonary arterial hypertension (relative risk of 5.3; p = 0.036 were predictive of in-hospital mortality. Peak C-reactive protein (relative risk of 1.8; p = 0.013 and blood transfusion (relative risk of 8.3; p = 0.0009 were predictive of 1-year mortality. At 30 days, 97% of patients were in NYHA functional class I/II; at one year, this figure reached 96%. Conclusion: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation was performed with a high success rate and low mortality. Blood transfusion was associated with higher in-hospital and one-year mortality. Peak C-reactive protein was associated with one-year mortality.

  12. Effectiveness of personalized face-to-face and telephone nursing counseling interventions for cardiovascular risk factors: a controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vílchez Barboza, Vivian; Klijn, Tatiana Paravic; Salazar Molina, Alide; Sáez Carrillo, Katia Lorena

    2016-08-08

    to evaluate the effect and gender differences of an innovative intervention involving in-person and telephone nursing counseling to control cardiovascular risk factors (arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, and overweight), improve health-related quality of life and strengthen self-efficacy and social support in persons using the municipal health centers' cardiovascular health program. a randomized controlled clinical trial involving participants randomized into the intervention group who received traditional consultation plus personalized and telephone nursing counseling for 7 months (n = 53) and the control group (n = 56). The study followed the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials Statement. women in the intervention group presented a significant increase in the physical and mental health components compared to the control group, with decreases in weight, abdominal circumference, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the atherogenic index. The effects attributable to the intervention in the men in the intervention group were increased physical and emotional roles and decreased systolic and diastolic pressure, waist circumference, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, atherogenic index, cardiovascular risk factor, and 10-year coronary risk. this intervention is an effective strategy for the control of three cardiovascular risk factors and the improvement of health-related quality of life. evaluar efecto y diferencias por sexo de una intervención innovadora "Consejería de Enfermería Personalizada y Telefónica", dirigida al control de factores de riesgo cardiovascular (hipertensión arterial, dislipidemia y sobrepeso) y al mejoramiento de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud, fortaleciendo la autoeficacia y el apoyo social en personas usuarias del programa de salud cardiovascular de los Centros de Salud Municipales de Concepción. ensayo clínico controlado aleatoriamente y selección aleatoria de

  13. A prospective study of occupation and prostate cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeegers, Maurice P A; Friesema, Ingrid H M; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; van den Brandt, Piet A

    2004-03-01

    A wide variety of occupations has been associated with prostate cancer in previous retrospective studies. Most attention has been paid to farming, metal working, and the rubber industry. Today, these results cannot be affirmed with confidence, because many associations could be influenced by recall bias, have been inconsistent, or have not been confirmed satisfactory in subsequent studies. This study was conducted to investigate and confirm these important associations in a large prospective cohort study. The authors conducted a prospective cohort study among 58,279 men. In September 1986, the cohort members (55-69 years) completed a self-administered questionnaire on potential cancer risk factors, including job history. Related job codes were clustered in professional groups. These predefined clusters were investigated in 3 time windows: 1) profession ever performed, 2) longest profession ever held, and 3) last profession held at baseline. Follow up for incident prostate cancer was established by linkage to cancer registries until December 1993. A case-cohort approach was used based on 830 cases and 1525 subcohort members. To minimize false-positive results, 99% confidence intervals (99% CI) were calculated. Although moderately decreased prostate cancer risks were found for electricians, farmers, firefighters, woodworkers, textile workers, butchers, salesmen, teachers, and clerical workers, none of the relative risks (RR) were found to be statistically significant. For road transporters, metal workers, and managers, no association with prostate cancer risk was found. Although the RR for railway workers, mechanics, welders, chemists, painters, and cooks was moderately increased, these estimates were not statistically significant. For men who reported to have ever worked in the rubber industry, we found a substantially increased prostate cancer risk, but not statistically significant (RR, 4.18; 99% CI = 0.22-80.45). For policemen, we found a substantial and

  14. Vegetable and fruit consumption and risk of renal cell carcinoma: results from the Netherlands cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Boukje A C; Schouten, Leo J; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; van den Brandt, Piet A

    2005-11-20

    Vegetable and fruit consumption is generally inversely associated with various cancer types, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The Netherlands cohort study on diet and cancer (NLCS) consists of 120,852 men and women, aged 55-69 years, who filled out a self-administered questionnaire that includes 150-item food-frequency questions and additional questions on lifestyle factors, at baseline in 1986. A case-cohort approach was used. After 9.3 years of follow-up, 275 microscopically confirmed incident cases were identified. Subjects with incomplete or inconsistent dietary data were excluded, leaving 260 RCC cases for analyses on fruit consumption and 249 RCC cases for analyses on vegetable consumption. Incidence rate ratios (RR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. RRs for exposure variables are expressed per increment of 25 g/day and are adjusted for age, sex, smoking, body mass index and history of hypertension at baseline. The RRs for vegetable consumption were further adjusted for fruit consumption and vice versa. Total vegetable and fruit consumption (RR: 1.00; 95% CI 0.97-1.02), vegetable (RR: 1.00, 95% CI 0.96-1.06) and fruit consumption (RR: 1.00; 95% CI 0.97-1.03) were not associated with RCC risk. Also, no association existed for botanical subgroups of vegetables and fruit. For 30 individual vegetables and fruits, we observed one that significantly increased RR (mandarin consumption, RR: 1.76; 95% CI 1.28-2.42), which must be regarded cautiously because of multiple testing. These results suggest the absence of an association between vegetable and/or fruit consumption and RCC risk.

  15. PPARγ Pro12Ala polymorphism and risk of acute coronary syndrome in a prospective study of Danes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Majken K

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute coronary syndrome (ACS is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ plays a key role in the regulation of the energy balance, adipocyte differentiation and lipid biosynthesis. The aim was to investigate if the polymorphism PPARγ2 Pro12Ala, which encodes a less efficient transcription factor, was associated with risk of acute coronary disease and if there were interactions between this polymorphism and factors that modify PPARγ activity, such as alcohol intake, smoking, and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicine. Methods A case-cohort study including 1031 ACS cases and a sub-cohort of 1703 persons was nested within the population-based prospective study Diet, Cancer and Health of 57,053 individuals. Results Homozygous male variant allele carriers of PPARγ2 Pro12Ala were at higher risk of ACS (HR = 2.12, 95% CI: 1.00–4.48 than homozygous carriers of the Pro-allele. Among men, there was a statistically significant interaction between genotypes and alcohol intake such that homozygous variant allele carriers with a low alcohol intake were at higher risk of ACS (HR = 25.3, CI: 16.5–38.7 compared to homozygous common allele carriers (p for interaction Conclusion In the present study, there were no consistent associations between PPARγ Pro12Ala and risk of ACS, and no consistent interaction with alcohol, BMI, NSAID or smoking in relation to ACS.

  16. Crystal structure of the functional region of Uro-adherence factor A from Staphylococcus saprophyticus reveals participation of the B domain in ligand binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Eriko; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Kuroda, Makoto; Shouji, Yuko; Ohta, Toshiko; Tanaka, Isao; Yao, Min

    2011-02-01

    Staphylococci use cell wall-anchored proteins as adhesins to attach to host tissues. Staphylococcus saprophyticus, a uropathogenic species, has a unique cell wall-anchored protein, uro-adherence factor A (UafA), which shows erythrocyte binding activity. To investigate the mechanism of adhesion by UafA, we determined the crystal structure of the functional region of UafA at 1.5 Å resolution. The structure was composed of three domains, designated as the N2, N3, and B domains, arranged in a triangular relative configuration. Hemagglutination inhibition assay with domain-truncated mutants indicated that both N and B domains were necessary for erythrocyte binding. Based on these results, a novel manner of ligand binding in which the B domain acts as a functional domain was proposed as the adhesion mechanism of S. saprophyticus.

