WorldWideScience

Sample records for factors modulate rice

  1. Seed-vectored endophytic bacteria modulate development of rice seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S K; Kingsley, K; Irizarry, I; Bergen, M; Kharwar, R N; White, J F

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the removal of indigenous bacteria from rice seeds on seedling growth and development. Here we report the presence of three indigenous endophytic bacteria in rice seeds that play important roles in modulating seedling development (shoot and root lengths, and formation of root hairs and secondary roots) and defence against pathogens. Seed-associated bacteria were removed using surface sterilization with NaOCl (bleach) followed by antibiotic treatment. When bacteria were absent, growth of seedlings in terms of root hair development and overall seedling size was less than that of seedlings that contained bacteria. Reactive oxygen staining of seedlings showed that endophytic bacteria became intracellular in root parenchyma cells and root hairs. Roots containing endophytic bacteria were seen to stain densely for reactive oxygen, while roots free of bacteria stained lightly for reactive oxygen. Bacteria were isolated and identified as Enterobacter asburiae (VWB1), Pantoea dispersa (VWB2) and Pseudomonas putida (VWB3) by 16S rDNA sequencing. Bacteria were found to produce indole acetic acid (auxins), inhibited the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum and solubilized phosphate. Reinoculation of bacteria onto seedlings derived from surface-disinfected rice and Bermuda grass seeds significantly restored seedling growth and development. Rice seeds harbour indigenous bacterial endophytes that greatly influence seedling growth and development, including root and shoot lengths, root hair formation and disease susceptibility of rice seedlings. This study shows that seeds of rice naturally harbour bacterial endophytes that play key roles in modulation of seedling development. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Perceived Factors Limiting Rice Production in Patigi Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the perceived factors limiting rice production in five selected villages in Patigi Local Government Area of Kwara State, Nigeria. The study area was purposively selected based on their known potentials for rice production. One Hundred and Ten (110) rice farmers were selected for the study.

  3. Cadmium in rice: Transport mechanisms, influencing factors, and minimizing measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Luo, Na; Li, Yan Wen; Cai, Quan Ying; Li, Hui Yuan; Mo, Ce Hui; Wong, Ming Hung

    2017-05-01

    Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in rice and its subsequent transfer to food chain is a major environmental issue worldwide. Understanding of Cd transport processes and its management aiming to reduce Cd uptake and accumulation in rice may help to improve rice growth and grain quality. Moreover, a thorough understanding of the factors influencing Cd accumulation will be helpful to derive efficient strategies to minimize Cd in rice. In this article, we reviewed Cd transport mechanisms in rice, the factors affecting Cd uptake (including physicochemical characters of soil and ecophysiological features of rice) and discussed efficient measures to immobilize Cd in soil and reduce Cd uptake by rice (including agronomic practices, bioremediation and molecular biology techniques). These findings will contribute to ensuring food safety, and reducing Cd risk on human beings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of Climate Factors on Rice Yields in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dek Vimean Pheakdey

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Temperature and precipitation have been known as the key determinant factors to affect rice production in climate change. In this study, the relationship between climate variables and rice yields during 1993–2012 in Cambodia was analyzed and evaluated. The Ordinary Least Squares analysis was applied to examine the relationship of three climate variables (TCV including maximum temperature, minimum temperature and rainfall against seasonal rice yields. By this period, a remarkable increasing trend of annual temperature was observed whilst rainfall was not significantly changed. The TCV explains approximately 63% and 56% of the variability of rice yields in wet and dry seasons, respectively. It is found that in Cambodia, non-climate factors such as fertilizers, water, cultivars, and soil fertility cause 40% variation to rice yields, whereas the remaining 60% can be influenced by climate variability. The levels of temperature difference (LTD between maximum and minimum temperatures of the wet season (WS and dry season (DS were 7.0 and 8.6 oC, respectively. The lower value of LTD may cause the reduction of rice in WS (2.2 tons/ha as compared to that of DS (3.0 tons/ha. Rice yield has increased 50.5% and 33.8% in DS and WS, respectively, may due to the improvement of rice cultivation practices in Cambodia such as the better use of fertilizers, pest and weed control, and irrigation, and more effective rice cultivated protocol, as the increased trend of temperature may detrimentally affect rice yield. The breeding of heat and drought tolerance rice varieties and development of irrigation system are effective to reduce the negative influence from climate change to rice production in Cambodia.

  5. Studying the Impacts of Environmental Factors and Agricultural Management on Methane Emissions from Rice Paddies Using a Land Surface Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T. S.; Gahlot, S.; Shu, S.; Jain, A. K.; Kheshgi, H. S.

    2017-12-01

    Continued growth in population is projected to drive increased future demand for rice and the methane emissions associated with its production. However, observational studies of methane emissions from rice have reported seemingly conflicting results and do not all support this projection. In this study we couple an ecophysiological process-based rice paddy module and a methane emission module with a land surface model, Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM), to study the impacts of various environmental factors and agricultural management practices on rice production and methane emissions from rice fields. This coupled modeling framework accounts for dynamic rice growth processes with adaptation of photosynthesis, rice-specific phenology, biomass accumulation, leaf area development and structures responses to water, temperature, light and nutrient stresses. The coupled model is calibrated and validated with observations from various rice cultivation fields. We find that the differing results of observational studies can be caused by the interactions of environmental factors, including climate, atmospheric CO2 concentration, and N deposition, and agricultural management practices, such as irrigation and N fertilizer applications, with rice production at spatial and temporal scales.

  6. Factors Affecting the Adoption of Improved Rice Varieties in Borno ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    -adopters. ... give a good results and also a threat to food security. Keywords: ..... government instead of planting. Table 2: Institutional factors that affect adoption of improved rice varieties. Variables. Categories Numbers. Fast. Adopters. Slow.

  7. GDSL lipases modulate immunity through lipid homeostasis in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjun Gao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lipids and lipid metabolites play important roles in plant-microbe interactions. Despite the extensive studies of lipases in lipid homeostasis and seed oil biosynthesis, the involvement of lipases in plant immunity remains largely unknown. In particular, GDSL esterases/lipases, characterized by the conserved GDSL motif, are a subfamily of lipolytic enzymes with broad substrate specificity. Here, we functionally identified two GDSL lipases, OsGLIP1 and OsGLIP2, in rice immune responses. Expression of OsGLIP1 and OsGLIP2 was suppressed by pathogen infection and salicylic acid (SA treatment. OsGLIP1 was mainly expressed in leaf and leaf sheath, while OsGLIP2 showed high expression in elongating internodes. Biochemical assay demonstrated that OsGLIP1 and OsGLIP2 are functional lipases that could hydrolyze lipid substrates. Simultaneous down-regulation of OsGLIP1 and OsGLIP2 increased plant resistance to both bacterial and fungal pathogens, whereas disease resistance in OsGLIP1 and OsGLIP2 overexpression plants was significantly compromised, suggesting that both genes act as negative regulators of disease resistance. OsGLIP1 and OsGLIP2 proteins mainly localize to lipid droplets and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER membrane. The proper cellular localization of OsGLIP proteins is indispensable for their functions in immunity. Comprehensive lipid profiling analysis indicated that the alteration of OsGLIP gene expression was associated with substantial changes of the levels of lipid species including monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG. We show that MGDG and DGDG feeding could attenuate disease resistance. Taken together, our study indicates that OsGLIP1 and OsGLIP2 negatively regulate rice defense by modulating lipid metabolism, thus providing new insights into the function of lipids in plant immunity.

  8. GDSL lipases modulate immunity through lipid homeostasis in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mingjun; Yin, Xin; Yang, Weibing; Lam, Sin Man; Tong, Xiaohong; Liu, Jiyun; Wang, Xin; Li, Qun; Shui, Guanghou; He, Zuhua

    2017-11-01

    Lipids and lipid metabolites play important roles in plant-microbe interactions. Despite the extensive studies of lipases in lipid homeostasis and seed oil biosynthesis, the involvement of lipases in plant immunity remains largely unknown. In particular, GDSL esterases/lipases, characterized by the conserved GDSL motif, are a subfamily of lipolytic enzymes with broad substrate specificity. Here, we functionally identified two GDSL lipases, OsGLIP1 and OsGLIP2, in rice immune responses. Expression of OsGLIP1 and OsGLIP2 was suppressed by pathogen infection and salicylic acid (SA) treatment. OsGLIP1 was mainly expressed in leaf and leaf sheath, while OsGLIP2 showed high expression in elongating internodes. Biochemical assay demonstrated that OsGLIP1 and OsGLIP2 are functional lipases that could hydrolyze lipid substrates. Simultaneous down-regulation of OsGLIP1 and OsGLIP2 increased plant resistance to both bacterial and fungal pathogens, whereas disease resistance in OsGLIP1 and OsGLIP2 overexpression plants was significantly compromised, suggesting that both genes act as negative regulators of disease resistance. OsGLIP1 and OsGLIP2 proteins mainly localize to lipid droplets and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. The proper cellular localization of OsGLIP proteins is indispensable for their functions in immunity. Comprehensive lipid profiling analysis indicated that the alteration of OsGLIP gene expression was associated with substantial changes of the levels of lipid species including monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG). We show that MGDG and DGDG feeding could attenuate disease resistance. Taken together, our study indicates that OsGLIP1 and OsGLIP2 negatively regulate rice defense by modulating lipid metabolism, thus providing new insights into the function of lipids in plant immunity.

  9. White rice consumption and CVD risk factors among Iranian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi-Boroujeni, Hossein; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Sajjadi, Firouzeh; Maghroun, Maryam; Asgari, Sedigheh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Azadbakht, Leila

    2013-06-01

    Association between white rice intake and risk factors of cardiovascular diseases remained uncertain. Most of the previous published studies have been done in western countries with different lifestyles, and scant data are available from the Middle East region, including Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the structure of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) to assess the association between white rice consumption and risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, 3,006 men were included from three counties of Isfahan, Najafabad, and Arak by multistage cluster random-sampling method. Dietary intake was assessed with a 49-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Laboratory assessment was done in a standardized central laboratory. Outcome variables were fasting blood glucose, serum lipid levels, and anthropometric variables. Socioeconomic and demographic data, physical activity, and body mass index (BMI) were considered covariates and were adjusted in analysis. In this study, Student's t-test, chi-square test, and logistic regression were used for statistical analyses. Means of BMI among those subjects who consumed white rice less than 7 times per week and people who consumed 7-14 times per week were almost similar--24.8 +/- 4.3 vs 24.5 +/- 4.7 kg/m2. There was no significant association between white rice consumption and risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, such as fasting blood sugar arid serum lipid profiles. Although whole grain consumption has undeniable effect on preventing cardiovascular disease risk, white rice consumption was not associated with cardiovascular risks among Iranian men in the present study. Further prospective studies with a semi-quantitative FFQ or dietary record questionnaire, representing type and portion-size of rice intake as well as cooking methods and other foods consumed with rice that affect glycaemic index (GI) of rice, are required to support our finding and to illustrate the probable mechanism.

  10. Factors Affecting the Adoption and use of NERICA Varieties among Rice Producing Households in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asante, B.O.; Wiredu, A.N.; Dogbe, W.; Asuming-Boakye, A.; Nsiah Frimpong, B.; Haleegoah, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses cross sectional data which were collected from 200 smallholder rice producers in Ghana, to examine the factors influencing the adoption and extent of use of NERICA rice varieties in Ghana. About 57.93 per cent of the sampled rice producers allocated 35.77 per cent of their land to

  11. Hypotheses on the Potential of Rice Bran Intake to Prevent Gastrointestinal Cancer through the Modulation of Oxidative Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Law, Bernard M. H.; Waye, Mary M. Y.; So, Winnie K. W.; Chair, Sek Ying

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested the potential involvement of oxidative stress in gastrointestinal cancers. In light of this, research efforts have been focused on the potential of dietary antioxidant intake to prevent gastrointestinal cancer through the modulation of oxidative stress. Rice bran, a by-product of rice milling, has been shown to contain an abundance of phytochemicals, which are dietary antioxidants. To date, a number of studies have shown the antioxidative effect of rice bran in...

  12. Factor affecting Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potato is a very important food crop and is adversely affected by fungus. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation can play an important role in the improvement of potato. The present study was conducted to optimize the different factors affecting Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of chitinase gene. Nodes were used as ...

  13. Factors affecting the outcrossing rate between Clearfield rice and red rice (Oryza sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The commercialization of imazethapyr-resistant (Clearfield[TM], CL) rice in the southern United States has raised serious concerns about gene flow to red rice, producing imazethapyr-resistant red rice populations. Our objectives were to determine the impact of planting date, CL cultivars, and red ri...

  14. Global Rice Watch: Spatial-temporal dynamics, driving factors, and impacts of paddy rice agriculture in the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, X.; Dong, J.; Zhang, G.; Xin, F.; Li, X.

    2017-12-01

    Paddy rice croplands account for more than 12% of the global cropland areas, and provide food to feed more than 50% of the world population. Spatial patterns and temporal dynamics of paddy rice croplands have changed remarkably in the past decades, driven by growing human population and their changing diet structure, land use (e.g., urbanization, industrialization), climate, markets, and technologies. In this presentation, we will provide a comprehensive review of our current knowledge on (1) the spatial patterns and temporal dynamics of paddy rice croplands from agricultural statistics data and remote sensing approaches; (2) major driving factors for the observed changes in paddy rice areas, including social, economic, climate, land use, markets, crop breeding technology, and farming technology; and (3) major impacts on atmospheric methane concentration, land surface temperature, water resources and use, and so on. We will highlight the results from a few case studies in China and monsoon Asia. We will also call for a global synthesis analysis of paddy rice agriculture, and invite researchers to join the effort to write and edit a book that provides comprehensive and updated knowledge on paddy rice agriculture.

  15. Time-resolved metabolomics reveals metabolic modulation in rice foliage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arita Masanori

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To elucidate the interaction of dynamics among modules that constitute biological systems, comprehensive datasets obtained from "omics" technologies have been used. In recent plant metabolomics approaches, the reconstruction of metabolic correlation networks has been attempted using statistical techniques. However, the results were unsatisfactory and effective data-mining techniques that apply appropriate comprehensive datasets are needed. Results Using capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry (CE-MS and capillary electrophoresis diode-array detection (CE-DAD, we analyzed the dynamic changes in the level of 56 basic metabolites in plant foliage (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica at hourly intervals over a 24-hr period. Unsupervised clustering of comprehensive metabolic profiles using Kohonen's self-organizing map (SOM allowed classification of the biochemical pathways activated by the light and dark cycle. The carbon and nitrogen (C/N metabolism in both periods was also visualized as a phenotypic linkage map that connects network modules on the basis of traditional metabolic pathways rather than pairwise correlations among metabolites. The regulatory networks of C/N assimilation/dissimilation at each time point were consistent with previous works on plant metabolism. In response to environmental stress, glutathione and spermidine fluctuated synchronously with their regulatory targets. Adenine nucleosides and nicotinamide coenzymes were regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. We also demonstrated that SOM analysis was applicable to the estimation of unidentifiable metabolites in metabolome analysis. Hierarchical clustering of a correlation coefficient matrix could help identify the bottleneck enzymes that regulate metabolic networks. Conclusion Our results showed that our SOM analysis with appropriate metabolic time-courses effectively revealed the synchronous dynamics among metabolic modules and elucidated the

  16. Expression of barley SUSIBA2 transcription factor yields high-starch low-methane rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, J; Hu, C; Yan, X; Jin, Y; Chen, Z; Guan, Q; Wang, Y; Zhong, D; Jansson, C; Wang, F; Schnürer, A; Sun, C

    2015-07-30

    Atmospheric methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide, and is responsible for about 20% of the global warming effect since pre-industrial times. Rice paddies are the largest anthropogenic methane source and produce 7-17% of atmospheric methane. Warm waterlogged soil and exuded nutrients from rice roots provide ideal conditions for methanogenesis in paddies with annual methane emissions of 25-100-million tonnes. This scenario will be exacerbated by an expansion in rice cultivation needed to meet the escalating demand for food in the coming decades. There is an urgent need to establish sustainable technologies for increasing rice production while reducing methane fluxes from rice paddies. However, ongoing efforts for methane mitigation in rice paddies are mainly based on farming practices and measures that are difficult to implement. Despite proposed strategies to increase rice productivity and reduce methane emissions, no high-starch low-methane-emission rice has been developed. Here we show that the addition of a single transcription factor gene, barley SUSIBA2 (refs 7, 8), conferred a shift of carbon flux to SUSIBA2 rice, favouring the allocation of photosynthates to aboveground biomass over allocation to roots. The altered allocation resulted in an increased biomass and starch content in the seeds and stems, and suppressed methanogenesis, possibly through a reduction in root exudates. Three-year field trials in China demonstrated that the cultivation of SUSIBA2 rice was associated with a significant reduction in methane emissions and a decrease in rhizospheric methanogen levels. SUSIBA2 rice offers a sustainable means of providing increased starch content for food production while reducing greenhouse gas emissions from rice cultivation. Approaches to increase rice productivity and reduce methane emissions as seen in SUSIBA2 rice may be particularly beneficial in a future climate with rising temperatures resulting in increased

  17. Expression of barley SUSIBA2 transcription factor yields high-starch low-methane rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, J.; Hu, C.; Yan, X.; Jin, Y.; Chen, Z.; Guan, Q.; Wang, Y.; Zhong, D.; Jansson, Georg C.; Wang, F.; Schnrer, Anna; Sun, Chuanxin

    2015-07-22

    Atmospheric methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide, and is responsible for about 20% of the global warming effect since pre-industrial times. Rice paddies are the largest anthropogenic methane source and produce 7–17% of atmospheric methane. Warm waterlogged soil and exuded nutrients from rice roots provide ideal conditions for methanogenesis in paddies with annual methane emissions of 25–100-million tonnes. This scenario will be exacerbated by an expansion in rice cultivation needed to meet the escalating demand for food in the coming decades4. There is an urgent need to establish sustainable technologies for increasing rice production while reducing methane fluxes from rice paddies. However, ongoing efforts for methane mitigation in rice paddies are mainly based on farming practices and measures that are difficult to implement5. Despite proposed strategies to increase rice productivity and reduce methane emissions4,6, no high-starch low-methane-emission rice has been developed. Here we show that the addition of a single transcription factor gene, barley SUSIBA2, conferred a shift of carbon flux to SUSIBA2 rice, favouring the allocation of photosynthates to aboveground biomass over allocation to roots. The altered allocation resulted in an increased biomass and starch content in the seeds and stems, and suppressed methanogenesis, possibly through a reduction in root exudates. Three-year field trials in China demonstrated that the cultivation of SUSIBA2 rice was associated with a significant reduction in methane emissions and a decrease in rhizospheric methanogen levels. SUSIBA2 rice offers a sustainable means of providing increased starch content for food production while reducing greenhouse gas emissions from rice cultivation. Approaches to increase rice productivity and reduce methane emissions as seen in SUSIBA2 rice may be particularly beneficial in a future climate with rising temperatures resulting in increased methane

  18. A user's guide to the reactor inventory module NECTAR-RICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, C.D.

    1982-01-01

    The NECTAR environmental computer code has been developed to meet the increasing demand for comprehensive calculations of the radiological consequences of the atmosphere release of radionuclides from a nuclear facility. The code consists of a main control program, library listing/modification routines and five calculational modules. The input data required for the reactor inventory module NECTAR-RICE is described. This data includes facilities for specifying the initial conditions, controlling the irradiation conditions of the fuel and for temporarily modifying library data at different stages of the calculation. The structure of the module is briefly described and three sample cases are given to facilitate understanding of the program's use and program testing. These sample cases demonstrate the three different ways of running the program, namely to calculate actinide inventories only, fission product inventories only or to do a composite actinide and fission product calculation. (author)

  19. Effects of acute salt stress on modulation of gene expression in a Malaysian salt-tolerant indigenous rice variety, Bajong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Brandon Pei Hui; Bhave, Mrinal; Hwang, Siaw San

    2018-01-01

    The small genome size of rice relative to wheat and barley, together with its salt sensitivity, make it an ideal candidate for studies of salt stress response. Transcriptomics has emerged as a powerful technique to study salinity responses in many crop species. By identifying a large number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) simultaneously after the stress induction, it can provide crucial insight into the immediate responses towards the stressor. In this study, a Malaysian salt-tolerant indigenous rice variety named Bajong and one commercial rice variety named MR219 were investigated for their performance in plant growth and ion accumulation properties after salt stress treatment. Bajong was further investigated for the changes in leaf's transcriptome after 6 h of stress treatment using 100 mM NaCl. Based on the results obtained, Bajong is found to be significantly more salt tolerant than MR219, showing better growth and a lower sodium ion accumulation after the stress treatment. Additionally, Bajong was analysed by transcriptomic sequencing, generating a total of 130 millions reads. The reads were assembled into de novo transcriptome and each transcript was annotated using several pre-existing databases. The transcriptomes of control and salt-stressed samples were then compared, leading to the discovery of 4096 DEGs. Based on the functional annotation results obtained, the enrichment factor of each functional group in DEGs was calculated in relation to the total reads obtained. It was found that the group with the highest gene modulation was involved in the secondary metabolite biosynthesis of plants, with approximately 2.5% increase in relation to the total reads obtained. This suggests an extensive transcriptional reprogramming of the secondary metabolic pathways after stress induction, which could be directly responsible for the salt tolerance capability of Bajong.

  20. Socio-economic factors influencing foreign rice consumption in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The economic implication is that foreign rice has become an essential commodity whose demand is not easily decreased by the decrease or rise in its price or price of its substitute, household size and its frequency of consumption in study area. The government should therefore regulate importation of the foreign rice ...

  1. Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Upland Rice ( Oryza sativa L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the analysis, it was observed that majority (80%) of the upland rice producers are males with mean age of 47 years. ... Meanwhile, the study identified inadequate capital, lack of new varieties of rice, poor market information, lack of government incentives, incidence of pest and diseases, and poor rural infrastructures as ...

  2. Wood reinforcement of poplar by rice NAC transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Shingo; Takata, Naoki; Oshima, Yoshimi; Yoshida, Kouki; Taniguchi, Toru; Mitsuda, Nobutaka

    2016-01-27

    Lignocellulose, composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, in the secondary cell wall constitutes wood and is the most abundant form of biomass on Earth. Enhancement of wood accumulation may be an effective strategy to increase biomass as well as wood strength, but currently only limited research has been undertaken. Here, we demonstrated that OsSWN1, the orthologue of the rice NAC Secondary-wall Thickening factor (NST) transcription factor, effectively enhanced secondary cell wall formation in the Arabidopsis inflorescence stem and poplar (Populus tremula×Populus tremuloides) stem when expressed by the Arabidopsis NST3 promoter. Interestingly, in transgenic Arabidopsis and poplar, ectopic secondary cell wall deposition in the pith area was observed in addition to densification of the secondary cell wall in fiber cells. The cell wall content or density of the stem increased on average by up to 38% and 39% in Arabidopsis and poplar, respectively, without causing growth inhibition. As a result, physical strength of the stem increased by up to 57% in poplar. Collectively, these data suggest that the reinforcement of wood by NST3pro:OsSWN1 is a promising strategy to enhance wood-biomass production in dicotyledonous plant species.

  3. Force Factor Modulation in Electro Dynamic Loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risbo, Lars; Agerkvist, Finn T.; Tinggaard, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    that includes the frequency dependency and applies to coils with non-inductive (lossy) blocked impedance. The paper also demonstrates that Cunningham’s force can be explained physically as a modulation of the force factor which again is directly linked to modulation of the flux of the coil. A verification based...... on both experiments and simulations is presented along discussions of the impact of force factor modulation for various motor topologies. Finally, it is shown that the popular L2R2 coil impedance model does not correctly predict the force unless the new analysis is applied....

