WorldWideScience

Sample records for factors wet processing

  1. Value-added and Supporting - Inhibiting Factors for the Wet Processing of Coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Hariyati, Yuli

    2014-01-01

    Coffee is one of the annual crops which are widely favored by coffee enjoyers. SidomulyoVillage is one of the fourth largest coffee producing villages in District of Silo with a land area of 180 ha in 2009. Coffee experiences a process of harvest and post harvest; one of the activities of post-harvest is coffee processing. Coffee processing is divided into two; wet processing and dry processing. The majority of farmers in SidomulyoVillage do dry processing; about 75% of farmers do dry process...

  2. Experimental research on influencing factors of wet removal of NO from coal-fired flue gas by UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Wet removal of NO from coal-fired flue gas by UV/H2O2 Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) were investigated in a self-designed UV-bubble reactor. Several main influencing factors (UV intensity, H2O2 initial concentration, initial pH value, solution temperature, NO initial concentration, liquid-gas ratio and O2 percentage content) on the NO removal efficiency were studied. The results showed that UV intensity, H2O2 initial concentration, NO initial concentration and liquid-gas ratio are the main influencing factors. In the best conditions, the highest NO removal efficiency by UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process could reach 82.9%. Based on the experimental study, the influencing mechanism of the relevant influencing factors were discussed in depth.

  3. Uranium recovery from wet process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    In the field of metallurgy, specifically processes for recovering uranium from wet process phosphoric acid solution derived from the acidulation of uraniferous phosphate ores, problems of imbalance of ion exchange agents, contamination of recycled phosphoric acid with process organics and oxidizing agents, and loss and contamination of uranium product, are solved by removing organics from the raffinate after ion exchange conversion of uranium to uranous form and recovery thereof by ion exchange, and returning organics to the circuit to balance mono and disubstituted ester ion exchange agents; then oxidatively stripping uranium from the agent using hydrogen peroxide; then after ion exchange recovery of uranyl and scrubbing, stripping with sodium carbonate and acidifying the strip solution and using some of it for the scrubbing; regenerating the sodium loaded agent and recycling it to the uranous recovery step. Economic recovery of uranium as a by-product of phosphate fertilizer production is effected. (author)

  4. Modeling and optimization of wet sizing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thai Ba Cau; Vu Thanh Quang and Nguyen Ba Tien

    2004-01-01

    Mathematical simulation on basis of Stock law has been done for wet sizing process on cylinder equipment of laboratory and semi-industrial scale. The model consists of mathematical equations describing relations between variables, such as: - Resident time distribution function of emulsion particles in the separating zone of the equipment depending on flow-rate, height, diameter and structure of the equipment. - Size-distribution function in the fine and coarse parts depending on resident time distribution function of emulsion particles, characteristics of the material being processed, such as specific density, shapes, and characteristics of the environment of classification, such as specific density, viscosity. - Experimental model was developed on data collected from an experimental cylindrical equipment with diameter x height of sedimentation chamber equal to 50 x 40 cm for an emulsion of zirconium silicate in water. - Using this experimental model allows to determine optimal flow-rate in order to obtain product with desired grain size in term of average size or size distribution function. (author)

  5. Process for recovering uranium from wet process phosphoric acid (III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrih, R.Z.; Rickard, R.S.; Carrington, O.F.

    1983-01-01

    Uranium is conventionally recovered from wet-process phosphoric acid by two liquid ion exchange steps using a mixture of mono- and disubstituted phenyl esters of orthophosphoric acid (OPPA). Efficiency of the process drops as the mono-OPPA is lost preferentially to the aqueous phase. This invention provides a process for the removal of the uranium process organics (OPPA and organic solvents) from the raffinate of the first liquid ion exchange step and their return to the circuit. The process organics are removed by a combination flotation and absorption step, which results in the recovery of the organics on beads of a hydrophobic styrene polymer

  6. Uranium recovery from wet process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrington, O.F.; Pyrih, R.Z.; Rickard, R.S.

    1981-01-01

    Improvement in the process for recovering uranium from wetprocess phosphoric acid solution derived from the acidulation of uraniferous phosphate ores by the use of two ion exchange liquidliquid solvent extraction circuits in which in the first circuit (A) the uranium is reduced to the uranous form; (B) the uranous uranium is recovered by liquid-liquid solvent extraction using a mixture of mono- and di-(Alkyl-phenyl) esters of orthophosphoric acid as the ion exchange agent; and (C) the uranium oxidatively stripped from the agent with phosphoric acid containing an oxidizing agent to convert uranous to uranyl ions, and in the second circuit (D) recovering the uranyl uranium from the strip solution by liquid-liquid solvent extraction using di(2ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid in the presence of trioctylphosphine oxide as a synergist; (E) scrubbing the uranium loaded agent with water; (F) stripping the loaded agent with ammonium carbonate, and (G) calcining the formed ammonium uranyl carbonate to uranium oxide, the improvement comprising: (1) removing the organics from the raffinate of step (B) before recycling the raffinate to the wet-process plant, and returning the recovered organics to the circuit to substantially maintain the required balance between the mono and disubstituted esters; (2) using hydogren peroxide as the oxidizing agent in step (C); (3) using an alkali metal carbonate as the stripping agent in step (F) following by acidification of the strip solution with sulfuric acid; (4) using some of the acidified strip solution as the scrubbing agent in step (E) to remove phosphorus and other impurities; and (5) regenerating the alkali metal loaded agent from step (F) before recycling it to the second circuit

  7. Study of polycaprolactone wet electrospinning process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kostakova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Wet electrospinning is a useful method for 3-dimensional structure control of nanofibrous materials. This innovative technology uses a liquid collector instead of the metal one commonly used for standard electrospinning. The article compares the internal structural features of polycaprolactone (PCL nanofibrous materials prepared by both technologies. We analyze the influence of different water/ethanol compositions used as a liquid collector on the morphology of the resultant polycaprolactone nanofibrous materials. Scanning electron micro-photographs have revealed a bimodal structure in the wet electrospun materials composed of micro and nanofibers uniformly distributed across the sample bulk. We have shown that the full-faced, twofold fiber distribution is due to the solvent composition and is induced and enhanced by increasing the ethanol weight ratio. Moreover, the comparison of fibrous layers morphology obtained by wet and dry spinning have revealed that beads that frequently appeared in dry spun materials are created by Plateau-Rayleigh instability of the fraction of thicker fibers. Theoretical conditions for spontaneous and complete immersion of cylindrical fibers into a liquid collector are also derived here.

  8. Process for recovery of uranium from wet process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiewiorowski, T.K.; Thornsberry, W.L. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Process is claimed for the recovery of uranium from wet process phosphoric acid solution in which an organic extractant, containing uranium values and dissolved iron impurities and comprising a dialkylphosphoric acid and a trialkylphosphine oxide dissolved in a water immiscible organic solvent, is contacted with a substantially iron-free dilute aqueous phosphoric acid to remove said iron impurities. The removed impurities are bled from the system by feeding the resulting iron-loaded phosphoric acid to a secondary countercurrent uranium extraction operation from which they leave as part of the uranium-depleted acid raffinate. Also, process for recovering uranium in which the extractant, after it has been stripped of uranium values by aqueous ammonium carbonate, is contacted with a dilute aqueous acid selected from the group consisting of H 2 SO 4 , HCl, HNO 3 and iron-free H 3 PO 4 to improve the extraction efficiency of the organic extractant

  9. Process for winning uranium from wet process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A process is described for winning uranium from wet process phosphoric acid by means of liquid-liquid extraction with organic phosphoric acid esters. The process is optimised by keeping the sulphate percentage in the phosphoric acid below 2% by weight, and preferably below 0.6% by weight, as compared to P 2 O 5 in the phosphoric acid. This is achieved by adding an excess of Ba and/or Ca carbonate or sulfide solution and filtering off the formed calcium and/or barium sulphate precipitates. Solid KClO 3 is then added to the filtrate to oxidise U 4+ to U 6+ . The normal extraction procedure using organic phosphoric esters as extraction liquid, can then be applied. (Th.P.)

  10. Thermo-fluid dynamic analysis of wet compression process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, Abhay; Kim, Heuy Dong; Chidambaram, Palani Kumar; Suryan, Abhilash

    2016-01-01

    Wet compression systems increase the useful power output of a gas turbine by reducing the compressor work through the reduction of air temperature inside the compressor. The actual wet compression process differs from the conventional single phase compression process due to the presence of latent heat component being absorbed by the evaporating water droplets. Thus the wet compression process cannot be assumed isentropic. In the current investigation, the gas-liquid two phase has been modeled as air containing dispersed water droplets inside a simple cylinder-piston system. The piston moves in the axial direction inside the cylinder to achieve wet compression. Effects on the thermodynamic properties such as temperature, pressure and relative humidity are investigated in detail for different parameters such as compression speeds and overspray. An analytical model is derived and the requisite thermodynamic curves are generated. The deviations of generated thermodynamic curves from the dry isentropic curves (PV γ = constant) are analyzed

  11. Thermo-fluid dynamic analysis of wet compression process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, Abhay; Kim, Heuy Dong [School of Mechanical Engineering, Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Chidambaram, Palani Kumar [FMTRC, Daejoo Machinery Co. Ltd., Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Suryan, Abhilash [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering Trivandrum, Kerala (India)

    2016-12-15

    Wet compression systems increase the useful power output of a gas turbine by reducing the compressor work through the reduction of air temperature inside the compressor. The actual wet compression process differs from the conventional single phase compression process due to the presence of latent heat component being absorbed by the evaporating water droplets. Thus the wet compression process cannot be assumed isentropic. In the current investigation, the gas-liquid two phase has been modeled as air containing dispersed water droplets inside a simple cylinder-piston system. The piston moves in the axial direction inside the cylinder to achieve wet compression. Effects on the thermodynamic properties such as temperature, pressure and relative humidity are investigated in detail for different parameters such as compression speeds and overspray. An analytical model is derived and the requisite thermodynamic curves are generated. The deviations of generated thermodynamic curves from the dry isentropic curves (PV{sup γ} = constant) are analyzed.

  12. Model determination and validation for reactive wetting processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yost, F.G.; O`Toole, E.J.; Sackinger, P.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swiler, T.P. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that dissolutive wetting initially yields a metastable equilibrium. A compact model for the kinetics of approach to this metastable state is described. The technique for constructing these kinetics stems from the early work of Onsager and begins with a relationship for the entropy production. From this, a coupled set of nonlinear, ordinary differential equations can be written directly. The equations are solved numerically for the wetted area and compared with experimental data. The model captures many of the subtle complexities of dissolutive wetting such as multiple metastable states. Sessile drop experiments involving a variety of Bi-Sn alloys on solid Bi substrates were performed. Substrates prepared from small and large-grained polycrystals and single crystals were used to measure equilibrium and metastable contact angles and estimate the surface tension and equilibrium contact angle of the solid-liquid interface. The substrates were also used to investigate the coupling of the dissolution and wetting processes and to investigate the effect of substrate grain size on wetting. It was determined that the equilibrium wetting geometry is independent of linear scale and that grain size has little influence on wetting or dissolution in the Bi-Sn system. To investigate the atomic behavior of liquids at interfaces during wetting, the authors simulated wetting in the Ag-Cu system using molecular dynamics with atomic potentials and observed both atomic dynamics and structural correlations of the liquid-solid interface. The authors found that spreading is prompted by interactions between the liquid and the substrate surface that cause the liquid layer in contact with the substrate to take on some of the symmetry of the substrate surface and result in the formation of a liquid monolayer that extends beyond the major part of the liquid droplet.

  13. Development studies for a novel wet oxidation process. Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    DETOX SM is a catalyzed wet oxidation process which destroys organic materials in an acidic water solution of iron at 373 to 473 K. The solution can be used repeatedly to destroy great amounts of organic materials. Since the process is conducted in a contained vessel, air emissions from the process can be well controlled. The solution is also capable of dissolving and concentrating many heavy and radioactive metals for eventual stabilization and disposal. The Phase 2 effort for this project is site selection and engineering design for a DETOX demonstration unit. Site selection was made using a set of site selection criteria and evaluation factors. A survey of mixed wastes at DOE sites was conducted using the Interim Mixed Waste Inventory Report. Sites with likely suitable waste types were identified. Potential demonstration sites were ranked based on waste types, interest, regulatory needs, scheduling, ability to provide support, and available facilities. Engineering design for the demonstration unit is in progress and is being performed by Jacobs Applied Technology. The engineering design proceeded through preliminary process flow diagrams (PFDs), calculation of mass and energy balances for representative waste types, process and instrumentation diagrams (P and IDs), preparation of component specifications, and a firm cost estimate for fabrication of the demonstration unit

  14. Effect of Drug Active Substance Particles on Wet Granulation Process.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bělohlav, Z.; Břenková, L.; Hanika, Jiří; Durdil, P.; Rapek, P.; Tomášek, V.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 85, A7 (2007) , s. 974-980 ISSN 0263-8762 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : wet granulation * control * active substance Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.837, year: 2007

  15. A big picture prospective for wet waste processing management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of general observations made relative to the technical and economical considerations being evaluated by many commercial nuclear power plants involving their decision making process for implementation of several new wet waste management technologies. The waste management processes reviewed include the use of, Reverse Osmosis, Non-Precoat Filters, Resin Stripping ampersand Recycling, Evaporation ampersand Calcination (RVR trademark, ROVER trademark ampersand Thermax trademark), Compression Dewatering (PressPak trademark), Incineration (Resin Express trademark), Survey ampersand Free Release (Green Is Clean) and Quantum Catalytic Extraction Processing (QCEP trademark). These waste management processes are reviewed relative to their general advantages and disadvantages associated with the processing of various wet waste streams including: reactor make-up water, floor drain sludges and other liquid waste streams such as boric acid concentrates and steam generator cleaning solutions. A summary of the conclusions generally being derived by most utilities associated with the use of these waste management processes is also provided

  16. Biodiesel production from wet microalgae feedstock using sequential wet extraction/transesterification and direct transesterification processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Lung; Huang, Chien-Chang; Ho, Kao-Chia; Hsiao, Ping-Xuan; Wu, Meng-Shan; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-10-01

    Although producing biodiesel from microalgae seems promising, there is still a lack of technology for the quick and cost-effective conversion of biodiesel from wet microalgae. This study was aimed to develop a novel microalgal biodiesel producing method, consisting of an open system of microwave disruption, partial dewatering (via combination of methanol treatment and low-speed centrifugation), oil extraction, and transesterification without the pre-removal of the co-solvent, using Chlamydomonas sp. JSC4 with 68.7 wt% water content as the feedstock. Direct transesterification with the disrupted wet microalgae was also conducted. The biomass content of the wet microalgae increased to 56.6 and 60.5 wt%, respectively, after microwave disruption and partial dewatering. About 96.2% oil recovery was achieved under the conditions of: extraction temperature, 45°C; hexane/methanol ratio, 3:1; extraction time, 80 min. Transesterification of the extracted oil reached 97.2% conversion within 15 min at 45°C and 6:1 solvent/methanol ratio with simultaneous Chlorophyll removal during the process. Nearly 100% biodiesel conversion was also obtained while conducting direct transesterification of the disrupted oil-bearing microalgal biomass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Removal of ammonia solutions used in catalytic wet oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chang Mao; Lou, Jie Chung; Lin, Chia Hua

    2003-08-01

    Ammonia (NH(3)) is an important product used in the chemical industry, and is common place in industrial wastewater. Industrial wastewater containing ammonia is generally either toxic or has concentrations or temperatures such that direct biological treatment is unfeasible. This investigation used aqueous solutions containing more of ammonia for catalytic liquid-phase oxidation in a trickle-bed reactor (TBR) based on Cu/La/Ce composite catalysts, prepared by co-precipitation of Cu(NO(3))(2), La(NO(3))(2), and Ce(NO(3))(3) at 7:2:1 molar concentrations. The experimental results indicated that the ammonia conversion of the wet oxidation in the presence of the Cu/La/Ce composite catalysts was determined by the Cu/La/Ce catalyst. Minimal ammonia was removed from the solution by the wet oxidation in the absence of any catalyst, while approximately 91% ammonia removal was achieved by wet oxidation over the Cu/La/Ce catalyst at 230 degrees C with oxygen partial pressure of 2.0 MPa. Furthermore, the effluent streams were conducted at a liquid hourly space velocity of under 9 h(-1) in the wet catalytic processes, and a reaction pathway was found linking the oxidizing ammonia to nitric oxide, nitrogen and water. The solution contained by-products, including nitrates and nitrites. Nitrite selectivity was minimized and ammonia removal maximized when the feed ammonia solution had a pH of around 12.0.

  18. Wet Mechanochemical Processing of Celestine using (NH42CO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Bingöl

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, traditional (univariate method of processing to the wet mechanochemical treatment were applied to obtain both SrCO3 and (NH42SO4 from celestite (SrSO4-(NH42CO3-H2O mixtures in a planetary ball mill. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and chemical analysis were used to analyze products formed during wet milling. A hydrometallurgical process was carried out to examine milling time, ball to grinding material mass ratio, (NH42CO3 to SrSO4 mole ratio and rotational speed of the mill in a planetary mill. Under optimum conditions, a conversion approaching 100% of SrCO3 was obtained.

  19. Environmental management system case study: textile wet processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasreldin, A A [Engineering Researches and Industrial Technologies Council, Sudan Academy of Sciences, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2008-10-15

    Textile industry is one of the oldest industries, it started very early in the ancient ages, its grows and improves gradually at the first and then rapidly to satisfy other different need of the mankind, even for luxury purposes, this development caused damage to environment, then its need the treatment. Textile wet processes used significant quantities of water and various kind of chemicals marketed under the name textile auxiliaries, to enhance the appearance of the fabric, serviceability, and durability. The chemical contamination of textile wet processes can be a health risk for the mill workers, consumers and for the environment as well. A number of schemes have been proposed in different countries to control the textile wet processes to create better environment and protect the ecosystem from further degradation, the developing countries need to apply their designed policies from the beginning. A theoretical study for probability of application of environmental management system in textile industry, to prevent or eliminate textile industry pollution that considered as one of the largest polluters in Sudanese environment, especially after the government (industrial ministry) support and facilitate to textile industry development. Applying environmental management system can appreciably reduce the textile industry pollution as founded from the study.(Author)

  20. Environmental management system case study: textile wet processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasreldin, A.A.

    2008-10-01

    Textile industry is one of the oldest industries, it started very early in the ancient ages, its grows and improves gradually at the first and then rapidly to satisfy other different need of the mankind, even for luxury purposes, this development caused damage to environment, then its need the treatment. Textile wet processes used significant quantities of water and various kind of chemicals marketed under the name textile auxiliaries, to enhance the appearance of the fabric, serviceability, and durability. The chemical contamination of textile wet processes can be a health risk for the mill workers, consumers and for the environment as well. A number of schemes have been proposed in different countries to control the textile wet processes to create better environment and protect the ecosystem from further degradation, the developing countries need to apply their designed policies from the beginning. A theoretical study for probability of application of environmental management system in textile industry, to prevent or eliminate textile industry pollution that considered as one of the largest polluters in Sudanese environment, especially after the government (industrial ministry) support and facilitate to textile industry development. Applying environmental management system can appreciably reduce the textile industry pollution as founded from the study.(Author)

  1. Development studies of a novel wet oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, T.W.; Dhooge, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Many DOE waste streams and remediates contain complex and variable mixtures of organic compounds, toxic metals, and radionuclides. These materials are often dispersed in organic or inorganic matrices, such as personal protective equipment, various sludges, soils, and water. Incineration and similar combustive processes do not appear to be viable options for treatment of these waste streams due to various considerations. The objective of this project is to develop a novel catalytic wet oxidation process for the treatment of multi-component wastes. The DETOX process uses a unique combination of metal catalysts to increase the rate of oxidation of organic materials

  2. Development studies of a novel wet oxidation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, T.W.; Dhooge, P.M. [Delphi Research, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Many DOE waste streams and remediates contain complex and variable mixtures of organic compounds, toxic metals, and radionuclides. These materials are often dispersed in organic or inorganic matrices, such as personal protective equipment, various sludges, soils, and water. Incineration and similar combustive processes do not appear to be viable options for treatment of these waste streams due to various considerations. The objective of this project is to develop a novel catalytic wet oxidation process for the treatment of multi-component wastes. The DETOX process uses a unique combination of metal catalysts to increase the rate of oxidation of organic materials.

  3. Uranium recovery from wet-process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCullough, J.F.; Phillips, J.F. Jr.; Tate, L.R.

    1979-01-01

    A method of recovering uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid is claimed where the acid is treated with a mixture of an ammonium salt or ammonia, a reducing agent, and then a miscible solvent. Solids are separated from the phosphoric acid liquid phase. The solid consists of a mixture of metal phosphates and uranium. It is washed free of adhering phosphoric acid with fresh miscible solvent. The solid is dried and dissolved in acid whereupon uranium is recovered from the solution. Miscible solvent and water are distilled away from the phosphoric acid. The distillate is rectified and water discarded. All miscible solvent is recovered for recycle. 5 claims

  4. Uranium tetrafluoride production via dioxide by wet process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, A.R. de.

    1988-01-01

    The study for the wet way obtention of uranium tetrafluoride by the reaction of hydrofluoric acid and powder uranium dioxide, is presented. From the results obtained at laboratory scale a pilot plant was planned and erected. It is presently in operation for experimental data aquisition. Time of reaction, temperature, excess of reagents and the hydrofluoric acid / uranium dioxide ratio were the main parameters studied to obtain a product with the following characteristics: - density greater than 1 g/cm 3 , conversion rate greater than 96%, and water content equal to 0,2% that allows its application to heaxafluoride convertion or to magnesiothermic process. (author) [pt

  5. Dust emission from wet, low-emission coke quenching process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komosiński, Bogusław; Bobik, Bartłomiej; Konieczny, Tomasz; Cieślik, Ewelina

    2018-01-01

    Coke plants, which produce various types of coke (metallurgical, foundry or heating), at temperatures between 600 and 1200°C, with limited access to oxygen, are major emitters of particulates and gaseous pollutants to air, water and soils. Primarily, the process of wet quenching should be mentioned, as one of the most cumbersome. Atmospheric pollutants include particulates, tar substances, organic pollutants including B(a)P and many others. Pollutants are also formed from the decomposition of water used to quench coke (CO, phenol, HCN, H2S, NH3, cresol) and decomposition of hot coke in the first phase of quenching (CO, H2S, SO2) [1]. The development of the coke oven technology has resulted in the changes made to different types of technological installations, such as the use of baffles in quench towers, the removal of nitrogen oxides by selective NOx reduction, and the introduction of fabric filters for particulates removal. The BAT conclusions for coke plants [2] provide a methodology for the measurement of particulate emission from a wet, low-emission technology using Mohrhauer probes. The conclusions define the emission level for wet quenching process as 25 g/Mgcoke. The conducted research was aimed at verification of the presented method. For two of three quench towers (A and C) the requirements included in the BAT conclusions are not met and emissions amount to 87.34 and 61.35 g/Mgcoke respectively. The lowest particulates emission was recorded on the quench tower B and amounted to 22.5 g/Mgcoke, therefore not exceeding the requirements.

  6. Process of recovering uranium from wet process acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    York, W.R.

    1983-01-01

    Entrainment of contaminated water in the organic phase and poor phase disengagement is prevented in the second cycle scrubber, in a two cycle uranium recovery process, by washing the organic solvent stream containing entrained H 3 PO 4 from the second cycle extractor, with a dilute aqueous sulfuric or nitric acid solution in an acid scrubber, prior to passing the solvent stream into the second cycle stripper. (author)

  7. Discussion about the application of treatment process for dehydrated wet waste at nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guanghua; Wu Qiang

    2009-01-01

    In nuclear power station, the most popular treatment about low level radioactive wet waste generated during the unit operating and maintenance is embedded by cement. For radioactive waste minimization, this article introduces a new treatment process to dehydrate and compress wet waste. According to the development and application of the treatment process for the wet waste, and comparing with the formerly treatment-the cement embedding, prove that the new treatment can meet the purpose for volume reduction of wet waste. (authors)

  8. Process for recovering uranium from wet process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrih, R.Z.; Rickard, S.; Carrington, F.

    1982-01-01

    A process for recovering uranium from phosphoric acid solutions uses an acidified alkali metal carbonate solution for the second-stage strip of uranyl uranium from the ion-exchange solution. The stripped solution is then recycled to the ion-exchange circuit. In the first stripping stage the ion-exchange solution containing the recovered uranyl uranium and an inert organic diluent is stripped with ammonium carbonate, producing a slurry of ammonium uranyl tricarbonate. The second strip, with a solution of 50-200 grams per litre of sodium carbonate eliminates the problems of inadequate removal of phosphorus, iron and vanadium impurities, solids accumulation, and phase separation in the strip circuit

  9. Power generation characteristics of tubular type SOFC by wet process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajiri, H.; Nakayama, T. [Kyushu Electric Power Company, Inc., Fukuoka (Japan); Kuroishi, M. [TOTO Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The development of a practical solid oxide fuel cell requires improvement of a cell performance and a cell manufacturing technology suitable for the mass production. In particular tubular type SOFC is thought to be superior in its reliability because its configuration can avoid the high temperature sealing and reduce the thermal stress resulting from the contact between cells. The authors have fabricated a tubular cell with an air electrode support by a wet processing technique, which is suitable for mass production in improving a power density. To enhance the power output of the module, the Integrated Tubular-Type (ITT) cell has been developed. This paper reports the performance of the single cells with various active anode areas and the bundle with series-connected 9-ITT cells with an active anode area of 840 cm{sup 2}.

  10. Two-Phase Phenomena In Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minzer, U.; Moses, E.J.; Toren, M.; Blumenfeld, Y.

    1998-01-01

    In order to reduce sulfur oxides discharge, Israel Electric Corporation (IEC) is building a wet Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) facility at Rutenberg B power station. The primary objective of IEC is to minimize the occurrence of stack liquid discharge and avoid the discharge of large droplets, in order to prevent acid rain around the stack. Liquid discharge from the stack is the integrated outcome of two-phase processes, which are discussed in this work. In order to estimate droplets discharge the present investigation employs analytical models, empirical tests, and numerical calculations of two-phase phenomena. The two-phase phenomena are coupled and therefore cannot be investigated separately. The present work concerns the application of Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) as an engineering complementary tool in the IEC investigation

  11. Technology of uranium recovery from wet-process phosphoric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Katsutoshi [Saga Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering; Nakashio, Fumiyuki

    1982-12-01

    Rock phosphate contains from 0.005 to 0.02 wt.% of uranium. Though the content is a mere 5 to 10 % of that in uranium ore, the total recovery of uranium is significant since it is used for fertilizer manufacture in a large quantity. Wet-process phosphoric acid is produced by the reaction of rock phosphate with sulfuric acid. The recovery of uranium from this phosphoric acid is mostly by solvent extraction at present. According to U/sup 4 +/ or UO/sub 2//sup 2 +/ as the form of its existence, the technique of solvent extraction differs. The following matters are described: processing of rock phosphate; recovery techniques including the extraction by OPPA-octyl pyrophosphoric acid for U/sup 4 +/, and by mixed DEHPA-Di-(2)-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid and TOPO-tryoctyl phosphine oxide for UO/sub 2//sup 2 +/, and by OPAP-octylphenyl acid phosphate for U/sup 4 +/; the recent progress of the technology as seen in patents.

  12. Process for recovering yttrium and lanthanides from wet-process phosphoric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, J.A.; Weterings, C.A.

    1983-06-28

    Process for recovering yttrium and lanthanides from wet-process phosphoric acid by adding a flocculant to the phosphoric acid, separating out the resultant precipitate and then recovering yttrium and lanthanides from the precipitate. Uranium is recovered from the remaining phosphoric acid.

  13. Development studies for a novel wet oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhooge, P.M.; Hakim, L.B.

    1994-01-01

    A catalytic wet oxidation process (DETOX), which uses an acidic iron solution to oxidize organic compounds to carbon dioxide, water, and other simple products, was investigated as a potential method for the treatment of multicomponent hazardous and mixed wastes. The organic compounds picric acid, poly(vinyl chloride), tetrachlorothiophene, pentachloropyridine, Aroclor 1260 (a polychlorinated biphenyl), and hexachlorobenzene were oxidized in 125 ml reaction vessels. The metals arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cerium (as a surrogate for plutonium), chromium, lead, mercury, neodymium (as a surrogate for uranium), nickel, and vanadium were tested in the DETOX solution. Barium, beryllium, cerium, chromium, mercury, neodymium, nickel, and vanadium were all found to be very soluble (>100 g/l) in the DETOX chloride-based solution. Arsenic, barium, cadmium, and lead solubilities were lower. Lead could be selectively precipitated from the DETOX solution. Chromium(VI) was reduced to relatively non-toxic chromium(III) by the solution. Six soils were contaminated with arsenic, barium, beryllium, chromium, lead, and neodymium oxides at approximately 0.1% by weight, and benzene, trichloroethene, mineral oil, and Aroclor 1260 at approximately 5% by weight total, and 5.g amounts treated with the DETOX solution in unstirred 125. ml reaction bombs. It is felt that soil treatment in a properly designed system is entirely possible despite incomplete oxidation of the less volatile organic materials in these unstirred tests

  14. Porous Gold Films Fabricated by Wet-Chemistry Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymeric Pastre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Porous gold films presented in this paper are formed by combining gold electroless deposition and polystyrene beads templating methods. This original approach allows the formation of conductive films (2 × 106 (Ω·cm−1 with tailored and interconnected porosity. The porous gold film was deposited up to 1.2 μm on the silicon substrate without delamination. An original zirconia gel matrix containing gold nanoparticles deposited on the substrate acts both as an adhesion layer through the creation of covalent bonds and as a seed layer for the metallic gold film growth. Dip-coating parameters and gold electroless deposition kinetics have been optimized in order to create a three-dimensional network of 20 nm wide pores separated by 20 nm thick continuous gold layers. The resulting porous gold films were characterized by GIXRD, SEM, krypton adsorption-desorption, and 4-point probes method. The process is adaptable to different pore sizes and based on wet-chemistry. Consequently, the porous gold films presented in this paper can be used in a wide range of applications such as sensing, catalysis, optics, or electronics.

  15. Development of the PNC wet process producing uranium tetrafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Shingo

    1979-01-01

    Pilot plant operation for the industrialization of the PNC (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp.) wet process, which consists of ore leaching, solvent extraction (Amex Chloride Conversion), electrolytic reduction, UF 4 hydrate precipitation and dehydration, has been carried out for over ten years with several technical developments and improvements. In this paper these results of investigation on hydrofluorination step, dehydration step and reactability of UF 4 to UF 6 are reported. A new hydrofluorination equipment for continuous precipitation of crystal hydrate (particle size of 50 -- 100 mu ) was developed, and this made it possible to simplify the procedures of liquid-solid separation, drying and granulation. The water molecule of product (UF 4 .1 -- 1.2H 2 O) is composed of 70 -- 80% molecule dehydrated at 150 -- 200 0 C and 20 -- 30% dehydrated at about 350 0 C. The reactor-grade UF 4 containing less than 0.1% H 2 O, about 1% UO 2 and about 0.3% UO 2 F 2 by weight was obtained under the conditions of retention time of 1 hour at 350 0 C in an atmosphere of nitrogen by batch-wise operation of 3-inch diameter fluidized-bed dehydrator. From batch-wise experimental operations of 3-inch diameter fluidized-bed reactor, high fluorine efficiencies over 99.9% (less than 0.1% of fluorine unreacted), were attained at 380 0 C with 41% fluorine in the inlet fluidizing gas under the continuous operation of UF 4 feed velocity of 0.1 kg/h.cm 2 . (author)

  16. Multivariate modelling of the tablet manufacturing process with wet granulation for tablet optimization and in-process control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhuis, J.A; Coenegracht, P.M J; Lerk, C.F

    1997-01-01

    The process of tablet manufacturing with granulation is described as a two-step process. The first step comprises wet granulation of the powder mixture, and in the second step the granules are compressed into tablets. For the modelling of the pharmaceutical process of wet granulation and tableting,

  17. Process for recovering a uranium containing concentrate and purified phosphoric acid from a wet process phosphoric acid containing uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weterings, C.A.M.; Janssen, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    A process is claimed for recovering from a wet process phosphoric acid which contains uranium, a uranium containing concentrate and a purified phosphoric acid. The wet process phosphoric acid is treated with a precipitant in the presence of a reducing agent and an aliphatic ketone

  18. Process for recovering a uranium containing concentrate and purified phosphoric acid from a wet process phosphoric acid containing uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weterings, C.A.M.; Janssen, J.A.

    1985-04-30

    A process is claimed for recovering from a wet process phosphoric acid which contains uranium, a uranium containing concentrate and a purified phosphoric acid. The wet process phosphoric acid is treated with a precipitant in the presence of a reducing agent and an aliphatic ketone.

  19. Summary of Chalcogenide Glass Processing: Wet-Etching and Photolithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Brian J.; Sundaram, S. K.; Johnson, Bradley R.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.

    2006-12-01

    This report describes a study designed to explore the different properties of two different chalcogenide materials, As2S3 and As24S38Se38, when subjected to photolithographic wet-etching techniques. Chalcogenide glasses are made by combining chalcogen elements S, Se, and Te with Group IV and/or V elements. The etchant was selected from the literature and was composed of sodium hydroxide, isopropyl alcohol, and deionized water and the types of chalcogenide glass for study were As2S3 and As24S38Se38. The main goals here were to obtain a single variable etch rate curve of etch depth per time versus NaOH overall solution concentration in M and to see the difference in etch rate between a given etchant when used on the different chalcogenide stoichiometries. Upon completion of these two goals, future studies will begin to explore creating complex, integrated photonic devices via these methods.

  20. Finite element simulation of dynamic wetting flows as an interface formation process

    KAUST Repository

    Sprittles, J.E.; Shikhmurzaev, Y.D.

    2013-01-01

    A mathematically challenging model of dynamic wetting as a process of interface formation has been, for the first time, fully incorporated into a numerical code based on the finite element method and applied, as a test case, to the problem

  1. Core-shell polymer nanorods by a two-step template wetting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, S; Liang, J

    2009-01-01

    One-dimensional core-shell polymer nanowires offer many advantages and great potential for many different applications. In this paper we introduce a highly versatile two-step template wetting process to fabricate two-component core-shell polymer nanowires with controllable shell thickness. PLLA and PMMA were chosen as model polymers to demonstrate the feasibility of this process. Solution wetting with different concentrations of polymer solutions was used to fabricate the shell layer and melt wetting was used to fill the shell with the core polymer. The shell thickness was analyzed as a function of the polymer solution concentration and viscosity, and the core-shell morphology was observed with TEM. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of fabricating polymer core-shell nanostructures using our two-step template wetting process and opens the arena for optimization and future experiments with polymers that are desirable for specific applications.

  2. Preliminary comparison of three processes of AlN oxidation: dry, wet and mixed ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korbutowicz R.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Three methods of AlN layers oxidation: dry, wet and mixed (wet with oxygen were compared. Some physical parameters of oxidized thin films of aluminum nitride (AlN layers grown on silicon Si(1 1 1 were investigated by means Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE. Three series of the thermal oxidations processes were carried out at 1012 °C in pure nitrogen as carrying gas and various gas ambients: (a dry oxidation with oxygen, (b wet oxidation with water steam and (c mixed atmosphere with various process times. All the research methods have shown that along with the rising of the oxidation time, AlN layer across the aluminum oxide nitride transforms to aluminum oxide. The mixed oxidation was a faster method than the dry or wet ones.

  3. Investigation of near dry EDM compared with wet and dry EDM processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gholipoor, Ahad; Baseri, Hamid; Shabgard, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Material removal rate (MRR), tool wear ratio (TWR) and surface roughness (SR) obtained by near-dry EDM process were compared with wet and dry EDM at three levels of discharge energy in drilling of SPK steel. Surface integrity machined by this process was studied and compared with wet and dry EDM processes, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that at high level of discharge energy, wet EDM has the most MRR, TWR and SR, and dry EDM has the least MRR, TWR and SR, while at low discharge energy levels, near-dry EDM process has the most MRR and the least SR. SEM micrographs showed that the quality of surface obtained by near-dry EDM process is better than others and the machined surfaces by near-dry EDM process have lower micro-cracks and craters, relatively.

  4. Investigation of near dry EDM compared with wet and dry EDM processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gholipoor, Ahad [Islamic Azad University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baseri, Hamid [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shabgard, Mohammad Reza [University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Material removal rate (MRR), tool wear ratio (TWR) and surface roughness (SR) obtained by near-dry EDM process were compared with wet and dry EDM at three levels of discharge energy in drilling of SPK steel. Surface integrity machined by this process was studied and compared with wet and dry EDM processes, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that at high level of discharge energy, wet EDM has the most MRR, TWR and SR, and dry EDM has the least MRR, TWR and SR, while at low discharge energy levels, near-dry EDM process has the most MRR and the least SR. SEM micrographs showed that the quality of surface obtained by near-dry EDM process is better than others and the machined surfaces by near-dry EDM process have lower micro-cracks and craters, relatively.

  5. Study for process and equipment design of wet gelation stages in vibropacking process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, Ryoji; Kikuchi, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Amino, Masaki; Yanai, Minoru

    2004-02-01

    Process and layout design of external wet gelation stages in vibropacking process was examined for the feasibility study of commercialized FBR cycle system. In this study, following process stages for the oxide core fuel production line were covered, that is, solidification, washing, drying, calcination, reduction, sintering stages including interim storage of sintering particles and reagent recovery stage. The main results obtained by this study are as follows: (1) Based on the process examination results conducted previously, process-flow, mass-balance and number of production line/equipment were clarified. The process is covered from the receive tank of feed solution to the interim storage equipment. Reagent recovery process-flow, mass-balance were also clarified. And preliminary design of the main equipment was reexamined. (2) Normal operation procedure and the procedure after process failure were summarized along with a remote automated operation procedure. Operation sequence of each production line was mapped out by using a time-chart. (3) Design outline of reagent recovery equipments, installed to recover waste liquid from the wet gelation stages in the view of environmental impact were examined. Effective techniques such as collection of solvent, residue waste treatment method were examined its applicability and selected. Schematic block diagram was presented. (4) Analytical items and analyzing apparatus were extracted taking into account of quality control and process management. Analytical sample taking position and frequency of sampling were also examined. (5) A schematic layout drawing of main manufacturing process and reagent recovery process was presented taking into account of material handling. (6) A feature of the operating rate at each process stage was examined by analyzing failure rate reliability of each component. applying the reliability-centred method. (RCM), the operating rate was evaluated and annual maintenance period was estimated using

  6. Examining Wetting and Dewetting Processes in Thin-films on Crystalline Substrates at the Nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hihath, Sahar

    Controlling the wetting and dewetting of ultra-thin films on solid substrates is important for a variety of technological and fundamental research applications. These applications include film deposition for semiconductor manufacturing, the growth of nanowires through nanoparticle-based catalysis sites, to making ordered arrays of nanoscale particles for electronic and optical devices. However, despite the importance of these processes, the underlying mechanisms by which a film wets a surface or dewets from it is still often unclear and widely debated. In this dissertation we examine wetting and dewetting processes in three materials systems that are relevant for device applications with the ultimate goal of understanding what mechanisms drive the wetting (or dewetting) process in each case. First, we examine the formation of wetting layers between nanoparticle films and highly conductive GaAs substrates for spintronic applications. In this case, the formation of a wetting layer is important for nanoparticle adhesion on the substrate surface. Wetting layers can be made by annealing these systems, which causes elemental diffusion from nanoparticles into the substrate, thereby adhesion between the nanoparticles and the substrate. Here we investigate the feasibility of forming a wetting layer underneath nanoparticles post-annealing in a system of Fe3O4 nanoparticles on a (100) GaAs substrate by studying the interface structure and composition via Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM), Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDXS). Electron Energy-Loss fine structures of the Fe-L 3,2 and O-K absorption edges were quantitatively analyzed to gain insight about the compositional gradient of the interface between the nanoparticles and the GaAs substrate. Additionally, real-space density functional theory calculations of the dynamical form factor was performed to confirm the

  7. Development studies of a novel wet oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, T.W.; Dhooge, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Many DOE waste streams and remediates contain complex and variable mixtures of organic compounds, toxic metals, and radionuclides. These materials are often dispersed in organic or inorganic matrices, such as personal protective equipment, various sludges, soils, and water. Incineration and similar combustive processes do not appear to be viable options for treatment of these waste streams due to various considerations. There is a need for non-combustion processes with a wide application range to treat the large majority of these waste forms. The non-combustion process should also be safe, effective, cost-competitive, permit-able, and preferrably mobile. This paper describes the DETOX process of organic waste oxidation

  8. Measurement of the oxidation-extraction of uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawes, B.C.

    1985-01-01

    The present invention relates to processes for the recovery of uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid and more particularly to the oxidation-extraction steps in the DEPA-TOPO process for such recovery. A more efficient use of oxidant is obtained by monitoring the redox potential during the extraction step

  9. The roles of wetting liquid in the transfer process of single layer graphene onto arbitrary substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju Hun; Yi, Junghwa; Jin, Hyeong Ki; Kim, Un Jeong; Park, Wanjun

    2013-11-01

    Wet transfer is crucial for most device structures of the proposed applications employing single layer graphene in order to take advantage of the unique physical, chemical, bio-chemical and electrical properties of the graphene. However, transfer methodologies that can be used to obtain continuous film without voids, wrinkles and cracks are limited although film perfectness critically depends on the relative surface tension of wetting liquids on the substrate. We report the importance of wetting liquid in the transfer process with a systematic study on the parameters governing film integrity in single layer graphene grown via chemical vapor deposition. Two different suspension liquids (in terms of polar character) are tested for adequacy of transfer onto SiO2 and hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDS). We found that the relative surface tension of the wetting liquid on the surfaces of the substrate is related to transfer quality. In addition, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is introduced as a good suspension liquid to HMDS, a mechanically flexible substrate.

  10. Performance of wet process method alternatives : terminal or continuous blend

    OpenAIRE

    Fontes, Liseane P. T. L.; Pereira, Paulo A. A.; Pais, Jorge C.; Trichês, Glicério

    2006-01-01

    This study presents the results of the research to investigate asphalt rubber mixtures produced with asphalt rubber binder obtained from two different processes; (i) terminal blend (produced in refinery); (ii) continuous blend (produced in laboratory). The experiment included the evaluation of fatigue and permanent deformation resistance of two gap graded mixtures (Caltrans ARHM -GG; ADOT AR-A C) and a dense gradation Asphalt Institute (AI) mix type IV) Two asphalt rubbers from terminal blend...

  11. The multidimensional causal factors of 'wet litter' in chicken-meat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Mark W; Moss, Amy F; Groves, Peter J; Wilkinson, Stuart J; Stuetz, Richard M; Selle, Peter H

    2016-08-15

    The problem of 'wet litter', which occurs primarily in grow-out sheds for meat chickens (broilers), has been recognised for nearly a century. Nevertheless, it is an increasingly important problem in contemporary chicken-meat production as wet litter and associated conditions, especially footpad dermatitis, have developed into tangible welfare issues. This is only compounded by the market demand for chicken paws and compromised bird performance. This review considers the multidimensional causal factors of wet litter. While many causal factors can be listed it is evident that the critical ones could be described as micro-environmental factors and chief amongst them is proper management of drinking systems and adequate shed ventilation. Thus, this review focuses on these environmental factors and pays less attention to issues stemming from health and nutrition. Clearly, there are times when related avian health issues of coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis cannot be overlooked and the development of efficacious vaccines for the latter disease would be advantageous. Presently, the inclusion of phytate-degrading enzymes in meat chicken diets is routine and, therefore, the implication that exogenous phytases may contribute to wet litter is given consideration. Opinion is somewhat divided as how best to counter the problem of wet litter as some see education and extension as being more beneficial than furthering research efforts. However, it may prove instructive to assess the practice of whole grain feeding in relation to litter quality and the incidence of footpad dermatitis. Additional research could investigate the relationships between dietary concentrations of key minerals and the application of exogenous enzymes with litter quality. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of radioactive contamination to agricultural products due to dry and wet deposition processes during a nuclear emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won Tae; Kim, Eun Han; Suh, Kyung Suk; Han, Moon Hee; Choi, Yong Ho; Lee, Chang Woo

    2002-01-01

    Combined with deposition model onto the ground of radionuclides, the influence of radioactive contamination to agricultural products was analyzed due to wet deposition as well as dry deposition from radioactive air concentration during a nuclear emergency. The previous dynamic food chain model, in which initial input parameter is only radionuclide concentrations on the ground, was improved for the evaluating of radioactive contamination to agricultural products from either radionuclide concentrations in air or radionuclide concentrations on the ground. As the results, in case of deposition onto the ground, wet deposition was more dominant process than dry deposition. While the contamination levels of agricultural products were dependent on the a variety of factors such as radionuclides and rainfall rate. It means that the contamination levels of agricultural products are determined from which is more dominant process between deposition on the ground and interception onto agricultural plants

  13. Multivariate statistical modelling of the pharmaceutical process of wet granulation and tableting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhuis, Johannes Arnold

    1997-01-01

    Wet granulation in high-shear mixers is a process of particle size enlargement much used in the pharmaceutical industry to improve the tableting properties of powder mixtures, such as flowability and compactibility, necessary for the large scale production of pharmaceutical talbets. ... Zie: Summary

  14. Comparison of torque measurements and near-infrared spectroscopy in characterization of a wet granulation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anna Cecilia; Luukkonen, Pirjo; Rantanen, Jukka

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare impeller torque measurements and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy in the characterization of the water addition phase of a wet granulation process. Additionally, the effect of hydrate formation during granulation on the impeller torque was investigated....... Anhydrous theophylline, alpha-lactose monohydrate, and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) were used as materials for the study. The materials and mixtures of them were granulated using purified water in a small-scale high-shear mixer. The impeller torque was registered and NIR spectra of wet samples were...... recorded at-line. The torque and the NIR baseline-corrected water absorbances increased with increasing water content. A plateau in the NIR baseline-corrected water absorbances was observed for wet masses containing MCC. This was at the region of optimal water amount for granulation according to the torque...

  15. Polymeric supported sorbents for decreasing hazardous metal ions content in wet process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zahhar, A.A.; El-Naggar, H.A.; Ahmed, M.

    2005-01-01

    Procedure for preparation of polymeric supported silica, and their usage for decreasing hazardous metal ion content in wet process phosphoric acid was developed. The procedure is based firstly on extraction silica from rice straw by alkaline treatment , secondly supporting the produced silica on binding polyacrylonitrile (PAN). The produced polymer based sorbent was used for decreasing hazardous metal ions (especially iron) present as inorganic impurities in crud Egyptian phosphoric acid (green acid). Different factors affecting the sorption equilibrium ( contact time, temperature , sorbent mass and batch factor ) were studied. Studying the sorption isotherm revealed that the adsorption data could favorably fit the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. In the dynamic study , the sorption capacity at (Cξ/Cο = 50%) was found to be 28.5 mg/g and the loaded column could be regenerated using 50ml of 0.15 M HNO 3 . The regenerated column could undergo sorption regeneration cycles up to four cycles without significant decrease in the sorption capacity , weight loss or change in the physical properties of the sorbent

  16. Oxidation-extraction of uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawes, B.C.

    1985-01-01

    The invention involves an improvement to the reductive stripping process for recovering uranium values from wet-process phosphoric acid solution, where uranium in the solution is oxidized to uranium (VI) oxidation state and then extracted from the solution by contact with a water immiscible organic solvent, by adding sufficient oxidant, hydrogen peroxide, to obtain greater than 90 percent conversion of the uranium to the uranium (VI) oxidation state to the phosphoric acid solution and simultaneously extracting the uranium (VI)

  17. Municipal solid waste processing and separation employing wet torrefaction for alternative fuel production and aluminum reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu'min, Gea Fardias; Prawisudha, Pandji; Zaini, Ilman Nuran; Aziz, Muhammad; Pasek, Ari Darmawan

    2017-09-01

    This study employs wet torrefaction process (also known as hydrothermal) at low temperature. This process simultaneously acts as waste processing and separation of mixed waste, for subsequent utilization as an alternative fuel. The process is also applied for the delamination and separation of non-recyclable laminated aluminum waste into separable aluminum and plastic. A 2.5-L reactor was used to examine the wet torrefaction process at temperatures below 200°C. It was observed that the processed mixed waste was converted into two different products: a mushy organic part and a bulky plastic part. Using mechanical separation, the two products can be separated into a granular organic product and a plastic bulk for further treatment. TGA analysis showed that no changes in the plastic composition and no intrusion from plastic fraction to the organic fraction. It can be proclaimed that both fractions have been completely separated by wet torrefaction. The separated plastic fraction product obtained from the wet torrefaction treatment also contained relatively high calorific value (approximately 44MJ/kg), therefore, justifying its use as an alternative fuel. The non-recyclable plastic fraction of laminated aluminum was observed to be delaminated and separated from its aluminum counterpart at a temperature of 170°C using an additional acetic acid concentration of 3%, leaving less than 25% of the plastic content in the aluminum part. Plastic products from both samples had high calorific values of more than 30MJ/kg, which is sufficient to be converted and used as a fuel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of chemical and biological processes for production of bioethanol. Optimization of the wet oxidation process and characterization of products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerre, A B; Skammelsen Schmidt, A

    1997-02-01

    The combination of the wet oxidation pretreatment process and alkaline hydrolysis was investigated in order to efficiently solubilize the hemicellulose, degrade the lignin, and open the solid crystalline cellulose structure of wheat straw lignocellulose without generating fermentation inhibitors. The effects of temperature, oxygen pressure, reaction time, and concentration of straw were evaluated. The degree of lignin degradation and hemicellulose solubilization increased with the reaction temperature and time. The optimum conditions were 15 minutes at 185 deg. C, producing 9.8 g/L hemicellulose. For quantification of the solubilized hemicellulose the best overall acid hydrolysis was obtained by treatment with 4 %w/v sulfuric acid for 10 minutes. The Aminex HPX-87H column was less sensitive towards impurities than the Aminex HPX-87P column. HPX-87H gave improved recovery and reproducibility, and was chosen for routine quantification of hydrolyzed hemicellulose sugars. The purity of the solid cellulose fraction also improved with higher temperature. The optimum condition for obtaining enzymatic convertible cellulose (90%) was 10 minutes at 170 deg. C using a high carbonate concentration. The hemicellulose yield and recovery were significantly reduced under these conditions indicating that a simultaneous optimal utilization of the hemicellulose and cellulose was difficult. The oxygen pressure and sodium carbonate concentration had little effect on the solubilization of hemicellulose, however, by combining wet oxidation with alkaline hydrolysis the formation of 2-furfural, a known microbial inhibitor, was minimal. Much more hemicellulose and lignin were solubilized from the straw by wet oxidation than by steaming(an alternative process). More cellulose was solubilized (and degraded) by steaming than by wet oxidation. Overall carbohydrates `losses` of 20.1% for steaming and 16.2% for wet oxidation were found. More 2-furfural was formed by steaming than by wet oxidation.

  19. Development of chemical and biological processes for production of bioethanol. Optimization of the wet oxidation process and characterization of products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerre, A.B.; Skammelsen Schmidt, A.

    1997-02-01

    The combination of the wet oxidation pretreatment process and alkaline hydrolysis was investigated in order to efficiently solubilize the hemicellulose, degrade the lignin, and open the solid crystalline cellulose structure of wheat straw lignocellulose without generating fermentation inhibitors. The effects of temperature, oxygen pressure, reaction time, and concentration of straw were evaluated. The degree of lignin degradation and hemicellulose solubilization increased with the reaction temperature and time. The optimum conditions were 15 minutes at 185 deg. C, producing 9.8 g/L hemicellulose. For quantification of the solubilized hemicellulose the best overall acid hydrolysis was obtained by treatment with 4 %w/v sulfuric acid for 10 minutes. The Aminex HPX-87H column was less sensitive towards impurities than the Aminex HPX-87P column. HPX-87H gave improved recovery and reproducibility, and was chosen for routine quantification of hydrolyzed hemicellulose sugars. The purity of the solid cellulose fraction also improved with higher temperature. The optimum condition for obtaining enzymatic convertible cellulose (90%) was 10 minutes at 170 deg. C using a high carbonate concentration. The hemicellulose yield and recovery were significantly reduced under these conditions indicating that a simultaneous optimal utilization of the hemicellulose and cellulose was difficult. The oxygen pressure and sodium carbonate concentration had little effect on the solubilization of hemicellulose, however, by combining wet oxidation with alkaline hydrolysis the formation of 2-furfural, a known microbial inhibitor, was minimal. Much more hemicellulose and lignin were solubilized from the straw by wet oxidation than by steaming(an alternative process). More cellulose was solubilized (and degraded) by steaming than by wet oxidation. Overall carbohydrates 'losses' of 20.1% for steaming and 16.2% for wet oxidation were found. More 2-furfural was formed by steaming than by wet oxidation

  20. Fatty acid composition of maize germ oil from high-oil hybrids wet-milling processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Petar Lj.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize germ was obtained by wet-milling laboratory processing of domestic high-oil maize hybrids. After separation, the germ was subjected to extraction of maize oil. Fatty acid composition of maize germ oil was determined by gas chromatography. The results showed very high levels of unsaturated fatty acids and a constant sum of oleic and linoleic acids in oils of different maize hybrids.

  1. Solid waste management practices in wet coffee processing industries of Gidabo watershed, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulsido, Mihret D; Li, Meng

    2016-07-01

    The financial and social contributions of coffee processing industries within most coffee export-based national economies like Ethiopia are generally high. The type and amount of waste produced and the waste management options adopted by these industries can have negative effects on the environment. This study investigated the solid waste management options adopted in wet coffee processing industries in the Gidabo watershed of Ethiopia. A field observation and assessment were made to identify whether the operational characteristics of the industries have any effect on the waste management options that were practiced. The investigation was conducted on 125 wet coffee processing industries about their solid waste handling techniques. Focus group discussion, structured questionnaires, key informant interview and transect walks are some of the tools employed during the investigation. Two major types of wastes, namely hull-bean-pulp blended solid waste and wastewater rich in dissolved and suspended solids were generated in the industries. Wet mills, on average, released 20.69% green coffee bean, 18.58% water and 60.74% pulp by weight. Even though these wastes are rich in organic matter and recyclables; the most favoured solid waste management options in the watershed were disposal (50.4%) and industrial or household composting (49.6%). Laxity and impulsive decision are the driving motives behind solid waste management in Gidabo watershed. Therefore, to reduce possible contamination of the environment, wastes generated during the processing of red coffee cherries, such as coffee wet mill solid wastes, should be handled properly and effectively through maximisation of their benefits with minimised losses. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Extraction of uranium from wet process phosphoric acid in centrifugal and mixer-settler batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poczynajlo, A.; Giers, M.

    1986-01-01

    Five stage countercurrent batteries were comparatively applied for the extraction of uranium from wet phosphoric acid (Chemical Works, Police) in semitechnical scale. As an extractant phase the 0.16 M equimolar solution of mono- and dinonylphenyolphosphoric acids in kerosene was used. The optimum hydrodynamic and extraction conditions for the batteries were found. Process efficiencies of the apparatus were also determined. 5 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs. (author)

  3. Pretreatment of phosphoric acid for uranium recovery by the wet phosphoric acid process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chern, S.L.P.; Chen, Y.C.L.; Chang, S.S.H.; Kuo, T.S.; Ting, G.C.M.

    1980-01-01

    The proposal deals with reprocessing of phosphoric acid arising from uranium separation according to the wet phosphoric acid process and being intended for recycling. In detail, the sludge will be removed by means of an inclined separating device containing corrugated plates, then the organic impurities are washed out with kerosene in suitable facilities, and the crude phase remaining in the settling tank will be separated from the kerosene in a separating centrifuge. The method has only got low cost of installation. (UWI) [de

  4. Effective treatment of oily scum via catalytic wet persulfate oxidation process activated by Fe2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xingzhong; Guan, Renpeng; Wu, Zhibin; Jiang, Longbo; Li, Yifu; Chen, Xiaohong; Zeng, Guangming

    2018-04-05

    Oily scum, a hazardous by-product of petroleum industry, need to be deposed urgently to reduce environmental risks. This paper introduces catalytic wet persulfate oxidation (CWPO) process in the treatment of oily scum to realize risk relief. Under the activation of heat and Fe 2+ , persulfate (PS) was decomposed into sulfate radicals and hydroxyl radicals, which played a major role on the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. The effects of wet air oxidation (WAO) and CWPO process on the degradation of oily scum were compared. In CWPO process, the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) content of oily scum was decreased from 92.63% to 16.75%, which was still up to 70.19% in WAO process. The degradation rate of TPHs in CWPO process was about 3.38 times higher than that in WAO process. The great performance of CWPO process was also confirmed by elemental analysis, which indicated that the C and H contents of oily scum were reduced significantly by CWPO process. These results indicated that CWPO process has high potential on the degradation of oily scum for environmental protection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Controlling Factors of Mercury Wet Deposition and Precipitation Concentrations in Upstate New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Z.; Mao, H.; Driscoll, C. T.

    2017-12-01

    Observations from the Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) at Huntington Wildlife Forest (HWF) suggested that a significant decline in Hg concentrations in precipitation was linked to Hg emission decreases in the United States, especially in the Northeast and Midwest, and yet Hg wet deposition has remained fairly constant over the past two decades. The present study was aimed to investigate how climatic, terrestrial, and anthropogenic factors had influenced the Hg wet deposition flux in upstate New York (NY). To achieve this, an improved Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was employed, which included state-of-the-art Hg and halogen chemistry mechanisms. A base simulation and five sensitivity simulations were conducted. The base simulation used 2010 meteorology, U.S. EPA NEI 2011, and GEOS-Chem output as initial and boundary conditions (ICs and BCs). The five sensitivity runs each changed one condition at the time as follows: 1-3) 2004, 2005, and 2007 meteorology instead of 2010, 4) NEI 2005 Hg anthropogenic emission out of NYS instead of NEI 2011, and 5) no in-state Hg anthropogenic emission. The study period of all the simulations was March - November 2010, and the domain covered the northeastern United States at 12 km resolution. As a result, compared with rural areas in NYS, Hg wet deposition and ambient Hg concentrations in urban areas were affected more significantly by in-state anthropogenic Hg emission. The in-state anthropogenic Hg emissions contributed up to 20% of Hg wet deposition at urban sites and cloud height, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and relative humidity, among which precipitation had the largest effects in most areas. Diluting effects were found in non-convective precipitation, which contributed 31-48% to changes in Hg concentration in precipitation.

  6. Enhanced Control of Mercury and other HAPs by Innovative Modifications to Wet FGD Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargrove, O.W.; Carey, T.R.; Richardson, C.F.; Skarupa, R.C.; Meserole, F.B.; Rhudy, R.G.; Brown, Thomas D.