  17. Polymorphism in xenobiotic and estrogen metabolizing genes, exposure to perfluorinated compounds and subsequent breast cancer risk: A nested case-control study in the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisari, Mandana; Long, Manhai; Røge, Durita Mohr; Olsen, Jørn; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva C

    2017-04-01

    In the present case-cohort study based on prospective data from Danish women, we aimed to estimate the main effect of polymorphisms in genes known to be involved in the steroid hormone metabolic pathway and xenobiotic metabolism on the risk of developing breast cancer. We also studied a possible effect measure modification between genotypes and levels of serum perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) on the risk to breast cancer. We have previously reported a weak association between serum PFASs levels and the risk of breast cancer for this study population of Danish pregnant nulliparous women as well as in a smaller case-control study of Greenlandic women. The study population consisted of 178 breast cancer cases and 233 controls (tabnulliparous and frequency matched on age) nested within the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC), which was established in 1996-2002. Blood samples were drawn at the time of enrollment (6-14 week of gestation). Serum levels of 10 perfluorocarboxylated acids (PFCAs), 5 perfluorosulfonated acids (PFSAs) and 1 sulfonamide (perflurooctane-sulfonamide, PFOSA) were measured. Genotyping was conducted for CYP1A1 (Ile462Val; rs1048943), CYP1B1 (Leu432Val; rs1056836), COMT (Val158Met; rs4680), CYP17A1 (A1→ A2; rs743572); CYP19A1 (C→T; rs10046) by the TaqMan allelic discrimination method. In overall, no significant associations were found between the investigated polymorphisms and the risk of breast cancer in this study among Danish women. The previously found association between PFOSA and risk of breast cancer did vary between different genotypes, with significantly increased risk confined to homozygous carriers of the following alleles: COMT (Met), CYP17 (A1) and CYP19 (C).

  18. Genetic polymorphisms in the hypothalamic pathway in relation to subsequent weight change--the DiOGenes study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaidong Du

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in genes encoding the components involved in the hypothalamic pathway may influence weight gain and dietary factors may modify their effects. AIM: We conducted a case-cohort study to investigate the associations of SNPs in candidate genes with weight change during an average of 6.8 years of follow-up and to examine the potential effect modification by glycemic index (GI and protein intake. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Participants, aged 20-60 years at baseline, came from five European countries. Cases ('weight gainers' were selected from the total eligible cohort (n = 50,293 as those with the greatest unexplained annual weight gain (n = 5,584. A random subcohort (n = 6,566 was drawn with the intention to obtain an equal number of cases and noncases (n = 5,507. We genotyped 134 SNPs that captured all common genetic variation across the 15 candidate genes; 123 met the quality control criteria. Each SNP was tested for association with the risk of being a 'weight gainer' (logistic regression models in the case-noncase data and with weight gain (linear regression models in the random subcohort data. After accounting for multiple testing, none of the SNPs was significantly associated with weight change. Furthermore, we observed no significant effect modification by dietary factors, except for SNP rs7180849 in the neuromedin β gene (NMB. Carriers of the minor allele had a more pronounced weight gain at a higher GI (P = 2 x 10⁻⁷. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence of association between SNPs in the studied hypothalamic genes with weight change. The interaction between GI and NMB SNP rs7180849 needs further confirmation.

  19. Mediterranean diet adherence and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer: results of a cohort study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brandt, Piet A; Schulpen, Maya

    2017-05-15

    The Mediterranean Diet (MD) has been associated with reduced mortality and risk of cardiovascular diseases, but there is only limited evidence on cancer. We investigated the relationship between adherence to MD and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer (and estrogen/progesterone receptor subtypes, ER/PR). In the Netherlands Cohort Study, 62,573 women aged 55-69 years provided information on dietary and lifestyle habits in 1986. Follow-up for cancer incidence until 2007 (20.3 years) consisted of record linkages with the Netherlands Cancer Registry and the Dutch Pathology Registry PALGA. Adherence to MD was estimated through the alternate Mediterranean Diet Score excluding alcohol. Multivariate case-cohort analyses were based on 2,321 incident breast cancer cases and 1,665 subcohort members with complete data on diet and potential confounders. We also conducted meta-analyses of our results with those of other published cohort studies. We found a statistically significant inverse association between MD adherence and risk of ER negative (ER-) breast cancer, with a hazard ratio of 0.60 (95% Confidence Interval, 0.39-0.93) for high versus low MD adherence (ptrend  = 0.032). MD adherence showed only nonsignificant weak inverse associations with ER positive (ER+) or total breast cancer risk. In meta-analyses, summary HRs for high versus low MD adherence were 0.94 for total postmenopausal breast cancer, 0.98 for ER+, 0.73 for ER- and 0.77 for ER - PR- breast cancer. Our findings support an inverse association between MD adherence and, particularly, receptor negative breast cancer. This may have important implications for prevention because of the poorer prognosis of these breast cancer subtypes. © 2017 UICC.

  20. Suicide in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a population-based study of 36 788 Swedish patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de la Cruz, L; Rydell, M; Runeson, B; D'Onofrio, B M; Brander, G; Rück, C; Lichtenstein, P; Larsson, H; Mataix-Cols, D

    2016-07-19

    The risk of death by suicide in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is largely unknown. Previous studies have been small and methodologically flawed. We analyzed data from the Swedish national registers to estimate the risk of suicide in OCD and identify the risk and protective factors associated with suicidal behavior in this group. We used a matched case-cohort design to estimate the risk of deaths by suicide and attempted suicide in individuals diagnosed with OCD, compared with matched general population controls (1:10). Cox regression models were used to study predictors of suicidal behavior. We identified 36 788 OCD patients in the Swedish National Patient Register between 1969 and 2013. Of these, 545 had died by suicide and 4297 had attempted suicide. In unadjusted models, individuals with OCD had an increased risk of both dying by suicide (odds ratio (OR)=9.83 (95% confidence interval (CI), 8.72-11.08)) and attempting suicide (OR=5.45 (95% CI, 5.24-5.67)), compared with matched controls. After adjusting for psychiatric comorbidities, the risk was reduced but remained substantial for both death by suicide and attempted suicide. Within the OCD cohort, a previous suicide attempt was the strongest predictor of death by suicide. Having a comorbid personality or substance use disorder also increased the risk of suicide. Being a woman, higher parental education and having a comorbid anxiety disorder were protective factors. We conclude that patients with OCD are at a substantial risk of suicide. Importantly, this risk remains substantial after adjusting for psychiatric comorbidities. Suicide risk should be carefully monitored in patients with OCD.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 19 July 2016; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.115.

  1. Metabolic syndrome and risk of incident diabetes: findings from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost Hans-Georg

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several aspects concerning the relationship between the metabolic syndrome and incident diabetes are incompletely understood including the magnitude of the risk estimate, potential gender differences in the associations between the metabolic syndrome and incident diabetes, the associations between the components of the metabolic syndrome and incident diabetes, and whether the metabolic syndrome provides additional prediction beyond its components. To shed light on these issues, we examined the prospective association between the metabolic syndrome defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP and International Diabetes Federation (IDF and diabetes. Methods We used data for 2796 men and women aged 35–65 years from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam Study followed for an average of 6.9 years. This analysis employed a case-cohort design that included 697 participants who developed diabetes and 2099 participants who did not. Incident diabetes was identified on the basis of self-reports and verified by contacting the patient's attending physician. Results The adjusted hazard ratio for the NCEP definition was 4.62 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.90–5.48 and that for the IDF definition was 4.59 (95% CI: 3.84–5.50. The adjusted hazard ratios for the NCEP but not IDF definition were higher for women than men. When participants who had no cardiometabolic abnormalities were used as the reference group for the NCEP definition, the adjusted hazard ratio for having 3 or more abnormalities increased to 22.50 (95% CI: 11.21–45.19. Of the five components, abdominal obesity and hyperglycemia were most strongly associated with incident diabetes. Conclusion In this study population, both definitions of the metabolic syndrome provided similar estimates of relative risk for incident diabetes. The increase in risk for participants with the metabolic syndrome according to the NCEP