  4. The Os-AKT1 Channel Is Critical for K+ Uptake in Rice Roots and Is Modulated by the Rice CBL1-CIPK23 Complex[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Long, Yu; Qi, Guo-Ning; Li, Juan; Xu, Zi-Jian; Wu, Wei-Hua; Wang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Potassium (K+) is one of the essential nutrient elements for plant growth and development. Plants absorb K+ ions from the environment via root cell K+ channels and/or transporters. In this study, the Shaker K+ channel Os-AKT1 was characterized for its function in K+ uptake in rice (Oryza sativa) roots, and its regulation by Os-CBL1 (Calcineurin B-Like protein1) and Os-CIPK23 (CBL-Interacting Protein Kinase23) was investigated. As an inward K+ channel, Os-AKT1 could carry out K+ uptake and rescue the low-K+-sensitive phenotype of Arabidopsis thaliana akt1 mutant plants. Rice Os-akt1 mutant plants showed decreased K+ uptake and displayed an obvious low-K+-sensitive phenotype. Disruption of Os-AKT1 significantly reduced the K+ content, which resulted in inhibition of plant growth and development. Similar to the AKT1 regulation in Arabidopsis, Os-CBL1 and Os-CIPK23 were identified as the upstream regulators of Os-AKT1 in rice. The Os-CBL1-Os-CIPK23 complex could enhance Os-AKT1-mediated K+ uptake. A phenotype test confirmed that Os-CIPK23 RNAi lines exhibited similar K+-deficient symptoms as the Os-akt1 mutant under low K+ conditions. These findings demonstrate that Os-AKT1-mediated K+ uptake in rice roots is modulated by the Os-CBL1-Os-CIPK23 complex. PMID:25096783

  5. Direct and tunable modulation of protein levels in rice and wheat with a synthetic small molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingbo; Yin, Kangquan; Sun, Juan; Gao, Jinlan; Du, Qiuli; Li, Huali; Qiu, Jin-Long

    2018-02-01

    Direct control of protein level enables rapid and efficient analyses of gene functions in crops. Previously, we developed the RDDK-Shield1 (Shld1) system in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana for direct modulation of protein stabilization using a synthetic small molecule. However, it was unclear whether this system is applicable to economically important crops. In this study, we show that the RDDK-Shld1 system enables rapid and tunable control of protein levels in rice and wheat. Accumulation of RDDK fusion proteins can be reversibly and spatio-temporally controlled by the synthetic small-molecule Shld1. Moreover, RDDK-Bar and RDDK-Pid3 fusions confer herbicide and rice blast resistance, respectively, in a Shld1-dependent manner. Therefore, the RDDK-Shld1 system provides a reversible and tunable technique for controlling protein functions and conditional expression of transgenes in crops. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Prevalence of low back pain and associated factors among farmers during the rice transplanting process

    OpenAIRE

    Keawduangdee, Petcharat; Puntumetakul, Rungthip; Swangnetr, Manida; Laohasiriwong, Wongsa; Settheetham, Dariwan; Yamauchi, Junichiro; Boucaut, Rose

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of low back pain and associated factors in Thai rice farmers during the rice transplanting process. [Subjects and Methods] Three hundred and forty-four farmers, aged 20?59 years old, were asked to answer a questionnaire modified from the Standard Nordic Questionnaire (Thai version). The questionnaire sought demographic, back-related, and psychosocial data. [Results] The results showed that the prevalence of low back pain was 83...

  7. The Association of Bread and Rice with Metabolic Factors in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhoundan, Mahdieh; Shadman, Zhaleh; Jandaghi, Parisa; Aboeerad, Maryam; Larijani, Bagher; Jamshidi, Zahra; Ardalani, Hamidreza; Khoshniat Nikoo, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrates are shown to have an important role in blood glucose control, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases risk. This is even more challenging when considering populations consuming refined grains diets. Bread and rice are staple foods which supply main proportion of Iranian calorie intake. This study was designed to investigate the effect of bread and rice intake on blood glucose control, lipid profile and anthropometric measurements in Iranian type 2 diabetic patients. 426 patients with type 2 diabetes were included in this study. Anthropometric measurements were done using standard methods. Dietary information was assessed by a valid and reliable food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), serum triglycride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were examined after 12-hour fasting. The results represented that people in the highest tertile compared to the lowest tertile of calorie adjusted total bread intake have higher FBG. FBG in the highest tertile of calorie adjusted total bread-rice intake was also significantly higher than the lowest. The association remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders. Rice intake showed no association with cardio-metabolic risk factors. We founded that higher total bread intake and total bread-rice intake were associated with FBG in type 2 diabetic patients whereas rice intake was not associated with glucose and lipid profile. This result should be confirmed in prospective studies, considering varieties, glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL) and cooking method of bread and rice.

  8. Dynamics of brassinosteroid response modulated by negative regulator LIC in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Zhang

    Full Text Available Brassinosteroids (BRs regulate rice plant architecture, including leaf bending, which affects grain yield. Although BR signaling has been investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana, the components negatively regulating this pathway are less well understood. Here, we demonstrate that Oryza sativa LEAF and TILLER ANGLE INCREASED CONTROLLER (LIC acts as an antagonistic transcription factor of BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT 1 (BZR1 to attenuate the BR signaling pathway. The gain-of-function mutant lic-1 and LIC-overexpressing lines showed erect leaves, similar to BZR1-depleted lines, which indicates the opposite roles of LIC and BZR1 in regulating leaf bending. Quantitative PCR revealed LIC transcription rapidly induced by BR treatment. Image analysis and immunoblotting showed that upon BR treatment LIC proteins translocate from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in a phosphorylation-dependent fashion. Phosphorylation assay in vitro revealed LIC phosphorylated by GSK3-like kinases. For negative feedback, LIC bound to the core element CTCGC in the BZR1 promoter on gel-shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay and repressed its transcription on transient transformation assay. LIC directly regulated target genes such as INCREASED LEAF INCLINATION 1 (ILI1 to oppose the action of BZR1. Repression of LIC in ILI1 transcription in protoplasts was partially rescued by BZR1. Phenotypic analysis of the crossed lines depleted in both LIC and BZR1 suggested that BZR1 functionally depends on LIC. Molecular and physiology assays revealed that LIC plays a dominant role at high BR levels, whereas BZR1 is dominant at low levels. Thus, LIC regulates rice leaf bending as an antagonistic transcription factor of BZR1. The phenotypes of lic-1 and LIC-overexpressing lines in erect leaves contribute to ideal plant architecture. Improving this phenotype may be a potential approach to molecular breeding for high yield in rice.

  9. Functional analysis of Dof transcription factors controlling heading date and PPDK gene expression in rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Chapter 1 presents a general introduction to the factors involved in crop domestication and the specific role of transcription factors in this process. Chapter 2 describes the functional analysis of a Dof-type transcription factor, named OsDof24, from rice.chapter 3 describes the role of OsDof25 in

  10. Force Factor Modulation in Electro Dynamic Loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risbo, Lars; Agerkvist, Finn T.; Tinggaard, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between the non-linear phenomenon of ’reluctance force’ and the position dependency of the voice coil inductance was established in 1949 by Cunningham, who called it ’magnetic attraction force’. This paper revisits Cunningham’s analysis and expands it into a generalised form that...... on both experiments and simulations is presented along discussions of the impact of force factor modulation for various motor topologies. Finally, it is shown that the popular L2R2 coil impedance model does not correctly predict the force unless the new analysis is applied....... that includes the frequency dependency and applies to coils with non-inductive (lossy) blocked impedance. The paper also demonstrates that Cunningham’s force can be explained physically as a modulation of the force factor which again is directly linked to modulation of the flux of the coil. A verification based...

  11. Determination of reactor scaling factors for throatless rice husk gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anil Kr Jain [PAU, Ludhiana (India). School of Energy Studies for Agriculture; Goss, J.R. [UCD, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering

    2000-07-01

    Four open core throatless batch fed rice husk gasifier reactors having internal diameters of 15.2, 20.3, 24.4 and 34.3 cm were designed and fabricated. Each reactor connected with gas cleaning unit was tested for its performance characteristics. On each reactor ten trial runs were conducted varying the air flow rate or specific gasification rate. Gas quality, gas production rate, gasification efficiency specific gasification rate, and equivalence ratio were determined for every run on each of the four reactors. It was found that for each reactor the gasifier performance was the best at a specific gasification rate of around 192.5 kg/h{sub m}{sup 2}. Under the best operating conditions, the equivalence ratio was 0.40 and the gasification efficiency was around 65%. These parameters may be used for designing rice husk operated throatless gasifiers in the capacity range of 3-15 kW. (author)

  12. Efficient Secretion of Recombinant Proteins from Rice Suspension-Cultured Cells Modulated by the Choice of Signal Peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Fen; Tan, Chia-Chun; Yeh, Ju-Fang; Liu, Hsin-Yi; Liu, Yu-Kuo; Ho, Shin-Lon; Lu, Chung-An

    2015-01-01

    Plant-based expression systems have emerged as a competitive platform in the large-scale production of recombinant proteins. By adding a signal peptide, αAmy3sp, the desired recombinant proteins can be secreted outside transgenic rice cells, making them easy to harvest. In this work, to improve the secretion efficiency of recombinant proteins in rice expression systems, various signal peptides including αAmy3sp, CIN1sp, and 33KDsp have been fused to the N-terminus of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and introduced into rice cells to explore the efficiency of secretion of foreign proteins. 33KDsp had better efficiency than αAmy3sp and CIN1sp for the secretion of GFP from calli and suspension-cultured cells. 33KDsp was further applied for the secretion of mouse granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (mGM-CSF) from transgenic rice suspension-cultured cells; approximately 76%–92% of total rice-derived mGM-CSF (rmGM-CSF) was detected in the culture medium. The rmGM-CSF was bioactive and could stimulate the proliferation of a murine myeloblastic leukemia cell line, NSF-60. The extracellular yield of rmGM-CSF reached 31.7 mg/L. Our study indicates that 33KDsp is better at promoting the secretion of recombinant proteins in rice suspension-cultured cell systems than the commonly used αAmy3sp. PMID:26473722

  13. The Os-AKT1 channel is critical for K+ uptake in rice roots and is modulated by the rice CBL1-CIPK23 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Long, Yu; Qi, Guo-Ning; Li, Juan; Xu, Zi-Jian; Wu, Wei-Hua; Wang, Yi

    2014-08-01

    Potassium (K(+)) is one of the essential nutrient elements for plant growth and development. Plants absorb K(+) ions from the environment via root cell K(+) channels and/or transporters. In this study, the Shaker K(+) channel Os-AKT1 was characterized for its function in K(+) uptake in rice (Oryza sativa) roots, and its regulation by Os-CBL1 (Calcineurin B-Like protein1) and Os-CIPK23 (CBL-Interacting Protein Kinase23) was investigated. As an inward K(+) channel, Os-AKT1 could carry out K(+) uptake and rescue the low-K(+)-sensitive phenotype of Arabidopsis thaliana akt1 mutant plants. Rice Os-akt1 mutant plants showed decreased K(+) uptake and displayed an obvious low-K(+)-sensitive phenotype. Disruption of Os-AKT1 significantly reduced the K(+) content, which resulted in inhibition of plant growth and development. Similar to the AKT1 regulation in Arabidopsis, Os-CBL1 and Os-CIPK23 were identified as the upstream regulators of Os-AKT1 in rice. The Os-CBL1-Os-CIPK23 complex could enhance Os-AKT1-mediated K(+) uptake. A phenotype test confirmed that Os-CIPK23 RNAi lines exhibited similar K(+)-deficient symptoms as the Os-akt1 mutant under low K(+) conditions. These findings demonstrate that Os-AKT1-mediated K(+) uptake in rice roots is modulated by the Os-CBL1-Os-CIPK23 complex. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  14. Perceived factors limiting rice production in Pategi Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    extension service 10.9% and lack of storage facilities 10.9% respectively. It is ... Rice is the most important staple food for about half the human race .... 100.0. 8. Pests and Diseases. Frequency. Percentage. 23. 21.0. 21. 19.1. 49. 44.5. 17. 15.5. 110. 100.0. 9. Lack of extension services. Frequency. Percentage. 12. 10.9. 14.

  15. Soil to rice transfer factors for 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb, 40K and 137Cs: a study on rice grown in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karunakara, N.; Rao, Chetan; Ujwal, P.; Yashodhara, I.; Kumara, Sudeep; Ravi, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    India is the second largest producer of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the world and rice is an essential component of the diet for a majority of the population in India. However, detailed studies aimed at the evaluation of radionuclide transfer factors (F v ) for the rice grown in India are almost non-existent. This paper presents the soil to rice transfer factors for natural ( 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 40 K, and 210 Pb) and artificial ( 137 Cs) radionuclides for rice grown in natural field conditions on the West Coast of India. A rice field was developed very close to the Kaiga nuclear power plant and the water required for this field was drawn from the cooling water discharge canal of the power plant. For a comparative study of the radionuclide transfer factors, rice samples were also collected from the rice fields of nearby villages. The study showed that the 226 Ra and 228 Ra activity concentrations were below detection levels in different organs of the rice plant. The soil to un-hulled rice grain 40 K transfer factor varied in the range of 6.5 × 10 −1 to 2.9 with a mean of 0.15 × 10 1 , and of 210 Pb varied in the range of −2 to 8.1 × 10 −1 with a mean of 1.4 × 10 −1 , and of 137 Cs varied in the range of 6.6 × 10 −2 to 3.4 × 10 −1 with a mean of 2.1 × 10 −1 . The mean values of un-hulled grain to white rice processing retention factors (F r ) were 0.12 for 40 K, 0.03 for 210 Pb, and 0.14 for 137 Cs. Using these processing retention factors, the soil to white rice transfer factors were estimated and these were found to have mean values of 1.8 × 10 −1 , 4.2 × 10 −3 , and 3.0 × 10 −2 for 40 K, 210 Pb, and 137 Cs, respectively. The study has shown that the transfer of 40 K was higher for above the ground organs than for the root, but 210 Pb and 137 Cs were retained in the root and their transfer to above the ground organs of the rice plant is significantly lower. -- Highlights: ► Soil to rice (Oryza sativa L.) transfer factors for radionuclides

  16. Genetically engineered Rice with transcription factor DREB genes for abiotic stress tolerance(abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, S.K.; Datta, K.

    2005-01-01

    Water stress (drought and Salinity) is the most severe limitation to rice productivity. Several breeding approaches (MAS, QTL) applied to suitable genotypes are in place at IRRI and elsewhere. Phenotyping of water stress tolerance is in progress with potential predictability. Dr. Shinozaki's group has cloned a number of transcription factor genes, which have been shown to work in Arabidopsis to achieve drought, cold, and salinity tolerant plants. None of these genes have as yet displayed their potential functioning in rice. Genetic engineering aims at cross talk between different stress signaling pathways leading to stress tolerance. Osmotic Adjustment (OA) is an effective component of abiotic stress (drought and salinity) tolerance in many plants including rice. When plant experiences water stress, OA contributes to turgor maintenance of both shoots and roots. Conventional breeding could not achieve the OA in rice excepting a few rice cultivars, which are partially adapted to water-stress conditions. Several stress-related genes have now been cloned and transferred in to enhance the osmolytes and some transgenic lines showed increased tolerance to osmotic stress. A few strategies could be effectively deployed for a better understanding of water-stress tolerance in rice and to develop transgenic rice, which can survive for a critical period of water-stress conditions: 1) Switching on of transcription factor regulating the expression of several genes related to abiotic stress, 2) Use of a suitable stress inducible promoter driving the target gene for an efficient and directed expression in plants, 3) Understanding of phenotyping and GxE in a given environment, 4) Selection of a few adaptive rice cultivars suitable in drought/salinity prone areas, 5) Microarray, proteomics, QTL and MAS may expedite the cloning and characterizing the stress induced genes, and 6) Finally, the efficient transformation system for generating a large number of transgenic rice of different

  17. Genetic Modulation of c-di-GMP Turnover Affects Multiple Virulence Traits and Bacterial Virulence in Rice Pathogen Dickeya zeae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufan Chen

    Full Text Available The frequent outbreaks of rice foot rot disease caused by Dickeya zeae have become a significant concern in rice planting regions and countries, but the regulatory mechanisms that govern the virulence of this important pathogen remain vague. Given that the second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP is associated with modulation of various virulence-related traits in various microorganisms, here we set to investigate the role of the genes encoding c-di-GMP metabolism in the regulation of the bacterial physiology and virulence by construction all in-frame deletion mutants targeting the annotated c-di-GMP turnover genes in D. zeae strain EC1. Phenotype analyses identified individual mutants showing altered production of exoenzymes and phytotoxins, biofilm formation and bacterial motilities. The results provide useful clues and a valuable toolkit for further characterization and dissection of the regulatory complex that modulates the pathogenesis and persistence of this important bacterial pathogen.

  18. Genetic Modulation of c-di-GMP Turnover Affects Multiple Virulence Traits and Bacterial Virulence in Rice Pathogen Dickeya zeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yufan; Lv, Mingfa; Liao, Lisheng; Gu, Yanfang; Liang, Zhibin; Shi, Zurong; Liu, Shiyin; Zhou, Jianuan; Zhang, Lianhui

    2016-01-01

    The frequent outbreaks of rice foot rot disease caused by Dickeya zeae have become a significant concern in rice planting regions and countries, but the regulatory mechanisms that govern the virulence of this important pathogen remain vague. Given that the second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is associated with modulation of various virulence-related traits in various microorganisms, here we set to investigate the role of the genes encoding c-di-GMP metabolism in the regulation of the bacterial physiology and virulence by construction all in-frame deletion mutants targeting the annotated c-di-GMP turnover genes in D. zeae strain EC1. Phenotype analyses identified individual mutants showing altered production of exoenzymes and phytotoxins, biofilm formation and bacterial motilities. The results provide useful clues and a valuable toolkit for further characterization and dissection of the regulatory complex that modulates the pathogenesis and persistence of this important bacterial pathogen.

  19. Gestalt factors modulate basic spatial vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayim, B; Westheimer, G; Herzog, M H

    2010-05-01

    Human perception of a stimulus varies depending on the context in which the stimulus is presented. Such contextual modulation has often been explained by two basic neural mechanisms: lateral inhibition and spatial pooling. In the present study, we presented observers with a vernier stimulus flanked by single lines; observers' ability to discriminate the offset direction of the vernier stimulus deteriorated in accordance with both explanations. However, when the flanking lines were part of a geometric shape (i.e., a good Gestalt), this deterioration strongly diminished. These findings cannot be explained by lateral inhibition or spatial pooling. It seems that Gestalt factors play an important role in contextual modulation. We propose that contextual modulation can be used as a quantitative measure to investigate the rules governing the grouping of elements into meaningful wholes.

  20. The rice hydroperoxide lyase OsHPL3 functions in defense responses by modulating the oxylipin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiaohong; Qi, Jinfeng; Zhu, Xudong; Mao, Bizeng; Zeng, Longjun; Wang, Baohui; Li, Qun; Zhou, Guoxin; Xu, Xiaojing; Lou, Yonggen; He, Zuhua

    2012-09-01

    As important signal molecules, jasmonates (JAs) and green leaf volatiles (GLVs) play diverse roles in plant defense responses against insect pests and pathogens. However, how plants employ their specific defense responses by modulating the levels of JA and GLVs remains unclear. Here, we describe identification of a role for the rice HPL3 gene, which encodes a hydroperoxide lyase (HPL), OsHPL3/CYP74B2, in mediating plant-specific defense responses. The loss-of-function mutant hpl3-1 produced disease-resembling lesions spreading through the whole leaves. A biochemical assay revealed that OsHPL3 possesses intrinsic HPL activity, hydrolyzing hydroperoxylinolenic acid to produce GLVs. The hpl3-1 plants exhibited enhanced induction of JA, trypsin proteinase inhibitors and other volatiles, but decreased levels of GLVs including (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol. OsHPL3 positively modulates resistance to the rice brown planthopper [BPH, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål)] but negatively modulates resistance to the rice striped stem borer [SSB, Chilo suppressalis (Walker)]. Moreover, hpl3-1 plants were more attractive to a BPH egg parasitoid, Anagrus nilaparvatae, than the wild-type, most likely as a result of increased release of BPH-induced volatiles. Interestingly, hpl3-1 plants also showed increased resistance to bacterial blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae). Collectively, these results indicate that OsHPL3, by affecting the levels of JA, GLVs and other volatiles, modulates rice-specific defense responses against different invaders. © 2012 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Effect of gamma irradiation on some nutritional factors of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Khan Ayob; Osman Hassan.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation and types of packaging material used (namely: gunny sack, heavy duty polyethylene, woven laminated bags) on moisture content, gel viscosity and reducing sugar of rice was observed. Moisture content, gel viscosity and reducing sugar were determined by drying method, brookfield viscometer and Nelson method, respectively. The results showed that moisture and reducing sugar content were not significantly affected by types of material and irradiation doses. On the other hand gel viscosity was greatly influenced by irradiation doses and storage time. (A.J.)

  2. EFFECT OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS ICM ADOPTION IN WEST JAVA RICE CENTER PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikin Sadikin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One policies generated by technological innovation that have been adopted by farmers in West Java is a method and resource Integrated Crop Management (ICM. In terms technical-agronomic, rice ICM application implementation at field level, to increase production 8.3 up to15.6 percent, higher than conventional technology applications by farmers. Question: in economic, is there increasing farmers' income implications? Extent to which socio-economic aspects can affect ICM rice technology adoption in different locations? Extent to which differences in effect, increased production and farmers' income participants and non-participants ICM? To learn and understand influence socio-economic factors on use ICM technology requires a particular research method. Survey method and logistic function analysis used in this study, to examine respondent and farmer participants and non-participants ICM at centre rice production in West Java, carried out research in Karawang district and Tasikmalaya. Analysis revealed that ICM technology applications in research site a positive effect on increasing rice production by eleven percent. Technicallyagronomic and socio-economic model ICM is still feasible. But on the other hand, respondent farmers in study sites, in general, have exceed recommendation in use factor inputs (fertilizers Urea, KCL, Pesticides, so that negative impact on rice production and farmers' income.

  3. Discovery of microRNA-target modules of African rice (Oryza glaberrima) under salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Tapan Kumar; Panda, Alok Kumar; Rawal, Hukam C; Sharma, Tilak Raj

    2018-01-12

    Oryza glaberrima is the second edible rice in the genus Oryza. It is grown in the African countries. miRNAs are regulatory molecules that are involved in every domains of gene expression including salinity stress response. Although several miRNAs have been reported from various species of Oryza, yet none of them are from this species. Salt treated (200 mM NaCl for 48 h) and control smallRNA libraries of RAM-100, a salt tolerant genotype, each with 2 replications generated 150 conserve and 348 novel miRNAs. We also used smallRNAseq data of NCBI of O. glaberrima to discover additional 246 known miRNAs. Totally, 29 known and 32 novel miRNAs were differentially regulated under salinity stress. Gene ontology and KEGG analysis indicated several targets were involved in vital biological pathways of salinity stress tolerance. Expression of selected miRNAs as indicated by Illumina data were found to be coherent with real time-PCR analysis. However, target gene expression was inversely correlated with their corresponding miRNAs. Finally based upon present results as well as existing knowledge of literature, we proposed the miRNA-target modules that were induced by salinity stress. Therefore, the present findings provide valuable information about miRNA-target networks in salinity adaption of O. glaberrima.

  4. Rice MYC2 (OsMYC2) modulates light-dependent seedling ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mrunmay Kumar Giri

    2017-08-03

    -expression and RNAi lines of OsMYC2 in rice. To investigate the role of OsMYC2 in rice, we generated over-expression and the siRNA lines of OsMYC2 by tissue culture technique. Over-expression plants were created by.

  5. Prevalence of low back pain and associated factors among farmers during the rice transplanting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keawduangdee, Petcharat; Puntumetakul, Rungthip; Swangnetr, Manida; Laohasiriwong, Wongsa; Settheetham, Dariwan; Yamauchi, Junichiro; Boucaut, Rose

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of low back pain and associated factors in Thai rice farmers during the rice transplanting process. [Subjects and Methods] Three hundred and forty-four farmers, aged 20-59 years old, were asked to answer a questionnaire modified from the Standard Nordic Questionnaire (Thai version). The questionnaire sought demographic, back-related, and psychosocial data. [Results] The results showed that the prevalence of low back pain was 83.1%. Farmers younger than 45 years old who worked in the field fewer than six days were more likely to experience low back pain than those who worked for at least six days. Farmers with high stress levels were more likely to have low back pain. [Conclusion] In the rice transplanting process, the low back pain experienced by the farmers was associated with the weekly work duration and stress.

  6. MiR529a modulates panicle architecture through regulating SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING-LIKE genes in rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Erkui; Li, Chao; Li, Yu; Liu, Zhen; Xu, Jian-Hong

    2017-07-01

    MiR529a affects rice panicle architecture by targeting OsSPL2,OsSPL14 and OsSPL17 genes that could regulate their downstream panicle related genes. The panicle architecture determines the grain yield and quality of rice, which could be regulated by many transcriptional factors. The SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING-LIKE (SPL) transcription factors are involved in the regulation of panicle development, which are targeted by miR156 and miR529. The expression profile demonstrated that miR529a is preferentially expressed in the early panicle of rice and it might regulate panicle development in rice. However, the regulation mechanism of miR529-SPL is still not clear. In this study, we predicted five miR529a putative target genes, OsSPL2, OsSPL14, OsSPL16, OsSPL17 and OsSPL18, while only the expression of OsSPL2, OsSPL14, and OsSPL17 was regulated by miR529a in the rice panicle. Overexpression of miR529a dramatically affected panicle architecture, which was regulated by OsSPL2, OsSPL14, and OsSPL17. Furthermore, the 117, 35, and 25 pathway genes associated with OsSPL2, OsSPL14 and OsSPL17, respectively, were predicted, and they shared 20 putative pathway genes. Our results revealed that miR529a could play a vital role in the regulation of panicle architecture through regulating OsSPL2, OsSPL14, OsSPL17 and the complex networks formed by their pathway and downstream genes. These findings will provide new genetic resources for reshaping ideal plant architecture and breeding high yield rice varieties.