    1997-01-01

    The overall objective of this project was to learn more about controlling emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from coal-fired power plants that are equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project was included by FETC as a Phase I project in its Mega-PRDA program. Phase I of this project focused on three research areas. These areas in order of priority were: (1) Catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury; (2) Enhanced particulate-phase HAPs removal by electrostatic charging of liquid droplets; and (3) Enhanced mercury removal by addition of additives to FGD process liquor. Mercury can exist in two forms in utility flue gas--as elemental mercury and as oxidized mercury (predominant form believed to be HgCl 2 ). Previous test results have shown that wet scrubbers effectively remove the oxidized mercury from the gas but are ineffective in removing elemental mercury. Recent improvements in mercury speciation techniques confirm this finding. Catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury is of interest in cases where a wet scrubber exists or is planned for SO 2 control. If a loW--cost process could be developed to oxidize all of the elemental mercury in the flue gas, then the maximum achievable mercury removal across the existing or planned wet scrubber would increase. Other approaches for improving control of HAPs included a method for improving particulate removal across the FGD process and the use of additives to increase mercury solubility. This paper discusses results related only to catalytic oxidation of elemental mercury

  7. Method for the recovery of uranium from phosphoric acid, originating from the wet-process of uraniferous phosphate ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrih, R.Z.; Rickard, R.S.; Carrington, O.F.

    1978-01-01

    Improvement in the process for recoverying uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid solution derived from the acidulation of uraniferous phosphate ores by the use of two ion exchange circuits is described. (Auth.)

  8. Simulation of biodiesel production using hydro-esterification process from wet microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradana Yano Surya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, algae have received a lot of attention as a new biomass source for the production of renewable energy, such as biodiesel. Conventionally, biodiesel is made through esterification or transesterification of oils where the process involves a catalyst and alcohol to be reacted in a reactor. However, this process is energy intensive for drying and extraction step. To overcome this situation, we studied simulation of a new route of hydro-esterification process which is combine hydrolysis and esterification processes for biodiesel production from wet microalgae. Firstly, wet microalgae treated by hydrolyzer to produce fatty acids (FAs, separated with separator, and then mixed with methanol and esterified at subcritical condition to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs while H2SO4 conducted as the catalyst. Energy and material balance of conventional and hydrolysis-esterification process was evaluated by Aspen Plus. Simulation result indicated that conventional route is energy demanding process, requiring 4.40 MJ/L biodiesel produced. In contrast, the total energy consumption of hydrolysis-esterification method can be reduced significantly into 2.43 MJ/L biodiesel. Based on the energy consumption comparison, hydro-esterification process is less costly than conventional process for biodiesel production.

  9. Synthesis of Monodispersed Spherical Single Crystalline Silver Particles by Wet Chemical Process; Shisshiki kagakuho ni yoru tanbunsankyujo tankesshoginryushi no gose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueyama, Ryousuke.; Harada, Masahiro.; Ueyama, Tamotsu.; Harada, Akio. [Daiken Chemistry Industry Corporation, Osaka (Japan); Yamamoto, Takashi. [National Defence Academy, Kanagawa (Japan). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Shiosaki, Tadashi. [Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Nara (Japan). Graduate School of Materials Science; Kuribayashi, Kiyoshi. [Teikyo University of Science and Technology, Yamanashi (Japan). Dept. of Materials

    1999-01-01

    Ultrafine silver monodispersed particle were prepared by wet chemical process. To decrease the reduction speed, an important factor in generating monodispersed particles is to control the following three factors: synthesis temperature, concentration of aggregation-relaxing agent added, and concentration of silver nitrate solution. Synthesis of monodispersed spherical Ag particles, used as metal powders for electrode, became possible using the nucleus grouwth reaction method. This process also allowed the control of the diameter of the powder particles. The silver particles were distributed in ta narrow particle diameter range with on average of 0.5 {mu}m. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that single-crystalline silver particles were prepared by the present method. (author)

  10. Recovering of uranium from phosphoric acid produced by the wet process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreiro, A.J.; Lyon, W.L.; Holleman, R.A.; Randell, C.C.

    1977-01-01

    Process for recovering uranium as from an aqueous solution of phosphoric acid arising from a wet process, with a scrubbing agent essentially composed of a hydrocarbon whose boiling point is situated between 150 0 C and 300 0 C, which reacts with the contaminents formed in the sludge in the phosphoric acid, in an efficient enough quantity to wash the contamination products forming the phosphoric acid sludge, give a sludge phase and a purified phosphoric acid phase, after which the sludge phase is extracted [fr

  11. Semitechnical studies of uranium recovery from wet process phosphoric acid by liquid-liquid-extraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poczynajlo, A.; Wlodarski, R.; Giers, M.

    1987-01-01

    A semitechnical installation for uranium recovery from wet process phosphoric acid has been built. The installation is based on technological process comprising 2 extraction cycles, the first with a mixture of mono- and dinonylphenylphosphoric acids (NPPA) and the second with a synergic mixture of di-/2-ethylhexyl/-phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) and trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO). The installation was set going and the studies on the concentration distributions of uranium and other components of phosphoric acid have been performed for all technological circuits. 23 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs. (author)

  12. Calculating Soil Wetness, Evapotranspiration and Carbon Cycle Processes Over Large Grid Areas Using a New Scaling Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Piers

    2012-01-01

    Soil wetness typically shows great spatial variability over the length scales of general circulation model (GCM) grid areas (approx 100 km ), and the functions relating evapotranspiration and photosynthetic rate to local-scale (approx 1 m) soil wetness are highly non-linear. Soil respiration is also highly dependent on very small-scale variations in soil wetness. We therefore expect significant inaccuracies whenever we insert a single grid area-average soil wetness value into a function to calculate any of these rates for the grid area. For the particular case of evapotranspiration., this method - use of a grid-averaged soil wetness value - can also provoke severe oscillations in the evapotranspiration rate and soil wetness under some conditions. A method is presented whereby the probability distribution timction(pdf) for soil wetness within a grid area is represented by binning. and numerical integration of the binned pdf is performed to provide a spatially-integrated wetness stress term for the whole grid area, which then permits calculation of grid area fluxes in a single operation. The method is very accurate when 10 or more bins are used, can deal realistically with spatially variable precipitation, conserves moisture exactly and allows for precise modification of the soil wetness pdf after every time step. The method could also be applied to other ecological problems where small-scale processes must be area-integrated, or upscaled, to estimate fluxes over large areas, for example in treatments of the terrestrial carbon budget or trace gas generation.

  13. Prevalence of Salmonella in poultry processing environments in wet markets in Penang and Perlis, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidaullah, Hafiz; Abirami, Nadarajan; Shamila-Syuhada, Ahamed Kamal; Chuah, Li-Oon; Nurul, Huda; Tan, Teik Pei; Abidin, Farah Wahida Zainal; Rusul, Gulam

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of various Salmonella serotypes in chickens, carcass contact surfaces as well as environmental samples collected from wet markets and small scale processing plant. A total of 182 poultry and environmental samples were collected at random on separate occasions from wet markets and small scale processing plant, during the period of October 2014 to July 2015 in Penang and Perlis, Malaysia. The samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella using ISO 6579:2002 conventional culture-based method. Presumptive Salmonella colonies were subjected to various biochemical tests (such as triple sugar iron and lysine iron test), serologically confirmed using polyvalent O and H antisera and further serotyped at Public Health Laboratory, Ministry of Health, Perak, Malaysia. Salmonella serotypes were isolated from 161 out of 182 samples (88.46%) with 100% prevalence in the whole chicken carcass and chicken cuts - as well as transport crate, cage, drum, knife, chopping board, display table, floor, bench wash water, wash water, and drain water. Salmonella was isolated from 91.67%, 83.33%, and 66.67% of defeathering machines, drain swabs, and apron, respectively. 17 serotypes were isolated in this study with Salmonella Albany (57/161), Salmonella Corvallis (42/161), and Salmonella Brancaster (37/161) being the predominant serovars. The most carcass contact and environmental samples collected along the wet market chicken processing line were consistently contaminated with Salmonella . This indicates that Salmonella has established itself in poultry processing environments by colonizing the surfaces of the equipment and survives in these environments by establishing biofilms. Our results highlight the need of implementing strict hygiene and sanitation standards to reduce the incidence of Salmonella . The prevalence of Salmonella in poultry can be reduced effectively by identifying and eliminating the sources and contamination

  14. Prevalence of Salmonella in poultry processing environments in wet markets in Penang and Perlis, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Nidaullah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of various Salmonella serotypes in chickens, carcass contact surfaces as well as environmental samples collected from wet markets and small scale processing plant. Materials and Methods: A total of 182 poultry and environmental samples were collected at random on separate occasions from wet markets and small scale processing plant, during the period of October 2014 to July 2015 in Penang and Perlis, Malaysia. The samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella using ISO 6579:2002 conventional culture-based method. Presumptive Salmonella colonies were subjected to various biochemical tests (such as triple sugar iron and lysine iron test, serologically confirmed using polyvalent O and H antisera and further serotyped at Public Health Laboratory, Ministry of Health, Perak, Malaysia. Results: Salmonella serotypes were isolated from 161 out of 182 samples (88.46% with 100% prevalence in the whole chicken carcass and chicken cuts - as well as transport crate, cage, drum, knife, chopping board, display table, floor, bench wash water, wash water, and drain water. Salmonella was isolated from 91.67%, 83.33%, and 66.67% of defeathering machines, drain swabs, and apron, respectively. 17 serotypes were isolated in this study with Salmonella Albany (57/161, Salmonella Corvallis (42/161, and Salmonella Brancaster (37/161 being the predominant serovars. Conclusion: The most carcass contact and environmental samples collected along the wet market chicken processing line were consistently contaminated with Salmonella. This indicates that Salmonella has established itself in poultry processing environments by colonizing the surfaces of the equipment and survives in these environments by establishing biofilms. Our results highlight the need of implementing strict hygiene and sanitation standards to reduce the incidence of Salmonella. The prevalence of Salmonella in poultry can be reduced effectively

  15. Prevalence of Salmonella in poultry processing environments in wet markets in Penang and Perlis, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidaullah, Hafiz; Abirami, Nadarajan; Shamila-Syuhada, Ahamed Kamal; Chuah, Li-Oon; Nurul, Huda; Tan, Teik Pei; Abidin, Farah Wahida Zainal; Rusul, Gulam

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of various Salmonella serotypes in chickens, carcass contact surfaces as well as environmental samples collected from wet markets and small scale processing plant. Materials and Methods: A total of 182 poultry and environmental samples were collected at random on separate occasions from wet markets and small scale processing plant, during the period of October 2014 to July 2015 in Penang and Perlis, Malaysia. The samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella using ISO 6579:2002 conventional culture-based method. Presumptive Salmonella colonies were subjected to various biochemical tests (such as triple sugar iron and lysine iron test), serologically confirmed using polyvalent O and H antisera and further serotyped at Public Health Laboratory, Ministry of Health, Perak, Malaysia. Results: Salmonella serotypes were isolated from 161 out of 182 samples (88.46%) with 100% prevalence in the whole chicken carcass and chicken cuts - as well as transport crate, cage, drum, knife, chopping board, display table, floor, bench wash water, wash water, and drain water. Salmonella was isolated from 91.67%, 83.33%, and 66.67% of defeathering machines, drain swabs, and apron, respectively. 17 serotypes were isolated in this study with Salmonella Albany (57/161), Salmonella Corvallis (42/161), and Salmonella Brancaster (37/161) being the predominant serovars. Conclusion: The most carcass contact and environmental samples collected along the wet market chicken processing line were consistently contaminated with Salmonella. This indicates that Salmonella has established itself in poultry processing environments by colonizing the surfaces of the equipment and survives in these environments by establishing biofilms. Our results highlight the need of implementing strict hygiene and sanitation standards to reduce the incidence of Salmonella. The prevalence of Salmonella in poultry can be reduced effectively by identifying

  16. Preliminary Evaluation of Cesium Distribution for Wet Sieving Process Planned for Soil Decontamination in Japan - 13104

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enokida, Y.; Tanada, Y.; Hirabayashi, D. [Graduate School of Engineering, 1 Furo-cho Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken, 4648603 (Japan); Sawada, K. [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, 1 Furo-cho Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken, 4648603 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    For the purpose of decontaminating radioactive cesium from a huge amount of soil, which has been estimated to be 1.2x10{sup 8} m{sup 3} by excavating to a 5-cm depth from the surface of Fukushima Prefecture where a severe nuclear accident occurred at TEPCO's power generating site and has emitted a significant amount of radioactive materials, mainly radioactive cesium, a wet sieving process was selected as one of effective methods available in Japan. Some private companies have demonstrated this process for soil treatment in the Fukushima area by testing at their plants. The results were very promising, and a full-fledged application is expected to follow. In the present study, we spiked several aqueous samples containing soil collected from an industrial wet sieving plant located near our university for the recycling of construction wastes with non-radioactive cesium hydroxide. The present study provides scientific data concerning the effectiveness in volume reduction of the contaminated soil by a wet sieving process as well as the cesium distribution between the liquid phase and clay minerals for each sub-process of the full-scale one, but a simulating plant equipped with a process of coagulating sedimentation and operational safety fundamentals for the plant. Especially for the latter aspect, the study showed that clay minerals of submicron size strongly bind a high content of cesium, which was only slightly removed by coagulation with natural sedimentation (1 G) nor centrifugal sedimentation (3,700 G) and some of the cesium may be transferred to the effluent or recycled water. By applying ultracentrifugation (257,000 G), most of submicron clay minerals containing cesium was removed, and the cesium amount which might be transferred to the effluent or recycled water, could be reduced to less than 2.3 % of the original design by the addition of a cesium barrier consisting of ultracentrifugation or a hollow fiber membrane. (authors)

  17. Finite element simulation of dynamic wetting flows as an interface formation process

    KAUST Repository

    Sprittles, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    A mathematically challenging model of dynamic wetting as a process of interface formation has been, for the first time, fully incorporated into a numerical code based on the finite element method and applied, as a test case, to the problem of capillary rise. The motivation for this work comes from the fact that, as discovered experimentally more than a decade ago, the key variable in dynamic wetting flows - the dynamic contact angle - depends not just on the velocity of the three-phase contact line but on the entire flow field/geometry. Hence, to describe this effect, it becomes necessary to use the mathematical model that has this dependence as its integral part. A new physical effect, termed the \\'hydrodynamic resist to dynamic wetting\\', is discovered where the influence of the capillary\\'s radius on the dynamic contact angle, and hence on the global flow, is computed. The capabilities of the numerical framework are then demonstrated by comparing the results to experiments on the unsteady capillary rise, where excellent agreement is obtained. Practical recommendations on the spatial resolution required by the numerical scheme for a given set of non-dimensional similarity parameters are provided, and a comparison to asymptotic results available in limiting cases confirms that the code is converging to the correct solution. The appendix gives a user-friendly step-by-step guide specifying the entire implementation and allowing the reader to easily reproduce all presented results, including the benchmark calculations. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  18. Uranium recovery from wet-process phosphoric acid with octylphenyl acid phosphate. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, W.D.; McKamey, D.R.; Baes, C.F.

    1980-01-01

    Studies were continued of a process for recovering uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid with octylphenyl acid phosphate (OPAP), a mixture of mono- and dioctylphenyl phosphoric acids. The mixture contained at least nine impurities, the principal one being octyl phenol, and also material that readily hydrolyzed to octyl phenol and orthophosphoric acid. The combination of mono- and dioctylphenyl phosphoric acids was the principal uranium extractant, but some of the impurities also extracted uranium. Hydrolysis of the extractant had little effect on uranium extraction, as did the presence of moderate concentrations of octyl phenol and trioctylphenyl phosphate. Diluent choice among refined kerosenes, naphthenic mixtures, and paraffinic hydrocarbons also had little effect on uranium extraction, but extraction was much lower when an aromatic diluent was used. Purified OPAP fractions were sparingly soluble in aliphatic hydrocarbon diluents. The solubility was increased by the presence of impurities such as octyl phenol, and by the addition of water or an acidic solution to the extractant-diluent mixture. In continuous stability tests, extractant loss by distribution to the aqueous phase was much less to wet-process phosphoric acid than to reagent grade acid. Uranium recovery from wet-process acid decreased steadily because of the combined effects of extractant poisoning and precipitation of the extractant as a complex with ferric iron. Unaccountable losses of organic phase volume occurred in the continuous tests. While attempts to recover the lost organic phase were unsuccessful, the test results indicate it was not lost by entrainment or dissolution in the phosphoric acid solutions. 21 figures, 8 tables

  19. Double-layer optical fiber coating analysis in MHD flow of an elastico-viscous fluid using wet-on-wet coating process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Khan

    Full Text Available Modern optical fibers require a double-layer coating on the glass fiber in order to provide protection from signal attenuation and mechanical damage. The most important plastic resins used in wires and optical fibers are plastic polyvinyl chloride (PVC and low and high density polyethylene (LDPE/HDPE, nylon and Polysulfone. One of the most important things which affect the final product after processing is the design of the coating die. In the present study, double-layer optical fiber coating is performed using melt polymer satisfying Oldroyd 8-constant fluid model in a pressure type die with the effect of magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD. Wet-on-wet coating process is applied for double-layer optical fiber coating. The coating process in the coating die is modeled as a simple two-layer Couette flow of two immiscible fluids in an annulus with an assigned pressure gradient. Based on the assumptions of fully developed laminar and MHD flow, the Oldroyd 8-constant model of non-Newtonian fluid of two immiscible resin layers is modeled. The governing nonlinear equations are solved analytically by the new technique of Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM. The convergence of the series solution is established. The results are also verified by the Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM. The effect of important parameters such as magnetic parameter Mi, the dilatant constant α, the Pseodoplastic constant β, the radii ratio δ, the pressure gradient Ω, the speed of fiber optics V, and the viscosity ratio κ on the velocity profiles, thickness of coated fiber optics, volume flow rate, and shear stress on the fiber optics are investigated. At the end the result of the present work is also compared with the experimental results already available in the literature by taking non-Newtonian parameters tends to zero. Keywords: Non-Newtonian fluid, Oldroyd 8-constant fluid, MHD flow, Double-layer fiber coating, OHAM, ADM, Wet-on-wet coating process

  20. Investigation on the effect of seawater to hydraulic property and wetting process of bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Takuma

    2004-01-01

    On high-level waste disposal, bentonite is one of the most promising material for buffer and backfill material. The hydraulic properties and wetting process of bentonite are important not only for barrier performance assessment but also for prediction of waste disposal environment, such as resaturation time and thermal distribution. In Japan, we should consider the effect of seawater for bentonite, because radioactive waste will be disposed of in coastal area and in marine sediment where seawater remained. However, it is not enough to understand the effect of seawater. Therefore, experimental study was conducted to investigate the effect of seawater on the hydraulic conductivity and wetting process of bentonite. The effect of seawater on hydraulic conductivity is significant for Na-bentonite, the hydraulic conductivity of Na-bentonite in seawater is one order to magnitude higher than that in distilled water. On the other hand, the hydraulic conductivity of Ca-bentonite is not influenced by seawater. The hydraulic conductivity of bentonite decreases as effective montmorillonite density increases. The effective montmorillonite density is ratio between the weight of montmorillonite and volume of porosity and montmorillonite. The hydraulic conductivity of bentonite is close related to swelling property since the hydraulic conductivity decrease as the swelling pressure increase. Wetting process of compacted bentonite could be evaluated by diffusion phenomena since infiltration rate and change of saturation rate and represented by diffusion equation. The effect of seawater on water diffusivity is significant for Na-type bentonite with low effective montmorillonite density. Except for that condition, the water diffusivity of bentonite is almost constant and is not influenced by effective montmorillonite density and seawater. (author)

  1. Process options for treatment of organic containing ILWs by wet oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    The process chemistry, applications and experience with several wet oxidation options are reviewed along with criteria for the selection of viable systems and plant designs, covering a range of organic wastes, including solvents, cellulosic filters, chelant decontamination reagents and ion exchange resins. The use of hydrogen peroxide to treat water-cooled reactor residues containing mixed inorganic and organic filter materials with ion exchange resins is examined in further detail along with treatment of secondary arisings. The technical and financial justifications for treatment are examined along with the engineering requirements to retro-fit the required plant to an existing cement encapsulation facility. (author)

  2. Rapid, cool sintering of wet processed yttria-stabilized zirconia ceramic electrolyte thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jun-Sik; Kim, Dug-Joong; Chung, Wan-Ho; Lim, Yonghyun; Kim, Hak-Sung; Kim, Young-Beom

    2017-01-01

    Here we report a photonic annealing process for yttria-stabilized zirconia films, which are one of the most well-known solid-state electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Precursor films were coated using a wet-chemical method with a simple metal-organic precursor solution and directly annealed at standard pressure and temperature by two cycles of xenon flash lamp irradiation. The residual organics were almost completely decomposed in the first pre-annealing step, and the fluorite cr...

  3. Noncontact COS charge analysis for in-line monitoring of wet cleaning processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiafang; Juang, Min; Tai, Sung-Shan; Chen, Kuo-in; Wossen, Ejigu; Horner, Gregory

    1998-08-01

    Contamination levels in chemical cleaning equipment and wafer cleanliness in general are very critical to semiconductor manufacturers. In this work, a Keithley Instruments non contact electrical tester (Quantox) is used to measure the mobile ion (Qm) contamination in a variety of cleaning processes. Results show that photoresist strip cleaning process has a higher mobile ion concentration than standard pre-diffusion cleaning process. RCA1, RCA2 and HF solutions mapping measured by the Quantox indicates some negative static charges on the surface after cleaning. This negative field appears to assist Qm removal during wet chemical cleaning. The dependence of flatband voltage and other oxide charges on various cleaning processes has also been investigated using the Quantox. The data suggests that a dipole layer has been formed by a surface reaction during chemical cleaning.

  4. The extraction of uranium from wet process phosphoric acid using a liquid surfactant membrane system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickens, N.; Davies, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid membrane extraction process is examined for the extraction of uranium from wet process phosphoric acid. Uranium is present in the acid in concentrations up to 100 ppm which in principle makes it ideal for treatment with a membrane process. The membrane system studied is based on extraction using DEHPA-TOPO reagents which are contained within the organic phase of a water in oil emulsion. Formulations of the emulsion membrane system have been studied, the limitations of acid temperature, P 2 O 5 concentration and solid dispersed impurities in the acid have been studied in laboratory batch experiments and in a continuous pilot plant unit capable of treating 5l of concentrated acid per minute. Data from the pilot plant work has been used to develop a flowsheet for a commercial unit based on this process. (author)

  5. Culture-Dependent and -Independent Methods to Investigate the Predominant Microorganisms Associated with Wet Processed Coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaomin; Dong, Honghong; Yang, Pan; Yang, Ruijuan; Lu, Jun; Lv, Jie; Sheng, Jun

    2016-08-01

    The fermentation process of Yunnan arabica coffee is a typical wet fermentation. Its excellent quality is closely related to microbes in the process of fermentation. The purpose of this study was to isolate and identify the microorganisms in the wet method of coffee processing in Yunnan Province, China. Microbial community structure and dominant bacterial species were evaluated by traditional cultivated separation method and PCR-DGGE technology, and were further analyzed in combination with the changes of organic acid content, activity of pectinase, and physical parameters (pH and temperature). A large number of microorganisms which can produce pectinase were found. Among them, Enterobacter cowanii, Pantoea agglomerans, Enterobacteriaceae bacterium, and Rahnella aquatilis were the predominant gram-negative bacteria, Bacillus cereus was the predominant gram-positive bacterium, Pichia kluyveri, Hanseniaspora uvarum, and Pichia fermentans were the predominant yeasts, and all those are pectinase-producing microorganisms. As for the contents of organic acids, oxalic was the highest, followed by acetic and lactic acids. Butyrate and propionate, which were unfavorable during the fermentation period, were barely discovered.

  6. Process analysis and modeling of a single-step lutein extraction method for wet microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Mengyue; Wang, Yuruihan; Bassi, Amarjeet

    2017-11-01

    Lutein is a commercial carotenoid with potential health benefits. Microalgae are alternative sources for the lutein production in comparison to conventional approaches using marigold flowers. In this study, a process analysis of a single-step simultaneous extraction, saponification, and primary purification process for free lutein production from wet microalgae biomass was carried out. The feasibility of binary solvent mixtures for wet biomass extraction was successfully demonstrated, and the extraction kinetics of lutein from chloroplast in microalgae were first evaluated. The effects of types of organic solvent, solvent polarity, cell disruption method, and alkali and solvent usage on lutein yields were examined. A mathematical model based on Fick's second law of diffusion was applied to model the experimental data. The mass transfer coefficients were used to estimate the extraction rates. The extraction rate was found more significantly related with alkali ratio to solvent than to biomass. The best conditions for extraction efficiency were found to be pre-treatment with ultrasonication at 0.5 s working cycle per second, react 0.5 h in 0.27 L/g solvent to biomass ratio, and 1:3 ether/ethanol (v/v) with 1.25 g KOH/L. The entire process can be controlled within 1 h and yield over 8 mg/g lutein, which is more economical for scale-up.

  7. Design Of A Small-Scale Hulling Machine For Improved Wet-Processed Coffee.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeleke

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The method of primary processing of coffee is a vital determinant of quality and price. Wet processing method produces higher quality beans but is very labourious. This work outlines the design of a small scale cost-effective ergonomic and easily maintained and operated coffee hulling machine that can improve quality and productivity of green coffee beans. The machine can be constructed from locally available materials at a relatively low cost of about NGN 140000.00 with cheap running cost. The beaters are made from rubber strip which can deflect when in contact with any obstruction causing little or no stresses on drum members and reducing the risk of damage to both the beans and machine. The machine is portable and detachable which make it fit to be owned by a group of farmers who can move it from one farm to the other making affordability and running cost easier. The easily affordable and relatively low running cost may be further reduced by the fact that the machine is powered by 3.0 Hp petrol engine which is suitable for other purposes among the rural dwellers. The eventual construction of the machine will encourage more farmers to go into wet processing of coffee and reduce the foreign exchange hitherto lost to this purpose.

  8. Wet separation processes as method to separate limestone and oil shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurme, Martin; Karu, Veiko

    2015-04-01

    Biggest oil shale industry is located in Estonia. Oil shale usage is mainly for electricity generation, shale oil generation and cement production. All these processes need certain quality oil shale. Oil shale seam have interlayer limestone layers. To use oil shale in production, it is needed to separate oil shale and limestone. A key challenge is find separation process when we can get the best quality for all product types. In oil shale separation typically has been used heavy media separation process. There are tested also different types of separation processes before: wet separation, pneumatic separation. Now oil shale industry moves more to oil production and this needs innovation methods for separation to ensure fuel quality and the changes in quality. The pilot unit test with Allmineral ALLJIG have pointed out that the suitable new innovation way for oil shale separation can be wet separation with gravity, where material by pulsating water forming layers of grains according to their density and subsequently separates the heavy material (limestone) from the stratified material (oil shale)bed. Main aim of this research is to find the suitable separation process for oil shale, that the products have highest quality. The expected results can be used also for developing separation processes for phosphorite rock or all others, where traditional separation processes doesn't work property. This research is part of the study Sustainable and environmentally acceptable Oil shale mining No. 3.2.0501.11-0025 http://mi.ttu.ee/etp and the project B36 Extraction and processing of rock with selective methods - http://mi.ttu.ee/separation; http://mi.ttu.ee/miningwaste/

  9. [Wet work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta; Chomiczewska, Dorota; Krecisz, Beata

    2010-01-01

    Wet work is one of the most important risk factors of occupational skin diseases. Exposure of hands to the wet environment for more than 2 hours daily, wearing moisture-proof protective gloves for a corresponding period of time or necessity to wash hands frequently lead to the disruption of epidermal stratum corneum, damage to skin barrier function and induction of irritant contact dermatitis. It may also promote penetration of allergens into the skin and increase the risk of sensitization to occupational allergens. Exposure to wet work plays a significant role in occupations, such as hairdressers and barbers, nurses and other health care workers, cleaning staff, food handlers and metalworkers. It is more common among women because many occupations involving wet work are female-dominated. The incidence of wet-work-induced occupational skin diseases can be reduced by taking appropriate preventive measures. These include identification of high-risk groups, education of workers, organization of work enabling to minimize the exposure to wet work, use of personal protective equipment and skin care after work.

  10. Rapid, cool sintering of wet processed yttria-stabilized zirconia ceramic electrolyte thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun-Sik; Kim, Dug-Joong; Chung, Wan-Ho; Lim, Yonghyun; Kim, Hak-Sung; Kim, Young-Beom

    2017-09-29

    Here we report a photonic annealing process for yttria-stabilized zirconia films, which are one of the most well-known solid-state electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Precursor films were coated using a wet-chemical method with a simple metal-organic precursor solution and directly annealed at standard pressure and temperature by two cycles of xenon flash lamp irradiation. The residual organics were almost completely decomposed in the first pre-annealing step, and the fluorite crystalline phases and good ionic conductivity were developed during the second annealing step. These films showed properties comparable to those of thermally annealed films. This process is much faster than conventional annealing processes (e.g. halogen furnaces); a few seconds compared to tens of hours, respectively. The significance of this work includes the treatment of solid-state electrolyte oxides for SOFCs and the demonstration of the feasibility of other oxide components for solid-state energy devices.

  11. PREFACE: Dynamics of wetting Dynamics of wetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grest, Gary S.; Oshanin, Gleb; Webb, Edmund B., III

    2009-11-01

    of their continuum model via comparison with molecular dynamics simulations.Bertrand et al use large scale molecular dynamics simulations to examine fundamental questions about wetting dynamics and how they depend upon interactions between a liquid drop and solid substrate; in particular, atomic scale mechanisms directly associated with the molecular kinetic theory of wetting are observed and quantified. Sun et al explore, by molecular dynamics simulations, atomistic mechanisms of high temperature contact line advancement for a rapidly spreading liquid droplet. Starov et al discuss general aspects of surface forces and wetting phenomena, while Courbin et al present anoverview of diverse dynamical processes ranging from inertial spreading to viscous imbibition. Mukhopadhyay et al examine the effect of Marangoni and centrifugal forces on the wetting dynamics of thin liquid films and drops. Willis et al analyze an enhanced droplet spreading due to thermal fluctuations. How wetting and contact line dynamics depend upon the complexity of the structure in the liquid is interesting both academically and technologically; Delabre et al illustrate this with a study of wetting of liquid crystals and the role of molecular scale organization. In addition, Mechkov et al explore this realm by studying post-Tanner spreading for nematic droplets and, in general, post-Tanner spreading of liquid droplets governed by the contact line-tension effects. Liang et al focus on spreading dynamics of power-law fluid droplets, while Wei et al discuss dynamics of wetting in viscous Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. Yin et al discuss an important issue of reactive wetting in metal-metal systems. We hope that the articles gathered here will permit readers to understand the wide range of condensed matter systems impacted by wetting kinetics and the many complicating factors that emerge in describing contact line dynamics for realistic materials. We wish to thank all the contributing authors for

  12. Development of an improved two-cycle process for recovering uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.M.; Chen, H.J.; Tsai, Y.M.; Lee, T.W.; Ting, G.

    1987-01-01

    An improved two-cycle separation process for the recovery of uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid by extraction with bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) plus dibutyl butylphosphonate (DBBP) in kerosene has been developed and demonstrated successfully in bench-scale, continuous mixer-settler tests. The sulfuric acid and water scrubbing steps for the recycled extraction in the second cycle solve the problems of the contamination and dilution of the phosphoric acid by the ammonium ion and water and also avoid the formation of undesirable phosphatic precipitates during the subsequent extraction of uranium by recycled organic extractant

  13. Mechanistic modelling of fluidized bed drying processes of wet porous granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F.C.; De Beer, Thomas; Gernaey, Krist

    2011-01-01

    depending on the geometry of the gas inlet, the gas velocity, characteristics of the particles, the dryer design, etc. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) allows to model this behaviour. Moreover, turbulence can be modelled using several approaches: Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes Equations (RANS) or Large...... are powerful tools to gain process insight and eventually develop well-controlled processes. The level of detail embedded in such a model depends on the goal of the model. Several models have therefore been proposed in the literature and are reviewed here. The drying behaviour of one single granule, a porous...... particle, can be described using the continuum approach, the pore network modelling method and the shrinkage of the diameter of the wet core approach. As several granules dry at a drying rate dependent on the gas temperature, gas velocity, porosity, etc., the moisture content of a batch of granules...

  14. Wet and dry deposition and resuspension of AFCT/TFCT fuel processing radionuclides. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slinn, W.G.N.; Katen, P.C.; Wolf, M.A.; Loveland, W.D.; Radke, L.F.; Miller, E.L.; Ghannam, L.J.; Reynolds, B.W.; Vickers, D.

    1979-09-01

    After short summary and introductory chapters, Chapter IV contains a critical analysis of available parameterizations for resuspension and for wet and dry removal processes and recommends interim parameterizations for use in radiation dose calculations. Chapter V describes methods and experimental results from field studies of in-cloud vs below-cloud scavenging, precipitation efficiency, and modifications of aerosols by clouds. In Chapter VI are contained descriptions of methods and results from four different approaches to the problem of measuring the dry deposition velocities of submicron aerosol particles depositing on vegetation. Chapter VII describes experimental results from a study of resuspension and weathering of tracer aerosol particles deposited on soil, grass and gravel; typical resuspension rates were found to be of the order of 10 -8 s -1 and it is recommended that the concept of weathering be reassessed. In Chapter VIII, National Weather Service data are used to obtain Lagrangian statistics for use in a regional-scale study of wet and dry removal. Chapter IX develops new concepts in reservoir models for application at regional to global scales. In the final chapter are some comments about the results found in this study and recommendations for future research

  15. Biogenic amine profile in unripe Arabica coffee beans processed according to dry and wet methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Eduardo C; Pereira, Rosemary G F A; Borém, Flávio M; Mendes, Eulália; de Lima, Renato R; Fernandes, José O; Casal, Susana

    2012-04-25

    Immature coffee fruit processing contributes to a high amount of defective beans, which determines a significant amount of low-quality coffee sold in the Brazilian internal market. Unripe bean processing was tested, taking the levels of bioactive amines as criteria for evaluating the extent of fermentation and establishing the differences between processing methods. The beans were processed by the dry method after being mechanically depulped immediately after harvest or after a 12 h resting period in a dry pile or immersed in water. Seven bioactive amines were quantified: putrescine, spermine, spermidine, serotonin, cadaverine, histamine, and tyramine, with global amounts ranging from 71.8 to 80.3 mg/kg. The levels of spermine and spermidine were lower in the unripe depulped coffee than in the natural coffee. The specific conditions of dry and wet processing also influenced cadaverine levels, and histamine was reduced in unripe depulped coffee. A resting period of 12 h does not induce significant alteration on the beans and can be improved if performed in water. These results confirm that peeling immature coffee can decrease fermentation processes while providing more uniform drying, thus reducing the number of defects and potentially increasing beverage quality.

  16. Study on Factors of Favorable Wet Cotton Hand Towels “Oshibori”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeta, Yasuhiro; Kitamoto, Takuma; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Kasuga, Masao

    In the present study, we evaluated important factors of the feelings of comfort associated with wet cotton hand towels, or oshibori. First, the following adjectives were extracted as words used to evaluate the characteristics of the oshibori: “large,” “pretty,” “comfortable,” “high-grade,” “shapely,” “soft,” “favorite,” “thick,” “clean,” “moist,” “luxurious,” “heavy,” “strong,” “safe,” “good-touch,” and “rare.” We then conducted a subjective evaluation of 25 kinds of oshibori of various sizes and thicknesses. Forty males and twenty-four females, ranging in age from their twenties to fifties, participated in the experiment. Each subject evaluated the oshibori by grading them from one to five based on the extracted descriptive characteristics. Factor analysis was conducted on the experimental results and the following three factors were extracted; the first factor defined as “dignity factor,” the second factor defined as “preference factor,” and the third factor defined as “touch factor.” The score for dignity increased as the size of the oshibori increased. The score for preference was high when the size of the oshibori was between 25 cm × 25 cm and 30 cm × 30 cm. These results suggest that subjects felt high-class if the size of the oshibori was greater than 30 cm × 30 cm, but subjects most preferred oshibori that were between 25 cm × 25 cm and 30 cm × 30 cm. No notable trend was found between the thickness of oshibori and the three factors. We then analyzed the experimental data focusing on the following viewpoints; “gender” and “generation.” of the subjects, and discussed how these factors effected on the feelings of oshibori using the Mann-Whitney U test and the Kruskal-Wallis H test. The analyzed results show that the female subjects tended to evaluate more highly on the evaluation words of “thick,” “moist,” and “heavy,” that the evaluations of “large,”

  17. Wet-Lay Process - A Novel Approach to Scalable Fabrication of Tissue Scaffolds and Reinforcement Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Andrew

    Fibrous materials received a great deal of interest in the fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine due to the beneficial cell-interactions and tunable properties for various biomedical applications. These materials are highly advantageous as they provide a large surface area for cellular attachment, proliferation, high porosity values for cellular in-growth, and the ability to modify the membrane to achieve desired responses to both mechanical loading as well as environmental stimuli. A prominent method currently used to fabricate such membranes is electrospinning which uses electrostatic forces to produce fibers on the range of nanometers giving them high morphological saliency to the native extra cellular matrix (ECM). These fibers are also advantageous mechanically with strength and flexibility due to their larger aspect ratio when compared to larger diameter micro/macro fibers. While this spinning technique has many advantages and has seen the most quantity of research in recent years, it does have its own set of drawbacks. Among them is the use cytotoxic solvents during processing which must be fully removed before implantation. In addition, since the fiber produced have smaller diameters, the resulting average pore-size of the scaffold is decreased which in turn hinders cellular penetration into the bulk scaffold. In this work, we have proposed and characterized a novel method called wet-lay process for the rapid fabrication of fibrous membranes for tissue scaffolds. Wet-laying is a method common to textiles and paper industry but unexplored for tissue scaffolds. Short fibers are first suspended in an aqueous bath and homogeneously dispersed using shear force. After draining away the aqueous solution, a nonwoven fibro-porous membrane is deposited onto the draining screen. The implementation of wet-laid membranes into weak hydrogel matrices has shown a reinforcement effect for the composite. Further analyses were carried out to determine the

  18. Obtaining and characterization catalyst Ki/Al_2O_3 by physical dispersion process via wet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.C. da; Dantas, J.; Costa, A.C.F.M.; Costa, N.C.O.; Freitas, N.L. de

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is the Obtention and characterization of catalysts being supported alumina impregnated with KI by physical dispersion in wet via attritor mill in periods of 30 and 60 minutes. Before and after impregnation the catalysts were characterized by XRD, X ray fluorescence, particle size distribution, textural analysis (BET). The results show the presence of the stable crystalline phase Al_2O_3 in all samples after impregnation and the second phase formed from KI and K_2O. There was a decrease in the agglomerates incorporated with the potassium due to the milling process. It was observed that the highest specific surface area was obtained by the impregnated sample into a 60 min. (author)

  19. Fabrication of Aligned Polyaniline Nanofiber Array via a Facile Wet Chemical Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qunhui; Bi, Wu; Fuller, Thomas F; Ding, Yong; Deng, Yulin

    2009-06-17

    In this work, we demonstrate for the first time a template free approach to synthesize aligned polyaniline nanofiber (PN) array on a passivated gold (Au) substrate via a facile wet chemical process. The Au surface was first modified using 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) to afford the surface functionality, followed subsequently by an oxidation polymerization of aniline (AN) monomer in an aqueous medium using ammonium persulfate as the oxidant and tartaric acid as the doping agent. The results show that a vertically aligned PANI nanofiber array with individual fiber diameters of ca. 100 nm, heights of ca. 600 nm and a packing density of ca. 40 pieces·µm(-2) , was synthesized. Copyright © 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Experimental Investigation of the Productivity of a Wet Separation Process of Traditional and Bio-Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Moroni

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The separation process within a mechanical recycling plant plays a major role in the context of the production of high-quality secondary raw materials and the reduction of extensive waste disposal in landfills. Traditional plants for plastic separation employ dry or wet processes that rely on the different physical properties among the polymers. The hydraulic separator is a device employing a wet technology for particle separation. It allows the separation of two-polymer mixtures into two products, one collected within the instrument and the other one expelled through its outlet ducts. Apparatus performance were analyzed as a function of fluid and solid flow rates, flow patterns developing within the apparatus, in addition to the density, shape, and size of the polymers. For the hydraulic configurations tested, a two-way coupling takes place where the fluid exerts an influence on the plastic particles and the opposite occurs too. The interaction between the solid and liquid phases determines whether a certain polymer settles within the device or is expelled from the apparatus. Tests carried out with samples of increasing volumes of solid particles demonstrate that there are no significant differences in the apparatus effectiveness as far as a two-way interaction takes place. Almost pure concentrates of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET, Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC, and Polycarbonate (PC can be obtained from a mixture of traditional polymers. Tests conducted on Polylactic Acid (PLA and Mater-Bi® samples showed that the hydraulic separator can be effectively employed to separate bio-plastics from conventional plastics with remarkable grade and recovery.

  1. Artificial Intelligence Tools for Scaling Up of High Shear Wet Granulation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landin, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    The results presented in this article demonstrate the potential of artificial intelligence tools for predicting the endpoint of the granulation process in high-speed mixer granulators of different scales from 25L to 600L. The combination of neurofuzzy logic and gene expression programing technologies allowed the modeling of the impeller power as a function of operation conditions and wet granule properties, establishing the critical variables that affect the response and obtaining a unique experimental polynomial equation (transparent model) of high predictability (R 2 > 86.78%) for all size equipment. Gene expression programing allowed the modeling of the granulation process for granulators of similar and dissimilar geometries and can be improved by implementing additional characteristics of the process, as composition variables or operation parameters (e.g., batch size, chopper speed). The principles and the methodology proposed here can be applied to understand and control manufacturing process, using any other granulation equipment, including continuous granulation processes. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Treatment of toxic and hazardous organic wastes by wet oxidation process with oxygenated water at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccinno, T.; Salluzzo, A.; Nardi, L.; Gili, M.; Luce, A.; Troiani, F.; Cornacchia, G.

    1989-11-01

    The wet oxidation process using air or molecular oxygen is a well-known process from long time. It is suitable to oxidize several types of waste refractory to the usual biological, thermal and chemical treatments. The drastic operating conditions (high pressures and temperatures) prevented its industrial development. In the last years a new interest was assigned to the process for the treatment of nuclear wastes (organic resins and exhaust organic wastes); the treatment is carried out at widely reduced operating conditions (atmospheric pressure and boiling temperature) by means of metallic catalysts and hydrogen peroxide. With some limits, the wet oxidation with hydrogen peroxide at low temperature can be applied to conventional waste waters containing toxic organic compounds. In the present report are summarized the activities developed at ENEA Fuel Cycle Department by the task force 'Deox' constituted by laboratory and plant specialists in order to verify the application of the wet oxidation process to the treatment of the toxic wastes. (author)

  3. Development of wet-proofed catalyst and catalytic exchange process for tritium extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Myung Jae; Son, Soon Hwan; Chung, Yang Gun; Lee, Gab Bock [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center

    1996-12-31

    To apply a liquid phase catalytic exchange(LPCE) process for the tritium extraction from tritiated heavy water, the wet proofed catalyst to allow the hydrogen isotopic exchange reaction between liquid water and hydrogen gas was developed. A styrene divinyl benzene copolymer was selected as am effective catalyst support and prepared by suspension copolymerization. After post-treatment, final catalyst supports were dipped in chloroplatinic acid solution. The catalyst support had a good physical properties at a particular preparation condition. The catalytic performance was successfully verified through hydrogen isotopic exchange reaction in the exchange column. A mathematical model for the tritium removal process consisted of LPCE front-ended process and cryogenic distillation process was established using the NTU-HTU method for LPCE column and the FUG method for cryogenic distillation column, respectively. A computer program was developed using the model and then used to investigate optimum design variables which affect the size of columns and tritium inventory (author). 84 refs., 113 figs.

  4. Microstructural evolution of all-wet-processed CIGS films using Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hee Soo; Choi, Eunmi; Kim, Areum; Pyo, Sung Gyu [School of Integrative Engineering, Chung-Ang University, 221 Heukseok-Dong, Seoul, 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Sung Pil [Fuel Cell Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    We report a wet process deposition in order to identify a cost-effective processing scheme for CuIn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} (CIGS) layers on molybdenum/soda lime glass substrates from a Cu-In-Ga precursor solution. We employed a spin coater at various settings to evaluate the uniformity of the resulting CIGS solar cell layer. After the CIGS precursor film was deposited, we applied a selenization process. In the selenization process, we used a controlled temperature RTA system and compared it to a noncontrolled temperature system. We investigated the morphological properties for different selenization temperature treatments. We used Raman mapping to detect binary compounds and found the binary compound effect on the film. Raman mapping results show that the density of the binary compound in the CIGS layer increased with selenization temperature, and at 600 C, the density of the binary compounds was highest. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Laboratory-scale dry/wet-milling process for the extraction of starch and gluten from wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneken, P.A.M.; Helmens, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    A laboratory-scale process is presented for the manufacture of starch and gluten from wheat. Main feature of this process is that whole wheat kernels are crushed dry between smooth rolls prior to wet disintegration in excess water in such way that gluten formation is prevented and fibres can be

  6. INVESTIGATION ON UTILITY OF PLASTIC WASTE AS AN ADDITIVE FOR BITUMINOUS CONCRETE USING WET PROCESS OF MIXING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Virendra Tiwari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Plastic waste has become a major environmental issue of concern due to its exponential growth due to rapid urbanization. The paper investigates utility of plastic waste as an additive for bituminous concrete using wet process of mixing. Methodology. The methodology for the present paper has been designed with complex research consisting of Marshall mix design of the bituminous mix added with plastic waste for modifying bitumen using wet process of mixing, performing the tests on the samples and analyzing the results in the form of table and figures. In the present paper LDPE and HDPE type of plastic waste are used to modify the bitumen. Finding. The results show that addition of 6 percent of bitumen improves the Marshall properties of the mix. Use of plastic to modify the bitumen not only makes the road surface more durable but also it is an eco-friendly way of proper disposal of plastic waste. Originality. The processes used for mixing the plastic waste to the bitumen are dry process and wet process. Dry process of mixing the plastic waste to the bituminous mix is most common and lot of study is carried out on its application. In the present paper wet process of mixing has not yet been studied much. Practical Value. The practical application of utilizing the plastic waste to modify bitumen in the bituminous mix improves the stability values resulting in the more durable road surface. Also the method ensures the proper disposal of plastic waste in eco-friendly way.

  7. Development of a novel wet oxidation process for hazardous and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhooge, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    Many DOE waste streams and remediates contain complex and variable mixtures of organic compounds, toxic metals, and radionuclides. These materials are often dispersed in organic or inorganic matrices, such as personal protective equipment, various sludges, soils, and water. The over all objective of the effort described here is to develop a novel catalytic wet oxidation process for the treatment of these multi-component wastes, with the aim of providing a versatile, non-thermal method which will destroy hazardous organic compounds while simultaneously containing and concentrating toxic and radioactive metals for recovery or disposal in a readily stabilized matrix. The DETOX process uses a unique combination of metal catalysts to increase the rate of oxidation of organic materials. The metal catalysts are in the form of salts dissolved in a dilute acid solution. A typical catalyst composition is 60% ferric chloride, 3--4% hydrochloric acid, 0.13% platinum ions, and 0.13% ruthenium ions in a water solution. The catalyst solution is maintained at 423--473 K. Wastes are introduced into contact with the solution, where their organic portion is oxidized to carbon dioxide and water. If the organic portion is chlorinated, hydrogen chloride will be produced as a product. The process is a viable alternative to incineration for the treatment of organic mixed wastes. Estimated costs for waste treatment using the process are from $2.50/kg to $25.00/kg, depending on the size of the unit and the amount of waste processed. Process units can be mobile for on-site treatment of wastes. Results from phase 1 and 2, design and engineering studies, are described

  8. A catalytic wet oxidation process for mixed waste volume reduction/recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhooge, Patrick M.

    1992-01-01

    Mixed wastes have presented a challenge to treatment and destruction technologies. A recently developed catalytic wet oxidation method has promising characteristics for volume reduction and recycling of mixed wastes. The process utilizes iron (III) as an oxidant in the presence of homogeneous cocatalysts which increase organics' oxidation rates and the rate of oxidation of iron (II) by oxygen. The reaction is conducted in an aqueous mineral acid solution at temperatures of 373 - 573 deg K. The mineral acid should solvate a number of heavy metals, including U and Pu. Studies of reaction rates show that the process can oxidize a wide range of organic compounds including aromatics and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Rate constants in the range of 10 -7 to 10 -4 sec -1 , depending on the cocatalyst, acidity, type of anions, type of organic, temperature, and time. Activation energies ranged from 25. to 32. KJ/mole. Preliminary measurements of the extent of oxidation which could be obtained ranged from 80% for trichloroethylene to 99.8% for 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene; evidence was obtained that absorption by the fluorocarbon liners of the reaction bombs allowed some of the organics to escape exposure to the catalyst solution. The results indicate that complete oxidation of the organics used here, and presumably many others, can be achieved. (author)

  9. Neutral wetting brush layers for block copolymer thin films using homopolymer blends processed at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceresoli, M; Palermo, M; Ferrarese Lupi, F; Seguini, G; Perego, M; Zuccheri, G; Phadatare, S D; Antonioli, D; Gianotti, V; Sparnacci, K; Laus, M

    2015-01-01

    Binary homopolymer blends of two hydroxyl-terminated polystyrene (PS-OH) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA-OH) homopolymers (Mn ∼ 16000 g mol"−"1) were grafted on SiO_2 substrates by high-temperature (T > 150 °C), short-time (t < 600 s) thermal treatments. The resulting brush layer was tested to screen preferential interactions of the SiO_2 substrate with the different symmetric and asymmetric PS-b-PMMA block copolymers deposited on top of the grafted molecules. By properly adjusting the blend composition and the processing parameters, an efficient surface neutralization path was identified, enabling the formation, in the block copolymer film, of homogeneous textures of lamellae or cylinders perpendicularly oriented with respect to the substrate. A critical interplay between the phase segregation of the homopolymer blends and their grafting process on the SiO_2 was observed. In fact, the polar SiO_2 is preferential for the PMMA-rich phase that forms a homogeneous layer on the substrate, while the PS-rich phase is located at the polymer-air interface. During the thermal treatment, phase segregation and grafting proceed simultaneously. Complete wetting of the PS rich phase on the PMMA rich phase leads to the formation of a PS/PMMA bilayer. In this case, the progressive diffusion of PS chains toward the polymer-SiO_2 interface during the thermal treatment allows tuning of the brush layer composition. (paper)

  10. Dynamics of liquid nitrogen cooling process of solid surface at wetting contact coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smakulski, P; Pietrowicz, S

    2015-01-01

    Liquid cryogens cooling by direct contact is very often used as a method for decreasing the temperature of electronic devices or equipment i.e. HTS cables. Somehow, cooldown process conducted in that way could not be optimized, because of cryogen pool boiling characteristic and low value of the heat transfer coefficient. One of the possibilities to increase the efficiency of heat transfer, as well as the efficiency of cooling itself, it is to use a spray cooling method. The paper shows dynamics analysis of liquid nitrogen cooling solid surface process. The model of heat transfer for the single droplet of liquid nitrogen, which hits on a flat and smooth surface with respect to the different Weber numbers, is shown. Temperature profiles in calculation domains are presented, as well as the required cooling time. The numerical calculations are performed for different initial and boundary conditions, to study how the wetting contact coefficient is changing, and how it contributed to heat transfer between solid and liquid cryogen. (paper)

  11. Process Analytical Technology for High Shear Wet Granulation: Wet Mass Consistency Reported by In-Line Drag Flow Force Sensor Is Consistent With Powder Rheology Measured by At-Line FT4 Powder Rheometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Ajit S; Sheverev, Valery; Freeman, Tim; Both, Douglas; Stepaniuk, Vadim; Delancy, Michael; Millington-Smith, Doug; Macias, Kevin; Subramanian, Ganeshkumar

    2016-01-01

    Drag flow force (DFF) sensor that measures the force exerted by wet mass in a granulator on a thin cylindrical probe was shown as a promising process analytical technology for real-time in-line high-resolution monitoring of wet mass consistency during high shear wet granulation. Our previous studies indicated that this process analytical technology tool could be correlated to granulation end point established independently through drug product critical quality attributes. In this study, the measurements of flow force by a DFF sensor, taken during wet granulation of 3 placebo formulations with different binder content, are compared with concurrent at line FT4 Powder Rheometer characterization of wet granules collected at different time points of the processing. The wet mass consistency measured by the DFF sensor correlated well with the granulation's resistance to flow and interparticulate interactions as measured by FT4 Powder Rheometer. This indicated that the force pulse magnitude measured by the DFF sensor was indicative of fundamental material properties (e.g., shear viscosity and granule size/density), as they were changing during the granulation process. These studies indicate that DFF sensor can be a valuable tool for wet granulation formulation and process development and scale up, as well as for routine monitoring and control during manufacturing. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Latent structure analysis in the pharmaceutical process of tablets prepared by wet granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Naoto; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Mochida, Hiroshi; Otoguro, Saori; Onuki, Yoshinori; Obata, Yasuko; Takayama, Kozo

    2016-01-01

    Granule characteristics are some of the important intermediate qualities that determine tablet properties. However, the relationships between granule and tablet characteristics are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to elucidate relationships among formulation factors, granule characteristics, and tablet properties using a non-linear response surface method (RSM) incorporating a thin-plate spline interpolation (RSM-S) and a Bayesian network (BN). Tablets containing lactose (Lac), cornstarch (CS), and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) were prepared by wet granulation. Ten formulations were prepared by an extreme vertices design. The angle of repose (Y 1 ), compressibility (Y 2 ), cohesion force (Y 3 ), internal friction angle (Y 4 ), and mean particle size (Y 5 ) were measured as granule characteristics. Tensile strength (TS) and disintegration time (DT) were measured as tablet properties. RSM-S results showed that TS increased with increasing amounts of MCC and Lac. DT decreased with increasing amounts of MCC and CS. The optimal BN models were predicted using four evaluation indices -Y 3 was shown to be the most important factor for TS, whereas Y 2 , Y 3 , and Y 4 were relatively important for predicting DT. Moreover, tablets with excellent tablet properties (i.e. high TS and low DT) were produced by relatively high Y 1 , low Y 2 , high Y 3 , high Y 4 , and middle Y 5 values, and resulted from the middle of MCC, middle-to-low CS, low Lac, and middle-to-low magnesium stearate (Mg-St) amounts. The RSM-S and BN techniques are useful for revealing complex relationships among formulation factors, granule characteristics, and tablet properties.

  13. Outstanding field emission properties of wet-processed titanium dioxide coated carbon nanotube based field emission devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jinzhuo; Ou-Yang, Wei, E-mail: ouyangwei@phy.ecnu.edu.cn; Chen, Xiaohong; Guo, Pingsheng; Piao, Xianqing; Sun, Zhuo [Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics and Advanced Instrument, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China); Xu, Peng; Wang, Miao [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, 38 ZheDa Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Li, Jun [Department of Electronic Science and Technology, Tongji University, 4800 Caoan Road, Shanghai 201804 (China)

    2015-02-16

    Field emission devices using a wet-processed composite cathode of carbon nanotube films coated with titanium dioxide exhibit outstanding field emission characteristics, including ultralow turn on field of 0.383 V μm{sup −1} and threshold field of 0.657 V μm{sup −1} corresponding with a very high field enhancement factor of 20 000, exceptional current stability, and excellent emission uniformity. The improved field emission properties are attributed to the enhanced edge effect simultaneously with the reduced screening effect, and the lowered work function of the composite cathode. In addition, the highly stable electron emission is found due to the presence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the carbon nanotubes, which prohibits the cathode from the influence of ions and free radical created in the emission process as well as residual oxygen gas in the device. The high-performance solution-processed composite cathode demonstrates great potential application in vacuum electronic devices.

  14. Conceptual Biorefinery Design and Research Targeted for 2022: Hydrothermal Liquefacation Processing of Wet Waste to Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhu, Yunhua [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bearden, Mark D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Seiple, Timothy E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, Susanne B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schmidt, Andrew J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Billing, Justin M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hallen, Richard T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Todd R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Jian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Albrecht, Karl O. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fox, Samuel P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Maupin, Gary D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elliott, Douglas C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-12-28

    The Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) invests in research and development of new pathways for commercially viable conversion of biomass into drop-in ready transportation fuels, fuel blendstocks and products. The primary emphasis has been on terrestrial and algae feedstocks, but more recently BETO has begun to explore the potential of wet wastes for biofuel production, with focus on wastewater residuals, manure, food waste, and fats, oils and grease. A recent resource analysis estimates that 77 million dry tons per year of these wastes are generated annually, 65% of which are underutilized for any beneficial purpose. Approximately 14 million dry tons of the total resource is wastewater residuals (sludge and biosolids) generated at the nation’s wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Conversion of this resource into transportation fuels could significantly contribute to the creation of a new domestic bioenergy and bioproduct industry, while providing an economically and environmentally sustainable alternative for current waste disposal practices. Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a process that uses hot, pressurized water in the condensed phase to convert biomass to a thermally stable oil product, also known as “biocrude”, which can then be thermo-catalytically upgraded to hydrocarbon fuel blendstocks. HTL is conceptually simple, has a high carbon efficiency, and can be applied to a wide range of wet feedstocks at similar processing conditions. The purpose of this report is to document the conceptual design, economics and supporting data for a sludge-to-fuel pathway via HTL and biocrude upgrading. The configuration includes a HTL plant that is co-located with a WWTP and a larger scale biocrude upgrading plant for production of hydrocarbon fuel blendstocks. Experimental data from bench scale testing of a 1:1 mixture of primary:secondary sludges are used to establish the economic and technical assumptions for the analysis. The design

  15. Utilization and application of wet potato processing coproducts for finishing cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M L

    2010-04-01

    Wet coproducts fed to beef cattle include processing coproducts of the fruit, vegetable, juice, and brewing industries. Considerations for their utilization in beef cattle diets include quantity available, feeding value, quality of animal products produced, economics (e.g., transportation of water), storage and preservation, consumer perception, nuisance concerns, contaminants, and interactions with other diet ingredients. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) coproducts from processing for frozen food products may be quantitatively most important because the 11.3 million t of potatoes (fresh weight) processed in the United States and Canada in 2008 resulted in an estimated 4.3 million t (as-is basis) of coproduct. Chemical composition and feeding value of potato coproducts depends on the coproduct type. The names of coproducts vary among potato processors and some processors combine the different coproducts into one product commonly called slurry. The 4 main potato coproducts are 1) potato peels; 2) screen solids (small potatoes and pieces); 3) fried product (fries, hash browns, batter, crumbles); and 4) material from the water recovery systems (oxidation ditch, belt solids, filter cake). The coproducts, except the fried products, ensile rapidly, reaching pH 5 in 7 d or less. Dry matter content varies from 10 to 30% and on a DM basis varies in CP (5 to 27%), starch (3 to 56%), NDF (4 to 41%), and ether extract (3 to 37%) content among potato coproducts. Type of coproduct and frying greatly affect the energy value (0.6 to 1.6 Mcal of NE(g)/kg of DM). Composition, quality, and shelf life of beef was not affected by potato coproduct feeding in contrast to perceptions of some purveyors and chefs. Potato coproducts are quantitatively important energy sources in beef cattle diets, which, in turn, solve a potentially massive disposal problem for the food processing industry.