  2. PP112. Prediction of preeclampsia based on clinical risk factors: A prospective high-risk cohort study : 18th World Congress of the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy, 9-12 July 2012, Geneva, Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, T.Y.; Groen, H.; Faas, M.M.; van Pampus, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Early recognition of preeclampsia (PE) is crucial for better obstetric care. Clinical risk factors are easier to identify than biochemical markers and may be useful in the prediction of PE. Objectives To evaluate which risk factors provide the best prediction for PE in a group at high-r

  3. Progress in Pneumococcal Adherence and Virulence Factor A%肺炎链球菌粘附和毒力因子A研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭旭光; 冀天星; 夏勇

    2013-01-01

    肺炎链球菌(Streptococcus pneumoniae,SP)普遍定植于呼吸道,是人类重要的侵袭性病原菌之一,是社区获得性肺炎、中耳炎、脑膜炎、菌血症、鼻窦炎的主要病原菌.肺炎链球菌粘附和毒力因子A (pneumococcal adherence and virulence factor A,PavA)是肺炎链球菌早期感染和侵袭过程中关键的毒力因子.体外试验表明,缺失PavA的肺炎链球菌的突变株其粘附和侵入上皮细胞和内皮细胞的能力明显下降.作为一种保护性抗原,其诱导的细胞和体液免疫可以有效的抵抗肺炎链球菌的感染,是肺炎链球菌新一代疫苗的候选蛋白.但是,PavA在肺炎链球菌与人肺上皮细胞交互对话中作用机制的研究尚属空白,本文就肺炎链球菌粘附和毒力因子A得最新研究进展作一综述.%Streptococcus pneumoniae is a natural resident of the upper and lower respiratory tracts of humans, as well as the major cause of community acquired pneumonia and bacterial meningitis, has been shown to transiently invade epithelial and endothelial cells. Pneumococcal adherence and virulence factor A (PavA) is displayed to the cell outer surface of Streptococcus pneumoniae and mediates pneumococcal binding to epithelial cell lines.PavA, which lacks a typical gram-positive signal sequence and cell surface anchorage motif, is essential for pneumococcal virulence. However, the mechanism of PavA in the interactive dialogue in the Streptococcus pneumoniae with human lung epithelial cells is still unknown.

  4. Genetic selection of peptide aptamers that interact and inhibit both Small protein B and alternative ribosome-rescue factor A of Aeromonas veronii C4

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    Peng Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas veronii is a pathogenic gram-negative bacterium, which infects a variety of animals and results in mass mortality. The stalled-ribosome rescues are reported to ensure viability and virulence under stress conditions, of which primarily include trans-translation and alternative ribosome-rescue factor A (ArfA in A. veronii. For identification of specific peptides that interact and inhibit the stalled-ribosome rescues, peptide aptamer library (pTRG-SN-peptides was constructed using pTRG as vector and Staphylococcus aureus nuclease (SN as scaffold protein, in which 16 random amino acids were introduced to form an exposed surface loop. In the meantime both Small Protein B (SmpB which acts as one of the key components in trans-translation, and alternative ribosome-rescue factor A (ArfA were inserted to pBT to constitute pBT-SmpB and pBT-ArfA, respectively. The peptide aptamer PA-2 was selected from pTRG-SN-peptides by bacterial two-hybrid system (B2H employing pBT-SmpB or pBT-ArfA as baits. The conserved sites G133K134 and D138K139R140 of C-terminal SmpB were identified by interacting with N-terminal SN, and concurrently the residue K62 of ArfA was recognized by interacting with the surface loop of the specific peptide aptamer PA-2. The expression plasmids pN-SN or pN-PA-2, which combined the duplication origin of pRE112 with the neokanamycin promoter expressing SN or PA-2, were created and transformed into A. veronii C4, separately. The engineered A. veronii C4 which endowing SN or PA-2 expression impaired growth capabilities under stress conditions including temperatures, sucrose, glucose, potassium chloride (KCl and antibiotics, and the stress-related genes rpoS and nhaP were down-regulated significantly by Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR when treating in 2.0% KCl. Thus,the engineered A. veronii C4 conferring PA-2 expression might be potentially attenuated vaccine, and also the peptide aptamer PA-2 could develop as anti

  5. Dynein Light Chain LC8 Is Required for RNA Polymerase I-Mediated Transcription in Trypanosoma brucei, Facilitating Assembly and Promoter Binding of Class I Transcription Factor A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, Justin K; Park, Sung Hee; Nguyen, Tu N; Lee, Ju Huck; Günzl, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Dynein light chain LC8 is highly conserved among eukaryotes and has both dynein-dependent and dynein-independent functions. Interestingly, LC8 was identified as a subunit of the class I transcription factor A (CITFA), which is essential for transcription by RNA polymerase I (Pol I) in the parasite Trypanosoma brucei. Given that LC8 has never been identified with a basal transcription factor and that T. brucei relies on RNA Pol I for expressing the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG), the key protein in antigenic variation, we investigated the CITFA-specific role of LC8. Depletion of LC8 from mammalian-infective bloodstream trypanosomes affected cell cycle progression, reduced the abundances of rRNA and VSG mRNA, and resulted in rapid cell death. Sedimentation analysis, coimmunoprecipitation of recombinant proteins, and bioinformatic analysis revealed an LC8 binding site near the N terminus of the subunit CITFA2. Mutation of this site prevented the formation of a CITFA2-LC8 heterotetramer and, in vivo, was lethal, affecting assembly of a functional CITFA complex. Gel shift assays and UV cross-linking experiments identified CITFA2 as a promoter-binding CITFA subunit. Accordingly, silencing of LC8 or CITFA2 resulted in a loss of CITFA from RNA Pol I promoters. Hence, we discovered an LC8 interaction that, unprecedentedly, has a basal function in transcription.

  6. The Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron protein Bacteroides host factor A participates in integration of the integrative conjugative element CTnDOT into the chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringwald, Kenneth; Gardner, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    CTnDOT is a conjugative transposon found in Bacteroides species. It encodes multiple antibiotic resistances and is stimulated to transfer by exposure to tetracycline. CTnDOT integration into the host chromosome requires IntDOT and a previously unknown host factor. We have identified a protein, designated BHFa (Bacteroides host factor A), that participates in integrative recombination. BHFa is the first host factor identified for a site-specific recombination reaction in the CTnDOT family of integrative and conjugative elements. Based on the amino acid sequence of BHFa, the ability to bind specifically to 4 sites in the attDOT DNA, and its activity in the integration reaction, BHFa is a member of the IHF/HU family of nucleoid-associated proteins. Other DNA bending proteins that bind DNA nonspecifically can substitute for BHFa in the integration reaction. Bacteroides species are normal members of the human colonic microbiota. These species can harbor and spread self-transmissible genetic elements (integrative conjugative elements [ICEs]) that contain antibiotic resistance genes. This work describes the role of a protein, BHFa, and its importance in the integration reaction required for the element CTnDOT to persist in Bacteroides host cells. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. The role of myocardin-related transcription factor-A in Aβ25-35 induced neuron apoptosis and synapse injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Pan, Hong-Yan; Hu, Xia-Min; Cao, Xiao-Lu; Wang, Jun; Min, Zhen-Li; Xu, Shi-Qiang; Xiao, Wan; Yuan, Qiong; Li, Na; Cheng, Jing; Zhao, Shu-Qi; Hong, Xing

    2016-10-01

    Myocardin-related transcription factor-A (MRTF-A) highly expressed in brain has been demonstrated to promote neuronal survival via regulating the transcription of related target genes as a powerful co-activator of serum response factor (SRF). However, the role of MRTF-A in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is still unclear. Here, we showed that MRTF-A was significantly downregulated in cortex of the Aβ25-35-induced AD rats, which played a key role in Aβ25-35 induced cerebral neuronal degeneration in vitro. Bilateral intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ25-35 caused significantly MRTF-A expression decline in cortex of rats, along with significant neuron apoptosis and plasticity damage. In vitro, transfection of MRTF-A into primary cultured cortical neurons prevented Aβ25-35 induced neuronal apoptosis and synapses injury. And luciferase reporter assay determined that MRTF-A could bind to and enhance the transactivity of the Mcl-1 (Myeloid cell leukemia-1) and Arc (activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein) promoters by activating the key CArG box element. These data demonstrated that the decreasing of endogenous MRTF-A expression might contribute to the development of AD, whereas the upregulation MRTF-A in neurons could effectively reduce Aβ25-35 induced synapse injury and cell apoptosis. And the underlying mechanism might be partially due to MRTF-A-mediated the transcription and expression of Mcl-1 and Arc by triggering the CArG box.