  7. Auxin signal transcription factor regulates expression of the brassinosteroid receptor gene in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Tomoaki; Morinaka, Yoichi; Inukai, Yoshiaki; Kitano, Hidemi; Fujioka, Shozo

    2013-02-01

    The phytohormones auxins and brassinosteroids are both essential regulators of physiological and developmental processes, and it has been suggested that they act inter-dependently and synergistically. In rice (Oryza sativa), auxin co-application improves the brassinosteroid response in the rice lamina inclination bioassay. Here, we showed that auxins stimulate brassinosteroid perception by regulating the level of brassinosteroid receptor. Auxin treatment increased expression of the rice brassinosteroid receptor gene OsBRI1. The promoter of OsBRI1 contains an auxin-response element (AuxRE) that is targeted by auxin-response factor (ARF) transcription factors. An AuxRE mutation abolished the induction of OsBRI1 expression by auxins, and OsBRI1 expression was down-regulated in an arf mutant. The AuxRE motif in the OsBRI1 promoter, and thus the transient up-regulation of OsBRI1 expression caused by treatment with indole-3-acetic acid, is essential for the indole-3-acetic acid-induced increase in sensitivity to brassinosteroids. These findings demonstrate that some ARFs control the degree of brassinosteroid perception required for normal growth and development in rice. Although multi-level interactions between auxins and brassinosteroids have previously been reported, our findings suggest a mechanism by which auxins control cellular sensitivity to brassinosteroids, and further support the notion that interactions between auxins and brassinosteroids are extensive and complex. © 2012 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Characterization of Transcription Factor Gene OsDRAP1 Conferring Drought Tolerance in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyu Huang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available HIGHLIGHTSOverexpressing and RNA interfering OsDRAP1 transgenic rice plants exhibited significantly improved and reduced drought tolerance, but accompanied with negative effects on development and yield.The dehydration responsive element binding (DREBs genes are important transcription factors which play a crucial role in plant abiotic stress tolerances. In this study, we functionally characterized a DREB2-like gene, OsDRAP1 conferring drought tolerance (DT in rice. OsDRAP1, containing many cis-elements in its promoter region, was expressed in all organs (mainly expressed in vascular tissues of rice, and induced by a variety of environmental stresses and plant hormones. Overexpressing OsDRAP1 transgenic plants exhibited significantly improved DT; while OsDRAP1 RNA interfering plants exhibited significantly reduced DT which also accompanied with significant negative effects on development and yield. Overexpression of OsDRAP1 has a positive impact on maintaining water balance, redox homeostasis and vascular development in transgenic rice plants under drought stress. OsDRAP1 interacted with many genes/proteins and could activate many downstream DT related genes, including important transcription factors such as OsCBSX3 to response drought stress, indicating the OsDRAP1-mediated pathways for DT involve complex genes networks. All these results provide a basis for further complete understanding of the OsDRAP1 mediated gene networks and their related phenotypic effects.

  9. Characterization of Transcription Factor GeneOsDRAP1Conferring Drought Tolerance in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liyu; Wang, Yinxiao; Wang, Wensheng; Zhao, Xiuqin; Qin, Qiao; Sun, Fan; Hu, Fengyi; Zhao, Yan; Li, Zichao; Fu, Binying; Li, Zhikang

    2018-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS Overexpressing and RNA interfering OsDRAP1 transgenic rice plants exhibited significantly improved and reduced drought tolerance, but accompanied with negative effects on development and yield. The dehydration responsive element binding (DREBs) genes are important transcription factors which play a crucial role in plant abiotic stress tolerances. In this study, we functionally characterized a DREB2-like gene, OsDRAP1 conferring drought tolerance (DT) in rice. OsDRAP1 , containing many cis -elements in its promoter region, was expressed in all organs (mainly expressed in vascular tissues) of rice, and induced by a variety of environmental stresses and plant hormones. Overexpressing OsDRAP1 transgenic plants exhibited significantly improved DT; while OsDRAP1 RNA interfering plants exhibited significantly reduced DT which also accompanied with significant negative effects on development and yield. Overexpression of OsDRAP1 has a positive impact on maintaining water balance, redox homeostasis and vascular development in transgenic rice plants under drought stress. OsDRAP1 interacted with many genes/proteins and could activate many downstream DT related genes, including important transcription factors such as OsCBSX3 to response drought stress, indicating the OsDRAP1 -mediated pathways for DT involve complex genes networks. All these results provide a basis for further complete understanding of the OsDRAP1 mediated gene networks and their related phenotypic effects.

  10. OsPIN5b modulates rice (Oryza sativa) plant architecture and yield by changing auxin homeostasis, transport and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guangwen; Coneva, Viktoriya; Casaretto, José A; Ying, Shan; Mahmood, Kashif; Liu, Fang; Nambara, Eiji; Bi, Yong-Mei; Rothstein, Steven J

    2015-09-01

    Plant architecture attributes such as tillering, plant height and panicle size are important agronomic traits that determine rice (Oryza sativa) productivity. Here, we report that altered auxin content, transport and distribution affect these traits, and hence rice yield. Overexpression of the auxin efflux carrier-like gene OsPIN5b causes pleiotropic effects, mainly reducing plant height, leaf and tiller number, shoot and root biomass, seed-setting rate, panicle length and yield parameters. Conversely, reduced expression of OsPIN5b results in higher tiller number, more vigorous root system, longer panicles and increased yield. We show that OsPIN5b is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) -localized protein that participates in auxin homeostasis, transport and distribution in vivo. This work describes an example of an auxin-related gene where modulating its expression can simultaneously improve plant architecture and yield potential in rice, and reveals an important effect of hormonal signaling on these traits. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Genome-wide classification and expression analysis of MYB transcription factor families in rice and Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The MYB gene family comprises one of the richest groups of transcription factors in plants. Plant MYB proteins are characterized by a highly conserved MYB DNA-binding domain. MYB proteins are classified into four major groups namely, 1R-MYB, 2R-MYB, 3R-MYB and 4R-MYB based on the number and position of MYB repeats. MYB transcription factors are involved in plant development, secondary metabolism, hormone signal transduction, disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. A comparative analysis of MYB family genes in rice and Arabidopsis will help reveal the evolution and function of MYB genes in plants. Results A genome-wide analysis identified at least 155 and 197 MYB genes in rice and Arabidopsis, respectively. Gene structure analysis revealed that MYB family genes possess relatively more number of introns in the middle as compared with C- and N-terminal regions of the predicted genes. Intronless MYB-genes are highly conserved both in rice and Arabidopsis. MYB genes encoding R2R3 repeat MYB proteins retained conserved gene structure with three exons and two introns, whereas genes encoding R1R2R3 repeat containing proteins consist of six exons and five introns. The splicing pattern is similar among R1R2R3 MYB genes in Arabidopsis. In contrast, variation in splicing pattern was observed among R1R2R3 MYB members of rice. Consensus motif analysis of 1kb upstream region (5′ to translation initiation codon) of MYB gene ORFs led to the identification of conserved and over-represented cis-motifs in both rice and Arabidopsis. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that several members of MYBs are up-regulated by various abiotic stresses both in rice and Arabidopsis. Conclusion A comprehensive genome-wide analysis of chromosomal distribution, tandem repeats and phylogenetic relationship of MYB family genes in rice and Arabidopsis suggested their evolution via duplication. Genome-wide comparative analysis of MYB genes and their expression analysis

  12. Prevalence and risk factor analysis of lower extremity abnormal alignment characteristics among rice farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karukunchit U

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Usa Karukunchit,1,2 Rungthip Puntumetakul,1,3 Manida Swangnetr,1,4 Rose Boucaut5 1Research Center in Back, Neck, Other Joint Pain and Human Performance (BNOJPH, 2Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, 3School of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, 4Department of Production Technology, Faculty of Technology, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 5School of Health Sciences (Physiotherapy, iCAHE (International Centre for Allied Health Evidence, Sansom Institute for Health Research, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia Background: Rice farming activities involve prolonged manual work and human–machine interaction. Prolonged farming risk-exposure may result in lower limb malalignment. This malalignment may increase the risk of lower extremity injury and physical disabilities. However, the prevalence and factors associated with lower extremity malalignment have not yet been reported. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of lower extremity malalignment among rice farmers.Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 249 rice farmers. Lower extremity alignment assessment included: pelvic tilt angle, limb length equality, femoral torsion, quadriceps (Q angle, tibiofemoral angle, genu recurvatum, rearfoot angle, and medial longitudinal arch angle. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze participant characteristics and prevalence of lower extremity malalignment. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors.Results: The highest prevalence of lower extremity malalignment was foot pronation (36.14%, followed by the abnormal Q angle (34.94%, tibiofemoral angle (31.73%, pelvic tilt angle (30.52%, femoral antetorsion (28.11%, limb length inequality (22.49%, tibial torsion (21.29%, and genu recurvatum (11.24%. In females, the risk factors were abnormal Q angle, tibiofemoral angle, and genu recurvatum. Being overweight

  13. CLD1/SRL1 modulates leaf rolling by affecting cell wall formation, epidermis integrity and water homeostasis in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Qiang; Zhang, Min-Juan; Gan, Peng-Fei; Qiao, Lei; Yang, Shuai-Qi; Miao, Hai; Wang, Gang-Feng; Zhang, Mao-Mao; Liu, Wen-Ting; Li, Hai-Feng; Shi, Chun-Hai; Chen, Kun-Ming

    2017-12-01

    Leaf rolling is considered as one of the most important agronomic traits in rice breeding. It has been previously reported that SEMI-ROLLED LEAF 1 (SRL1) modulates leaf rolling by regulating the formation of bulliform cells in rice (Oryza sativa); however, the regulatory mechanism underlying SRL1 has yet to be further elucidated. Here, we report the functional characterization of a novel leaf-rolling mutant, curled leaf and dwarf 1 (cld1), with multiple morphological defects. Map-based cloning revealed that CLD1 is allelic with SRL1, and loses function in cld1 through DNA methylation. CLD1/SRL1 encodes a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane protein that modulates leaf rolling and other aspects of rice growth and development. The cld1 mutant exhibits significant decreases in cellulose and lignin contents in secondary cell walls of leaves, indicating that the loss of function of CLD1/SRL1 affects cell wall formation. Furthermore, the loss of CLD1/SRL1 function leads to defective leaf epidermis such as bulliform-like epidermal cells. The defects in leaf epidermis decrease the water-retaining capacity and lead to water deficits in cld1 leaves, which contribute to the main cause of leaf rolling. As a result of the more rapid water loss and lower water content in leaves, cld1 exhibits reduced drought tolerance. Accordingly, the loss of CLD1/SRL1 function causes abnormal expression of genes and proteins associated with cell wall formation, cuticle development and water stress. Taken together, these findings suggest that the functional roles of CLD1/SRL1 in leaf-rolling regulation are closely related to the maintenance of cell wall formation, epidermal integrity and water homeostasis. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Nicotianamine synthase overexpression positively modulates iron homeostasis-related genes in high iron rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng eWang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Nearly one-third of the world population, mostly women and children, suffer from iron malnutrition and its consequences, such as anemia or impaired mental development. Biofortification of rice, which is a staple crop for nearly half of the world’s population, can significantly contribute in alleviating iron deficiency. NFP rice (transgenic rice expressing nicotianamine synthase, ferritin and phytase genes has a more than six-fold increase in iron content in polished rice grains, resulting from the synergistic action of nicotianamine synthase (NAS and ferritin transgenes. We investigated iron homeostasis in NFP plants by analyzing the expression of 28 endogenous rice genes known to be involved in the homeostasis of iron and other metals, in iron-deficient and iron-sufficient conditions. RNA was collected from different tissues (roots, flag leaves, grains and at three developmental stages during grain filling. NFP plants showed increased sensitivity to iron-deficiency conditions and changes in the expression of endogenous genes involved in nicotianamine (NA metabolism, in comparison to their non-transgenic siblings. Elevated transcript levels were detected in NFP plants for several iron transporters. In contrast, expression of OsYSL2, which encodes a member of Yellow Stripe-like protein family, and a transporter of the NA-Fe(II complex was reduced in NFP plants under low iron conditions, indicating that expression of OsYSL2 is regulated by the endogenous iron status. Expression of the transgenes did not significantly affect overall iron homeostasis in NFP plants, which establishes the engineered push-pull mechanism as a suitable strategy to increase rice endosperm iron content.

  15. Factors affecting farm diversification in rice-wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashfaq, M.; Hassan, S.; Naseer, M.Z.; Baig, I.A.; Asma, J.

    2008-01-01

    The risk in agriculture sector is due to various factors like weather and market conditions, particularly the demand of the commodities. This uncertainty can result in variable returns (farm income) to the decisions that farmers make in a particular season. Diversification is a frequently used risk management strategy that involves participation in more than one activity. It has the added advantage of mitigating price risk as well as fluctuations in outputs. The main purpose of this paper was to determine the factors affecting crop diversification. For determining the effect of different factors on diversification a multiple regression model was used. The values of Entropy index computed for measuring horizontal diversification were taken as dependent variable and different factors affecting diversification were taken as independent variables. The results showed that the main factors affecting diversification were size of land holding, age of respondent, education level of respondent, farming experience of respondent, off farm income of respondent, distance of farm from main road, distance of farm from main market and farm machinery. (author)

  16. Rice MYC2 (OsMYC2) modulates light-dependent seedling ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mrunmay Kumar Giri

    2017-08-03

    Aug 3, 2017 ... tomorphogenesis is not known. In this study, we identified the putative homologues of. AtMYC2 from rice, OsMYC2, which show 47% amino acid sequence identity with AtMYC2. We have shown that. OsMYC2-1 efficiently complements blue light signalling in. Arabidopsis with respect to seedling phenotype.

  17. Engineering the Oryza sativa cell wall with rice NAC transcription factors regulating secondary wall formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kouki; Sakamoto, Shingo; Kawai, Tetsushi; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Sato, Kazuhito; Ichinose, Yasunori; Yaoi, Katsuro; Akiyoshi-Endo, Miho; Sato, Hiroko; Takamizo, Tadashi; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Mitsuda, Nobutaka

    2013-01-01

    Plant tissues that require structural rigidity synthesize a thick, strong secondary cell wall of lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses in a complicated bridged structure. Master regulators of secondary wall synthesis were identified in dicots, and orthologs of these regulators have been identified in monocots, but regulation of secondary cell wall formation in monocots has not been extensively studied. Here we demonstrate that the rice transcription factors SECONDARY WALL NAC DOMAIN PROTEINs (SWNs) can regulate secondary wall formation in rice (Oryza sativa) and are potentially useful for engineering the monocot cell wall. The OsSWN1 promoter is highly active in sclerenchymatous cells of the leaf blade and less active in xylem cells. By contrast, the OsSWN2 promoter is highly active in xylem cells and less active in sclerenchymatous cells. OsSWN2 splicing variants encode two proteins; the shorter protein (OsSWN2S) has very low transcriptional activation ability, but the longer protein (OsSWN2L) and OsSWN1 have strong transcriptional activation ability. In rice, expression of an OsSWN2S chimeric repressor, driven by the OsSWN2 promoter, resulted in stunted growth and para-wilting (leaf rolling and browning under normal water conditions) due to impaired vascular vessels. The same OsSWN2S chimeric repressor, driven by the OsSWN1 promoter, caused a reduction of cell wall thickening in sclerenchymatous cells, a drooping leaf phenotype, reduced lignin and xylose contents and increased digestibility as forage. These data suggest that OsSWNs regulate secondary wall formation in rice and manipulation of OsSWNs may enable improvements in monocotyledonous crops for forage or biofuel applications.

  18. Engineering the Oryza sativa cell wall with rice NAC transcription factors regulating secondary wall formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouki eYoshida

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant tissues that require structural rigidity synthesize a thick, strong secondary cell wall of lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses in a complicated bridged structure. Master regulators of secondary wall synthesis were identified in dicots, and orthologs of these regulators have been identified in monocots, but regulation of secondary cell wall formation in monocots has not been extensively studied. Here we demonstrate that the rice transcription factors SECONDARY WALL NAC DOMAIN PROTEINs (SWNs can regulate secondary wall formation in rice (Oryza sativa and are potentially useful for engineering the monocot cell wall. The OsSWN1 promoter is highly active in sclerenchymatous cells of the leaf blade and less active in xylem cells. By contrast, the OsSWN2 promoter is highly active in xylem cells and less active in sclerenchymatous cells. OsSWN2 splicing variants encode two proteins; the shorter protein (OsSWN2S has very low transcriptional activation ability, but the longer protein (OsSWN2L and OsSWN1 have strong transcriptional activation ability. In rice, expression of an OsSWN2S chimeric repressor, driven by the OsSWN2 promoter, resulted in stunted growth and para-wilting (leaf rolling and browning under normal water conditions due to impaired vascular vessels. The same OsSWN2S chimeric repressor, driven by the OsSWN1 promoter, caused a reduction of cell wall thickening in sclerenchymatous cells, a drooping leaf phenotype, reduced lignin and xylose contents and increased digestibility as forage. These data suggest that OsSWNs regulate secondary wall formation in rice and manipulation of OsSWNs may enable improvements in monocotyledonous crops for forage or biofuel applications.

  19. Genetic variations in ARE1 mediate grain yield by modulating nitrogen utilization in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Nian, Jinqiang; Xie, Xianzhi; Yu, Hong; Zhang, Jian; Bai, Jiaoteng; Dong, Guojun; Hu, Jiang; Bai, Bo; Chen, Lichao; Xie, Qingjun; Feng, Jian; Yang, Xiaolu; Peng, Juli; Chen, Fan; Qian, Qian; Li, Jiayang; Zuo, Jianru

    2018-02-21

    In crops, nitrogen directly determines productivity and biomass. However, the improvement of nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUE) is still a major challenge in modern agriculture. Here, we report the characterization of are1, a genetic suppressor of a rice fd-gogat mutant defective in nitrogen assimilation. ARE1 is a highly conserved gene, encoding a chloroplast-localized protein. Loss-of-function mutations in ARE1 cause delayed senescence and result in 10-20% grain yield increases, hence enhance NUE under nitrogen-limiting conditions. Analysis of a panel of 2155 rice varieties reveals that 18% indica and 48% aus accessions carry small insertions in the ARE1 promoter, which result in a reduction in ARE1 expression and an increase in grain yield under nitrogen-limiting conditions. We propose that ARE1 is a key mediator of NUE and represents a promising target for breeding high-yield cultivars under nitrogen-limiting condition.

  20. Rice MYC2 (OsMYC2) modulates light-dependent seedling ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The rice geneOs10g42430 has been referred earlier as OsMYC2 and has been shown to promote expression of JA-inducible genes.However, the role of OsMYC2 in seedling development under ABA, dark or light of specific wavelengths was not known.It was also not known whether OsMYC2 complements AtMYC2 function ...

  1. Cramer-Rao Lower Bound Evaluation for Linear Frequency Modulation Based Active Radar Networks Operating in a Rice Fading Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenguang Shi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the joint target parameter (delay and Doppler estimation performance of linear frequency modulation (LFM-based radar networks in a Rice fading environment. The active radar networks are composed of multiple radar transmitters and multichannel receivers placed on moving platforms. First, the log-likelihood function of the received signal for a Rician target is derived, where the received signal scattered off the target comprises of dominant scatterer (DS component and weak isotropic scatterers (WIS components. Then, the analytically closed-form expressions of the Cramer-Rao lower bounds (CRLBs on the Cartesian coordinates of target position and velocity are calculated, which can be adopted as a performance metric to access the target parameter estimation accuracy for LFM-based radar network systems in a Rice fading environment. It is found that the cumulative Fisher information matrix (FIM is a linear combination of both DS component and WIS components, and it also demonstrates that the joint CRLB is a function of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, target’s radar cross section (RCS and transmitted waveform parameters, as well as the relative geometry between the target and the radar network architectures. Finally, numerical results are provided to indicate that the joint target parameter estimation performance of active radar networks can be significantly improved with the exploitation of DS component.

  2. Pilot Dietary Intervention with Heat-Stabilized Rice Bran Modulates Stool Microbiota and Metabolites in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M. Sheflin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Heat-stabilized rice bran (SRB has been shown to regulate blood lipids and glucose, modulate gut mucosal immunity and inhibit colorectal cancer in animal and human studies. However, SRB’s effects on gut microbial composition and metabolism and the resulting implications for health remain largely unknown. A pilot, randomized-controlled trial was developed to investigate the effects of eating 30 g/day SRB on the stool microbiome and metabolome. Seven healthy participants consumed a study meal and snack daily for 28 days. The microbiome and metabolome were characterized using 454 pyrosequencing and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS at baseline, two and four weeks post-intervention. Increases in eight operational taxonomic units (OTUs, including three from Bifidobacterium and Ruminococcus genera, were observed after two and four weeks of SRB consumption (p < 0.01. Branched chain fatty acids, secondary bile acids and eleven other putative microbial metabolites were significantly elevated in the SRB group after four weeks. The largest metabolite change was a rice bran component, indole-2-carboxylic acid, which showed a mean 12% increase with SRB consumption. These data support the feasibility of dietary SRB intervention in adults and support that SRB consumption can affect gut microbial metabolism. These findings warrant future investigations of larger cohorts evaluating SRB’s effects on intestinal health.

  3. Abiotic Stresses Cause Differential Regulation of Alternative Splice Forms of GATA Transcription Factor in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Gupta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The GATA gene family is one of the most conserved families of transcription factors, playing a significant role in different aspects of cellular processes, in organisms ranging from fungi to angiosperms. GATA transcription factors are DNA-binding proteins, having a class IV zinc-finger motif CX2CX17−20CX2C followed by a highly basic region and are known to bind a consensus sequence WGATAR. In plants, GATAs are known to be involved in light-dependent gene regulation and nitrate assimilation. However, a comprehensive analysis of these GATA gene members has not yet been highlighted in rice when subjected to environmental stresses. In this study, we present an overview of the GATA gene family in rice (OsGATA in terms of, their chromosomal distribution, domain architecture, and phylogeny. Our study has revealed the presence of 28 genes, encoding 35 putative GATA transcription factors belonging to seven subfamilies in the rice genome. Transcript abundance analysis in contrasting genotypes of rice—IR64 (salt sensitive and Pokkali (salt tolerant, for individual GATA members indicated their differential expression in response to various abiotic stresses such as salinity, drought, and exogenous ABA. One of the members of subfamily VII—OsGATA23a, emerged as a multi-stress responsive transcription factor giving elevated expression levels in response to salinity and drought. ABA also induces expression of OsGATA23a by 35 and 55-folds in IR64 and Pokkali respectively. However, OsGATA23b, an alternative splice variant of OsGATA23 did not respond to above-mentioned stresses. Developmental regulation of the OsGATA genes based on a publicly available microarray database showed distinct expression patterns for most of the GATA members throughout different stages of rice development. Altogether, our results suggest inherent roles of diverse OsGATA factors in abiotic stress signaling and also throw some light on the tight regulation of the spliced variants of

  4. Stochastic Frontier Approach and Data Envelopment Analysis to Total Factor Productivity and Efficiency Measurement of Bangladeshi Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md. Kamrul; Kamil, Anton Abdulbasah; Baten, Md. Azizul; Mustafa, Adli

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to apply the Translog Stochastic Frontier production model (SFA) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to estimate efficiencies over time and the Total Factor Productivity (TFP) growth rate for Bangladeshi rice crops (Aus, Aman and Boro) throughout the most recent data available comprising the period 1989–2008. Results indicate that technical efficiency was observed as higher for Boro among the three types of rice, but the overall technical efficiency of rice production was found around 50%. Although positive changes exist in TFP for the sample analyzed, the average growth rate of TFP for rice production was estimated at almost the same levels for both Translog SFA with half normal distribution and DEA. Estimated TFP from SFA is forecasted with ARIMA (2, 0, 0) model. ARIMA (1, 0, 0) model is used to forecast TFP of Aman from DEA estimation. PMID:23077500

  5. Stochastic Frontier approach and Data Envelopment Analysis to Total Factor Productivity and efficiency measurement of Bangladeshi rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Kamrul; Kamil, Anton Abdulbasah; Baten, Md Azizul; Mustafa, Adli

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to apply the Translog Stochastic Frontier production model (SFA) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to estimate efficiencies over time and the Total Factor Productivity (TFP) growth rate for Bangladeshi rice crops (Aus, Aman and Boro) throughout the most recent data available comprising the period 1989-2008. Results indicate that technical efficiency was observed as higher for Boro among the three types of rice, but the overall technical efficiency of rice production was found around 50%. Although positive changes exist in TFP for the sample analyzed, the average growth rate of TFP for rice production was estimated at almost the same levels for both Translog SFA with half normal distribution and DEA. Estimated TFP from SFA is forecasted with ARIMA (2, 0, 0) model. ARIMA (1, 0, 0) model is used to forecast TFP of Aman from DEA estimation.