  16. Quantitative analysis of precipitation over Fukushima to understand the wet deposition process in March 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatagai, A.; Onda, Y.; Watanabe, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake caused a severe accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP), leading to the emission of large amounts of radioactive pollutants into the environment. The transport and diffusion of these radioactive pollutants in the atmosphere caused a disaster for residents in and around Fukushima. Studies have sought to understand the transport, diffusion, and deposition process, and to understand the movement of radioactive pollutants through the soil, vegetation, rivers, and groundwater. However, a detailed simulation and understanding of the distribution of radioactive compounds depend on a simulation of precipitation and on the information on the timing of the emission of these radioactive pollutants from the NPP. Past nuclear expansion studies have demonstrated the importance of wet deposition in distributing pollutants. Hence, this study examined the quantitative precipitation pattern in March 2011 using rain-gauge observations and X-band radar data from Fukushima University. We used the AMeDAS rain-gauge network data of 1) the Japan Meteorological Agency (1273 stations in Japan) and 2) the Water Information System (47 stations in Fukushima prefecture) and 3) the rain-gauge data of the Environmental Information Network of NTT Docomo (30 stations in Fukushima) to construct 0.05-degree mesh data using the same method used to create the APHRODITE daily grid precipitation data (Yatagai et al., 2009). Since some AMeDAS data for the coastal region were lost due to the earthquake, the complementary network of 2) and 3) yielded better precipitation estimates. The data clarified that snowfall was observed on the night of Mar 15 into the morning of Mar 16 throughout Fukushima prefecture. This had an important effect on the radioactive contamination pattern in Fukushima prefecture. The precipitation pattern itself does not show one-on-one correspondence with the contamination pattern. While the pollutants transported northeast of the

  17. Kinetic parameters of biomass growth in a UASB reactor treating wastewater from coffee wet processing (WCWP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Milton Montenegro Campos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the treatment of wastewater from coffee wet processing (WCWP in an anaerobic treatment system at a laboratory scale. The system included an acidification/equalization tank (AET, a heat exchanger, an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor (UASB, a gas equalization device and a gas meter. The minimum and maximum flow rates and volumetric organic loadings rate (VOLR were 0.004 to 0.037 m 3 d -1 and 0.14 to 20.29 kgCOD m -3 d -1 , respectively. The kinetic parameters measured during the anaerobic biodegradation of the WCWP, with a minimal concentration of phenolic compounds of 50 mg L - ¹, were: Y = 0.37 mgTVS (mgCODremoved -1 , Kd = 0.0075 d-1 , Ks = 1.504mg L -1 , μmax = 0.2 d -1 . The profile of sludge in the reactor showed total solids (TS values from 22,296 to 55,895 mg L -1 and TVS 11,853 to 41,509 mg L -1 , demonstrating a gradual increase of biomass in the reactor during the treatment, even in the presence of phenolic compounds in the concentration already mentioned.

  18. New procedure for extraction of algal lipids from wet biomass: a green clean and scalable process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejoye Tanzi, Celine; Abert Vian, Maryline; Chemat, Farid

    2013-04-01

    A new procedure, called Simultaneous Distillation and Extraction Process (SDEP), for lipid extraction from wet microalgae (Nannochloropsis oculata and Dunaliella salina) was reported. This method does not require a pre-drying of the biomass and employs alternative solvents such as d-limonene, α-pinene and p-cymene. This procedure has been compared with Soxhlet extraction (Sox) and Bligh & Dyer method (B&D). For N. oculata, results showed that SDEP-cymene provided similar lipid yields to B&D (21.45% and 23.78%), while SDEP-limonene and pinene provided lower yields (18.73% and 18.75% respectively). For D. salina, SDEP-pinene provided the maximum lipid yield (3.29%) compared to the other solvents, which is quite close to B&D result (4.03%). No significant differences in terms of distribution of lipid classes and fatty acid composition have been obtained for different techniques. Evaluation of energy consumption indicates a substantial saving in the extraction cost by SDEP compared to the conventional extraction technique, Soxhlet. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Liquid-liquid extraction for purification of wet process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotfollahi, Mohammad Nader; Bakshi, Mahdi

    2006-01-01

    The Wet Process Phosphoric Acid (WPA) is used to produce fertilizers and alimentary supplies for cattle. In each of these applications, the impurities contained in acid must be in standard range. In this paper purification of WPA by solvent extraction is performed and the effect of the mass ratio of solvent to feed on extraction efficiency is studied. The working solvents are Methyl Iso Butyl Ketone (MIBK), Iso Amyl Alcohol (IAA) and the mixture of them. The results show that the IAA is better than other solvents in extraction of WPA. This solvent can extract 82.2% of acid after two extraction stages but MIBK can extract only 73.5% of acid after three extraction stages. For all of these solvents, the Pb and Cd concentrations go down to trace. The experimental results show that the maximum separation of Mg with MIBK is 87.5% which occurs at the mass ratio of solvent to feed eual to 4. In the case of IAA solvent the percent is 91.7% and the ratio is 8

  20. In silico and wet lab approaches to study transcriptional regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hestand, Matthew Scott

    2010-01-01

    Gene expression is a complicated process with multiple types of regulation, including binding of proteins termed transcription factors. This thesis looks at transcription factors and transcription factor binding site discovery through computational predictions and wet lab work to better elucidate

  1. Influence of predictive contamination to agricultural products due to dry and wet processes during an accidental release of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won Tae; Kim, Eun Han; Suh, Kyung Suk; Jeong, Hyo Joon; Han, Moon Hee; Lee, Chang Woo

    2003-01-01

    The influence of predictive contamination to agricultural products due to the wet processes as well as dry processes from radioactive air concentration during a nuclear emergency is comprehensively analyzed. The previous dynamic food chain model DYNACON considering Korean agricultural and environmental conditions, in which the initial input parameter was radionuclide concentrations on the ground, is improved so as to evaluate radioactive contamination to agricultural products from either radioactive air concentrations or radionuclide concentrations on the ground. As for the results, wet deposition is a more dominant mechanism than dry deposition in contamination on the ground. While, the contamination levels of agricultural products are strongly dependent on radionuclide and precipitation when the deposition of radionuclides occurs. It means that the contamination levels of agricultural products are determined from which is the more dominant process between deposition on the ground and interception to agricultural plants

  2. A wet-chemical approach to perovskite and fluorite-type nanoceramics: synthesis and processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, Sjoerd

    2015-01-01

    In thesis the low-temperature, wet-chemical approach to various functional inorganic oxide materials is described. The main focus of this research is to control the material’s synthesis from liquid precursor to metal oxide powder or thin film; while understanding its formation mechanism. In

  3. Monitoring of multiple solvent induced form changes during high shear wet granulation and drying processes using online Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Jay Poorna; Jones, John W; Wray, Patrick S; Dennis, Andrew B; Brown, Jonathan; Timmins, Peter

    2018-04-25

    Form changes during drug product processing can be a risk to the final product quality in terms of chemical stability and bioavailability. In this study, online Raman spectroscopy was used to monitor the form changes in real time during high shear wet granulation of Compound A, a highly soluble drug present at a high drug load in an extended release formulation. The effect of water content, temperature, wet massing time and drying technique on the degree of drug transformation were examined. A designed set of calibration standards were employed to develop quantitative partial least square regression models to predict the concentration of each drug form during both wet granulation and the drying process. Throughout all our experiments we observed complex changes of the drug form during granulation, manifest as conversions between the initial non-solvated form of Compound A, the hemi-hydrate form and the "apparent" amorphous form (dissolved drug). The online Raman data demonstrate that the non-solvated form converts to an "apparent" amorphous form (dissolved drug) due to drug dissolution with no appearance of the hemi-hydrate form during water addition stage. The extent of conversion of the non-solvated form was governed by the amount of water added and the rate of conversion was accelerated at higher temperatures. Interestingly, in the wet massing zone, the formation of the hemi-hydrate form was observed at a rate equivalent to the rate of depletion of the non-solvated form with no change in the level of the "apparent amorphous" form generated. The level of hemi-hydrate increased with an increase in wet massing time. The drying process had a significant effect on the proportion of each form. During tray drying, changes in drug form continued for hours. In contrast fluid bed drying appeared to lock the final proportions of drug form product attained during granulation, with comparatively small changes observed during drying. In conclusion, it was possible to

  4. Dynamic Temperature Rise Mechanism and Some Controlling Factors of Wet Clutch Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The friction transmission model of wet clutch is established to analyze the friction transmission mechanism of its engagement. The model is developed by applying both the average flow model and the elastic contact model between the friction disk and separator plate. The key components during wet clutch engagement are the separator plate, friction disk, and lubricant. The one-dimension transient models of heat transfer in radial direction for the three components are built on the basis of the heat transfer theory and the conservation law of energy. The friction transmission model and transient heat transfer models are coupled and solved by using the Runge-Kutta numerical method, and the radial temperature distribution and their detailed parametric study for the three components are conducted separately. The simulation results show that the radial temperature for the three components rises with the increase of radius in engagement. The changes in engagement pressure, lubricant viscosity, friction lining permeability, combined surface roughness RMS, equivalent elasticity modulus, difference between dynamic and static friction coefficients, and lubricant flow have important influence on the temperature rise characteristics. The proposed models can get better understanding of the dynamic temperature rise characteristics of wet clutch engagement.

  5. ABB wet flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niijhawan, P.

    1994-12-31

    The wet limestone process for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) is outlined. The following topics are discussed: wet flue gas desulfurization, wet FGD characteristics, wet scrubbers, ABB wet FGD experience, wet FGD forced oxidation, advanced limestone FGD systems, key design elements, open spray tower design, spray tower vs. packed tower, important performance parameters, SO{sub 2} removal efficiency, influence by L/G, limestone utilization, wet FGD commercial database, particulate removal efficiencies, materials of construction, nozzle layout, spray nozzles, recycle pumps, mist elimination, horizontal flow demister, mist eliminator washing, reagent preparation system, spray tower FGDS power consumption, flue gas reheat options, byproduct conditioning system, and wet limestone system.

  6. A double stage dry-wet-fermentation process for a fast and safe digestion of different kinds of organic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, G.; Sieber, M.; Buschmann, J.; Burkhardat, M.

    2009-01-01

    The fermentation of organic material is a four-step-process. It is admissible to merge the first two steps (hydrolysis and acidification) to hydrolysis in general and the last two steps (aceto genesis and methano genesis) to methano genesis. The Brandenburg University of Technology in Cottbus has devised a double stage dry-wet-fermentation process for fast and safe anaerobic degradation. Using these processes, it is possible to decompose different kinds of organic material like renewable material (e. g. maize silage), waste (e. g. household-waste) and industrial material (e. g. glycerine). (Author)

  7. Age factors in biometric processing

    CERN Document Server

    Fairhurst, Michael

    2013-01-01

    As biometrics-based identification and identity authentication become increasingly widespread in their deployment, it becomes correspondingly important to consider more carefully issues relating to reliability, usability and inclusion. One factor which is particularly important in this context is that of the relationship between the nature of the measurements extracted from a particular biometric modality and the age of the sample donor, and the effect which age has on physiological and behavioural characteristics invoked in a biometric transaction. In Age Factors in Biometric Processing an in

  8. Factors involved in the selection of limestone reagents for use in wet FGD systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, J.B.; Roothaan, E.S.; Meserole, F.B.; Owens, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    With recent activity in the design and construction of retrofit flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, many utilities are faced with the task of selecting limestones which will allow FGD systems to function as designed, and at the same time, provide cost-effective operation. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has sponsored research to identify factors which should be considered in the reagent selection process. A set of capabilities has been developed which is currently being employed to assist six utilities in selecting cost-effective reagent sources. The major elements in the selection package consist of an analytical characterization of candidate limestones; grindability, reactivity, and magnesium availability testing; and performance modeling utilizing EPRI's FGD PRocess Integration and Simulation Model (FGDPRISM). The results from these measurements are used to perform a site-specific economic analysis which can be used to rank the candidate limestones and quantify the impact of various limestone properties on plant operating costs. This paper includes a description of each element in the selection package along with a review of current research activities aimed at improving predictions of limestone reactivity and magnesium availability. An example is presented which illustrates how reactivity and magnesium availability affect both the performance of an FGD system and plant operating costs

  9. Effect of surfactants or a water soluble polymer on the crystal transition of clarithromycin during a wet granulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Kenji; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2015-11-10

    To generate products containing a stable form of clarithromycin (CAM) (form II) regardless of the initial crystal form of CAM or type of granulation solvent, the effects of five surfactants, or a water-soluble polymer (macrogol 400) were determined on the crystal transition of CAM. The metastable form (form I) was kneaded with water, after adding surfactants, or a water-soluble polymer. Form II was also kneaded with ethanol, after adding the same additives. The resulting samples were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction. Form I was completely converted to form II by a wet granulation using water with additives bearing polyoxyethylene chains such as polysorbate 80 (PS80), polyoxyl 40 stearate or macrogol 400. The granulation of the form II using ethanol with these additives did not result in a crystal transition to form I. Furthermore, CAM tablets were manufactured using granules with PS80, and these crystal forms and dissolution behaviors were investigated. As a result, the wet granulation of CAM with PS80 gave CAM tablets containing only form II and PS80 did not have any adverse effects on tablet characteristics. Therefore, these data suggests that the crystal form of CAM can be controlled to be form II using a wet granulation process with additives bearing polyoxyethylene chains regardless of the initial crystal form of CAM or type of granulation solvent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Wet Gas Airfoil Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Tarjei Thorrud

    2011-01-01

    Subsea wet gas compression renders new possibilities for cost savings and enhanced gas recovery on existing gas wells. Technology like this opens to make traditional offshore processing plants redundant. With new technology, follows new challenges. Multiphase flows is regarded as a complex field of study, and increased knowledge on the fundamental mechanisms regarding wet gas flow is of paramount importance to the efficiency and stability of the wet gas compressor. The scope of this work was ...

  11. Breakage and drying behaviour of granules in a continuous fluid bed dryer: Influence of process parameters and wet granule transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leersnyder, F; Vanhoorne, V; Bekaert, H; Vercruysse, J; Ghijs, M; Bostijn, N; Verstraeten, M; Cappuyns, P; Van Assche, I; Vander Heyden, Y; Ziemons, E; Remon, J P; Nopens, I; Vervaet, C; De Beer, T

    2018-03-30

    Although twin screw granulation has already been widely studied in recent years, only few studies addressed the subsequent continuous drying which is required after wet granulation and still suffers from a lack of detailed understanding. The latter is important for optimisation and control and, hence, a cost-effective practical implementation. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to increase understanding of the drying kinetics and the breakage and attrition phenomena during fluid bed drying after continuous twin screw granulation. Experiments were performed on a continuous manufacturing line consisting of a twin-screw granulator, a six-segmented fluid bed dryer, a mill, a lubricant blender and a tablet press. Granulation parameters were fixed in order to only examine the effect of drying parameters (filling time, drying time, air flow, drying air temperature) on the size distribution and moisture content of granules (both of the entire granulate and of size fractions). The wet granules were transferred either gravimetrically or pneumatically from the granulator exit to the fluid bed dryer. After a certain drying time, the moisture content reached an equilibrium. This drying time was found to depend on the applied airflow, drying air temperature and filling time. The moisture content of the granules decreased with an increasing drying time, airflow and drying temperature. Although smaller granules dried faster, the multimodal particle size distribution of the granules did not compromise uniform drying of the granules when the target moisture content was achieved. Extensive breakage of granules was observed during drying. Especially wet granules were prone to breakage and attrition during pneumatic transport, either in the wet transfer line or in the dry transfer line. Breakage and attrition of granules during transport and drying should be anticipated early on during process and formulation development by performing integrated experiments on the granulator

  12. Isolation, selection and evaluation of yeasts for use in fermentation of coffee beans by the wet process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo Pereira, Gilberto Vinícius; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; Pandey, Ashok; Medeiros, Adriane Bianchi Pedroni; Andrade Lara, João Marcos Rodrigues; Gollo, André Luiz; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2014-10-01

    During wet processing of coffee, the ripe cherries are pulped, then fermented and dried. This study reports an experimental approach for target identification and selection of indigenous coffee yeasts and their potential use as starter cultures during the fermentation step of wet processing. A total of 144 yeast isolates originating from spontaneously fermenting coffee beans were identified by molecular approaches and screened for their capacity to grow under coffee-associated stress conditions. According to ITS-rRNA gene sequencing, Pichia fermentans and Pichia kluyveri were the most frequent isolates, followed by Candida Candida glabrata, quercitrusa, Saccharomyces sp., Pichia guilliermondii, Pichia caribbica and Hanseniaspora opuntiae. Nine stress-tolerant yeast strains were evaluated for their ability to produce aromatic compounds in a coffee pulp simulation medium and for their pectinolytic activity. P. fermentans YC5.2 produced the highest concentrations of flavor-active ester compounds (viz., ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate), while Saccharomyces sp. YC9.15 was the best pectinase-producing strain. The potential impact of these selected yeast strains to promote flavor development in coffee beverages was investigated for inoculating coffee beans during wet fermentation trials at laboratory scale. Inoculation of a single culture of P. fermentans YC5.2 and co-culture of P. fermentans YC5.2 and Saccharomyces sp. YC9.15 enhanced significantly the formation of volatile aroma compounds during the fermentation process compared to un-inoculated control. The sensory analysis indicated that the flavor of coffee beverages was influenced by the starter cultures, being rated as having the higher sensory scores for fruity, buttery and fermented aroma. This demonstrates a complementary role of yeasts associated with coffee quality through the synthesis of yeast-specific volatile constituents. The yeast strains P. fermentans YC5.2 and Saccharomyces sp. YC9.15 have a great

  13. Combined wet-chemical process to synthesize 65PMN-35PT nanosized powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Luis P.S.; Longo, Elson; Leite, Edson R.; Camargo, Emerson R.

    2004-01-01

    Columbite MgNb 2 O 6 precursors were synthesized by a wet-chemical method by means of the dissolution of Nb 2 O 5 .5H 2 O and magnesium carbonate in a solution of oxalic acid. Pure 65PMN-35PT powders could be obtained by the columbite method with the use of the partial oxalate and oxidant peroxo methods. Powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction and FT-Raman spectroscopy showing that pure 65PMN-35PT are obtained when the powders are calcined up to 800 deg. C, without any trace of Pb-Nb pyrochlore. Cubic Pb 1,86 Mg 0.24 Nb 1.76 O 6.5 pyrochlore phase is formed by lead loss in the powders calcined at 900 deg. C and higher temperatures as undoubtedly characterized by Raman spectroscopy

  14. Tailoring Wet Explosion Process Parameters for the Pretreatment of Cocksfoot Grass for High Sugar Yields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njoku, Stephen Ikechukwu; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Uellendahl, Hinrich

    2013-01-01

    The pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is crucial for efficient subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation. In this study, wet explosion (WEx) pretreatment was applied to cocksfoot grass and pretreatment conditions were tailored for maximizing the sugar yields using response...... glucose release with low formation of by-products. Under these conditions, the cellulose and hemicellulose sugar recovery was 94 % and 70 %, respectively. The efficiency of the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose under these conditions was 91 %. On the other hand, the release of pentose sugars was higher...... when applying less severe pretreatment conditions C (160 °C, 5 min, 0.2 % dilute sulfuric acid). Therefore, the choice of the most suitable pretreatment conditions is depending on the main target product, i.e., hexose or pentose sugars....

  15. A review on factors for maximizing solar fraction under wet climate environment in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadir, Mohd Zainal Abidin Ab; Rafeeu, Yaaseen [Alternative and Renewable Energy Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2010-10-15

    Solar energy is the most promising source of clean, renewable energy and it has the greatest potential of any power source to solve the world's energy problems. However, the problem, is how best to harness this vast amount of solar energy. Nevertheless, even if highly efficient Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) could be made cheaply, there would be considerable change in solar power. This technology is expected to be more efficient and to achieve a manufacturing cost of less than $1/W near future. This paper reviews and elaborates the methodology utilized to design and fabricate the solar dish concentrator and outlines the parameters that can be used to increase the efficiency of solar fraction in parabolic dish concentrator under wet climate environment in Malaysia. The study finally provides ideas to the continually increasing ability of these technologies to concentrate and harness solar energy for electricity production and thus eliminate the growing concern over climate change and how it will hurt the region's environment, human health and economy. (author)

  16. A review on factors for maximizing solar fraction under wet climate environment in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadir, Mohd Zainal Abidin Ab; Rafeeu, Yaaseen

    2010-01-01

    Solar energy is the most promising source of clean, renewable energy and it has the greatest potential of any power source to solve the world's energy problems. However, the problem, is how best to harness this vast amount of solar energy. Nevertheless, even if highly efficient Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) could be made cheaply, there would be considerable change in solar power. This technology is expected to be more efficient and to achieve a manufacturing cost of less than $1/W near future. This paper reviews and elaborates the methodology utilized to design and fabricate the solar dish concentrator and outlines the parameters that can be used to increase the efficiency of solar fraction in parabolic dish concentrator under wet climate environment in Malaysia. The study finally provides ideas to the continually increasing ability of these technologies to concentrate and harness solar energy for electricity production and thus eliminate the growing concern over climate change and how it will hurt the region's environment, human health and economy. (author)

  17. Extraction-wet oxidation process using sulphuric acid for treatment of TBP-dodecane wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshingkar, D.S.; Kartha, P.K.S.

    1998-03-01

    In the nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, 30% n-tributyl phosphate in hydrocarbon diluent is used for extraction of uranium and plutonium from the spent fuel by Purex process. When TBP-dodecane can no longer be purified from its degradation products, it is discarded as alpha bearing, intermediate level wastes containing plutonium and ruthenium-106. To overcome shortcomings of extraction-pyrolysis and saponification processes, studies were undertaken to find the suitability of H 2 SO 4 as an alternative extractant for TBP. Oxidation of TBP to H 3 PO 4 using H 2 O 2 was also explored as H 3 PO 4 can be treated by known procedures for removal of plutonium and ruthenium-106. The experiments were conducted with aged spent solvent wastes discharged from reprocessing plant at Trombay using H 2 SO 4 and H 2 SO 4 - H 3 PO 4 mixture. The decontamination factors (DFs) for alpha activity were found to be satisfactory. The DFs for ruthenium were lower as compared to those obtained in experiments with simulated degraded waste. The gas chromatographic analysis of separated diluent revealed high branched alkane content and low n-dodecane content of separated diluent. It is very much different from that of diluent currently in use. Hence incineration of separated diluent is recommended. (author)

  18. A compact process for the treatment of olive mill wastewater by combining wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation and biological techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azabou, Samia; Najjar, Wahiba; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Ghorbel, Abdelhamid; Sayadi, Sami

    2010-01-01

    A system based on combined actions of catalytic wet oxidation and microbial technologies for the treatment of highly polluted OMW containing polyphenols was studied. The wet hydrogen peroxide catalytic oxidation (WHPCO) process has been investigated in the semi-batch mode at atmospheric pressure, using aluminium-iron-pillared inter layer clay ((Al-Fe)PILC), under two different catalytic processes: ((Al-Fe)PILC/H 2 O 2 /ultraviolet radiations) at 25 deg. C and ((Al-Fe)PILC/H 2 O 2 ) at 50 deg. C. The results show that raw OMW was resistant to the photocatalytic process. However ((Al-Fe)PILC/H 2 O 2 ), system operating at 50 deg. C reduced considerably the COD, colour and total phenolic contents, and thus decreased the inhibition of the marine photobacteria Vibrio fischeri luminescence by 70%. This study also examined the feasibility of coupling WHPCO and anaerobic digestion treatment. Biomethanisation experiments performed with raw OMW or pre-treated OMW proved that pre-treatments with ((Al-Fe)PILC/H 2 O 2 ) system, for more than 2 h, resulted in higher methane production. Both untreated OMW as well as 2-h pre-treated OMW revealed as toxic to anaerobic bacteria.

  19. Density improvement of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles fabricated by wet process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, K; Kawamura, H [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Fuchinoue, K; Sawada, H; Watarumi, K

    1998-03-01

    Lithium titanate (Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}) has attracted the attention of many researchers from a point of tritium recovery at low temperature, chemical stability, etc.. The application of small Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} sphere has been proposed in some designs of fusion blanket. On the other hand, the wet process is most advantageous as the fabrication method of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles from a point of mass production, and of reprocessing necessary for effective use of resources and reduction of radioactive wastes. In the preliminary fabrication test, density of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles was about 40%T.D.. Therefore, in this study, density improvement tests and preliminary characterization of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles by wet process were performed, noting the aging condition and sintering condition in the fabrication process of the gel-spheres. This study yielded Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles in target range of 80-85%T.D.. (author)

  20. Wet deposition of mercury in Qingdao, a coastal urban city in China: Concentrations, fluxes, and influencing factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lufeng; Li, Yanbin; Liu, Chang; Guo, Lina; Wang, Xiulin

    2018-02-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant of public concern because of its high toxicity and capability for worldwide distribution via long-range atmospheric transportation. Wet atmospheric deposition is an important source of Hg in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. Concentrations of various Hg species in precipitation were monitored from March 2016 to February 2017 in a coastal urban area of Qingdao, and their wet deposition fluxes were estimated. The results showed that the volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentrations of total mercury (THg), reactive mercury (RHg), dissolved THg (DTHg), particulate THg (PTHg), total methylmercury (TMeHg), and dissolved and particulate MeHg (DMeHg and PMeHg) in Qingdao's precipitation were 13.6, 1.5, 5.4, 8.2, 0.38, 0.15, and 0.22 ng L-1, respectively, and their annual deposition fluxes were estimated to be 5703.0 (THg), 666.6 (RHg), 2304.0 (DTHg), 3470.4 (PTHg), 161.6 (TMeHg), 64.0 (DMeHg), and 95.7 (PMeHg) ng m-2 y-1, respectively. A relatively high proportion of MeHg in THg was observed in precipitation (3.0 ± 2.6%) possibly due to higher methylation and contributions from an oceanic source to MeHg in the precipitation. Obvious seasonal variations in Hg concentrations and deposition fluxes were observed in the precipitation in Qingdao. Correlation analyses and multiple regression analyses showed that SO2, pH, and NO3- were the controlling factors for THg in precipitation, whereas the MeHg concentration was primarily controlled by the SO2, WS, Cl-, and THg concentrations. PM2.5 and Cl- were the major controlling factors for PMeHg/TMeHg, whereas the TMeHg/THg ratio was mainly influenced by Cl-. The THg and MeHg fluxes were primarily controlled by precipitation, whereas Cl- was also an important factor for the MeHg wet deposition flux. The results of a 72-h backward trajectory analysis in the study region with the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model indicated that Hg deposition in Qingdao mainly

  1. Evaluation of factors affecting soil carbon sequestration services of stormwater wet retention ponds in varying climate zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, L S; Moore, T L C; Wang, J W; Osmond, D L; Al-Rubaei, A M; Smolek, A P; Blecken, G T; Viklander, M; Hunt, W F

    2017-04-01

    The carbon sequestration services of stormwater wet retention ponds were investigated in four different climates: U.S., Northern Sweden, Southern Sweden, and Singapore, representing a range of annual mean temperatures, growing season lengths and rainfall depths: geographic factors that were not statistically compared, but have great effect on carbon (C) accumulation. A chronosequence was used to estimate C accumulations rates; C accumulation and decomposition rates were not directly measured. C accumulated significantly over time in vegetated shallow water areas (0-30cm) in the USA (78.4gCm -2 yr -1 ), in vegetated temporary inundation zones in Sweden (75.8gCm -2 yr -1 ), and in all ponds in Singapore (135gCm -2 yr -1 ). Vegetative production appeared to exert a stronger influence on relative C accumulation rates than decomposition. Comparing among the four climatic zones, the effects of increasing rainfall and growing season lengths (vegetative production) outweighed the effects of higher temperature on decomposition rates. Littoral vegetation was a significant source to the soil C pool relative to C sources draining from watersheds. Establishment of vegetation in the shallow water zones of retention ponds is vital to providing a C source to the soil. Thus, the width of littoral shelves containing this vegetation along the perimeter may be increased if C sequestration is a design goal. This assessment establishes that stormwater wet retention ponds can sequester C across different climate zones with generally annual rainfall and lengths of growing season being important general factors for C accumulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Intensification of mass transfer in wet textile processes by power ultrasound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moholkar, V.S.; Nierstrasz, Vincent; Warmoeskerken, Marinus

    2003-01-01

    In industrial textile pre-treatment and finishing processes, mass transfer and mass transport are often rate-limiting. As a result, these processes require a relatively long residence time, large amounts of water and chemicals, and are also energy-consuming. In most of these processes, diffusion and

  3. Initial evaluation of dry storage issues for spent nuclear fuels in wet storage at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, R J; Johnson, Jr, A B; Lund, A L; Gilbert, E R [and others

    1996-07-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has evaluated the basis for moving selected spent nuclear fuels in the CPP-603 and CPP-666 storage pools at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from wet to dry interim storage. This work is being conducted for the Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company as part of the effort to determine appropriate conditioning and dry storage requirements for these fuels. These spent fuels are from 22 test reactors and include elements clad with aluminum or stainless steel and a wide variety of fuel materials: UAl{sub x}, UAl{sub x}-Al and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al cermets, U-5% fissium, UMo, UZrH{sub x}, UErZrH, UO{sub 2}-stainless steel cermet, and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-stainless steel cermet. The study also included declad uranium-zirconium hydride spent fuel stored in the CPP-603 storage pools. The current condition and potential failure mechanisms for these spent fuels were evaluated to determine the impact on conditioning and dry storage requirements. Initial recommendations for conditioning and dry storage requirements are made based on the potential degradation mechanisms and their impacts on moving the spent fuel from wet to dry storage. Areas needing further evaluation are identified.

  4. Initial evaluation of dry storage issues for spent nuclear fuels in wet storage at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, R.J.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Lund, A.L.; Gilbert, E.R.

    1994-11-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has evaluated the basis for moving selected spent nuclear fuels in the CPP-603 and CPP-666 storage pools at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from wet to dry interim storage. This work is being conducted for the Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company as part of the effort to determine appropriate conditioning and dry storage requirements for these fuels. These spent fuels are from 22 test reactors and include elements clad with aluminum or stainless steel and a wide variety of fuel materials: UAl x , UAl x -Al and U 3 O 8 -Al cermets, U-5% fissium, UMo, UZrH x , UErZrH, UO 2 -stainless steel cermet, and U 3 O 8 -stainless steel cermet. The study also included declad uranium-zirconium hydride spent fuel stored in the CPP-603 storage pools. The current condition and potential failure mechanisms for these spent fuels were evaluated to determine the impact on conditioning and dry storage requirements. Initial recommendations for conditioning and dry storage requirements are made based on the potential degradation mechanisms and their impacts on moving the spent fuel from wet to dry storage. Areas needing further evaluation are identified

  5. The socioeconomic factors that facilitate or constrain restoration management: Watershed rehabilitation and wet meadow (bofedal) restoration in the Bolivian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Brett D; Cleveland, David A

    2018-03-01

    Restoration ecology holds promise for addressing land degradation in impoverished rural environments, provided the approach is adapted to rural development settings. While there is a need for increased integration of social dynamics in land restoration, few systematic studies exist. We explored the socioeconomic factors that influence restoration management, including local motives and perceived benefits, incentives, land tenancy, institutional factors, conflict resolution, accessibility, off-farm labor, and outmigration. The study area is a successful watershed rehabilitation and wet meadow restoration project in the Bolivian Andes that began in 1992. We used household survey methods (n = 237) to compare the communities that had conducted the most restoration management with those that had conducted the least. Results suggest that several factors facilitate investments in land restoration, including aligning restoration objectives with local motives and perceived benefits, ensuring incentives are in place to stimulate long-term investments, conflict resolution, private land tenancy, and accessibility. However, higher levels of organization and active leadership can facilitate land restoration on communal lands. Increased livelihood benefits from land restoration helped slow the rate of rural to urban migration, with 24.5% outmigration in the highest restoration management communities compared to 62.1% in the lowest restoration management communities. Results suggest that land restoration projects that integrate community development into project planning and implementation will achieve greater success. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Application of advanced oxidation processes for cleaning of industrial water generated in wet dedusting of shaft furnace gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaplicka, Marianna; Kurowski, Ryszard; Jaworek, Katarzyna; Bratek, Łukasz

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents results of studies into advanced oxidation processes in 03 and 03/UV systems. An advanced oxidation process (AOP) was conducted to reduce the load of impurities in circulating waters from wet de-dusting of shaft furnace gases. Besides inorganic impurities, i.e. mainly arsenic compounds (16 g As L(-1) on average), lead, zinc, chlorides and sulphates, the waters also contain some organic material. The organic material is composed of a complex mixture that contains, amongst others, aliphatic compounds, phenol and its derivatives, pyridine bases, including pyridine, and its derivatives. The test results show degradation of organic and inorganic compounds during ozonation and photo-oxidation processes. Analysis of the solutions from the processes demonstrated that the complex organic material in the industrial water was oxidized in ozonation and in photo-oxidation, which resulted in formation of aldehydes and carboxylic acids. Kinetic degradation of selected pollutants is presented. Obtained results indicated that the O3/UV process is more effective in degradation of organic matter than ozonation. Depending on the process type, precipitation of the solid phase was observed. The efficiency of solid-phase formation was higher in photo-oxidation with ozone. It was found that the precipitated solid phase is composed mainly of arsenic, iron and oxygen.

  7. Analytical solutions for evaluating the thermal performances of wet air cooling coils under both unit and non-unit Lewis Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Liang; Chan, M.Y.; Deng, S.M.; Xu, X.G.

    2010-01-01

    Analytical solutions for evaluating the thermal performances of both chilled water wet cooling coils and direct expansion (DX) wet cooling coils, respectively, under both unit and non-unit Lewis Factors are developed and reported in this paper. The analytical solution was validated by comparing its predictions with those from numerically solving the fundamental governing equations of heat and mass transfer taking place in a wet cooling coil. With the analytical solutions, the distributions of air temperature and humidity ratio along air flow direction in a wet cooling coil can be predicted, and the differences in the thermal performances of the cooling coils under both unit and non-unit Lewis Factors can be identified. The analytical solutions, on one hand, can be a low-cost replacement to numerically solving the fundamental heat and mass transfer governing equations, and on the other hand, is able to deal with evaluating thermal performance for wet air cooling coils operated under both unit and non-unit Lewis Factors.

  8. Development of a novel wet oxidation process for hazardous and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhooge, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    This article describes and evaluates the DETOX sm process for processing of mixed wastes. Many DOE waste streams and remediates contain complex and variable mixtures of organic compounds, toxic metals, and radionuclides, often dispersed in organic or inorganic matrices, such as personal protective equipment, various sludges, soils, and water. The DETOX sm process, patented by Delphi Research, uses a unique combination of metal catalysts to increase the rate of oxidation of organic materials. Included are the following subject areas: project description (phases I-IV); results of all phases; and future work. 5 figs., 1 tab

  9. A simple cost-effective and eco-friendly wet chemical process for the fabrication of superhydrophobic cotton fabrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, Edna; Lakshmi, R.V.; Aruna, S.T., E-mail: aruna_reddy@nal.res.in; Basu, Bharathibai J.

    2013-07-15

    Superhydrophobic surfaces were created on hydrophilic cotton fabrics by a simple wet chemical process. The fabric was immersed in a colloidal suspension of zinc hydroxide followed by subsequent hydrophobization with stearic acid. The wettability of the modified cotton fabric sample was studied by water contact angle (WCA) and water shedding angle (WSA) measurements. The modified cotton fabrics exhibited superhydrophobicity with a WCA of 151° for 8 μL water droplet and a WSA of 5–10° for 40 μL water droplet. The superhydrophobic cotton sample was also characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The method is simple, eco-friendly and cost-effective and can be applied to large area of cotton fabric materials. It was shown that superhydrophobicity of the fabric was due to the combined effect of surface roughness imparted by zinc hydroxide and the low surface energy of stearic acid.

  10. A simple cost-effective and eco-friendly wet chemical process for the fabrication of superhydrophobic cotton fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, Edna; Lakshmi, R.V.; Aruna, S.T.; Basu, Bharathibai J.

    2013-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces were created on hydrophilic cotton fabrics by a simple wet chemical process. The fabric was immersed in a colloidal suspension of zinc hydroxide followed by subsequent hydrophobization with stearic acid. The wettability of the modified cotton fabric sample was studied by water contact angle (WCA) and water shedding angle (WSA) measurements. The modified cotton fabrics exhibited superhydrophobicity with a WCA of 151° for 8 μL water droplet and a WSA of 5–10° for 40 μL water droplet. The superhydrophobic cotton sample was also characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The method is simple, eco-friendly and cost-effective and can be applied to large area of cotton fabric materials. It was shown that superhydrophobicity of the fabric was due to the combined effect of surface roughness imparted by zinc hydroxide and the low surface energy of stearic acid.

  11. Effect of nitrogen doping on wetting and photoactive properties of laser processed zinc oxide-graphene oxide nanocomposite layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    György, E., E-mail: egyorgy@icmab.es [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Barcelona (CSIC-ICMAB), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P. O. Box MG 36, 76900 Bucharest V (Romania); Pérez del Pino, A. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Barcelona (CSIC-ICMAB), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Logofatu, C. [National Institute for Materials Physics, P. O. Box MG. 7, 77125 Bucharest (Romania); Duta, A.; Isac, L. [Transilvania University of Brasov, Research Centre for Renewable Energy Systems and Recycling, Eroilor 29, 500036, Brasov (Romania)

    2014-07-14

    Zinc oxide-graphene oxide nanocomposite layers were submitted to laser irradiation in air or controlled nitrogen atmosphere using a frequency quadrupled Nd:YAG (λ = 266 nm, τ{sub FWHM} ≅ 3 ns, ν = 10 Hz) laser source. The experiments were performed in air at atmospheric pressure or in nitrogen at a pressure of 2 × 10{sup 4} Pa. The effect of the irradiation conditions, incident laser fluence value, and number of subsequent laser pulses on the surface morphology of the composite material was systematically investigated. The obtained results reveal that nitrogen incorporation improves significantly the wetting and photoactive properties of the laser processed layers. The kinetics of water contact angle variation when the samples are submitted to laser irradiation in nitrogen are faster than that of the samples irradiated in air, the surfaces becoming super-hydrophilic under UV light irradiation.

  12. Comparative study of the different industrial manufacturing routes for UO2 pellet specifications through the wet process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palheiros, Franklin; Gonzaga, Reinaldo; Soares, Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    In the fuel cycle, converting UF 6 to UO 2 powder is an intermediate step for fabrication of pellets for fuel assemblies to be used in nuclear power plants. The basic proposal common to the different powder fabrication processes is to provide raw material capable of being processed into the form of pellets. The wet processes is the most often used industrially and are divided in two categories: the ADU (Ammonium Diuranate) and AUC (Ammonium Uranyl Carbonate) processes, whose names originate in the precipitate obtained in aqueous solution during the intermediate steps of UO 2 powder fabrication. It has known that the powder characteristics have a considerable influence in the UO 2 pellet manufacturing and quality characteristics. INB has used the AUC process to produce UO 2 pellets and supply fuel to Angra 1 and 2 Nuclear Power Plants. Despite of this process is characterized by the precipitation of a different intermediate precipitate compared to the ADU route (i.e., (NH 4 ) 4 UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 , in the AUC process, and (NH 4 ) 2 U 2 O 7 in ADU process) leading to some slight differences in the final pellet microstructure, it has been considered that the models that predict the pellet behavior during irradiation in a nuclear reactor are basically the same compared to those used to predict the pellets form the ADU process. In order to evaluate how different the pellets originated from these two industrial routes are, this paper aims to compare the INB production historical data (Angra 1, Cycles 14 and 15) with the key parameters of a common product specification from the ADU process. (author)

  13. Direct uranium extraction from dihydrate and hemi-dihydrate wet process phosphoric acids by liquid emulsion membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hazek, N.T.; El Sayed, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    A new liquid emulsion membrane (LEM) process for uranium extraction from either dihydrate 28-30% P 2 O 5 (DH) or hemi-dihydrate 42-45% P 2 O 5 (HDH) wet process phosphoric acid is proposed. In this process, the organic component of the LEM is composed of a synergistic mixture of 0.1M di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid (DEHPA) and 0.025M trioctyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) with 4% Span 80. The internal or the strip acid phase is composed of 0.5M citric acid. The prepared LEM was proved to be stable in 42-45% P 2 O 5 acid concentration range and can, therefore, be applied to the phosphoric acid produced by the hemi-dihydrate process. After breakdown of the loaded emulsion, the uranyl citrate in the internal strip phase is separated by adding methanol followed by its calcination to the orange oxide. Most of the reagents used are recycled. The proposed process is characterized by simplicity, practically closed operation cycle in addition to lower capital and operating costs. (author)

  14. Study Of The Wet Multipass Drawing Process Applied On High Strength Thin Steel Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimont, J.; Felder, E.; Bobadilla, C.; Buessler, P.; Persem, N.; Vaubourg, JP.

    2011-05-01

    Many kinds of high strength thin steel wires are involved in so many applications. Most of the time, these wires are made of a pearlitic steel grade. The current developments mainly concern the wire last drawing operation: after a patenting treatment several reduction passes are performed on a slip-type multipass drawing machine. This paper focuses on modeling this multipass drawing process: a constitutive law based on the wire microstructure evolutions is created, a mechanical study is performed, a set of experiments which enables determining the process friction coefficients is suggested and finally the related analytical model is introduced. This model provides several general results about the process and can be used in order to set the drawing machines.

  15. Catalytic Hydrothermal Conversion of Wet Biomass Feedstocks and Upgrading – Process Design and Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Jessica; Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse

    Liquid biofuels will play a major role for a more sustainable energy system of the future. The CatLiq® process is a 2nd generation biomass conversion process that is based on hydrothermal liquefaction. Hydrothermal liquefaction offers a very efficient and feedstock flexible way of converting...... biomass to bio-oil. Bio-oils from hydrothermal liquefaction are characterised by their high feedstock flexibility. Upgrading of complete bio-oils derived from hydrothermal conversion has not yet been extensively studied. Purpose of this work is to reduce the oxygen content of the bio-oil to improve...

  16. Conversion of a wet waste feedstock to biocrude by hydrothermal processing in a continuous-flow reactor: grape pomace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Hart, Todd R.; Billing, Justin M.

    2017-05-13

    Wet waste feedstocks present an apt opportunity for biomass conversion to fuels by hydrothermal processing. In this study, grape pomace slurries from two varieties, Montepulciano and cabernet sauvignon, have been converted into a biocrude by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) in a bench-scale, continuous-flow reactor system. Carbon conversion to gravity-separable biocrude product up to 56 % was accomplished at relatively low temperature (350 C) in a pressurized (sub-critical liquid water) environment (20 MPa) when using grape pomace feedstock slurry with a 16.8 wt% concentration of dry solids processed at a liquid hourly space velocity of 2.1 h-1. Direct oil recovery was achieved without the use of a solvent and biomass trace mineral components were removed by processing steps so that they did not cause processing difficulties. In addition, catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) was effectively applied for HTL byproduct water cleanup using a Ru on C catalyst in a fixed bed producing a gas composed of methane and carbon dioxide from water soluble organics. Conversion of 99.8% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) left in the aqueous phase was demonstrated. As a result, high conversion of grape pomace to liquid and gas fuel products was found with residual organic contamination in byproduct water reduced to <150 mg/kg COD.

  17. On the Rust Products Formed on Weathering and Carbon Steels Exposed to Chloride in Dry-Wet Cyclical Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, K. E.; Morales, A. L.; Barrero, C. A.; Greneche, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    The rust products formed on weathering and carbon steels exposed to dry-wet cyclical processes in different chloride-rich solutions are carefully examined by means of different techniques. Special emphasis is given to the methodology of analysis of the data using 300 K and 77 K Moessbauer spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. The rust that is loosely bound to the metal surface and that it is lost during the corrosion process, for both types of steel, was found to be composed of lepidocrocite, superparamagnetic goethite, hematite, and traces of akaganeite. On the other hand, the adherent rust, which is differentiated as scraped and hit according to the way it is obtained, from both steels was found to be composed of akaganeite, spinel phase, goethite exhibiting broad distribution of particle sizes and lepidocrocite. The relative abundances of rust components for both steels were very similar, suggesting similar corrosion processes. Mass loss measurements show that the corrosion rates increases with increasing the chloride concentration. The presence of large quantities of spinel phase and akaganeite are a consequence of a corrosion process under the influence of very high chloride concentrations. Our results are useful for assessing the behavior of weathering steels where the levels of chlorides are high or in contact with sea water.

  18. Campylobacter in Broiler Chicken and Broiler Meat in Sri Lanka : Influence of Semi-Automated vs. Wet Market Processing on Campylobacter Contamination of Broiler Neck Skin Samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kottawatta, Kottawattage S A; van Bergen, Marcel A P; Abeynayake, Preeni; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Veldman, Kees T; Kalupahana, Ruwani S

    2017-01-01

    Broiler meat can become contaminated with Campylobacter of intestinal origin during processing. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks and meat contamination at retail shops, and determine the influence of semi-automated and wet market processing on

  19. Recovery of uranium from wet process by the chloridic leaching of phosphate rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, A.O.; Paula, H.C.B.; Dantas, C.C.

    1984-01-01

    Uranium was recovered from chloridic leach liquor of phosphate rocks by solvent extraction on a laboratory scale. The extractor system is a mixture of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D 2 EHPA) and tributyl-phosphate (TBP) in a varsol diluent. The uranium concentration is 150 ppm in the rocks and 12 ppm in the leach liquor. The phosphate rocks are leached on a semi-industrial scale for dicalcium phosphate production. The recovery process comprises the following steps: extraction, reextraction, iron removal and uranium precipitation. (orig./EF)

  20. Recovery of uranium from wet process by the chloridic leaching of phosphate rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, A O; Paula, H C.B.; Dantas, C C

    1984-03-01

    Uranium was recovered from chloridic leach liquor of phosphate rocks by solvent extraction on a laboratory scale. The extractor system is a mixture of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D/sub 2/EHPA) and tributyl-phosphate (TBP) in a varsol diluent. The uranium concentration is 150 ppm in the rocks and 12 ppm in the leach liquor. The phosphate rocks are leached on a semi-industrial scale for dicalcium phosphate production. The recovery process comprises the following steps: extraction, reextraction, iron removal and uranium precipitation.

  1. Prognostic Factors of Early Morphological Response to Treatment with Ranibizumab in Patients with Wet Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oldřich Chrapek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the significance of age, gender, baseline best corrected visual acuity, baseline macula thickness, and type and size of choroidal neovascularization in early morphological therapeutic response to ranibizumab treatment in patients with the wet form of age-related macular degeneration. Methods. From 09/2008 to 06/2013 we evaluated 1153 newly diagnosed, treatment-naïve patients treated with ranibizumab. Based on the morphological findings in the macula following the initial 3 injections of ranibizumab, the patients were divided into two groups based on active and inactive choroidal neovascularization. Results. After the initial 3 injections of ranibizumab, we examined the sample of 841 eyes with active CNV and 312 eyes with inactive CNV. In the inactive group, we found a statistically higher proportion of occult CNV (P<0.001 and lower incidence of CNV greater than 5DA (P < 0.001 compared with the active group. We found no statistically significant difference in age, gender, baseline best corrected visual acuity, or baseline macula thickness between the inactive and active groups. Conclusion. Occult CNV and CNV smaller than 5DA are optimistic factors for a better morphological therapeutic response at the beginning of ranibizumab treatment.

  2. Selective recovery of pure copper nanopowder from indium-tin-oxide etching wastewater by various wet chemical reduction process: Understanding their chemistry and comparisons of sustainable valorization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, Basudev, E-mail: swain@iae.re.kr [Institute for Advanced Engineering, Advanced Materials & Processing Center, Yongin, 449-863 (Korea, Republic of); Mishra, Chinmayee [Institute for Advanced Engineering, Advanced Materials & Processing Center, Yongin, 449-863 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Hyun Seon [Sungshin University, Dept. of Interdisciplinary ECO Science, Seoul, 142-732 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sung-Soo [Institute for Advanced Engineering, Advanced Materials & Processing Center, Yongin, 449-863 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Sustainable valorization processes for selective recovery of pure copper nanopowder from Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO) etching wastewater by various wet chemical reduction processes, their chemistry has been investigated and compared. After the indium recovery by solvent extraction from ITO etching wastewater, the same is also an environmental challenge, needs to be treated before disposal. After the indium recovery, ITO etching wastewater contains 6.11 kg/m{sup 3} of copper and 1.35 kg/m{sup 3} of aluminum, pH of the solution is very low converging to 0 and contain a significant amount of chlorine in the media. In this study, pure copper nanopowder was recovered using various reducing reagents by wet chemical reduction and characterized. Different reducing agents like a metallic, an inorganic acid and an organic acid were used to understand reduction behavior of copper in the presence of aluminum in a strong chloride medium of the ITO etching wastewater. The effect of a polymer surfactant Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), which was included to prevent aggregation, to provide dispersion stability and control the size of copper nanopowder was investigated and compared. The developed copper nanopowder recovery techniques are techno-economical feasible processes for commercial production of copper nanopowder in the range of 100–500 nm size from the reported facilities through a one-pot synthesis. By all the process reported pure copper nanopowder can be recovered with>99% efficiency. After the copper recovery, copper concentration in the wastewater reduced to acceptable limit recommended by WHO for wastewater disposal. The process is not only beneficial for recycling of copper, but also helps to address environment challenged posed by ITO etching wastewater. From a complex wastewater, synthesis of pure copper nanopowder using various wet chemical reduction route and their comparison is the novelty of this recovery process. - Highlights: • From the Indium-Tin-Oxide etching

  3. Selective recovery of pure copper nanopowder from indium-tin-oxide etching wastewater by various wet chemical reduction process: Understanding their chemistry and comparisons of sustainable valorization processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, Basudev; Mishra, Chinmayee; Hong, Hyun Seon; Cho, Sung-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable valorization processes for selective recovery of pure copper nanopowder from Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO) etching wastewater by various wet chemical reduction processes, their chemistry has been investigated and compared. After the indium recovery by solvent extraction from ITO etching wastewater, the same is also an environmental challenge, needs to be treated before disposal. After the indium recovery, ITO etching wastewater contains 6.11 kg/m 3 of copper and 1.35 kg/m 3 of aluminum, pH of the solution is very low converging to 0 and contain a significant amount of chlorine in the media. In this study, pure copper nanopowder was recovered using various reducing reagents by wet chemical reduction and characterized. Different reducing agents like a metallic, an inorganic acid and an organic acid were used to understand reduction behavior of copper in the presence of aluminum in a strong chloride medium of the ITO etching wastewater. The effect of a polymer surfactant Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), which was included to prevent aggregation, to provide dispersion stability and control the size of copper nanopowder was investigated and compared. The developed copper nanopowder recovery techniques are techno-economical feasible processes for commercial production of copper nanopowder in the range of 100–500 nm size from the reported facilities through a one-pot synthesis. By all the process reported pure copper nanopowder can be recovered with>99% efficiency. After the copper recovery, copper concentration in the wastewater reduced to acceptable limit recommended by WHO for wastewater disposal. The process is not only beneficial for recycling of copper, but also helps to address environment challenged posed by ITO etching wastewater. From a complex wastewater, synthesis of pure copper nanopowder using various wet chemical reduction route and their comparison is the novelty of this recovery process. - Highlights: • From the Indium-Tin-Oxide etching wastewater

  4. Recent studies of uranium recovery from wet-process phosphoric acid with octylphenyl acid phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, W.D.

    1978-01-01

    Commercial OPAP is a complex mixture that contains at least 11 components. Octyl phenol is the principal impurity. Commercial OPAP contains readily-hydrolyzable material. The concentrations of octyl phenol and an unidentified impurity increase in the hydrolyzed product. Uranium extraction power is decreased slightly by hydrolysis of the reagent. Four major problems were encountered in continuous stability tests: (1) Microemulsion or micelle formation--loss of organic phase into phosphoric acid. We do not have a solution to this problem at this time. It could involve alteration of the organic, e.g., adding a modifier, changing the reagent structure, or changing the diluent. (2) Reagent poisoning--reduction of uranium extraction and interference with organic titrations by material extracted from the acid. Additional work is needed to identify the poisoning material or materials. It can then be removed if it originates in the phosphate rock, or avoided if it originates in chemicals added during processing. (3) Crystallization with iron--loss of both major components of the reagent as a complex with ferric iron. We believe this problem can be controlled by controlling the ferric iron concentration in the phosphoric acid. (4) MOPPA distribution loss--a selective loss to the aqueous phase. We believe this can be minimized by controlling the iron concentration of the phosphoric acid. The iron concentration will need to be kept low enough to avoid reagent crystallization and high enough to avoid MOPPA distribution loss. 15 figs

  5. Unexpected 226Ra build-up in wet-process phosphoric-acid plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lardinoye, M.H.; Weterings, K.; Berg, W.B. van de

    1982-01-01

    During an investigation of the distribution of radium and uranium over the different process streams in phosphoric-acid production and in the nitrophosphate route, a higher than average radiation level was detected in the vicinity of some piping and vessels near the gypsum filters. This higher radiation level is caused by radium which is present in very low concentrations in the phosphates used for fertilizer production. Detectable radiation levels around vessels and piping in other phosphoric-acid works have since been determined. In all factories the filter part and especially the washing-acid section showed the highest radiation level. In the piping of the gypsum filter, through which the washing acid is discharged, a scaling of barium sulphate and calcium sulphate with a higher radium concentration is formed. The radium ions appeared to be incorporated in the barium sulphate lattice, hence the solubility of the radium precipitate is very low. The danger of internal contamination in cleaning operations by radioactive intake or inhalation of radon is very small in the cases described. The risk of external radiation can be prevented by periodically cleaning the equipment in which the radioactive scaling is formed. (author)

  6. Unexpected /sup 226/Ra build-up in wet-process phosphoric-acid plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lardinoye, M.H.; Weterings, K. (Stamicarbon B.V., Geleen (Netherlands)); van de Berg, W.B. (Unie van Kunstmestfabrieken, Utrecht (Netherlands))

    1982-04-01

    During an investigation of the distribution of radium and uranium over the different process streams in phosphoric-acid production and in the nitrophosphate route, a higher than average radiation level was detected in the vicinity of some piping and vessels near the gypsum filters. This higher radiation level is caused by radium which is present in very low concentrations in the phosphates used for fertilizer production. Detectable radiation levels around vessels and piping in other phosphoric-acid works have since been determined. In all factories the filter part and especially the washing-acid section showed the highest radiation level. In the piping of the gypsum filter, through which the washing acid is discharged, a scaling of barium sulphate and calcium sulphate with a higher radium concentration is formed. The radium ions appeared to be incorporated in the barium sulphate lattice, hence the solubility of the radium precipitate is very low. The danger of internal contamination in cleaning operations by radioactive intake or inhalation of radon is very small in the cases described. The risk of external radiation can be prevented by periodically cleaning the equipment in which the radioactive scaling is formed.

  7. Unexpected 226Ra build-up in wet-process phosphoric-acid plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardinoye, M H; Weterings, K; van de Berg, W B

    1982-04-01

    During an investigation of the distribution of radium and uranium over the different process streams in phosphoric-acid production and in the nitrophosphate route, a higher than average radiation level was detected in the vicinity of some piping and vessels near the gypsum filtres. This higher radiation level is caused by radium, which, as a decay product in the 238U series, is present in very low concentrations (1-50 pCi 226R/g) in the phosphates used for fertilizer production. Specific research later on established that there were detectable radiation levels around vessels and piping in other phosphoric-acid works as well. It turned out that in all factories the filter part, and especially the washing-acid section showed the highest radiation-level. In the piping of the gypsum filter, through which the washing acid is discharged, a scaling of bariumsulphate and calciumsulphate with a higher radiumconcentration (+/- 0.1 Ci/g) is formed. The radium ions appeared to be incorporated in the bariumsulphate lattice, hence the solubility of the radium precipitate is very low. The danger of internal pollution, for example in cleaning operations by radio-active intake or inhallation of radon is very small in the cases described. The risk of external radiation can be prevented by periodically cleaning (every 1-3 yr) the equipment in which the radio-active scaling is formed.

  8. Unexpected /sup 226/Ra build-up in wet-process phosphoric-acid plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lardinoye, M.H.; Weterings, K.; van de Berg, W.B.

    1982-04-01

    During an investigation of the distribution of radium and uranium over the different process streams in phosphoric-acid production and in the nitrophosphate route, a higher than average radiation level was detected in the vicinity of some piping and vessels near the gypsum filtres. This higher radiation level is caused by radium, which, as a decay product in the /sup 238/U series, is present in very low concentrations (1-50 pCi 226R/g) in the phosphates used for fertilizer production. Specific research later on established that there were detectable radiation levels around vessels and piping in other phosphoric-acid works as well. It turned out that in all factories the filter part, and especially the washing-acid section showed the highest radiation-level. In the piping of the gypsum filter, through which the washing acid is discharged, a scaling of bariumsulfate and calciumsulfate with a higher radium concentration (+/- 0.1 Ci/g) is formed. The radium ions appeared to be incorporated in the bariumsulphate lattice, hence the solubility of the radium precipitate is very low. The danger of internal pollution, for example in cleaning operations by radioactive intake or inhalation of radon is very small in the cases described. The risk of external radiation can be prevented by periodically cleaning (every 1-3 yr) the equipment in which the radioactive scaling is formed.

  9. Two step esterification-transesterification process of wet greasy sewage sludge for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, C; Sangaletti-Gerhard, N; Cea, M; Suazo, A; Aliberti, A; Navia, R

    2016-01-01

    Sewage sludge generated in municipal wastewater treatment plants was used as a feedstock for biodiesel production via esterification/transesterification in a two-step process. In the first esterification step, greasy and secondary sludge were tested using acid and enzymatic catalysts. The results indicate that both catalysts performed the esterification of free fatty acids (FFA) simultaneously with the transesterification of triacylglycerols (TAG). Acid catalyst demonstrated better performance in FFA esterification compared to TAG transesterification, while enzymatic catalyst showed the ability to first hydrolyze TAG in FFA, which were esterified to methyl esters. In addition, FAME concentration using greasy sludge were higher (63.9% and 58.7%), compared with those of secondary sludge (11% and 16%), using acid and enzymatic catalysts, respectively. Therefore, only greasy sludge was used in the second step of alkaline transesterification. The alkaline transesterification of the previously esterified greasy sludge reached a maximum FAME concentration of 65.4% when using acid catalyst. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Campylobacter in Broiler Chicken and Broiler Meat in Sri Lanka: Influence of Semi-Automated vs. Wet Market Processing on Campylobacter Contamination of Broiler Neck Skin Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kottawattage S. A. Kottawatta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Broiler meat can become contaminated with Campylobacter of intestinal origin during processing. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks and meat contamination at retail shops, and determine the influence of semi-automated and wet market processing on Campylobacter contamination of neck skin samples. Samples were collected from semi-automated plants (n = 102 and wet markets (n = 25. From each batch of broilers, pooled caecal samples and neck skin samples were tested for Campylobacter. Broiler meat purchased from retail outlets (n = 37 was also tested. The prevalence of Campylobacter colonized broiler flocks was 67%. The contamination of meat at retail was 59%. Both semi-automated and wet market processing resulted to contaminate the broiler neck skins to the levels of 27.4% and 48%, respectively. When Campylobacter-free broiler flocks were processed in semi-automated facilities 15% (5/33 of neck skin samples became contaminated by the end of processing whereas 25% (2/8 became contaminated after wet market processing. Characterization of isolates revealed a higher proportion of C. coli compared to C. jejuni. Higher proportions of isolates were resistant to important antimicrobials. This study shows the importance of Campylobacter in poultry industry in Sri Lanka and the need for controlling antimicrobial resistance.