  8. Development of an efficient in vitro transcription system for bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei reveals life cycle-independent functionality of class I transcription factor A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Hee; Nguyen, Tu N; Günzl, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Trypanosomatid parasites possess extremely divergent transcription factors whose identification typically relied on biochemical, structural and functional analyses because they could not be identified by standard sequence analysis. For example, subunits of the Trypanosoma brucei mediator and class I transcription factor A (CITFA) have no sequence resemblance to putative counterparts in higher eukaryotes. Therefore, homologous in vitro transcription systems have been crucial in evaluating the transcriptional roles of T. brucei proteins but so far such systems have been restricted to the insect-stage, procyclic form (PF) of the parasite. Here, we report the development of a homologous system for the mammalian-infective, bloodstream form (BF) of T. brucei which supports accurately initiated transcription from three different RNA polymerase (pol) I promoters as well as from the RNA pol II-recruiting spliced leader RNA gene promoter. The system is based on a small scale extract preparation procedure which accommodates the low cell densities obtainable in BF culture. BF and PF systems behave surprisingly similar and we show that the CITFA complex purified from procyclic extract is fully functional in the BF system indicating that the transcriptional machinery in general is equivalent in both life cycle stages. A notable difference, however, was observed with the RNA pol I-recruiting GPEET procyclin promoter whose reduced promoter strength and increased sensitivity to manganese ions in the BF system suggests the presence of a specific transcriptional activator in the PF system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Dietary vitamin D intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition – the EPIC-InterAct study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Sascha; Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine; Beulens, Joline WJ; Buijsse, Brian; Amiano, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Balkau, Beverley; Boeing, Heiner; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W; Gavrila, Diana; Grioni, Sara; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J; Khaw, Kay Tee; Masters, Tilman Kühn; Mattiello, Amalia; Molina-Montes, Esther; Nilsson, Peter M; Overvad, Kim; Quirós, J. Ramón; Rolandsson, Olov; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Saieva, Calogero; Slimani, Nadia; Sluijs, Ivonne; Spijkerman, Annemieke MW; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Sharp, Stephen J; Langenberg, Claudia; Forouhi, Nita G; Riboli, Elio; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    Background Prospective cohort studies have indicated that serum vitamin D levels are inversely related to risk of type 2 diabetes. However, such studies cannot determine the source of vitamin D. Therefore, we examined the association of dietary vitamin D intake with incident type 2 diabetes within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct study in a heterogeneous European population including 8 countries with large geographical variation. Methods Using a case-cohort design, 11,245 incident cases of type 2 diabetes and a representative subcohort (N=15,798) were included in the analyses. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for type 2 diabetes were calculated using a Prentice-weighted Cox regression adjusted for potential confounders. 24-h diet recall data from a subsample (N=2347) were used to calibrate habitual intake data derived from dietary questionnaires. Results Median follow-up time was 10.8 years. Dietary vitamin D intake was not significantly associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes. HR and 95 % CIs for the highest compared to the lowest quintile of uncalibrated vitamin D intake was 1.09 (0.97-1.22), (ptrend=0.17). No associations were observed in a sex-specific analysis. The overall pooled effect [HR (95% CI)] using the continuous calibrated variable was 1.00 (0.97-1.03) per increase of 1 μg/day dietary vitamin D. Conclusion This observational study does not support an association between higher dietary vitamin D intake and type-2 diabetes incidence. This result has to be interpreted in light of the limited contribution of dietary vitamin D on the overall vitamin D status of a person. PMID:24253760

  10. Visualising dual downregulation of insulin-like growth factor receptor-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor-A by heat shock protein 90 inhibition effect in triple negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Anton G T; Berghuis, Paul; Nienhuis, Hilde H; Timmer-Bosscha, Hetty; Pot, Linda; Gaykema, Sietske B M; Lub-de Hooge, Marjolijn N; Kosterink, Jos G W; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; Schröder, Carolien P

    2014-09-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is biologically characterised by heterogeneous presence of molecular pathways underlying it. Insulin-like growth factor receptor-1 (IGF-1R) expression and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) have been identified as key factors in these pathways in TNBC. In this study, we aimed at in vivo PET imaging the effect of heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 inhibition by means of NVP-AUY922 on these pathways, with zirconium-89 ((89)Zr) labelled antibodies targeting IGF-1R and VEGF-A. In vitro NVP-AUY922 effects on cellular IGF-1R expression and VEGF-A secretion were determined in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. Moreover human TNBC bearing MDA-MB-231 mice received 50mg/kg NVP-AUY922 or vehicle q3d intraperitoneally for 21days. PET scans with (89)Zr-MAB391 and (89)Zr-bevacizumab for visualisation of IGF-1R and VEGF-A were performed before and during treatment. Ex vivo biodistribution and correlative tissue analyses were performed. NVP-AUY922 treatment reduced IGF-1R expression and VEGF-A excretion in both cell lines. Hsp90 inhibition lowered tumour uptake on (89)Zr-MAB391-PET by 37.3% (Ptherapy in TNBC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies are indicators of the course, but not of the onset, of diabetes in middle-aged adults: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

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    A. Vigo

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available To efficiently examine the association of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody (GADA positivity with the onset and progression of diabetes in middle-aged adults, we performed a case-cohort study representing the ~9-year experience of 10,275 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study participants, initially aged 45-64 years. Antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65 were measured by radioimmunoassay in 580 incident diabetes cases and 544 non-cases. The overall weighted prevalence of GADA positivity (³1 U/mL was 7.3%. Baseline risk factors, with the exception of smoking and interleukin-6 (P £ 0.02, were generally similar between GADA-positive and -negative individuals. GADA positivity did not predict incident diabetes in multiply adjusted (HR = 1.04; 95%CI = 0.55, 1.96 proportional hazard analyses. However, a small non-significant adjusted risk (HR = 1.29; 95%CI = 0.58, 2.88 was seen for those in the highest tertile (³2.38 U/mL of positivity. GADA-positive and GADA-negative non-diabetic individuals had similar risk profiles for diabetes, with central obesity and elevated inflammation markers, aside from glucose, being the main predictors. Among diabetes cases at study's end, progression to insulin treatment increased monotonically as a function of baseline GADA level. Overall, being GADA positive increased risk of progression to insulin use almost 10 times (HR = 9.9; 95%CI = 3.4, 28.5. In conclusion, in initially non-diabetic middle-aged adults, GADA positivity did not increase diabetes risk, and the overall baseline profile of risk factors was similar for positive and negative individuals. Among middle-aged adults, with the possible exception of those with the highest GADA levels, autoimmune pathophysiology reflected by GADA may become clinically relevant only after diabetes onset.