  6. Studies of factors for speeding up mellowness of yellow rice wine by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Fenmei; Chen Qiufang; Yu Yuntao; Huang Liugen

    1991-01-01

    The paper described the research result of the factors for speeding up mellowness of yellow rice wine by irradiation of low dosage. The effect of speeding up its mellowness was gained through the research of different dosage, irradiated temperature, different container, space of container and storing temperature etc.. The experiment indicated that the best dosage was 100-600 Gy with 30-40 deg C tempreature; the pottery container for wraping wine was better than the glass one; the better space was 100 ml empty of one container and the storing time of irradiated wine covered 5-6 months

  7. Discovery of microRNA-target modules of African rice (Oryza glaberrima) under salinity stress

    OpenAIRE

    Mondal, Tapan Kumar; Panda, Alok Kumar; Rawal, Hukam C.; Sharma, Tilak Raj

    2018-01-01

    Oryza glaberrima is the second edible rice in the genus Oryza. It is grown in the African countries. miRNAs are regulatory molecules that are involved in every domains of gene expression including salinity stress response. Although several miRNAs have been reported from various species of Oryza, yet none of them are from this species. Salt treated (200 mM NaCl for 48 h) and control smallRNA libraries of RAM-100, a salt tolerant genotype, each with 2 replications generated 150 conserve and 348...

  8. Assessment of gene flow from a herbicide-resistant indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) to the Costa Rican weedy rice (Oryza sativa) in Tropical America: factors affecting hybridization rates and characterization of F1 hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olguin, Elena R Sanchez; Arrieta-Espinoza, Griselda; Lobo, Jorge A; Espinoza-Esquivel, Ana M

    2009-08-01

    Herbicide-resistant rice cultivars allow selective weed control. A glufosinate indica rice has been developed locally. However, there is concern about weedy rice becoming herbicide resistant through gene flow. Therefore, assessment of gene flow from indica rice cultivars to weedy rice is crucial in Tropical America. A field trial mimicking crop-weed growing patterns was established to assess the rate of hybridization between a Costa Rican glufosinate-resistant rice line (PPT-R) and 58 weedy rice accessions belonging to six weedy rice morphotypes. The effects of overlapping anthesis, morphotype, weedy accession/PPT-R percentage, and the particular weedy accession on hybridization rates were evaluated. Weedy rice accessions with short overlapping anthesis (4-9 days) had lower average hybridization rates (0.1%) than long anthesis overlapping (10-14 days) accessions (0.3%). Hybridization also varied according to weedy rice morphotype and accession. Sativa-like morphotypes (WM-020, WM-120) hybridized more readily than intermediate (WM-023, WM-073, WM-121) and rufipogon-like (WM-329) morphotypes. No hybrids were identified in 11 of the 58 accessions analyzed, 21 accessions had hybridization rates from 0.01% to 0.09%, 21 had rates from 0.1% to 0.9%, and 5 had frequencies from 1% to 2.3%. Another field trial was established to compare the weedy rice-PPT-R F(1) hybrids with their parental lines under noncompetitive conditions. F(1) hybrids had a greater phenotypic variation. They had positive heterosis for vegetative trait and reproductive potential (number of spikelets and panicle length) traits, but negative heterosis for seed set. This study demonstrated the complexity of factors affecting hybridization rates in Tropical America and suggested that the phenotype of F(1) hybrids facilitate their identification in the rice fields.

  9. Plant available silicon in South-east Asian rice paddy soils - relevance of agricultural practice and of abiotic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marxen, A.; Klotzbücher, T.; Vetterlein, D.; Jahn, R.

    2012-12-01

    Background Silicon (Si) plays a crucial role in rice production. Si content of rice plants exceeds the content of other major nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorous or potassium. Recent studies showed that in some environments external supply of Si can enhance the growth of rice plants. Rice plants express specific Si transporters to absorb Si from soil solutions in form of silicic acid, which precipitates in tissue cells forming amorphous silica bodies, called phytoliths. The phytoliths are returned to soils with plant residues. They might be a main source of plant available silicic acid in soils. Aims In this study we assess the effects of rice paddy cultivation on the stocks of `reactive` Si fractions in mineral topsoils of rice paddy fields in contrasting landscapes. The `reactive` Si fractions are presumed to determine the release of plant-available silicic acid in soils. We consider the relevance of abiotic factors (mineral assemblage; soil weathering status) and agricultural practice for these fractions. Agricultural practices, which were assumed to affect the stocks of `reactive` Si were (i) the usage of different rice varieties (which might differ in Si demand), (ii) straw residue management (i.e., whether straw residues are returned to the fields or removed and used e.g. as fodder), and (iii) yield level and number of crops per year. Material and methods Soils (top horizon of about 0-20 cm depth) were sampled from rice paddy fields in 2 mountainous and 5 lowland landscapes of contrasting geologic conditions in Vietnam and the Philippines. Ten paddy fields were sampled per landscape. The rice paddy management within landscapes differed when different farmers and/or communities managed the fields. We analysed the following fractions of `reactive` Si in the soils: acetate-extractable Si (dissolved and easily exchangeable Si), phosphate-extractable Si (adsorbed Si), oxalate extractable Si (Si associated with poorly-ordered sesquioxides), NaOH extractable Si

  10. Prevalence and individual risk factors associated with clinical lumbar instability in rice farmers with low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puntumetakul, Rungthip; Yodchaisarn, Wantanee; Emasithi, Alongkot; Keawduangdee, Petcharat; Chatchawan, Uraiwan; Yamauchi, Junichiro

    2015-01-01

    Clinical lumbar instability (CLI) is one of the subgroups of chronic non-specific low back pain. Thai rice farmers often have poor sustained postures during a rice planting process and start their farming at an early age. However, individual associated factors of CLI are not known and have rarely been diagnosed in low back pain. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and individual associated factors of CLI in Thai rice farmers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 323 Thai rice farmers in a rural area of Khon Kaen province, Thailand. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using the 13-item Delphi criteria questionnaire, after which an objective examination was performed using aberrant movement sign, painful catch sign, and prone instability test to obtain information. Individual factors such as sex, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, smoking, and number of years of farming experience, were recorded during the face-to-face interview. The prevalence of CLI in Thai rice farmers calculated by the method described in this study was 13% (age 44±10 years). Number of years of farming experience was found to be significantly correlated with the prevalence of CLI (adjusted odds ratio =2.02, 95% confidence interval =1.03-3.98, Pfarmers. Those with long-term farming experience of at least 30 years have a greater risk of CLI.

  11. K-Domain Splicing Factor OsMADS1 Regulates Open Hull Male Sterility in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN Lian-ping

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We identified the rice floral organ development mutant, termed as open hull and male sterile 1 (ohms1, from the progeny of the indica restorer line Zhonghui 8015 treated with 60Co γ-ray irradiation. The ohms1 mutant exhibited an open hull and lemma- and palea-like structure conversion between the anthers and stigma, which resulted in the ohms1 mutant spikelet showing ‘tridentate lemma’. The ohms1 mutant was entirely sterile but had 60%–70% fertile pollen. Genetic analysis and gene mapping showed that ohms1 was controlled by a single recessive gene, and the mutant gene was fine-mapped to a 42-kb interval on the short arm of chromosome 3 between markers KY2 and KY29. Sequence analysis of the four open reading frames in this region revealed that the mutant carried a single nucleotide transformation (A to G at the last base of the fifth intron, which was likely corresponded to ohms1 phynotype, in an MIKC type MADS-box gene OsMADS1 (LOC_Os03g11614. Enzyme digestion and cDNA sequencing further indicated that the variable splicing was responsible for the deletion of the sixth exon in ohms1, but no structural changes in the MADS domain or amino acid frame shifts appeared. Additionally, real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR analysis showed that the OsMADS1 expression level decreased significantly in the ohms1 mutant. The expression levels of rice flowering factors and floral glume development-related genes also changed significantly. These results demonstrate that OsMADS1 may play an important role in rice floral organ development, particularly in floral glume development and floret primordium differentiation.

  12. The miR393a/target module regulates seed germination and seedling establishment under submergence in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fu; Han, Ning; Xie, Yakun; Fang, Ke; Yang, Yinong; Zhu, Muyuan; Wang, Junhui; Bian, Hongwu

    2016-10-01

    The conserved miRNA393 family is thought to be involved in root elongation, leaf development and stress responses, but its role during seed germination and seedling establishment remains unclear. In this study, expression of the MIR393a/target module and its role in germinating rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds were investigated. β-Glucuronidase (GUS) analysis showed that MIR393a and OsTIR1 had spatial-temporal transcriptional activities in radicle roots, coleoptile tips and stomata cells, corresponding to a dynamic auxin response. miR393a promoted primary root elongation when rice seeds were germinated in air and inhibited coleoptile elongation and stomatal development when seeds were submerged. Under submergence, the expression of miR393a was inhibited, and then the auxin response was induced. In the process, OsTIR1 and OsAFB2, auxin receptor genes, were negatively regulated by miR393. We found that miR393a inhibited stomatal development and coleoptile elongation but promoted free indole acetic acid (IAA) accumulation in the rice coleoptile tips. In addition, exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) enhanced the expression of miR393 and inhibited coleoptile growth. Together, miR393a/target plays a role in coleoptile elongation and stomatal development via modulation of auxin signalling during seed germination and seedling establishment under submergence. This study provides new perspectives on the direct sowing of rice seeds in flooded paddy fields. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Factors affecting the soil arsenic bioavailability, accumulation in rice and risk to human health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Shah Md Golam Gousul; Sarker, Tushar C; Naz, Sabrina

    2016-10-01

    Arsenic (As), a class one carcinogen, reflects a disastrous environmental threat due to its presence in each and every compartment of the environment. The high toxicity of As is notably present in its inorganic forms. Irrigation with As contaminated groundwater in rice fields increases As concentration in topsoil and its bioavailability for rice crops. However, most of the As in paddy field topsoils is present as As(III) form, which is predominant in rice grain. According to the OECD-FAO, rice is the second most extensively cultivated cereal throughout the world. This cereal is a staple food for a large number of populations in most of the developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, South and South-east Asia. Rice consumption is one of the major causes of chronic As diseases including cancer for Asian populations. Thus, this review provides an overview concerning the conditions involved in soil that leads to As entrance into rice crops, phytotoxicity and metabolism of As in rice plants. Moreover, the investigations of the As uptake in raw rice grain are compiled, and the As biotransfer into the human diet is focused. The As uptake by rice crop represents an important pathway of As exposure in countries with high rice and rice-based food consumption because of its high (more than the hygienic level) As levels found in edible plant part for livestock and humans.

  14. Trends and factors limiting pulses-cultivation in the rice-growing areas of pakistan's punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, M.Z.; Niazi, M.A.; Niazi, A.; Masood, A.; Malik, R.

    2005-01-01

    Pulses cultivation has an important position both in agricultural activities and in the dietary pattern of the country. So, to meet the domestic needs, pulses are grown in different parts of the Punjab. Previous farm-level studies have shown that pulses were traditionally grown in the rice-producing districts of the province but, presently, farmers had discontinued their cultivation. Consequently, area under pulses rapidly decreased during the past two decades. This study was designed to study the trend and identify the factors limiting pulses cultivation in the region. For this study, both secondary and primary level data were collected. Farm-level information was collected by applying a questionnaire and around 150 farmers were interviewed. Survey results show that only 11.1% farmers were cultivating pulses, while 75.2% and 13.7% were found as dis-adopters and non-adopters. The existing trend of pulses cultivation clearly indicated that until and unless incentives are not given to the pulses growers, reintroduction of pulses in the rice-wheat system is very difficult. (author)

  15. Altered Expression of OsNLA1 Modulates Pi Accumulation in Rice (Oryza sativa L. Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihui Zhong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Current agricultural practices rely on heavy use of fertilizers for increased crop productivity. However, the problems associated with heavy fertilizer use, such as high cost and environmental pollution, require the development of crop species with increased nutrient use efficiency. In this study, by using transgenic approaches, we have revealed the critical role of OsNLA1 in phosphate (Pi accumulation of rice plants. When grown under sufficient Pi and nitrate levels, OsNLA1 knockdown (Osnla1-1, Osnla1-2, and Osnla1-3 lines accumulated higher Pi content in their shoot tissues compared to wild-type, whereas, over-expression lines (OsNLA1-OE1, OsNLA1-OE2, and OsNLA1-OE3 accumulated the least levels of Pi. However, under high Pi levels, knockdown lines accumulated much higher Pi content compared to wild-type and exhibited Pi toxicity symptoms in the leaves. In contrast, the over-expression lines had 50–60% of the Pi content of wild-type and did not show such symptoms. When grown under limiting nitrate levels, OsNLA1 transgenic lines also displayed a similar pattern in Pi accumulation and Pi toxicity symptoms compared to wild-type suggesting an existence of cross-talk between nitrogen (N and phosphorous (P, which is regulated by OsNLA1. The greater Pi accumulation in knockdown lines was a result of enhanced Pi uptake/permeability of roots compared to the wild-type. The cross-talk between N and P was found to be nitrate specific since the knockdown lines failed to over-accumulate Pi under low (sub-optimal ammonium level. Moreover, OsNLA1 was also found to interact with OsPHO2, a known regulator of Pi homeostasis, in a Yeast Two-Hybrid (Y2H assay. Taken together, these results show that OsNLA1 is involved in Pi homeostasis regulating Pi uptake and accumulation in rice plants and may provide an opportunity to enhance P use efficiency by manipulating nitrate supply in the soil.

  16. Prevalence and individual risk factors associated with clinical lumbar instability in rice farmers with low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puntumetakul R

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rungthip Puntumetakul,1 Wantanee Yodchaisarn,1 Alongkot Emasithi,2 Petcharat Keawduangdee,1 Uraiwan Chatchawan,1 Junichiro Yamauchi3 1The Research Center in Back, Neck, Other Joint Pain and Human Performance (BNOJPH, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 2School of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 3Graduate School of Human Health Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo, Japan Introduction: Clinical lumbar instability (CLI is one of the subgroups of chronic non-specific low back pain. Thai rice farmers often have poor sustained postures during a rice planting process and start their farming at an early age. However, individual associated factors of CLI are not known and have rarely been diagnosed in low back pain. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and individual associated factors of CLI in Thai rice farmers. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 323 Thai rice farmers in a rural area of Khon Kaen province, Thailand. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using the 13-item Delphi criteria questionnaire, after which an objective examination was performed using aberrant movement sign, painful catch sign, and prone instability test to obtain information. Individual factors such as sex, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, smoking, and number of years of farming experience, were recorded during the face-to-face interview. Results: The prevalence of CLI in Thai rice farmers calculated by the method described in this study was 13% (age 44±10 years. Number of years of farming experience was found to be significantly correlated with the prevalence of CLI (adjusted odds ratio =2.02, 95% confidence interval =1.03–3.98, P<0.05. Conclusion: This study provides prevalence of CLI in Thai rice farmers. Those with long-term farming experience of at least 30 years have a greater risk of CLI. Keywords: Delphi study, aberrant movement sign, painful catch sign

  17. Salicaceae Endophytes Modulate Stomatal Behavior and Increase Water Use Efficiency in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungmin Rho

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial and yeast endophytes isolated from the Salicaceae family have been shown to promote growth and alleviate stress in plants from different taxa. To determine the physiological pathways through which endophytes affect plant water relations, we investigated leaf water potential, whole-plant water use, and stomatal responses of rice plants to Salicaceae endophyte inoculation under CO2 enrichment and water deficit. Daytime stomatal conductance and stomatal density were lower in inoculated plants compared to controls. Leaf ABA concentrations increased with endophyte inoculation. As a result, transpirational water use decreased significantly with endophyte inoculation while biomass did not change or slightly increased. This response led to a significant increase in cumulative water use efficiency at harvest. Different endophyte strains produced the same results in host plant water relations and stomatal responses. These stomatal responses were also observed under elevated CO2 conditions, and the increase in water use efficiency was more pronounced under water deficit conditions. The effect on water use efficiency was positively correlated with daily light integrals across different experiments. Our results provide insights on the physiological mechanisms of plant-endophyte interactions involving plant water relations and stomatal functions.

  18. Biomass digestibility is predominantly affected by three factors of wall polymer features distinctive in wheat accessions and rice mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Wheat and rice are important food crops with enormous biomass residues for biofuels. However, lignocellulosic recalcitrance becomes a crucial factor on biomass process. Plant cell walls greatly determine biomass recalcitrance, thus it is essential to identify their key factors on lignocellulose saccharification. Despite it has been reported about cell wall factors on biomass digestions, little is known in wheat and rice. In this study, we analyzed nine typical pairs of wheat and rice samples that exhibited distinct cell wall compositions, and identified three major factors of wall polymer features that affected biomass digestibility. Results Based on cell wall compositions, ten wheat accessions and three rice mutants were classified into three distinct groups each with three typical pairs. In terms of group I that displayed single wall polymer alternations in wheat, we found that three wall polymer levels (cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin) each had a negative effect on biomass digestibility at similar rates under pretreatments of NaOH and H2SO4 with three concentrations. However, analysis of six pairs of wheat and rice samples in groups II and III that each exhibited a similar cell wall composition, indicated that three wall polymer levels were not the major factors on biomass saccharification. Furthermore, in-depth detection of the wall polymer features distinctive in rice mutants, demonstrated that biomass digestibility was remarkably affected either negatively by cellulose crystallinity (CrI) of raw biomass materials, or positively by both Ara substitution degree of non-KOH-extractable hemicelluloses (reverse Xyl/Ara) and p-coumaryl alcohol relative proportion of KOH-extractable lignin (H/G). Correlation analysis indicated that Ara substitution degree and H/G ratio negatively affected cellulose crystallinity for high biomass enzymatic digestion. It was also suggested to determine whether Ara and H monomer have an interlinking with cellulose chains

  19. Functional diversification of FD transcription factors in rice, components of florigen activation complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Taoka, Ken-ichiro; Shimamoto, Ko

    2013-03-01

    Florigen, a protein encoded by the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) in Arabidopsis and Heading date 3a (Hd3a) in rice, is the universal flowering hormone in plants. Florigen is transported from leaves to the shoot apical meristem and initiates floral evocation. In shoot apical cells, conserved cytoplasmic 14-3-3 proteins act as florigen receptors. A hexameric florigen activation complex (FAC) composed of Hd3a, 14-3-3 proteins, and OsFD1, a transcription factor, activates OsMADS15, a rice homolog of Arabidopsis APETALA1, leading to flowering. Because FD is a key component of the FAC, we characterized the FD gene family and their functions. Phylogenetic analysis of FD genes indicated that this family is divided into two groups: (i) canonical FD genes that are conserved among eudicots and non-Poaceae monocots; and (ii) Poaceae-specific FD genes that are organized into three subgroups: Poaceae FD1, FD2 and FD3. The Poaceae FD1 group shares a small sequence motif, T(A/V)LSLNS, with FDs of eudicots and non-Poaceae monocots. Overexpression of OsFD2, a member of the Poaceae FD2 group, produced smaller leaves with shorter plastochrons, suggesting that OsFD2 controls leaf development. In vivo subcellular localization of Hd3a, 14-3-3 and OsFD2 suggested that in contrast to OsFD1, OsFD2 is restricted to the cytoplasm through its interaction with the cytoplasmic 14-3-3 proteins, and interaction of Hd3a with 14-3-3 facilitates nuclear translocation of the FAC containing OsFD2. These results suggest that FD function has diverged between OsFD1 and OsFD2, but formation of a FAC is essential for their function.

  20. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Confers Tolerance to Various Abiotic Stresses and Modulates Plant Response to Phytohormones through Osmoprotection and Gene Expression Regulation in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Tiwari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Being sessile in nature, plants have to withstand various adverse environmental stress conditions including both biotic and abiotic stresses. Comparatively, abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, high temperature, and cold pose major threat to agriculture by negatively impacting plant growth and yield worldwide. Rice is one of the most widely consumed staple cereals across the globe, the production and productivity of which is also severely affected by different abiotic stresses. Therefore, several crop improvement programs are directed toward developing stress tolerant rice cultivars either through marker assisted breeding or transgenic technology. Alternatively, some known rhizospheric competent bacteria are also known to improve plant growth during abiotic stresses. A plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NBRI-SN13 (SN13 was previously reported by our lab to confer salt stress tolerance to rice seedlings. However, the present study investigates the role of SN13 in ameliorating various abiotic stresses such as salt, drought, desiccation, heat, cold, and freezing on a popular rice cv. Saryu-52 under hydroponic growth conditions. Apart from this, seedlings were also exogenously supplied with abscisic acid (ABA, salicylic acid (SA, jasmonic acid (JA and ethephon (ET to study the role of SN13 in phytohormone-induced stress tolerance as well as its role in abiotic and biotic stress cross-talk. All abiotic stresses and phytohormone treatments significantly affected various physiological and biochemical parameters like membrane integrity and osmolyte accumulation. SN13 also positively modulated stress-responsive gene expressions under various abiotic stresses and phytohormone treatments suggesting its multifaceted role in cross-talk among stresses and phytohormones in response to PGPR. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on detailed analysis of plant growth promotion and stress alleviation by a

  1. Growth-inhibition patterns and transfer-factor profiles in arsenic-stressed rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ha-Il; Lee, Jinwook; Chae, Mi-Jin; Kong, Myung-Suk; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Kang, Seong-Soo; Kim, Yoo-Hak

    2017-11-16

    Arsenic (As) accumulation in rice owing to uptake from the soil is a critical human health issue. Here, we studied the chemical properties of As-treated soils, growth inhibition patterns of As-stressed rice plants, changes in the As content of soil and soil solutions, and the relationship between As accumulation and As transfer factor from the soil to the rice organs. Rice plants were cultivated in a greenhouse under four concentrations of As: 0 (control), 25, 50, and 75 mg kg -1 . A significant positive correlation was found between available P 2 O 5 and exchangeable K and between As concentration and available P 2 O 5 or exchangeable K. The As concentration for 50% shoot growth inhibition was 50 mg kg -1 . As levels in roots and shoots were positively correlated with the growth stages of rice. The transfer factor (TF) root/soil increased with As concentration at the tillering stage but decreased at the heading stage. TF root/soil and TF shoot/soil were higher at the heading stage than at the tillering stage. As accumulation in the 25 mg kg -1 treatment was higher during the heading stage, whereas no difference was found at the tillering stage. As accumulation was related to plant biomass and soil As concentration. We found that As accumulation was greater at As concentrations that allowed for plant growth and development. Thus, species-specific threshold concentrations must be determined based on As phytotoxicity for the phytoremediation of As-contaminated soils. Hence, developing practical approaches for managing safe crop production in farmlands with an As contamination of 25 mg kg -1 or less is necessary.

  2. Policies, Socioeconomic, Institutional and Biophysical Factors Influencing the Change from Rice to Sugarcane in Nong Bua Lamphu Province, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakapunrat, Narinpat; Thapa, Gopal B.

    2017-06-01

    For the past decade, Thailand pursued a strategy of promoting biofuel crop production, including sugarcane, to meet the ever increasing energy demand and to increase the income of farmers. This study analyzed the influence of policy instruments implemented to promote the sugarcane cultivation, farm household socioeconomic levels, biophysical, and institutional factors driving the conversion of rice fields into sugarcane farms. Primary information was collected from 230 farm households through a structured questionnaire. Relevant policy documents published by the responsible government agencies were the main sources of secondary information collected for policy analysis. The analyses revealed that farmers in the study area converted 25-75% of their rice fields into sugarcane farms as a result of implementation of policy instruments that made sugarcane financially far more attractive than rice. The results of the regression analysis showed that eight variables were found significant and positively influenced the conversion of rice fields into sugarcane farms. These were access to extension services, information, sugarcane loading stations, and ground water for irrigation, and duration of experience in sugarcane farming as well as household head's age and education. Irrespective of landholding size, the majority of farmers were not concerned about food security. In view of the finding, if feasible, in the form of additional price supports and commercial cane sugar index-based pricing strategies to promote sugarcane production should benefit all concerned farmers. Likewise, attention should be paid to deliver essential extension and marketing services in an effective way, particularly to those farmers who are not receiving such services.

  3. Cell state switching factors and dynamical patterning modules ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-01-05

    Jan 5, 2009 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 34; Issue 4. Cell state switching factors and dynamical patterning modules: complementary mediators of plasticity in development and evolution. Stuart A Newman Ramray Bhat Nadejda V Mezentseva. Articles Volume 34 Issue 4 October 2009 pp 553-572 ...