  11. Campylobacter in Broiler Chicken and Broiler Meat in Sri Lanka: Influence of Semi-Automated vs. Wet Market Processing on Campylobacter Contamination of Broiler Neck Skin Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottawatta, Kottawattage S A; Van Bergen, Marcel A P; Abeynayake, Preeni; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Veldman, Kees T; Kalupahana, Ruwani S

    2017-11-29

    Broiler meat can become contaminated with Campylobacter of intestinal origin during processing. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks and meat contamination at retail shops, and determine the influence of semi-automated and wet market processing on Campylobacter contamination of neck skin samples. Samples were collected from semi-automated plants ( n = 102) and wet markets ( n = 25). From each batch of broilers, pooled caecal samples and neck skin samples were tested for Campylobacter . Broiler meat purchased from retail outlets ( n = 37) was also tested. The prevalence of Campylobacter colonized broiler flocks was 67%. The contamination of meat at retail was 59%. Both semi-automated and wet market processing resulted to contaminate the broiler neck skins to the levels of 27.4% and 48%, respectively. When Campylobacter -free broiler flocks were processed in semi-automated facilities 15% (5/33) of neck skin samples became contaminated by the end of processing whereas 25% (2/8) became contaminated after wet market processing. Characterization of isolates revealed a higher proportion of C. coli compared to C. jejuni . Higher proportions of isolates were resistant to important antimicrobials. This study shows the importance of Campylobacter in poultry industry in Sri Lanka and the need for controlling antimicrobial resistance.

  12. Potential radiological impacts of recovery of uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid. Final report to the Environmental Protection Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W. Jr.; Haywood, F.F.; Danek, J.L.; Moore, R.E.; Wagner, E.B.; Rupp, E.M.

    1979-01-01

    A study was made to determine the radiological impacts associated with recovery of uranium from wet-process (WP) phosphoric acid in central Florida. Removal of U and other radionuclides from phosphoric acid prevents their distribution on farm lands and urban gardens and grasses via fertilizers; this results in a positive impact (decreased dose commitment) on the associated populations. This study considers the potential negative impacts of current and project recovery processes in a site-specific manner using detailed state-of-the-art methodologies. Positive impacts are treated in a generic sense using U.S. average values for important variables such as average and maximum fertilizer application rates and quantities of radionuclides in fertilizer. Three model plants to recover U from WP phosphoric acid were selected and source terms for release of radionuclides are developed for all three and for two treatment methods for airborne particulates. Costs for radwaste treatment were developed. Field measurements were conducted at the only commercial uranium recovery plant in operation. Radiological doses to the population surrounding release points during plant operation were estimated

  13. The influence of Chromium supplied by tanning and wet finishing processes on the formation of cr(vi in leather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Fuck

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Chromium used in leather manufacturing can be oxidized from the trivalent to the hexavalent state, causing environmental concerns. In this study, the influence of Cr(III from tanning, deacidification pH, fatliquors, chrome retanning and vegetable retanning on the formation of Cr(VI in leather was analyzed by comparing natural and aged samples. In wet-blue leather, even after aging and in fatliquored leathers that did not suffer the aging process, the presence of Cr(VI was always below the detection limit of 3 mg/kg. Considering the presence of Cr(VI, the supply of chromium during the retanning step had a more significant effect than during the tanning. In the fatliquoring process with sulfites, fish and synthetic fatliquor leather samples contained Cr(VI when aged, and the highest concentration detected was 26.7 mg/kg. The evaluation of Cr(VI formation led to recommendations for regulation in the leather industry.

  14. Characterization of a calcium phosphate cement based on alpha-tricalcium phosphate obtained by wet precipitation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurmer, M.B.; Diehl, C.E.; Vieira, R.S.; Coelho, W.T.G.; Santos, L.A.

    2012-01-01

    There are several systems of calcium phosphate cements being studied. Those based on alpha-tricalcium phosphate are of particular interest. After setting they produce calcium deficient hydroxyapatite similar to bone like hydroxyapatite. This work aims to obtain alpha-tricalcium phosphate powders by the wet precipitation process, using calcium nitrate and phosphoric acid as reagents. This powder was characterized by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and particle size distribution. In order to prepare the calcium phosphate cement, the powder was mixed with an accelerator in an aqueous solution. The mechanical properties of the cement were assessed and it was evaluated by means of apparent density, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The described method produced crystalline alpha-tricalcium phosphate as the major phase. The calcium phosphate cement showed high values of compression strength (50 MPa). The soaking of the cement in a simulated body fluid (SBF) formed a layer of hydroxyapatite like crystals in the surface of the samples. (author)

  15. Treatment of Row Leachate Using Catalytic Wet Oxidation Processes in Combination Hydrogen Peroxide, A Case Study of Isfahan Composting Factory Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Karimi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of toxic organic compounds is one of the major applications of the Wet Air Oxidation (WAO processes. The process can be defined  as the oxidation of substances, either in the form of solutions or suspensions, with the use of an oxidant (oxygen or air at elevated pressure and temperature. The aim of this paper was to study of Catalytic Wet Oxidation (CWAO with hydrogen peroxide to improve removal efficiency of organic matter and ammonia mainly produced in Isfahan composting factory leachate. The experiment was carried out by adding 1.5 Lit pretreated leachate sample to 3 Lit autoclave reactor. Four parameters are considered: pressure (8–12 bar; temperature (100–300 °C; retention time (30–90 min; H2O2 (1–5 mL/L.The highest removal efficiencies of COD and BOD were achieved at 300°C; approximately 44% and 48% were destroyed, respectively. On the other hand, highest ammonium removal efficiency was achieved at 100 °C in which approximately 63.8% was removed. The efficiency of aqueous phase oxidation can be largely improved by the use of H2O2 as catalyst. Therefore, catalytic wet oxidation would provide an environmentally attractive option for control of organic and toxic wastes problems. Temperature was found to be the most important control variable of the wet oxidation process of leachate.

  16. Recovery of phosphorus and aluminium from sewage sludge ash by a new wet chemical elution process (SESAL-Phos-recovery process).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzet, S; Peplinski, B; Bodkhe, S Y; Cornel, P

    2011-01-01

    The potential of a new wet chemical process for phosphorus and aluminium recovery from sewage sludge ash by sequential elution with acidic and alkaline solutions has been investigated: SESAL-Phos (sequential elution of sewage sludge ash for aluminium and phosphorus recovery). Its most innovative aspect is an acidic pre-treatment step in which calcium is leached from the sewage sludge ash. Thus the percentage of alkaline soluble aluminium phosphates is increased from 20 to 67%. This aluminium phosphate is then dissolved in alkali. Subsequently, the dissolved phosphorus is precipitated as calcium phosphate with low heavy metal content and recovered from the alkaline solution. Dissolved aluminium is recovered and may be reused as a precipitant in wastewater treatment plants.

  17. Wet steam wetness measurement in a 10 MW steam turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolovratník Michal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce a new design of the extinction probes developed for wet steam wetness measurement in steam turbines. This new generation of small sized extinction probes was developed at CTU in Prague. A data processing technique is presented together with yielded examples of the wetness distribution along the last blade of a 10MW steam turbine. The experimental measurement was done in cooperation with Doosan Škoda Power s.r.o.

  18. Wet cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hole, B. [IMC Technical Services (United Kingdom)

    1999-08-01

    Continuous miners create dust and methane problems in underground coal mining. Control has usually been achieved using ventilation techniques as experiments with water based suppression have led to flooding and electrical problems. Recent experience in the US has led to renewed interest in wet head systems. This paper describes tests of the Hydraphase system by IMC Technologies. Ventilation around the cutting zone, quenching of hot ignition sources, dust suppression, the surface trial gallery tests, the performance of the cutting bed, and flow of air and methane around the cutting head are reviewed. 1 ref., 2 figs., 2 photos.

  19. Development and Optimization of a Wet Granulation Process at Elevated Temperature for a Poorly Compactible Drug Using Twin Screw Extruder for Continuous Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Anuprabha K; Desai, Divyakant; Serajuddin, Abu T M

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to enhance tabletability of a poorly compactible drug, acetaminophen, by wet granulation using twin screw extruder at high temperature. It was desired that there would be minimum amounts of excipients used and the granules obtained after extrusion would be dry and fall within a size range suitable for tableting without any further processing. Mixtures of acetaminophen (95%) with binders (5% povidone or partially pregelatinized starch) were wet granulated through twin screw extruder at 70°C by adding 7% w/w water. The process had a short granulation time (processing temperature used, no drying after extrusion was needed. By optimizing formulation and processing parameters, >90% granules in the size range of 125 to 1000 μm (1.7 MPa, which was superior to that of tablets prepared by conventional high shear wet granulation. As the granules could be extruded continuously and did not require drying and milling, the method was amenable to continuous processing. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Integrating human factors into process hazard analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kariuki, S.G.; Loewe, K.

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive process hazard analysis (PHA) needs to address human factors. This paper describes an approach that systematically identifies human error in process design and the human factors that influence its production and propagation. It is deductive in nature and therefore considers human error as a top event. The combinations of different factors that may lead to this top event are analysed. It is qualitative in nature and is used in combination with other PHA methods. The method has an advantage because it does not look at the operator error as the sole contributor to the human failure within a system but a combination of all underlying factors

  1. Removal of organic pollutants in tannery wastewater from wet-blue fur processing by integrated Anoxic/Oxic (A/O) and Fenton: Process optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yong; Li, Weiguang; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of tannery wastewater has been a challenge in remediation of aquatic environment in developing countries. Removal of organic pollutants in tannery wastewater from wet-blue fur processing was studied using integrated processes of Anoxic/Oxic and Fenton. Analysis of COD composition based...... 80%. In the subsequent Fenton oxidation, effects of initial pH and H2O2 dose on COD removal were investigated, and response surface methodology was adopted to obtain the optimal conditions as initial pH of 4.0, H2O2 dose of 14.0mM, H2O2:Fe2+ molar ratio of 10.6, and reaction time of 3h to achieve...... the highest COD removal of 55.87%. GC-MS analysis was carried out to observe the change of organic composition during Fenton oxidation, and most of the residual organic pollutants resistant to Fenton treatment belonged to organosilanes and saturated alkanes. This study will provide useful information...

  2. WASTECOST-Wet - developed for Electric Power Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    WASTECOST-Wet specifically addresses liquid processing systems and their impact on solid waste volumes. The WASTECOST-Wet code models the entire liquid processing activity from media descriptions and volume throughput to solid waste volume generated, processing efficiency and disposal costs. WASTECOST gives a detailed economic and performance view of liquid waste processing activities. The code provides users a standardized methodology for calculating and comparing costs and system performance characteristics. Detailed reports are provided showing major costs centers. Performance and cost factors include gallons processed per cubic foot of waste generated, cost per cubic foot of waste generated and cost per gallon processed

  3. Commercial development of a new process of uraniferous ore sintering by pelletizing before dump leaching (wet process) application to a very clayey ore of Nord-Aquitaine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Videau, G.; Roche, M.

    1990-01-01

    Much of the French uranium ore contains clay of sedimentary origin or derived from the alteration of rocks of the granite type. During a dump leaching operation by a wet process, these clays reduce the percolation rates and sometimes the percolation rates are so low that the very essence of the dump leaching operation can be called in question. This problem arises particularly for the treatment of the ore of Nord-Aquitaine. The results of tests, carried out at the SEPA in Bessines, have shown that after pelletizing clayey ores with sodium silicate in the presence of sulphuric acid for the polymerization of the silicate, the percolation rates were much increased. This new method was successfully applied, from a laboratory column to a pilot dump of 500 tonnes for the very clayey ore of Nord-Aquitaine. This ore of low grade (approx. 1000 ppm of U) seems to be difficult to upgrade by any other method of treatment in the present economic context [fr

  4. Numerical study on over reading coefficient in wet steam flow measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Xuesong; Yuan Dewen; Yan Xiao; Peng Xingjian

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigated the flow process of wet steam in Venturi under interested conditions with CFD simulation software. The effect of pressure, mass flow rate, throat radius on over reading factor was analyzed. This paper aims to improve the wet steam over reading model and the prediction accuracy in wet steam. The results prove that the mass flow has a small effect on over reading coefficient, while the effect that throat radius has on over reading coefficient increases as the pressure rises. (authors)

  5. Preparation of zinc ferrite nano powders by high energy wet-milling method and investigation of Crystallites size variation during this process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoudi, H.; Aftabi, A.; Mozafari, M.; Amighian, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this research work ZnFe 2 O 4 nano powders were prepared by high-energy wet-milling process, using metallic Fe and Zn powders. The process was investigated by XRD technique. 10% of the zinc ferrite was formed after 10 h milling. The as-milled sample was annealed at 500, 550 and 600 d egree C . Ultimately a single sample was obtained at 600 d egree C . Using sherrer's formula, the mean crystallite size of the as-milled and annealed powders were calculated. These were in the range of 17.9 to 20.4 nm.

  6. Human factors challenges for advanced process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubler, W.F.; O'Hara, J..M.

    1996-01-01

    New human-system interface technologies provide opportunities for improving operator and plant performance. However, if these technologies are not properly implemented, they may introduce new challenges to performance and safety. This paper reports the results from a survey of human factors considerations that arise in the implementation of advanced human-system interface technologies in process control and other complex systems. General trends were identified for several areas based on a review of technical literature and a combination of interviews and site visits with process control organizations. Human factors considerations are discussed for two of these areas, automation and controls

  7. Study on Oil Pressure Characteristics and Trajectory Tracking Control in Shift Process of Wet-Clutch for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqiu Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate control of oil pressure of wet-clutch is of great importance for improving shift quality. Based on dynamic models of two-gear planetary transmission and hydraulic control system, a trajectory tracking model of oil pressure was built by sliding mode control method. An experiment was designed to verify the validity of hydraulic control system, through which the relationship between duty cycle of on-off valve and oil pressure of clutch was determined. The tracking effect was analyzed by simulation. Results showed that oil pressure could follow well the optimal trajectory and the shift quality was effectively improved.

  8. Periodically pulsed wet annealing approach for low-temperature processable amorphous InGaZnO thin film transistors with high electrical performance and ultrathin thickness

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ye Kyun; Ahn, Cheol Hyoun; Yun, Myeong Gu; Cho, Sung Woon; Kang, Won Jun; Cho, Hyung Koun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a simple and controllable ?wet pulse annealing? technique for the fabrication of flexible amorphous InGaZnO thin film transistors (a-IGZO TFTs) processed at low temperature (150??C) by using scalable vacuum deposition is proposed. This method entailed the quick injection of water vapor for 0.1?s and purge treatment in dry ambient in one cycle; the supply content of water vapor was simply controlled by the number of pulse repetitions. The electrical transport characteristics rev...

  9. High-density carbon nanotube wet-laid buckypapers with enhanced strength and conductivity using a high-pressure homogenization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jun; Jang, Si Hoon; Park, No Hyung; Jeong, Won Young; Lim, Dae Young [Human and Culture Convergence Technology Group, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH), Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jun Young; Yang, Seung Jae [Dept. of Applied Organic Materials Engineering, Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    In this work, we prepared homogeneously dispersed carbon nanotubes in water using a high-pressure homogenizer, while high-density carbon nanotube buckypapers were prepared by wet-laid process. The strength and conductivity of the buckypaper were increased dramatically after the high-pressure homogenization because of the increased density and uniformity of the paper. In addition, the buckypapers containing various additives and treated with SOCl{sub 2} exhibited further increase of strength and conductivity resulting from the binding and the p-type doping effect. The buckypapers with high electrical conductivity exhibited superior electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness that could be applied for structural shielding materials.

  10. Investigation of the Factors Influencing Volatile Chemical Fate During Steady-state Accretion on Wet-growing Hail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, R. A.; Stuart, A. L.

    2007-12-01

    Phase partitioning during freezing affects the transport and distribution of volatile chemical species in convective clouds. This consequently can have impacts on tropospheric chemistry, air quality, pollutant deposition, and climate change. Here, we discuss the development, evaluation, and application of a mechanistic model for the study and prediction of volatile chemical partitioning during steady-state hailstone growth. The model estimates the fraction of a chemical species retained in a two-phase freezing hailstone. It is based upon mass rate balances over water and solute for accretion under wet-growth conditions. Expressions for the calculation of model components, including the rates of super-cooled drop collection, shedding, evaporation, and hail growth were developed and implemented based on available cloud microphysics literature. Solute fate calculations assume equilibrium partitioning at air-liquid and liquid-ice interfaces. Currently, we are testing the model by performing mass balance calculations, sensitivity analyses, and comparison to available experimental data. Application of the model will improve understanding of the effects of cloud conditions and chemical properties on the fate of dissolved chemical species during hail growth.

  11. Periodically pulsed wet annealing approach for low-temperature processable amorphous InGaZnO thin film transistors with high electrical performance and ultrathin thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ye Kyun; Ahn, Cheol Hyoun; Yun, Myeong Gu; Cho, Sung Woon; Kang, Won Jun; Cho, Hyung Koun

    2016-05-20

    In this paper, a simple and controllable "wet pulse annealing" technique for the fabrication of flexible amorphous InGaZnO thin film transistors (a-IGZO TFTs) processed at low temperature (150 °C) by using scalable vacuum deposition is proposed. This method entailed the quick injection of water vapor for 0.1 s and purge treatment in dry ambient in one cycle; the supply content of water vapor was simply controlled by the number of pulse repetitions. The electrical transport characteristics revealed a remarkable performance of the a-IGZO TFTs prepared at the maximum process temperature of 150 °C (field-effect mobility of 13.3 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1); Ion/Ioff ratio ≈ 10(8); reduced I-V hysteresis), comparable to that of a-IGZO TFTs annealed at 350 °C in dry ambient. Upon analysis of the angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the good performance was attributed to the effective suppression of the formation of hydroxide and oxygen-related defects. Finally, by using the wet pulse annealing process, we fabricated, on a plastic substrate, an ultrathin flexible a-IGZO TFT with good electrical and bending performances.

  12. Periodically pulsed wet annealing approach for low-temperature processable amorphous InGaZnO thin film transistors with high electrical performance and ultrathin thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ye Kyun; Ahn, Cheol Hyoun; Yun, Myeong Gu; Cho, Sung Woon; Kang, Won Jun; Cho, Hyung Koun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a simple and controllable “wet pulse annealing” technique for the fabrication of flexible amorphous InGaZnO thin film transistors (a-IGZO TFTs) processed at low temperature (150 °C) by using scalable vacuum deposition is proposed. This method entailed the quick injection of water vapor for 0.1 s and purge treatment in dry ambient in one cycle; the supply content of water vapor was simply controlled by the number of pulse repetitions. The electrical transport characteristics revealed a remarkable performance of the a-IGZO TFTs prepared at the maximum process temperature of 150 °C (field-effect mobility of 13.3 cm2 V−1 s−1; Ion/Ioff ratio ≈ 108; reduced I-V hysteresis), comparable to that of a-IGZO TFTs annealed at 350 °C in dry ambient. Upon analysis of the angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the good performance was attributed to the effective suppression of the formation of hydroxide and oxygen-related defects. Finally, by using the wet pulse annealing process, we fabricated, on a plastic substrate, an ultrathin flexible a-IGZO TFT with good electrical and bending performances. PMID:27198067

  13. Factors affecting medication-order processing time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaman, M A; Kotzan, J A

    1982-11-01

    The factors affecting medication-order processing time at one hospital were studied. The order processing time was determined by directly observing the time to process randomly selected new drug orders on all three work shifts during two one-week periods. An order could list more than one drug for an individual patient. The observer recorded the nature, location, and cost of the drugs ordered, as well as the time to process the order. The time and type of interruptions also were noted. The time to process a drug order was classified as six dependent variables: (1) total time, (2) work time, (3) check time, (4) waiting time I--time from arrival on the dumbwaiter until work was initiated, (5) waiting time II--time between completion of the work and initiation of checking, and (6) waiting time III--time after the check was completed until the order left on the dumbwaiter. The significant predictors of each of the six dependent variables were determined using stepwise multiple regression. The total time to process a prescription order was 58.33 +/- 48.72 minutes; the urgency status of the order was the only significant determinant of total time. Urgency status also significantly predicted the three waiting-time variables. Interruptions and the number of drugs on the order were significant determinants of work time and check time. Each telephone interruption increased the work time by 1.72 minutes. While the results of this study cannot be generalized to other institutions, pharmacy managers can use the method of determining factors that affect medication-order processing time to identify problem areas in their institutions.

  14. Factorization and the Drell-Yan process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, D.A.

    The factorization theorem, applied to the Drell-Yan process, gives a formula for the differential cross section for the Drell-Yan process p + p → μ + μ - X. The theorem holds exactly in the free parton model. In QCD when gluon interactions between the annihilating quark and antiquark are taken into account the formula for the differential cross section acquires corrections of order αsub(s)(Q 2 ). Since αsub(s)(Q 2 ) is small at high Q 2 , these corrections are calculable in perturbation theory. An explicit calculation in the Feynman gauge has been performed using the scalar quark model of Sachrajda and Yankielowicz in which a meson is also represented by a scalar field which couples to the quarks (and antiquarks) via a cubic coupling. This calculation was repeated in the axial gauge and extended to include a baryon target for the process, antiquark + baryon → μ + μ - + 2 quarks. It is concluded that there are effects arising from spectator quark interactions which give rise to differences in the Drell-Yan and deep inelastic scattering amplitudes, at the two loop level but these effects cancel when the contribution from all diagrams are summed, provided the hadrons are colour singlets. There is no evidence for a violation of factorization in the Drell-Yan process up to order α 2 sub(s). (U.K.)

  15. Influence of processing factors over concrete strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, K. A.; Dolzhenko, A. V.; Zharikov, I. S.

    2018-03-01

    Construction of facilities of cast in-situ reinforced concrete poses additional requirements to quality of material, peculiarities of the construction process may sometimes lead to appearance of lamination planes and inhomogeneity of concrete, which reduce strength of the material and structure as a whole. Technology compliance while working with cast in-situ concrete has a significant impact onto the concrete strength. Such process factors as concrete curing, vibration and compaction of the concrete mixture, temperature treatment, etc., when they are countered or inadequately followed lead to a significant reduction in concrete strength. Here, the authors experimentally quantitatively determine the loss of strength in in-situ cast concrete structures due to inadequate following of process requirements, in comparison with full compliance.

  16. A novel nano-nonwoven fabric with three-dimensionally dispersed nanofibers: entrapment of carbon nanofibers within nonwovens using the wet-lay process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karwa, Amogh N; Davis, Virginia A; Tatarchuk, Bruce J; Barron, Troy J

    2012-01-01

    This study demonstrates, for the first time, the manufacturing of novel nano-nonwovens that are comprised of three-dimensionally distributed carbon nanofibers within the matrices of traditional wet-laid nonwovens. The preparation of these nano-nonwovens involves dispersing and flocking carbon nanofibers, and optimizing colloidal chemistry during wet-lay formation. The distribution of nanofibers within the nano-nonwoven was verified using polydispersed aerosol filtration testing, air permeability, low surface tension liquid capillary porometry, SEM and cyclic voltammetry. All these characterization techniques indicated that nanofiber flocks did not behave as large solid clumps, but retained the ‘nanoporous’ structure expected from nanofibers. These nano-nonwovens showed significant enhancements in aerosol filtration performance. The reduction–oxidation reactions of the functional groups on nanofibers and the linear variation of electric double-layer capacitance with nanofiber loading were measured using cyclic voltammetry. More than 65 m 2 (700 ft 2 ) of the composite were made during the demonstration of process scalability using a Fourdrinier-type continuous pilot papermaking machine. The scalability of the process with the control over pore size distribution makes these composites very promising for filtration and other nonwoven applications. (paper)

  17. Wet-process Fabrication of Low-cost All-solid Wire-shaped Solar Cells on Manganese-plated Electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Xing; Zhang, Xiaoying; Zhang, Nannan; Cheng, Li; Du, Jun; Tao, Changyuan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • All-solid wire-shaped flexible solar cells are firstly assembled on low-cost Mn-plated fibers. • Energy efficiency improved by >27% after coating a layer of Mn on various substrates. • The cell is fabricated via wet process under low temperature and mild pH conditions. • Stable flexible solar cells are realized on lightweight and low-cost polymer fiber. - Abstract: All-solid wire-shaped flexible solar cells are assembled for the first time on low-cost Mn-plated wires through wet-process fabrication under low temperature and mild pH conditions. With a price cheap as the steel, metal Mn can be easily plated on almost any substrates, and evidently promote the photovoltaic efficiency of wire-shaped solar cells on various traditional metal wire substrates, such as Fe and Ti, by 27% and 65%, respectively. Flexible solar cell with much lower cost and weight is assembled on Mn-plated polymer substrate, and is still capable of giving better performance than that on Fe or Ti substrate. Both its mechanical and chemical stability are good for future weaving applications. Owing to the wire-type structure, such low-cost metals as Mn, which are traditionally regarded as unsuitable for solar cells, may provide new opportunities for highly efficient solar cells

  18. Magnetic behavior of iron-modified MCM-41 correlated with clustering processes from the wet impregnation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuello, Natalia I.; Elías, Verónica R. [Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Química (CITeQ) (UTN-CONICET), Facultad Regional Córdoba. Maestro López y Cruz Roja Argentina, Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba 5016 (Argentina); Winkler, Elin [Centro Atómico Bariloche, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica – CONICET, Avenue Bustillo 9500, San Carlos de Bariloche 8400 (Argentina); Pozo-López, Gabriela; Oliva, Marcos I. [Facultad de Matemática, Astronomía y Física, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba – IFEG, CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba 5000 (Argentina); Eimer, Griselda A., E-mail: geimer@frc.utn.edu.ar [Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Química (CITeQ) (UTN-CONICET), Facultad Regional Córdoba. Maestro López y Cruz Roja Argentina, Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba 5016 (Argentina)

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic MCM-41 type mesoporous silica materials were synthetized and modified with different iron loadings by the wet impregnation method. The evolution of iron speciation, depending on the metal loading and associated with a particular magnetic behavior was investigated by M vs. H curves, FC–ZFC curves, EPR spectroscopy and other complementary techniques such as SEM, TEM, and chemisorption of pyridine followed by FT-IR studies. A superparamagnetic contribution was larger for the lower loadings suggesting the high dispersion of very small sized iron nanospecies. However, this contribution decreased with increasing metal loading due to the growth of magnetically blocked nanoparticles (hematite) on the outer surface. Finally, a bimodal size distribution for the superparamagnetic nanospecies could be inferred; then the anisotropy constant for this phase and the corresponding nanospecies sizes were estimated. - Highlights: • All samples showed a main superparamagnetic contribution. • The oxide particles grow at expense of superparamagnetic nanospecies. • Bimodal distribution of nanospecies in superparamagnetic regime was determined. • The anisotropy constant for superparamagnetic nanospecies was calculated.

  19. Structural, morphological, wettability and thermal resistance properties of hydro-oleophobic thin films prepared by a wet chemical process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phani, A.R.

    2006-01-01

    The structural properties of fluorine containing polymer compounds make them highly attractive materials for hydro-oleophobic applications. However, most of these exhibit low surface energy and poor adhesion on the substrates. In the present investigation, crack free, smooth and uniform thin films of poly[4,5-difluoro-2,2-bis(trifluoromethyl)-1,3-dioxole] -co-tetrafluoroethylene (TFD-co-TFE) with good adhesion have been deposited by wet chemical spin-coating technique on polished AISI 440C steel substrates. The as-deposited films (xerogel films) have been subjected to annealing for 1 h at different temperatures ranging from 100 to 500 deg. C in an argon atmosphere. The size growth of the nano-hemispheres increased from 8 nm for xerogel film to 28 nm for film annealed at 400 deg. C. It was found that as the annealing temperature increased from 100 to 400 deg. C, nano-hemisphere-like structures were formed, which in turn have shown increase in the water contact angle from 122 deg. to 147 deg. and oil (peanut) contact angle from 85 deg. to 96 deg. No change in the water contact angle (122 deg.) has been observed when the films deposited at room temperature were heated in air from 30 to 80 deg. C as well as exposed to steam for 8 days for 8 h/day indicating thermal stability of the film

  20. Erosion-corrosion of structural materials of wet steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomarov, G.V.

    1989-01-01

    A model of erosion-corrosion wear of elements of a wet steam zone and a condensate-feeding path of turbines is considered. It is shown that diffusion of impurities and corrosion products in pores of an oxide layer is the control mechanism under conditions of laminar flow of a media. Processes of mass transfer are controlling factors in turbulent flow

  1. Appearance and overall acceptability of fresh-cut cantaloupe pieces from whole melon treated with wet steam process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minimally processed fresh-cut fruits have a limited shelf-life because of deterioration caused by spoilage microflora and changes in physiological processes. Whole melons were inoculated with 7 log CFU/ml of each bacterium (Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes) and then t...

  2. Continuous wet-process growth of ZnO nanoarrays for wire-shaped photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Pan; Guo, Wanwan; Du, Jun; Tao, Changyuan; Qing, Shenglan; Fan, Xing

    2016-09-15

    Well-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays have been grown on metal-plated polymer fiber via a mild wet process in a newly-designed continuous reactor, aiming to provide wire-shaped photoanodes for wearable dye-sensitized solar cells. The growth conditions were systematically optimized with the help of computational flow-field simulation. The flow field in the reactor will not only affect the morphology of the ZnO nanorod⧹nanowire but also affect the pattern distribution of nanoarray on the electrode surface. Unlike the sectional structure from the traditional batch-type reactor, ZnO nanorods with finely-controlled length and uniform morphology could be grown from the continuous reactor. After optimization, the wire-shaped ZnO-type photoanode grown from the continuous reactor exhibited better photovoltaic performance than that from the traditional batch-type reactor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Model-based analysis of high shear wet granulation from batch to continuous processes in pharmaceutical production - A critical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Ashish; Gernaey, Krist; De Beer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    of the developments, the review focuses on the twin-screw granulator as a device for continuous HSWG and attempts to critically evaluate the current process. As a result, a set of open research questions are identified. These questions need to be answered in the future in order to fill the knowledge gap...... that currently exists both at micro- and macro-scale, and which is currently limiting the further development of the process to its full potential in pharmaceutical applications....

  4. Modeled Wet Nitrate Deposition

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Modeled data on nitrate wet deposition was obtained from Dr. Jeff Grimm at Penn State Univ. Nitrate wet depostion causes acidification and eutrophication of surface...

  5. Design and application of a metal wet-etching post-process for the improvement of CMOS-MEMS capacitive sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Ming-Han; Sun, Chih-Ming; Liu, Yu-Chia; Fang, Weileun; Wang, Chuanwei

    2009-01-01

    This study presents a process design methodology to improve the performance of a CMOS-MEMS gap-closing capacitive sensor. In addition to the standard CMOS process, the metal wet-etching approach is employed as the post-CMOS process to realize the present design. The dielectric layers of the CMOS process are exploited to form the main micro mechanical structures of the sensor. The metal layers of the CMOS process are used as the sensing electrodes and sacrificial layers. The advantages of the sensor design are as follows: (1) the parasitic capacitance is significantly reduced by the dielectric structure, (2) in-plane and out-of-plane sensing gaps can be reduced to increase the sensitivity, and (3) plate-type instead of comb-type out-of-plane sensing electrodes are available to increase the sensing electrode area. To demonstrate the feasibility of the present design, a three-axis capacitive CMOS-MEMS accelerometers chip is implemented and characterized. Measurements show that the sensitivities of accelerometers reach 11.5 mV G −1 (in the X-, Y-axes) and 7.8 mV G −1 (in the Z-axis), respectively, which are nearly one order larger than existing designs. Moreover, the detection of 10 mG excitation using the three-axis accelerometer is demonstrated for both in-plane and out-of-plane directions

  6. Factorization and resummation for jet processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becher, Thomas [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institut für Theoretische Physik,Universität Bern,Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Neubert, Matthias [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence & Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics,Johannes Gutenberg University,55099 Mainz (Germany); Department of Physics, LEPP, Cornell University,Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Rothen, Lorena [Theory Group, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY),Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Shao, Ding Yu [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institut für Theoretische Physik,Universität Bern,Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2016-11-04

    From a detailed analysis of cone-jet cross sections in effective field theory, we obtain novel factorization theorems which separate the physics associated with different energy scales present in such processes. The relevant low-energy physics is encoded in Wilson lines along the directions of the energetic particles inside the jets. This multi-Wilson-line structure is present even for narrow-cone jets due to the relevance of small-angle soft radiation. We discuss the renormalization-group equations satisfied by these operators. Their solution resums all logarithmically enhanced contributions to such processes, including non-global logarithms. Such logarithms arise in many observables, in particular whenever hard phase-space constraints are imposed, and are not captured with standard resummation techniques. Our formalism provides the basis for higher-order logarithmic resummations of jet and other non-global observables. As a nontrivial consistency check, we use it to obtain explicit two-loop results for all logarithmically enhanced terms in cone-jet cross sections and verify those against numerical fixed-order computations.

  7. Factorization and resummation for jet processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becher, Thomas; Shao, Ding Yu; Neubert, Matthias; Mainz Univ.; Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY; Rothen, Lorena

    2016-05-01

    From a detailed analysis of cone-jet cross sections in effective field theory, we obtain novel factorization theorems which separate the physics associated with different energy scales present in such processes. The relevant low-energy physics is encoded in Wilson lines along the directions of the energetic particles inside the jets. This multi-Wilson-line structure is present even for narrow-cone jets due to the relevance of small-angle soft radiation. We discuss the renormalization-group equations satisfied by these operators. Their solution resums all logarithmically enhanced contributions to such processes, including non-global logarithms. Such logarithms arise in many observables, in particular whenever hard phase-space constraints are imposed, and are not captured with standard resummation techniques. Our formalism provides the basis for higher-order logarithmic resummations of jet and other non-global observables. As a nontrivial consistency check, we use it to obtain explicit two-loop results for all logarithmically enhanced terms in cone-jet cross sections and verify those against numerical fixed-order computations.

  8. Treatment of toxic and hazardous organic wastes by wet oxidation process with oxygenated water at low temperature; Trattamento dei rifiuti tossici e nocivi organici mediante il processo di ossidazione ad umido con acqua ossigenata a bassa temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piccinno, T; Salluzzo, A; Nardi, L [ENEA - Dipartimento Ciclo del Combustibile, Centro Ricerche Energia, Casaccia (Italy); Gili, M; Luce, A; Troiani, F [ENEA - Dipartimento Ciclo del Combustibile, Centro Ricerche Energia, Saluggia (Italy); Cornacchia, G [ENEA - Dipartimento Ciclo del Combustibile, Centro Ricerche Energia, Trisaia (Italy)

    1989-11-15

    The wet oxidation process using air or molecular oxygen is a well-known process from long time. It is suitable to oxidize several types of waste refractory to the usual biological, thermal and chemical treatments. The drastic operating conditions (high pressures and temperatures) prevented its industrial development. In the last years a new interest was assigned to the process for the treatment of nuclear wastes (organic resins and exhaust organic wastes); the treatment is carried out at widely reduced operating conditions (atmospheric pressure and boiling temperature) by means of metallic catalysts and hydrogen peroxide. With some limits, the wet oxidation with hydrogen peroxide at low temperature can be applied to conventional waste waters containing toxic organic compounds. In the present report are summarized the activities developed at ENEA Fuel Cycle Department by the task force 'Deox' constituted by laboratory and plant specialists in order to verify the application of the wet oxidation process to the treatment of the toxic wastes. (author)

  9. Introduction to wetting phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indekeu, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    In these lectures the field of wetting phenomena is introduced from the point of view of statistical physics. The phase transition from partial to complete wetting is discussed and examples of relevant experiments in binary liquid mixtures are given. Cahn's concept of critical-point wetting is examined in detail. Finally, a connection is drawn between wetting near bulk criticality and the universality classes of surface critical phenomena. (author)

  10. Haptic perception of wetness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kosters, N.D.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2011-01-01

    The sensation of wetness is well-known but barely investigated. There are no specific wetness receptors in the skin, but the sensation is mediated by temperature and pressure perception. In our study, we have measured discrimination thresholds for the haptic perception of wetness of three di erent

  11. Haptic perception of wetness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Dolfine Kosters, N.; Daanen, h.a.m.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2012-01-01

    In daily life, people interact with textiles of different degrees of wetness, but little is known about the me-chanics of wetness perception. This paper describes an experiment with six conditions regarding haptic dis-crimination of the wetness of fabrics. Three materials were used: cotton wool,

  12. Haptic perception of wetness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kosters, N.D.; Kappers, Astrid M.L.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    In daily life, people interact with textiles of different degrees of wetness, but little is known about the mechanics of wetness perception. This paper describes an experiment with six conditions regarding haptic discrimination of the wetness of fabrics. Three materials were used: cotton wool,

  13. In situ investigation of wet chemical processes for chalcopyrite solar cells by L-edge XAS under ambient conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greil, Stefanie M. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Lauermann, Iver, E-mail: Iver.lauermann@helmholtz-berlin.d [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Ennaoui, Ahmed; Kropp, Timo; Lange, Kathrin M.; Weber, Matthieu [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Aziz, Emad F., E-mail: Emad.Aziz@helmholtz-berlin.d [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    Two instrumental setups for in situ soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy in liquid systems are demonstrated in this work. One for investigating chemical reactions in solutions and a new one for the solid component of a liquid / (as in both / absorber) solid interface. We used these setups for investigating two production processes for chalcopyrite solar cells under ambient conditions, probing the L-edge of Zn and Cu. The first one is a flow cell with a silicon nitride membrane to study the chemical bath deposition process for Cd-free buffer layers. Examining the electronic structure of involved Zn complexes allows to determine the exact reaction mechanism taking place during this process. The second setup is a rotating disk for investigating the bath/absorber interface upon the etching process of superficial binary copper compounds of the absorber as a function of time. The time resolution of the chemical reaction demonstrated in this study ranges from the second to minute time scale.

  14. In situ investigation of wet chemical processes for chalcopyrite solar cells by L-edge XAS under ambient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greil, Stefanie M.; Lauermann, Iver; Ennaoui, Ahmed; Kropp, Timo; Lange, Kathrin M.; Weber, Matthieu; Aziz, Emad F.

    2010-01-01

    Two instrumental setups for in situ soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy in liquid systems are demonstrated in this work. One for investigating chemical reactions in solutions and a new one for the solid component of a liquid / (as in both / absorber) solid interface. We used these setups for investigating two production processes for chalcopyrite solar cells under ambient conditions, probing the L-edge of Zn and Cu. The first one is a flow cell with a silicon nitride membrane to study the chemical bath deposition process for Cd-free buffer layers. Examining the electronic structure of involved Zn complexes allows to determine the exact reaction mechanism taking place during this process. The second setup is a rotating disk for investigating the bath/absorber interface upon the etching process of superficial binary copper compounds of the absorber as a function of time. The time resolution of the chemical reaction demonstrated in this study ranges from the second to minute time scale.

  15. In situ investigation of wet chemical processes for chalcopyrite solar cells by L-edge XAS under ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greil, Stefanie M.; Lauermann, Iver; Ennaoui, Ahmed; Kropp, Timo; Lange, Kathrin M.; Weber, Matthieu; Aziz, Emad F.

    2010-02-01

    Two instrumental setups for in situ soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy in liquid systems are demonstrated in this work. One for investigating chemical reactions in solutions and a new one for the solid component of a liquid / (as in both / absorber) solid interface. We used these setups for investigating two production processes for chalcopyrite solar cells under ambient conditions, probing the L-edge of Zn and Cu. The first one is a flow cell with a silicon nitride membrane to study the chemical bath deposition process for Cd-free buffer layers. Examining the electronic structure of involved Zn complexes allows to determine the exact reaction mechanism taking place during this process. The second setup is a rotating disk for investigating the bath/absorber interface upon the etching process of superficial binary copper compounds of the absorber as a function of time. The time resolution of the chemical reaction demonstrated in this study ranges from the second to minute time scale.

  16. Database development for understanding the wet deposition and dispersion processes after the Fukushima nuclear plant accident. Radar data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatagai, Akiyo; Takara, Kaoru; Ishihara, Masahito; Ishikawa, Hirohiko; Watanabe, Akira; Murata, Ken T.

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript describes datasets of meteorological information being developed for understanding the dispersion and deposition process of radionuclides associated with the Fukushima accident in March 2011. Among several products, this paper reports mainly our original radar data images including the X-band radar data from Fukushima University as well as the three-dimensional reflectivity data from the Japan Meteorological Agency C-band radar network. (author)

  17. An Estimation of Wave Attenuation Factor in Ultrasonic Assisted Gravity Drainage Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Keshavarzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been proved that ultrasonic energy can considerably increase the amount of oil recovery in an immiscible displacement process. Although many studies have been performed on investigating the roles of ultrasonic waves, based on the best of our knowledge, little attention has been paid to evaluate wave attenuation parameter, which is an important parameter in the determination of the energy delivered to the porous medium. In this study, free fall gravity drainage process is investigated in a glass bead porous medium. Kerosene and Dorud crude oil are used as the wetting phases and air is used as the non-wetting phase. A piston-like displacement model with considering constant capillary pressure and applying Corey type approximation for relative permeabilities of both wetting and nonwetting phases is applied. A pressure term is considered to describe the presence of ultrasonic waves and the attenuation factor of ultrasonic waves is calculated by evaluating the value of external pressure applied to enhance the flow using the history matching of the data in the presence and absence of ultrasonic waves. The results introduce the attenuation factor as an important parameter in the process of ultrasonic assisted gravity drainage. The results show that only a low percentage of the ultrasonic energy (5.8% for Dorud crude oil and 3.3% for kerosene is delivered to the flow of the fluid; however, a high increase in oil recovery enhancement (15% for Dorud crude oil and 12% for Kerosene is observed in the experiments. This proves that the ultrasonic waves, even when the contribution is not substantial, can be a significantly efficient method for flow enhancement.

  18. Examining Dynamical Processes of Tropical Mountain Hydroclimate, Particularly During the Wet Season, Through Integration of Autonomous Sensor Observations and Climate Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellstrom, R. A.; Fernandez, A.; Mark, B. G.; Covert, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Peru is facing imminent water resource issues as glaciers retreat and demand increases, yet limited observations and model resolution hamper understanding of hydrometerological processes on local to regional scales. Much of current global and regional climate studies neglect the meteorological forcing of lapse rates (LRs) and valley and slope wind dynamics on critical components of the Peruvian Andes' water-cycle, and herein we emphasize the wet season. In 2004 and 2005 we installed an autonomous sensor network (ASN) within the glacierized Llanganuco Valley, Cordillera Blanca (9°S), consisting of discrete, cost-effective, automatic temperature loggers located along the valley axis and anchored by two automatic weather stations. Comparisons of these embedded hydrometeorological measurements from the ASN and climate modeling by dynamical downscaling using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) elucidate distinct diurnal and seasonal characteristics of the mountain wind regime and LRs. Wind, temperature, humidity, and cloud simulations suggest that thermally driven up-valley and slope winds converging with easterly flow aloft enhance late afternoon and evening cloud development which helps explain nocturnal wet season precipitation maxima measured by the ASN. Furthermore, the extreme diurnal variability of along-valley-axis LR, and valley wind detected from ground observations and confirmed by dynamical downscaling demonstrate the importance of realistic scale parameterizations of the atmospheric boundary layer to improve regional climate model projections in mountainous regions. We are currently considering to use intermediate climate models such as ICAR to reduce computing cost and we continue to maintain the ASN in the Cordillera Blanca.

  19. Dynamic Wetting Behavior of Vibrated Droplets on a Micropillared Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-hai Jia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamical wetting behavior has been observed under vertical vibration of a water droplet placed on a micropillared surface. The wetting transition takes place under the different processes. In compression process, the droplet is transited from Cassie state to Wenzel state. The droplet undergoes a Wenzel-Cassie wetting transition in restoring process and the droplet bounces off from the surface in bouncing process. Meanwhile, the wetting and dewetting models during vibration are proposed. The wetting transition is confirmed by the model calculation. This study has potential to be used to control the wetting state.

  20. Does Surface Roughness Amplify Wetting?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malijevský, Alexandr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 141, č. 18 (2014), s. 184703 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-09914S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : density functional theory * wetting * roughness Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.952, year: 2014

  1. Understanding the formation process of the liquid slug in a hilly-terrain wet natural gas pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yan; Li, Jingbo; Wang, Shuli

    2017-01-01

    condition on the liquid slug formation is discussed including pipe diameter, inclination angle, gas superficial velocity and liquid holdup. The results show that the pipe is blocked by the liquid slug at the moment of slug formed. The pipe pressure suddenly increases, and then decreases gradually...... in the process of liquid slug formation and motion. The pipe pressure drop and liquid holdup decrease along with the increasing inclination angle of ascending pipe. On the contrary, they rise with the increase of the inclination angle of descending pipe. Higher gas superficial velocity and liquid holdup result...

  2. Effect of Heat Drawing Process on Mechanical Properties of Dry-Jet Wet Spun Fiber of Linear Low Density Polyethylene/Carbon Nanotube Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Won Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene is one of the most commonly used polymer materials. Even though linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE has better mechanical properties than other kinds of polyethylene, it is not used as a textile material because of its plastic behavior that is easy to break at the die during melt spinning. In this study, LLDPE fibers were successfully produced with a new approach using a dry-jet wet spinning and a heat drawing process. The fibers were filled with carbon nanotubes (CNTs to improve the strength and reduce plastic deformation. The crystallinity, degree of orientation, mechanical properties (strength to yield, strength to break, elongation at break, and initial modulus, electrical conductivity, and thermal properties of LLDPE fibers were studied. The results show that the addition of CNTs improved the tensile strength and the degree of crystallinity. The heat drawing process resulted in a significant increase in the tensile strength and the orientation of the CNTs and polymer chains. In addition, this study demonstrates that the heat drawing process effectively decreases the plastic deformation of LLDPE.

  3. Research on the Effects of Process Parameters on Surface Roughness in Wet-Activated Silicon Direct Bonding Base on Orthogonal Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei NIE

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Surface roughness is a very important index in silicon direct bonding and it is affected by processing parameters in the wet-activated process. These parameters include the concentration of activation solution, holding time and treatment temperature. The effects of these parameters were investigated by means of orthogonal experiments. In order to analyze the wafer roughness more accurately, the bear ratio of the surface was used as the evaluation index. From the results of the experiments, it could be concluded that the concentration of the activation solution affected the roughness directly and the higher the concentration, the lower the roughness. Holding time did not affect the roughness as acutely as that of the concentration, but a reduced activation time decreased the roughness perceptibly. It was also discovered that the treatment temperature had a weak correlation with the surface roughness. Based on these conclusions, the parameters of concentration, temperature and holding time were optimized respectively as NH4OH:H2O2=1:1 (without water, 70 °C and 5 min. The results of bonding experiments proved the validity of the conclusions of orthogonal experiments.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.4.9711

  4. Damage-free back channel wet-etch process in amorphous indium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors using a carbon-nanofilm barrier layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dongxiang; Zhao, Mingjie; Xu, Miao; Li, Min; Chen, Zikai; Wang, Lang; Zou, Jianhua; Tao, Hong; Wang, Lei; Peng, Junbiao

    2014-07-23

    Amorphous indium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors (IZO-TFTs) with damage-free back channel wet-etch (BCE) process were investigated. A carbon (C) nanofilm was inserted into the interface between IZO layer and source/drain (S/D) electrodes as a barrier layer. Transmittance electron microscope images revealed that the 3 nm-thick C nanofilm exhibited a good corrosion resistance to a commonly used H3PO4-based etchant and could be easily eliminated. The TFT device with a 3 nm-thick C barrier layer showed a saturated field effect mobility of 14.4 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), a subthreshold swing of 0.21 V/decade, an on-to-off current ratio of 8.3 × 10(10), and a threshold voltage of 2.0 V. The favorable electrical performance of this kind of IZO-TFTs was due to the protection of the inserted C to IZO layer in the back-channel-etch process. Moreover, the low contact resistance of the devices was proved to be due to the graphitization of the C nanofilms after annealing. In addition, the hysteresis and thermal stress testing confirmed that the usage of C barrier nanofilms is an effective method to fabricate the damage-free BCE-type devices with high reliability.

  5. A Comparison of Factors that Influence the Lyophilization Process

    OpenAIRE

    Mnerie, Dumitru; Anghel, Gabriela Victoria; Mnerie, Alin Vasile; Cheveresan, Constantin

    2007-01-01

    The lyophilization (or freeze drying) process for agro-foods products depends on a series of technological factors that are in an inter-dependence with the process performance. This paper presents an expert method and its application. This method characterizes the influence factors of the lyophilization process, after the importance level of some factors in correlation with other factors, is defined. Only the most important factors were considered; influence considerations were made in relati...

  6. Success Factors of Business Process Management Systems Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johan Versendaal; J.P.P. Ravesteijn

    2007-01-01

    In this research (critical) success factors for Business Process Management Systems implementation are identified and qualitatively validated. Furthermore a list of critical success factors is constructed. Based on the identified factors a BPMS implementation approach is suggested. Future research

  7. Wetting and evaporation of binary mixture drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefiane, Khellil; David, Samuel; Shanahan, Martin E R

    2008-09-11

    Experimental results on the wetting behavior of water, methanol, and binary mixture sessile drops on a smooth, polymer-coated substrate are reported. The wetting behavior of evaporating water/methanol drops was also studied in a water-saturated environment. Drop parameters (contact angle, shape, and volume) were monitored in time. The effects of the initial relative concentrations on subsequent evaporation and wetting dynamics were investigated. Physical mechanisms responsible for the various types of wetting behavior during different stages are proposed and discussed. Competition between evaporation and hydrodynamic flow are evoked. Using an environment saturated with water vapor allowed further exploration of the controlling mechanisms and underlying processes. Wetting stages attributed to differential evaporation of methanol were identified. Methanol, the more volatile component, evaporates predominantly in the initial stage. The data, however, suggest that a small proportion of methanol remained in the drop after the first stage of evaporation. This residual methanol within the drop seems to influence subsequent wetting behavior strongly.

  8. A dynamic balanced scorecard for identification internal process factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad sofiyabadi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a dynamic balanced score card (BSC to investigate the strategic internal process management factors. The proposed dynamic BSC emphasizes on internal processes aspect, and using VIKOR and Shannon Entropy, determinants the internal processes, process management and improvement and all important factors are ranked. The current study first introduces dynamic BSC and examines effective factors on the process. The proposed model focuses on internal processes perspective of BSC and determines importance degree of each factor is used using VIKOR decision-making techniques.

  9. PROCESSES AND FACTORS OF POROSITY EVOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Jigau

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized that agriculture, and mostly the intensive type of agriculture, has an important impact on soil. In this case, even the simplest tillage operation leads to the greatest dysfunction ever met in the trophic chain and to the negative anthropogenic impact on soil. The result is defined by a number of new features (arable horizon, sub-arable horizon, layered and reversed profiles and intensification of some processes like dehumification, compaction, de-structuring etc. Specified processes are distributed and have a common characteristic regarding the accumulation of residual effects from one year to another, from one stage to another, leading to the establishment in agricultural soils of a specific dynamic of pedogenetic processes, different from the natural one.The integrated index of the mentioned processes is the soil pore space and its dynamics in an anthropogenic regime.

  10. Particle-assisted wetting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hui; Yan Feng; Tierno, Pietro; Marczewski, Dawid; Goedel, Werner A

    2005-01-01

    Wetting of a solid surface by a liquid is dramatically impeded if either the solid or the liquid is decorated by particles. Here it is shown that in the case of contact between two liquids the opposite effect may occur; mixtures of a hydrophobic liquid and suitable particles form wetting layers on a water surface though the liquid alone is non-wetting. In these wetting layers, the particles adsorb to, and partially penetrate through, the liquid/air and/or the liquid/water interface. This formation of wetting layers can be explained by the reduction in total interfacial energy due to the replacement of part of the fluid/fluid interfaces by the particles. It is most prominent if the contact angles at the fluid/fluid/particle contact lines are close to 90 0

  11. System evaluation and microbial analysis of a sulfur cycle-based wastewater treatment process for Co-treatment of simple wet flue gas desulfurization wastes with freshwater sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jin; Liu, Rulong; Wei, Li; Lu, Hui; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2015-09-01

    A sulfur cycle-based wastewater treatment process, namely the Sulfate reduction, Autotrophic denitrification and Nitrification Integrated process (SANI(®) process) has been recently developed for organics and nitrogen removal with 90% sludge minimization and 35% energy reduction in the biological treatment of saline sewage from seawater toilet flushing practice in Hong Kong. In this study, sulfate- and sulfite-rich wastes from simple wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) were considered as a potential low-cost sulfur source to achieve beneficial co-treatment with non-saline (freshwater) sewage in continental areas, through a Mixed Denitrification (MD)-SANI process trialed with synthetic mixture of simple WFGD wastes and freshwater sewage. The system showed 80% COD removal efficiency (specific COD removal rate of 0.26 kg COD/kg VSS/d) at an optimal pH of 7.5 and complete denitrification through MD (specific nitrogen removal rate of 0.33 kg N/kg VSS/d). Among the electron donors in MD, organics and thiosulfate could induce a much higher denitrifying activity than sulfide in terms of both NO3(-) reduction and NO2(-) reduction, suggesting a much higher nitrogen removal rate in organics-, thiosulfate- and sulfide-based MD in MD-SANI compared to sulfide alone-based autotrophic denitrification in conventional SANI(®). Diverse sulfate/sulfite-reducing bacteria (SRB) genera dominated in the bacterial community of sulfate/sulfite-reducing up-flow sludge bed (SRUSB) sludge without methane producing bacteria detected. Desulfomicrobium-like species possibly for sulfite reduction and Desulfobulbus-like species possibly for sulfate reduction are the two dominant groups with respective abundance of 24.03 and 14.91% in the SRB genera. Diverse denitrifying genera were identified in the bacterial community of anoxic up-flow sludge bed (AnUSB) sludge and the Thauera- and Thiobacillus-like species were the major taxa. These results well explained the successful operation of the lab

  12. Treeline advance - driving processes and adverse factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.-K. Holtmeier

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The general trend of climatically-driven treeline advance is modified by regional, local and temporal variations. Treelines will not advance in a closed front parallel to the shift of any isotherm to higher elevations and more northern latitudes. The effects of varying topography on site conditions and the after-effects of historical disturbances by natural and anthropogenic factors may override the effects of slightly higher average temperatures. Moreover, the varying treeline-forming species respond in different ways to a changing climate. Forest advance upwards and northwards primarily depends on successful regeneration and survival of young growth rather than on increasing growth rates of mature trees. Every assessment of treeline response to future climate change must consider the effects of local site conditions and feedbacks of in-creasing tree population in modulating the climatically-driven change. Treeline-shift will influence regional and local climates, pedogenesis, plant communities, animal populations and biodiversity as well as having a considerable effect on economic changes in primary production. A better understanding of the functional relationships between the many treeline-relevant factors and treeline dynamics can be achieved only by extensive research at different scales within different climatic regions supported by as many as possible experimental studies in the field together with laboratory and remote sensing techniques.

  13. Post-treatment of biologically treated wastewater containing organic contaminants using a sequence of H2O2 based advanced oxidation processes: photolysis and catalytic wet oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda-Márquez, J J; Sillanpää, M; Pocostales, P; Acevedo, A; Manzano, M A

    2015-03-15

    In this paper the feasibility of a multi-barrier treatment (MBT) for the regeneration of synthetic industrial wastewater (SIWW) was evaluated. Industrial pollutants (orange II, phenol, 4-chlorophenol and phenanthrene) were added to the effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plant. The proposed MBT begins with a microfiltration membrane pretreatment (MF), followed by hydrogen peroxide photolysis (H2O2/UVC) and finishing, as a polishing step, with catalytic wet peroxide oxidation (CWPO) using granular activated carbon (GAC) at ambient conditions. During the microfiltration step (0.7 μm) the decrease of suspended solids concentration, turbidity and Escherichia coli in treated water were 88, 94 and 99%, respectively. Also, the effluent's transmittance (254 nm) was increased by 14.7%. Removal of more than 99.9% of all added pollutants, mineralization of 63% of organic compounds and complete disinfection of total coliforms were reached during the H2O2/UVC treatment step (H2O2:TOC w/w ratio = 5 and an UVC average dose accumulated by wastewater 8.80 WUVC s cm(-2)). The power and efficiency of the lamp, the water transmittance and photoreactor geometry are taken into account and a new equation to estimate the accumulated dose in water is suggested. Remaining organic pollutants with a higher oxidation state of carbon atoms (+0.47) and toxic concentration of residual H2O2 were present in the effluent of the H2O2/UVC process. After 2.3 min of contact time with GAC at CWPO step, 90 and 100% of total organic carbon and residual H2O2 were removed, respectively. Also, the wastewater toxicity was studied using Vibrio fischeri and Sparus aurata larvae. The MBT operational and maintenance costs (O&M) was estimated to be 0.59 € m(-3). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Design considerations for wet flue gas desulfurization systems - wet scrubber hardware issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurwitz, H.

    1994-12-31

    About 20 years ago the first wet flue gas desulfurization systems installed on coal fired utility boilers in the United States were experiencing extreme operating problems. In addition to their failure to achieve the necessary SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies, these FGD systems required a major investment in maintenance, both material and labor, just to remain operational. These first generation systems demonstrated that a lack of understanding of the chemistry and operating conditions of wet flue gas desulfurization can lead to diastrous results. As the air pollution control industry developed, both in the United States and in Japan, a second generation of FGD systems was introduced. These designs incorporated major improvements in both system chemistry control and in the equipment utilized in the process. Indeed, the successful introduction of utility gas desulfurization systems in Germany was possible only through the transfer of the technology improvements developed in the US and in Japan. Today, technology has evolved to a third generation of wet flue gas desulfurication systems and these systems are now offered worldwide through a series of international licensing agreements. The rapid economic growth and development in Asia and the Pacific Rim combined with existing problems in ambient air quality in these same geographic areas, has resulted in the use of advanced air pollution control systems; including flue gas desulfurization both for new utility units and for many retrofit projects. To meet the requirements of the utility industry, FGD systems must meet high standards of reliability, operability and performance. Key components in achieving these objectives are: FGD System reliability/operability/performance; FGD system supplier qualifications; process design; equipment selection. This paper will discuss each of the essential factors with a concentration on the equipment selection and wet scrubber hardware issues.

  15. Wet water glass production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for a wet hydrate dissolution plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects, a production plant of a capacity of 75,000 t/y was manufactured, at "Zeolite Mira", Mira (VE, Italy, in 1997. and 1998, increasing detergent zeolite production, from 50,000 to 100,000 t/y. Several goals were realized by designing a wet hydrate dissolution plant. The main goal was increasing the detergent zeolite production. The technological cycle of NaOH was closed, and no effluents emitted, and there is no pollution (except for the filter cake. The wet water glass production process is fully automatized, and the product has uniform quality. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start - up, and repairs. By installing additional process equipment (centrifugal pumps and heat exchangers technological bottlenecks were overcome, and by adjusting the operation of autoclaves, and water glass filters and also by optimizing the capacities of process equipment.