  12. rhBMP-2 protects against reoperation for pseudoarthrosis and/or instrumentation failure: A matched case-control study of 448 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macki, Mohamed; Syeda, Sbaa; Kerezoudis, Panagiotis; Bydon, Ali; Witham, Timothy F; Sciubba, Daniel M; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Bydon, Mohamad; Gokaslan, Ziya

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this independent study is to determine the impact of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) on reoperation for pseudarthrosis and/or instrumentation failure. A nested case-control study of first-time posterolateral, instrumented fusion of the lumbar spine for degenerative spinal disease was undertaken. Cases of reoperation for pseudoarthrosis and/or instrumentation failure were assigned to controls, who did not experience the primary outcome measure at the time of reoperation. Cases and controls were matched on number of interspaces fused and inclusion of interbody. Predictors of reoperation for pseudoarthrosis and/or instrumentation failure were assessed with a conditional logistical regression controlling for rhBMP-2, age, obesity, and smoking. Of the 448 patients, 155 cases of reoperation for pseudoarthrosis and/or instrumentation were matched with 293 controls. Twenty-six percent of first-time surgeries included rhBMP-2, which was statistically more commonly used in the control cohort (33.11%) versus the case cohort (12.90%) (Unadjusted odds ratio [ORunadj]=0.28) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.16-0.49). Following a multivariate analysis controlling for age, obesity, and smoking, the rhBMP-2 recipients incurred a 73% lower odds of reoperation for pseudoarthrosis and/or instrumentation failure (95% CI, 0.15-0.48). Neither sarcomatous nor osseous neoplasm was detected in the study population. Mean follow up did not differ between the cases (81.57±standard deviation [SD] 4.98months) versus controls (74.75±2.49month) (ORunadj=1.01) (95% CI: 1.00-1.01). rhBMP-2 in lumbar fusion constructs protects against reoperation for pseudoarthrosis and/or instrumentation failure. However, the decision to include fusion supplements should be weighted between surgical determinants and clinical outcomes.

  13. Apobec-1 Complementation Factor (A1CF Inhibits Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Migration of Normal Rat Kidney Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cells

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    Liyuan Huang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Apobec-1 complementation factor (A1CF is a member of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNP family, which participates in site-specific posttranscriptional RNA editing of apolipoprotein B (apoB transcript. The posttranscriptional editing of apoB mRNA by A1CF in the small intestine is required for lipid absorption. Apart from the intestine, A1CF mRNA is also reported to be highly expressed in the kidneys. However, it is remained unknown about the functions of A1CF in the kidneys. The aim of this paper is to explore the potential functions of A1CF in the kidneys. Our results demonstrated that in C57BL/6 mice A1CF was weakly expressed in embryonic kidneys from E15.5dpc while strongly expressed in mature kidneys after birth, and it mainly existed in the tubules of inner cortex. More importantly, we identified A1CF negatively regulated the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT in kidney tubular epithelial cells. Our results found ectopic expression of A1CF up-regulated the epithelial markers E-cadherin, and down-regulated the mesenchymal markers vimentin and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA in NRK52e cells. In addition, knockdown of A1CF enhanced EMT contrary to the overexpression effect. Notably, the two A1CF variants led to the similar trend in the EMT process. Taken together, these data suggest that A1CF may be an antagonistic factor to the EMT process of kidney tubular epithelial cells.

  14. Lessons from the Crystal Structure of the S. aureus Surface Protein Clumping Factor A in Complex With Tefibazumab, an Inhibiting Monoclonal Antibody

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    Vannakambadi K. Ganesh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Staphylococcus aureus fibrinogen binding MSCRAMM (Microbial Surface Components Recognizing Adhesive Matrix Molecules, ClfA (clumping factor A is an important virulence factor in staphylococcal infections and a component of several vaccines currently under clinical evaluation. The mouse monoclonal antibody aurexis (also called 12-9, and the humanized version tefibazumab are therapeutic monoclonal antibodies targeting ClfA that in combination with conventional antibiotics were effective in animal models but showed less impressive efficacy in a limited Phase II clinical trial. We here report the crystal structure and a biochemical characterization of the ClfA/tefibazumab (Fab complex. The epitope for tefibazumab is located to the “top” of the N3 subdomain of ClfA and partially overlaps with a previously unidentified second binding site for fibrinogen. A high-affinity binding of ClfA to fibrinogen involves both an interaction at the N3 site and the previously identified docking of the C-terminal segment of the fibrinogen γ-chain in the N2N3 trench. Although tefibazumab binds ClfA with high affinity we observe a modest IC50 value for the inhibition of fibrinogen binding to the MSCRAMM. This observation, paired with a common natural occurring variant of ClfA that is not effectively recognized by the mAb, may partly explain the modest effect tefibazumab showed in the initial clinic trail. This information will provide guidance for the design of the next generation of therapeutic anti-staphylococcal mAbs targeting ClfA.

  15. Inhibition of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A and Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α Maximizes the Effects of Radiation in Sarcoma Mouse Models Through Destruction of Tumor Vasculature

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    Lee, Hae-June [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Division of Radiation Effects, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Changhwan [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Park, Do Joong [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yeo-Jung [Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Schmidt, Benjamin [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Lee, Yoon-Jin [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Division of Radiation Effects, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Tap, William D. [Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Eisinger-Mathason, T.S. Karin [Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Choy, Edwin [Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kirsch, David G. [Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Simon, M. Celeste [Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Howard Hughes Medical Institute (United States); and others

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To examine the addition of genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) to radiation therapy (RT) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) inhibition (ie trimodality therapy) for soft-tissue sarcoma. Methods and Materials: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α was inhibited using short hairpin RNA or low metronomic doses of doxorubicin, which blocks HIF-1α binding to DNA. Trimodality therapy was examined in a mouse xenograft model and a genetically engineered mouse model of sarcoma, as well as in vitro in tumor endothelial cells (ECs) and 4 sarcoma cell lines. Results: In both mouse models, any monotherapy or bimodality therapy resulted in tumor growth beyond 250 mm{sup 3} within the 12-day treatment period, but trimodality therapy with RT, VEGF-A inhibition, and HIF-1α inhibition kept tumors at <250 mm{sup 3} for up to 30 days. Trimodality therapy on tumors reduced HIF-1α activity as measured by expression of nuclear HIF-1α by 87% to 95% compared with RT alone, and cytoplasmic carbonic anhydrase 9 by 79% to 82%. Trimodality therapy also increased EC-specific apoptosis 2- to 4-fold more than RT alone and reduced microvessel density by 75% to 82%. When tumor ECs were treated in vitro with trimodality therapy under hypoxia, there were significant decreases in proliferation and colony formation and increases in DNA damage (as measured by Comet assay and γH2AX expression) and apoptosis (as measured by cleaved caspase 3 expression). Trimodality therapy had much less pronounced effects when 4 sarcoma cell lines were examined in these same assays. Conclusions: Inhibition of HIF-1α is highly effective when combined with RT and VEGF-A inhibition in blocking sarcoma growth by maximizing DNA damage and apoptosis in tumor ECs, leading to loss of tumor vasculature.

  16. Prostate field cancerization: deregulated expression of macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 (MIC-1 and platelet derived growth factor A (PDGF-A in tumor adjacent tissue.

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    Anna C Jones

    Full Text Available Prostate field cancerization denotes molecular alterations in histologically normal tissues adjacent to tumors. Such alterations include deregulated protein expression, as we have previously shown for the key transcription factor early growth response 1 (EGR-1 and the lipogenic enzyme fatty acid synthase (FAS. Here we add the two secreted factors macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 (MIC-1 and platelet derived growth factor A (PDGF-A to the growing list of protein markers of prostate field cancerization. Expression of MIC-1 and PDGF-A was measured quantitatively by immunofluorescence and comprehensively analyzed using two methods of signal capture and several groupings of data generated in human cancerous (n = 25, histologically normal adjacent (n = 22, and disease-free (n = 6 prostate tissues. A total of 208 digitized images were analyzed. MIC-1 and PDGF-A expression in tumor tissues were elevated 7.1x to 23.4x and 1.7x to 3.7x compared to disease-free tissues, respectively (p<0.0001 to p = 0.08 and p<0.01 to p = 0.23, respectively. In support of field cancerization, MIC-1 and PDGF-A expression in adjacent tissues were elevated 7.4x to 38.4x and 1.4x to 2.7x, respectively (p<0.0001 to p<0.05 and p<0.05 to p = 0.51, respectively. Also, MIC-1 and PDGF-A expression were similar in tumor and adjacent tissues (0.3x to 1.0x; p<0.001 to p = 0.98 for MIC-1; 0.9x to 2.6x; p<0.01 to p = 1.00 for PDGF-A. All analyses indicated a high level of inter- and intra-tissue heterogeneity across all types of tissues (mean coefficient of variation of 86.0%. Our data shows that MIC-1 and PDGF-A expression is elevated in both prostate tumors and structurally intact adjacent tissues when compared to disease-free specimens, defining field cancerization. These secreted factors could promote tumorigenesis in histologically normal tissues and lead to tumor multifocality. Among several clinical applications, they could also be exploited as indicators of disease in false