  4. Modulating factors for and consequences of cortical spreading depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shyti, Reinald

    2016-01-01

    The research in this thesis was aimed at identifying and understanding mechanisms underlying modulating factors for and consequences of cortical spreading depression (CSD), the pathophysiological substrate for migraine aura that occurs in one-third of migraine patients. In this thesis, experimental

  5. Soil-to-plant transfer factors of trace and major elements in rice plant (Oryza Sativa) at Kalpakkam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreedevi, K.R.; Rajaram, S.; Thulasi Brindha, J.; Venkataraman, S.; Hegde, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution of trace and major elements in rice plant (Oryza Sativa) which is the staple diet of the public at Kalpakkam. The transfer factor from soil to various parts of plant was also studied. Trace and major elements such as Fe, Mn, Zn, Co, Cu, Ni, Cr, Cd, Pb , Sr, K, Ca and Mg were selected based on their role in nutrition and also to study the behaviour of their radioactive counterparts. Among the trace elements Fe concentration was observed to be maximum in soil, the mean value of which was 18394 mg/kg dry wt. Cadmium concentration was observed to be minimum with the mean value of 2 mg/kg dry wt. The maximum and minimum concentration observed in the rice grain were due to Zn and Cd and the values were found to be 9 and 0.044 mg/kg dry wt, respectively. In the stem and leaves part the maximum and minimum concentration was due to Fe and Cd and the values were found to be 26.8 and 0.12 mg/kg dry wt. Similarly in the root part Fe and Cd concentrations were found to be maximum and minimum, respectively. Among the different parts of the rice plant, trace elements concentration in root was maximum and in stem and leaves major elements concentration was maximum. Transfer factor from soil to plant parts was computed. In general, the transfer factor was maximum in root, followed by stem and leaves and grain for trace elements. The transfer factor computed for whole rice plant was maximum for Zn and minimum for Sr which is a significant observation from radiological point of view. (author)

  6. [Determining social factors related to pesticide poisoning among rice farmers in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varona, Marcela E; Díaz, Sonia M; Briceño, Leonardo; Sánchez-Infante, Clara I; Torres, Carlos H; Palma, Ruth M; Groot, Helena; Idrovo, Alvaro J

    2016-08-01

    Objective Large quantities of pesticides are used in rice crops. The aim of this study is to characterize how farmers are exposed to pesticides and subsequent poisoning. Materials and Methods A multilevel (individual and community) multi-method study, which included ethnographic and survey methods, as well as measurement of pesticides in water and human samples, was performed. Results The production process is described and the main risk factors are presented. Pesticides are considered the greatest danger at work and at their homes. Workers have poor working conditions and are not protected by the system of occupational risks. Azinphos-methyl, endosulfan, β-BHC, bromophos-methyl, bromophos-ethyl and 2,4- DDT were found in water samples. The survey included 381 workers with mild (12.86 %), moderate (67.98 %) and severe (5.51 %) poisonings respectively. Severe cases presented lower levels of education, lower levels of health care access to the contributory regimen of the Colombian social security system and higher incidence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, herpes or other viral infections. Conclusion There are precarious working conditions that favor exposure to pesticides correlated to the exclusion of farmers from the occupational risk system, to poverty and to poor education. It is urgent to include these workers to the system of occupational risk system and to improve their living conditions, thus reducing unsafe practices when handling pesticides.

  7. Learning with three factors: modulating Hebbian plasticity with errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuśmierz, Łukasz; Isomura, Takuya; Toyoizumi, Taro

    2017-10-01

    Synaptic plasticity is a central theme in neuroscience. A framework of three-factor learning rules provides a powerful abstraction, helping to navigate through the abundance of models of synaptic plasticity. It is well-known that the dopamine modulation of learning is related to reward, but theoretical models predict other functional roles of the modulatory third factor; it may encode errors for supervised learning, summary statistics of the population activity for unsupervised learning or attentional feedback. Specialized structures may be needed in order to generate and propagate third factors in the neural network. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. AP2/ERF Transcription Factor in Rice: Genome-Wide Canvas and Syntenic Relationships between Monocots and Eudicots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Muhammad; Guangyuan, He; Guangxiao, Yang; Hussain, Javeed; Xu, Yan

    2012-01-01

    The transcription factor family intimately regulates gene expression in response to hormones, biotic and abiotic factors, symbiotic interactions, cell differentiation, and stress signalling pathways in plants. In this study, 170 AP2/ERF family genes are identified by phylogenetic analysis of the rice genome (Oryza sativa l. japonica) and they are divided into a total of 11 groups, including four major groups (AP2, ERF, DREB, and RAV), 10 subgroups, and two soloists. Gene structure analysis revealed that, at position-6, the amino acid threonine (Thr-6) is conserved in the double domain AP2 proteins compared to the amino acid arginine (Arg-6), which is preserved in the single domain of ERF proteins. In addition, the histidine (His) amino acid is found in both domains of the double domain AP2 protein, which is missing in single domain ERF proteins. Motif analysis indicates that most of the conserved motifs, apart from the AP2/ERF domain, are exclusively distributed among the specific clades in the phylogenetic tree and regulate plausible functions. Expression analysis reveals a widespread distribution of the rice AP2/ERF family genes within plant tissues. In the vegetative organs, the transcripts of these genes are found most abundant in the roots followed by the leaf and stem; whereas, in reproductive tissues, the gene expression of this family is observed high in the embryo and lemma. From chromosomal localization, it appears that repetition and tandem-duplication may contribute to the evolution of new genes in the rice genome. In this study, interspecies comparisons between rice and wheat reveal 34 rice loci and unveil the extent of collinearity between the two genomes. It was subsequently ascertained that chromosome-9 has more orthologous loci for CRT/DRE genes whereas chromosome-2 exhibits orthologs for ERF subfamily members. Maximum conserved synteny is found in chromosome-3 for AP2 double domain subfamily genes. Macrosynteny between rice and Arabidopsis, a

  9. SOIL CONTROLLING FACTORS OF METHANE GAS PRODUCTION FROM FLOODED RICE FIELDS IN PATI DISTRICT, CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Setyanto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric methane (CH4 is recognized as one of the most important greenhouse gases. Methane, with some 15-30 times greater infrared-absorbing capability than CO2 on a mass basis, may account for 20% of anticipated global warming. Soils are one of the key factors, which play an important role in CH4 production and emission. However, data on CH4 emission from different soil types and the characteristics affecting CH4 production are lacking when compared to data on agronomic practices. This study was conducted to investigate the potential of CH4 production of selected soils in Java, and determine the limiting factors of CH4 production. The results showed that addition of 1% glucose to the soils led to an increase in CH4 production by more than twelve fold compared to no glucose addition. The CH4 production potential ranged between 3.21 and 112.30 mg CH4 kg-1 soil. The lowest CH4 production potential occurred in brown-grayish Grumosol, while the highest was in dark-gray Grumosol. Chemical and physical properties of the soils have great influence on CH4 production. Stepwise multiple regression analysis of CH4 production and soil characteristics showed that pH and the contents of Fe2O3, MnO2, SO4, and silt in the soil strongly influenced CH4 production. Results of this study can be used for further development of a model on CH4 emission from rice fields.

  10. Tuning the Fano factor of graphene via Fermi velocity modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Jonas R. F.; Barbosa, Anderson L. R.; Bezerra, C. G.; Pereira, Luiz Felipe C.

    2018-03-01

    In this work we investigate the influence of a Fermi velocity modulation on the Fano factor of periodic and quasi-periodic graphene superlattices. We consider the continuum model and use the transfer matrix method to solve the Dirac-like equation for graphene where the electrostatic potential, energy gap and Fermi velocity are piecewise constant functions of the position x. We found that in the presence of an energy gap, it is possible to tune the energy of the Fano factor peak and consequently the location of the Dirac point, by a modulation in the Fermi velocity. Hence, the peak of the Fano factor can be used experimentally to identify the Dirac point. We show that for higher values of the Fermi velocity the Fano factor goes below 1/3 at the Dirac point. Furthermore, we show that in periodic superlattices the location of Fano factor peaks is symmetric when the Fermi velocity vA and vB is exchanged, however by introducing quasi-periodicity the symmetry is lost. The Fano factor usually holds a universal value for a specific transport regime, which reveals that the possibility of controlling it in graphene is a notable result.

  11. Some factors affecting reproduction in the Rice weevil Sitophilus Oryzae (L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasaballa, Z.A.; Abdelkawy, F.K.

    1992-01-01

    Laboratory investigations on the effects or radiation, type of food and population density on the reproductive potential of the rice weevil. Sitophilus Oryzae were conducted at 30 degree C. and 75% R.H. The results indicate that the survival number of adult weevils infesting wheat grains increased markedly after 45 and 90 days of infestation. The survival and reproductive potential of the rice weevils declined significantly after exposure to gamma rays. This decline was more pronounced after 90 days and appeared to be markedly dose dependent. It was noticed that the rate of reproduction of the rice weevils was greatly influenced by insect crowding, science adults of S. Oryzae reared under crowded conditions failed to increase in numbers for 3 months as was expected. The reproduction of S. Oryzae was affected by the type of food. Wheat grains were more suitable than rice and maize grains as the average survival numbers of S. Oryzae reared on wheat grains were more after 45 and 90 days than those reared on rice and maize grains.3 tab

  12. Modulation of DNA methylation machineries in japanese rice fish (Oryzias latipes) embryogenesis by ethanol and 5-azacytidine

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a sequel of our investigations on the impact of epigenome in inducing fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) phenotypes in Japanese rice fish, we investigated on several DNA methylation machinery genes including DNA methyl transferase 3ba (dnmt3ba) and methyl binding proteins (MBPs), namely, mbdl...

  13. DNA methyltransferase expressions in Japanese rice fish (Oryzias latipes) embryogenesis is developmentally regulated and modulated by ethanol and 5-azacytidine

    Science.gov (United States)

    We aimed to investigate the impact of the epigenome in inducting fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) phenotypes in Japanese rice fish embryogenesis. One of the significant events in epigenome is DNA methylation which is catalyzed by DNA methyl transferase (DNMT) enzymes. We analyzed DNMT enzyme m...

  14. Factors influencing access to agricultural knowledge: The case of smallholder rice farmers in the Kilombero district of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulystan P. Mtega

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Access to agricultural knowledge is important in transforming livelihoods of those relying on agriculture for a living and in enhancing food security. This access to agricultural knowledge is influenced by infrastructure needed for information dissemination. However, information infrastructure is not uniformly distributed within and between countries. It is because of this that some of the farming communities are information rich while others are information poor. In Tanzania, the agricultural sector is characterised by poor research-extension-farmers linkage and inaccessibility of agricultural knowledge at farm level Objective: The study investigated the factors influencing access to agricultural knowledge among smallholder rice farmers in the Kilombero district of Tanzania. Specifically, the study identified categories of agricultural knowledge needed by farmers, determined how farmers access agricultural knowledge, and assessed the factors limiting the accessibility of agricultural knowledge among rice farmers in the Kilombero district. Method: Quantitative data were collected via semi-structured questionnaires administered face-to-face with rice farmers, community leaders, and agricultural agents in four villages at the Kilombero district of the Morogoro region in Tanzania. Results: The key finding indicates that farmers accessed and used agricultural knowledge in undertaking agricultural activities. It was further revealed that the level of acquisition of agricultural knowledge increased with an increase in age. Farmers needed agricultural knowledge on land preparation, seed selection, and rice planting, while few acquired knowledge on agricultural markets. Among the agricultural knowledge sources used, demonstration plots and agricultural extension agents were found to be used by the majority of the farmers. It was also found that a limited number of demonstration plots, late delivery of information services, a limited number

  15. Non-parametric analysis of technical efficiency: factors affecting efficiency of West Java rice farms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brázdik, František

    -, č. 286 (2006), s. 1-45 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : rice farms * data envelopment analysis Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp286.pdf

  16. Isolation of a novel MYB transcription factor OsMyb1R from rice and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-02-23

    Feb 23, 2012 ... Rice Research Institute of Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan 611130, China. Accepted 14 February, 2012 ... 1999, 2001; Higginson et al., 2003), regulation of meristem formation, floral and ..... A, Pruss D, Reid J, Tavtigian S, Mitchell J, Eldredge G, Scholl T, Miller. RM, Bhatnagar S, Adey N, ...

  17. Isolation of a novel MYB transcription factor OsMyb1R from rice and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-02-23

    Feb 23, 2012 ... To understand mechanisms underlying stress responses and discover new stress-tolerance genes in rice (Oryza sativa L.), we analyzed a global genome expression profiling of the indica cultivar Pei'ai 64S subjected to cold, drought, or heat stresses. Expression profiles were obtained for leaf and panicle.

  18. Isolation of a novel MYB transcription factor OsMyb1R from rice and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To understand mechanisms underlying stress responses and discover new stress-tolerance genes in rice (Oryza sativa L.), we analyzed a global genome expression profiling of the indica cultivar Pei'ai 64S subjected to cold, drought, or heat stresses. Expression profiles were obtained for leaf and panicle tissues at seedling ...

  19. Release of Polyphenols Is the Major Factor Influencing the Bioconversion of Rice Straw to Lactic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingxuan; Xue, Yiyun; Hu, Jiajun; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Gao, Min-Tian

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we found that p-coumaric acid (p-CA), ferulic acid (FA), and condensed tannins were released from rice straw during saccharification. The presence of polyphenols prolonged the lag phase and lowered the productivity of lactic acid. p-CA was identified as a key inhibitor. Tannins had a lower inhibitory effect than p-CA; FA had little inhibitory effect. Acid, alkaline, and ball milling pretreatments elicited different levels of polyphenol release from rice straw. Due to the different levels of polyphenol release in the pretreatment step, the enzymatic hydrolysates contained different concentrations of polyphenols. Compared with fermentation with a synthetic medium, fermentation with the hydrolysates of ball-milled rice straw provided much lower productivity and yield of lactic acid due to the presence of polyphenols. Removal of these compounds played an important role in lactic acid fermentation. When rice straw was alkaline pretreated, the hydrolysates contained few phenolic compounds, resulting in high productivity and yield of lactic acid (1.8 g/L/h and 26.7 g/100 g straw), which were comparable to those in a synthetic medium. This indicates that there is a correlation between removal of phenolic compounds and efficiency in lactic acid fermentation.

  20. Improved rice residue burning emissions estimates: Accounting for practice-specific emission factors in air pollution assessments of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasko, Kristofer; Vadrevu, Krishna

    2018-05-01

    In Southeast Asia and Vietnam, rice residues are routinely burned after the harvest to prepare fields for the next season. Specific to Vietnam, the two prevalent burning practices include: a). piling the residues after hand harvesting; b). burning the residues without piling, after machine harvesting. In this study, we synthesized field and laboratory studies from the literature on rice residue burning emission factors for PM 2.5 . We found significant differences in the resulting burning-practice specific emission factors, with 16.9 g kg -2 (±6.9) for pile burning and 8.8 g kg -2 (±3.5) for non-pile burning. We calculated burning-practice specific emissions based on rice area data, region-specific fuel-loading factors, combined emission factors, and estimates of burning from the literature. Our results for year 2015 estimate 180 Gg of PM 2.5 result from the pile burning method and 130 Gg result from non-pile burning method, with the most-likely current emission scenario of 150 Gg PM 2.5 emissions for Vietnam. For comparison purposes, we calculated emissions using generalized agricultural emission factors employed in global biomass burning studies. These results estimate 80 Gg PM 2.5 , which is only 44% of the pile burning-based estimates, suggesting underestimation in previous studies. We compare our emissions to an existing all-combustion sources inventory, results show emissions account for 14-18% of Vietnam's total PM 2.5 depending on burning practice. Within the highly-urbanized and cloud-covered Hanoi Capital region (HCR), we use rice area from Sentinel-1A to derive spatially-explicit emissions and indirectly estimate residue burning dates. Results from HYSPLIT back-trajectory analysis stratified by season show autumn has most emission trajectories originating in the North, while spring has most originating in the South, suggesting the latter may have bigger impact on air quality. From these results, we highlight locations where emission

  1. Influence of abiotic stress factors on VOCs emission from Portuguese rice paddy fields: relation with increased climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Catarina Chemetova Cravo Branco de

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Engenharia do Ambiente Perfil de Gestão de Sistemas Ambientais Plants are emitting chemical-signals to the atmosphere in response to stress factors - Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). VOCs have higher influence on atmosphere chemistry: they are acting as photochemical precursors in tropospheric ozone formation. Present work studies VOCs emission released by rice (Oryza sativa L cv. Aríete) cycle in paddy fields, in aleatory schemes with th...

  2. Transcriptional Regulatory Network Analysis of MYB Transcription Factor Family Genes in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smita, Shuchi; Katiyar, Amit; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Pandey, Dev M; Bansal, Kailash C

    2015-01-01

    MYB transcription factor (TF) is one of the largest TF families and regulates defense responses to various stresses, hormone signaling as well as many metabolic and developmental processes in plants. Understanding these regulatory hierarchies of gene expression networks in response to developmental and environmental cues is a major challenge due to the complex interactions between the genetic elements. Correlation analyses are useful to unravel co-regulated gene pairs governing biological process as well as identification of new candidate hub genes in response to these complex processes. High throughput expression profiling data are highly useful for construction of co-expression networks. In the present study, we utilized transcriptome data for comprehensive regulatory network studies of MYB TFs by "top-down" and "guide-gene" approaches. More than 50% of OsMYBs were strongly correlated under 50 experimental conditions with 51 hub genes via "top-down" approach. Further, clusters were identified using Markov Clustering (MCL). To maximize the clustering performance, parameter evaluation of the MCL inflation score (I) was performed in terms of enriched GO categories by measuring F-score. Comparison of co-expressed cluster and clads analyzed from phylogenetic analysis signifies their evolutionarily conserved co-regulatory role. We utilized compendium of known interaction and biological role with Gene Ontology enrichment analysis to hypothesize function of coexpressed OsMYBs. In the other part, the transcriptional regulatory network analysis by "guide-gene" approach revealed 40 putative targets of 26 OsMYB TF hubs with high correlation value utilizing 815 microarray data. The putative targets with MYB-binding cis-elements enrichment in their promoter region, functional co-occurrence as well as nuclear localization supports our finding. Specially, enrichment of MYB binding regions involved in drought-inducibility implying their regulatory role in drought response in rice

  3. Transcriptional Regulatory Network Analysis of MYB Transcription Factor Family Genes in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuchi eSmita

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available MYB transcription factor (TF is one of the largest TF families and regulates defense responses to various stresses, hormone signaling as well as many metabolic and developmental processes in plants. Understanding these regulatory hierarchies of gene expression networks in response to developmental and environmental cues is a major challenge due to the complex interactions between the genetic elements. Correlation analyses are useful to unravel co-regulated gene pairs governing biological process as well as identification of new candidate hub genes in response to these complex processes. High throughput expression profiling data are highly useful for construction of co-expression networks. In the present study, we utilized transcriptome data for comprehensive regulatory network studies of MYB TFs by top down and guide gene approaches. More than 50% of OsMYBs were strongly correlated under fifty experimental conditions with 51 hub genes via top down approach. Further, clusters were identified using Markov Clustering (MCL. To maximize the clustering performance, parameter evaluation of the MCL inflation score (I was performed in terms of enriched GO categories by measuring F-score. Comparison of co-expressed cluster and clads analyzed from phylogenetic analysis signifies their evolutionarily conserved co-regulatory role. We utilized compendium of known interaction and biological role with Gene Ontology enrichment analysis to hypothesize function of coexpressed OsMYBs. In the other part, the transcriptional regulatory network analysis by guide gene approach revealed 40 putative targets of 26 OsMYB TF hubs with high correlation value utilizing 815 microarray data. The putative targets with MYB-binding cis-elements enrichment in their promoter region, functional co-occurrence as well as nuclear localization supports our finding. Specially, enrichment of MYB binding regions involved in drought-inducibility implying their regulatory role in drought

  4. Modulation in the activity of purified tonoplast H+-ATPase by tonoplast glycolipids prepared from cultured rice (Oryza sativa L. var. Boro) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, M; Kasamo, K

    2001-05-01

    Glycolipids, phospholipids, and neutral lipids were extracted from the tonoplast fraction of cultured rice cells (Oryza sativa L. var. Boro). Acyl steryl glucoside (ASG) and glucocerebroside (GlcCer) were also prepared from this fraction. We determined the effects of these tonoplast lipids on the activity of H+-ATPase which was delipidated and purified from the tonoplast fraction. Exogenously added tonoplast phospholipids stimulated the activity of purified tonoplast H+-ATPase, but tonoplast glycolipids did not. When tonoplast glycolipids or tonoplast ASG was added in the presence of tonoplast phospholipids, they decreased the phospholipid-induced activation of the tonoplast H+-ATPase; tonoplast GlcCer only caused a small decrease. Steryl glucoside (SG) did not cause any decrease in this activation. Phospholipids, ASG, and GlcCer made up 35 mol%, 20 mol% and 7 mol% of the total lipids of the tonoplast fraction of cultured rice cells, respectively, and these glycolipid levels were enough to depress the phospholipid-induced activation of the tonoplast H+-ATPASE: These results revealed that H+-ATPase activity in the tonoplast may be modulated toward activation and depression by tonoplast phospholipids and glycolipids, respectively. The acylation of SG would be responsible for the depression in the phospholipid-induced H+-ATPase activity.

  5. The dominant factors affecting agricultural land use (rice field change in Yogyakarta Special Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Sabari Yunus

    2013-07-01

    The research shows that the period of 1980 - 2000 in Yogyakarta Special Province has indicated very significantly the increase in population, the development of road and the extension of built up area. For the time being, agricultural land mainly in Sleman Regency, Bantul Regency and Yogyakarta Municipality has decreased. Sleman regency performed the largest decrease of rice field and followed after then by Bantul regency and Yogyakarta Municipality. The regency of Kulon Progo and Gunung Kidul have experienced reverse phenomenon i.e. the increase of rice field during this period. Individually or simultaneously, three variables used in this research (number of people, road's length and built up area have significantly influenced the agricultural land use.

  6. An Investigation of Factors Affecting the Management of Risk for the Rice Cultivating Women in Sari Town with LISREL Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. charmchian Langerodi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Agriculture relies on nature and farmers face environmental, social, financial and legal issues that makes farming to be consistently and strongly associated with risk. Agriculture can be considered to be the most risky economic venture. Ahmadi (1 listed several main sources of risk that farmers face. Economic risk includes price fluctuations for raw materials such as seed and fertilizer and for machinery at the pre-market delivery stage, difficulty obtaining bank credit and loans, price volatility for products in the post market delivery stage, inconsistent government policies for products and global fluctuations in the price of products. Social risk includes theft of crops, production and agricultural machinery and war. Nature-related risk includes natural disasters, climate change, agricultural pests and diseases. Market risk includes changes in the price of raw materials and products and increasing interest rates. Given that the range of agricultural activities having critical risk are diverse and the climate can vary widely, more sophisticated services are needed to meet the demands, cope with hazards and decrease risk. Understanding how women rice farmers deal with risk is essential for educators, and agriculture-related industries such as insurance, and policymakers. If the attitudes of these women towards risk are accurately recognized, risk management strategies, risk-related educational programs and risk strategies can be designed to meet their needs. The overallaim of this research isto investigate factors affecting risk management, and proposing and designing a model among rice cultivating women in Sari. Materials and Methods: The population of the study comprised 1677rice cultivating women in Sari of whom 248 were selected through stratified random sampling. A combination of quantitative, and descriptive-inferential statistics served as the methodology for the study and SPSS 16 and LISREL were applied for data analysis

  7. The rice transcription factor IDEF1 directly binds to iron and other divalent metals for sensing cellular iron status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takanori; Itai, Reiko Nakanishi; Aung, May Sann; Senoura, Takeshi; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2012-01-01

    Iron is essential for most living organisms and its availability often determines survival and proliferation. The Oryza sativa (rice) transcription factor IDEF1 plays a crucial role in regulating iron deficiency-induced genes involved in iron homeostasis. In the present report, we found characteristic histidine-asparagine repeat and proline-rich regions in IDEF1 and its homolog in Hordeum vulgare (barley), HvIDEF1. An immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography assay revealed that IDEF1 and HvIDEF1 bind to various divalent metals, including Fe(2+) and Ni(2+) . Recombinant IDEF1 protein expressed in Escherichia coli contained mainly Fe and Zn. This metal-binding activity of IDEF1 was almost abolished by deletion of the histidine-asparagine and proline-rich regions, but DNA-binding and trans-activation functions were not impaired by the deletion. Transgenic rice plants constitutively overexpressing IDEF1 without these metal-binding domains failed to cause pleiotropic effects conferred by overexpression of full-length IDEF1, including a low germination rate, impaired seedling growth, tolerance to iron deficiency in hydroponic culture, and enhanced expression of various iron deficiency-inducible genes. Impairment of the transcriptional regulation of IDEF1 by deletion of the metal-binding domains occurred primarily at an early stage of iron deficiency. These results suggest that the histidine-asparagine and proline-rich regions in rice IDEF1 directly bind to divalent metals and sense the cellular metal ion balance caused by changes in iron availability. © 2011 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. DNA methyltransferase expressions in Japanese rice fish (Oryzias latipes) embryogenesis is developmentally regulated and modulated by ethanol and 5-azacytidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasmahapatra, Asok K; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the impact of the epigenome in inducting fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) phenotypes in Japanese rice fish embryogenesis. One of the significant events in epigenome is DNA methylation which is catalyzed by DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) enzymes. We analyzed DNMT enzyme mRNA expressions in Japanese rice fish development starting from fertilized eggs to hatching and also in embryos exposed for first 48h of development either to ethanol (300mM) or to 5-azacytidine (5-azaC; 2mM), an inhibitor of DNMT enzyme activity. As observed in FASD phenotypes, 5-azaC exposure was able to induce microcephaly and craniofacial cartilage deformities in Japanese rice fish. Moreover, we have observed that expression of DNMTs (dnmt1, dnmt3aa, and dnmt3bb.1) are developmentally regulated; high mRNA copies were found in early stages (1-2day-post-fertilization, dpf), followed by gradual reduction until hatched. In ethanol-treated embryos, compared to controls, dnmt1 mRNA is in reduced level in 2dpf and in enhanced level in 6dpf embryos. While dnmt3aa and 3bb.1 remained unaltered. In contrast, embryos exposed to 5-azaC have an enhanced level of dnmt1 and dnmt3bb.1 mRNAs both in 2 and 6dpf embryos while dnmt3aa is enhanced only in 6dpf embryos. Moreover, endocannabinoid receptor 1a (cnr1a) mRNA which was found to be reduced by ethanol remained unaltered and cnr1b and cnr2 mRNAs, which were remained unaltered by ethanol, were increased significantly by 5-azaC in 6dpf embryos. This study indicates that the craniofacial defects observed in FASD phenotypes are the results of dysregulations in DNMT expressions. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. The rice eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit f (OseIF3f is involved in microgametogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi eLi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Microgametogenesis is the postmeiotic pollen developmental phase when unicellular microspores develop into mature tricellular pollen. In rice, microgametogenesis can influence grain yields to a great degree because pollen abortion occurs more easily during microgametogenesis than during other stages of pollen development. However, our knowledge of the genes involved in microgametogenesis in rice remains limited. Due to the dependence of pollen development on the regulatory mechanisms of protein expression, we identified the encoding gene of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit f in Oryza sativa (OseIF3f. Immunoprecipitation combined with mass spectrometry confirmed that OseIF3f was a subunit of rice eIF3, which consisted of at least 12 subunits including eIF3a, eIF3b, eIF3c, eIF3d, eIF3e, eIF3f, eIF3g, eIF3h, eIF3i, eIF3k, eIF3l and eIF3m. OseIF3f showed high mRNA levels in immature florets and is highly abundant in developing anthers. Subcellular localization analysis showed that OseIF3f was localized to the cytosol and the endoplasmic reticulum in rice root cells. We further analyzed the biological function of OseIF3f using the double-stranded RNA-mediated interference (RNAi approach. The OseIF3f-RNAi lines grew normally at the vegetative stage but displayed a large reduction in seed production and pollen viability, which is associated with the down-regulation of OseIF3f. Further cytological observations of pollen development revealed that the OseIF3f-RNAi lines showed no obvious abnormalities at the male meiotic stage and the unicellular microspore stage. However, compared to the wild type, OseIF3f-RNAi lines contained a higher percentage of arrested unicellular pollen at the bicellular stage and a higher percentage of arrested unicellular and bicellular pollen, and aborted pollen at the tricellular stage. These results indicate that OseIF3f plays a role in microgametogenesis.