  16. Local communities’ consolidation process: political factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Fedorenko

    2017-04-01

    It has been underlined that the local communities’ consolidation process in the contemporary world is the problem which has both empirical and theoretical importance. Depending on the size of the local area, local polices are taking different forms. As usual, they provide an agreement and compromise solutions based on issues that are important to the local community. The experience of the developed democracies has shown that local assemblies ensure the establishment of coalitions based on short-termed procedures. The study has tested that an important aspect of the formation of local communities consolidated position is based on development issues and civil participation. It is especially visible in the United States and the EU countries. The municipality level determines the quality of local political bodies, which is formed on party basis. For contemporary Ukraine important tools for provision of political responsibility are forces, which take care about the local communities and determine their development for a long period. Overall, the consolidation of political forces in the local government system is an important task that determines the need for the adoption of regulatory instruments which would ensure the harmonious and constructive political cooperation regardless of their ideological positions.

  17. Technical Efficiency of Wet Season Melon Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananti Yekti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Melon is one of high-value horticulture commodity which is cultivated widely in Kulon Progo regency. The nature of agricultural products is heavily dependent on the season, so it causes the prices of agricultural products always fluctuated every time. In wet season the price of agricultural products tends to be more expensive. Melon cultivation in wet season provide an opportunity to earn higher profits than in the dry season. The price of agricultural products tends to be more expensive in wet season, thus melon cultivation in wet season prospectively generate high profits. In order to achieve high profitability, melon farming has to be done efficiently. Objective of this study was to 1 determined the factors that influence melon production in wet season 2 measured technical efficiency of melon farming and 3 identified the factors that influanced technical efficiency. Data collected during April – June 2014. Location determined by multistage cluster sampling. 45 samples of farmers who cultivated melon during wet season obtained based on quota sampling technique. Technical efficiency was measured using Cobb-Douglas Stochastic Frontier. The result reveals that 1 land use, quantity of seed, K fertilizer contributed significantly increasing melon production, while N fertilizer decreased melon production significantly 2 technical efficiency indeces ranged from 0.40 to 0.99, with a mean of  0.77; 3 farmer’s experience gave significant influence to technical efficiency of melon farming in wet season.

  18. Effect of corn processing and wet distiller’s grains with solubles on odorous volatile organic compound emissions from urine and feces of beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wet distiller’s grains with solubles (WDGS) are a common feed ingredient in beef feedlot diets, but the excess nitrogen in these diets creates air quality issues, primarily due to the aromatic compounds emitted during fermentation of excreted protein. Use of high-moisture corn (HMC) instead of dry-r...

  19. A new remote optical wetness sensor and its applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heusinkveld, B.G.; Berkowicz, S.M.; Jacobs, A.F.G.; Hillen, W.C.A.M.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    An optical wetness sensor (OWS) was developed for continuous surface wetness measurements. The sensor is an all-weather instrument that does not interfere with the surface wetting and drying process and is unaffected by solar radiation. It is equipped with its own light source with which it can scan

  20. Advanced methods for the treatment of organic aqueous wastes: wet air oxidation and wet peroxide oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debellefontaine, Hubert; Chakchouk, Mehrez; Foussard, Jean Noel [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 31 - Toulouse (France). Dept. de Genie des Procedes Industriels; Tissot, Daniel; Striolo, Phillipe [IDE Environnement S.A., Toulouse (France)

    1993-12-31

    There is a growing concern about the problems of wastes elimination. Various oxidation techniques are suited for elimination of organic aqueous wastes, however, because of the environmental drawbacks of incineration, liquid phase oxidation should be preferred. `Wet Air Oxidation` and `Wet Peroxide Oxidation`are alternative processes which are discussed in this paper. 17 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Advanced methods for the treatment of organic aqueous wastes: wet air oxidation and wet peroxide oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debellefontaine, Hubert; Chakchouk, Mehrez; Foussard, Jean Noel [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 31 - Toulouse (France). Dept. de Genie des Procedes Industriels; Tissot, Daniel; Striolo, Phillipe [IDE Environnement S.A., Toulouse (France)

    1994-12-31

    There is a growing concern about the problems of wastes elimination. Various oxidation techniques are suited for elimination of organic aqueous wastes, however, because of the environmental drawbacks of incineration, liquid phase oxidation should be preferred. `Wet Air Oxidation` and `Wet Peroxide Oxidation`are alternative processes which are discussed in this paper. 17 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. A comparative study of transfer factors of water, iodine and strontium on rye-grass and clover. Development of a model of evaluation of the limits of foliar contamination by wet deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeletti, Livio; Levi, Emilio.

    1977-07-01

    Transfer factors of water, iodine ( 131 I) and strontium ( 85 Sr) on above-ground parts of rye-grass and clover were determined as a function of aspersion intensities. An analysis of the results showed the effect of aspersion intensities, nature of the chemical element and plant species on the values of transfer factors of iodine and strontium. It also made it possible to propose a simple method of evaluation of contamination limits of the aerial parts of plants by wet deposit, based on transfer values of water on plants only [fr

  3. A critical analysis of one standard and five methods to monitor surface wetness and time-of-wetness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camuffo, Dario; della Valle, Antonio; Becherini, Francesca

    2018-05-01

    Surface wetness is a synergistic factor to determine atmospheric corrosion, monument weathering, mould growth, sick buildings, etc. However, its detection and monitoring are neither easy nor homogeneous, for a number of factors that may affect readings. Various types of methods and sensors, either commercial or prototypes built in the lab, have been investigated and compared, i.e. the international standard ISO 9223 to evaluate corrosivity after wetness and time-of-wetness; indirect evaluation of wetness, based on the dew point calculated after the output of temperature and relative humidity sensors and direct measurements by means of capacitive wetness sensors, safety sensors, rain sensors (also known as leaf wetness sensors), infrared reflection sensors and fibre optic sensors. A comparison between the different methods is presented, specifying physical principles, forms of wetting to which they are respondent (i.e. condensation, ice melting, splashing drops, percolation and capillary rise), critical factors, use and cost.

  4. RED AND PROCESSED MEAT AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTOR

    OpenAIRE

    ATALIĆ, BRUNO; TOTH, JURICA; ATALIĆ, VLASTA; RADANOVIĆ, DANIJELA; MIŠKULIN, MAJA; LUČIN, ANA

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The British National Diet and Nutrition 2000/1 Survey data set records on 1,724 respondents (766 males and 958 females) were analyzed in order to assess the potential influences of red and processed meat intakes on cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: Linear regression of the associations of the red, processed, combination of red and processed, and total meat intakes with body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure and plasma total cholesterol as cardiovascular risk factors was cond...

  5. Wet gas sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welker, T.F.

    1997-07-01

    The quality of gas has changed drastically in the past few years. Most gas is wet with hydrocarbons, water, and heavier contaminants that tend to condense if not handled properly. If a gas stream is contaminated with condensables, the sampling of that stream must be done in a manner that will ensure all of the components in the stream are introduced into the sample container as the composite. The sampling and handling of wet gas is extremely difficult under ideal conditions. There are no ideal conditions in the real world. The problems related to offshore operations and other wet gas systems, as well as the transportation of the sample, are additional problems that must be overcome if the analysis is to mean anything to the producer and gatherer. The sampling of wet gas systems is decidedly more difficult than sampling conventional dry gas systems. Wet gas systems were generally going to result in the measurement of one heating value at the inlet of the pipe and a drastic reduction in the heating value of the gas at the outlet end of the system. This is caused by the fallout or accumulation of the heavier products that, at the inlet, may be in the vapor state in the pipeline; hence, the high gravity and high BTU. But, in fact, because of pressure and temperature variances, these liquids condense and form a liquid that is actually running down the pipe as a stream or is accumulated in drips to be blown from the system. (author)

  6. Advanced Manufacturing Technology Implementation Process in SME: Critical Success Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Rahardjo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present critical factors that constitute a successful implementation of the Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT in Small Medium Enterprise (SME. Many large companies have applied AMT and the applications have shown significant results in this global market era. Conveniently, these phenomenons are also engaged to Small Medium Enterprises (SME that of high demands on performing high quality product, fast delivery, reliable and more flexible. The implementation of AMT follow several processes namely pre installation, installation, improvement and mature. In order to guarantee the succesfull of running these processes, one should consider the Critical Success Factors (CSF. We conducted a survey to 125 SMEs that have implemented AMT, and found that the CSF for each process are moderately different. Good leadership is the main critical success factor for preparing and installation of the AMT. Once the AMT started or installed and arrived at growth stage, the financial availability factor turns into a critical success factor in the AMT implementation. In, mature stage, the support and commitment of top management becomes an important factor for gaining successful implementation. By means of factor analysis, we could point out that strategic factors are the main factors in pre-installation and installation stage. Finally, in the growth stage and mature stage, both tactical and strategic factors are the important factors in the successful of AMT implementation

  7. Wet storage integrity update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1983-09-01

    This report includes information from various studies performed under the Wet Storage Task of the Spent Fuel Integrity Project of the Commercial Spent Fuel Management (CSFM) Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. An overview of recent developments in the technology of wet storage of spent water reactor fuel is presented. Licensee Event Reports pertaining to spent fuel pools and the associated performance of spent fuel and storage components during wet storage are discussed. The current status of fuel that was examined under the CSFM Program is described. Assessments of the effect of boric acid in spent fuel pool water on the corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel and the stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel piping containing stagnant water at spent fuel pools are discussed. A list of pertinent publications is included. 84 references, 21 figures, 11 tables

  8. Identifying influential factors of business process performance using dependency analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzstein, Branimir; Leitner, Philipp; Rosenberg, Florian; Dustdar, Schahram; Leymann, Frank

    2011-02-01

    We present a comprehensive framework for identifying influential factors of business process performance. In particular, our approach combines monitoring of process events and Quality of Service (QoS) measurements with dependency analysis to effectively identify influential factors. The framework uses data mining techniques to construct tree structures to represent dependencies of a key performance indicator (KPI) on process and QoS metrics. These dependency trees allow business analysts to determine how process KPIs depend on lower-level process metrics and QoS characteristics of the IT infrastructure. The structure of the dependencies enables a drill-down analysis of single factors of influence to gain a deeper knowledge why certain KPI targets are not met.

  9. Wetting of real surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Bormashenko, Edward Yu

    2013-01-01

    The problem of wetting and drop dynamics on various surfaces is very interesting from both the scientificas well as thepractical viewpoint, and subject of intense research.The results are scattered across papers in journals, sothis workwill meet the need for a unifying, comprehensive work.

  10. Wet oxidation of quinoline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, A.B.; Kilen, H.H.

    1998-01-01

    The influence of oxygen pressure (0.4 and 2 MPa). reaction time (30 and 60 min) and temperature (260 and 280 degrees C) on the wet oxidation of quinoline has been studied. The dominant parameters for the decomposition of quinoline were oxygen pressure and reaction temperature. whereas the reactio...

  11. Treatment of ammonia by catalytic wet oxidation process over platinum-rhodium bimetallic catalyst in a trickle-bed reactor: effect of pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chang-Mao; Lin, Wei-Bang; Ho, Ching-Lin; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Hsia, Shao-Yi

    2010-08-01

    This work adopted aqueous solutions of ammonia for use in catalytic liquid-phase reduction in a trickle-bed reactor with a platinum-rhodium bimetallic catalyst, prepared by the co-precipitation of chloroplatinic acid (H2PtCl6) and rhodium nitrate [Rh(NO3)3]. The experimental results demonstrated that a minimal amount of ammonia was removed from the solution by wet oxidation in the absence of any catalyst, while approximately 97.0% of the ammonia was removed by wet oxidation over the platinum-rhodium bimetallic catalyst at 230 degrees C with an oxygen partial pressure of 2.0 MPa. The oxidation of ammonia has been studied as a function of pH, and the main reaction products were determined. A synergistic effect is manifest in the platinum-rhodium bimetallic structure, in which the material has the greatest capacity to reduce ammonia. The reaction pathway linked the oxidizing ammonia to nitric oxide, nitrogen, and water.

  12. Factors affecting the periapical healing process of endodontically treated teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Holland

    Full Text Available Abstract Tissue repair is an essential process that reestablishes tissue integrity and regular function. Nevertheless, different therapeutic factors and clinical conditions may interfere in this process of periapical healing. This review aims to discuss the important therapeutic factors associated with the clinical protocol used during root canal treatment and to highlight the systemic conditions associated with the periapical healing process of endodontically treated teeth. The antibacterial strategies indicated in the conventional treatment of an inflamed and infected pulp and the modulation of the host's immune response may assist in tissue repair, if wound healing has been hindered by infection. Systemic conditions, such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension, can also inhibit wound healing. The success of root canal treatment is affected by the correct choice of clinical protocol. These factors are dependent on the sanitization process (instrumentation, irrigant solution, irrigating strategies, and intracanal dressing, the apical limit of the root canal preparation and obturation, and the quality of the sealer. The challenges affecting the healing process of endodontically treated teeth include control of the inflammation of pulp or infectious processes and simultaneous neutralization of unpredictable provocations to the periapical tissue. Along with these factors, one must understand the local and general clinical conditions (systemic health of the patient that affect the outcome of root canal treatment prediction.

  13. Technical-economical feasibility of the wet oxidation process: Experiences on real scale plant. Part I; Fattibilita` tecnico-economica del processo di ossidazione ad umido: Esperienze di trattamento su impianto a piena scala. Parte I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collivignarelli, Carlo; Bertanza, Giorgio [Brescia, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Civile; Baldi, Marco [Pavia, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Idraulica e Ambientale; Bissolotti, Giorgio; Calvi, Riccardo [SIAD Spa, Bergamo (Italy); Del Rio, Mauro; Pergetti, Mauro [AGAC, Reggio Emilia (Italy)

    1997-03-01

    In the first part of this work the wet oxidation process is compared with some other oxidation treatments (like Fenton oxidation, oxidation, also with UV light, incineration, ect.) in order to assess its proper application field. Besides, the main cases in which wet oxidation is employed in wastewater treatment are described and the results of some previous experiences of the authors are summarized. In the second part they discuss the results of an experimentation carried out on a real scale treatment plant (maximum inflow rate 1,5 m{sup 3}/h). The plant was fed with low biodegradable wastewaters (COD = 2.5 - 175 g/L) coming from different industrial sectors. The following process conditions were maintained: temperature = 280-300 deg C, final pressure = 11-12.5 MPa. From the results of the experimentation they concluded that this process is suitable or the pre-treatment of wastewaters with high non-biodegradable matter content, with COD initial concentrations from 10-20 up to 150 g/L. In these conditions, it is also convenient from the economical point of view, with respect to other chemical-physical of thermal processes. In order to achieve the full functionality within an industrial waste treatment facility, some operating measures are required aimed to homogenize the treated wastewater, which has carefully characterized.

  14. Technical-economical feasibility of the wet oxidation process: Experiences on real scale plant. Part II; Fattibilita` tecnico-economica del processo di ossidazione ad umido: Esperienze di trattamento su impianto a piena scala. Parte II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collivignarelli, Caro; Bertanza, Giorgio [Brescia, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Civile; Baldi, Marco [Pavia, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Idraulica e Ambientale; Bissolotti, Giorgio; Calvi Riccardo [SIAD Spa, Bergamo (Italy); Del Rio, Mauro; Pergetti, Mauro [AGAC, Reggio Emilia (Italy)

    1997-04-01

    In the first part of this work the wet oxidation process is compared with some other oxidation treatments (like Fenton oxidation, oxidation, also with UV light, incineration, ect.) in order to assess its proper application field. Besides, the main cases in which wet oxidation is employed in wastewater treatment are described and the results of some previous experiences of the authors are summarized. In the second part they discuss the results of an experimentation carried out on a real scale treatment plant (maximum inflow rate 1,5 m{sup 3}/h). The plant was fed with low biodegradable wastewaters (COD = 2.5 - 175 g/L) coming from different industrial sectors. The following process conditions were maintained: temperature = 280-300 deg C, final pressure = 11-12.5 MPa. From the results of the experimentation they concluded that this process is suitable or the pre-treatment of wastewaters with high non-biodegradable matter content, with COD initial concentrations from 10-20 up to 150 g/L. In these conditions, it is also convenient from the economical point of view, with respect to other chemical-physical of thermal processes. In order to achieve the full functionality within an industrial waste treatment facility, some operating measures are required aimed to homogenize the treated wastewater, which has carefully characterized.

  15. Memory systems, processes, and tasks: taxonomic clarification via factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruss, Peter J; Mitchell, David B

    2009-01-01

    The nature of various memory systems was examined using factor analysis. We reanalyzed data from 11 memory tasks previously reported in Mitchell and Bruss (2003). Four well-defined factors emerged, closely resembling episodic and semantic memory and conceptual and perceptual implicit memory, in line with both memory systems and transfer-appropriate processing accounts. To explore taxonomic issues, we ran separate analyses on the implicit tasks. Using a cross-format manipulation (pictures vs. words), we identified 3 prototypical tasks. Word fragment completion and picture fragment identification tasks were "factor pure," tapping perceptual processes uniquely. Category exemplar generation revealed its conceptual nature, yielding both cross-format priming and a picture superiority effect. In contrast, word stem completion and picture naming were more complex, revealing attributes of both processes.

  16. Risk Factors in ERP Implementation Projects for Process Oriented

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Partyka

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper present review and analysis of risk factors, which could affect successful implementation of ERP system, for project performed in project oriented organizations. Presented risk breakdown structure and the list of common risk factors, are well-suited for ERP implementation projects. Considered risk categories allow for complex risk analysis. Additionally, mapping of risk importance for particular implementation phases is presented. Making presented model an important input for project risk management process, especially for the beginning phases which require identification of risk factors.

  17. In situ observation of initial rust formation process on carbon steel under Na2SO4 and NaCl solution films with wet/dry cycles using synchrotron radiation X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, M.; Konishi, H.; Kozakura, T.; Mizuki, J.; Uchida, H.

    2005-01-01

    Atmospheric corrosion of steel proceeds under thin electrolyte film formed by rain and dew condensation followed by wet and dry cycles. It is said that rust layer formed on steel as a result of atmospheric corrosion strongly affects the corrosion behavior of steel. The effect of environmental corrosiveness on the formation process and structure of the rust layer is, however, not clear to date. In this study, in situ observation of the rusting process of a carbon steel covered with a thin film of Na 2 SO 4 or NaCl solution was performed under a wet/dry repeating condition by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy with white X-rays obtained from synchrotron radiation. The present in situ experiments successfully detected initial process of the rust formation. In the early cycles, the rust constituents were not well crystallized yet, but the presence of Fe(OH) 2 and Fe(OH) 3 was confirmed. In the subsequent cycles, two different solutions resulted in difference in preferential phase of the rust constituents. α-FeOOH was preferentially formed in the case of the Na 2 SO 4 solution film, whereas β-FeOOH appeared only under the NaCl solution film

  18. Factors Causing Demotivation in EFL Teaching Process: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Selami

    2012-01-01

    Studies have mainly focused on strategies to motivate teachers or the student-teacher motivation relationships rather than teacher demotivation in the English as a foreign language (EFL) teaching process, whereas no data have been found on the factors that cause teacher demotivation in the Turkish EFL teaching contexts at the elementary education…

  19. Process-related factors associated with disciplinary board decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkeland, Søren; Christensen, RD; Damsbo, Niels

    2013-01-01

    plays with regard to board decision outcomes. Using complaint cases towards general practitioners, the aim of this study was to identify what process factors are statistically associated with disciplinary actions as seen from the party of the complainant and the defendant general practitioner...

  20. Incorporating Human Factors into design change processes - a regulator's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staples, L.; McRobbie, H.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear power plants in Canada must receive written approval from the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) when making certain changes that are defined in their licenses. The CNSC expects the design change process to include a method for ensuring that the human-machine interface and workplace design support the safe and reliable performance of required tasks. When reviewing design changes for approval, the CNSC looks for evidence of analysis work, use of appropriate human factors design guide-lines, and verification and validation testing of the design. In addition to reviewing significant design changes, evaluations are conducted to ensure design change processes adequately address human performance. Findings from reviews and evaluations highlight the need to integrate human factors into the design change process, provide human factors training and support to engineering staff, establish processes to ensure coordination between the various groups with a vested interest in human factors, and develop more rigorous methods to validate changes to maintenance, field operations and testing interfaces. (author)

  1. Andreas Acrivos Dissertation Award: Onset of Dynamic Wetting Failure - The Mechanics of High-Speed Fluid Displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandre, Eric

    2014-11-01

    Dynamic wetting is crucial to processes where a liquid displaces another fluid along a solid surface, such as the deposition of a coating liquid onto a moving substrate. Dynamic wetting fails when process speed exceeds some critical value, leading to incomplete fluid displacement and transient phenomena that impact a variety of applications, such as microfluidic devices, oil-recovery systems, and splashing droplets. Liquid coating processes are particularly sensitive to wetting failure, which can induce air entrainment and other catastrophic coating defects. Despite the industrial incentives for careful control of wetting behavior, the hydrodynamic factors that influence the transition to wetting failure remain poorly understood from empirical and theoretical perspectives. This work investigates the fundamentals of wetting failure in a variety of systems that are relevant to industrial coating flows. A hydrodynamic model is developed where an advancing fluid displaces a receding fluid along a smooth, moving substrate. Numerical solutions predict the onset of wetting failure at a critical substrate speed, which coincides with a turning point in the steady-state solution path for a given set of system parameters. Flow-field analysis reveals a physical mechanism where wetting failure results when capillary forces can no longer support the pressure gradients necessary to steadily displace the receding fluid. Novel experimental systems are used to measure the substrate speeds and meniscus shapes associated with the onset of air entrainment during wetting failure. Using high-speed visualization techniques, air entrainment is identified by the elongation of triangular air films with system-dependent size. Air films become unstable to thickness perturbations and ultimately rupture, leading to the entrainment of air bubbles. Meniscus confinement in a narrow gap between the substrate and a stationary plate is shown to delay air entrainment to higher speeds for a variety of

  2. Red and processed meat and cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalić, Bruno; Toth, Jurica; Atalić, Vlasta; Radanović, Danijela; Miskulin, Maja; Lucin, Ana

    2013-06-01

    The British National Diet and Nutrition 2000/1 Survey data set records on 1,724 respondents (766 males and 958 females) were analyzed in order to assess the potential influences of red and processed meat intakes on cardiovascular risk factors. Linear regression of the associations of the red, processed, combination of red and processed, and total meat intakes with body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure and plasma total cholesterol as cardiovascular risk factors was conducted, paying due attention to the subject age and sex as potential confounders. Linear analyses showed the total meat intake and combined red and processed meat intake to cause a 1.03 kg/m2 rise in BMI each, while the red and processed meat intakes analyzed as separate categories caused 1.02 kg/m2 rise each. The greatest effects were observed on the systolic blood pressure with a 1.7 mm Hg rise for the total and the red and processed meat intakes, 1.5 mm Hg rise for the red meat intake, and 1.02 mm Hg rise for the processed meat intake. There were no associations between different meat intakes and plasma total cholesterol. Study results revealed the interquartile ranges of the mentioned meat type intakes to increase BMI by around 1 kg/m2 and systolic blood pressure by around 1.5 mm Hg, while they had no influence on plasma total cholesterol.

  3. Critical factors in the implementation process of integrated management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Antonio Ferreira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is the result of research whose purpose was to study the implementation process of integrated management systems, called ERP Enterprise Resource Planning in the business environment. This study, more specifically, tried to identify the variables in this process and that, somehow, made it easy or caused some type of difficulty implementing the system. Based on the mixed method approach (Creswell, 2003, the study was performed by means of the content analysis of technical and scientific publications about this theme and by means of a field research for data collection from primary sources. The content analysis was based on the per mile procedure by Bardin (1977, making it possible to identify critical factors that may be found in the implementation of ERP system projects. Primary data was collected from structured interviews with the managers in charge of the implementation of the system, in each of the 12 companies in different sectors of the economy and based in Brazil. Based on this information, it was possible to test the factors extracted from the content analysis and then develop a list of factors that may effectively influence the implementation process of the system. In order to recognize the possible relations between the selected factors, the Spearman (rsp correlation coefficient was applied and the multiple regression analysis was performed by means of the stepwise procedure. The purpose of the regression analysis was to determine the relation of the “Assessment of the Implementation” dependent variable with other dependent variables in the selected categories. The results of these analyses showed that the support of the top management, the communication process for the clear evidence of this support, the technical support of the ERP program provider together with the project team expertise, training and qualification processes of the team in the system operation are significantly correlated and relevant factors for a

  4. Process Factors Influence on Cavity Pressure Behavior in Microinjection Moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffiths, C. A.; Dimov, S. S.; Scholz, S.

    2011-01-01

    about the filling behavior of different polymer melts. In this paper, a pressure sensor mounted inside a tool cavity was employed to analyse maximum cavity pressure, pressure increase rate during filling and pressure work. The influence of four mu IM parameters, melt temperature, mould temperature......Process monitoring of microinjection moulding (mu IM) is of crucial importance when analysing the effect of different parameter settings on the process and then in assessing its quality. Quality factors related to cavity pressure can provide valuable information about the process dynamics and also......, injection speed, and packing pressure on these three pressure-related process parameters was investigated. A design of experiment study was conducted by moulding a test part, a microfluidic component, in three different polymer materials, PP, ABS, and PC. The results show a similar process behavior for all...

  5. Factors determining the viability of radiation processing in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, H.J. van der

    1988-01-01

    In the fifteen years since the introduction of radiation processing to South Africa, four commercial irradiation facilities have been established. These are involved in the processing of a large variety of products, from syringes and prostheses to strawberries and sugar yeast. Three of the facilities are devoted mainly to food irradiation and several thousand tonnes are now processed annually. During this period it was repeatedly experienced that the successful introduction of radiation processing in general, and food radurization in particular, on a commercial scale was critically dependent on the following factors: acceptance by the producer, industry and consumer; initial capital expenditure; running costs and overheads in general; and continuous throughput. All of these factors contribute to the processing cost which is the ultimate factor in determining the value/price ratio for the potential entrepreneur and customer of this new technology. After a market survey had identified the need for a new food irradiation facility to cope with the growing interest in commercial food radurization in the Western Cape, the above-mentioned factors were of cardinal importance in the design and manufacture of a new irradiator. The resulting batch-pallet facility which was commissioned in August 1986, is rather inefficient as far as energy utilization is concerned but this shortcoming is compensated for by its low cost, versatility and low hold-up. Although the facility has limitations as far as the processing of really large volumes of produce is concerned, it is particularly suitable not only for developing countries, but for developed countries in the introductory phase of commercial food radurization. (author)

  6. Factorization of exclusive processes in perturbative quantum-chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segond, M.

    2007-12-01

    The work carried out in this thesis presents various theoretical and phenomenological studies of the exclusive production of longitudinally polarized neutral vector rho mesons in virtual photons collisions, within the framework of quantum-chromodynamics (QCD). The virtuality of the photons makes it possible to locate our approach in the perturbative area of the theory. The kinematical regimes considered allow the use of varied theoretical tools which reveal various properties of factorization of the scattering amplitude: two types of collinear factorization (at short distance) for this process are discussed in chapter 1, revealing - according to the polarization of the virtual photons and the kinematical limit considered- Generalized Distribution Amplitudes (GDA) or Transition Distribution Amplitudes (TDA), tools commonly used in the description of exclusive processes. We introduce into the Chapter 2 in a self-consistent way, the foundations of the BFKL (Balitskii, Fadin, Kuraev and Lipatov) formalism valid within the high energy limit (Regge limit) of QCD, for its phenomenological use detailed in Chapter 3: the scattering amplitude of the process is described in this formalism by exploiting the factorization in the two-dimensional transverse momentum space, or kT-factorization. We predict the value of the cross section of the process at Born order of the BFKL resummation and we discuss its possible observation at the future international linear collider (ILC). We consider also the differential cross sections of the process without momentum transfer with complete BFKL evolution at the order of the leading logarithms (Leading-Order) and also at the Next-to-Leading-Order to establish a fine test of this process with hard BFKL Pomeron exchange, observable at the future ILC. (author)

  7. Factors determining the viability of radiation processing in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linde, HJ; Basson, RA

    In the fifteen years since the introduction of radiation processing to South Africa, four commercial irradiation facilities have been established. These are involved in the processing of a large variety of products, from syringes and prostheses to strawberries and sugar yeast. Three of the facilities are devoted mainly to food irradiation and several thousand tonnes are now processed annually. During this period it was repeatedly experienced that the successful introduction of radiation processing in general, and food radurization in particular, on a commercial scale was critically dependent on the following factors: acceptance by the producer, industry and consumer; initial capital expenditure; running costs and overheads in general; and continous throughput. All of these factors contribute to the processing cost which is the ultimate factor in determing the value/price ratio for the potential entrepreneur and customer of this new technology. After a market survey had identified the need for a new food irradiation facility to cope with the growing interest in commercial food radurization in the Western Cape, the above-mentioned factors were of cardinal importance in the design and manufacture of a new irradiator. The resulting batch-pallet facility which was commisioned in August 1986, is rather inefficient as far as energy utilization is concerned but this shortcoming is compensated for by its low cost, versatility and low hold-up. Although the facility has limitations as far as the processing of really large volumes of produce is concerned, it is particularly suitable not only for developing countries, but for developed countries in the introductory phase of commercial food radurization.

  8. Sustainable High Quality Recycling of Aggregates from Waste-to-Energy, Treated in a Wet Bottom Ash Processing Installation, for Use in Concrete Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Heede, Philip; Ringoot, Niels; Beirnaert, Arno; Van Brecht, Andres; Van den Brande, Erwin; De Schutter, Geert; De Belie, Nele

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, more efforts towards sustainability are required from the concrete industry. Replacing traditional aggregates by recycled bottom ash (BA) from municipal solid waste incineration can contribute to this goal. Until now, only partial replacement has been considered to keep the concrete workability, strength and durability under control. In this research, the feasibility of a full aggregate replacement was investigated for producing prefabricated Lego bricks. It was found that the required compressive strength class for this purpose (C20/25) could be achieved. Nevertheless, a thorough understanding of the BA properties is needed to overcome other issues. As BA is highly absorptive, the concrete’s water demand is high. This workability issue can be dealt with by subjecting the fine BA fraction to a crushing operation to eliminate the porous elements and by pre-wetting the fine and coarse BA fractions in a controlled manner. In addition, a reactive NaOH washing is needed to avoid formation of longitudinal voids and the resulting expansion due to the metallic aluminum present in the BA. Regarding the long-term behavior, heavy metal leaching and freeze-thaw exposure are not problematic, though there is susceptibility to acetic and lactic acid attack and maybe increased sensitivity to alkali-silica reaction. PMID:28787809

  9. Sustainable High Quality Recycling of Aggregates from Waste-to-Energy, Treated in a Wet Bottom Ash Processing Installation, for Use in Concrete Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Van den Heede

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, more efforts towards sustainability are required from the concrete industry. Replacing traditional aggregates by recycled bottom ash (BA from municipal solid waste incineration can contribute to this goal. Until now, only partial replacement has been considered to keep the concrete workability, strength and durability under control. In this research, the feasibility of a full aggregate replacement was investigated for producing prefabricated Lego bricks. It was found that the required compressive strength class for this purpose (C20/25 could be achieved. Nevertheless, a thorough understanding of the BA properties is needed to overcome other issues. As BA is highly absorptive, the concrete’s water demand is high. This workability issue can be dealt with by subjecting the fine BA fraction to a crushing operation to eliminate the porous elements and by pre-wetting the fine and coarse BA fractions in a controlled manner. In addition, a reactive NaOH washing is needed to avoid formation of longitudinal voids and the resulting expansion due to the metallic aluminum present in the BA. Regarding the long-term behavior, heavy metal leaching and freeze-thaw exposure are not problematic, though there is susceptibility to acetic and lactic acid attack and maybe increased sensitivity to alkali-silica reaction.

  10. Sustainable High Quality Recycling of Aggregates from Waste-to-Energy, Treated in a Wet Bottom Ash Processing Installation, for Use in Concrete Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Heede, Philip; Ringoot, Niels; Beirnaert, Arno; Van Brecht, Andres; Van den Brande, Erwin; De Schutter, Geert; De Belie, Nele

    2015-12-25

    Nowadays, more efforts towards sustainability are required from the concrete industry. Replacing traditional aggregates by recycled bottom ash (BA) from municipal solid waste incineration can contribute to this goal. Until now, only partial replacement has been considered to keep the concrete workability, strength and durability under control. In this research, the feasibility of a full aggregate replacement was investigated for producing prefabricated Lego bricks. It was found that the required compressive strength class for this purpose (C20/25) could be achieved. Nevertheless, a thorough understanding of the BA properties is needed to overcome other issues. As BA is highly absorptive, the concrete's water demand is high. This workability issue can be dealt with by subjecting the fine BA fraction to a crushing operation to eliminate the porous elements and by pre-wetting the fine and coarse BA fractions in a controlled manner. In addition, a reactive NaOH washing is needed to avoid formation of longitudinal voids and the resulting expansion due to the metallic aluminum present in the BA. Regarding the long-term behavior, heavy metal leaching and freeze-thaw exposure are not problematic, though there is susceptibility to acetic and lactic acid attack and maybe increased sensitivity to alkali-silica reaction.

  11. Additives affecting properties of β-Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles in a modified indirect wet chemistry process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Cheng-Long, E-mail: johnyucl@aliyun.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xi' an 710021 (China); Research Laboratory of Hydrothermal Chemistry, Faculty of Science, The Kochi University, Kochi 780-8520 (Japan); Liu, Wei; Yang, Long-Tao; Wang, Dao-Yi; Wu, Kang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xi' an 710021 (China); Zhang, Zeng-Ping [Key Laboratory for Special Area Highway Engineering of Ministry of Education, Chang' an University, Xi' an 710064 (China); Wang, Xiu-Feng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xi' an 710021 (China); Yanagisawa, Kazumichi [Research Laboratory of Hydrothermal Chemistry, Faculty of Science, The Kochi University, Kochi 780-8520 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Lithium metatitanate (β-Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}) pebbles were fabricated via the modified indirect wet chemistry method. Effect of varied additives, as polyvinyl alcohol, glycerol, and agar on the properties evolution was investigated. The highest density is obtained by adding 2 wt% (weight percent) polyvinyl alcohol, 3 wt% glycerol, and 3 wt% agar, respectively. β-Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles with relative sintered density of 92.4%T.D. (Theoretical Density), the ratio of the intensity of diffraction peak (002) to that of (−133) of about 2.93, about 1.58 mm in diameter, a better sphericity of 1.02, the particle size of 5–6 μm, and the well-developed surface layered structure are successfully fabricated with 3 wt% glycerol. Glycerol is beneficial to improving the properties by other fabrication method as well. - Highlights: • Polyvinyl alcohol, glycerol, and agar were used to prepare β-Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles. • Properties of the β-Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles were governed by the additives. • Glycerol is beneficial to improving the properties of β-Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles.

  12. Risk factors in the internationalization process of SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Kubíčková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At the present time characterized by globalizing market, increasing competition, accelerating change and the occurrence of many risks it is necessary for businesses, which want to remain competitive, to be able to respond flexibly to the changes in a timely manner and to identify and manage risks. Companies try to diversify business risks, such as the loss of market share in the domestic market, by entering the foreign markets and participating in international trade. Involvement in the internationalization process cannot be understood only as an opportunity to achieve greater profits and a competitive advantage, it is necessary to consider potential risks accompanying this process, because engaging in the internationalization process may bring the companies many different specific risks. It would be useful for companies to identify the factors of failure resulting from internationalization. Identifying the barriers to internationalization, the main risk factors associated with it and designing their possible prevention or elimination could provide SMEs an impetus to enter foreign markets. Although the risk is a frequently discussed issue in the international discussion, only few studies were strictly focused on risk management in the internationalization process. Risk management is a broad discipline that requires a specific knowledge in practice. However, particularly small and medium-sized enterprises are often unable to identify the potential risks of the internationalization process and therefore are not able to manage the risks. This is due to the fact that SMEs usually do not have managers with a deep knowledge of risk management and, moreover, these managers also often lack experience with foreign markets. Unfortunately, the surveys of SMEs conclude that the poorly predicted risks of entering foreign markets are one of the most common causes of failure of SMEs internationalization process.The main objective of this paper is to identify

  13. Evidence for Kinetic Limitations as a Controlling Factor of Ge Pyramid Formation: a Study of Structural Features of Ge/Si(001) Wetting Layer Formed by Ge Deposition at Room Temperature Followed by Annealing at 600 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storozhevykh, Mikhail S; Arapkina, Larisa V; Yuryev, Vladimir A

    2015-12-01

    The article presents an experimental study of an issue of whether the formation of arrays of Ge quantum dots on the Si(001) surface is an equilibrium process or it is kinetically controlled. We deposited Ge on Si(001) at the room temperature and explored crystallization of the disordered Ge film as a result of annealing at 600 °C. The experiment has demonstrated that the Ge/Si(001) film formed in the conditions of an isolated system consists of the standard patched wetting layer and large droplike clusters of Ge rather than of huts or domes which appear when a film is grown in a flux of Ge atoms arriving on its surface. We conclude that the growth of the pyramids appearing at temperatures greater than 600 °C is controlled by kinetics rather than thermodynamic equilibrium whereas the wetting layer is an equilibrium structure. Primary 68.37.Ef; 68.55.Ac; 68.65.Hb; 81.07.Ta; 81.16.Dn.

  14. Factors that predict consumer acceptance of enriched processed meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Liran C; Henchion, Maeve; De Brún, Aoife; Murrin, Celine; Wall, Patrick G; Monahan, Frank J

    2017-11-01

    The study aimed to understand predictors of consumers' purchase intention towards processed meat based functional foods (i.e. enriched processed meat). A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 486 processed meat consumers in spring 2016. Results showed that processed meats were perceived differently in healthiness, with sausage-type products perceived less healthy than cured meat products. Consumers were in general more uncertain than positive about enriched processed meat but differences existed in terms of the attitudes and purchase intention. Following regression analysis, consumers' purchase intention towards enriched processed meat was primarily driven by their attitudes towards the product concept. Perceived healthiness of existing products and eating frequency of processed meat were also positively associated with the purchase intention. Other factors such as general food choice motives, socio-demographic characteristics, consumer health and the consumption of functional foods and dietary supplements in general, were not significant predictors of the purchase intention for enriched processed meat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. PREFACE: Wetting: introductory note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herminghaus, S.

    2005-03-01

    The discovery of wetting as a topic of physical science dates back two hundred years, to one of the many achievements of the eminent British scholar Thomas Young. He suggested a simple equation relating the contact angle between a liquid surface and a solid substrate to the interfacial tensions involved [1], γlg cos θ = γsg - γsl (1) In modern terms, γ denotes the excess free energy per unit area of the interface indicated by its indices, with l, g and s corresponding to the liquid, gas and solid, respectively [2]. After that, wetting seems to have been largely ignored by physicists for a long time. The discovery by Gabriel Lippmann that θ may be tuned over a wide range by electrochemical means [3], and some important papers about modifications of equation~(1) due to substrate inhomogeneities [4,5] are among the rare exceptions. This changed completely during the seventies, when condensed matter physics had become enthusiastic about critical phenomena, and was vividly inspired by the development of the renormalization group by Kenneth Wilson [6]. This had solved the long standing problem of how to treat fluctuations, and to understand the universal values of bulk critical exponents. By inspection of the critical exponents of the quantities involved in equation~(1), John W Cahn discovered what he called critical point wetting: for any liquid, there should be a well-defined transition to complete wetting (i.e., θ = 0) as the critical point of the liquid is approached along the coexistence curve [7]. His paper inspired an enormous amount of further work, and may be legitimately viewed as the entrance of wetting into the realm of modern physics. Most of the publications directly following Cahn's work were theoretical papers which elaborated on wetting in relation to critical phenomena. A vast amount of interesting, and in part quite unexpected, ramifications were discovered, such as the breakdown of universality in thin film systems [8]. Simultaneously, a number

  16. Photocatalytic oxidation removal of Hg"0 using ternary Ag/AgI-Ag_2CO_3 hybrids in wet scrubbing process under fluorescent light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Anchao; Zhang, Lixiang; Chen, Xiaozhuan; Zhu, Qifeng; Liu, Zhichao; Xiang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Ag/AgI-Ag_2CO_3 hybrids were employed for Hg"0 removal under fluorescent light. • Superoxide radical (·O_2"−) played a key role in Hg"0 removal. • NO exhibited a significant effect on Hg"0 removal in comparison to SO_2. • The mechanism for enhanced Hg"0 removal over Ag/AgI-Ag_2CO_3 was proposed. - Abstract: A series of ternary Ag/AgI-Ag_2CO_3 photocatalysts synthesized using a facile coprecipitation method were employed to investigate their performances of Hg"0 removal in a wet scrubbing reactor. The hybrids were characterized by N_2 adsorption-desorption, XRD, SEM-EDS, HRTEM, XPS, DRS and ESR. The photocatalytic activities of Hg"0 removal were evaluated under fluorescent light. The results showed that AgI content, fluorescent light irradiation, reaction temperature all showed significant influences on Hg"0 removal. NO exhibited significant effect on Hg"0 removal in comparison to SO_2. Among these ternary Ag/AgI-Ag_2CO_3 hybrids, Ag/AgI(0.1)-Ag_2CO_3 showed the highest Hg"0 removal efficiency, which could be ascribed to the effective separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs between AgI and Ag_2CO_3 and the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect in the visible region by metallic silver nanoparticles (Ag"0 NPs). The trapping studies of reactive radicals showed that the superoxide radicals (·O_2"−) may play a key role in Hg"0 removal under fluorescent light. According to the experimental and characterization results, a possible photocatalytic oxidation mechanism for enhanced Hg"0 removal over Ag/AgI(0.1)-Ag_2CO_3 hybrid under fluorescent light was proposed.

  17. Election process as a factor of youth socialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matveeva E. A.

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available the analysis of the process of political socialization of youth and its factors is given in the article. The article covers urgent issues of political organizations influence on the process of adoption of values, standards and attitudes by an individual. It was formed in youth attitudes and behavior patterns that determine the strategy for the development of national and humanistic traditions, political culture and tolerance. And the role of political socialization of the younger generation in this connection it is important.

  18. The Human Factors Engineering in Process Design Modifications CNAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foronda Delgado, A.; Almeida Parra, P.; Bote Moreno, J.

    2013-01-01

    This contribution presents the process followed at the Almaraz and Trillo Nuclear Power Plants in order to integrate Human Factors Engineering (HFE) in the Design Modifications. This includes the applicable rules and regulations, the classification criteria used to categorize the modification, the activities that are to be carried out in each case, as well as recent examples where the full HFE program model was applied at Almaraz (Alternate Shutdown Panel) and Trillo (Primary Bleed and Feed).

  19. Wetting of alkanes on water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, E.; Bonn, D.; Meunier, J.; Shahidzadeh, N. [Ecole Normale Superieure, Laboratoire de Physique Statistique, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231, Cedex 05 Paris (France); Broseta, D.; Ragil, K. [Institut Francais du Petrole, 1-4 avenue de Bois Preau, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison Cedex (France); Dobbs, H.; Indekeu, J.O. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Laboratorium voor Vaste-Stoffysica en Magnetisme, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2002-04-01

    The wetting behavior of oil on water (or brine) has important consequences for the transport properties of oil in water-containing porous reservoirs, and consequently for oil recovery. The equilibrium wetting behavior of model oils composed of pure alkanes or alkane mixtures on brine is reviewed in this paper. Intermediate between the partial wetting state, in which oil lenses coexist on water with a thin film of adsorbed alkane molecules, and the complete wetting state, in which a macroscopically thick oil layer covers the water, these systems display a third, novel wetting state, in which oil lenses coexist with a mesoscopic (a few-nanometers-thick) oil film. The nature and location of the transitions between these wetting regimes depend on oil and brine compositions, temperature and pressure.

  20. Parallel factor analysis PARAFAC of process affected water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewanchuk, A.M.; Ulrich, A.C.; Sego, D. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Alostaz, M. [Thurber Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    A parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) of oil sands process-affected water was presented. Naphthenic acids (NA) are traditionally described as monobasic carboxylic acids. Research has indicated that oil sands NA do not fit classical definitions of NA. Oil sands organic acids have toxic and corrosive properties. When analyzed by fluorescence technology, oil sands process-affected water displays a characteristic peak at 290 nm excitation and approximately 346 nm emission. In this study, a parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) was used to decompose process-affected water multi-way data into components representing analytes, chemical compounds, and groups of compounds. Water samples from various oil sands operations were analyzed in order to obtain EEMs. The EEMs were then arranged into a large matrix in decreasing process-affected water content for PARAFAC. Data were divided into 5 components. A comparison with commercially prepared NA samples suggested that oil sands NA is fundamentally different. Further research is needed to determine what each of the 5 components represent. tabs., figs.

  1. Emerging Food Processing Technologies and Factors Impacting their Industrial Adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshini, Anushree; Rajauria, Gaurav; O'Donnell, Colm P; Tiwari, Brijesh K

    2018-06-04

    Innovative food processing technologies have been widely investigated in food processing research in recent years. These technologies offer key advantages for advancing the preservation and quality of conventional foods, for combatting the growing challenges posed by globalization, increased competitive pressures and diverse consumer demands. However, there is a need to increase the level of adoption of novel technologies to ensure the potential benefits of these technologies are exploited more by the food industry. This review outlines emerging thermal and non-thermal food processing technologies with regard to their mechanisms, applications and commercial aspects. The level of adoption of novel food processing technologies by the food industry is outlined and the factors that impact their industrial adoption are discussed. At an industry level, the technological capabilities of individual companies, their size, market share as well as their absorptive capacity impact adoption of a novel technology. Characteristics of the technology itself such as costs involved in its development and commercialization, associated risks and relative advantage, its level of complexity and compatibility influence the technology's adoption. The review concludes that a deep understanding of the development and application of a technology along with the factors influencing its acceptance are critical for its commercial adoption.

  2. Pharmacologic Treatment of Wet Type Age-related Macular Degeneration; Current and Evolving Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams Najafabadi, Hoda; Daftarian, Narsis; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila

    2017-08-01

    Age-related macular degeneration as the major cause of blindness in the elderly population has remained at the epicenter of clinical research in ophthalmology. This retinal disorder is characterized by the photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelial cells loss, occurring within the macula. The disease represents a spectrum of clinical manifestations. It is a multifactorial disease resulting from a combination of genetic predispositions and environmental risk factors. AMD is classified into two different types, dry and wet. Wet AMD is in close relation with angiogenesis and inflammatory processes.A variety of anti-angiogenesis and anti-inflammatory drugs have been proposed for the treatment of the disease. The purpose of this paper is to briefly review the pharmacological therapies of the wet form of AMD and focus on new drugs that are currently in different stages of research and development.

  3. Enzymatic biodiesel synthesis. Key factors affecting efficiency of the process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczesna Antczak, Miroslawa; Kubiak, Aneta; Antczak, Tadeusz; Bielecki, Stanislaw [Institute of Technical Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Technical University of Lodz, Stefanowskiego 4/10, 90-924 Lodz (Poland)

    2009-05-15

    Chemical processes of biodiesel production are energy-consuming and generate undesirable by-products such as soaps and polymeric pigments that retard separation of pure methyl or ethyl esters of fatty acids from glycerol and di- and monoacylglycerols. Enzymatic, lipase-catalyzed biodiesel synthesis has no such drawbacks. Comprehension of the latter process and an appreciable progress in production of robust preparations of lipases may soon result in the replacement of chemical catalysts with enzymes in biodiesel synthesis. Engineering of enzymatic biodiesel synthesis processes requires optimization of such factors as: molar ratio of substrates (triacylglycerols: alcohol), temperature, type of organic solvent (if any) and water activity. All of them are correlated with properties of lipase preparation. This paper reports on the interplay between the crucial parameters of the lipase-catalyzed reactions carried out in non-aqueous systems and the yield of biodiesel synthesis. (author)

  4. [Information processing speed and influential factors in multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M L; Xu, E H; Dong, H Q; Zhang, J W

    2016-04-19

    To study the information processing speed and the influential factors in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. A total of 36 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), 21 patients with secondary progressive MS (SPMS), and 50 healthy control subjects from Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University between April 2010 and April 2012 were included into this cross-sectional study.Neuropsychological tests was conducted after the disease had been stable for 8 weeks, including information processing speed, memory, executive functions, language and visual perception.Correlation between information processing speed and depression, fatigue, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) were studied. (1)MS patient groups demonstrated cognitive deficits compared to healthy controls.The Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) (control group 57±12; RRMS group 46±17; SPMS group 35±10, Pinformation processing (Pinformation processing speed, verbal memory and executive functioning are seen in MS patients, especially in SPMS subtype, while visual-spatial function is relatively reserved.Age, white matter change scales, EDSS scores, depression are negatively associated with information processing speed.

  5. Domain-General Factors Influencing Numerical and Arithmetic Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Knops

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This special issue contains 18 articles that address the question how numerical processes interact with domain-general factors. We start the editorial with a discussion of how to define domain-general versus domain-specific factors and then discuss the contributions to this special issue grouped into two core numerical domains that are subject to domain-general influences (see Figure 1. The first group of contributions addresses the question how numbers interact with spatial factors. The second group of contributions is concerned with factors that determine and predict arithmetic understanding, performance and development. This special issue shows that domain-general (Table 1a as well as domain-specific (Table 1b abilities influence numerical and arithmetic performance virtually at all levels and make it clear that for the field of numerical cognition a sole focus on one or several domain-specific factors like the approximate number system or spatial-numerical associations is not sufficient. Vice versa, in most studies that included domain-general and domain-specific variables, domain-specific numerical variables predicted arithmetic performance above and beyond domain-general variables. Therefore, a sole focus on domain-general aspects such as, for example, working memory, to explain, predict and foster arithmetic learning is also not sufficient. Based on the articles in this special issue we conclude that both domain-general and domain-specific factors contribute to numerical cognition. But the how, why and when of their contribution still needs to be better understood. We hope that this special issue may be helpful to readers in constraining future theory and model building about the interplay of domain-specific and domain-general factors.

  6. Wetting of cholesteric liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Nuno M; Figueirinhas Pereira, Maria Carolina; Bernardino, Nelson R; Telo da Gama, Margarida M

    2016-02-01

    We investigate theoretically the wetting properties of cholesteric liquid crystals at a planar substrate. If the properties of substrate and of the interface are such that the cholesteric layers are not distorted, the wetting properties are similar to those of a nematic liquid crystal. If, on the other hand, the anchoring conditions force the distortion of the liquid crystal layers the wetting properties are altered, the free cholesteric-isotropic interface is non-planar and there is a layer of topological defects close to the substrate. These deformations can either promote or hinder the wetting of the substrate by a cholesteric, depending on the properties of the cholesteric liquid crystal.

  7. Degradability of dry matter and crude protein of dry grains and wet grain silages from different processing corn hybrids (Zea mays)

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner dos Reis; Ciniro Costa; Paulo Roberto de Lima Meirelles; Marina Gabriela Berchiol da Silva; Marco Aurélio Factori; Janaína Conte Hadlich; Kátia de Oliveira; Erikelly Aline Ribeiro de Santana; Cristiano Magalhães Pariz; Josineudson Augusto II de Vasconcelos Silva

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of processing two corn hybrids conserved, dry and humid grains, the dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) degradability in situ. The particle size was determined and difference was verified in MGD (Medium Geometric Diameter) of processed ingredients. Three sheep were used with rumen canulated, in a completely randomized design, using a factorial outline 2 x 2 x 3, being two corn hybrid, two conservation methods and three processing forms ...

  8. Cognitive Risk Factors for Specific Learning Disorder: Processing Speed, Temporal Processing, and Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Kristina; Göbel, Silke M; Gooch, Debbie; Landerl, Karin; Snowling, Margaret J

    2016-01-01

    High comorbidity rates between reading disorder (RD) and mathematics disorder (MD) indicate that, although the cognitive core deficits underlying these disorders are distinct, additional domain-general risk factors might be shared between the disorders. Three domain-general cognitive abilities were investigated in children with RD and MD: processing speed, temporal processing, and working memory. Since attention problems frequently co-occur with learning disorders, the study examined whether these three factors, which are known to be associated with attention problems, account for the comorbidity between these disorders. The sample comprised 99 primary school children in four groups: children with RD, children with MD, children with both disorders (RD+MD), and typically developing children (TD controls). Measures of processing speed, temporal processing, and memory were analyzed in a series of ANCOVAs including attention ratings as covariate. All three risk factors were associated with poor attention. After controlling for attention, associations with RD and MD differed: Although deficits in verbal memory were associated with both RD and MD, reduced processing speed was related to RD, but not MD; and the association with RD was restricted to processing speed for familiar nameable symbols. In contrast, impairments in temporal processing and visuospatial memory were associated with MD, but not RD. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.

  9. Wetting front instability in an initially wet unsaturated fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholl, M.J.; Glass, R.J.; Nguyen, H.A.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental results exploring gravity-driven wetting from instability in a pre-wetted, rough-walled analog fractures such as those at Yucca Mountain are presented. Initial conditions considered include a uniform moisture field wetted to field capacity of the analog fracture and the structured moisture field created by unstable infiltration into an initially dry fracture. As in previous studies performed under dry initial conditions, instability was found to result both at the cessation of stable infiltration and at flux lower than the fracture capacity under gravitational driving force. Individual fingers were faster, narrower, longer, and more numerous than observed under dry initial conditions. Wetting fronts were found to follow existing wetted structure, providing a mechanism for rapid recharge and transport

  10. Wetting front instability in an initially wet unsaturated fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholl, M.J.; Glass, R.J.; Nguyen, H.A.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental results exploring gravity-driven wetting front instability in a pre-wetted, rough-walled analog fracture are presented. Initial conditions considered include a uniform moisture field wetted to field capacity of the analog fracture and the structured moisture field created by unstable infiltration into an initially dry fracture. As in previous studies performed under dry initial conditions, instability was found to result both at the cessation of stable infiltration and at flux lower than the fracture capacity under gravitational driving force. Individual fingers were faster, narrower, longer, and more numerous than observed under dry initial conditions. Wetting fronts were found to follow existing wetted structure, providing a mechanism for rapid recharge and transport

  11. Modeling early in situ wetting of a compacted bentonite buffer installed in low permeable crystalline bedrock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessirier, B.; Frampton, A.; Fransson, À.; Jarsjö, J.

    2016-08-01

    The repository concept for geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Sweden and Finland is planned to be constructed in sparsely fractured crystalline bedrock and with an engineered bentonite buffer to embed the waste canisters. An important stage in such a deep repository is the postclosure phase following the deposition and the backfilling operations when the initially unsaturated buffer material gets hydrated by the groundwater delivered by the natural bedrock. We use numerical simulations to interpret observations on buffer wetting gathered during an in situ campaign, the Bentonite Rock Interaction Experiment, in which unsaturated bentonite columns were introduced into deposition holes in the floor of a 417 m deep tunnel at the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory in Sweden. Our objectives are to assess the performance of state-of-the-art flow models in reproducing the buffer wetting process and to investigate to which extent dependable predictions of buffer wetting times and saturation patterns can be made based on information collected prior to buffer insertion. This would be important for preventing insertion into unsuitable bedrock environments. Field data and modeling results indicate the development of a de-saturated zone in the rock and show that in most cases, the presence or absence of fractures and flow heterogeneity are more important factors for correct wetting predictions than the total inflow. For instance, for an equal open-hole inflow value, homogeneous inflow yields much more rapid buffer wetting than cases where fractures are represented explicitly thus creating heterogeneous inflow distributions.

  12. Information Factor in the Dynamics of Contemporary Geopolitical Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Vilovatykh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Th e role of information in shaping geopolitical situation needs a greater academic attention, because the infl uence of external actors in favour of theor political preferences forms the vectors of state development. Modern world’s turbulence is based on technologies of managing social reality. It requires a principally new methodology in evaluating and forecasting geopolitical processes. Nowadays it makes sense to speak of information factor of geopolitical dynamics, which shapes a new quality of geopolitical space.

  13. Work environment risk factors for injuries in wood processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcroft, Christina A; Punnett, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The reported injury rate for wood product manufacturing in Maine, 1987-2004, was almost twice the state-wide average for all jobs. A case-control study was conducted in wood processing plants to determine preventable risk factors for injury. A total of 157 cases with injuries reported to workers' compensation and 251 controls were interviewed. In multivariable analyses, variables associated with injury risk were high physical workload, machine-paced work or inability to take a break, lack of training, absence of a lockout/tagout program, low seniority, and male gender. Different subsets of these variables were significant when acute incidents and overexertions were analyzed separately and when all injuries were stratified by industry sub-sector. Generalizability may be limited somewhat by non-representative participation of workplaces and individuals. Nevertheless, these findings provide evidence that many workplace injuries occurring in wood processing could be prevented by application of ergonomics principles and improved work organization.

  14. Degradability of dry matter and crude protein of dry grains and wet grain silages from different processing corn hybrids (Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner dos Reis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of processing two corn hybrids conserved, dry and humid grains, the dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP degradability in situ. The particle size was determined and difference was verified in MGD (Medium Geometric Diameter of processed ingredients. Three sheep were used with rumen canulated, in a completely randomized design, using a factorial outline 2 x 2 x 3, being two corn hybrid, two conservation methods and three processing forms (whole, coarsely and finely ground, with five times of incubation (3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours. The fraction A in SDC (silage of dent corn of DM was superior to GDC (grain of dent corn in all of the particles size. The ensiling process increased the DM solubility, reducing the fraction B in comparison to dry grain. The values regarding the fractions DP and DE the 5% per hour of the protein, were larger for SDC and GDC, it presents a decreasing when the incubation time advances. The fermentation rate was superior for SDC and GDC. The ensiling process has positive effect in the decreasing of DM and CP in comparison to GDC.

  15. Wet Mars, Dry Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillingim, M. O.; Brain, D. A.; Peticolas, L. M.; Yan, D.; Fricke, K. W.; Thrall, L.

    2012-12-01

    The magnetic fields of the large terrestrial planets, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are all vastly different from each other. These differences can tell us a lot about the interior structure, interior history, and even give us clues to the atmospheric history of these planets. This poster highlights the third in a series of presentations that target school-age audiences with the overall goal of helping the audience visualize planetary magnetic field and understand how they can impact the climatic evolution of a planet. Our first presentation, "Goldilocks and the Three Planets," targeted to elementary school age audiences, focuses on the differences in the atmospheres of Venus, Earth, and Mars and the causes of the differences. The second presentation, "Lost on Mars (and Venus)," geared toward a middle school age audience, highlights the differences in the magnetic fields of these planets and what we can learn from these differences. Finally, in the third presentation, "Wet Mars, Dry Mars," targeted to high school age audiences and the focus of this poster, the emphasis is on the long term climatic affects of the presence or absence of a magnetic field using the contrasts between Earth and Mars. These presentations are given using visually engaging spherical displays in conjunction with hands-on activities and scientifically accurate 3D models of planetary magnetic fields. We will summarize the content of our presentations, discuss our lessons learned from evaluations, and show (pictures of) our hands-on activities and 3D models.