  17. Prostate field cancerization: deregulated expression of macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 (MIC-1) and platelet derived growth factor A (PDGF-A) in tumor adjacent tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Anna C; Antillon, Kresta S; Jenkins, Shannon M; Janos, Sara N; Overton, Heidi N; Shoshan, Dor S; Fischer, Edgar G; Trujillo, Kristina A; Bisoffi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Prostate field cancerization denotes molecular alterations in histologically normal tissues adjacent to tumors. Such alterations include deregulated protein expression, as we have previously shown for the key transcription factor early growth response 1 (EGR-1) and the lipogenic enzyme fatty acid synthase (FAS). Here we add the two secreted factors macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 (MIC-1) and platelet derived growth factor A (PDGF-A) to the growing list of protein markers of prostate field cancerization. Expression of MIC-1 and PDGF-A was measured quantitatively by immunofluorescence and comprehensively analyzed using two methods of signal capture and several groupings of data generated in human cancerous (n = 25), histologically normal adjacent (n = 22), and disease-free (n = 6) prostate tissues. A total of 208 digitized images were analyzed. MIC-1 and PDGF-A expression in tumor tissues were elevated 7.1x to 23.4x and 1.7x to 3.7x compared to disease-free tissues, respectively (p<0.0001 to p = 0.08 and p<0.01 to p = 0.23, respectively). In support of field cancerization, MIC-1 and PDGF-A expression in adjacent tissues were elevated 7.4x to 38.4x and 1.4x to 2.7x, respectively (p<0.0001 to p<0.05 and p<0.05 to p = 0.51, respectively). Also, MIC-1 and PDGF-A expression were similar in tumor and adjacent tissues (0.3x to 1.0x; p<0.001 to p = 0.98 for MIC-1; 0.9x to 2.6x; p<0.01 to p = 1.00 for PDGF-A). All analyses indicated a high level of inter- and intra-tissue heterogeneity across all types of tissues (mean coefficient of variation of 86.0%). Our data shows that MIC-1 and PDGF-A expression is elevated in both prostate tumors and structurally intact adjacent tissues when compared to disease-free specimens, defining field cancerization. These secreted factors could promote tumorigenesis in histologically normal tissues and lead to tumor multifocality. Among several clinical applications, they could also be exploited as indicators of disease in false negative

  18. Markers of endogenous desaturase activity and risk of coronary heart disease in the CAREMA cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingchang Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intakes of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, especially EPA (C20:5n-3 and DHA (C22:6n-3, are known to prevent fatal coronary heart disease (CHD. The effects of n-6 PUFAs including arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6, however, remain unclear. δ-5 and δ-6 desaturases are rate-limiting enzymes for synthesizing long-chain n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. C20:4n-6 to C20:3n-6 and C18:3n-6 to C18:2n-6 ratios are markers of endogenous δ-5 and δ-6 desaturase activities, but have never been studied in relation to incident CHD. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relation between these ratios as well as genotypes of FADS1 rs174547 and CHD incidence. METHODS: We applied a case-cohort design within the CAREMA cohort, a large prospective study among the general Dutch population followed up for a median of 12.1 years. Fatty acid profile in plasma cholesteryl esters and FADS1 genotype at baseline were measured in a random subcohort (n = 1323 and incident CHD cases (n = 537. Main outcome measures were hazard ratios (HRs of incident CHD adjusted for major CHD risk factors. RESULTS: The AA genotype of rs174547 was associated with increased plasma levels of C204n-6, C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3 and increased δ-5 and δ-6 desaturase activities, but not with CHD risk. In multivariable adjusted models, high baseline δ-5 desaturase activity was associated with reduced CHD risk (P for trend = 0.02, especially among those carrying the high desaturase activity genotype (AA: HR (95% CI = 0.35 (0.15-0.81 for comparing the extreme quintiles. High plasma DHA levels were also associated with reduced CHD risk. CONCLUSION: In this prospective cohort study, we observed a reduced CHD risk with an increased C20:4n-6 to C20:3n-6 ratio, suggesting that δ-5 desaturase activity plays a role in CHD etiology. This should be investigated further in other independent studies.

  19. Distribution of bone density in the proximal femur and its association with hip fracture risk in older men: the osteoporotic fractures in men (MrOS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lang; Burton, Annabel C; Bradburn, Mike; Nielson, Carrie M; Orwoll, Eric S; Eastell, Richard

    2012-11-01

    This prospective case-cohort study aimed to map the distribution of bone density in the proximal femur and examine its association with hip fracture. We analyzed baseline quantitative computed tomography (QCT) scans in 250 men aged 65 years or older, which comprised a randomly-selected subcohort of 210 men and 40 cases of first hip fracture during a mean follow-up period of 5.5 years. We quantified cortical, trabecular, and integral volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), and cortical thickness (CtTh) in four quadrants of cross-sections along the length of the femoral neck (FN), intertrochanter (IT), and trochanter (TR). In most quadrants, vBMDs and CtTh were significantly (p hip fracture, we merged the two quadrants in the medial and lateral aspects of the FN, IT, and TR. At most sites, QCT measurements were associated significantly (p hip fracture, the hazard ratio (HR) adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI), and clinical site for a 1-SD decrease ranged between 2.28 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.44-3.63) to 6.91 (95% CI, 3.11-15.53). After additional adjustment for total hip (TH) areal BMD (aBMD), trabecular vBMDs at the FN, TR, and TH were still associated with hip fracture significantly (p fracture significantly (p > 0.05) better than TH aBMD. With an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.901 (95% CI, 0.852-0.950), the regression model combining TH aBMD, age, and trabecular vBMD predicted hip fracture significantly (p hip fracture risk and highlight trabecular vBMD at the FN and TR as an independent risk factor. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  20. Genome-wide association study identifies two novel regions at 11p15.5-p13 and 1p31 with major impact on acute-phase serum amyloid A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola Marzi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Elevated levels of acute-phase serum amyloid A (A-SAA cause amyloidosis and are a risk factor for atherosclerosis and its clinical complications, type 2 diabetes, as well as various malignancies. To investigate the genetic basis of A-SAA levels, we conducted the first genome-wide association study on baseline A-SAA concentrations in three population-based studies (KORA, TwinsUK, Sorbs and one prospective case cohort study (LURIC, including a total of 4,212 participants of European descent, and identified two novel genetic susceptibility regions at 11p15.5-p13 and 1p31. The region at 11p15.5-p13 (rs4150642; p = 3.20×10(-111 contains serum amyloid A1 (SAA1 and the adjacent general transcription factor 2 H1 (GTF2H1, Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome 5 (HPS5, lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA, and lactate dehydrogenase C (LDHC. This region explains 10.84% of the total variation of A-SAA levels in our data, which makes up 18.37% of the total estimated heritability. The second region encloses the leptin receptor (LEPR gene at 1p31 (rs12753193; p = 1.22×10(-11 and has been found to be associated with CRP and fibrinogen in previous studies. Our findings demonstrate a key role of the 11p15.5-p13 region in the regulation of baseline A-SAA levels and provide confirmative evidence of the importance of the 1p31 region for inflammatory processes and the close interplay between A-SAA, leptin, and other acute-phase proteins.

  1. Visualising dual downregulation of insulin-like growth factor receptor-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor-A by heat shock protein 90 inhibition effect in triple negative breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwisscha Van Scheltinga, Anton G. T.; Berghuis, Paul; Nienhuis, Hilde H.; Timmer-Bosscha, Hetty; Pot, Linda; Gaykema, Sietske B. M.; Lub-de Hooge, Marjolijn N.; Kosterink, Jos G. W.; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Schroder, Carolien P.