  10. Genome wide identification of Dof transcription factor gene family in sorghum and its comparative phylogenetic analysis with rice and Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, Hariom; Gupta, Shubhra; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Rastogi, Smita; Yadav, Dinesh

    2011-11-01

    The Dof (DNA binding with One Finger) family represents a classic zinc-finger transcription factors involved with multifarious roles exclusively in plants. There exists great diversity in terms of number of Dof genes observed in different crops. In current study, a total of 28 putative Dof genes have been predicted in silico from the recently available whole genome shotgun sequence of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (with assigned accession numbers TPA:BK006983-BK007006 and TPA:BK007079-BK007082). The predicted SbDof genes are distributed on nine out of ten chromosomes of sorghum and most of these genes lack introns based on canonical intron/exon structure. Phylogenetic analysis of 28 SbDof proteins resulted in four subgroups constituting six clusters. The comparative phylogenetic analysis of these Dof proteins along with 30 rice and 36 Arabidopsis Dof proteins revealed six major groups similar to what has been observed earlier for rice and Arabidopsis. Motif analysis revealed the presence of conserved 50-52 amino acids Dof domain uniformly distributed across all the 28 Dof proteins of sorghum. The in silico cis-regulatory elements analysis of these SbDof genes suggested its diverse functions associated with light responsiveness, endosperm specific gene expression, hormone responsiveness, meristem specific expression and stress responsiveness.

  11. Nitric oxide alleviated arsenic toxicity by modulation of antioxidants and thiol metabolism in rice (Oryza sativa L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Pal Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide is a gaseous signalling molecule and has a profound impact on plant growth and development. It is reported to serve as pro oxidant as well as antioxidant in plant system. In present study, we evaluated the protective role of nitric oxide against AsV toxicity in rice plants. Arsenate exposure has hampered the plant growth, reduced the chlorophyll content and enhanced the oxidative stress while the exogenous NO supplementation has reverted these symptoms. Nitric oxide supplementation has reduced the As accumulation in root as well as shoot. Nitric oxide supplementation to AsV exposed plants has reduced the gene expression level of OsLsi1 and OsLsi2. Arsenate stress significantly impacted thiol metabolism, it reduced GSH content and GSH/GSSG ratio and enhanced the level of PCs. Nitric oxide supplementation maintained the GSH/GSSG ratio and reduced the level of PCs. Nitric oxide supplementation reverted AsV induced iron deficiency in shoot and had significant impact of gene expression level of various iron transporters (OsYSL2, OsFRDL1, OsIRT1 and OsIRO2. Conclusively, exogenous application of nitric oxide could be advantageous against AsV toxicity and could confer the tolerance to AsV stress in rice.

  12. Identification of a Genetic Factor Required for High γ-Isoform Concentration in Rice Vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Daisuke; Murata, Kazumasa; Kimura, Toshiyuki; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2016-12-14

    The γ-isoforms of tocopherols (Tc) and tocotrienols (T3) possess high biological activities in comparison to the α-isoforms. The concentrations of Tc and T3 isoforms in rice (Oriza sativa) was cultivar-dependent. Using chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) and near isogenic lines (NILs) of indica cultivar "Kasalath" in a japonica cultivar "Koshihikari" genetic background, the Kasalath genomic segment on chromosome 2 was determined to be responsible for the high γ-isoform concentration: γ-tocopherol methyltransferase (γ-TMT) was identified as a candidate gene. An amino acid substitution in the coding region and several nucleotide polymorphisms, including an insertion of 10 base pairs in the promoter region, were identified. Gene expression analysis revealed that low expression levels of the γ-TMT gene in Kasalath were not associated with the γ-isoform concentration. Genetic variations in the coding region of the γ-TMT gene may play a major role in determining the γ-isoform concentration. This information could be used to breed rice with a high γ-isoform content.

  13. Stress-inducible expression of AtDREB1A transcription factor greatly improves drought stress tolerance in transgenic indica rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, G; Manimaran, P; Voleti, S R; Subrahmanyam, D; Sundaram, R M; Bansal, K C; Viraktamath, B C; Balachandran, S M

    2014-06-01

    The cultivation of rice (Oryza sativa L.), a major food crop, requires ample water (30 % of the fresh water available worldwide), and its productivity is greatly affected by drought, the most significant environmental factor. Much research has focussed on identifying quantitative trait loci, stress-regulated genes and transcription factors that will contribute towards the development of climate-resilient/tolerant crop plants in general and rice in particular. The transcription factor DREB1A, identified from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, has been reported to enhance stress tolerance against drought stress. We developed transgenic rice plants with AtDREB1A in the background of indica rice cultivar Samba Mahsuri through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The AtDREB1A gene was stably inherited and expressed in T1 and T2 plants and in subsequent generations, as indicated by the results of PCR, Southern blot and RT-PCR analyses. Expression of AtDREB1A was induced by drought stress in transgenic rice lines, which were highly tolerant to severe water deficit stress in both the vegetative and reproductive stages without affecting their morphological or agronomic traits. The physiological studies revealed that the expression of AtDREB1A was associated with an increased accumulation of the osmotic substance proline, maintenance of chlorophyll, increased relative water content and decreased ion leakage under drought stress. Most of the homozygous lines were highly tolerant to drought stress and showed significantly a higher grain yield and spikelet fertility relative to the nontransgenic control plants under both stressed and unstressed conditions. The improvement in drought stress tolerance in combination with agronomic traits is very essential in high premium indica rice cultivars, such as Samba Mahsuri, so that farmers can benefit in times of seasonal droughts and water scarcity.

  14. (PGMS) rice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-18

    Apr 18, 2011 ... In photoperiod-sensitive genic male sterile rice (Oryza sativa L.) pollen abort in long day and high temperature, and revert to fertility in short day length and low temperature growth conditions. This type of control of rice plant fertility can facilitate production of hybrid rice using two lines (photoperiod- sensitive ...

  15. Predictive factors for acute radiation pneumonitis in postoperative intensity modulated radiation therapy and volumetric modulated arc therapy of esophageal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yaqin; Chen, Lu; Zhang, Shu; Wu, Qiang; Jiang, Xiaoqin; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Jin; Li, Zhiping; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Ying Jie; Bai, Sen; Xu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Background Radiation pneumonitis (RP) is a common side reaction in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer. There are few reports about RP in esophageal cancer patients receiving postoperative intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). This study aims to analyze clinical or dosimetric factors associated with RP, and provides data for radiotherapy planning. Methods We reviewed 68 postoperative esophageal cancer patients who were treated with radiothera...

  16. Transcriptional downregulation of rice rpL32 gene under abiotic stress is associated with removal of transcription factors within the promoter region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradipto Mukhopadhyay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The regulation of ribosomal proteins in plants under stress conditions has not been well studied. Although a few reports have shown stress-specific post-transcriptional and translational mechanisms involved in downregulation of ribosomal proteins yet stress-responsive transcriptional regulation of ribosomal proteins is largely unknown in plants. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present work, transcriptional regulation of genes encoding rice 60S ribosomal protein L32 (rpL32 in response to salt stress has been studied. Northern and RT-PCR analyses showed a significant downregulation of rpL32 transcripts under abiotic stress conditions in rice. Of the four rpL32 genes in rice genome, the gene on chromosome 8 (rpL32_8.1 showed a higher degree of stress-responsive downregulation in salt sensitive rice variety than in tolerant one and its expression reverted to its original level upon withdrawal of stress. The nuclear run-on and promoter:reporter assays revealed that the downregulation of this gene is transcriptional and originates within the promoter region. Using in vivo footprinting and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA, cis-elements in the promoter of rpL32_8.1 showing reduced binding to proteins in shoots of salt stressed rice seedlings were identified. CONCLUSIONS: The present work is one of the few reports on study of stress downregulated genes. The data revealed that rpL32 gene is transcriptionally downregulated under abiotic stress in rice and that this transcriptional downregulation is associated with the removal of transcription factors from specific promoter elements.

  17. OsRMC, a negative regulator of salt stress response in rice, is regulated by two AP2/ERF transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Tânia S; Figueiredo, Duarte D; Cordeiro, André M; Almeida, Diego M; Lourenço, Tiago; Abreu, Isabel A; Sebastián, Alvaro; Fernandes, Lisete; Contreras-Moreira, Bruno; Oliveira, M Margarida; Saibo, Nelson J M

    2013-07-01

    High salinity causes remarkable losses in rice productivity worldwide mainly because it inhibits growth and reduces grain yield. To cope with environmental changes, plants evolved several adaptive mechanisms, which involve the regulation of many stress-responsive genes. Among these, we have chosen OsRMC to study its transcriptional regulation in rice seedlings subjected to high salinity. Its transcription was highly induced by salt treatment and showed a stress-dose-dependent pattern. OsRMC encodes a receptor-like kinase described as a negative regulator of salt stress responses in rice. To investigate how OsRMC is regulated in response to high salinity, a salt-induced rice cDNA expression library was constructed and subsequently screened using the yeast one-hybrid system and the OsRMC promoter as bait. Thereby, two transcription factors (TFs), OsEREBP1 and OsEREBP2, belonging to the AP2/ERF family were identified. Both TFs were shown to bind to the same GCC-like DNA motif in OsRMC promoter and to negatively regulate its gene expression. The identified TFs were characterized regarding their gene expression under different abiotic stress conditions. This study revealed that OsEREBP1 transcript level is not significantly affected by salt, ABA or severe cold (5 °C) and is only slightly regulated by drought and moderate cold. On the other hand, the OsEREBP2 transcript level increased after cold, ABA, drought and high salinity treatments, indicating that OsEREBP2 may play a central role mediating the response to different abiotic stresses. Gene expression analysis in rice varieties with contrasting salt tolerance further suggests that OsEREBP2 is involved in salt stress response in rice.

  18. Involvement of the OsMKK4-OsMPK1 Cascade and its Downstream Transcription Factor OsWRKY53 in the Wounding Response in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Jin Yoo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant has possessed diverse stress signals from outside and maintained its fitness. Out of such plant responses, it is well known that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascade plays important role in wounding and pathogen attack in most dicot plants. However, little is understood about its role in wounding response for the economically important monocot rice plant. In this study, therefore, the involvement of MAPK was investigated to understand the wounding signaling pathway in rice. The OsMPK1 was rapidly activated by wounding within 10 min, and OsMPK1 was also activated by challenge of rice blast fungus. Further analysis revealed that OsMKK4, the upstream kinase of OsMPK1, phosphorylated OsMPK1 by wounding in vivo. Furthermore, OsMPK1 directly interacted with a rice defense-related transcription factor OsWRKY53. To understand a functional link between MAPK and its target transcription factor, we showed that OsMPK1 activated by the constitutively active mutant OsMKK4DD phosphorylated OsWRKY53 in vitro. Taken together, components involving in the wounding signaling pathway, OsMKK4-OsMPK1-OsWRKY53, can be important players in regulating crosstalk between abiotic stress and biotic stress.

  19. Heat-stabilised rice bran consumption by colorectal cancer survivors modulates stool metabolite profiles and metabolic networks: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dustin G; Borresen, Erica C; Brown, Regina J; Ryan, Elizabeth P

    2017-05-01

    Rice bran (RB) consumption has been shown to reduce colorectal cancer (CRC) growth in mice and modify the human stool microbiome. Changes in host and microbial metabolism induced by RB consumption was hypothesised to modulate the stool metabolite profile in favour of promoting gut health and inhibiting CRC growth. The objective was to integrate gut microbial metabolite profiles and identify metabolic pathway networks for CRC chemoprevention using non-targeted metabolomics. In all, nineteen CRC survivors participated in a parallel randomised controlled dietary intervention trial that included daily consumption of study-provided foods with heat-stabilised RB (30 g/d) or no additional ingredient (control). Stool samples were collected at baseline and 4 weeks and analysed using GC-MS and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-MS. Stool metabolomics revealed 93 significantly different metabolites in individuals consuming RB. A 264-fold increase in β-hydroxyisovaleroylcarnitine and 18-fold increase in β-hydroxyisovalerate exemplified changes in leucine, isoleucine and valine metabolism in the RB group. A total of thirty-nine stool metabolites were significantly different between RB and control groups, including increased hesperidin (28-fold) and narirutin (14-fold). Metabolic pathways impacted in the RB group over time included advanced glycation end products, steroids and bile acids. Fatty acid, leucine/valine and vitamin B6 metabolic pathways were increased in RB compared with control. There were 453 metabolites identified in the RB food metabolome, thirty-nine of which were identified in stool from RB consumers. RB consumption favourably modulated the stool metabolome of CRC survivors and these findings suggest the need for continued dietary CRC chemoprevention efforts.

  20. Rice Cakes Containing Dietary Fiber Supplemented with or without Artemisia Annua and Gynura Procumbens Merr. Alleviated the Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Na Rae; Yoon, Sun; Lee, Seung-Min

    2016-04-01

    We investigated whether the consumption of Korean rice cakes enriched with dietary fiber with or without polyphenol rich plants might decrease the risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Rice cakes were manufactured using fructooligosaccharides, resistant starch, and psyllium as sources of dietary fibers with and without polyphenol rich Artemisia annua and Gynura procumbens Merr. (RC+FP and RC+F, respectively), and prepared in three forms (songpyeon, seolgidduk, and chaldduk). Ninety subjects with at least one MetS risk factor were recruited for 6 weeks of dietary intervention. Sixty subjects were finally included for the analysis. Compared to the initial values, RC+FP group had decreased levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), HOMA-IR and blood pressure after 6 weeks, whereas RC+F group didn't have significant changes in them. Regarding the improvement of individual MetS risk factors, RC+FP group showed significant reduction in FBG and blood pressures but RC+F group only had reduction in systolic blood pressure. After the intervention, a reduction in the number of MetS risk factors was greatert in the RC+FP group than in the RC+F group. In conclusion, Dietary fiber enriched rice cakes with or without polyphenols decreased the number and/or the levels of MetS risk factors. Polyphenol rich plant components may provide additional health benefits in controlling FBG and blood pressure.

  1. Glucose lowering effect of transgenic human insulin-like growth factor-I from rice: in vitro and in vivo studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Samuel SM

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human insulin-like growth factor-I (hIGF-I is a growth factor which is highly resemble to insulin. It is essential for cell proliferation and has been proposed for treatment of various endocrine-associated diseases including growth hormone insensitivity syndrome and diabetes mellitus. In the present study, an efficient plant expression system was developed to produce biologically active recombinant hIGF-I (rhIGF-I in transgenic rice grains. Results The plant-codon-optimized hIGF-I was introduced into rice via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. To enhance the stability and yield of rhIGF-I, the endoplasmic reticulum-retention signal and glutelin signal peptide were used to deliver rhIGF-I to endoplasmic reticulum for stable accumulation. We found that only glutelin signal peptide could lead to successful expression of hIGF-I and one gram of hIGF-I rice grain possessed the maximum activity level equivalent to 3.2 micro molar of commercial rhIGF-I. In vitro functional analysis showed that the rice-derived rhIGF-I was effective in inducing membrane ruffling and glucose uptake on rat skeletal muscle cells. Oral meal test with rice-containing rhIGF-I acutely reduced blood glucose levels in streptozotocin-induced and Zucker diabetic rats, whereas it had no effect in normal rats. Conclusion Our findings provided an alternative expression system to produce large quantities of biologically active rhIGF-I. The provision of large quantity of recombinant proteins will promote further research on the therapeutic potential of rhIGF-I.

  2. Overexpression of an AP2/ERF Type Transcription Factor OsEREBP1 Confers Biotic and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Jisha

    Full Text Available AP2/ERF-type transcription factors regulate important functions of plant growth and development as well as responses to environmental stimuli. A rice AP2/ERF transcription factor, OsEREBP1 is a downstream component of a signal transduction pathway in a specific interaction between rice (Oryza sativa and its bacterial pathogen, Xoo (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Constitutive expression of OsEREBP1 in rice driven by maize ubiquitin promoter did not affect normal plant growth. Microarray analysis revealed that over expression of OsEREBP1 caused increased expression of lipid metabolism related genes such as lipase and chloroplastic lipoxygenase as well as several genes related to jasmonate and abscisic acid biosynthesis. PR genes, transcription regulators and Aldhs (alcohol dehydrogenases implicated in abiotic stress and submergence tolerance were also upregulated in transgenic plants. Transgenic plants showed increase in endogenous levels of α-linolenate, several jasmonate derivatives and abscisic acid but not salicylic acid. Soluble modified GFP (SmGFP-tagged OsEREBP1 was localized to plastid nucleoids. Comparative analysis of non-transgenic and OsEREBP1 overexpressing genotypes revealed that OsEREBP1 attenuates disease caused by Xoo and confers drought and submergence tolerance in transgenic rice. Our results suggest that constitutive expression of OsEREBP1 activates the jasmonate and abscisic acid signalling pathways thereby priming the rice plants for enhanced survival under abiotic or biotic stress conditions. OsEREBP1 is thus, a good candidate gene for engineering plants for multiple stress tolerance.

  3. Factors Affecting the Growth and Production of Milk-Clotting Enzyme by Amylomyces rouxii in Rice Liquid Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Jing Yu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Amylomyces rouxii is one of the main fungi usually coexisting with yeasts in Chinese yeast ball, the starter of chiu-niang, a traditional Chinese fermented product from rice. In the present study, growth and production of milk-clotting enzyme (MCE in gelatinous rice liquid culture of A. rouxii as influenced by waxy (gelatinous rice content in the medium (5–20 %, temperature (25–40 °C, cultivation time (1–6 days, shaking speeds (0–150 rpm and metal ions (Na+, K+, Zn2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, Ca2+, Fe3+ and Al3+ were investigated. Results revealed that rice content in the medium, shaking speed, temperature and cultivation time all affected the mycelial propagation and the production of milk-clotting enzyme by A. rouxii in the rice liquid culture. The maximum milk-clotting enzyme activity of ca. 1.22 unit/mL of medium was observed in the 3-day static culture of test organism grown at 30 °C in the medium containing 20 % of gelatinous rice, while mycelial propagation increased with the increase of cultivation time and shaking speed. Furthermore, a significant increase (p<0.05 in the milk-clotting enzyme activity of ca. 1.90 unit/mL of medium, which was about 1.55-fold of the control, was observed when Al3+ was added to the rice liquid medium.

  4. Overexpression of the OsERF71 Transcription Factor Alters Rice Root Structure and Drought Resistance1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Geupil; Jeong, Jin Seo; Kim, Youn Shic; Ha, Sun-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Plant responses to drought stress require the regulation of transcriptional networks via drought-responsive transcription factors, which mediate a range of morphological and physiological changes. AP2/ERF transcription factors are known to act as key regulators of drought resistance transcriptional networks; however, little is known about the associated molecular mechanisms that give rise to specific morphological and physiological adaptations. In this study, we functionally characterized the rice (Oryza sativa) drought-responsive AP2/ERF transcription factor OsERF71, which is expressed predominantly in the root meristem, pericycle, and endodermis. Overexpression of OsERF71, either throughout the entire plant or specifically in roots, resulted in a drought resistance phenotype at the vegetative growth stage, indicating that overexpression in roots was sufficient to confer drought resistance. The root-specific overexpression was more effective in conferring drought resistance at the reproductive stage, such that grain yield was increased by 23% to 42% over wild-type plants or whole-body overexpressing transgenic lines under drought conditions. OsERF71 overexpression in roots elevated the expression levels of genes related to cell wall loosening and lignin biosynthetic genes, which correlated with changes in root structure, the formation of enlarged aerenchyma, and high lignification levels. Furthermore, OsERF71 was found to directly bind to the promoter of OsCINNAMOYL-COENZYME A REDUCTASE1, a key gene in lignin biosynthesis. These results indicate that the OsERF71-mediated drought resistance pathway recruits factors involved in cell wall modification to enable root morphological adaptations, thereby providing a mechanism for enhancing drought resistance. PMID:27382137

  5. Scenario Analysis of Rice Cultivation in Kerala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athira Hari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice is the staple food crop of Kerala. At present only 12% of the gross cropped area in the state is under paddy. The paddy fields in Kerala are constantly getting converted for other purposes. A steady decline in the area under rice cultivation occurred from 1980s onwards. This paper studies the changing trend in rice cultivation and provides the factors leading to shifting of rice cultivation.

  6. Genetic Transformation of Transcription Factor (35S-oshox4 Gene into Rice Genome and Transformant Analysis of hpt Gene by PCR and Hygromycin Resistance Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    INEZ HORTENZE SLAMET-LOEDIN

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Global warming, climate change and crop extensification in marginal dryland areas are related to long dry season and water deficit. The water availability is an important factor in improving plant production. Application of drought tolerant rice cultivars is one of several options that might be used. Genetic engineering at the level of transcription factors is particularly promising strategy to develop drought tolerant rice varieties. Transcription factors regulate a wide range of target genes in which of them contribute to stress tolerance. HD Zip genes are transcription factor that potential in the adaptation of plants to some environment stresses including water deficit. HD-ZIP oshox4 (oryza sativa homeobox gene controlled by 35S promotor is inserted into pCAMBIA 1300 vector with hpt (hygromycin gene as a selectable marker. The aim of this research is to obtain transgenic rice plant from transformation with 35S-oshox4 plasmid, segregation analysis of marker gene (hpt by PCR method at T0 and T1 generation, and hygromycin resistance analysis of seeds. Recombinant plasmid was transformed into rice genome of IRAT 112 and rojolele cultivars using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The results showed that transformation efficiency of IRAT 112 is 5.7-13.6% and 26-66,7% for rojolele. While regeneration efficiency for IRAT 112 is 4.7-43.7% and 23-44.1% for rojolele. The result of hygromycin resistance test at T1 seeds were obtained 14 lines cv. rojolele segregation Mendelian for hpt gene. The PCR analysis using specific primers for hpt gene at the parent (T0 from 14 lines showed that 7 lines contain the gene. At the second generation (T1, PCR analysis using hpt primers showed that 3 from 4 lines were followed Mendelian segregation pattern by the presence of specific band.