  16. Short term effects of two experimantal eutrophication on carbon and nitrogen cycling in two types of wet grassland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Picek, T.; Kaštovská, E.; Edwards, K.; Zemanová, K.; Dušek, Jiří

    9 /suppl./, - (2008), s. 1-8 ISSN 1585-8553 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA526/06/0276 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Carbon * Eutrophication * Gas emissions * Microbial processes * Nitrogen * Wet meadows Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.898, year: 2008

  17. Structural organization of process zones in upland watersheds of central Nevada and its influence on basin connectivity, dynamics, and wet meadow complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry R. Miller; Mark L. Lord; Lionel F. Villarroel; Dru Germanoski; Jeanne C. Chambers

    2012-01-01

    The drainage network within upland watersheds in central Nevada can be subdivided into distinct zones each dominated by a unique set of processes on the basis of valley form, the geological materials that comprise the valley floor, and the presence or absence of surficial channels. On hillslopes, the type and structure (frequency, length, and spatial arrangement) of...

  18. Assessing green-processing technologies for wet milling freshly hulled and germinated brown rice, leading to naturally fortified plant-based beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice milk beverages can well balanced nutrition. With healthier nutrition in consumer’s minds, national. Worldwide consumption/production of plant-based milk beverages are increasing. Much past research and invention was based on enzymatic conversion processes for starch that were uncomplicated be...

  19. Combination of preservation factors applied to minimal processing of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia de Daza, M S; Alzamora, S M; Chanes, J W

    1996-07-01

    Innovative technologies for producing minimally processed (MP) foods that apply the concept of combination of preservation factors are addressed in this article with special emphasis on a new combined approach that has been successfully applied in several Latin American countries for MP high-moisture fruit products (HMFP). HMFP can be regarded as a different approach to the commercially available and widely accepted MP concept for fruits and vegetables (even if developed for the same purpose of obtaining freshlike high-quality products with an extended shelf life) that is better adapted to Latin American countries in terms of independence of the chill chain and the use of simple and energy-efficient technologies. The continuous refrigeration hurdle associated with MP refrigerated fruits is not included in the preservation system of HMFP because a different combination of hurdles must be overcome to enhance the shelf stability of nonrespiring vegetable tissues while preserving freshlike character. Guidelines to obtain safe and high-quality MP fruit products are proposed. Other products preserved by combined factors technology are also discussed, as well as some other classical and new preservation factors whose application could enhance the quality of HMFP.

  20. Post-translational processing and secretion of atrial natriuretic factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, P.P.

    1988-01-01

    The post-translational processing and regulated secretion of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) were studied in primary cultures of rat cardiac myocytes. Cultures were established from neonatal rat atria or ventricles, and were maintained for 7-14 days in complete serum free medium. The cultures contained high and constant levels of ANF-(1-126), the known storage form of the hormone in vivo. The cultures also secreted ANF-(1-126), instead of the known circulating form of the hormone, ANF-(99-126). However, the inclusion of the glucocorticoids dexamethasone or hydrocortisone in the culture medium increased the levels of ir-ANF contained and secreted by the cultures, and caused both atrial and ventricular cultures to secrete principally ANF-(99-126) instead of ANF-(1-126). The secreted peptide was shown to be authentic ANF-(99-126) by chromatographic, amino acid composition and radiosequence analysis, thus confirming that the cultures were accurately processing ANF to the in vivo circulating form in the presence of glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoids also caused an increase in size and clustering of atrial myocytes as determined by immunocytochemical analysis, but the morphological effects could be dissociated from the stimulation of ANF-(99-126) secretion by manipulating the timing of glucocorticoid exposure. The location of ANF-(99-126) formation was investigated using biosynthetically labeled 35 S-Cys-ANF-(1-126) in conjunction with actively processing cultures

  1. Characteristics of wetting temperature during spray cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsutake, Yuichi; Monde, Masanori; Hidaka, Shinichirou

    2006-01-01

    An experimental study has been done to elucidate the effects of mass flux and subcooling of liquid and thermal properties of solid on the wetting temperature during cooling of a hot block with spray. A water spray was impinged at one of the end surfaces of a cylindrical block initially heated at 400 or 500degC. The experimental condition was mass fluxes G=1-9 kg/m 2 s and degrees of subcooling ΔT sub =20, 50, 80 K. Three blocks of copper, brass and carbon steel were prepared. During spray cooling internal block temperature distribution and sputtering sound pressure level were recorded and the surface temperature and heat flux were evaluated with 2D inverse heat conducting analysis. Cooling process on cooling curves is divided into four regimes categorized by change in a flow situation and the sound level. The wetting temperature defined as the wall temperature at a minimum heat flux point was measured over an extensive experimental range. The wetting wall temperature was correlated well with the parameter of GΔT sub . The wetting wall temperature increases as GΔT sub increases and reaches a constant value depending on the material of the surface at higher region of GΔT sub . (author)

  2. Factors controlling the distribution of ozone in the West African lower troposphere during the AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis wet season campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saunois

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Ozone and its precursors were measured on board the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM BAe 146 Atmospheric Research Aircraft during the monsoon season 2006 as part of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA campaign. One of the main features observed in the west African boundary layer is the increase of the ozone mixing ratios from 25 ppbv over the forested area (south of 12° N up to 40 ppbv over the Sahelian area. We employ a two-dimensional (latitudinal versus vertical meteorological model coupled with an O3-NOx-VOC chemistry scheme to simulate the distribution of trace gases over West Africa during the monsoon season and to analyse the processes involved in the establishment of such a gradient. Including an additional source of NO over the Sahelian region to account for NO emitted by soils we simulate a mean NOx concentration of 0.7 ppbv at 16° N versus 0.3 ppbv over the vegetated region further south in reasonable agreement with the observations. As a consequence, ozone is photochemically produced with a rate of 0.25 ppbv h−1 over the vegetated region whilst it reaches up to 0.75 ppbv h−1 at 16° N. We find that the modelled gradient is due to a combination of enhanced deposition to vegetation, which decreases the ozone levels by up to 11 pbbv, and the aforementioned enhanced photochemical production north of 12° N. The peroxy radicals required for this enhanced production in the north come from the oxidation of background CO and CH4 as well as from VOCs. Sensitivity studies reveal that both the background CH4 and partially oxidised VOCs, produced from the oxidation of isoprene emitted from the vegetation in the south, contribute around 5–6 ppbv to the ozone gradient. These results suggest that the northward transport of trace gases by the monsoon flux, especially during nighttime, can have a significant, though secondary

  3. Development of a process map: A step towards a regime map for steady-state high shear wet twin screw granulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Ashish; Dhondt, Jens; Vercruysse, Jurgen

    2016-01-01

    involves the combination of screw speed, material throughput and torque required to rotate the screws was correlated with the applied liquid-to-solid ratio to present process maps. The study suggested that, despite an increase in the granule size by the increasing liquid-to-solid ratio, most of the liquid...... contributes to formation of oversized granules. Therefore, keeping the liquid-to-solid ratio in a lower range and increasing the energy input to the system can be effectively used to lower the mean granule size. Changes in the screw geometry should also be explored to improve solid liquid mixing and breakage...

  4. Making Activated Carbon by Wet Pressurized Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John W.; Pisharody, Suresh; Wignarajah, K.; Moran, Mark

    2006-01-01

    A wet pressurized pyrolysis (wet carbonization) process has been invented as a means of producing activated carbon from a wide variety of inedible biomass consisting principally of plant wastes. The principal intended use of this activated carbon is room-temperature adsorption of pollutant gases from cooled incinerator exhaust streams. Activated carbon is highly porous and has a large surface area. The surface area depends strongly on the raw material and the production process. Coconut shells and bituminous coal are the primary raw materials that, until now, were converted into activated carbon of commercially acceptable quality by use of traditional production processes that involve activation by use of steam or carbon dioxide. In the wet pressurized pyrolysis process, the plant material is subjected to high pressure and temperature in an aqueous medium in the absence of oxygen for a specified amount of time to break carbon-oxygen bonds in the organic material and modify the structure of the material to obtain large surface area. Plant materials that have been used in demonstrations of the process include inedible parts of wheat, rice, potato, soybean, and tomato plants. The raw plant material is ground and mixed with a specified proportion of water. The mixture is placed in a stirred autoclave, wherein it is pyrolized at a temperature between 450 and 590 F (approximately between 230 and 310 C) and a pressure between 1 and 1.4 kpsi (approximately between 7 and 10 MPa) for a time between 5 minutes and 1 hour. The solid fraction remaining after wet carbonization is dried, then activated at a temperature of 500 F (260 C) in nitrogen gas. The activated carbon thus produced is comparable to commercial activated carbon. It can be used to adsorb oxides of sulfur, oxides of nitrogen, and trace amounts of hydrocarbons, any or all of which can be present in flue gas. Alternatively, the dried solid fraction can be used, even without the activation treatment, to absorb

  5. WET SOLIDS FLOW ENHANCEMENT; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugo S Caram; Natalie Foster

    1998-01-01

    The strain-stress behavior of a wet granular media was measured using a split Parfitt tensile tester. In all cases the stress increases linearly with distance until the maximum uniaxial tensile stress is reached. The stress then decreases exponentially with distance after this maximum is reached. The linear region indicates that wet solids behave elastically for stresses below the tensile stresses and can store significant elastic energy. The elastic deformation cannot be explained by analyzing the behavior of individual capillary bridges and may require accounting for the deformation of the solids particles. The elastic modulus of the wet granular material remains unexplained

  6. Characterizing the transcriptome upon depletion of RNA processing factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herudek, Jan

    , it is not clear how they target and discriminate their RNA substrates. Moreover, many novel RNA species are poorly characterized and their function is not understood. Over the last decade, protein function has been studied using RNA interference. However, this approach does not allow investigation of instant......The human genome is pervasively transcribed and produces an enormous amount of non-coding RNA (ncRNA). Compared to protein-coding transcripts, many classes of ncRNAs are very unstable and rapidly degraded by the RNA decay machinery. The RNA exosome complex is a main RNA ‘degrader’ in the human...... nucleus and is responsible for the proper processing and decay of a wide range of RNA molecules. Notably, the RNA exosome complex associates with a plethora of co-factors and activators that assist in the recognition of specific RNA substrates. Although many exosome partners have been characterized...

  7. Pulse plating of Pt on n-GaAs (1 0 0) wafer surfaces: Synchrotron induced photoelectron spectroscopy and XPS of wet fabrication processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensling, D.; Hunger, R.; Kraft, D.; Mayer, Th.; Jaegermann, W.; Rodriguez-Girones, M.; Ichizli, V.; Hartnagel, H.L.

    2003-01-01

    Preparation steps of Pt/n-GaAs Schottky contacts as applied in the fabrication process of varactor diode arrays for THz applications are analysed by photoelectron spectroscopy. Pulsed cathodic deposition of Pt onto GaAs (1 0 0) wafer surfaces from acidic solution has been studied by core level photoelectron spectroscopy using different excitation energies. A laboratory AlKα source as well as synchrotron radiation of hν=130 and 645 eV at BESSY was used. Chemical analyses and semiquantitative estimates of layer thickness are given for the natural oxide of an untreated wafer surface, a surface conditioning NH 3 etching step, and stepwise pulse plating of Pt. The structural arrangement of the detected species and interface potentials are considered

  8. Factors Influencing Membrane fouling in the MBR Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Nahid

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological processes of wastewater treatmnent have found wide applications due to their lower costs and higher efficiency. Membrane bioreactors (MBR’s form one group of such processes in which membrane fouling is of great importance. Efficiency of critical flux (CF has been proved to be a parameter effective in fouling control (CF. CF is itself influenced by three main groups of variables that include sludge parameters, operating conditions, and membrane types. In this stidy, the effects of such factors as trans-membrane pressure, protein and carbohydrate concentrations in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS, and soluble microbial products (SMP on CF were investigated in a submerged MBR.  Moreover, the effects of such operating conditions as periodic and continuous suctions at two sludge concentrations were studied. It was found that increasing flux led to enhanced membrane fouling rates. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS were found to have no relations with critical flux (CF, probably because EPS are mostly found as bigger flocks. Finally, a reverse relationship was established between CF and carbohydrate concentration of the SMP. Membrane fouling control was observed to be positively affected by the rest modes during periodic suctions.

  9. AN INVESTIGATION INTO FACTORS INFLUENCING INTERNATIONAL STRATEGIC ALLIANCE PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Wahyuni

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Empirical research indicates that strategic alliances, like other organizational forms, emerge as an adaptive mechanism to market uncertainty, and their developments over time reflect the co-evolution of distinctive firm capabilities and of industry and market activities. Interestingly, most strategic alliances go through similar revolutionary cycles in terms of their motives and capabilities toward the cooperative relationship. Studies in this areas how that alliance failure is an outcome of the co-evolutionary adjustment to changes in the market, the competitive dynamics between partners, and assessment of efficiency of the alliance as an alternative governance structure. It is thus critical to adopt a dynamics perspective and historical observations of cooperative process. This paper attempts to distil, derive and integrate theories across different perspectives into a unified framework that offers a better understanding of alliance process development. Our analysis shows that we can divide strategic alliance development into three phases of development: formation, operation and evaluation. We further endeavor to seek the important factors that should be taken into account in each stage of their life.

  10. Automating the Human Factors Engineering and Evaluation Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastromonico, C.

    2002-01-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has developed a software tool for automating the Human Factors Engineering (HFE) design review, analysis, and evaluation processes. The tool provides a consistent, cost effective, graded, user-friendly approach for evaluating process control system Human System Interface (HSI) specifications, designs, and existing implementations. The initial set of HFE design guidelines, used in the tool, was obtained from NUREG- 0700. Each guideline was analyzed and classified according to its significance (general concept vs. supporting detail), the HSI technology (computer based vs. non-computer based), and the HSI safety function (safety vs. non-safety). Approximately 10 percent of the guidelines were determined to be redundant or obsolete and were discarded. The remaining guidelines were arranged in a Microsoft Access relational database, and a Microsoft Visual Basic user interface was provided to facilitate the HFE design review. The tool also provides the capability to add new criteria to accommodate advances in HSI technology and incorporate lessons learned. Summary reports produced by the tool can be easily ported to Microsoft Word and other popular PC office applications. An IBM compatible PC with Microsoft Windows 95 or higher is required to run the application

  11. Analysis on Wetting Deformation Properties of Silty Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinrong Liu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in water level that cause deformation and stability problems often occur in foundation pit engineering. Water damage is one of the main problems that will lead to disasters in foundation pit engineering. Research findings with regard to properties of wetting deformation due to water damage can be applied not only in foundation pit engineering, slope engineering, hydraulic engineering, and mining engineering but also in related issues in the field of theoretical research and practice. In this study, the characteristics of silty clay deformation after wetting are examined from the perspective of the effect of wetting on the side wall of foundation pit, and wetting experiments on silty clay of a selected area’s stratum located in Chongqing Municipality are conducted under different confining pressures and stress levels through a multi-function triaxial apparatus. Then, laws of silty clay wetting deformation are obtained, and the relationship between wetting stress level and wetting deformation amount is also figured out. The study reveals that the maximum values of wetting deformation under different confining pressures have appear at a particular stress level; therefore, the related measures should be taken to avoid this deformation in the process of construction.

  12. Accelerated Drying of Wet Boots

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dyck, Walter

    2002-01-01

    .... One such material is sodium polyacrylate. Because recent field trials with Canadian Forces soldiers have reconfirmed that donning wet combat boots is very uncomfortable, a study was done to assess the efficacy of using sodium polyacrylate...

  13. Wet-Bulb-Globe Temperature Data Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Hour Min Pressure Dry Nat Wet Globe Dry Nat Wet Globe Dry Nat Wet Globe Wind Cld amt Cld type Obscuration Quest RH Kestrel RH VPSc RH S1 WBGT Q WBGT...Wet Globe Dry Nat Wet Globe Dry Nat Wet Globe Wind Cld amt Cld type Obscuration Quest RH Kestrel RH VPSc RH S1 WBGT Q WBGT K2 WBGT GMT millibars deg F...Dry Nat Wet Globe Dry Nat Wet Globe Wind Cld amt Cld type Obscuration Quest RH Kestrel RH VPSc RH S1 WBGT Q WBGT K2 WBGT GMT millibars deg F deg F deg

  14. Progress on lipid extraction from wet algal biomass for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi Naghdi, Forough; González González, Lina M; Chan, William; Schenk, Peer M

    2016-11-01

    Lipid recovery and purification from microalgal cells continues to be a significant bottleneck in biodiesel production due to high costs involved and a high energy demand. Therefore, there is a considerable necessity to develop an extraction method which meets the essential requirements of being safe, cost-effective, robust, efficient, selective, environmentally friendly, feasible for large-scale production and free of product contamination. The use of wet concentrated algal biomass as a feedstock for oil extraction is especially desirable as it would avoid the requirement for further concentration and/or drying. This would save considerable costs and circumvent at least two lengthy processes during algae-based oil production. This article provides an overview on recent progress that has been made on the extraction of lipids from wet algal biomass. The biggest contributing factors appear to be the composition of algal cell walls, pre-treatments of biomass and the use of solvents (e.g. a solvent mixture or solvent-free lipid extraction). We compare recently developed wet extraction processes for oleaginous microalgae and make recommendations towards future research to improve lipid extraction from wet algal biomass. © 2016 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Mercury Wet Scavenging and Deposition Differences by Precipitation Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaulfus, Aaron S; Nair, Udaysankar; Holmes, Christopher D; Landing, William M

    2017-03-07

    We analyze the effect of precipitation type on mercury wet deposition using a new database of individual rain events spanning the contiguous United States. Measurements from the Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) containing single rainfall events were identified and classified into six precipitation types. Mercury concentrations in surface precipitation follow a power law of precipitation depth that is modulated by precipitation system morphology. After controlling for precipitation depth, the highest mercury deposition occurs in supercell thunderstorms, with decreasing deposition in disorganized thunderstorms, quasi-linear convective systems (QLCS), extratropical cyclones, light rain, and land-falling tropical cyclones. Convective morphologies (supercells, disorganized, and QLCS) enhance wet deposition by a factor of at least 1.6 relative to nonconvective morphologies. Mercury wet deposition also varies by geographic region and season. After controlling for other factors, we find that mercury wet deposition is greater over high-elevation sites, seasonally during summer, and in convective precipitation.

  16. Dry-wet variations and cause analysis in Northeast China at multi-time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qi; Pan, Feifei; Pan, Xuebiao; Hu, Liting; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Yang, Pengyu; Wei, Pei; Pan, Zhihua

    2017-07-01

    Global warming has caused unevenly distributed changes in precipitation and evapotranspiration, which has and will certainly impact on the wet-dry variations. Based on daily meteorological data collected at 91 weather stations in Northeast China (NEC), the spatiotemporal characteristics of dry and wet climatic variables (precipitation, crop reference evapotranspiration (ET0), and humid index (HI)) are analyzed, and the probable reasons causing the changes in these variables are discussed during the period of 1961-2014. Precipitation showed non-significant trend over the period of 1961-2014, while ET0 showed a significant decreasing trend, which led to climate wetting in NEC. The period of 2001-2012 exhibited smaller semiarid area and larger humid area compared to the period of 1961-1980, indicating NEC has experienced wetting process at decadal scale. ET0 was most sensitive to relative humidity, and wind speed was the second most sensitive variable. Sunshine hours and temperature were found to be less influential to ET0 in the study area. The changes in wind speed in the recent 54 years have caused the greatest influence on ET0, followed by temperature. For each month, wind speed was the most significant variable causing ET0 reduction in all months except July. Temperature, as a dominant factor, made a positive contribution to ET0 in February and March, as well as sunshine hours in June and July, and relative humidity in August and September. In summary, NEC has experienced noticeable climate wetting due to the significantly decreasing ET0, and the decrease in wind speed was the biggest contributor for the ET0 reduction. Although agricultural drought crisis is expected to be partly alleviated, regional water resources management and planning in Northeast China should consider the potential water shortage and water conflict in the future because of spatiotemporal dry-wet variations in NEC.

  17. Screening Driving Transcription Factors in the Processing of Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzhong Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Construction of the transcriptional regulatory network can provide additional clues on the regulatory mechanisms and therapeutic applications in gastric cancer. Methods. Gene expression profiles of gastric cancer were downloaded from GEO database for integrated analysis. All of DEGs were analyzed by GO enrichment and KEGG pathway enrichment. Transcription factors were further identified and then a global transcriptional regulatory network was constructed. Results. By integrated analysis of the six eligible datasets (340 cases and 43 controls, a bunch of 2327 DEGs were identified, including 2100 upregulated and 227 downregulated DEGs. Functional enrichment analysis of DEGs showed that digestion was a significantly enriched GO term for biological process. Moreover, there were two important enriched KEGG pathways: cell cycle and homologous recombination. Furthermore, a total of 70 differentially expressed TFs were identified and the transcriptional regulatory network was constructed, which consisted of 566 TF-target interactions. The top ten TFs regulating most downstream target genes were BRCA1, ARID3A, EHF, SOX10, ZNF263, FOXL1, FEV, GATA3, FOXC1, and FOXD1. Most of them were involved in the carcinogenesis of gastric cancer. Conclusion. The transcriptional regulatory network can help researchers to further clarify the underlying regulatory mechanisms of gastric cancer tumorigenesis.

  18. Wet Grasslands as a Green Infrastructure for Ecological Sustainability: Wader Conservation in Southern Sweden as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Manton

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Biosphere Reserves aim at being role models for biodiversity conservation. This study focuses on the unsuccessful conservation of waders (Charadrii on wet grasslands in the Kristianstad Vattenrike Biosphere Reserve (KVBR in southern Sweden. Predation on nests and young has been proposed as one reason contributing to the decline of waders. We explored this hypothesis by comparing two landscapes, one with declining (KVBR and one with stable (Östergötland wader populations on managed wet grasslands in southern Sweden. Specifically, we tested three predictions linked to predation on wader nests and young, namely that (1 the relative abundance of avian predators and waders; (2 the avian predator abundance; and (3 the predation rate on artificial wader nests, should all be higher in declining versus stable populations. All predictions were clearly supported. Nevertheless, predation may not be the ultimate factor causing wader population declines. We discuss the cumulative effects of landscape change linked to increased food resources for predators, reduced wet grassland patch size and quality. Holistic analyses of multiple wet grassland landscapes as social-ecological systems as case studies, including processes such as predation and other factors affecting waders, is a promising avenue towards collaborative learning for wet grasslands as a functional green infrastructure. However, if governance and management approaches can be improved is questionable without considerable investment in both ecological and social systems.

  19. Assessment and development of an industrial wet oxidation system for burning waste and low upgrade fuels. Final report, Phase 2B: Pilot demonstration of the MODAR supercritical water oxidation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation is Project Manager for the Development and Demonstration of an Industrial Wet Oxidation System for Burning Wastes and Low Grade Fuel. This program has been ongoing through a Cooperative Agreement sponsored by the Department of Energy, initiated in June 1988. This report presents a comprehensive discussion of the results of the demonstration project conducted under this cooperative agreement with the overall goal of advancing the state-of-the-art in the practice of Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO). In recognition of the Government`s support of this project, we have endeavored to include all material and results that are not proprietary in as much detail as possible while still protecting MODAR`s proprietary technology. A specific example is in the discussion of materials of construction where results are presented while, in some cases, the specific materials are not identified. The report presents the results chronologically. Background material on the earlier phases (Section 2) provide an understanding of the evolution of the program, and bring all reviewers to a common starting point. Section 3 provides a discussion of activities from October 1991 through July 1992, during which the pilot plant was designed; and various studies including computational fluid dynamic modeling of the reactor vessel, and a process HAZOP analyses were conducted. Significant events during fabrication are presented in Section 4. The experimental results of the test program (December 1992--August 1993) are discussed in Section 5.

  20. Studies on the wetting properties of plate surfaces used in pulsed extraction columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai Derong; Yang Xin; Wang Xinchang

    1991-01-01

    Many factors influence the hydrodynamic characteristics of pulsed column. Of all the factors the surface effect at liquid-liquid interfaces and liquid-solid boundaries may be the most influential factor to the state of droplets. In order to get some understanding of the behaviour of droplets in a pulsed column, the time history of wetting properties of plates under different conditions in 30% TBP (Kerosene) -HNO 3 -UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 -H 2 O systems was studied. The results show that the hydrophilic wetting behaviour of the plates changes into the hydrophobic and neutral conditions, respectively after they have been exposed to air and put in the 'open system' within about 50 days after contacting with process solutions. For the case where the access of air is prohibited at the upper organic phase boundary by a well fitting cover, or supersonic pulse cleaning is used to the cartridge, the behaviour of the metal surface stays in the original good hydrophilic wetting condition constant with time. The uranium charged liquid systems can conserve hydrophilic behaviour better than the non-charged systems under identical conditions. It is also found that the interfacial tension is unvaried with time for saturated process systems, hence it has no effects on the variation of wettability

  1. Solving the Controversy on the Wetting Transparency of Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Donggyu; Pugno, Nicola M; Buehler, Markus J; Ryu, Seunghwa

    2015-10-26

    Since its discovery, the wetting transparency of graphene, the transmission of the substrate wetting property over graphene coating, has gained significant attention due to its versatility for potential applications. Yet, there have been debates on the interpretation and validity of the wetting transparency. Here, we present a theory taking two previously disregarded factors into account and elucidate the origin of the partial wetting transparency. We show that the liquid bulk modulus is crucial to accurately calculate the van der Waals interactions between the liquid and the surface, and that various wetting states on rough surfaces must be considered to understand a wide range of contact angle measurements that cannot be fitted with a theory considering the flat surface. In addition, we reveal that the wetting characteristic of the substrate almost vanishes when covered by any coating as thick as graphene double layers. Our findings reveal a more complete picture of the wetting transparency of graphene as well as other atomically thin coatings, and can be applied to study various surface engineering problems requiring wettability-tuning.

  2. Wetting of Water on Graphene

    KAUST Repository

    Bera, Bijoyendra; Shahidzadeh, Noushine; Mishra, Himanshu; Bonn, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The wetting properties of graphene have proven controversial and difficult to assess. The presence of a graphene layer on top of a substrate does not significantly change the wetting properties of the solid substrate, suggesting that a single graphene layer does not affect the adhesion between the wetting phase and the substrate. However, wetting experiments of water on graphene show contact angles that imply a large amount of adhesion. Here, we investigate the wetting of graphene by measuring the mass of water vapor adsorbing to graphene flakes of different thickness at different relative humidities. Our experiments unambiguously show that the thinnest of graphene flakes do not adsorb water, from which it follows that the contact angle of water on these flakes is ~180o. Thicker flakes of graphene nanopowder, on the other hand, do adsorb water. A calculation of the van der Waals (vdW) interactions that dominate the adsorption in this system confirms that the adhesive interactions between a single atomic layer of graphene and water are so weak that graphene is superhydrophobic. The observations are confirmed in an independent experiment on graphene-coated water droplets that shows that it is impossible to make liquid 'marbles' with molecularly thin graphene.

  3. Wetting of Water on Graphene

    KAUST Repository

    Bera, Bijoyendra

    2016-11-28

    The wetting properties of graphene have proven controversial and difficult to assess. The presence of a graphene layer on top of a substrate does not significantly change the wetting properties of the solid substrate, suggesting that a single graphene layer does not affect the adhesion between the wetting phase and the substrate. However, wetting experiments of water on graphene show contact angles that imply a large amount of adhesion. Here, we investigate the wetting of graphene by measuring the mass of water vapor adsorbing to graphene flakes of different thickness at different relative humidities. Our experiments unambiguously show that the thinnest of graphene flakes do not adsorb water, from which it follows that the contact angle of water on these flakes is ~180o. Thicker flakes of graphene nanopowder, on the other hand, do adsorb water. A calculation of the van der Waals (vdW) interactions that dominate the adsorption in this system confirms that the adhesive interactions between a single atomic layer of graphene and water are so weak that graphene is superhydrophobic. The observations are confirmed in an independent experiment on graphene-coated water droplets that shows that it is impossible to make liquid \\'marbles\\' with molecularly thin graphene.

  4. Factors that predict consumer acceptance of enriched processed meats

    OpenAIRE

    Shan, Liran Christine; Henchion, Maeve; De Brún, Aoife; Murrin, Celine; Wall, Patrick G.; Monahan, Frank J.

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to understand predictors of consumers' purchase intention towards processed meat based functional foods (i.e. enriched processed meat). A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 486 processed meat consumers in spring 2016. Results showed that processed meats were perceived differently in healthiness, with sausage-type products perceived less healthy than cured meat products. Consumers were in general more uncertain than positive about enriched processed meat but differences ...

  5. Nanoscale View of Dewetting and Coating on Partially Wetted Solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yajun; Chen, Lei; Liu, Qiao; Yu, Jiapeng; Wang, Hao

    2016-05-19

    There remain significant gaps in our ability to predict dewetting and wetting despite the extensive study over the past century. An important reason is the absence of nanoscopic knowledge about the processes near the moving contact line. This experimental study for the first time obtained the liquid morphology within 10 nm of the contact line, which was receding at low speed (U dewetting far from a simple reverse of wetting. A complete scenario for dewetting and coating is provided.

  6. Tissue Factor and Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor in the Wound-Healing Process After Neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ślusarz, Robert; Głowacka, Mariola; Biercewicz, Monika; Barczykowska, Ewa; Haor, Beata; Rość, Danuta; Gadomska, Grażyna

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the concentrations of tissue factor (TF) and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) in the blood of patients with a postoperative wound after neurosurgery. Participants included 20 adult patients who underwent neurosurgery because of degenerative spine changes. The concentration of TF and TFPI in the patients' blood serum was measured 3 times: before surgery, during the first 24 hr after surgery, and between the 5th and 7th days after surgery. The control group comprised 20 healthy volunteers similar to the patient group with respect to gender and age. A statistically significant difference was observed between TF concentration at all three measurement time points in the research group and TF concentration in the control group (p = .018, p = .010, p = .001). A statistically significant difference was found between TFPI concentration at the second time point in the research group and TFPI concentration in the control group (p = .041). No statistically significant within-subject difference was found between TF concentrations before and after surgery. A statistically significant within-subject difference was found between TFPI concentrations within 24 hr after surgery and 5-7 days after surgery (p = .004). High perioperative concentrations of TF indicate not only the presence of thrombophilia but also the importance of TF in the wound-healing process. Perioperative changes in TFPI concentrations are related to its compensatory influence on hemostasis in thrombophilic conditions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Organizational agility key factors for dynamic business process management

    OpenAIRE

    Triaa , Wafa; Gzara , Lilia; Verjus , Hervé

    2016-01-01

    International audience; For several years, Business Process Management (BPM) is recognized as a holistic management approach that promotes business effectiveness and efficiency. Increasingly, corporates find themselves, operating in business environments filled with unpredictable, complex and continuous change. Driven by these dynamic competitive conditions, they look for a dynamic management of their business processes to maintain their processes performance. To be competitive, companies hav...

  8. Applications of factorization embeddings for Lévy processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieker, A.B.

    2006-01-01

    We give three applications of the Pecherskii-Rogozin-Spitzer identity for Lévy processes. First, we find the joint distribution of the supremum and the epoch at which it is `attained' if a Lévy process has phase-type upward jumps. We also find the characteristics of the ladder process. Second, we

  9. Wet flue gas desulphurization and new fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiil, S.; Dam-Johansen, K.; Michelsen, M.L.

    1998-04-01

    This thesis describes experimental and theoretical investigations of wet flue gas desulphurization (FGD). A review of the current knowledge of the various rate determining steps in wet FDG plants is presented. The mechanism underlying the rate of dissolution of finely grained limestone particles was examined in a laboratory batch apparatus using acid titration. Three Danish limestones of different origin were tested. A transient, mass transport controlled, mathematical model was developed to describe the dissolution process. Model predictions were found to be qualitatively in good agreement with experimental data. Empirical correlations for the dimensionless mass transfer coefficients in a pilot plant (falling-film column) were determined. The presence of inert particles in the liquid phase was found to decrease the rate of gas phase mass transport with up to 15%, though the effect could not be correlated. A detailed model for a wet FGD pilot plant, based on the falling film principle, was developed. All important rate determining steps, absorption of SO{sub 2}, oxidation of HSO{sub 3}{sup -}, dissolution of limestone, and crystallisation of gypsum were included. Model predictions were compared to experimental data such as gas phase concentration profiles of SO{sub 2}, slurry pH-profiles, solids contents of slurry, liquid phase concentrations, and residual limestone in the gypsum. The possibility of co-firing straw and coal was investigated in a full-scale power plant. No effects on the overall performance of the wet FGD plant were observed, though laboratory experiments with fine dust and fly ash from the full-scale experiments showed a decrease in limestone reactivity. (EG) EFP-95. 45 refs.; Also ph.d. thesis of Soeren Kiil

  10. Nutritive value of wet distillers' solubles for pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmo Valaja

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Digestibility and nitrogen (N metabolism were studied to evaluate the nutritive value of wet barley distillers’ solubles (DSB from an integrated starch-ethanol process for pigs. Eight castrated male pigs (live weight 72-103 kg were used in a 8 x 3 cyclic change-over design, where the diets were arranged factorially 2x2. The corresponding factors were the protein source (DSB or soya bean meal (SBM and the protein level (131 or 162 g crude protein (CP/kg dry matter (DM. Faeces and urine were collected in total. The four diets comprised barley, barley starch, minerals and vitamins with either DSB or SBM as the main source of protein. The digestibility of CP(p

  11. Wet-air oxidation cleans up black wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    Sterling Organics produces the analgesic paracetamol (acetaminophen) at its Dudley, England, plant. The wastewater from the batch process contains intermediates such as para-aminophenol (PAP) and byproducts such as thiosulfates, sulfites and sulfides. To stay ahead of increasingly strict environmental legislation, Sterling Organics installed a wet-air oxidation system at the Dudley facility in August 1992. The system is made by Zimpro Environmental Inc. (Rothschild, Wis.). Zimpro's wet-air oxidation system finds a way around the limitations of purely chemical or physical processes. In the process, compressed air at elevated temperature and pressure oxidizes the process intermediates and byproducts and removes the color from the wastewater.

  12. A review of monitoring methods for pharmaceutical wet granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansuld, E M; Briens, L

    2014-09-10

    High-shear wet granulation is commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry to improve powder properties for downstream processes such as tabletting. Granule growth, however, is difficult to predict because the process is sensitive to raw material properties and operating conditions. Development of process analytical technologies is encouraged by regulatory bodies to improve process understanding and monitor quality online. The primary technologies investigated for high-shear wet granulation monitoring include power consumption, near-infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, capacitance measurements, microwave measurements, imaging, focused beam reflectance measurements, spatial filter velocimetry, stress and vibration measurements, as well as acoustic emissions. This review summarizes relevant research related to each of these technologies and discusses the challenges associated with each approach as a possible process analytical technology tool for high-shear wet granulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. FACTORS AND MOTIVES FOR THE SPIN-OFF PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor B. Khmelev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the factors that encourage managers to use spin offs as a restructuring tool, and about the main motives of spin-off transactions. Attention is focused on the nature of spin-offs. There is a classification of the driving factors of spin-offs from the theoretical viewpoint and the degree of this question elaboration in economic literature. Four factors are marked: industrial, life cycle, company size and support of the parent company. The basic spin-off motives are pointed in this article.

  14. Wetting kinetics of water nano-droplet containing non-surfactant nanoparticles: A molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Gui; Hu, Han; Sun, Ying; Duan, Yuanyuan

    2013-01-01

    In this Letter, dynamic wetting of water nano-droplets containing non-surfactant gold nanoparticles on a gold substrate is examined via molecular dynamics simulations. The results show that the addition of non-surfactant nanoparticles hinders the nano-second droplet wetting process, attributed to the increases in both surface tension of the nanofluid and friction between nanofluid and substrate. The droplet wetting kinetics decreases with increasing nanoparticle loading and water-particle interaction energy. The observed wetting suppression and the absence of nanoparticle ordering near the contact line of nano-sized droplets differ from the wetting behaviors reported from nanofluid droplets of micron size or larger

  15. The contributing factors of business process strategy on customer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 10, No 5S (2018) > ... The tremendous of customer relationship management performance are frolicking a progressively ... factors that donate to the CRMP subjected to operative, resourceful and advanced execution.

  16. Influence of chemistry on wetting dynamics of nanotextured hydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mundo, Rosa; Palumbo, Fabio; d'Agostino, Riccardo

    2010-04-06

    In this work, the role of a chemical parameter, such as the degree of fluorination, on the wetting behavior of nanotextured hydrophobic surfaces is investigated. Texture and chemistry tuning of the surfaces has been accomplished with single batch radiofrequency low-pressure plasma processes. Polystyrene substrates have been textured by CF(4) plasma etching and subsequently covered by thin films with a tunable F-to-C ratio, obtained in discharges fed with C(4)F(8)-C(2)H(4). Measurements of wetting dynamics reveal a regime transition from adhesive-hydrophobic to slippery-superhydrophobic, i.e., from wet to non wet states, as the F-to-C rises at constant topography. Such achievements are strengthened by calculation of the solid fraction of surface water contact area applying Cassie-Baxter advancing and receding equations to water contact angle data of textured and flat reference surfaces.

  17. A Survey on Evaluation Factors for Business Process Management Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutschler, B.B.; Reichert, M.U.

    2006-01-01

    Estimating the value of business process management (BPM) technology is a difficult task to accomplish. Computerized business processes have a strong impact on an organization, and BPM projects have a long-term cost amortization. To systematically analyze BPM technology from an economic-driven

  18. The factor of local cultural specificity and process of globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnev, Viacheslav

    2012-12-01

    , especially farming traditions in small-scale, non-industrial societies, has been based not only on the technologies that are "friendly" to Nature, but also (and first of all) on the perception that soil (earth) is the source of all life. This sort of perception was particularly widespread among peoples of pre-industrial societies. The problem of searching for a way to increase long-term productivity in food grain production is complicated. This problem is of global importance for today and the future. The active interest of Modern society in the Folk experiences of using the Nature to achieve sustainable economies is yet to come, but we have much to learn from these small-scale non-industrial societies. Food production needs to be increased. At the same time, the fertility of the soil must be maintained. Achieving a balance between these two necessities is the problem. Changing the present modern human outlook from its egocentric position to one that understands and respects the natural environment, based on ideas of "ecological ethics", looks especially complex, and is directly connected with the problem of forming a new culture. Actually, the global ecological crisis and related ecological problems take priority and the transition to a new model of thinking promises to be accelerated. In this context, making use of Folk heritage, Folk knowledge and experience in observing Nature and using Nature to achieve harmonious interrelations in a "Nature - Society" system, and for the elaboration of a change of attitudes is quite important for modern society on a Global level to achieve ways of Sustainability. Lucius Seneca maintains that subjugation of a Nature is possible only if obeying to Nature. Modern epoch of Globalization in economy and Financial systems creating a potential of high risks for mankind on the Global level. Special attention to local factors (local experience in Nature using, local Folk experience in Life-support activity) in context of globalization problems

  19. Solid propellant processing factor in rocket motor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The ways are described by which propellant processing is affected by choices made in designing rocket engines. Tradeoff studies, design proof or scaleup studies, and special design features are presented that are required to obtain high product quality, and optimum processing costs. Processing is considered to include the operational steps involved with the lining and preparation of the motor case for the grain; the procurement of propellant raw materials; and propellant mixing, casting or extrusion, curing, machining, and finishing. The design criteria, recommended practices, and propellant formulations are included.

  20. The knowledge conversion SECI process as innovation indicator analysis factor

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Elaine da [UNESP; Valentim, Marta Lígia Pomim [UNESP

    2013-01-01

    It highlights the innovation importance in the current society and presents innovation indicators applied in 125 countries. We made an analysis in the 80 variables distributed through seven GII pillars, trying to identify the direct, indirect or null incidences of the knowledge conversion way described by the SECI Process. The researched revealed the fact that knowledge management, in this case specifically the knowledge conversion SECI Process, is present in the variables that, according to ...

  1. Nuclear turbine efficiency improvement by wet steam study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Morson, A.; Markytan, R.

    2000-01-01

    Most of the turbine used at the nuclear power plant are operated at environment of wet steam, which composes of a big factor of its inner loss in comparison with those of the thermal power plant. If an analytical method predictable on behavior of the wet steam is established, it could be upgraded efficiency of the turbine and also reliability against corrosion formed by moisture. This study, therefore, aims at understanding of physical property of the wet steam flow scarcely known at present, development of an optimum turbine cascade design tool reflected by the property, development of a turbine cascade design reducible of steam loss due to wet steam by using the tool, and development on a method of removing moisture in the turbine to its outer portion. For the tool, a new three dimensional flow numerical analysis is necessary to be developed, to aim at accurately and numerically understanding of the behavior of wet steam. As this study is in advancing now, by using a turbine cascade optimized on the wet steam flow and a developed moisture removing apparatus, about 0.6 % of upgrading in turbine efficiency can be predicted in comparison with that of the advanced aero-cascade of the GE Corporation. (G.K.)

  2. Wetting properties of liquid lithium on lithium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krat, S.A., E-mail: stepan.krat@gmail.com [Center for Plasma Material Interactions, Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana (United States); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Popkov, A.S. [Center for Plasma Material Interactions, Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana (United States); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gasparyan, Yu. M.; Pisarev, A.A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Fiflis, Peter; Szott, Matthew; Christenson, Michael; Kalathiparambil, Kishor; Ruzic, David N. [Center for Plasma Material Interactions, Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Contact angles of liquid lithium and Li{sub 3}N, Li{sub 2}O, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} were measured. • Liquid lithium wets lithium compounds at relatively low temperatures: Li{sub 3}N at 257 °C, Li{sub 2}O at 259 °C, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} at 323 °C. • Li wets Li{sub 2}O and Li{sub 3}N better than previously measured fusion-relevant materials (W, Mo, Ta, TZM, stainless steel). • Li wets Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} better than most previously measured fusion-relevant materials (W, Mo, Ta). - Abstract: Liquid metal plasma facing components (LMPFC) have shown a potential to supplant solid plasma facing components materials in the high heat flux regions of magnetic confinement fusion reactors due to the reduction or elimination of concerns over melting, wall damage, and erosion. To design a workable LMPFC, one must understand how liquid metal interacts with solid underlying structures. Wetting is an important factor in such interaction, several designs of LMPFC require liquid metal to wet the underlying solid structures. The wetting of lithium compounds (lithium nitride, oxide, and carbonate) by 200 °C liquid lithium at various surface temperature from 230 to 330 °C was studied by means of contact angle measurements. Wetting temperatures, defined as the temperature above which the contact angle is less than 90°, were measured. The wetting temperature was 257 °C for nitride, 259 °C for oxide, and 323 °C for carbonate. Surface tensions of solid lithium compounds were calculated from the contact angle measurements.

  3. Human skin wetness perception: psychophysical and neurophysiological bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filingeri, Davide; Havenith, George

    2015-01-01

    The ability to perceive thermal changes in the surrounding environment is critical for survival. However, sensing temperature is not the only factor among the cutaneous sensations to contribute to thermoregulatory responses in humans. Sensing skin wetness (i.e. hygrosensation) is also critical both for behavioral and autonomic adaptations. Although much has been done to define the biophysical role of skin wetness in contributing to thermal homeostasis, little is known on the neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning the ability to sense skin wetness. Humans are not provided with skin humidity receptors (i.e., hygroreceptors) and psychophysical studies have identified potential sensory cues (i.e. thermal and mechanosensory) which could contribute to sensing wetness. Recently, a neurophysiological model of human wetness sensitivity has been developed. In helping clarifying the peripheral and central neural mechanisms involved in sensing skin wetness, this model has provided evidence for the existence of a specific human hygrosensation strategy, which is underpinned by perceptual learning via sensory experience. Remarkably, this strategy seems to be shared by other hygroreceptor-lacking animals. However, questions remain on whether these sensory mechanisms are underpinned by specific neuromolecular pathways in humans. Although the first study on human wetness perception dates back to more than 100 years, it is surprising that the neurophysiological bases of such an important sensory feature have only recently started to be unveiled. Hence, to provide an overview of the current knowledge on human hygrosensation, along with potential directions for future research, this review will examine the psychophysical and neurophysiological bases of human skin wetness perception. PMID:27227008

  4. Wetting of a Charged Surface of Glassy Carbon by Molten Alkali-Metal Chlorides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, V. P.

    2018-03-01

    Values of the contact angle of wetting of a surface of glassy carbon by molten chlorides of lithium, sodium, potassium, and cesium are measured by the meniscus weight method to determine the common factors of wettability of solid surfaces by ionic melts upon a change in the salt phase composition and a jump in electric potential. It is found that with a potential shift in the positive direction the shape of the curve of the contact angle's dependence on the potential varies upon substitution of one salt by another: the angle of wetting shrinks monotonously in lithium chloride but remains constant in molten cesium chloride. This phenomenon is explained by the hypothesis that the nature of the halide anion adsorption on the positively charged surface of an electrode is chemical and not electrostatic. It is shown that the adsorption process is accompanied by charge transfer through the interface, with covalent bonding between the adsorbent and adsorbate.

  5. Temporal factors affecting somatosensory-auditory interactions in speech processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki eIto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Speech perception is known to rely on both auditory and visual information. However, sound specific somatosensory input has been shown also to influence speech perceptual processing (Ito et al., 2009. In the present study we addressed further the relationship between somatosensory information and speech perceptual processing by addressing the hypothesis that the temporal relationship between orofacial movement and sound processing contributes to somatosensory-auditory interaction in speech perception. We examined the changes in event-related potentials in response to multisensory synchronous (simultaneous and asynchronous (90 ms lag and lead somatosensory and auditory stimulation compared to individual unisensory auditory and somatosensory stimulation alone. We used a robotic device to apply facial skin somatosensory deformations that were similar in timing and duration to those experienced in speech production. Following synchronous multisensory stimulation the amplitude of the event-related potential was reliably different from the two unisensory potentials. More importantly, the magnitude of the event-related potential difference varied as a function of the relative timing of the somatosensory-auditory stimulation. Event-related activity change due to stimulus timing was seen between 160-220 ms following somatosensory onset, mostly around the parietal area. The results demonstrate a dynamic modulation of somatosensory-auditory convergence and suggest the contribution of somatosensory information for speech processing process is dependent on the specific temporal order of sensory inputs in speech production.

  6. Gender Inequality and Emigration: Push factor or Selection process?

    OpenAIRE

    Baudassé, Thierry; Bazillier, Rémi

    2012-01-01

    Our objective in this research is to provide empirical evidence relating to the linkages between gender equality and international emigration. Two theoretical hypotheses can be made for the purpose of analyzing such linkages. The fi rst is that gender inequality in origin countries could be a push factor for women. The second one is that gender inequality may create a \\gender bias" in the selection of migrants within a household or a community. An improvement of gender equality would then inc...

  7. Human Modeling for Ground Processing Human Factors Engineering Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambolian, Damon B.; Lawrence, Brad A.; Stelges, Katrine S.; Steady, Marie-Jeanne O.; Ridgwell, Lora C.; Mills, Robert E.; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald; Barth, Tim

    2011-01-01

    There have been many advancements and accomplishments over the last few years using human modeling for human factors engineering analysis for design of spacecraft. The key methods used for this are motion capture and computer generated human models. The focus of this paper is to explain the human modeling currently used at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and to explain the future plans for human modeling for future spacecraft designs

  8. Rapid Prototyping and the Human Factors Engineering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-29

    conventional systems development techniques. It is not clear, however, exactly how rapid prototyping could be used in relation to conventional human...factors engineering analyses. Therefore, an investigation of the use of the V APS virtual prototyping system was carried out in five organizations. The...results show that a variety of task analysis approaches can be used to initiate rapid prototyping . Overall, it appears that rapid prototyping

  9. Human factors engineering checklists for application in the SAR process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overlin, T.K.; Romero, H.A.; Ryan, T.G.

    1995-03-01

    This technical report was produced to assist the preparers and reviewers of the human factors portions of the SAR in completing their assigned tasks regarding analysis and/or review of completed analyses. The checklists, which are the main body of the report, and the subsequent tables, were developed to assist analysts in generating the needed analysis data to complete the human engineering analysis for the SAR. The technical report provides a series of 19 human factors engineering (HFE) checklists which support the safety analyses of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) reactor and nonreactor facilities and activities. The results generated using these checklists and in the preparation of the concluding analyses provide the technical basis for preparing the human factors chapter, and subsequent inputs to other chapters, required by DOE as a part of the safety analysis reports (SARs). This document is divided into four main sections. The first part explains the origin of the checklists, the sources utilized, and other information pertaining to the purpose and scope of the report. The second part, subdivided into 19 sections, is the checklists themselves. The third section is the glossary which defines terms that could either be unfamiliar or have specific meanings within the context of these checklists. The final section is the subject index in which the glossary terms are referenced back to the specific checklist and page the term is encountered.

  10. Human factors engineering checklists for application in the SAR process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overlin, T.K.; Romero, H.A.; Ryan, T.G.

    1995-03-01

    This technical report was produced to assist the preparers and reviewers of the human factors portions of the SAR in completing their assigned tasks regarding analysis and/or review of completed analyses. The checklists, which are the main body of the report, and the subsequent tables, were developed to assist analysts in generating the needed analysis data to complete the human engineering analysis for the SAR. The technical report provides a series of 19 human factors engineering (HFE) checklists which support the safety analyses of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) reactor and nonreactor facilities and activities. The results generated using these checklists and in the preparation of the concluding analyses provide the technical basis for preparing the human factors chapter, and subsequent inputs to other chapters, required by DOE as a part of the safety analysis reports (SARs). This document is divided into four main sections. The first part explains the origin of the checklists, the sources utilized, and other information pertaining to the purpose and scope of the report. The second part, subdivided into 19 sections, is the checklists themselves. The third section is the glossary which defines terms that could either be unfamiliar or have specific meanings within the context of these checklists. The final section is the subject index in which the glossary terms are referenced back to the specific checklist and page the term is encountered

  11. Factors and competences for business process managemant systems implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravesteyn, J.P.P.

    2011-01-01

    The market for Business Process Management (BPM) software is growing rapidly, predictions for 2010 range from anywhere between 1 to 6 billion dollars, this means the market has more than doubled since 2005. Although there is a lot of publicity regarding BPM there is still much debate on what BPM is.

  12. Development of Wet Noodles Based on Cassava Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Z. Abidin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is one of Indonesia’s original commodities and contains good nutrition and has high productivity and a relatively low price. Cassava flour has a high potential as a substitute for imported wheat flour that is widely used in noodle production. The main purpose of this research was to develop wet noodles from cassava flour that can compete with wet noodles from wheat flour. The research consisted of experiments with several variations of composition and production method for producing cassava flour-based wet noodles. The best result was then examined for its nutritional value, economical value, and market response, and also a comparison was made between the prepared wet noodles and the standard noodles made from wheat flour. The analysis was based on five characteristics: taste, texture, chewiness, aroma, and appearance. Relations between these characteristics with composition, materials used, and methods applied are discussed. The developed cassava flour-based wet noodle meets physical, nutritional, and economical standards. Raw materials of the noodle were cassava flour and a wheat flour composite with a 5:1 ratio, egg, gluten, soda-ash, water, and vegetable oil, while the process was completed in multiple stages. Market response showed that the cassava flour-based wet noodles were 80% similar to wheat-flour noodles.

  13. Phoenix's Wet Chemistry Laboratory Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows four Wet Chemistry Laboratory units, part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument on board NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. This image was taken before Phoenix's launch on August 4, 2007. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. Formative Assessment Probes: Wet Jeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Page

    2015-01-01

    Picture a wet towel or a puddle of water on a hot, sunny day. An hour later, the towel is dry and the puddle no longer exists. What happened to the water? Where did it go? These are questions that reveal myriad interesting student ideas about evaporation and the water cycle--ideas that provide teachers with a treasure trove of data they can use to…

  15. Erosion corrosion in wet steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavast, J.

    1988-03-01

    The effect of different remedies against erosion corrosion in wet steam has been studied in Barsebaeck 1. Accessible steam systems were inspected in 1984, 1985 and 1986. The effect of hydrogen peroxide injection of the transport of corrosion products in the condensate and feed water systems has also been followed through chemical analyses. The most important results of the project are: - Low alloy chromium steels with a chromium content of 1-2% have shown excellent resistance to erosion corrosion in wet steam. - A thermally sprayed coating has shown good resistance to erosion corrosion in wet steam. In a few areas with restricted accessibility minor attacks have been found. A thermally sprayed aluminium oxide coating has given poor results. - Large areas in the moisture separator/reheater and in steam extraction no. 3 have been passivated by injection of 20 ppb hydrogen peroxide to the high pressure steam. In other inspected systems no significant effect was found. Measurements of the wall thickness in steam extraction no. 3 showed a reduced rate of attack. - The injection of 20 ppb hydrogen peroxide has not resulted in any significant reduction of the iron level result is contrary to that of earlier tests. An increase to 40 ppb resulted in a slight decrease of the iron level. - None of the feared disadvantages with hydrogen peroxide injection has been observed. The chromium and cobalt levels did not increase during the injection. Neither did the lifetime of the precoat condensate filters decrease. (author)

  16. Adult Bed-Wetting: A Concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult bed-wetting: A concern? My 24-year-old husband has started to wet the bed at ... of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Manage Cookies Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization ...

  17. Human Factors in Software Development Processes: Measuring System Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahão, Silvia; Baldassarre, Maria Teresa; Caivano, Danilo

    2016-01-01

    Software Engineering and Human-Computer Interaction look at the development process from different perspectives. They apparently use very different approaches, are inspired by different principles and address different needs. But, they definitively have the same goal: develop high quality software...... in the most effective way. The second edition of the workshop puts particular attention on efforts of the two communities in enhancing system quality. The research question discussed is: who, what, where, when, why, and how should we evaluate?...

  18. Factors Affecting Process Innovation Teams’ Learning and Their Impact on the Success of the Process Innovation Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim H. Seyrek

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on 145 process innovation teams, we have studied factors supporting team learning and their impact on the success of the process innovation projects. As a result, we have found that team vision, recording and reviewing project related information, filing, following a structural development process and co-location of team members are factors supporting team learning and project success. Also, two dimensions of learning, information acquisition and information implementation, are positively related to the success of the process innovation projects

  19. Proteolytic processing of epidermal growth factor within endosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorman, R.M.; Savage, C.R. Jr.; Poretz, R.D.; Schaudies, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have reported previously that EGF enters 3 biochemically distinct non-lysosomal intracellular compartments prior to detection within lysosomes. Earlier studies have demonstrated that EGF is processes by sequential removal of 1, 4 and 1 aminoacyl residues at the C-terminus. The final form, which lacks the 6 residues, accumulates in secondary lysosomes. After subcellular fractionation of fibroblasts exposed to 125 I-EGF, ligand is detected with 3 non-lysosomal endocytic compartments and is fully processed prior to entrance into secondary lysosome. Following internalization, EGF enters an early endosomal compartment (E 1 ). The composition of the ligand (60%, -1 form; 40%, native form) represents an enhancement of the -1 form relative to that on the plasma membrane following the 90 min, 0 0 binding period. The proportion of different EGF forms in E 1 remains constant through the 2 min pulse and chase periods up to 30 min. However, in the ultimate endosomal compartment, E 4 , the proportion of the -6 form increases from 25% at 15 min to greater than 75% in 30 min, with a concomitant decrease of the -1 and -5 forms. Secondary lysosomes contain an EGF composition similar to that found in E 4 at 30 min. Accordingly, it appears that EGF is processed to the -6 form following passage through E 1 and during its tenure in E 4

  20. [Effects of drying and wetting cycles induced by tides on net ecosystem exchange of CO2 over a salt marsh in the Yellow River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wen Jun; Han, Guang Xuan; Xu, Yan Ning; Zhang, Xi Tao; Wang, An Dong; Che, Chun Guang; Sun, Bao Yu; Zhang, Xiao Shuai

    2018-01-01

    As a unique hydrological characteristic, the tidal action can strongly affect carbon balance in a salt marsh despite their short duration. Using the eddy covariance technique, we measured the net ecosystem CO 2 exchange (NEE) and its environmental factors and tidal change over a salt marsh in the Yellow River Delta. It aimed to investigate the effect of tidal process and drying and wetting cycles induced by tides on NEE. The results showed that the tidal process promoted the daytime CO 2 uptake, but it didn't clearly affect the nighttime CO 2 release. Tidal inundation was a major factor influencing daytime NEE. The diurnal change of NEE showed a distinct U-shaped curve on both drought and wet stages, but not with substantial variation in its amplitude during the drought stage. The drying and wetting cycles enhanced the absorption of daytime CO 2 . Under drought stage, the mean of the maximum photosynthetic rate (A max ), apparent quantum yield (α) and ecosystem respiration (R eco ) were higher than those in wet stage. In addition, the drying and wetting cycles suppressed the nighttime CO 2 release from the salt marsh but increased its temperature sensitivity.

  1. 49 CFR 173.159 - Batteries, wet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Batteries, wet. 173.159 Section 173.159... Batteries, wet. (a) Electric storage batteries, containing electrolyte acid or alkaline corrosive battery fluid (wet batteries), may not be packed with other materials except as provided in paragraphs (g) and...

  2. European wet deposition maps based on measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen EP van; Erisman JW; Draaijers GPJ; Potma CJM; Pul WAJ van; LLO

    1995-01-01

    To date, wet deposition maps on a European scale have been based on long-range transport model results. For most components wet deposition maps based on measurements are only available on national scales. Wet deposition maps of acidifying components and base cations based on measurements are needed

  3. Factors influencing equipment selection in electron beam processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, J. W.

    2003-08-01

    During the eighties and nineties accelerator manufacturers dramatically increased the beam power available for high-energy equipment. This effort was directed primarily at meeting the demands of the sterilization industry. During this era, the perception that bigger (higher power, higher energy) was always better prevailed since the operating and capital costs of accelerators did not increase with power and energy as fast as the throughput. High power was needed to maintain per unit costs low for treatment. This philosophy runs counter to certain present-day realities of the sterilization business as well as conditions influencing accelerator selection in other electron beam applications. Recent experience in machine selection is described and factors affecting choice are presented.

  4. Human factor in the process of nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enenkl, V.

    The building up of nuclear power requires the training not only of personnel but of the whole population as well. Professional workers in nuclear power facilities production and personnel operating the equipment of nuclear power plants must be on a high technical and managerial level. The important quality of such personnel is their reliability and responsibility. The human factor influences the level, quality and thereby also the service-life of the machines and equipment and their operation. The improvement of the quality of work in nuclear power production depends on upgrading the scientific and technical level of workers and personnel, their training, in-service education and the raising of the social standing. (B.H.)