    Purpose: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is biologically characterised by heterogeneous presence of molecular pathways underlying it. Insulin-like growth factor receptor-1 (IGF-1R) expression and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) have been identified as key factors in these pathways

  2. Racial and Ethnic Minorities at Increased Risk for Gastric Cancer in a Regional US Population Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Elizabeth; Duan, Lewei; Wu, Bechien U

    2017-04-01

    Limited data are available on risk factors for gastric cancer in the United States. We aimed to characterize risk for gastric cancer based on race/ethnicity and additional established risk factors. We conducted a retrospective cohort study from 2008 to 2014 from an integrated health care system in Southern California to assess incidence of gastric cancer by race/ethnicity. We then conducted an age- and sex-matched case-cohort study to evaluate additional risk factors: Helicobacter pylori infection, tobacco use, family history, obesity, language, and socioeconomic status. Subgroup analysis was performed for language and socioeconomic status by race/ethnicity. The incidence of gastric cancer in the reference (non-Hispanic white) population was 8.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.7-8.7) cases per 100,000 person-years. Incidence values for Asians, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic black persons were higher: 12.7 (95% CI, 11.1-14.3), 12.7 (95% CI, 11.7-13.7), and 11.8 (95% CI, 10.3-13.2) cases per 100,000 person-years, respectively (all P gastric cancer; the odds ratio (OR) for non-Hispanic black persons was 1.5 (95% CI, 1.22-1.72; P gastric cancer (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 2.6-4.4) (all P gastric cancer in Asians (P = .05). Higher annual median income was associated with reduced risk (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.75-0.95; P = .0004). In a population study in Southern California, we found racial/ethnic minorities to have a 40%-50% increase in risk of gastric cancer compared with the non-Hispanic white population. In addition to H pylori infection, smoking, family history, and low socioeconomic status were also associated with increased risk. Further characterization of high-risk groups may identify populations appropriate for targeted screening. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Do weight management interventions delivered by online social networks effectively improve body weight, body composition, and chronic disease risk factors? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Erik A; Szabo-Reed, Amanda N; Ptomey, Lauren T; Steger, Felicia L; Honas, Jeffery J; Washburn, Richard A; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2017-02-01

    Introduction Currently, no systematic review/meta-analysis has examined studies that used online social networks (OSN) as a primary intervention platform. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness of weight management interventions delivered through OSN. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched (January 1990-November 2015) for studies with data on the effect of OSNs on weight loss. Only primary source articles that utilized OSN as the main platform for delivery of weight management/healthy lifestyle interventions, were published in English language peer-reviewed journals, and reported outcome data on weight were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review. Five articles were included in this review. Results One-hundred percent of the studies ( n = 5) reported a reduction in baseline weight. Three of the five studies (60%) reported significant decreases in body weight when OSN was paired with health educator support. Only one study reported a clinical significant weight loss of ≥5%. Conclusion Using OSN for weight management is in its early stages of development and, while these few studies show promise, more research is needed to acquire information about optimizing these interventions to increase their efficacy.

  4. Inflammatory markers and risk of hip fracture in older white women: the study of osteoporotic fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Kamil E; Lui, Li-Yung; Ensrud, Kristine E; Hillier, Teresa A; LeBlanc, Erin S; Ing, Steven W; Hochberg, Marc C; Cauley, Jane A

    2014-09-01

    Hip fractures are the most devastating consequence of osteoporosis and impact 1 in 6 white women leading to a two- to threefold increased mortality risk in the first year. Despite evidence of inflammatory markers in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis, few studies have examined their effect on hip fracture. To determine if high levels of inflammation increase hip fracture risk and to explore mediation pathways, a case-cohort design nested in a cohort of 4709 white women from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures was used. A random sample of 1171 women was selected as the subcohort (mean age 80.1 ± 4.2 years) plus the first 300 women with incident hip fracture. Inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6) and soluble receptors (SR) for IL-6 (IL-6 SR) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF SR1 and TNF SR2) were measured, and participants were followed for a median (interquartile range) of 6.3 (3.7, 6.9) years. In multivariable models, the hazard ratio (HR) of hip fracture for women in the highest inflammatory marker level (quartile 4) was 1.64 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-2.48, p trend = 0.03) for IL-6 and 2.05 (95% CI, 1.35-3.12, p trend hip fracture was 1.51 (95% CI, 1.07-2.14) and 1.42 (95% CI, 0.87-2.31) compared with women with zero to one marker(s) in the highest quartile (p trend = 0.03). After individually adjusting for seven potential mediators, cystatin-C (a biomarker of renal function) and bone mineral density (BMD) attenuated HRs among women with the highest inflammatory burden by 64% and 50%, respectively, suggesting a potential mediating role. Older white women with high inflammatory burden are at increased risk of hip fracture in part due to poor renal function and low BMD. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  5. Is Beauty in the Hand of the Writer? Influences of Aesthetic Preferences through Script Directions, Cultural, and Neurological Factors: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Page

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Human experience surrounding the appreciation of beauty is not static. Many factors such as script direction and cultural differences directly impact whether, how and why we consider images beautiful. In an earlier study, Pérez González showed that 19th-century Iranian and Spanish professional photographers manifest lateral biases linked to reading writing direction in their compositions. The present paper aims to provide a general review on this topic and intends to highlight the most relevant studies reporting preferences in the appreciation of beauty in individuals with different reading and writing directions and belonging to different cultural backgrounds.

  6. Prognostic Value of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A in the Prediction of the Tumor Aggressiveness in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahredin Veselaj

    2017-04-01

    CONCLUSIONS: VEGF-A expression can be used to stratify advanced and metastatic CCRCC patients into low-benefit and high-benefit groups. Based on this study outcome it would be useful to perform IHC staining for VEGF-A expression in all patients with advanced and metastatic CCRCC.

  7. Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of placental growth factor to perivascular tissue induces angiogenesis via upregulation of the expression of endogenous vascular endothelial growth factor-A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, H; Bhardwaj, S; Babu, M; Jauhiainen, S; Herzig, KH; Bellu, AR; Haisma, HJ; Carmeliet, P; Alitalo, K; Yla-Herttuala, S

    2005-01-01

    Placental growth factor (PIGF) is a member of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family that binds specifically to VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-1. However, the mechanism of PIGF- and VEGFR-1-mediated angiogenesis has remained unclear and some in vitro studies suggest that VEGF-A/VEGFR-2

  8. Effect of diet on ability of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGFA) isoforms to alter follicular progression in bovine ovarian cortical cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of changes in diet on ability of VEGFA isoforms to alter follicle progression in bovine ovarian cortex cultures. Our hypothesis was that diet would affect the magnitude of VEGFA isoform actions on follicular development. Heifers (n = 30) receiv...

  9. Chronic intermittent hypoxia increases β cell mass and activates the mammalian target of rapamycin/hypoxia inducible factor 1/vascular endothelial growth factor A pathway in mice pancreatic islet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Chen-juan; LI Min; LI Qing-yun; LI Ning

    2013-01-01

    Background Growing evidence from population and clinic based studies showed that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and its characterizing chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) were independently associated with the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus.However,the pathogenesis by which OSA induces glucose metabolic disorders is not clear.We determined changes in pancreatic β cell mass and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1)/ vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) pathway following IH exposure.Methods A controlled gas delivery system regulated the flow of nitrogen and oxygen into a customized cage housing mice during the experiment.Twenty-four male wild C57BL/6J mice were either exposed to IH (n=12) or intermittent air as a control (n=12) for 56 days.Mice were anaesthetized and sacrificed after exposure,pancreas samples were dissected for immunofluorescent staining.Insulin and DAPI staining labelled islet β cells.Insulin positive area and β cell number per islet were measured.P-S6,HIF-1α and VEGF-A staining were performed to detect the activation of mTOR/HIF-1NEGF-A pathway.Results After eight weeks of IH exposure,insulin positive area increased by an average of 18.5% (P <0.05).The β cell number per islet increased (92 vs.55,respectively for IH and the control groups,P <0.05) with no change in the size of individual β cells.Islet expression of HIF-1α and VEGF-A were higher in IH group than control group,and percentage of p-S6 positive β cell also increased after IH exposure (16.8% vs.4.6% respectively for IH and the control groups,P <0.05).Conclusion The number of pancreatic β cells increased as did the activity of the mTOR/HIF-1NEGF-A pathway after exposure to IH.