  7. Human Colon-Derived Soluble Factors Modulate Gut Microbiota Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Hevia, Arancha; Bernardo, David; Montalvillo, Enrique; Al-Hassi, Hafid O.; Fernández-Salazar, Luis; Garrote, Jose A.; Milani, Christian; Ventura, Marco; Arranz, Eduardo; Knight, Stella C.; Margolles, Abelardo; Sánchez, Borja

    2015-01-01

    The commensal microbiota modulates immunological and metabolic aspects of the intestinal mucosa contributing to development of human gut diseases including inflammatory bowel disease. The host/microbiota interaction often referred to as a crosstalk, mainly focuses on the effect of the microbiota on the host neglecting effects that the host could elicit on the commensals. Colonic microenvironments from three human healthy controls (obtained from the proximal and distal colon, both in resting c...

  8. Understanding of evolutionary genomics of invasive species of rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red rice is an aggressive, weedy form of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) that infests crop fields and is a primary factor limiting rice productivity in the U.S. and worldwide. As the weedy relative of a genomic model species, red rice is a model for understanding the genetic and evolutionary mechani...

  9. Aluminum resistance transcription factor 1 (ART1) contributes to natural variation in rice aluminum resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transcription factors (TFs) mediate stress resistance indirectly via physiological mechanisms driven by the array of genes they regulate. Therefore, when studying TF-mediated stress resistance, it is important to understand how TFs interact with different genetic backgrounds. Here, we fine-mapped th...

  10. Basal Transcription Factor 3 Plays an Important Role in Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyi Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BTF3 has been recognized to be involved in plant growth and development. But its function remains mostly unknown during seed germination and seedling stage. Here, we have analyzed OsBTF3-related sequences in Oryza sativa L. subspecies, japonica, which resembles with the conserved domain of a nascent polypeptide associated complex (NAC with different homologs of OsBTF3 and human BTF3. Inhibition of Osj10gBTF3 has led to considerable morphological changes during seed germination and seedling growth. Germination percentage was not influenced by the application of GA3, ABA, and NaCl but all concentrations caused wild-type (WT seeds to germinate more rapidly than the RNAi (Osj10gBTF3Ri transgenic lines. Seedling inhibition was more severe in the Osj10gBTF3Ri seedlings compared with their WT especially when treated with 100 or 200 μM GA3; 50% reduction in shoots was observed in Osj10gBTF3Ri seedlings. The expression of Osj3g1BTF3, Osj3g2BTF3 and Osj10gBTF3 was primarily constitutive and generally modulated by NaCl, ABA, and GA3 stresses in both Osj10gBTF3Ri lines and WT at the early seedling stage, suggesting that Osj3g1BTF3 and Osj10gBTF3 are much similar but different from Osj3g2BTF3 in biological function. These results show that OsBTF3 plays an important role in seed germination and seedling growth gives a new perception demonstrating that more multifaceted regulatory functions are linked with BTF3 in plants.

  11. Germinated Brown Rice Alters Aβ(1-42 Aggregation and Modulates Alzheimer’s Disease-Related Genes in Differentiated Human SH-SY5Y Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hanisah Azmi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease involves complex etiological factors, of which the deposition of beta-amyloid (Aβ protein and oxidative stress have been strongly implicated. We explored the effects of H2O2, which is a precursor for highly reactive hydroxyl radicals, on neurotoxicity and genes related to AD on neuronal cells. Candidate bioactive compounds responsible for the effects were quantified using HPLC-DAD. Additionally, the effects of germinated brown rice (GBR on the morphology of Aβ(1-42 were assessed by Transmission Electron Microscopy and its regulatory effects on gene expressions were explored. The results showed that GBR extract had several phenolic compounds and γ-oryzanol and altered the structure of Aβ(1-42 suggesting an antiamyloidogenic effect. GBR was also able to attenuate the oxidative effects of H2O2 as implied by reduced LDH release and intracellular ROS generation. Furthermore, gene expression analyses showed that the neuroprotective effects of GBR were partly mediated through transcriptional regulation of multiple genes including Presenilins, APP, BACE1, BACE2, ADAM10, Neprilysin, and LRP1. Our findings showed that GBR exhibited neuroprotective properties via transcriptional regulation of APP metabolism with potential impact on Aβ aggregation. These findings can have important implications for the management of neurodegenerative diseases like AD and are worth exploring further.

  12. Social Factors Affecting Wetlands Utilization for Agriculture in Nigeria: A case study of sawah rice production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladimeji Idowu Oladele

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands have immense poverty-fighting potentials and in Nigeria, more and more people are dependent on wetlands for their livelihoods. To examine the social factors affecting the current status of the wetlands utilization for agriculture in Nigeria, a simple random sampling technique was used to select 200 farmers cultivating wetlands and a structured questionnaire was applied to elicit the information on the social factors. Data collected were described using frequency and percentage and a multiple regression analysis was used to identify significant variables that are determinants of wetland utilization. The results of the analysis showed that significant variables included crop preferences, farming system, culture, taste, land tenure, knowledge of wetland cultivation, perceived suitability, farmers' tribe, location of wetland, and farmers' age. It was concluded with suggestions for the right combination of policies, public awareness, and appropriate farming methods in order to improve wetland utilization in Nigeria.

  13. Space Vector Modulation for an Indirect Matrix Converter with Improved Input Power Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Dinh Tuyen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Pulse width modulation strategies have been developed for indirect matrix converters (IMCs in order to improve their performance. In indirect matrix converters, the LC input filter is used to remove input current harmonics and electromagnetic interference problems. Unfortunately, due to the existence of the input filter, the input power factor is diminished, especially during operation at low voltage outputs. In this paper, a new space vector modulation (SVM is proposed to compensate for the input power factor of the indirect matrix converter. Both computer simulation and experimental studies through hardware implementation were performed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed modulation strategy.

  14. Bed net use and associated factors in a rice farming community in Central Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabuage Lucy

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs continues to offer potential strategy for malaria prevention in endemic areas. However their effectiveness, sustainability and massive scale up remain a factor of socio-economic and cultural variables of the local community which are indispensable during design and implementation stages. Methods An ethnographic household survey was conducted in four study villages which were purposefully selected to represent socio-economic and geographical diversity. In total, 400 households were randomly selected from the four study villages. Quantitative and qualitative information of the respondents were collected by use of semi-structured questionnaires and focus group discussions. Results Malaria was reported the most frequently occurring disease in the area (93% and its aetiology was attributed to other non-biomedical causes like stagnant water (16%, and long rains (13%. Factors which significantly caused variation in bed net use were occupant relationship to household head (χ2 = 105.705; df 14; P = 0.000, Age (χ2 = 74.483; df 14; P = 0.000, village (χ2 = 150.325; df 6; P = 0.000, occupation (χ2 = 7.955; df 3; P = 0.047, gender (χ2 = 4.254; df 1; P = 0.039 and education levels of the household head or spouse (χ2 = 33.622; df 6; P = 0.000. The same variables determined access and conditions of bed nets at household level. Protection against mosquito bite (95% was the main reason cited for using bed nets in most households while protection against malaria came second (54%. Colour, shape and affordability were some of the key potential factors which determined choice, use and acceptance of bed nets in the study area. Conclusion The study highlights potential social and economic variables important for effective and sustainable implementation of bed nets-related programmes in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  15. Effect of rice beer on gut bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhuwan Bhaskar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The human gut is colonized by trillions of bacteria, called microbiota influences human health and is effected by several host factors. The studies in humans and model organisms have clearly demonstrated that out of several important factors, diet has the most dominant role in regulation of the gut microbiota. Additionally, with an increase in the knowledge on the microbiota, the connections between microbial actions on dietary consumption are being revealed. Consumption of fermented beverages holds a long tradition and accounts for approximately one-third of the human diet globally. In various societies, fermentation has not only been well established as a process for food preservation, human nutrition, traditional medicine and culture but also for the improving the sensorial characteristics, such as texture, flavor and aroma and most importantly for the magnification of the nutritional values. Consumption of rice beer is an essential part of the socio-cultural life of several tribes of North-East India. It is believed to be effective against several ailments such as ameboisis, acidity, vomiting and has health modulating effects including cholesterol reduction and endocrine function. Effect of rice beer was tested on mice model. 17 healthy Swiss albino mice were taken for the study and divided into two groups: control and treated. Rice beer was fed to the treated group once daily and fecal samples were collected. Metagenomic DNA from stool samples was extracted and V6 - V8 region of the 16S rDNA gene was amplified, followed by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE.The DGGE gel was scored using GelCompar II software. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GCMS analysis of stool samples was also carried out. Multidimensional scaling (MDS plot of the DGGE profiles showed distinct clustering of control and treated groups, indicating the effect of rice beer consumption on gut microbes.

  16. Synaptic modulation by neurotrophic factors: differential and synergistic effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, R; Poo, M M

    1996-05-15

    Extracellular application of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) to developing neuromuscular junctions in Xenopus nerve-muscle cultures resulted in an increase in the frequency of spontaneous synaptic currents (SSCs) and in the amplitude of nerve-evoked synaptic currents. Analyses of the amplitude and time course of the SSCs suggest that these effects are attributable to elevation of presynaptic transmitter release. The actions of these two factors on the transmitter secretion process, however, are distinctly different. Fura-2 Ca2+ imaging showed that an increase in presynaptic cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) accompanied the synaptic potentiation by BDNF, whereas no change in [Ca2+]i was observed during synaptic potentiation by CNTF. Removing external Ca2+ also abolished the potentiating effect of BDNF but did not influence the CNTF effect. Moreover, the two factors exerted different effects on the short-term synaptic plasticity. Paired-pulse facilitation normally found at these synapses was reduced by BDNF but unaffected by CNTF; CNTF, but not BDNF, reduced the extent of synaptic depression during high-frequency tetanic stimulation. Finally, the potentiation effect of BDNF and CNTF on spontaneous transmitter release was additive when both factors were applied together to the synapse at saturating concentrations (100 ng/ml) and was highly synergistic when low doses (1 and 10 ng/ml) of both factors were used. These results suggest that because of their differential effects on the secretory machinery, BDNF and CNTF may act cooperatively in modulating the development and functioning of synapses.

  17. Conjugated linoleic acid modulation of risk factors associated with atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flintoff-Dye Nichole

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA has been the subject of extensive investigation regarding its possible benefits on a variety of human diseases. In some animal studies, CLA has been shown to have a beneficial effect on sclerotic lesions associated with atherosclerosis, be a possible anti-carcinogen, increase feed efficiency, and act as a lean body mass supplement. However, the results have been inconsistent, and the effects of CLA on atherogenesis appear to be dose-, isomer-, tissue-, and species-specific. Similarly, CLA trials in humans have resulted in conflicting findings. Both the human and animal study results may be attributed to contrasting doses of CLA, isomers, the coexistence of other dietary fatty acids, length of study, and inter-and/or intra-species diversities. Recent research advances have suggested the importance of CLA isomers in modulating gene expression involved in oxidative damage, fatty acid metabolism, immune/inflammatory responses, and ultimately atherosclerosis. Although the possible mechanisms of action of CLA have been suggested, they have yet to be determined.

  18. Cardiovagal modulation, oxidative stress, and cardiovascular risk factors in prehypertensive subjects: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiyagarajan, Ramkumar; Pal, Pravati; Pal, Gopal Krushna; Subramanian, Senthil Kumar; Bobby, Zachariah; Das, Ashok Kumar; Trakroo, Madanmohan

    2013-07-01

    Hypertension, one of the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), is known to be associated with increased oxidative stress and reduced cardiovagal modulation. Similar to hypertension, prehypertension is associated with increased risk of adverse cardiovascular (CV) events. We planned this study to find the association between prehypertension, cardiovagal modulation, oxidative stress, and associated CV risk factors. We recruited 178 subjects through hypertension screening camps conducted in Puducherry, India. Subjects were grouped into prehypertensive (n = 97) and normotensive (n = 81) groups. They were further subdivided, based on age, as young (20-39 years) and middle-aged (40-60 years) adults. We measured basal physiological parameters, heart rate variability, oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance and total antioxidant capacity (TAC)), and CV risk factors. We found significant increase in oxidative stress in prehypertensive subjects of both age groups but the cardiovagal modulation decreased significantly in young prehypertensive subjects when compared with normotensive subjects. Correlation of TAC with root mean square of the sum of successive R wave to R wave (RR) interval differences (RMSSD), a cardiovagal modulation parameter (r = 0. 437; P risk factors. The correlation between MAP and RMSSD (r = 0.199; P = 0.009) was reduced after adjusting for CV risk factors. Prehypertension in young adults is associated with increased oxidative stress and altered cardiovagal modulation. The risk factors for CVDs in prehypertensive young adults were found to be equivalent to that of middle-aged adults who are in the twilight zone for developing CV dysfunctions.

  19. Factors modulating the inflammatory response in acute gouty arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleophas, M.C.P.; Crisan, T.O.; Joosten, L.A.B.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gout is a common debilitating form of arthritis and despite our extensive knowledge on the pathogenesis its prevalence is still rising quickly. In the current review, we provide a concise overview of recent discoveries in factors tuning the inflammatory response to soluble uric

  20. High level of expression of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor in transgenic rice cell suspension culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, Yun-Ji; Hong, Shin-Young; Kwon, Tae-Ho

    2003-01-01

    this problem, we sought an expression system in which heterologous gene expression could be induced at high levels. We selected a rice amylase expression system in which the promoter Ramy3D is induced to express recombinant protein by sucrose starvation. This induction system was found to give good yield...

  1. Overexpression of transcription factor OsWR2 1 regulates wax/cutin biosynthesis and enhances drought tolerance in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drought is the major abiotic stress limiting crop production. Plant cuticle represents the outer-most layer of the epidermis and previous studies demonstrate its association with plant response to climatological drought. We report here the functional characterization of the rice ((Oryza sativa L.) W...

  2. Malaria among rice farming communities in Kilangali village, Kilosa district, Central Tanzania: prevalence, intensity and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazigo, Humphrey D; Rumisha, Susan F; Chiduo, Mercy G; Bwana, Veneranda M; Mboera, Leonard E G

    2017-07-05

    Malaria remains the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in Tanzania. However, its prevalence varies from area to area depending on various ecological, socio-economic and health system factors. This study was carried out to determine malaria prevalence and associated factors among rice farming communities in the Kilangali village of Kilosa District in Central Tanzania. A cross-sectional study was conducted in May 2015, involving randomly selected persons living in the six sub-villages of the Kilangali village, namely Mlegeni, Kisiwani, Makuruwili, Kwamtunga, Upogoroni and Chamwino. A finger prick blood sample was obtained for diagnosis of malaria infection using Giemsa-stained thick smears and a rapid malaria diagnostic test. Study participants were also screened for haemoglobin levels and a total of 570 children aged ≤ 12 years of age were examined for spleen enlargement using the palpation method. A total of 1154 persons were examined for malaria infection with mean age of 21.9 ± 19.69 years. The overall malaria prevalence was 14.2% and 17.5% based on microscopic examination and rapid diagnostic test, respectively. Plasmodium falciparum accounted for the majority (89%) of the malaria infections. The overall geometrical mean parasite density was 20.5 parasites/μL (95% CI: 14.6-28.8). Malaria prevalence and parasitaemia was highest among individuals living in the Mlegeni (23.9%) and Makuruwili (24.4%) sub-villages. Among the children examined for splenomegaly, 2.98% (17/570) had it. The overall prevalence of anaemia was 34.6%. Malaria infection was associated with the age groups of 1-10 years (aOR = 4.41, 95% CI: 1.96-9.93, P < 0.001) and 11-20 years (aOR = 6.68, 95% CI: 2.91-15.37, P < 0.001); and mild anaemia (aOR = 1.71, 95% CI: 1.11-2.62, P < 0.014) and moderate anaemia (aOR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.01-2.39, P < 0.045). Malaria was found at the study setting and its prevalence varied according to the demographic

  3. A comparative study of competitiveness between different genotypes of weedy rice (Oryza sativa) and cultivated rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lei; Dai, Weimin; Song, Xiaoling; Lu, Baorong; Qiang, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Competition from weedy rice can cause serious yield losses to cultivated rice. However, key traits that facilitate competitiveness are still not well understood. To explore the mechanisms behind the strong growth and competitive ability, replacement series experiments were established with six genotypes of weedy rice from different regions and one cultivated rice cultivar. (1) Weedy rice from southern China had the greatest impact on growth and yield of cultivated rice throughout the entire growing season. Weedy rice from the northeast was very competitive during the early vegetative stage while the competitive effects of eastern weedy rice were more detrimental at later crop-growth stages. (2) As the proportion of weedy rice increased, plant height, tillers, above-ground biomass, and yield of cultivated rice significantly declined; the crop always being at disadvantage regardless of proportion. (3) Weedy biotypes with greater diversity as estimated by their Shannon indexes were more detrimental to the growth and yield of cultivated rice. Geographic origin (latitude) of weedy rice biotype, its mixture proportion under competition with the crop and its genetic diversity are determinant factors of the outcome of competition and the associated decline in the rice crop yield. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. The bZIP Transcription Factor MoAP1 Mediates the Oxidative Stress Response and Is Critical for Pathogenicity of the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Min; Chen, Yue; Du, Yan; Dong, Yanhan; Guo, Wang; Zhai, Su; Zhang, Haifeng; Dong, Suomeng; Zhang, Zhengguang; Wang, Yuanchao; Wang, Ping; Zheng, Xiaobo

    2011-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yap1 protein is an AP1-like transcription factor involved in the regulation of the oxidative stress response. An ortholog of Yap1, MoAP1, was recently identified from the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae genome. We found that MoAP1 is highly expressed in conidia and during invasive hyphal growth. The Moap1 mutant was sensitive to H₂O₂, similar to S. cerevisiae yap1 mutants, and MoAP1 complemented Yap1 function in resistance to H₂O₂, albeit partially. The Moap1 mut...

  5. Cultural and biological factors modulate spatial biases over development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girelli, Luisa; Marinelli, Chiara Valeria; Grossi, Giuseppe; Arduino, Lisa S

    2017-11-01

    Increasing evidence supports the contribution of both biological and cultural factors to visuospatial processing. The present study adds to the literature by exploring the interplay of perceptual and linguistic mechanisms in determining visuospatial asymmetries in adults (Experiment 1) and children (Experiment 2). In particular, pre-schoolers (3 and 5 year-olds), school-aged children (8 year-old), and adult participants were required to bisect different types of stimuli, that is, lines, words, and figure strings. In accordance with the literature, results yielded a leftward bias for lines and words and a rightward bias for figure strings, in adult participants. More critically, different biases were found for lines, words, and figure strings in children as a function of age, reflecting the impact of both cultural and biological factors on the processing of different visuospatial materials. Specifically, an adult-like pattern of results emerged only in the older group of children (8 year-old), but not in pre-schoolers. Results are discussed in terms of literacy, reading habits exposure, and biological maturation.

  6. Modulation of the Genome and Epigenome of Individuals Susceptible to Autism by Environmental Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas Koufaris

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Diverse environmental factors have been implicated with the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Genetic factors also underlie the differential vulnerability to environmental risk factors of susceptible individuals. Currently the way in which environmental risk factors interact with genetic factors to increase the incidence of ASD is not well understood. A greater understanding of the metabolic, cellular, and biochemical events involved in gene x environment interactions in ASD would have important implications for the prevention and possible treatment of the disorder. In this review we discuss various established and more alternative processes through which environmental factors implicated in ASD can modulate the genome and epigenome of genetically-susceptible individuals.

  7. The family of DOF transcription factors in Brachypodium distachyon: phylogenetic comparison with rice and barley DOFs and expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando-Amado Sara

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcription factors (TFs are proteins that have played a central role both in evolution and in domestication, and are major regulators of development in living organisms. Plant genome sequences reveal that approximately 7% of all genes encode putative TFs. The DOF (DNA binding with One Finger TF family has been associated with vital processes exclusive to higher plants and to their close ancestors (algae, mosses and ferns. These are seed maturation and germination, light-mediated regulation, phytohormone and plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses, etc. In Hordeum vulgare and Oryza sativa, 26 and 30 different Dof genes, respectively, have been annotated. Brachypodium distachyon has been the first Pooideae grass to be sequenced and, due to its genomic, morphological and physiological characteristics, has emerged as the model system for temperate cereals, such as wheat and barley. Results Through searches in the B. distachyon genome, 27 Dof genes have been identified and a phylogenetic comparison with the Oryza sativa and the Hordeum vulgare DOFs has been performed. To explore the evolutionary relationship among these DOF proteins, a combined phylogenetic tree has been constructed with the Brachypodium DOFs and those from rice and barley. This phylogenetic analysis has classified the DOF proteins into four Major Cluster of Orthologous Groups (MCOGs. Using RT-qPCR analysis the expression profiles of the annotated BdDof genes across four organs (leaves, roots, spikes and seeds has been investigated. These results have led to a classification of the BdDof genes into two groups, according to their expression levels. The genes highly or preferentially expressed in seeds have been subjected to a more detailed expression analysis (maturation, dry stage and germination. Conclusions Comparison of the expression profiles of the Brachypodium Dof genes with the published functions of closely related DOF sequences from the cereal

  8. The family of DOF transcription factors in Brachypodium distachyon: phylogenetic comparison with rice and barley DOFs and expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando-Amado, Sara; González-Calle, Virginia; Carbonero, Pilar; Barrero-Sicilia, Cristina

    2012-11-05

    Transcription factors (TFs) are proteins that have played a central role both in evolution and in domestication, and are major regulators of development in living organisms. Plant genome sequences reveal that approximately 7% of all genes encode putative TFs. The DOF (DNA binding with One Finger) TF family has been associated with vital processes exclusive to higher plants and to their close ancestors (algae, mosses and ferns). These are seed maturation and germination, light-mediated regulation, phytohormone and plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses, etc. In Hordeum vulgare and Oryza sativa, 26 and 30 different Dof genes, respectively, have been annotated. Brachypodium distachyon has been the first Pooideae grass to be sequenced and, due to its genomic, morphological and physiological characteristics, has emerged as the model system for temperate cereals, such as wheat and barley. Through searches in the B. distachyon genome, 27 Dof genes have been identified and a phylogenetic comparison with the Oryza sativa and the Hordeum vulgare DOFs has been performed. To explore the evolutionary relationship among these DOF proteins, a combined phylogenetic tree has been constructed with the Brachypodium DOFs and those from rice and barley. This phylogenetic analysis has classified the DOF proteins into four Major Cluster of Orthologous Groups (MCOGs). Using RT-qPCR analysis the expression profiles of the annotated BdDof genes across four organs (leaves, roots, spikes and seeds) has been investigated. These results have led to a classification of the BdDof genes into two groups, according to their expression levels. The genes highly or preferentially expressed in seeds have been subjected to a more detailed expression analysis (maturation, dry stage and germination). Comparison of the expression profiles of the Brachypodium Dof genes with the published functions of closely related DOF sequences from the cereal species considered here, deduced from the phylogenetic

  9. Complement factor H family proteins in their non-canonical role as modulators of cellular functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józsi, Mihály; Schneider, Andrea E; Kárpáti, Éva; Sándor, Noémi

    2018-01-04

    Complement factor H is a major regulator of the alternative pathway of the complement system. The factor H-related proteins are less characterized, but recent data indicate that they rather promote complement activation. These proteins have some common ligands with factor H and have both overlapping and distinct functions depending on domain composition and the degree of conservation of amino acid sequence. Factor H and some of the factor H-related proteins also appear in a non-canonical function that is beyond their role in the modulation of complement activation. This review covers our current understanding on this emerging role of factor H family proteins in modulating the activation and function of various cells by binding to receptors or receptor ligands. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Rice bacterial blight pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae produces multiple DSF-family signals in regulation of virulence factor production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cha Jae-Soon

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo is the causal agent of rice bacterial blight disease. Xoo produces a range of virulence factors, including EPS, extracellular enzyme, iron-chelating siderophores, and type III-secretion dependent effectors, which are collectively essential for virulence. Genetic and genomics evidence suggest that Xoo might use the diffusible signal factor (DSF type quorum sensing (QS system to regulate the virulence factor production. However, little is known about the chemical structure of the DSF-like signal(s produced by Xoo and the factors influencing the signal production. Results Xoo genome harbours an rpf cluster comprising rpfB, rpfF, rpfC and rpfG. The proteins encoded by these genes are highly homologous to their counterparts in X. campestris pv. campestris (Xcc, suggesting that Xcc and Xoo might use similar mechanisms for DSF biosynthesis and autoregulation. Consistent with in silico analysis, the rpfF mutant was DSF-deficient and the rpfC mutant produced about 25 times higher DSF-like activity than the wild type Xoo strain KACC10331. From the supernatants of rpfC mutant, we purified three compounds showing strong DSF-like activity. Mass spectrometry and NMR analysis revealed that two of them were the previously characterized DSF and BDSF; the third one was a novel unsaturated fatty acid with 2 double bonds and was designated as CDSF in this study. Further analysis showed that all the three DSF-family signals were synthesized via the enzyme RpfF encoded by Xoo2868. DSF and BDSF at a final concentration of 3 μM to the rpfF mutant could fully restore its extracellular xylanase activity and EPS production to the wild type level, but CDSF was less active than DSF and BDSF in induction of EPS and xylanase. DSF and CDSF shared a similar cell density-dependent production time course with the maximum production being detected at 42 h after inoculation, whereas the maximum production of BDSF was observed

  11. Low-temperature-induced expression of rice ureidoglycolate amidohydrolase is mediated by a C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element that specifically interacts with rice C-repeat-binding factor 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan eLi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen recycling and redistribution are important for the environmental stress response of plants. In non nitrogen-fixing plants, ureide metabolism is crucial to nitrogen recycling from organic sources. Various studies have suggested that the rate-limiting components of ureide metabolism respond to environmental stresses. However, the underlying regulation mechanism is not well understood. In this report, rice ureidoglycolate amidohydrolase (OsUAH, which is a recently identified enzyme catalyzing the final step of ureide degradation, was identified as low-temperature- (LT but not abscisic acid- (ABA regulated. To elucidate the LT regulatory mechanism at the transcriptional level, we isolated and characterized the promoter region of OsUAH (POsUAH. Series deletions revealed that a minimal region between -522 and -420 relative to the transcriptional start site was sufficient for the cold induction of POsUAH. Detailed analyses of this 103-bp fragment indicated that a C-repeat/dehydration-responsive (CRT/DRE element localized at position -434 was essential for LT-responsive expression. A rice C-repeat-binding factors/DRE-binding proteins 1 (CBFs/DREB1s subfamily member, OsCBF3, was screened to specifically bind to the CRT/DRE element in the minimal region both in yeast one-hybrid assays and in in vitro gel-shift analysis. Moreover, the promoter could be exclusively trans-activated by the interaction between the CRT/DRE element and OsCBF3 in vivo. These findings may help to elucidate the regulation mechanism of stress-responsive ureide metabolism genes and provide an example of the member-specific manipulation of the CBF/DREB1 subfamily.