  5. Wet in situ transesterification of spent coffee grounds with supercritical methanol for the production of biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jeesung; Kim, Bora; Park, Jeongseok; Yang, Jeongwoo; Lee, Jae W

    2018-07-01

    This work introduces biodiesel production from wet spent coffee grounds (SCGs) with supercritical methanol without any pre-drying process. Supercritical methanol and subcritical water effectively produced biodiesel via in situ transesterification by inducing more porous SCG and enhancing the efficiency of lipid extraction and conversion. It was also found that space loading was one of the critical factors for biodiesel production. An optimal biodiesel yield of 10.17 wt% of dry SCG mass (86.33 w/w% of esterifiable lipids in SCG) was obtained at reaction conditions of 270 °C, 90 bars, methanol to wet SCG ratio 5:1, space loading 58.4 ml/g and reaction time 20 min. Direct use of wet SCG waste as feedstock for supercritical biodiesel production eliminates the conventional dying process and the need of catalyst and also reduces environmental problems caused by landfill accumulation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. ELECTRIC FACTORS INFLUENCING THE COMPLEX EROSION PROCESSING BY INTRODUCING THE ELECTROLYTE THROUGH THE TRANSFER OBJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin Nioata

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The electric and electrochemical complex erosion processing is influenced by a great number of factors acting in tight interdependence and mutually influencing one another for achieving the stability of the processing process and achieving the final technological characteristics.The values taking part in developing the fundamental phenomena of the mechanism of complex erosion prevailing and contributes to the definition of technological characteristics, are factors.The paper presents the U potential difference and electric strength I as determining factors of the complex erosion process as well as other factors deriving from them: the current density, the power of the supply source.

  7. Upscaling from benchtop processing to industrial scale production: More factors to be considered for pulsed electric field food processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulsed electric field (PEF) processing has been intensively studied with benchtop scale experiments. However, there is still limited information regarding critical factors to be considered for PEF efficacy in microbial reduction with PEF processing at a pilot or commercial scale production of juice....

  8. A Wet Chemistry Laboratory Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This picture of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) cell is labeled with components responsible for mixing Martian soil with water from Earth, adding chemicals and measuring the solution chemistry. WCL is part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument suite on board the Phoenix lander. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. WET SOLIDS FLOW ENHANCEMENT; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugo S. Caram; Natalie Foster

    1997-01-01

    The objective was to visualize the flow of granular materials in flat bottomed silo. This was done by for dry materials introducing mustard seeds and poppy seeds as tracer particles and imaging them using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. The region sampled was a cylinder 25 mm in diameter and 40 mm in length. Eight slices containing 128*128 to 256*256 pixels were generated for each image. The size of the silo was limited by the size of the high resolution NMR imager available. Cross-sections of 150mm flat bottomed silos, with the tracer layers immobilized by a gel, showed similar qualitative patterns for both dry and wet granular solids

  10. Understanding the wetting properties of nanostructured selenium coatings: the role of nanostructured surface roughness and air-pocket formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran PA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Phong A Tran,1,2 Thomas J Webster31Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 2The Particulate Fluid Processing Centre, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 3Department of Chemical Engineering and Program in Bioengineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: Wetting properties of biomaterials, in particular nanomaterials, play an important role, as these influence interactions with biological elements, such as proteins, bacteria, and cells. In this study, the wetting phenomenon of titanium substrates coated with selenium nanoparticles was studied using experimental and mathematical modeling tools. Importantly, these selenium-coated titanium substrates were previously reported to increase select protein adsorption (such as vitronectin and fibronectin, to decrease bacteria growth, and increase bone cell growth. Increased selenium nanoparticle coating density resulted in higher contact angles but remained within the hydrophilic regime. This trend was found in disagreement with the Wenzel model, which is widely used to understand the wetting properties of rough surfaces. The trend also did not fit well with the Cassie–Baxter model, which was developed to understand the wetting properties of composite surfaces. A modified wetting model was thus proposed in this study, to understand the contributing factors of material properties to the hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of these nanostructured selenium-coated surfaces. The analysis and model created in this study can be useful in designing and/or understanding the wetting behavior of numerous biomedical materials and in turn, biological events (such as protein adsorption as well as bacteria and mammalian cell functions.Keywords: hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity, Wenzel model, Cassie–Baxter model, free energy, implant material, proteins, cells, bacteria

  11. Converting SDAP into gypsum in a wet limestone scrubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogh, F [Faelleskemikerne, Elsamprojekt A/S, Fredericia (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    The ELSAM power pool has an installed electrical capacity of approx. 5 GW{sub e}, mainly firing import coal. The major base load units are equipped with desulphurization units and three different desulphurization technologies are used: the wet limestone gypsum process, the spray dry absorption process and a sulphuric acid process. Gypsum and sulphuric acid are commercialized, whereas it has been difficult to utilize the spray dry absorption product (SDAP). The main constituents of SDAP are calcium sulphide, calcium chloride, hydrated lime and impurities mainly originating from fly ash. Sulphide can be oxidized into sulphate in acidic solution - the reaction is utilized in the wet limestone gypsum process - and the possibility of using any spare capacity in the wet limestone gypsum units to oxidize the sulphide content of SDAP into sulphate and produce usable gypsum has been investigated in the laboratory and in a 400 MW{sub e} equivalent wet limestone unit. The limestone inhibition effect of the addition of SDAP is currently being studied in the laboratory in order to determine the effect of different SDAP types (plant/coal sources) on limestone reactivity before further long-term full-scale tests are performed and permanent use of the process planned. (EG)

  12. Postfact phenomena of the wet-steam flow electrization in turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarelin, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    Physical processes occurring in a turbine with natural electrization of a humidity-steam flow and their effect on efficiency and reliability of the turbine operation has been considered. Causes of the electrical potential occurrence on a rotor shaft are analyzed. The wet steam's electrization exposure on the electrical potential that is one of the major factors of bearings' electroerosion has been demonstrated on the full-scale installation. Hydrogen formation in wheelspace of the turbine as a result of electrochemical processes and electric field exposure of the space charge has been considered. Hydrogen concentration dependence on a volume charge density in the steam flow has been determined. It is stated that the processes occurring behind the final stage of wet-steam turbines are similar to the ones in elaerosol ectrostatic generators. It has been demonstrated that this phenomenon causes the flow's temporal inhibition and starts pulsations. These factors' impact on power loss of the turbine has been evaluated and recommendations for their elimination have been offered. It has been determined that motions of charged drops can cause self-maintained discharges inside of the flow and between the flow and grounded surfaces that are accompanied by electromagnetic radiation of the wide spectrum. The integrated studies have shown that physical phenomena occurring due to natural electrization negatively affect efficiency and reliability of the turbine operation. Practical recommendations allowing one to minimize the negative effects of the flow natural electrization process have been offered.

  13. Prevalence and risk factors of low back pain among Thai and Myanmar migrant seafood processing factory workers in Samut Sakorn Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Shigeru; Arphorn, Sara; Muto, Takashi; Koetkhlai, Kanatid; Naing, Saw Sandy; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) and investigated risk factors for LBP among seafood processing factory workers in Thailand including migrant workers. The subjects were Thai and Myanmar workers in the typical seafood processing factory. A cross-sectional study was carried out with a self-administered questionnaire. Prevalence of LBP, general characteristics, life style, and working condition were investigated. The associations between LBP and risk factors were estimated by multiple logistic regression models. Of 254 workers, 165 completed the questionnaire. Half of these workers were Thai, the others were from Myanmar. The point prevalence of LBP was 28.5%. Risk factors for LBP were age over 40 yr, poor health status, history of back injury, twisting posture at work, and slipping on wet floors. The results suggest that health promotion should focus on working conditions rather than individual life style in order to prevent LBP. Furthermore, greater attention to other risk factors such as history of back injury and perception of health status after regular health check up, especially in older age groups may be needed.

  14. Solder wetting behavior enhancement via laser-textured surface microcosmic topography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Haiyan [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Friction Welding Technologies, Xi’an 710072 (China); Peng, Jianke [Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Friction Welding Technologies, Xi’an 710072 (China); Fu, Li, E-mail: fuli@nwpu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Friction Welding Technologies, Xi’an 710072 (China); Wang, Xincheng [Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Friction Welding Technologies, Xi’an 710072 (China); Xie, Yan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The wetting angle of lead free solder on Cu was reduced by surface microstructure. • The wetting form of Sn-Ag-Cu solder on Cu was “non-composite surface”. • The experimental results had a sound fit with the theoretical calculation. - Abstract: In order to reduce or even replace the use of Sn-Pb solder in electronics industry, the laser-textured surface microstructures were used to enhance the wetting behavior of lead free solder during soldering. According to wetting theory and Sn-Ag-Cu lead free solder performance, we calculated and designed four microcosmic structures with the similar shape and different sizes to control the wetting behavior of lead free solder. The micro-structured surfaces with different dimensions were processed on copper plates by fiber femtosecond laser, and the effect of microstructures on wetting behavior was verified experimentally. The results showed that the wetting angle of Sn-Ag-Cu solder on the copper plate with microstructures decreased effectively compared with that on the smooth copper plate. The wetting angles had a sound fit with the theoretical values calculated by wetting model. The novel method provided a feasible route for adjusting the wetting behavior of solders and optimizing solders system.

  15. The Effect of Drying-Wetting Cycle’s Repetition to the Characteristic of Natural and Stabilization Residual Soils Jawa Timur - Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaha, M.

    2017-11-01

    Indonesia, which located in tropical region, continuously undergoes wetting and drying cycles due to the changeable seasons. An important role in activating the clay minerals on tropical residual soils is the main factor that affects the static and dynamic properties, such as: volume change, soil suction and dynamic modulus. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect of drying-wetting cycles repetition on volume change, soil suction and mechanical characteristics of natural and stabilization of residual soils from Jawa Timur - Indonesia. The natural undisturbed and stabilized residual soil sample was naturally and gradually dried up with air to 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100 % of the initial water content. The wetting processes were carried out with the gradual increment water content of 25 %(wsat - wi), 50 %(wsat - wi), 75 %(wsat - wi), up to 100 %(wsat - wi). The Direct Shear test is used to measure the mechanic properties, and Whatman filter paper No. 42 is used to measure the soil suction. The drying-wetting processes were carried out for 1, 2, 4, and 6 cycles. The laboratory test results showed that, the void ratio decreased, the unit weight, cohesion and the internal friction angle were increasing due to stabilization. Drying-wetting cycle repetition reduces void ratio, negative pore-water pressure, cohesion and internal friction angle of natural and stabilized soils. Briefly, the decreased of mechanical soil properties was proven from the physical properties change observation.

  16. Simulation of convection-driven wet-chemical etching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driesen, C.H.

    1999-01-01

    In a wet-chemical etching process, the resulting etched shape is smaller than the originally designed shape at the mask. This is caused by the fact that, as soon as material next to the mask is dissolved, material under the mask will be dissolved too. This is the so-called undercut effect. During an

  17. Simulation of convection-driven wet-chemical etching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driesen, C.H.

    1999-01-01

    a wet-chemical etching process, the resulting etched shape is smaller than the originally designed shape at the mask. This is caused by the fact that, as soon as material next to the mask is dissolved, material under the mask will be dissolved too. This is the so-called undercut effect. During an

  18. Wetting phase permeability in a partially saturated horizontal fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholl, M.J.; Glass, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    Fractures within geologic media can dominate the hydraulic properties of the system. Therefore, conceptual models used to assess the potential for radio-nuclide migration in unsaturated fractured rock such as that composing Yucca Mountain, Nevada, must be consistent with flow processes in individual fractures. A major obstacle to the understanding and simulation of unsaturated fracture flow is the paucity of physical data on both fracture aperture structure and relative permeability. An experimental procedure is developed for collecting detailed data on aperture and phase structure from a transparent analog fracture. To facilitate understanding of basic processes and provide a basis for development of effective property models, the simplest possible rough-walled fracture is used. Stable phase structures of varying complexity are created within the horizontal analog fracture. Wetting phase permeability is measured under steady-state conditions. A process based model for wetting phase relative permeability is then explored. Contributions of the following processes to reduced wetting phase permeability under unsaturated conditions are considered: reduction in cross-sectional flow area, increased path length, localized flow restriction, and preferential occupation of large apertures by the non-wetting phase

  19. Prioritizing the client trust factors in electronic banking using analytic hierarchy process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein vazifedust

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper prioritizes the trust factors among electronic banking clients of an Iranian bank named Parsian Bank. The study first analyzes and reviews the literature and interviews with experts of electronic banking and academicians and determines client trust as the most important factor for development of electronic banking. The study also determines different factors associated with trust, which includes individual factors, banking factors and infrastructural factors. The sample populations consist of 25 experts who are academicians, managers and bank officers, clients of electronic banking. The necessary data was collected through conducting interviews and questionnaires and they are analyzed using analytic hierarchy process (AHP. The research findings indicate that the attitudinal factors, telecommunication infrastructure and cultural factors were the most influential factors accordingly and the customer orientation and ease of access were the least influential factors.

  20. Cognitive Risk Factors for Specific Learning Disorder: Processing Speed, Temporal Processing, and Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Kristina; Göbel, Silke M.; Gooch, Debbie; Landerl, Karin; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2016-01-01

    High comorbidity rates between reading disorder (RD) and mathematics disorder (MD) indicate that, although the cognitive core deficits underlying these disorders are distinct, additional domain-general risk factors might be shared between the disorders. Three domain-general cognitive abilities were investigated in children with RD and MD:…

  1. Drying and wetting of building materials and components

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book, Drying and Wetting of Building Materials and Components, provides a collection of recent contributions in the field of drying and wetting in porous building materials. The main benefit of the book is that it discusses some of the most important topics related to the drying and wetting processes, namely, innovations and trends in drying science and technology, drying mechanism and theory, equipment, advanced modelling, complex simulation and experimentation. At the same time, these topics will be going to the encounter of a variety of scientific and engineering disciplines. The book is divided in several chapters that intend to be a resume of the current state of knowledge for benefit of professional colleagues.

  2. Phycoremediation of Heavy Metals in Wet Market Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apandi, Najeeha; Saphira Radin Mohamed, Radin Maya; Al-Gheethi, Adel; Latiffi, Atikah; Nor Hidayah Arifin, Siti; Gani, Paran

    2018-04-01

    The efficiency of phycoremediation using microalgae for removing nutrients and heavy metals from wastewaters has been proved. However, the differences in the composition of wastewaters as well as microalgae species play an important role in the efficient of this process. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of Scenedesmus sp. to removal of heavy metals from wet market wastewater. Scenedesmus sp. was inoculated with 106 cells/mL into each wet market wastewater concentration included 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% and incubated for 18 days. The highest growth rate was recorded in 50% WM with a maximum dry weight of 2006 mg L-1 which subsequently removed 93.06% of Cd, 91.5% of Cr, 92.47% of Fe, 92.40% of Zn. These findings reflected the high potential of Scenedesmus sp. in the treatment of wet market wastewater and production microalgae biomass.

  3. FAST PYROLYSIS PROCESS OF ORANGE SOLID WASTE. FACTORS INFLUENCE IN THE PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Aguiar Trujillo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The orange processing industry generates high volumes of solid residue. This residue has been used in animal feeding and biochemical processes. A possible energy use of the waste can be thermochemical fast pyrolysis process. The objective was to determine the influence of the heating rate and temperature in the process of rapid pyrolysis of orange solid residue. In the process a design, 2k full factorial experiment was used, evaluating the influence of the independent variables and its interactions on the answers, using a 95 % significance level. We found that temperature is the most significant influence on the responses parameter having significant influence on the yields to: gas, coal, tar and the calorific value of the gas and the heating rate does not influence the answers. Finally, the interaction affects the gas yield. The results obtained in this study are: Rgas (19 – 38 %, Rchar (25 – 42 %, Ralq (6 – 12 %, PCIgas entre (140 – 1050 kJ/m3N.

  4. Dynamics of wetting explored with inkjet printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Völkel Simeon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An inkjet printer head, which is capable of depositing liquid droplets with a resolution of 22 picoliters and high repeatability, is employed to investigate the wetting dynamics of drops printed on a horizontal plane as well as on a granular monolayer. For a sessile drop on a horizontal plane, we characterize the contact angle hysteresis, drop volume and contact line dynamics from side view images. We show that the evaporation rate scales with the dimension of the contact line instead of the surface area of the drop. We demonstrate that the system evolves into a closed cycle upon repeating the depositing-evaporating process, owing to the high repeatability of the printing facility. Finally, we extend the investigation to a granular monolayer in order to explore the interplay between liquid deposition and granular particles.

  5. Unleashing the Effectiveness of Process-oriented Information Systems: Problem Analysis, Critical Success Factors, Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutschler, B.B.; Reichert, M.U.; Bumiller, J.

    2008-01-01

    Process-oriented information systems (IS) aim at the computerized support of business processes. So far, contemporary IS have often fail to meet this goal. To better understand this drawback, to systematically identify its rationales, and to derive critical success factors for business process

  6. Fate and wetting potential of bio-refractory organics in membrane distillation for coke wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jing; Li, Jianfeng; Chen, Zuliang; Cheng, Fangqin

    2018-06-02

    Membrane distillation (MD) has been hindered in industrial applications due to the potential wetting or fouling caused by complicated organic compositions. This study investigated the correlations between the fate and wetting potential of bio-refractory organics in the MD process, where three coke wastewater samples pre-treated with bio-degradation and coagulation served as feed solutions. Results showed that although most of the bio-refractory organics in coke wastewater were rejected by the hydrophobic membrane, some volatile aromatic organics including benzenes, phenols, quinolines and naphthalenes passed through the membrane during the MD process. Interestingly, membrane wetting occurred coincidently with the penetration of phenolic and heterocyclic organics. The wetting rate was obviously correlated with the feed composition and membrane surface properties. Ultimately, novel insights into the anti-wetting strategy of MD with bio-refractory organics was proposed, illustrating that the polyaluminum chloride/polyacrylamide coagulation not only removed contaminants which could accelerate membrane wetting, but also retarded membrane wetting by the complexation with organics. The deposition of these complexes on the membrane surface introduced a secondary hydrophilic layer on the hydrophobic substrate, which established a composite membrane structure with superior wetting resistance. These new findings would be beneficial to wetting control in membrane distillation for wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of wetting-drying cycles on soil desiccation cracking behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Chao-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Better understanding the desiccation cracking process is essential in analysing drought effects on soil hydraulic and mechanical properties through consideration of the atmosphere-ground interaction. Laboratory tests were conducted to investigate the consequence of wetting-drying cycles on the initiation and propagation characteristics of desiccation cracks on soil surface. Initially saturated slurry specimens were prepared and subjected to five subsequent wetting-drying cycles. Image processing technique was employed to quantitatively analyze the morphology characteristics of crack patterns formed during each drying path. The results show that the desiccation cracking behaviour of soil is significantly affected by the wetting-drying cycles. Before the third wetting-drying cycle is reached, the surface crack ratio and the average crack width increases while the average clod area decreases with increasing the number of wetting-drying cycles. The number of intersections and crack segments per unit area reaches the peak values after the second wetting-drying cycle. After the third wetting-drying cycle is reached, the effect of increasing wetting-drying cycles on crack patterns is insignificant. Moreover, it is observed that the applied wetting-drying cycles are accompanied by a continual reconstruction of soil structure. The initial homogenous slurry structure is completely replaced with aggregated structure after the third cycles, and a significant increase in the inter-aggregate porosity can be observed.

  8. Wetting of flat gradient surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormashenko, Edward

    2018-04-01

    Gradient, chemically modified, flat surfaces enable directed transport of droplets. Calculation of apparent contact angles inherent for gradient surfaces is challenging even for atomically flat ones. Wetting of gradient, flat solid surfaces is treated within the variational approach, under which the contact line is free to move along the substrate. Transversality conditions of the variational problem give rise to the generalized Young equation valid for gradient solid surfaces. The apparent (equilibrium) contact angle of a droplet, placed on a gradient surface depends on the radius of the contact line and the values of derivatives of interfacial tensions. The linear approximation of the problem is considered. It is demonstrated that the contact angle hysteresis is inevitable on gradient surfaces. Electrowetting of gradient surfaces is discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Wet motor geroter fuel pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiernicki, M.V.

    1987-05-05

    This patent describes a wet motor gerotor fuel pump for pumping fuel from a fuel source to an internal combustion which consists of: gerotor pump means comprising an inner pump gear, an outer pump gear, and second tang means located on one of the inner and outer pump gears. The second tang means further extends in a second radial direction radially offset from the first radial direction and forms a driving connection with the first tang means such that the fuel pump pumps fuel from the fuel source into the narrow conduit inlet chamber, through the gerotor pump means past the electric motor means into the outlet housing means substantially along the flow axis to the internal combustion engine.

  10. Mechanisms of wet oxidation by hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, R.A.

    1987-08-01

    A research programme is currently under way at BNL and MEL to investigate the possible use of Hydrogen Peroxide with metal ion catalysts as a wet oxidation treatment system for CEGB organic radioactive wastes. The published literature relating to the kinetics and mechanism of oxidation and decomposition reactions of hydrogen peroxide is reviewed and the links with practical waste management by wet oxidation are examined. Alternative wet oxidation systems are described and the similarities to the CEGB research effort are noted. (author)

  11. Robust Non-Wetting PTFE Surfaces by Femtosecond Laser Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Liang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nature shows many examples of surfaces with extraordinary wettability, which can often be associated with particular air-trapping surface patterns. Here, robust non-wetting surfaces have been created by femtosecond laser ablation of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE. The laser-created surface structure resembles a forest of entangled fibers, which support structural superhydrophobicity even when the surface chemistry is changed by gold coating. SEM analysis showed that the degree of entanglement of hairs and the depth of the forest pattern correlates positively with accumulated laser fluence and can thus be influenced by altering various laser process parameters. The resulting fibrous surfaces exhibit a tremendous decrease in wettability compared to smooth PTFE surfaces; droplets impacting the virgin or gold coated PTFE forest do not wet the surface but bounce off. Exploratory bioadhesion experiments showed that the surfaces are truly air-trapping and do not support cell adhesion. Therewith, the created surfaces successfully mimic biological surfaces such as insect wings with robust anti-wetting behavior and potential for antiadhesive applications. In addition, the fabrication can be carried out in one process step, and our results clearly show the insensitivity of the resulting non-wetting behavior to variations in the process parameters, both of which make it a strong candidate for industrial applications.

  12. Robust non-wetting PTFE surfaces by femtosecond laser machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fang; Lehr, Jorge; Danielczak, Lisa; Leask, Richard; Kietzig, Anne-Marie

    2014-08-08

    Nature shows many examples of surfaces with extraordinary wettability,which can often be associated with particular air-trapping surface patterns. Here,robust non-wetting surfaces have been created by femtosecond laser ablation of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The laser-created surface structure resembles a forest of entangled fibers, which support structural superhydrophobicity even when the surface chemistry is changed by gold coating. SEM analysis showed that the degree of entanglement of hairs and the depth of the forest pattern correlates positively with accumulated laser fluence and can thus be influenced by altering various laser process parameters. The resulting fibrous surfaces exhibit a tremendous decrease in wettability compared to smooth PTFE surfaces; droplets impacting the virgin or gold coated PTFE forest do not wet the surface but bounce off. Exploratory bioadhesion experiments showed that the surfaces are truly air-trapping and do not support cell adhesion. Therewith, the created surfaces successfully mimic biological surfaces such as insect wings with robust anti-wetting behavior and potential for antiadhesive applications. In addition, the fabrication can be carried out in one process step, and our results clearly show the insensitivity of the resulting non-wetting behavior to variations in the process parameters,both of which make it a strong candidate for industrial applications.

  13. Wet-chemical passivation of atomically flat and structured silicon substrates for solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermann, H.; Rappich, J.; Korte, L.; Sieber, I.; Conrad, E.; Schmidt, M.; Hübener, K.; Polte, J.; Hauschild, J.

    2008-04-01

    Special sequences of wet-chemical oxidation and etching steps were optimised with respect to the etching behaviour of differently oriented silicon to prepare very smooth silicon interfaces with excellent electronic properties on mono- and poly-crystalline substrates. Surface photovoltage (SPV) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigations were utilised to develop wet-chemical smoothing procedures for atomically flat and structured surfaces, respectively. Hydrogen-termination as well as passivation by wet-chemical oxides were used to inhibit surface contamination and native oxidation during the technological processing. Compared to conventional pre-treatments, significantly lower micro-roughness and densities of surface states were achieved on mono-crystalline Si(100), on evenly distributed atomic steps, such as on vicinal Si(111), on silicon wafers with randomly distributed upside pyramids, and on poly-crystalline EFG ( Edge-defined Film-fed- Growth) silicon substrates. The recombination loss at a-Si:H/c-Si interfaces prepared on c-Si substrates with randomly distributed upside pyramids was markedly reduced by an optimised wet-chemical smoothing procedure, as determined by PL measurements. For amorphous-crystalline hetero-junction solar cells (ZnO/a-Si:H(n)/c-Si(p)/Al) with textured c-Si substrates the smoothening procedure results in a significant increase of short circuit current Isc, fill factor and efficiency η. The scatter in the cell parameters for measurements on different cells is much narrower, as compared to conventional pre-treatments, indicating more well-defined and reproducible surface conditions prior to a-Si:H emitter deposition and/or a higher stability of the c-Si surface against variations in the a-Si:H deposition conditions.

  14. Carbon nanotube fiber spun from wetted ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuntian T; Arendt, Paul; Zhang, Xiefei; Li, Qingwen; Fu, Lei; Zheng, Lianxi

    2014-04-29

    A fiber of carbon nanotubes was prepared by a wet-spinning method involving drawing carbon nanotubes away from a substantially aligned, supported array of carbon nanotubes to form a ribbon, wetting the ribbon with a liquid, and spinning a fiber from the wetted ribbon. The liquid can be a polymer solution and after forming the fiber, the polymer can be cured. The resulting fiber has a higher tensile strength and higher conductivity compared to dry-spun fibers and to wet-spun fibers prepared by other methods.

  15. Partial to complete wetting transitions in immiscible ternary blends with PLA: the influence of interfacial confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolali, Ali M; Favis, Basil D

    2017-04-12

    In this study it is shown that the three different intermediate phases in melt blended ternary PLA/PHBV/PBS, PLA/PBAT/PE and PLA/PE/PBAT systems all demonstrate partial wetting, but have very different wetting behaviors as a function of composition and annealing. The interfacial tension of the various components, their spreading coefficients and the contact angles of the confined partially wet droplets at the interface are examined in detail. A wetting transition from partially wet droplets to a complete layer at the interface is observed for both PHBV and PBAT by increasing the concentration and also by annealing. In contrast, in PLA/PE/PBAT, the partially wet droplets of PE at the interface of PLA/PBAT coalesce and grow in size, but remain partially wet even at a high PE concentration of 20% and after 30 min of quiescent annealing. The dewetting speed of the intermediate phase is found to be the principal factor controlling these wetting transitions. This work shows the significant potential for controlled wetting and structuring in ternary polymer systems.

  16. Unleashing the Effectiveness of Process-oriented Information Systems: Problem Analysis, Critical Success Factors, Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Mutschler, B.B.; Reichert, M.U.; Bumiller, J.

    2008-01-01

    Process-oriented information systems (IS) aim at the computerized support of business processes. So far, contemporary IS have often fail to meet this goal. To better understand this drawback, to systematically identify its rationales, and to derive critical success factors for business process support, we conducted three empirical studies: an exploratory case study in the automotive domain, an online survey among 79 IT professionals, and another online survey among 70 business process managem...

  17. Evaluation of processing factors for selected organic contaminants during virgin olive oil production: Distribution of BTEXS during olives processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Blanco, Rafael; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Rojas-Jiménez, Rubén; Robles-Molina, José; Ramos-Martos, Natividad; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2016-05-15

    The presence of BTEXS (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes and styrene) in virgin olive oils can be attributed to environmental contamination, but also to biological processes during oil lipogenesis (styrene). In this work, the processing factor of BTEXS from olives to olive oil during its production was evaluated at lab-scale with an Abencor system. Benzene showed the lowest processing factor (15%), whereas toluene and xylenes showed an intermediate behavior (with 40-60% efficiency), and ethylbenzene and styrene were completely transferred (100%). In addition, an attempt to examine the contribution of potential sources to olives contamination with BTEXS was carried out for the first time. Two types of olives samples were classified according to their proximity to the contamination source (road). Although higher levels of BTEXS were found in samples close to roads, the concentrations were relatively low and do not constitute a major contribution to BTEXS usually detected in olive oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of factor analysis in identification of dominant hydrogeochemical processes of some nitrogenous groundwater of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojković Jana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate statistical analyses are used for reducing large datasets to a smaller number of variables, which explain main hydrogeochemical processes that control water geochemistry. Factor analysis (FA allows discovering intercorrelations inside the data matrix and grouping of similar variables, i.e. chemical parameters. In this way new variables are extracted, which are called factors, and each factor is explained by some hydrogeochemical process. Applying FA to a dataset that consists of 15 chemical parameters measured on 40 groundwater samples from Serbia, four factors were extracted, which explain 73.9% of total variance in the analyzed dataset. Interpretation of obtained factors indicated several hydrogeochemical processes: the impact of sea water intrusions and volatiles in previous geological periods, solutes diffusion from the marine clay, cation exchange and dissolution of carbonate and silicate minerals. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43004

  19. Ultrasound-enhanced bioscouring of greige cotton: regression analysis of process factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultrasound-enhanced bioscouring process factors for greige cotton fabric are examined using custom experimental design utilizing statistical principles. An equation is presented which predicts bioscouring performance based upon percent reflectance values obtained from UV-Vis measurements of rutheniu...

  20. Incorporation of human factors into design change processes - a regulator's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staples, L.; McRobbie, H.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear power plants in Canada must receive written approval from the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) when making certain changes that are defined in their licenses. The CNSC expects the design change process to include a method for ensuring that the human-machine interface and workplace design support the safe and reliable performance of required tasks. When reviewing design changes for approval, the CNSC looks for evidence of analysis work, use of appropriate human factors design guidelines, and verification and validation testing of the design. In addition to reviewing significant design changes, evaluations are conducted to ensure design change processes adequately address human performance. Findings from reviews and evaluations highlight the need to integrate human factors into the design change process, provide human factors training and support to engineering staff, establish processes to ensure coordination between the various groups with a vested interest in human factors, and develop more rigorous methods to validate changes to maintenance, field operations and testing interfaces. (author)

  1. Initial-state interactions, factorization, and the Drell-Yan process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodwin, G.T.; Brodsky, S.J.; Lepage, G.P.

    1981-12-01

    It is shown that initial state interactions violate the factorization conjecture for the Drell-Yan process order by order in perturbation theory. Also, the effects of elastic and inelastic initial state interactions on the observed cross sections are discussed

  2. Variability of extreme wet events over Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libanda Brigadier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adverse effects of extreme wet events are well documented by several studies around the world. These effects are exacerbated in developing countries like Malawi that have insufficient risk reduction strategies and capacity to cope with extreme wet weather. Ardent monitoring of the variability of extreme wet events over Malawi is therefore imperative. The use of the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI has been recommended by many studies as an effective way of quantifying extreme wet events. In this study, ETCCDI indices were used to examine the number of heavy, very heavy, and extremely heavy rainfall days; daily and five-day maximum rainfall; very wet and extremely wet days; annual wet days and simple daily intensity. The Standard Normal Homogeneity Test (SNHT was employed at 5% significance level before any statistical test was done. Trend analysis was done using the nonparametric Mann-Kendall statistical test. All stations were found to be homogeneous apart from Mimosa. Trend results show high temporal and spatial variability with the only significant results being: increase in daily maximum rainfall (Rx1day over Karonga and Bvumbwe, increase in five-day maximum rainfall (Rx5day over Bvumbwe. Mzimba and Chileka recorded a significant decrease in very wet days (R95p while a significant increase was observed over Thyolo. Chileka was the only station which observed a significant trend (decrease in extremely wet rainfall (R99p. Mzimba was the only station that reported a significant trend (decrease in annual wet-day rainfall total (PRCPTOT and Thyolo was the only station that reported a significant trend (increase in simple daily intensity (SDII. Furthermore, the findings of this study revealed that, during wet years, Malawi is characterised by an anomalous convergence of strong south-easterly and north-easterly winds. This convergence is the main rain bringing mechanism to Malawi.

  3. Eddy correlation measurements in wet environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, R. H.; Migliori, L.; O Kane, J. P.

    2003-04-01

    The lower Feale catchment is a low-lying peaty area of 200 km^2 situated in southwest Ireland that is subject to inundation by flooding. The catchment lies adjacent to the Feale River and is subject to tidal signals as well as runoff processes. Various mitigation strategies are being investigated to reduce the damage due to flooding. Part of the effort has required development of a detailed hydrologic balance for the study area which is a wet pasture environment with local field drains that are typically flooded. An eddy correlation system was installed in the summer of 2002 to measure components of the energy balance, including evapotranspiration, along with special sensors to measure other hydrologic variables particular to this study. Data collected will be essential for validation of surface flux models to be developed for this site. Data filtering is performed using a combination of software developed by the Boundary-Layer Group (BLG) at Oregon State University together with modifications made to this system for conditions at this site. This automated procedure greatly reduces the tedious inspection of individual records. The package of tests, developed by the BLG for both tower and aircraft high frequency data, checks for electronic spiking, signal dropout, unrealistic magnitudes, extreme higher moment statistics, as well as other error scenarios not covered by the instrumentation diagnostics built into the system. Critical parameter values for each potential error were developed by applying the tests to real fast response turbulent time series. Potential instrumentation problems, flux sampling problems, and unusual physical situations records are flagged for removal or further analysis. A final visual inspection step is required to minimize rejection of physically unusual but real behavior in the time series. The problems of data management, data quality control, individual instrumentation sensitivity, potential underestimation of latent and sensible heat

  4. Slow, Wet and Catalytic Pyrolysis of Fowl Manure

    OpenAIRE

    Renzo Carta; Mario Cruccu; Francesco Desogus

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the experimental results obtained at a pilot plant which works with a slow, wet and catalytic pyrolysis process of dry fowl manure. This kind of process mainly consists in the cracking of the organic matrix and in the following reaction of carbon with water, which is either already contained in the organic feed or added, to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Reactions are conducted in a rotating reactor maintained at a temperature of 500°C; the requi...

  5. Impacts of Situational Factors on Process Attribute Uses for Food Purchases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loebnitz, Natascha; Mueller Loose, Simone; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-01-01

    Consumer buying decisions for food reflect considerations about food production. However, consumers’ interest in process-related product characteristics does not always translate into buying intentions. The present study investigates how situational factors affect the use of process......-related considerations when consumers select food products. A conjoint study provides estimated part worth utilities for product alternatives that differ on five product attributes (including four process-related factors) across two products (bread and sports drink) that differ on perceived naturalness....... The investigation of the utilities of the process-related attributes features both an internal (priming of environmental values/ value centrality) and an external (time pressure) situational factor. The results indicate that the importance of process-related attributes is product specific and also depends...

  6. Smart driver monitoring : when signal processing meets human factors : in the driver's seat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aghaei, A.S.; Donmez, B.; Liu, C.C.; He, D.; Liu, G.; Plataniotis, K.N.; Chen, H.Y.W.; Sojoudi, Z.

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an interdisciplinary perspective on driver monitoring systems by discussing state-of-the-art signal processing solutions in the context of road safety issues identified in human factors research. Recently, the human factors community has made significant progress in

  7. The psychological aftermath of bereavement : Risk factors, mediating processes, and intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Houwen, H.K.

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation some of the major facets associated with the psychological effects of bereavement were the subject of investigation: risk factors, mediating processes and intervention. Previous research on risk factors is limited because of a number of methodological shortcomings: a focus on

  8. Factorization properties and their probabilistic interpretation in polarized electroproduction and annihilation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, I.; Kounnas, C.

    1981-01-01

    We describe the factorization properties of polarized deep-inelastic and semi-inclusive annihilation structure functions in the Bjorken limit. We present a simple physical interpretation of the factorization results that relates the factorized quantities to the terms appearing in a decomposition of an effective spin-density matrix of a virtual quark. We give, through one-loop level, all the calculable quantities needed to parametrize the scaling violation of the structure functions in both spacelike and timelike processes

  9. The psychological aftermath of bereavement : Risk factors, mediating processes, and intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Houwen, H.K.

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation some of the major facets associated with the psychological effects of bereavement were the subject of investigation: risk factors, mediating processes and intervention. Previous research on risk factors is limited because of a number of methodological shortcomings: a focus on only one or a few factors (which increases the chances of reporting spurious results) and reliance on use of a single measure of bereavement outcome. We avoided these pitfalls by simultaneously exami...

  10. Leaf Wetness within a Lily Canopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, A.F.G.; Heusinkveld, B.G.; Klok, E.J.

    2005-01-01

    A wetness duration experiment was carried out within a lily field situated adjacent to coastal dunes in the Netherlands. A within-canopy model was applied to simulate leaf wetness in three layers, with equal leaf area indices, within the canopy. This simulation model is an extension of an existing

  11. Defined wetting properties of optical surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felde, Nadja; Coriand, Luisa; Schröder, Sven; Duparré, Angela; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    Optical surfaces equipped with specific functional properties have attracted increasing importance over the last decades. In the light of cost reduction, hydrophobic self-cleaning behavior is aspired. On the other side, hydrophilic properties are interesting due to their anti-fog effect. It has become well known that such wetting states are significantly affected by the surface morphology. For optical surfaces, however, this fact poses a problem, as surface roughness can induce light scattering. The generation of optical surfaces with specific wetting properties, hence, requires a profound understanding of the relation between the wetting and the structural surface properties. Thus, our work concentrates on a reliable acquisition of roughness data over a wide spatial frequency range as well as on the comprehensive description of the wetting states, which is needed for the establishment of such correlations. We will present our advanced wetting analysis for nanorough optical surfaces, extended by a vibration-based procedure, which is mainly for understanding and tailoring the wetting behavior of various solid-liquid systems in research and industry. Utilizing the relationships between surface roughness and wetting, it will be demonstrated how different wetting states for hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity can be realized on optical surfaces with minimized scatter losses.

  12. Water wizards : reshaping wet nature and society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleuten, van der E.B.A.; Disco, C.

    2004-01-01

    The article investigates how humans ‘networked’ wet nature and how this affected the shaping of Dutch society. First, it takes a grand view of Dutch history and describes how wet network building intertwined with the shaping of the Dutch landscape, its economy and its polity. Second, it investigates

  13. 7 CFR 29.2316 - Wet (W).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.2316 Section 29.2316 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2316 Wet (W...

  14. 7 CFR 29.2570 - Wet (W).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.2570 Section 29.2570 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2570 Wet (W). Any sound tobacco containing...

  15. 7 CFR 29.3567 - Wet (W).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.3567 Section 29.3567 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3567 Wet (W). Any sound tobacco containing excessive moisture to the extent that it is in...

  16. 7 CFR 29.1083 - Wet (W).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.1083 Section 29.1083 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1083 Wet (W). Any sound tobacco containing excessive moisture to the extent that it is in...

  17. 7 CFR 29.3077 - Wet (W).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.3077 Section 29.3077 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Wet (W). Any sound tobacco containing excessive moisture to the extent that it is in an unsafe or...

  18. A literature review of organisational, individual and teamwork factors contributing to the ICU discharge process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Frances; Chaboyer, Wendy; Wallis, Marianne

    2009-02-01

    It is everyday news that we need more intensive care unit (ICU) beds, thus effective use of existing resources is imperative. The aim of this literature review was to critically analyse current literature on how organizational factors, individual factors and teamwork factors influence the ICU discharge process. A better understanding of discharge practices has the potential to ultimately influence ICU resource availability. Databases including CINAHL, MEDLINE, PROQUEST, SCIENCE DIRECT were searched using key terms such as ICU discharge, discharge process, ICU guidelines and policies, discharge decision-making, ICU organisational factors, ICU and human factors, and ICU patient transfer. Articles' reference lists were also used to locate relevant literature. A total of 21 articles were included in the review. Only a small number of ICUs used written patient discharge guidelines. Consensus, rather than empirical evidence, dictates the importance of guidelines and policies. Premature discharge, discharge after hours and discharge by triage still exist due to resources constraints, even though the literature suggests these are associated with increased mortality. Teamwork and team training appear to be effective in improving efficiency and communication between professions or between clinical areas. However, this aspect has rarely been researched in relation to ICU patient discharge. Intensive care patient discharge is influenced by organisational factors, individual factors and teamwork factors. Organisational interventions are effective in reducing ICU discharge delay and shortening patient hospital stay. More rigorous research is needed to discover how these factors influence the ICU discharge process.

  19. Wetting of the diamond surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.O.

    1987-01-01

    The surface conditions which lead to a wide variation in the wettability of diamond surfaces have been investigated using macroscopic surfaces to allow for the crystal anisotropy. A wetting balance method of calculating adhesion tension and hence contact angle has been used for diamonds having major faces near the [111] and [110] lattice planes. Three classes of behaviour have been identified. Surface analyses by Rutherford Backscattering of helium ions, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) have been used to define the role of the oxygen coverage of the surface in the transition I → O → H. Ferric ion has a hydrophilizing effect on the diamond surface, thought to be the consequence of attachment to the hydroxyl groups at the surface by a ligand mechanism. Other transition metal ions did not show this effect. The phenomenon of hydration of the surface, i.e. progressively more hydrophilic behaviour on prolonged exposure to liquid water, has been quantified. Imbibition or water penetration at microcracks are thought unlikely, and a water cluster build-up at hydrophilic sites is thought to be the best explanation. Dynamic studies indicate little dependence of the advancing contact angle on velocity for velocities up to 10 -4 m/s, and slight dependence of the receding contact angle. Hence advancing angles by this technique are similar to equilibrated contact angles found by optical techniques, but the receding angles are lower than found by other non-dynamic measurements

  20. Long term wet spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The meeting showed that there is continuing confidence in the use of wet storage for spent nuclear fuel and that long-term wet storage of fuel clad in zirconium alloys can be readily achieved. The importance of maintaining good water chemistry has been identified. The long-term wet storage behaviour of sensitized stainless steel clad fuel involves, as yet, some uncertainties. However, great reliance will be placed on long-term wet storage of spent fuel into the future. The following topics were treated to some extent: Oxidation of the external surface of fuel clad, rod consolidation, radiation protection, optimum methods of treating spent fuel storage water, physical radiation effects, and the behaviour of spent fuel assemblies of long-term wet storage conditions. A number of papers on national experience are included

  1. Processed and ultra-processed food consumption among children aged 13 to 35 months and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalha, Mônica Araujo; França, Ana Karina Teixeira da Cunha; Conceição, Sueli Ismael Oliveira da; Santos, Alcione Miranda Dos; Silva, Francelena de Sousa; Padilha, Luana Lopes; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da

    2017-11-21

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the consumption of processed and ultra-processed foods among children aged 13-35 months and its associated factors. We studied 1,185 children within the BRISA cohort in São Luís, Maranhão State, Brazil. The food consumption was investigated using a 24-hour recall, and the percentages of daily caloric intake and nutrients were estimated by food groups according to "NOVA" classification. We chose to categorize children belonging to the upper tertile of the distribution as having a high consumption of processed and ultra-processed food products. The Poisson regression model with robust variance estimation using a hierarchical modeling approach was used to calculate the prevalence ratios (PRs) of variables associated with high consumption of processed and ultra-processed food products. The mean energy intake was 1,226Kcal/day. After adjustments, there was a higher proportion of high consumption of processed and ultra-processed food products among children whose mothers had food products and preventing adverse health outcomes in later life.

  2. Effects of Dry-Milling and Wet-Milling on Chemical, Physical and Gelatinization Properties of Rice Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitranut Leewatchararongjaroen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice flour from nine varieties, subjected to dry- and wet-milling processes, was determined for its physical and chemical properties. The results revealed that milling method had an effect on properties of flour. Wet-milling process resulted in flour with significantly lower protein and ash contents and higher carbohydrate content. Wet-milled flour also tended to have lower lipid content and higher amylose content. In addition, wet-milled rice flour contained granules with smaller average size compared to dry-milled samples. Swelling power at 90 °C of wet-milled samples was higher while solubility was significantly lower than those of dry-milled flour. Dry milling process caused the destruction of the crystalline structure and yielded flour with lower crystallinity compared to wet-milling process, which resulted in significantly lower gelatinization enthalpy.

  3. Characterization of emission factors related to source activity for trichloroethylene degreasing and chrome plating processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadden, R A; Hawkins, J L; Scheff, P A; Franke, J E

    1991-09-01

    A study at an automotive parts fabrication plant evaluated four metal surface treatment processes during production conditions. The evaluation provides examples of how to estimate process emission factors from activity and air concentration data. The processes were open tank and enclosed tank degreasing with trichloroethylene (TCE), chromium conversion coating, and chromium electroplating. Area concentrations of TCE and chromium (Cr) were monitored for 1-hr periods at three distances from each process. Source activities at each process were recorded during each sampling interval. Emission rates were determined by applying appropriate mass balance models to the concentration patterns around each source. The emission factors obtained from regression analysis of the emission rate and activity data were 16.9 g TCE/basket of parts for the open-top degreaser; 1.0 g TCE/1000 parts for the enclosed degreaser; 1.48-1.64 mg Cr/1000 parts processed in the hot CrO3/HNO3 tank for the chrome conversion coating; and 5.35-9.17 mg Cr/rack of parts for chrome electroplating. The factors were also used to determine the efficiency of collection for the local exhaust systems serving each process. Although the number of observations were limited, these factors may be useful for providing initial estimates of emissions from similar processes in other settings.

  4. Spatial Variability of Wet Troposphere Delays Over Inland Water Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehran, Ali; Clark, Elizabeth A.; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.

    2017-11-01

    Satellite radar altimetry has enabled the study of water levels in large lakes and reservoirs at a global scale. The upcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission (scheduled launch 2020) will simultaneously measure water surface extent and elevation at an unprecedented accuracy and resolution. However, SWOT retrieval accuracy will be affected by a number of factors, including wet tropospheric delay—the delay in the signal's passage through the atmosphere due to atmospheric water content. In past applications, the wet tropospheric delay over large inland water bodies has been corrected using atmospheric moisture profiles based on atmospheric reanalysis data at relatively coarse (tens to hundreds of kilometers) spatial resolution. These products cannot resolve subgrid variations in wet tropospheric delays at the spatial resolutions (of 1 km and finer) that SWOT is intended to resolve. We calculate zenith wet tropospheric delays (ZWDs) and their spatial variability from Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) numerical weather prediction model simulations at 2.33 km spatial resolution over the southwestern U.S., with attention in particular to Sam Rayburn, Ray Hubbard, and Elephant Butte Reservoirs which have width and length dimensions that are of order or larger than the WRF spatial resolution. We find that spatiotemporal variability of ZWD over the inland reservoirs depends on climatic conditions at the reservoir location, as well as distance from ocean, elevation, and surface area of the reservoir, but that the magnitude of subgrid variability (relative to analysis and reanalysis products) is generally less than 10 mm.

  5. Determinants of job stress in chemical process industry: A factor analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Balagopal G; Praveensal, C J; Madhu, G

    2015-01-01

    Job stress is one of the active research domains in industrial safety research. The job stress can result in accidents and health related issues in workers in chemical process industries. Hence it is important to measure the level of job stress in workers so as to mitigate the same to avoid the worker's safety related problems in the industries. The objective of this study is to determine the job stress factors in the chemical process industry in Kerala state, India. This study also aims to propose a comprehensive model and an instrument framework for measuring job stress levels in the chemical process industries in Kerala, India. The data is collected through a questionnaire survey conducted in chemical process industries in Kerala. The collected data out of 1197 surveys is subjected to principal component and confirmatory factor analysis to develop the job stress factor structure. The factor analysis revealed 8 factors that influence the job stress in process industries. It is also found that the job stress in employees is most influenced by role ambiguity and the least by work environment. The study has developed an instrument framework towards measuring job stress utilizing exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modeling.

  6. Diurnal rhythmicity in biological processes involved in bioavailability of functional food factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurusaki, Takashi; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki; Aoshima, Yoshiki; Yamazaki, Shunsuke; Sakono, Masanobu; Shimoi, Kayoko

    2013-05-01

    In the past few decades, many types of functional factors have been identified in dietary foods; for example, flavonoids are major groups widely distributed in the plant kingdom. However, the absorption rates of the functional food factors are usually low, and many of these are difficult to be absorbed in the intact forms because of metabolization by biological processes during absorption. To gain adequate beneficial effects, it is therefore mandatory to know whether functional food factors are absorbed in sufficient quantity, and then reach target organs while maintaining beneficial effects. These are the reasons why the bioavailability of functional food factors has been well investigated using rodent models. Recently, many of the biological processes have been reported to follow diurnal rhythms recurring every 24 h. Therefore, absorption and metabolism of functional food factors influenced by the biological processes may vary with time of day. Consequently, the evaluation of the bioavailability of functional food factors using rodent models should take into consideration the timing of consumption. In this review, we provide a perspective overview of the diurnal rhythm of biological processes involved in the bioavailability of functional food factors, particularly flavonoids.

  7. Assessment of children with suspected auditory processing disorder: a factor analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmmed, Ansar U; Ahmmed, Afsara A; Bath, Julie R; Ferguson, Melanie A; Plack, Christopher J; Moore, David R

    2014-01-01

    To identify the factors that may underlie the deficits in children with listening difficulties, despite normal pure-tone audiograms. These children may have auditory processing disorder (APD), but there is no universally agreed consensus as to what constitutes APD. The authors therefore refer to these children as children with suspected APD (susAPD) and aim to clarify the role of attention, cognition, memory, sensorimotor processing speed, speech, and nonspeech auditory processing in susAPD. It was expected that a factor analysis would show how nonauditory and supramodal factors relate to auditory behavioral measures in such children with susAPD. This would facilitate greater understanding of the nature of listening difficulties, thus further helping with characterizing APD and designing multimodal test batteries to diagnose APD. Factor analysis of outcomes from 110 children (68 male, 42 female; aged 6 to 11 years) with susAPD on a widely used clinical test battery (SCAN-C) and a research test battery (MRC Institute of Hearing Research Multi-center Auditory Processing "IMAP"), that have age-based normative data. The IMAP included backward masking, simultaneous masking, frequency discrimination, nonverbal intelligence, working memory, reading, alerting attention and motor reaction times to auditory and visual stimuli. SCAN-C included monaural low-redundancy speech (auditory closure and speech in noise) and dichotic listening tests (competing words and competing sentences) that assess divided auditory attention and hence executive attention. Three factors were extracted: "general auditory processing," "working memory and executive attention," and "processing speed and alerting attention." Frequency discrimination, backward masking, simultaneous masking, and monaural low-redundancy speech tests represented the "general auditory processing" factor. Dichotic listening and the IMAP cognitive tests (apart from nonverbal intelligence) were represented in the "working

  8. K-factors in the deep inelastic Compton and Drell-Yan processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czechowski, A.; Krawczyk, M.

    1983-01-01

    The associated production of hadrons is used to answer the question about the nature of large QCD corrections for hard processes. The results of the order α s calculation of K-factors for the deep inelastic Compton process and some predictions for the large p perpendicular to Drell-Yan pair production in hadron-hadron collision are presented. In the soft gluon approximation a significant difference between K-factors corresponding to different inclusive distributions in each of these processes is found. (author)

  9. Design for human factors (DfHF): a grounded theory for integrating human factors into production design processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Village, Judy; Searcy, Cory; Salustri, Filipo; Patrick Neumann, W

    2015-01-01

    The 'design for human factors' grounded theory explains 'how' human factors (HF) went from a reactive, after-injury programme in safety, to being proactively integrated into each step of the production design process. In this longitudinal case study collaboration with engineers and HF Specialists in a large electronics manufacturer, qualitative data (e.g. meetings, interviews, observations and reflections) were analysed using a grounded theory methodology. The central tenet in the theory is that when HF Specialists acclimated to the engineering process, language and tools, and strategically aligned HF to the design and business goals of the organisation, HF became a means to improve business performance. This led to engineers 'pulling' HF Specialists onto their team. HF targets were adopted into engineering tools to communicate HF concerns quantitatively, drive continuous improvement, visibly demonstrate change and lead to benchmarking. Senior management held engineers accountable for HF as a key performance indicator, thus integrating HF into the production design process. Practitioner Summary: Research and practice lack explanations about how HF can be integrated early in design of production systems. This three-year case study and the theory derived demonstrate how ergonomists changed their focus to align with design and business goals to integrate HF into the design process.

  10. Capillary Contact Angle in a Completely Wet Groove

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Parry, A.O.; Malijevský, Alexandr; Rascón, C.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 14 (2014), s. 146101 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-09914S Grant - others:EPSRC UK(GB) EP/J009636/1; SSF(ES) FIS2010-22047-C05 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : phase equilibria * wetting transitions * narrow pores Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 7.512, year: 2014

  11. What is Impulse Buying? An analytical network processing framework for prioritizing factors affecting impulse buying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Siahkali Moradi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues affecting profitability is to determine the impact of different factors influencing purchasing activities. In this paper, we perform an extensive literature survey to detect different purchasing factors influencing customers' behavior. The factors are categorized in three different groups and they are ranked using analytical network process. The results of our survey indicate that three factors of personal, product and situational play important roles in purchasing impulse. The personal item includes different factors where demographic characteristic factors receive the highest ranking (35% followed by other factors are feelings, excitement and fun, self identify, education and novelty. There are also three sub-factors associated with demographic characteristics including gender, age and race and the weights are 0.46748, 0.42668 and 0.10584, respectively, which means gender is the most important factor followed by age and race. Finally, the other factor is associated with situational factors' group, which includes presence of others, culture, design of store, time available, local market condition, sales staff and self service with the relative importance of 0.04296, 0.08733, 0.12130, 0.22217, 0.05643, 0.15346 and 0.31635, respectively.

  12. Order of wetting transitions in electrolyte solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibagon, Ingrid; Bier, Markus; Dietrich, S

    2014-05-07

    For wetting films in dilute electrolyte solutions close to charged walls we present analytic expressions for their effective interface potentials. The analysis of these expressions renders the conditions under which corresponding wetting transitions can be first- or second-order. Within mean field theory we consider two models, one with short- and one with long-ranged solvent-solvent and solvent-wall interactions. The analytic results reveal in a transparent way that wetting transitions in electrolyte solutions, which occur far away from their critical point (i.e., the bulk correlation length is less than half of the Debye length) are always first-order if the solvent-solvent and solvent-wall interactions are short-ranged. In contrast, wetting transitions close to the bulk critical point of the solvent (i.e., the bulk correlation length is larger than the Debye length) exhibit the same wetting behavior as the pure, i.e., salt-free, solvent. If the salt-free solvent is governed by long-ranged solvent-solvent as well as long-ranged solvent-wall interactions and exhibits critical wetting, adding salt can cause the occurrence of an ion-induced first-order thin-thick transition which precedes the subsequent continuous wetting as for the salt-free solvent.

  13. Visual control as a key factor in a production process of a company from automotive branch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Borkowski

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a theoretical basis for one type of control in enterprises – visual control. It presents the meaning of visual control in the Toyota Production System and BOST researches as a tool of measure, among other things, the importance of visual control in production companies. The level of importance of visual control usage as one of the production process elements in the analysed company was indicated. The usage of visual control is a main factor in a production process of the analyzed company, the factor which provides continuous help to employees to check whether the process differs from the standard. The characteristic progression of production process elements was indicated and the SW factor (the use of visual control took the third place, PE factor (interruption of production when it detects a problem of quality turned out to be the most important one, while the least important was the EU factor (granting power of attorney down. The main tools for this evaluation: an innovative BOST survey - Toyota's management principles in questions, in particular, the Pareto-Lorenz diagram, radar graph and series of importance as graphical interpretation tools, were used to present the importance of each factor in relation to individual assessments.

  14. Study the influence factors to the adsorption process for separation of polyphenols from green tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Lan Huong; Tran, Trung Kien; Van Quyet, Chu; Phi, Nguyen Thien

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this work is applying adsorption process for separation of polyphenols from extract solution of green tea by-product. The older leaves and stem of green tea tree are collected from Hiep Khanh Tea Company (Hoabinh province, Vietnam). In this study, two kinds of adsorbent (silicagel, active carbon) were applied for the adsorption process in batch stirring vessel. The factors that affected to the process productivity were investigated: temperature, solid/liquid ratio, duration time, stirring speed. The process has been empirically described with statistical models obtained by Design of Experiments. The results indicated that active carbon was verified to offer good adsorption productivity (more than 95%), much more effective than silicagel (with only about 20%). From the model, the most affected factor to the process could be seen as solid/liquid ratio.

  15. Analysis of the passive heat removal enhancement for AP1000 containment due to the partially wetted coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Cheng, E-mail: 510395453@qq.com [State Nuclear Power Technology Research & Development Center, 102209 Beijing (China); Li, Le [Tsinghua University, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, 100084 Beijing (China); Li, Junming [Tsinghua University, Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Yajun [Tsinghua University, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, 100084 Beijing (China); Li, Zhihui [State Nuclear Power Technology Research & Development Center, 102209 Beijing (China)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Heat removal by steam condensation, thermal conduction and evaporation is the most important scheme for AP1000 PCCS. Traditionally, studies on containment wall condensation and evaporation have been widely made, while it lacks studies on the shell two-dimension (2-D) thermal conduction. Currently, based on the known heat and mass transfer correlations and the phenomenon from water wetted coverage test, the physical model for 2-D thermal conduction is given and numerical simulation is then made. By discussions, it forms the following highlights. • The partially wetted surface can enhance the whole heat transfer process (including inner condensation, wall thermal conduction and outside cooling) and the maximum enhancement factor can be as large as 63%. There is an enhancement peak at around dry strip fraction a = 90%. When L is less than 0.03 m, its influence on heat transfer is small and the enhancement is mainly affected by dry coverage. However, for larger L, both α and L contribute much to larger enhancement. • Location at the spring line is often used for safety analysis and the dry strip fraction there for AP1000 is mainly at 10%–80%. Accordingly, further analysis is made on L (0.03 < L < 0.3) and a fitting expression is given for α = 10%–80%. It could be used to improve the corresponding software and it could also be used for containment scaling-down criteria analysis. - Abstract: AP1000 containment uses the water film evaporation, coupled with containment inner condensation, to remove the core decay heat. However, water film cannot fully cover heat transfer surface and dry-wetted strips appear. As a result, heat transfer within the containment shell is a two-dimension thermal conduction. Current work numerically studied the AP1000 heat removal enhancement due to the partially wetted coverage phenomenon. It used the evaporation and condensation boundary conditions and Fluent software to calculate the local heat fluxes and their

  16. Analysis of the passive heat removal enhancement for AP1000 containment due to the partially wetted coverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Cheng; Li, Le; Li, Junming; Zhang, Yajun; Li, Zhihui

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Heat removal by steam condensation, thermal conduction and evaporation is the most important scheme for AP1000 PCCS. Traditionally, studies on containment wall condensation and evaporation have been widely made, while it lacks studies on the shell two-dimension (2-D) thermal conduction. Currently, based on the known heat and mass transfer correlations and the phenomenon from water wetted coverage test, the physical model for 2-D thermal conduction is given and numerical simulation is then made. By discussions, it forms the following highlights. • The partially wetted surface can enhance the whole heat transfer process (including inner condensation, wall thermal conduction and outside cooling) and the maximum enhancement factor can be as large as 63%. There is an enhancement peak at around dry strip fraction a = 90%. When L is less than 0.03 m, its influence on heat transfer is small and the enhancement is mainly affected by dry coverage. However, for larger L, both α and L contribute much to larger enhancement. • Location at the spring line is often used for safety analysis and the dry strip fraction there for AP1000 is mainly at 10%–80%. Accordingly, further analysis is made on L (0.03 < L < 0.3) and a fitting expression is given for α = 10%–80%. It could be used to improve the corresponding software and it could also be used for containment scaling-down criteria analysis. - Abstract: AP1000 containment uses the water film evaporation, coupled with containment inner condensation, to remove the core decay heat. However, water film cannot fully cover heat transfer surface and dry-wetted strips appear. As a result, heat transfer within the containment shell is a two-dimension thermal conduction. Current work numerically studied the AP1000 heat removal enhancement due to the partially wetted coverage phenomenon. It used the evaporation and condensation boundary conditions and Fluent software to calculate the local heat fluxes and their

  17. Wet gas compression. Experimental investigation of the aerodynamics within a centrifugal compressor exposed to wet gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruener, Trond Gammelsaeter

    2012-07-01

    revealed when the GMF was reduced (i.e., the surge margin increased). The instability characteristic changed when liquid was present. Dynamic pressure sensors fluch-mounted in the diffuser were used to detect instability inception was revealed when the GMF was reduced (i.e., the surge margin increased). The instability characteristic changed when liquid was present. Dynamic pressure sensors fluch-mounted in the diffuser were used to detect instability inception and evolution by analyzing the measurements in frequency domain. The liquid influenced the dynamic pressure measurements. Analysis revealed an increased amplification of low-frequency amplitudes with decreasing GMF. Exact identification on instability inception was obscure at low GMF. Two different methods for instability detection were evaluated (.i.e., torque measurements and stagnation pressure measurements through a reversed-installed pitot probe at impeller inlet. Both methods were validated with the dynamic pressure measurements and identified instability onset at equal volume flow. Visual observation of wet gas surge process was performed to obtain knowledge of its characteristics. The surge was characterized as a gradual process initiated with an expanding annulus ring of reversed water flow at the impeller shroud inlet pipe while the gas volume flow was gradually reduced until the liquid showed a completely chaotic flow path and stringent liquid flow reversal. The expanding annulus ring was a precursor to surge that may be detected by instrumentation and utilized in a surge protection system. The main contributions of this work are presented in three international papers contained in the appendices. (Author)

  18. The Effect of Wetting on The Course of The Drum Granulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błaszczyk Michał

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of experimental drum granulation of silica flour with the use of wetting liquids with different values of surface tension. Additionally, different liquid jet breakup and different residual moisture of the bed were applied in the tests. The process was conducted periodically in two stages: wetting and proper granulation, during which no liquid was supplied to the bed. The condition of the granulated material after the period of wetting (particle size distribution and moisture of separate fractions and a change in the particle size distribution during the further conduct of the process (granulation kinetics were determined.