  10. Developing a targeted, theory-informed implementation intervention using two theoretical frameworks to address health professional and organisational factors: a case study to improve the management of mild traumatic brain injury in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavender, Emma J; Bosch, Marije; Gruen, Russell L; Green, Sally E; Michie, Susan; Brennan, Sue E; Francis, Jill J; Ponsford, Jennie L; Knott, Jonathan C; Meares, Sue; Smyth, Tracy; O'Connor, Denise A

    2015-05-25

    Despite the availability of evidence-based guidelines for the management of mild traumatic brain injury in the emergency department (ED), variations in practice exist. Interventions designed to implement recommended behaviours can reduce this variation. Using theory to inform intervention development is advocated; however, there is no consensus on how to select or apply theory. Integrative theoretical frameworks, based on syntheses of theories and theoretical constructs relevant to implementation, have the potential to assist in the intervention development process. This paper describes the process of applying two theoretical frameworks to investigate the factors influencing recommended behaviours and the choice of behaviour change techniques and modes of delivery for an implementation intervention. A stepped approach was followed: (i) identification of locally applicable and actionable evidence-based recommendations as targets for change, (ii) selection and use of two theoretical frameworks for identifying barriers to and enablers of change (Theoretical Domains Framework and Model of Diffusion of Innovations in Service Organisations) and (iii) identification and operationalisation of intervention components (behaviour change techniques and modes of delivery) to address the barriers and enhance the enablers, informed by theory, evidence and feasibility/acceptability considerations. We illustrate this process in relation to one recommendation, prospective assessment of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) by ED staff using a validated tool. Four recommendations for managing mild traumatic brain injury were targeted with the intervention. The intervention targeting the PTA recommendation consisted of 14 behaviour change techniques and addressed 6 theoretical domains and 5 organisational domains. The mode of delivery was informed by six Cochrane reviews. It was delivered via five intervention components : (i) local stakeholder meetings, (ii) identification of local opinion leader teams, (iii) a train-the-trainer workshop for appointed local opinion leaders, (iv) local training workshops for delivery by trained local opinion leaders and (v) provision of tools and materials to prompt recommended behaviours. Two theoretical frameworks were used in a complementary manner to inform intervention development in managing mild traumatic brain injury in the ED. The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the developed intervention is being evaluated in a cluster randomised trial, part of the Neurotrauma Evidence Translation (NET) program.

  11. NOGA-guided analysis of regional myocardial perfusion abnormalities treated with intramyocardial injections of plasmid encoding vascular endothelial growth factor A-165 in patients with chronic myocardial ischemia: subanalysis of the EUROINJECT-ONE multicenter double-blind randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyongyosi, Mariann; Khorsand, Aliasghar; Zamini, Sholeh;

    2005-01-01

    . The ROI was projected onto the baseline and follow-up rest and stress polar maps of the 99m-Tc-sestamibi/tetrofosmin single-photon emission computed tomography scintigraphy calculating the extent and severity (expressed as the mean normalized tracer uptake) of the ROI automatically. The extents of the ROI....... CONCLUSIONS: Projection of the NOGA-guided injection area onto the single-photon emission computed tomography polar maps permits quantitative evaluation of myocardial perfusion in regions treated with angiogenic substances. Injections of phVEGF A165 plasmid improve, but do not normalize, the stress...

  12. 慢性湿疹患者生活质量及其影响因素的临床研究%Quality of Life of Patients with Chronic Eczema and Its Influencing Factors:A clinical study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章承中; 徐小英; 颜美秋

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨慢性湿疹患者的生活质量状况及其影响因素,为提高患者的生活质量和临床疗效提供帮助.方法 以2009年8月-2010年8月在温岭市第一人民医院皮肤科门诊就诊、临床确诊的慢性湿疹患者为研究对象,以同期健康体检者为对照.应用世界卫生组织生活质量测定量表简表(WHOQOL-BREF)以及皮肤病生活质量指数量表(DLQI)对200例慢性湿疹患者及100例体检者进行生活质量评价,并应用多元回归分析方法寻找影响慢性湿疹患者生活质量的因素.结果 (1)湿疹组的DLQI总分为(14.56±5.43)分,高于对照组的(0.13±0.05)分,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).对其六个方面分别进行比较,发现湿疹组患者症状与情感、社会交际、治疗等六个方面的得分均比对照组高,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).(2)比较湿疹组和对照组的WHOQOL-BREF得分,对总体感受及生理、心理、社会、环境四个领域的比较发现差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).(3)多元逐步回归表明,影响DLQI总分的因素为病情、受教育程度和经济状况;影响WHOQOL-BREF得分的因素为病情和受教育程度.结论 慢性湿疹患者生活质量较差,病情、受教育程度、经济状态是影响慢性湿疹患者生活质量的重要因素.%Objective To explore the quality of life of Patients with chronic eczema ( CE ) and its influencing factors.Methods Totally 200 patients presenting in our hospital from August 2009 to August 2010 and being diagnosed clinically with CE were recruited as the trial group, and 100 healthy people who concurrently took physical examination were enrolled as the controls.Dermatology Life Quality Index ( DLQI ) and World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment Instrument - Brief ( WHOQOL- BREF ) were used to evaluate the quality of life.Multiple regression analysis was used to search the risk factors influencing the quality of life.Results ( 1 ) The total mean DLQI score ( 14.56 ± 5.43 ) in the trial group was higher than that (0.13 ±0.05) of the control group ( P<0.01 ), and so were the factional scores of symptom, emotion, social communication, and treatment ( P <0.01 ).(2) The statistical differences were also found between the two groups in general feeling score, as well as the 4 factional scores of physiology, psychology, society and surroundings of WHOQOL - BREF ( P < 0.01 ).(3) The multiple regression analysis revealed that the influencing factors of DLQI total score were condition of illness, education background and economic condition; and the influencing factors of WHOQOL - BREF score were the condition of illness and education background.Conclusion The patients with CE are worse quality of life; and the condition of illness, education background and economic condition are the common risk factors.

  13. Risk factors for surgical site infections and other complications in elective surgery in patients with rheumatoid arthritis with special attention for anti-tumor necrosis factor: a large retrospective study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeder, A. den; Creemers, M.C.W.; Fransen, J.; Jong, Eefje de; Rooij, D.J.R.A.M. de; Wymenga, A.B.; Waal Malefijt, M.C. de; Hoogen, F.H.J. van den

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for surgical site infection (SSI) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with special attention for anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) treatment. METHODS: All patients with RA who had undergone elective orthopedic surgery since introduction of anti-TNF were

  14. Developing a targeted, theory-informed implementation intervention using two theoretical frameworks to address health professional and organisational factors: a case study to improve the management of mild traumatic brain injury in the emergency department

    OpenAIRE

    Tavender, E. J.; M. Bosch; Gruen, R. L.; Green, S. E.; Michie, S; Brennan, S. E.; Francis, J.; Ponsford, J L; Knott, J. C.; Meares, S.; Smyth, T.; O Connor, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background\\ud Despite the availability of evidence-based guidelines for the management of mild traumatic brain injury in the emergency department (ED), variations in practice exist. Interventions designed to implement recommended behaviours can reduce this variation. Using theory to inform intervention development is advocated; however, there is no consensus on how to select or apply theory. Integrative theoretical frameworks, based on syntheses of theories and theoretical constructs relevant...

  15. Normobaric Intermittent Hypoxia over 8 Months Does Not Reduce Body Weight and Metabolic Risk Factors - a Randomized, Single Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study in Normobaric Hypoxia and Normobaric Sham Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Gatterer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Both a 1- to 4-week continuous or intermittent stay and mode