  19. Human Factors Throughout the Life Cycle: Lessons Learned from the Shuttle Program. [Human Factors in Ground Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanki, Barbara G.

    2011-01-01

    With the ending of the Space Shuttle Program, it is critical that we not forget the Human Factors lessons we have learned over the years. At every phase of the life cycle, from manufacturing, processing and integrating vehicle and payload, to launch, flight operations, mission control and landing, hundreds of teams have worked together to achieve mission success in one of the most complex, high-risk socio-technical enterprises ever designed. Just as there was great diversity in the types of operations performed at every stage, there was a myriad of human factors that could further complicate these human systems. A single mishap or close call could point to issues at the individual level (perceptual or workload limitations, training, fatigue, human error susceptibilities), the task level (design of tools, procedures and aspects of the workplace), as well as the organizational level (appropriate resources, safety policies, information access and communication channels). While we have often had to learn through human mistakes and technological failures, we have also begun to understand how to design human systems in which individuals can excel, where tasks and procedures are not only safe but efficient, and how organizations can foster a proactive approach to managing risk and supporting human enterprises. Panelists will talk about their experiences as they relate human factors to a particular phase of the shuttle life cycle. They will conclude with a framework for tying together human factors lessons-learned into system-level risk management strategies.

  20. Controlling the optical parameters of self-assembled silver films with wetting layers and annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Arkadiusz; Skowronski, Lukasz; Trzcinski, Marek; Szoplik, Tomasz

    2017-11-01

    We investigated the influence of presence of Ni and Ge wetting layers as well as annealing on the permittivity of Ag films with thicknesses of 20, 35 and 65 nm. Most of the research on thin silver films deals with very small (wetting and capping material, post-process annealing). Our study, based on atomic force microscopy, ellipsometric and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, shows that utilizing a wetting layer is comparable to increasing the thickness of the silver film. Both operations decrease the roughness-to-thickness ratio, thus decreasing the scattering losses and both narrow the Lorentz-shaped interband transition peak. However, while increasing silver thickness increases absorption on the free carriers, the use of wetting layers influences the self-assembled internal structure of silver films in such a way, that the free carrier absorption decreases. Wetting layers also introduce additional contributions from effects like segregation or diffusion, which evolve in time and due to annealing.

  1. Creating gradient wetting surfaces via electroless displacement of zinc-coated carbon steel by nickel ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chang; Liu, Huicong; Liang, Weitao; Zhu, Liqun; Li, Weiping; Chen, Haining

    2018-03-01

    Gradient wetting surfaces are getting increasing attention due to their wide application in multiple fields such as droplet movement and biosorption. However, the fabrication processes of full gradient wetting surfaces are still complex and costly. In present work, a facile and low-cost chemical immersion method was used to create a full gradient wetting surface. By controlling the displacement time in Ni2+ solution, the prepared surfaces perform hydrophilic to superhydrophilic. After being modified by stearic acid, the gradient hydrophilic surfaces convert into hydrophobic. The surface morphology, composition, and wetting behaviors of the as-prepared surfaces were systematically studied and discussed. The gradient wetting property could be attributed to the change in microroughness and surface energy. In addition, these surfaces also exhibited excellent self-cleaning and wax prevention properties. Furthermore, high stability and corrosion resistance were also found for these surfaces, which further highlight their promising practical applications in many fields.

  2. Development of an electromechanical principle for wet and dry milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbedel, Bernd; Kazak, Oleg

    2018-05-01

    The paper presents a novel electromechanical principle for wet and dry milling of different materials, in which the milling beads are moved under a time- and local-variable magnetic field. A possibility to optimize the milling process in such a milling machine by simulation of the vector gradient distribution of the electromagnetic field in the process room is presented. The mathematical model and simulation methods based on standard software packages are worked out. The results of numerical simulations and experimental measurements of the electromagnetic field in the working chamber of a developed and manufactured laboratory plant correlate well with each other. Using the obtained operating parameters, dry milling experiments with crushed cement clinker and wet milling experiments of organic agents in the laboratory plant are performed and the results are discussed here.

  3. Analytical modeling of wet compression of gas turbine systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Ko, Hyung-Jong; Perez-Blanco, Horacio

    2011-01-01

    Evaporative gas turbine cycles (EvGT) are of importance to the power generation industry because of the potential of enhanced cycle efficiencies with moderate incremental cost. Humidification of the working fluid to result in evaporative cooling during compression is a key operation in these cycles. Previous simulations of this operation were carried out via numerical integration. The present work is aimed at modeling the wet-compression process with approximate analytical solutions instead. A thermodynamic analysis of the simultaneous heat and mass transfer processes that occur during evaporation is presented. The transient behavior of important variables in wet compression such as droplet diameter, droplet mass, gas and droplet temperature, and evaporation rate is investigated. The effects of system parameters on variables such as droplet evaporation time, compressor outlet temperature and input work are also considered. Results from this work exhibit good agreement with those of previous numerical work.

  4. Comparison of Wet and Dry Grinding in Electromagnetic Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Ogonowski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of dry and wet grinding process in an electromagnetic mill is presented in this paper. The research was conducted in a batch copper ore grinding. Batch mode allows for precise parametrization and constant repetitive conditions of the experiments. The following key aspects were tested: processing time, feed size, size of the grinding media, mass of the material and graining media, and density of the pulp. The particles size distribution of the product samples was analyzed in the laboratory after each experiment. The paper discusses the experimental results as well as the concept of dry and wet grinding and classification circuits for the electromagnetic mill. The main points of the discussion are the size reduction effectiveness and power consumption of the entire system.

  5. Immobilization of wet solid wastes at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, R.M. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Wet solid wastes are classified into four basic types: spent resins, filter sludges, evaporator concentrates, and miscellaneous liquids. Although the immobilization of wet solid wastes is primarily concerned with the incorporation of the waste with a solidification agent, there are a number of other discrete operations or subsystems involved in the treatment of these wastes that may affect the immobilized waste product. The immobilization process may be broken down into five basic operations: waste collection, waste pretreatment, solidification agent handling, mixing/packaging, and waste package handling. The properties of the waste forms that are ultimately shipped from the reactor site are primarily influenced by the methods utilized during the waste collection, waste pretreatment and mixing/packaging operations. The mixing/packaging (solidification) operation is perhaps the most important stage of the immobilization process. The basic solidification agent types are: absorbants, hydraulic cement, urea-formaldehyde, bitumen, and other polymer systems

  6. A bioactive molecule in a complex wound healing process: platelet-derived growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltalioglu, Kaan; Coskun-Cevher, Sule

    2015-08-01

    Wound healing is considered to be particularly important after surgical procedures, and the most important wounds related to surgical procedures are incisional, excisional, and punch wounds. Research is ongoing to identify methods to heal non-closed wounds or to accelerate wound healing; however, wound healing is a complex process that includes many biological and physiological events, and it is affected by various local and systemic factors, including diabetes mellitus, infection, ischemia, and aging. Different cell types (such as platelets, macrophages, and neutrophils) release growth factors during the healing process, and platelet-derived growth factor is a particularly important mediator in most stages of wound healing. This review explores the relationship between platelet-derived growth factor and wound healing. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  7. Factors that aff ect the learning process of a foreign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Vula

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Learning as a complicated process and very significant one is followed by different influencers that cause different problems due to students’ performance in learning a foreign language. In order to work and try to eliminate such factors we have to detect which are the factors that we as teachers, professors, assistants, have to carry on during the process of teaching. This theoretical research paper will provide scientific data due to different factors that affect learning process of foreign language that were conducted in different places among the world. The researches that are selected are coherently linked with the aim of this scientific c paper and have ensured results from cases studies, quantitative research, and empirical research.

  8. Effect of pretreatments and processing conditions on anti-nutritional factors in climbing bean flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Mugabo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult for many Rwandans to utilize climbing bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris. L mainly because of longer cooking time (2 hours and the high consumption of basic fuel. Climbing beans also contain anti-nutritional factors such tannins, phytates, trypsin inhibitors and phytohemagglutinins that limit nutrient absorption. One way to solve this problem is to utilize the flour of climbing beans made from different treatments and processing methods. In this study, climbing beans were pre-treated by soaking them in water for 24 hours, soaking in 2% sodium bicarbonate solution and steam blanching for 10 minutes. After that, pre-treated climbing beans were processed into flours by processing methods such as roasting, cooking and germination where anti-nutritional factors were reduced. The pretreatments did not significantly (p>0.05 affect phytates in climbing bean flours but processing conditions significantly (p<0.05 reduced it. Pretreatments and processing conditions significantly (p<0.05 reduced tannin content. The pretreatments followed by different processing conditions significantly (p<0.05 decreased trypsin inhibitors content. The great significant decrease in phytohemagglutinins content was observed in pretreatment followed by different processing methods. All pretreatments and processing conditions effectively decreased anti-nutritional factors at low level. However, pretreatments or untreated followed by germination and roasting were found to be the most and the least effective respectively.  Making flour from germinated climbing bean seeds is a good option for sustainable food processing as it reduces anti-nutritional factors. It is an inexpensive method in terms of time, energy and fuel for Rwandan households, restaurants and industries where climbing bean seeds are integral part of daily meal.

  9. Polyimide hollow fiber membranes for CO2 separation from wet gas mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Falbo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Matrimid®5218 hollow fiber membranes were prepared using the dry-wet spinning process. The transport properties were measured with pure gases (H2, CO2, N2, CH4 and O2 and with a mixture (30% CO2 and 70% N2 in dry and wet conditions at 25 ºC, 50 ºC, 60 ºC and 75 ºC and up to 600 kPa. Interesting values of single gas selectivity up to 60 ºC (between 31 and 28 for CO2/N2 and between 33 and 30 for CO2/CH4 in dry condition were obtained. The separation factor measured for the mixture was 20% lower compared to the single gas selectivity, in the whole temperature range analyzed. In saturation conditions the data showed that water influences the performance of the membranes, inducing a reduction of the permeance of all gases. Moreover, the presence of water caused a decrease of single gas selectivity and separation factor, although not so significant, highlighting the very high water resistance of hollow fiber membrane modules.

  10. A novel advanced oxidation process——wet electrocatalytic oxidation for high concentrated organic wastewater treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI QiZhou; ZHOU MingHua; LEI LeCheng; ZHANG Xing Wang

    2007-01-01

    A novel advanced oxidation process-wet electrocatalytic oxidation(WEO)was studied with p-nitrophenol as model pollutant and β-PbO2 electrode as the anode.Compared with the effect of the individual wet air oxidation(WAO)and electrochemical oxidation(EO),the effect of WEO showed synergistic effect on COD removal under the conditions of temperature 160℃,C=1000mg·L-1,PN2=0.50MPa,Po2=0.9 MPa,current density=3 mA·cm-2,Na2SO4 3 g·L-1.And the synergistic factor got the best value of 0.98 within 120 min after 180 min treatment.The synergistic factor was studied after 120 min treatment at 100℃,120℃,140℃and 160℃,and the effect of 120℃was the best with the value of 1.26.Possible mechanism for the synergistic effect was discussed based on the analysis of free-radical generation and intermediates detected by HPLC and GC/MS.

  11. Critical Internal Factors Influencing The Centralization Of Stock Procurement Processes In A South African Municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Zwelihle Wiseman Nzuza; Lawrence Mpele Lekhanya

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was threefold: 1) to examine the internal factors influencing centralization of stock procurement processes, 2) to assess the relationship between demographic factors and staff understanding of Information Communication Technology (ICT) with performance improvement, and 3) to examine the relationship between prevention of corruption with management commitment. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 82 members of staff from procurement division in a ...

  12. Simple fabrication of closed-packed IR microlens arrays on silicon by femtosecond laser wet etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangwei; Chen, Feng; Yang, Qing; Bian, Hao; Du, Guangqing; Hou, Xun

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate a simple route to fabricate closed-packed infrared (IR) silicon microlens arrays (MLAs) based on femtosecond laser irradiation assisted by wet etching method. The fabricated MLAs show high fill factor, smooth surface and good uniformity. They can be used as optical devices for IR applications. The exposure and etching parameters are optimized to obtain reproducible microlens with hexagonal and rectangular arrangements. The surface roughness of the concave MLAs is only 56 nm. This presented method is a maskless process and can flexibly change the size, shape and the fill factor of the MLAs by controlling the experimental parameters. The concave MLAs on silicon can work in IR region and can be used for IR sensors and imaging applications.

  13. Factors affecting long-term-care residents' decision-making processes as they formulate advance directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Heather C; McColl, Mary Ann; Gilbert, Julie; Wong, Jiahui; Murray, Gale; Shortt, Samuel E D

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe factors contributing to the decision-making processes of elderly persons as they formulate advance directives in long-term care. This study was qualitative, based on grounded theory. Recruitment was purposive and continued until saturation was reached. Nine residents of a long-term-care facility were interviewed by use of a semistructured format. Open and axial coding of interview transcripts were carried out and the factors contributing to the decision process were defined. Elders based their decisions primarily on information gathered from personal experiences with death and illness. They obtained very little information from professionals or the media. Major factors considered by elders as they weighed information included spiritual, emotional, and social considerations. The factors considered during the decision-making process were oriented more toward the individual's experiences and less on contributions from objective sources than anticipated. Decision making for advance directives is a highly personalized process. The approach of health professionals when assisting with end-of-life decision making should be planned with these contributing factors in mind, so that the services offered to the individuals in this population best meet their needs.

  14. QCD factorization beyond leading twist in exclusive processes: rhoT-meson production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallon, S.; Anikin, I.; ); Ivanov, D.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.

    2009-01-01

    Exclusive processes in hard electroproduction with asymptotic γ * p center of mass energy is one of the best place for understanding QCD in the perturbative Regge limit. The HERA experiment recently provided precise data for rho electroproduction, including all spin density matrix elements. From QCD, it is expected that such a process should factorize between a hard (calculable) coefficient function, and hadronic (P and ρ) matrix elements. Such a factorization is up to now only proven for a longitudinally polarized rho. Within the kt-factorization approach (valid at large s γ * p), we evaluate the impact factor of the transition γ * → ρT taking into account the twist 3 contributions. We show that a gauge invariant expression is obtained with the help of QCD equations of motion. More generally, relying on these equations and on the gauge invariance of the factorized amplitude, the non-perturbative Distribution Amplitudes can be reduced to a minimal set. This opens the way to a consistent treatment of factorization for exclusive processes with a transversally polarized vector meson. (author)

  15. Doubly Nonparametric Sparse Nonnegative Matrix Factorization Based on Dependent Indian Buffet Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Junyu; Lu, Jie; Zhang, Guangquan; Xu, Richard Yi Da; Luo, Xiangfeng

    2018-05-01

    Sparse nonnegative matrix factorization (SNMF) aims to factorize a data matrix into two optimized nonnegative sparse factor matrices, which could benefit many tasks, such as document-word co-clustering. However, the traditional SNMF typically assumes the number of latent factors (i.e., dimensionality of the factor matrices) to be fixed. This assumption makes it inflexible in practice. In this paper, we propose a doubly sparse nonparametric NMF framework to mitigate this issue by using dependent Indian buffet processes (dIBP). We apply a correlation function for the generation of two stick weights associated with each column pair of factor matrices while still maintaining their respective marginal distribution specified by IBP. As a consequence, the generation of two factor matrices will be columnwise correlated. Under this framework, two classes of correlation function are proposed: 1) using bivariate Beta distribution and 2) using Copula function. Compared with the single IBP-based NMF, this paper jointly makes two factor matrices nonparametric and sparse, which could be applied to broader scenarios, such as co-clustering. This paper is seen to be much more flexible than Gaussian process-based and hierarchial Beta process-based dIBPs in terms of allowing the two corresponding binary matrix columns to have greater variations in their nonzero entries. Our experiments on synthetic data show the merits of this paper compared with the state-of-the-art models in respect of factorization efficiency, sparsity, and flexibility. Experiments on real-world data sets demonstrate the efficiency of this paper in document-word co-clustering tasks.

  16. Meteorological effects on Hg wet deposition in a forested site in the Adirondack region of New York during 2000-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Huiting; Ye, Zhuyun; Driscoll, Charles

    2017-11-01

    An analysis of weekly measurement data of mercury (Hg) wet deposition was conducted for Huntington Wildlife Forest (HWF), a forest ecosystem in Upstate New York and a biological Hg hotspot, during 2000-2015. Annual accumulated Hg wet deposition flux was found to decrease at a rate of -0.13 μg m-2 yr-1 (2% yr-1) (p = 0.09), and volume weighted mean (VWM) Hg precipitation concentrations at -0.14 ng L-1 yr-1 (2.5% yr-1) (p = 0.00). In examining data by season, no trends were identified for the two variables. It was found that the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) affected Hg wet deposition predominantly in spring, as did the position of the U.S. East Coast trough in summer, which suggests different dominant mechanisms driving Hg wet deposition in different seasons. The impacts of such large scale circulation processes were facilitated via variations in precipitation amounts. This was manifested in spring 2011 with the strongest positive phase of NAO, resulting in the wettest spring with the largest Hg wet deposition flux, and in summer 2007 with the U.S. East Coast trough positioned the farthest out over the Atlantic Ocean, causing the driest summer with the lowest Hg wet deposition flux of the study period. Extreme precipitation amounts in spring could singularly drive the overall long-term trend in Hg wet deposition whereas in summer other factors could just be as important. Similar mechanisms were thought to control the long term variations of Hg wet deposition and precipitation concentrations in all seasons but summer as indicated in their significant correlation in all but summer. Atmospheric concentrations of gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) and particulate borne mercury (PBM) at HWF over 2009-2015 hardly exhibited correlations with Hg wet deposition or precipitation concentrations. Chemical transport model simulations strongly supported efficient scavenging of oxidized Hg by precipitation resulting in the lowest concentration of GOM in the warm season despite the

  17. Wet granular matter a truly complex fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Herminghaus, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    This is a monograph written for the young and advanced researcher who is entering the field of wet granular matter and keen to understand the basic physical principles governing this state of soft matter. It treats wet granulates as an instance of a ternary system, consisting of the grains, a primary, and a secondary fluid. After addressing wetting phenomena in general and outlining the basic facts on dry granular systems, a chapter on basic mechanisms and their effects is dedicated to every region of the ternary phase diagram. Effects of grain shape and roughness are considered as well. Rather than addressing engineering aspects such as existing books on this topic do, the book aims to provide a generalized framework suitable for those who want to understand these systems on a more fundamental basis. Readership: For the young and advanced researcher entering the field of wet granular matter.

  18. 7 CFR 51.897 - Wet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the grapes are wet from moisture from crushed, leaking, or decayed berries or from rain. Grapes which are moist from dew or other moisture condensation such as that resulting from removing grapes from a...

  19. Medications to Treat Bed-Wetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... suggest that depression plays a role in the cause of bed-wetting. This type of drug is thought to work one of several ways: by changing the child's sleep and wakening pattern by affecting the time ...

  20. A WET TALE: TOXICITY OF COMPLEX EFFLUENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This course covers standards, regulations, policy, guidance and technical aspects of implementing the whole effluent toxicity program. The curriculum incorporates rationale and information on WET test requirements from USEPA documents, such as the Technical Support Document for W...

  1. ROE Wet Sulfate Deposition 2009-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The raster data represent the amount of wet sulfate deposition in kilograms per hectare from 2009 to 2011. Summary data in this indicator were provided by EPA’s...

  2. Identifying the location of fire refuges in wet forest ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Laurence E; Driscoll, Don A; Stein, John A; Blanchard, Wade; Banks, Sam C; Bradstock, Ross A; Lindenmayer, David B

    2015-12-01

    The increasing frequency of large, high-severity fires threatens the survival of old-growth specialist fauna in fire-prone forests. Within topographically diverse montane forests, areas that experience less severe or fewer fires compared with those prevailing in the landscape may present unique resource opportunities enabling old-growth specialist fauna to survive. Statistical landscape models that identify the extent and distribution of potential fire refuges may assist land managers to incorporate these areas into relevant biodiversity conservation strategies. We used a case study in an Australian wet montane forest to establish how predictive fire simulation models can be interpreted as management tools to identify potential fire refuges. We examined the relationship between the probability of fire refuge occurrence as predicted by an existing fire refuge model and fire severity experienced during a large wildfire. We also examined the extent to which local fire severity was influenced by fire severity in the surrounding landscape. We used a combination of statistical approaches, including generalized linear modeling, variogram analysis, and receiver operating characteristics and area under the curve analysis (ROC AUC). We found that the amount of unburned habitat and the factors influencing the retention and location of fire refuges varied with fire conditions. Under extreme fire conditions, the distribution of fire refuges was limited to only extremely sheltered, fire-resistant regions of the landscape. During extreme fire conditions, fire severity patterns were largely determined by stochastic factors that could not be predicted by the model. When fire conditions were moderate, physical landscape properties appeared to mediate fire severity distribution. Our study demonstrates that land managers can employ predictive landscape fire models to identify the broader climatic and spatial domain within which fire refuges are likely to be present. It is essential

  3. The wetting of cladding materials and other metals and alloys by sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodkin, E.N.; Nicholas, M.G.

    1976-05-01

    The sessile drop technique has been used to investigate the wetting behaviour between sodium and various metals and alloys including FV548, 316L, M316 and PE16. Unoxidised smooth surfaces of these alloys were not wetted by sodium containing 20 ppm of oxygen at temperatures below 300 0 C but were well wetted with advancing contact angles of 20 0 or less at temperatures of 550 0 to 600 0 C. Cold working and surface roughness had little effect on wetting behaviour but other factors exercised significant influences. Chemically or electrolytically polished M316 and PE16 surfaces were less readily wetted than those which had been prepared by mechanical polishing. In general, preoxidation of the alloy surfaces and increased oxygen contamination of the sodium had detrimental effects on wetting behaviour. On the other hand, increasing the chromium content of the alloys, decreasing the oxygen content of the sodium or ion bombarding the alloy sample surfaces had beneficial effects. Auger spectroscopy studies revealed a correlation between the chromium/oxygen ratio of PE16 surfaces and their wettability. The implications of this and other factors on fast reactor coolant/clad wetting behaviour is discussed. (author)

  4. Rapid biodiesel production using wet microalgae via microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahidin, Suzana; Idris, Ani; Shaleh, Sitti Raehanah Muhamad

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Lipid was directly extracted from wet microalgae using microwave irradiation. • The microwave irradiation and water bath-assisted solvent extraction are applied. • Cell walls are significantly disrupted under microwave irradiation. • Highly disrupted cell walls led to higher biodiesel yield in microwave irradiation. • Microwave irradiation is a promising direct technique with high biodiesel yields. - Abstract: The major challenges for industrial commercialized biodiesel production from microalgae are the high cost of downstream processing such as dewatering and drying, utilization of large volumes of solvent and laborious extraction processes. In order to address these issues the microwave irradiation method was used to produce biodiesel directly from wet microalgae biomass. This alternative method of biodiesel production from wet microalgae biomass is compared with the conventional water bath-assisted solvent extraction. The microwave irradiation extracted more lipids and high biodiesel conversion was obtained compared to the water bath-assisted extraction method due to the high cell disruption achieved and rapid transesterification. The total content of lipid extracted from microwave irradiation and water bath-assisted extraction were 38.31% and 23.01% respectively. The biodiesel produced using microwave irradiation was higher (86.41%) compared to the conventional method. Thus microwave irradiation is an attractive and promising technology to be used in the extraction and transesterification process for efficient biodiesel production

  5. Level Set Approach to Anisotropic Wet Etching of Silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Radjenović

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a methodology for the three dimensional (3D modeling and simulation of the profile evolution during anisotropic wet etching of silicon based on the level set method is presented. Etching rate anisotropy in silicon is modeled taking into account full silicon symmetry properties, by means of the interpolation technique using experimentally obtained values for the etching rates along thirteen principal and high index directions in KOH solutions. The resulting level set equations are solved using an open source implementation of the sparse field method (ITK library, developed in medical image processing community, extended for the case of non-convex Hamiltonians. Simulation results for some interesting initial 3D shapes, as well as some more practical examples illustrating anisotropic etching simulation in the presence of masks (simple square aperture mask, convex corner undercutting and convex corner compensation, formation of suspended structures are shown also. The obtained results show that level set method can be used as an effective tool for wet etching process modeling, and that is a viable alternative to the Cellular Automata method which now prevails in the simulations of the wet etching process.

  6. Curvature controlled wetting in two dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, Tamir; Mikheev, Lev V.

    1995-01-01

    . As the radius of the substrate r0→∞, the leading effect of the curvature is adding the Laplace pressure ΠL∝r0-1 to the pressure balance in the film. At temperatures and pressures under which the wetting is complete in planar geometry, Laplace pressure suppresses divergence of the mean thickness of the wetting...... term reduces the thickness by the amount proportional to r0-1/3...

  7. Novel applications of biomass wet pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sillanpaa, M. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)], email: mika.sillanpaa@lut.fi

    2012-07-01

    Production of carbonaceous material from unconventional wet biomass sources by thermal processing offers interesting novel opportunities and application possibilities in different fields. Thermal treatment at low temperatures refers to torrefication in general. Disadvantage in this technique is that biomass has to be dried first which consumes a lot energy and time and limits use of biomass materials widely. In wetpyrolysis (hydrothermal carbonization, HTC), biomass source can be wetter, like wood, household wastes, manure or industrial wastewater sludge. Reaction takes place in water environment at higher temperature (180-250 deg C) and pressure which is self-generated. Typically reaction system is high pressure reactor also called autoclave. Comparing to torrefaction HTC produces more solid yield, water soluble organic compounds but formation is low during reaction. Properties of the product can be easily modified by changing reaction conditions, utilization of additives or catalysts. Novel materials obtained by this technique will be used in different applications in water treatment and it will be also interesting to compare purification efficiency of these materials to activated carbon.

  8. Leaf wetness distribution within a potato crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusinkveld, B. G.

    2010-07-01

    The Netherlands has a mild maritime climate and therefore the major interest in leaf wetness is associated with foliar plant diseases. During moist micrometeorological conditions (i.e. dew, fog, rain), foliar fungal diseases may develop quickly and thereby destroy a crop quickly. Potato crop monocultures covering several hectares are especially vulnerable to such diseases. Therefore understanding and predicting leaf wetness in potato crops is crucial in crop disease control strategies. A field experiment was carried out in a large homogeneous potato crop in the Netherlands during the growing season of 2008. Two innovative sensor networks were installed as a 3 by 3 grid at 3 heights covering an area of about 2 hectares within two larger potato crops. One crop was located on a sandy soil and one crop on a sandy peat soil. In most cases leaf wetting starts in the top layer and then progresses downward. Leaf drying takes place in the same order after sunrise. A canopy dew simulation model was applied to simulate spatial leaf wetness distribution. The dew model is based on an energy balance model. The model can be run using information on the above-canopy wind speed, air temperature, humidity, net radiation and within canopy air temperature, humidity and soil moisture content and temperature conditions. Rainfall was accounted for by applying an interception model. The results of the dew model agreed well with the leaf wetness sensors if all local conditions were considered. The measurements show that the spatial correlation of leaf wetness decreases downward.

  9. Allergenic Ingredients in Personal Hygiene Wet Wipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbeck, Kelly A; Warshaw, Erin M

    Wet wipes are a significant allergen source for anogenital allergic contact dermatitis. The aim of the study was to calculate the frequency of potentially allergenic ingredients in personal hygiene wet wipes. Ingredient lists from brand name and generic personal hygiene wet wipes from 4 large retailers were compiled. In the 54 personal hygiene wet wipes evaluated, a total of 132 ingredients were identified (average of 11.9 ingredients per wipe). The most common ingredients were Aloe barbadensis (77.8%), citric acid (77.8%), fragrance (72.2%), sorbic acid derivatives (63.0%), tocopherol derivatives (63.0%), glycerin (59.3%), phenoxyethanol (55.6%), disodium cocoamphodiacetate (53.7%), disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (42.6%), propylene glycol (42.6%), iodopropynyl butylcarbamate (40.7%), chamomile extracts (38.9%), sodium benzoate (35.2%), bronopol (22.2%), sodium citrate (22.2%), lanolin derivatives (20.4%), parabens (20.4%), polyethylene glycol derivatives (18.5%), disodium phosphate (16.7%), dimethylol dimethyl hydantoin (DMDM) (14.8%), and cocamidopropyl propylene glycol (PG)-dimonium chloride phosphate (11.1%). Of note, methylisothiazolinone (5.6%) was uncommon; methylchloroisothiazolinone was not identified in the personal hygiene wet wipes examined. There are many potential allergens in personal hygiene wet wipes, especially fragrance and preservatives.

  10. Modelling and predicting electricity consumption in Spain using the stochastic Gamma diffusion process with exogenous factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nafidi, A.; Gutiérrez, R.; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, R.; Ramos-Ábalos, E.; El Hachimi, S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to model electric power consumption during a period of economic crisis, characterised by declining gross domestic product. A novel aspect of this study is its use of a Gamma-type diffusion process for short and medium-term forecasting – other techniques that have been used to describe such consumption patterns are not valid in this situation. In this study, we consider a new extension of the stochastic Gamma diffusion process by introducing time functions (exogenous factors) that affect its trend. This extension is defined in terms of Kolmogorov backward and forward equations. After obtaining the transition probability density function and the moments (specifically, the trend function), the inference on the process parameters is obtained by discrete sampling of the sample paths. Finally, this stochastic process is applied to model total net electricity consumption in Spain, when affected by the following set of exogenous factors: Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFCF) and Final Domestic Consumption (FDC). - Highlights: • The aim is modelling and predicting electricity consumption in Spain. • We propose a Gamma-type diffusion process for short and medium-term forecasting. • We compared the fit using diffusion processes with different exogenous factors.

  11. Gamma-irradiation of wet corn. Microbiological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poisson, Jeanne; Cahagnier, B.

    1973-01-01

    In the course of a survey of several years work on microbiological decontamination and control of wet corn by gamma-irradiation the following factors are studied: inhibiting and selective effect of gamma-irradiation (100 to 500krads) on the microflora of grains; evolution of residual microflora of irradiated wet grains (moisture content about 35%), during storage experiments under ventilated or airtight conditions. Two important points emerge from those studies. The microflora which develops on irradiated sample is much less varied than that of the control sample. The microbial population of an irradiated sample rises up in a few days on a level with the initial one of the control, then goes on increasing while remaining, as a rule, slightly inferior to that of the control placed under the same conditions. This greatly lowers the practical interest of irradiation, which can only be used together with another treatment able to inhibit the quick growth of the residual microflora [fr

  12. Prioritizing of effective factors on development of medicinal plants cultivation using analytic network process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbanali Rassam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available For the overall development of medicinal plants cultivation in Iran, there is a need to identify various effective factors on medicinal plant cultivation. A proper method for identifying the most effective factor on the development of the medicinal plants cultivation is essential. This research conducted in order to prioritizing of the effective criteria for the development of medicinal plant cultivation in North Khorasan province in Iran using Analytical Network Process (ANP method. The multi-criteria decision making (MCDM is suggested to be a viable method for factor selection and the analytic network process (ANP has been used as a tool for MCDM. For this purpose a list of effective factors offered to expert group. Then pair wise comparison questionnaires were distributed between relevant researchers and local producer experts of province to get their opinions about the priority of criteria and sub- criteria. The questionnaires were analyzed using Super Decision software. We illustrated the use of the ANP by ranking main effective factors such as economic, educational-extension services, cultural-social and supportive policies on development of medicinal plants. The main objective of the present study was to develop ANP as a decision making tool for prioritizing factors affecting the development of medicinal plants cultivation. Results showed that the ANP methodology was perfectly suited to tackling the complex interrelations involved in selection factor in this case. Also the results of the process revealed that among the factors, supporting the cultivation of medicinal plants, build the infrastructure for marketing support, having educated farmer and easy access to production input have most impact on the development of medicinal plant cultivation.

  13. Wetting Behavior of Calcium Ferrite Slags on Cristobalite Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingrui; Lv, Xuewei; Wei, Ruirui; Xu, Jian; Bai, Chenguang

    2018-03-01

    Calcium ferrite (CF) is a significant intermediate adhesive phase in high-basicity sinters. The wettability between calcium ferrite (CF) and gangue plays an important role in the assimilation process. The wettability of CF-based slags, in which a constant amount (2 mass pct.) of Al2O3, MgO, SiO2, and TiO2 was added, on solid SiO2 (cristobalite) substrates at 1523 K (1250 °C) was investigated. The interfacial microstructure and spreading mechanisms were discussed for each sample. All the tested slag samples exhibited good wettability on the SiO2 substrate. The initial apparent contact angles were in the range of 20 to 50 deg, while the final apparent contact angles were 5 deg. The wetting process could be divided into three stages on the basis of the change in diameter, namely the "linear spreading" stage, "spreading rate reduction" stage, and "wetting equilibrium" stage. It was found that the CF-SiO2 wetting system exhibits dissolutive wetting and the dissolution of SiO2 into slag influences its spreading process. The spreading rate increases with a decrease in the ratio of viscosity to interfacial tension, which is a result of the addition of Al2O3, MgO, SiO2, and TiO2. After cooling, a deep corrosion pit was formed in the substrate and a diffusion layer was generated in front of the residual slag zone; further, some SiO2 and Fe2O3 solid solutions precipitated in the slag.

  14. [Psychosocial Factors and Burnout Syndrome Found in Workers in the Dough Processing Industry, Tepic, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, Carolina Aranda; Gónzalez, José Luis López; Barraza Salas, José Horacio

    2013-06-01

    The workers in the dough processing industry are a population exposed to psychosocial risk factors due to the conditions in the workplace; therefore, they are likely to suffer from one of the consequences of chronic stress to which a worker is exposed daily: burnout syndrome. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between psychosocial factors and the burnout syndrome in workers in the dough processing industry in the city of Tepic, Mexico. A cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted in five companies from the dough processing industry. The total population consisted of 122 workers who were administered the scale of Psychosocial Factors Identification of the Mexican Social Security Institute and the Maslach Burnout Inventory scale, in order to gather information. The presence of adverse psychosocial factors was reported in 18.3%, and 79.8% with the syndrome. There were several variables that behaved as risk factors, specifically, the system of working with the emotional exhaustion. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. 9 CFR 381.303 - Critical factors and the application of the process schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Critical factors and the application of the process schedule. 381.303 Section 381.303 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...

  16. 9 CFR 318.303 - Critical factors and the application of the process schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the process schedule. 318.303 Section 318.303 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY...; REINSPECTION AND PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS Canning and Canned Products § 318.303 Critical factors and the...

  17. Integrating Process and Factor Understanding of Environmental Innovation by Water Utilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiller, Marc; McIntosh, Brian S.; Seaton, Roger A.F.; Jeffrey, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Innovations in technology and organisations are central to enabling the water sector to adapt to major environmental changes such as climate change, land degradation or drinking water pollution. While there are literatures on innovation as a process and on the factors that influence it, there is

  18. Approaching the Affective Factors of Information Seeking: The Viewpoint of the Information Search Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen, Reijo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The article contributes to the conceptual studies of affective factors in information seeking by examining Kuhlthau's information search process model. Method: This random-digit dial telephone survey of 253 people (75% female) living in a rural, medically under-serviced area of Ontario, Canada, follows-up a previous interview study…

  19. Corporate Choice of Banks: Decision Factors, Decision Maker, and Decision Process – First Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ongena, S.; Tumer Alkan, G.; Vermeer, B.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate how firms choose their banks. We focus on the role played by the decision factors, the decision maker and the decision process in determining firm-bank relationships. We have access to a unique survey that was run by a major bank in the Czech Republic. We find that

  20. An Analysis of Trainers' Perspectives within an Ecological Framework: Factors that Influence Mine Safety Training Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J. Haas

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: This study offers a new technique to identify limitations in safety training systems and processes. The analysis suggests that training should be developed and disseminated with consideration of various levels—individual, interpersonal, organizational, and community—to promote skills. If factors identified within and between levels are addressed, it may be easier to sustain mineworker competencies that are established during safety training.

  1. Parents of children with cerebral palsy : a review of factors related to the process of adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rentinck, I. C. M.; Ketelaar, M.; Jongmans, M. J.; Gorter, J. W.

    Background Little is known about the way parents adapt to the situation when their child is diagnosed with cerebral palsy. Methods A literature search was performed to gain a deeper insight in the process of adaptation of parents with a child with cerebral palsy and on factors related to this

  2. One Factor or Two Parallel Processes? Comorbidity and Development of Adolescent Anxiety and Depressive Disorder Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, William W., III; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Muris, Peter; van Hoof, Anne; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study investigates whether anxiety and depressive disorder symptoms of adolescents from the general community are best described by a model that assumes they are indicative of one general factor or by a model that assumes they are two distinct disorders with parallel growth processes. Additional analyses were conducted to explore…

  3. Factors Affecting Christian Parents' School Choice Decision Processes: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Tami G.; Swezey, James A.

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies factors affecting the decision processes for school choice by Christian parents. Grounded theory design incorporated interview transcripts, field notes, and a reflective journal to analyze themes. Comparative analysis, including open, axial, and selective coding, was used to reduce the coded statements to five code families:…

  4. Organizational factors, planning capacity, and integration challenges constrain provincial planning processes for nutrition in decentralizing Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapping, Karin; Frongillo, Edward A; Nguyen, Phuong H; Coates, Jennifer; Webb, Patrick; Menon, Purnima

    2014-09-01

    Translating national policies and guidelines into effective action at the subnational level (e.g., province or region) is a prerequisite for ensuring an impact on nutrition. In several countries, including Vietnam, the focus of this paper, this process is affected by the quality of the decentralized process of planning and action. This study examined how provincial planning processes for nutrition occurred in Vietnam during 2009 and 2010. Key goals were to understand variability in processes across provinces, identify factors that influenced the process, and assess the usefulness of the process for individuals involved in planning and action. A qualitative case-study methodology was used. Data were drawn from interviews with 51 government officials in eight provinces. The study found little variability in the planning process among these eight provinces, probably due to a planning process that was predominantly a fiscal exercise within the confines of a largely centralized structure. Respondents were almost unanimous about the main barriers: a top-down approach to planning, limited human capacity for effective planning at subnational levels, and difficulty in integrating actions from multiple sectors. Provincial-level actors were deeply dissatisfied with the nature of their role in the process. Despite the rhetoric to the contrary, too much power is probably still retained at the central level. A strategic multiyear approach is needed to strengthen the provincial planning process and address many of the key barriers identified in this study.

  5. Mediating factors of coping process in parents of children with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskouie, Fatemeh; Mehrdad, Neda; Ebrahimi, Hossein

    2013-05-14

    Type 1 diabetes is a lifelong condition for children and their parents, the management for which imposes a vast responsibility. This study explores the mediating factors that affect Iranian parents' coping processes with their children's type 1 diabetes. Research was conducted using the grounded theory method. Participants were selected purposefully, and we continued with theoretical sampling. Constant comparative analysis was used to analyze the data. The mediating factors of the parental coping process with their child's diabetes consist of the child's cooperation, crises and experiences, economic challenges, and parental participation in care. Findings highlight the necessity of well-informed nurses with insightful understanding of the mediating factors in parental coping with juvenile diabetes in order to meet the particular needs of this group.

  6. Photocatalytic oxidation removal of Hg{sup 0} using ternary Ag/AgI-Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} hybrids in wet scrubbing process under fluorescent light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Anchao, E-mail: aczhang@qq.com [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, 454000 (China); Zhang, Lixiang; Chen, Xiaozhuan; Zhu, Qifeng; Liu, Zhichao [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, 454000 (China); Xiang, Jun, E-mail: xiangjun@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Ag/AgI-Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} hybrids were employed for Hg{sup 0} removal under fluorescent light. • Superoxide radical (·O{sub 2}{sup −}) played a key role in Hg{sup 0} removal. • NO exhibited a significant effect on Hg{sup 0} removal in comparison to SO{sub 2}. • The mechanism for enhanced Hg{sup 0} removal over Ag/AgI-Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} was proposed. - Abstract: A series of ternary Ag/AgI-Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} photocatalysts synthesized using a facile coprecipitation method were employed to investigate their performances of Hg{sup 0} removal in a wet scrubbing reactor. The hybrids were characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, XRD, SEM-EDS, HRTEM, XPS, DRS and ESR. The photocatalytic activities of Hg{sup 0} removal were evaluated under fluorescent light. The results showed that AgI content, fluorescent light irradiation, reaction temperature all showed significant influences on Hg{sup 0} removal. NO exhibited significant effect on Hg{sup 0} removal in comparison to SO{sub 2}. Among these ternary Ag/AgI-Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} hybrids, Ag/AgI(0.1)-Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} showed the highest Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency, which could be ascribed to the effective separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs between AgI and Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect in the visible region by metallic silver nanoparticles (Ag{sup 0} NPs). The trapping studies of reactive radicals showed that the superoxide radicals (·O{sub 2}{sup −}) may play a key role in Hg{sup 0} removal under fluorescent light. According to the experimental and characterization results, a possible photocatalytic oxidation mechanism for enhanced Hg{sup 0} removal over Ag/AgI(0.1)-Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} hybrid under fluorescent light was proposed.

  7. Assessing Saudi medical students learning approach using the revised two-factor study process questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Shaffi Ahamed; Almarzuqi, Ahmed; Almogheer, Rakan; Alharbi, Omar; Jalal, Abdulaziz; Alorainy, Majed

    2017-08-17

    To assess learning approaches of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd-year medical students by using revised two-factor study process questionnaire, and to assess reliability and validity of the questionnaire. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in 2014. The revised two-factor study process questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F) was completed by 610 medical students of both genders, from foundation (first year), central nervous system (second year), medicine and surgery (third year) courses. The study process was evaluated by computing mean scores of two research study approaches (deep & surface) using student's t-test and one-way analysis of variance. The internal consistency and construct validity of the questionnaire were assessed using Cronbach's α and factor analysis. The mean score of deep approach was significantly higher than the surface approach among participants(t (770) =7.83, p= 0.000) for the four courses. The mean scores of deep approach were significantly higher among participants with higher grade point average (F (2,768) =13.31, p=0.001) along with more number of study hours by participants (F (2,768) =20.08, p=0.001). The Cronbach's α-values of items at 0.70 indicate the good internal consistency of questionnaire used. Factor analysis confirms two factors (deep and surface approaches) of R-SPQ-2F. The deep approach to learning was the primary approach among 1st, 2nd and 3rd-year King Saud University medical students. This study confirms reliability and validity of the revised two-factor study process questionnaire. Medical educators could use the results of such studies to make required changes in the curriculum.

  8. Decomposition of Factors and Criteria for Evaluating the Process of Intellectualization of Enterprise Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmin Oleh Ye.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the author’s vision of solving the scientific problem of determining factors of influence and forming criteria for evaluating the process of intellectualization of enterprise management systems. It is found that diagnostic evaluation of the process of intellectualization of enterprise management systems depends on the influence of factors of the internal environment of the management systems, personal motivation factors, and the external environment. There carried out decomposition of the process of intellectualization of management systems into separate constituents and group criteria for diagnosing and their detailed indicators are selected. The basic group criteria for evaluating the process of intellectualization of management systems include: knowledge potential of carriers of intelligence; human capital; intellectual competence level of the management personnel; motivation of carriers of intelligence; state of the management development; scientific and research potential; development of information and communication technologies; intellectual and economic activity; formation of intellectual capital; institutional development of the management system, formation of knowledge and innovation prospects; complexity of the intellectualization process.

  9. Process factors facilitating and inhibiting medical ethics teaching in small groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentwich, Miriam Ethel; Bokek-Cohen, Ya'arit

    2017-11-01

    To examine process factors that either facilitate or inhibit learning medical ethics during case-based learning. A qualitative research approach using microanalysis of transcribed videotaped discussions of three consecutive small-group learning (SGL) sessions on medical ethics teaching (MET) for three groups, each with 10 students. This research effort revealed 12 themes of learning strategies, divided into 6 coping and 6 evasive strategies. Cognitive-based strategies were found to relate to Kamin's model of critical thinking in medical education, thereby supporting our distinction between the themes of coping and evasive strategies. The findings also showed that cognitive efforts as well as emotional strategies are involved in discussions of ethical dilemmas. Based on Kamin's model and the constructivist learning theory, an examination of the different themes within the two learning strategies-coping and evasive-revealed that these strategies may be understood as corresponding to process factors either facilitating or inhibiting MET in SGL, respectively. Our classification offers a more nuanced observation, specifically geared to pinpointing the desired and less desired process factors in the learning involved in MET in the SGL environment. Two key advantages of this observation are: (1) it brings to the forefront process factors that may inhibit and not merely facilitate MET in SGL and (2) it acknowledges the existence of emotional and not just cognitive process factors. Further enhancement of MET in SGL may thus be achieved based on these observations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Determination of optimal wet ethanol composition as a fuel in spark ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagundez, J.L.S.; Sari, R.L.; Mayer, F.D.; Martins, M.E.S.; Salau, N.P.G.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Batch distillation to produce HEF and fuel blends of wet ethanol. • Conversion efficiency of a SI engine operating with HEF and wet ethanol. • NEF as a new metric to calculate the energy efficiency of HEF and wet ethanol. • Optimal wet ethanol composition as a fuel in SI engine based on NEF. - Abstract: Studies are unanimous that the greatest fraction of the energy necessary to produce hydrous ethanol fuel (HEF), i.e. above 95%v/v of ethanol in water, is spent on water removal (distillation). Previous works have assessed the energy efficiency of HEF; but few, if any, have done the same for wet ethanol fuel (sub-azeotropic hydrous ethanol). Hence, a new metric called net energy factor (NEF) is proposed to calculate the energy efficiency of wet ethanol and HEF. NEF calculates the ratio of Lower Heating Value (LHV) derived from ethanol fuel, total energy out, to energy used to obtain ethanol fuel as distillate, total energy in. Distillation tests were performed batchwise to obtain as distillate HEF and four different fuel blends of wet ethanol with a range from 60%v/v to 90%v/v of ethanol and the amount of energy spent to distillate each ethanol fuel calculated. The efficiency parameters of a SI engine operating with the produced ethanol fuels was tested to calculate their respective conversion efficiency. The results of net energy factors show a clear advantage of wet ethanol fuels over HEF; the optimal efficiency was wet ethanol fuel with 70%v/v of ethanol.

  11. Determinants of judgment and decision making quality: the interplay between information processing style and situational factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayal, Shahar; Rusou, Zohar; Zakay, Dan; Hochman, Guy

    2015-01-01

    A framework is presented to better characterize the role of individual differences in information processing style and their interplay with contextual factors in determining decision making quality. In Experiment 1, we show that individual differences in information processing style are flexible and can be modified by situational factors. Specifically, a situational manipulation that induced an analytical mode of thought improved decision quality. In Experiment 2, we show that this improvement in decision quality is highly contingent on the compatibility between the dominant thinking mode and the nature of the task. That is, encouraging an intuitive mode of thought led to better performance on an intuitive task but hampered performance on an analytical task. The reverse pattern was obtained when an analytical mode of thought was encouraged. We discuss the implications of these results for the assessment of decision making competence, and suggest practical directions to help individuals better adjust their information processing style to the situation at hand and make optimal decisions.

  12. Factors Affecting Youth Voice in Decision-Making Processes within Youth Development Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Tarifa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of a study aimed at determining the factors affecting the level of inclusiveness of youth voice in the decision-making process of the 4-H youth development program are discussed in this paper. State and field level 4-H professionals identified potential factors which affect youth voice in the decision-making process. The information gathered was utilized to identify the degree to which youth voice was incorporated in the decision-making process, to better understand how to suit youth’s needs, identify promising practices, and diagnose barriers towards fostering youth voice within the 4-H youth development program. This feature article presents the findings of the study, and discusses potential ramifications and remedies.

  13. Calcium phosphate bioceramics prepared from wet chemically precipitated powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Salma

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work calcium phosphates were synthesized by modified wet chemical precipitation route. Contrary to the conventional chemical precipitation route calcium hydroxide was homogenized with planetary mill. Milling calcium oxide and water in planetary ball mill as a first step of synthesis provides a highly dispersed calcium hydroxide suspension. The aim of this work was to study the influence of main processing parameters of wet chemical precipitation synthesis product and to control the morphology, phase and functional group composition and, consequently, thermal stability and microstructure of calcium phosphate bioceramics after thermal treatment. The results showed that it is possible to obtain calcium phosphates with different and reproducible phase compositions after thermal processing (hydroxyapatite [HAp], β-tricalcium phosphate [β-TCP] and HAp/β-TCP by modified wet-chemical precipitation route. The β-TCP phase content in sintered bioceramics samples is found to be highly dependent on the changes in technological parameters and it can be controlled with ending pH, synthesis temperature and thermal treatment. Pure, crystalline and highly thermally stable (up to 1300°C HAp bioceramics with homogenous grainy microstructure, grain size up to 200–250 nm and high open porosity can be successfully obtained by powder synthesized at elevated synthesis temperature of 70°C and stabilizing ending pH at 9.

  14. Performance of a UASB reactor treating coffee wet wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guardia Puebla, Yans; Rodríguez Pérez, Suyén; Janet Jiménez Hernández; Sánchez Girón, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    The present work shows the results obtained in the anaerobic digestion process of coffee wet wastewater processing. An UASB anaerobic reactor was operated in single-stage in mesophilic temperature controlled conditions (37±1ºC). The effect of both organic loading rate (OLR) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) in the anaerobic digestion of coffee wet wastewater was investigated. The OLR values considered in the single-stage UASB reactor varied in a range of 3,6-4,1 kgCOD m-3 d-1 and the HRT stayed in a range of 21,5-15,5 hours. The evaluation results show that the best performance of UASB reactor in single-stage was obtained at OLR of 3,6 kg COD m-3 d-1 with an average value of total and soluble COD removal of 77,2% and 83,4%, respectively, and average methane concentration in biogas of 61%. The present study suggests that the anaerobic digestion is suitable to treating coffee wet wastewater. (author)

  15. Wet explosion og wheat straw and codigestion with swine manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Guangtao; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.

    2009-01-01

    with wheat straw in a continuous operated system was investigated, as a method to increase the efficiency of biogas plants that are based on anaerobic digestion of swine manure. Also, the pretreatment of wheat straw with the wet explosion method was studied and the efficiency of the wet explosion process......The continuously increasing demand for renewable energy sources renders anaerobic digestion to one of the most promising technologies for renewable energy production. Twenty-two (22) large-scale biogas plants are currently under operation in Denmark. Most of these plants use manure as the primary......, production of regenerated cellulose fibers as an alternative to wood for cellulose-based materials and ethanol production. The advantage of exploiting wheat straw for various applications is that it is available in considerable quantity and at low-cost. In the present study, the codigestion of swine manure...

  16. Numerical analysis of wet separation of particles by density differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markauskas, D.; Kruggel-Emden, H.

    2017-07-01

    Wet particle separation is widely used in mineral processing and plastic recycling to separate mixtures of particulate materials into further usable fractions due to density differences. This work presents efforts aiming to numerically analyze the wet separation of particles with different densities. In the current study the discrete element method (DEM) is used for the solid phase while the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is used for modeling of the liquid phase. The two phases are coupled by the use of a volume averaging technique. In the current study, simulations of spherical particle separation were performed. In these simulations, a set of generated particles with two different densities is dropped into a rectangular container filled with liquid. The results of simulations with two different mixtures of particles demonstrated how separation depends on the densities of particles.

  17. BPR implementation process: an analysis of key success and failure factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Reza Khoshlafz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of different factors influencing on the successful implementation of the business process re-engineering (BPR in Iran. The study selects 386 experts randomly and using some statistical tests examines the effects of four groups of factors including strategic, organizational, methodologic and technological & educational issues on the success of the BPR implementation in Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among some experts where Cronbach alpha was calculated as 0.71. The implementation of Pearson correlation ratio has confirmed that technological and educational factors marinated the highest effects (r = 0.523, Sig. = 0.000 followed by strategic (r = 0.505, Sig. = 0.000, organizational (r = 0.352, Sig. = 0.000 and methodologic issues (r = 0.267, Sig. = 0.000. In addition, the implementation of Stepwise regression has confirmed that technological & educational, strategic and methodologic factors influence on BPR in Iran.

  18. Forecasting of wet snow avalanche activity: Proof of concept and operational implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobiet, Andreas; Jöbstl, Lisa; Rieder, Hannes; Bellaire, Sascha; Mitterer, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    State-of-the-art tools for the operational assessment of avalanche danger include field observations, recordings from automatic weather stations, meteorological analyses and forecasts, and recently also indices derived from snowpack models. In particular, an index for identifying the onset of wet-snow avalanche cycles (LWCindex), has been demonstrated to be useful. However, its value for operational avalanche forecasting is currently limited, since detailed, physically based snowpack models are usually driven by meteorological data from automatic weather stations only and have therefore no prognostic ability. Since avalanche risk management heavily relies on timely information and early warnings, many avalanche services in Europe nowadays start issuing forecasts for the following days, instead of the traditional assessment of the current avalanche danger. In this context, the prognostic operation of detailed snowpack models has recently been objective of extensive research. In this study a new, observationally constrained setup for forecasting the onset of wet-snow avalanche cycles with the detailed snow cover model SNOWPACK is presented and evaluated. Based on data from weather stations and different numerical weather prediction models, we demonstrate that forecasts of the LWCindex as indicator for wet-snow avalanche cycles can be useful for operational warning services, but is so far not reliable enough to be used as single warning tool without considering other factors. Therefore, further development currently focuses on the improvement of the forecasts by applying ensemble techniques and suitable post processing approaches to the output of numerical weather prediction models. In parallel, the prognostic meteo-snow model chain is operationally used by two regional avalanche warning services in Austria since winter 2016/2017 for the first time. Experiences from the first operational season and first results from current model developments will be reported.

  19. Thermographic identification of wetted insulation on pipelines in the arctic oilfields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Jonathan J.; Dahlquist, A. L.; Dash, L. C.

    2006-04-01

    Steel pipes used at Alaskan oil-producing facilities to transport production crude, gas, and injection water between well house and drill site manifold building, and along cross-country lines to and from central processing facilities, must be insulated in order to protect against the severely cold temperatures that are common during the arctic winter. A problem inherent with this system is that the sealed joints between adjacent layers of the outer wrap will over time degrade and can allow water to breach the system and migrate into and through the insulation. The moisture can ultimately interact with the steel pipe and trigger external corrosion which, if left unchecked, can lead to pipe failure and spillage. A New Technology Evaluation Guideline prepared for ConocoPhillips Alaska, Inc. in 2001 is intended to guide the consideration of new technologies for pipeline inspection in a manner that is safer, faster, and more cost-effective than existing techniques. Infrared thermography (IRT) was identified as promising for identification of wetted insulation regions given that it offers the means to scan a large area quickly from a safe distance, and measure the temperature field associated with that area. However, it was also recognized that there are limiting factors associated with an IRT-based approach including instrument sensitivity, cost, portability, functionality in hostile (arctic) environments, and training required for proper interpretation of data. A methodology was developed and tested in the field that provides a technique to conduct large-scale screening for wetted regions along insulated pipelines. The results of predictive modeling analysis and testing demonstrate the feasibility under certain condition of identifying wetted insulation areas. The results of the study and recommendations for implementation are described.

  20. Manufacturing process used to produce long-acting recombinant factor VIII Fc fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Justin; Kshirsagar, Rashmi; Selvitelli, Keith; Lu, Qi; Zhang, Mingxuan; Mei, Baisong; Peters, Robert; Pierce, Glenn F; Dumont, Jennifer; Raso, Stephen; Reichert, Heidi

    2015-07-01

    Recombinant factor VIII Fc fusion protein (rFVIIIFc) is a long-acting coagulation factor approved for the treatment of hemophilia A. Here, the rFVIIIFc manufacturing process and results of studies evaluating product quality and the capacity of the process to remove potential impurities and viruses are described. This manufacturing process utilized readily transferable and scalable unit operations and employed multi-step purification and viral clearance processing, including a novel affinity chromatography adsorbent and a 15 nm pore size virus removal nanofilter. A cell line derived from human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293H cells was used to produce rFVIIIFc. Validation studies evaluated identity, purity, activity, and safety. Process-related impurity clearance and viral clearance spiking studies demonstrate robust and reproducible removal of impurities and viruses, with total viral clearance >8-15 log10 for four model viruses (xenotropic murine leukemia virus, mice minute virus, reovirus type 3, and suid herpes virus 1). Terminal galactose-α-1,3-galactose and N-glycolylneuraminic acid, two non-human glycans, were undetectable in rFVIIIFc. Biochemical and in vitro biological analyses confirmed the purity, activity, and consistency of rFVIIIFc. In conclusion, this manufacturing process produces a highly pure product free of viruses, impurities, and non-human glycan structures, with scale capabilities to ensure a consistent and adequate supply of rFVIIIFc. Copyright © 2015 Biogen. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.