  12. Transcriptional profiling and in silico analysis of Dof transcription factor gene family for understanding their regulation during seed development of rice Oryza sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Vikram Singh; Singh, U S; Kumar, Anil

    2011-04-01

    Seed development is a complex process controlled by temporal and spatial expression of many transcription factors (TF) inside the developing seed. In the present study, transcript profiles of all the 30 members of rice DofTFs from flowering to seed development stages were analyzed. It was found that 16 Dof genes besides a previously characterized Dof gene 'RPBF' are differentially expressed during the seed development and unlike RPBF are not seed specific. Based on the expression patterns, these rice DofTFs were categorized into four groups-6 genes were constitutive while 4 genes were up-regulated and 3 genes were down regulated and four genes were maximally expressed at specific stages of seed development viz. one gene at flowering, two genes at watery ripe and one gene at milky stage. The involvement of more than one gene at different stages of seed development is suggestive of combinatorial regulation of their downstream genes involved in seed development. In silico expression analysis of wheat and Arabidopsis Dof Tfs also revealed that more than 50% of the Dof genes are expressed during the seed development process. Further in silico study of regulatory elements present in the promoters of these genes revealed the presence of some unique and common motifs in the promoters of rice and wheat Dof genes which indicate that Dof genes are possibly involved in ethylene and jasmonate signaling pathways affecting grain filling and grain quality. These Dof genes containing ethylene responsive motifs in their promoter region could possibly be the targets of recently identified Sub1 gene which codes for a ethylene responsive factor.

  13. DLG1/SAP97 modulates transforming growth factor alpha bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surena, Anne-Laure; de Faria, Giselle P; Studler, Jeanne-Marie; Peiretti, Franck; Pidoux, Morgane; Camonis, Jacques; Chneiweiss, Hervé; Formstecher, Etienne; Junier, Marie-Pierre

    2009-02-01

    TGFalpha and its receptor EGFR participate in the development of a wide range of tumors including gliomas, the main adult primary brain tumors. TGFalpha soluble form results from the cleavage by the metalloprotease TACE/ADAM17 of the extracellular part of its transmembrane precursor, pro-TGFalpha. To gain insights into the mechanisms underlying TGFalpha bioavailability, a yeast two-hybrid screen was performed to identify proteins interacting with pro-TGFalpha intracellular domain (ICD). DLG1/SAP97 (Discs Large Gene 1 or Synapse Associated Protein 97) was found to interact with both pro-TGFalpha and TACE ICDs through distinct PDZ domains. An in vivo pro-TGFalpha-DLG1-TACE complex was detected in U251 glioma cells and in gliomas-derived tumor initiating cells. Interaction between DLG1 and TACE diminished in response to stimulations promoting pro-TGFalpha shedding. Manipulation of DLG1 levels revealed dual actions of DLG1 on pro-TGFalpha shedding, favoring approximation of pro-TGFalpha and TACE, while limiting TACE full shedding activity. These results show that DLG1 participates in the control of TGFalpha bioavailability through its dynamic interaction with the growth factor precursor and TACE.

  14. Predictive factors for acute radiation pneumonitis in postoperative intensity modulated radiation therapy and volumetric modulated arc therapy of esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yaqin; Chen, Lu; Zhang, Shu; Wu, Qiang; Jiang, Xiaoqin; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Jin; Li, Zhiping; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Ying Jie; Bai, Sen; Xu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Radiation pneumonitis (RP) is a common side reaction in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer. There are few reports about RP in esophageal cancer patients receiving postoperative intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). This study aims to analyze clinical or dosimetric factors associated with RP, and provides data for radiotherapy planning. We reviewed 68 postoperative esophageal cancer patients who were treated with radiotherapy at the West China Hospital from October 2010 to November 2012 to identify any correlation between the clinical or dosimetric parameters and acute radiation pneumonitis (ARP) or severe acute radiation pneumonitis (SARP) by t-test, chi-square test, and logistic regression analysis. Of the 68 patients, 33 patients (48.5%) developed ARP, 13 of which (19.1%) developed SARP. Of these 33 patients, 8 (11.8%), 12 (17.6%), 11 (16.2%), and 2 (2.9%) patients were grade 1, 2, 3, and 4 ARP, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that lung infection during radiotherapy, use of VMAT, mean lung dose (MLD), and dosimetric parameters (e.g. V20, V30) are significantly correlated with RP. Multivariate analysis found that lung infection during radiotherapy, MLD ≥ 12 Gy, and V30 ≥ 13% are significantly correlated with an increased risk of RP. Lung infection during radiotherapy and low radiation dose volume distribution were predictive factors associated with RP and should be accounted for during radiation planning.

  15. Fis is a global regulator critical for modulation of virulence factor production and pathogenicity of Dickeya zeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Mingfa; Chen, Yufan; Liao, Lisheng; Liang, Zhibin; Shi, Zurong; Tang, Yingxin; Ye, Sixuan; Zhou, Jianuan; Zhang, Lianhui

    2018-01-10

    Dickeya zeae is the causal agent of rice foot rot disease, which has recently become a great threat to rice planting countries and regions. The pathogen produces a family of phytotoxins named zeamines that is critical for bacterial virulence, but little is known about the signaling pathways and regulatory mechanisms that govern zeamine production. In this study, we showed that a conserved transcriptional regulator Fis is involved in the regulation of zeamine production in D. zeae strain EC1. Deletion mutants were markedly attenuated in the virulence against rice seed germination. Transcriptome and phenotype analyses showed that Fis is a potent global transcriptional regulator modulating various virulence traits, including production of extracellular enzymes and exopolysaccharides, swimming and swarming motility, biofilm formation and cell aggregation. DNA gel retardation analysis showed that Fis directly regulates the transcription of key virulence genes and the genes encoding Vfm quorum sensing system through DNA/protein interaction. Our findings unveil a key regulator associated with the virulence of D. zeae EC1, and present useful clues for further elucidation of the regulatory complex and signaling pathways which govern the virulence of this important pathogen.

  16. OsARM1, an R2R3 MYB Transcription Factor, Is Involved in Regulation of the Response to Arsenic Stress in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Zhu Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioaccumulation of arsenic (As in rice (Oryza sativa increases human exposure to this toxic, carcinogenic element. Recent studies identified several As transporters, but the regulation of these transporters remains unclear. Here, we show that the rice R2R3 MYB transcription factor OsARM1 (ARSENITE-RESPONSIVE MYB1 regulates As-associated transporters genes. Treatment with As(III induced OsARM1 transcript accumulation and an OsARM1-GFP fusion localized to the nucleus. Histochemical analysis of OsARM1pro::GUS lines indicated that OsARM1 was expressed in the phloem of vascular bundles in basal and upper nodes. Knockout of OsARM1 (OsARM1-KO CRISPR/Cas9-generated mutants improved tolerance to As(III and overexpression of OsARM1 (OsARM1-OE lines increased sensitivity to As(III. Measurement of As in As(III-treated plants showed that under low As(III conditions (2 μM, more As was transported from the roots to the shoots in OsARM1-KOs. By contrast, more As accumulated in the roots in OsARM1-OEs in response to high As(III exposure (25 μM. In particular, the As(III levels in node I were significantly higher in OsARM1-KOs, but significantly lower in OsARM1-OEs, compared to wild-type plants, implying that OsARM1 is important for the regulation of root-to-shoot translocation of As. Moreover, OsLsi1, OsLsi2, and OsLsi6, which encode key As transporters, were significantly downregulated in OsARM1-OEs and upregulated in OsARM1-KOs compared to wild type. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR of OsARM1-OEs indicated that OsARM1 binds to the conserved MYB-binding sites in the promoters or genomic regions of OsLsi1, OsLsi2, and OsLsi6 in rice. Our findings suggest that the OsARM1 transcription factor has essential functions in regulating As uptake and root-to-shoot translocation in rice.

  17. Effect of Interplanting with Zero Tillage and Straw Manure on Rice Growth and Rice Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-ping LIU

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The interplanting with zero-tillage of rice, i.e. direct sowing rice 10–20 days before wheat harvesting, and remaining about 30-cm high stubble after cutting wheat or rice with no tillage, is a new cultivation technology in wheat-rice rotation system. To study the effects of interplanting with zero tillage and straw manure on rice growth and quality, an experiment was conducted in a wheat-rotation rotation system. Four treatments, i.e. ZIS (Zero-tillage, straw manure and rice interplanting, ZI (Zero-tillage, no straw manure and rice interplanting, PTS (Plowing tillage, straw manure and rice transplanting, and PT (Plowing tillage, no straw manure and rice transplanting, were used. ZIS reduced plant height, leaf area per plant and the biomass of rice plants, but the biomass accumulation of rice at the late stage was quicker than that under conventional transplanting cultivation. In the first year (2002, there was no significant difference in rice yield among the four treatments. However, rice yield decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage in the second year (2003. Compared with the transplanting treatments, the number of filled grains per panicle decreased but 1000-grain weight increased in interplanting with zero-tillage, which were the main factors resulting in higher yield. Interplanting with zero-tillage improved the milling and appearance qualities of rice. The rates of milled and head rice increased while chalky rice rate and chalkiness decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage. Zero-tillage and interplanting also affected rice nutritional and cooking qualities. In 2002, ZIS showed raised protein content, decreased amylose content, softer gel consistency, resulting in improved rice quality. In 2003, zero-tillage and interplanting decreased protein content and showed similar amylose content as compared with transplanting treatments. Moreover, protein content in PTS was obviously increased in comparison with the other three treatments

  18. Production of recombinant human granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor in rice cell suspension culture with a human-like N-glycan structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yun-Ji; Chong, Yun-Jo; Yang, Moon-Sik; Kwon, Tae-Ho

    2011-12-01

    The rice α-amylase 3D promoter system, which is activated under sucrose-starved conditions, has emerged as a useful system for producing recombinant proteins. However, using rice as the production system for therapeutic proteins requires modifications of the N-glycosylation pattern because of the potential immunogenicity of plant-specific sugar residues. In this study, glyco-engineered rice were generated as a production host for therapeutic glycoproteins, using RNA interference (RNAi) technology to down-regulate the endogenous α-1,3-fucosyltransferase (α-1,3-FucT) and β-1,2-xylosyltransferase (β-1,2-XylT) genes. N-linked glycans from the RNAi lines were identified, and their structures were compared with those isolated from a wild-type cell suspension. The inverted-repeat chimeric RNA silencing construct of α-1,3-fucosyltransferase and β-1,2-xylosyltransferase (Δ3FT/XT)-9 glyco-engineered line with significantly reduced core α-1,3-fucosylated and/or β-1,2-xylosylated glycan structures was established. Moreover, levels of plant-specific α-1,3-fucose and/or β-1,2-xylose residues incorporated into recombinant human granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) produced from the N44 + Δ3FT/XT-4 glyco-engineered line co-expressing ihpRNA of Δ3FT/XT and hGM-CSF were significantly decreased compared with those in the previously reported N44-08 transgenic line expressing hGM-CSF. None of the glyco-engineered lines differed from the wild type with respect to cell division, proliferation or ability to secrete proteins into the culture medium. © 2011 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2011 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Elucidation of the mechanism of the regulatory function of the Ig1 module of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiselyov, Vladislav; Kochoyan, Artur; Poulsen, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    The extracellular part of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor (FGFR) consists of up to three Ig modules (Ig1-Ig3), in which the Ig2 and Ig3 modules determine affinity and specificity for FGF and heparin. The FGFR isoforms lacking the Ig1 module have higher affinity for FGF and heparin than...

  20. INTENSITY STATISTICS AND NORMALIZED STRUCTURE FACTORS FOR CRYSTALS WITH AN INCOMMENSURATE ONE-DIMENSIONAL MODULATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LAM, EJW; BEURSKENS, PT; VANSMAALEN, S

    1993-01-01

    An analytical expression is derived for the probability density function (p.d.f.) of X-ray structure-factor amplitudes of a crystal with an incommensurate one-dimensional modulation. The influence of the (3+1)-dimensional superspace symmetry is taken into account. It is shown that, in first-order

  1. Time transfer capability of standard small form factor pluggable laser modules based on photon counting approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojanek, Pavel; Prochazka, Ivan; Blazej, Josef

    2017-05-01

    We are reporting on timing parameters of commonly used standard Small Form Factor Pluggable (SFP) laser modules using single photon counting method. Photon counting is a promising approach for laser time transfer via optical fiber communication hardware. The sub-picosecond precision and stability may be achieved. We have performed several experiments with the aim to measure main parameters of the modules, such as time delay precision, time stability and temperature stability, all being critical for optical time transfer applications. Two standard 16 and 10 Gbit/s at 850 nm SFP modules were examined. The ultimate precision of possible time transfer of 800 fs for averaging times of hours was achieved. The modules together with their driving circuits exhibited very good temperature stability. The temperature drift as low as 300+/-200 fs/K was measured. The achieved timing parameters will enable to use the standard SFP modules for a new method of two way time transfer where the time differences between two distant time scales are measured in parallel to data transfer on existing optical data links without any communication interference.

  2. Determinants of rice output among ADP contact farmers in mining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study analyzed factors affecting rice output among Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) contact farmers in the mining and non mining locations of IVO LGA of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Multistage random sampling technique was used to select agricultural circles and rice farmers. The sample size was 120 rice ...

  3. Enhancing Performance of Farmers' Cooperative in Rice Innovation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The state has witnessed proliferation of farmers' cooperative; and while new ones are emerging in their numbers, some old ones are becoming less functional and others going into extinct The study examined factors for enhancing performance of rice farmers' cooperative in rice innovation system. Seventy members of rice ...

  4. Adoption of Recommended Rice Production Practices among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Abstract. This study assessed the factors influencing adoption of recommended rice production practices by women farmers in Nasarawa State. A total of 203 women rice farmers were selected for the study using multi- stage sampling procedure. Data were collected using structured interview schedule. Descriptive statistics ...

  5. Appropriate Algorithms for Estimating Frequency-Selective Rician Fading MIMO Channels and Channel Rice Factor: Substantial Benefits of Rician Model and Estimator Tradeoffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirvani Moghaddam Shahriar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The training-based channel estimation (TBCE scheme in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO frequency-selective Rician fading channels is investigated. We propose the new technique of shifted scaled least squares (SSLS and the minimum mean square error (MMSE estimator that are suitable to estimate the above-mentioned channel model. Analytical results show that the proposed estimators achieve much better minimum possible Bayesian Cramér-Rao lower bounds (CRLBs in the frequency-selective Rician MIMO channels compared with those of Rayleigh one. It is seen that the SSLS channel estimator requires less knowledge about the channel and/or has better performance than the conventional least squares (LS and MMSE estimators. Simulation results confirm the superiority of the proposed channel estimators. Finally, to estimate the channel Rice factor, an algorithm is proposed, and its efficiency is verified using the result in the SSLS and MMSE channel estimators.

  6. Neural Progenitor Cell Implants Modulate Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression in Rat Axotomized Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaverón, Rocío; Matarredona, Esperanza R.; de la Cruz, Rosa R.; Pastor, Angel M.

    2013-01-01

    Axotomy of central neurons leads to functional and structural alterations which largely revert when neural progenitor cells (NPCs) are implanted in the lesion site. The new microenvironment created by NPCs in the host tissue might modulate in the damaged neurons the expression of a high variety of molecules with relevant roles in the repair mechanisms, including neurotrophic factors. In the present work, we aimed to analyze changes in neurotrophic factor expression in axotomized neurons induced by NPC implants. For this purpose, we performed immunofluorescence followed by confocal microscopy analysis for the detection of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and nerve growth factor (NGF) on brainstem sections from rats with axotomy of abducens internuclear neurons that received NPC implants (implanted group) or vehicle injections (axotomized group) in the lesion site. Control abducens internuclear neurons were strongly immunoreactive to VEGF and BDNF but showed a weak staining for NT-3 and NGF. Comparisons between groups revealed that lesioned neurons from animals that received NPC implants showed a significant increase in VEGF content with respect to animals receiving vehicle injections. However, the immunoreactivity for BDNF, which was increased in the axotomized group as compared to control, was not modified in the implanted group. The modifications induced by NPC implants on VEGF and BDNF content were specific for the population of axotomized abducens internuclear neurons since the neighboring abducens motoneurons were not affected. Similar levels of NT-3 and NGF immunolabeling were obtained in injured neurons from axotomized and implanted animals. Among all the analyzed neurotrophic factors, only VEGF was expressed by the implanted cells in the lesion site. Our results point to a role of NPC implants in the modulation of neurotrophic factor expression by lesioned central neurons, which might

  7. Neural progenitor cell implants modulate vascular endothelial growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in rat axotomized neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Talaverón

    Full Text Available Axotomy of central neurons leads to functional and structural alterations which largely revert when neural progenitor cells (NPCs are implanted in the lesion site. The new microenvironment created by NPCs in the host tissue might modulate in the damaged neurons the expression of a high variety of molecules with relevant roles in the repair mechanisms, including neurotrophic factors. In the present work, we aimed to analyze changes in neurotrophic factor expression in axotomized neurons induced by NPC implants. For this purpose, we performed immunofluorescence followed by confocal microscopy analysis for the detection of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, neurotrophin-3 (NT-3 and nerve growth factor (NGF on brainstem sections from rats with axotomy of abducens internuclear neurons that received NPC implants (implanted group or vehicle injections (axotomized group in the lesion site. Control abducens internuclear neurons were strongly immunoreactive to VEGF and BDNF but showed a weak staining for NT-3 and NGF. Comparisons between groups revealed that lesioned neurons from animals that received NPC implants showed a significant increase in VEGF content with respect to animals receiving vehicle injections. However, the immunoreactivity for BDNF, which was increased in the axotomized group as compared to control, was not modified in the implanted group. The modifications induced by NPC implants on VEGF and BDNF content were specific for the population of axotomized abducens internuclear neurons since the neighboring abducens motoneurons were not affected. Similar levels of NT-3 and NGF immunolabeling were obtained in injured neurons from axotomized and implanted animals. Among all the analyzed neurotrophic factors, only VEGF was expressed by the implanted cells in the lesion site. Our results point to a role of NPC implants in the modulation of neurotrophic factor expression by lesioned central neurons

  8. The hypoxia inducible factor HIF-1 functions as both a positive and negative modulator of aging

    OpenAIRE

    Leiser, Scott F.; Kaeberlein, Matt

    2010-01-01

    In the past year and a half, five studies have independently established a direct connection between the hypoxic response transcription factor, HIF-1, and aging in Caenorhabditis elegans. These studies demonstrated that HIF-1 can both promote and limit longevity via pathways that are mechanistically distinct. Here we review the current state of knowledge regarding modulation of aging by HIF-1 and speculate on potential aspects of HIF-1 function that may be relevant for mammalian longevity and...

  9. SCALE FACTOR DETERMINATION METHOD OF ELECTRO-OPTICAL MODULATOR IN FIBER-OPTIC GYROSCOPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Aleynik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. We propose a method for dynamic measurement of half-wave voltage of electro-optic modulator as part of a fiber optic gyroscope. Excluding the impact of the angular acceleration o​n measurement of the electro-optical coefficient is achieved through the use of homodyne demodulation method that allows a division of the Sagnac phase shift signal and an auxiliary signal for measuring the electro-optical coefficient in the frequency domain. Method. The method essence reduces to decomposition of step of digital serrodyne modulation in two parts with equal duration. The first part is used for quadrature modulation signals. The second part comprises samples of the auxiliary signal used to determine the value of the scale factor of the modulator. Modeling is done in standalone model, and as part of a general model of the gyroscope. The applicability of the proposed method is investigated as well as its qualitative and quantitative characteristics: absolute and relative accuracy of the electro-optic coefficient, the stability of the method to the effects of angular velocities and accelerations, method resistance to noise in actual devices. Main Results. The simulation has showed the ability to measure angular velocity changing under the influence of angular acceleration, acting on the device, and simultaneous measurement of electro-optical coefficient of the phase modulator without interference between these processes. Practical Relevance. Featured in the paper the ability to eliminate the influence of the angular acceleration on the measurement accuracy of the electro-optical coefficient of the phase modulator will allow implementing accurate measurement algorithms for fiber optic gyroscopes resistant to a significant acceleration in real devices.

  10. Differential interactions between Notch and ID factors control neurogenesis by modulating Hes factor autoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boareto, Marcelo; Iber, Dagmar; Taylor, Verdon

    2017-10-01

    During embryonic and adult neurogenesis, neural stem cells (NSCs) generate the correct number and types of neurons in a temporospatial fashion. Control of NSC activity and fate is crucial for brain formation and homeostasis. Neurogenesis in the embryonic and adult brain differ considerably, but Notch signaling and inhibitor of DNA-binding (ID) factors are pivotal in both. Notch and ID factors regulate NSC maintenance; however, it has been difficult to evaluate how these pathways potentially interact. Here, we combined mathematical modeling with analysis of single-cell transcriptomic data to elucidate unforeseen interactions between the Notch and ID factor pathways. During brain development, Notch signaling dominates and directly regulates Id4 expression, preventing other ID factors from inducing NSC quiescence. Conversely, during adult neurogenesis, Notch signaling and Id2/3 regulate neurogenesis in a complementary manner and ID factors can induce NSC maintenance and quiescence in the absence of Notch. Our analyses unveil key molecular interactions underlying NSC maintenance and mechanistic differences between embryonic and adult neurogenesis. Similar Notch and ID factor interactions may be crucial in other stem cell systems. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. (TGMS) of rice

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    accounts for 35%–75% of the total calories consumed by more than 3 billion Asians (Khush 2005). To feed an esti- mated 5 billion rice consumers by 2025, rice varieties with higher yield potential and greater yield stability need to be developed (Khush 2005). Rice is a staple food crop of. India and hybrid rice technology ...

  12. Import Demand Function of Rice in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Dwi Prasetyo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To fulfil the need of rice is to increase the domestic production, which is the one of the government’s policy. However, by increasing the population, the demand of rice will also increase and the effort of increase the domestic productivity cannot supply the need of domestic rice. So, to cover the shortage the government makes decision to import rice from other countries. Gross Domestic Product (GDP also increased after monetary crisis in 1998. In the fact of the import of rice is occurred when the statistical data showed that the supply of rice in Indonesia is surplus. The aim of this research is necessary to study the factors which influence the import of rice in Indonesia. The analysis method used is multiple linear regression analysis model with Error Correction Model (ECM. Based on the research proven that partially or jointly the gross domestic product, the consumption, the price of rice in world market are influence significantly toward the import of rice in Indonesia.

  13. Response Of Lowland Rice To Soil Compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idawati; Haryanto

    2000-01-01

    Soil compaction, as a new tillage practice for paddy soil, is to substitute pudding in order to reduce land preparation cost. To study response of lowland rice to soil compaction, a pot experiment has been conducted which took place in the greenhouse of P3TIR-BATAN. Soil for experiment was taken from pusakanegara. Two factors (degree of soil compaction and rice variety) were combined. Degree of compaction was split into 3 levels (DI = normal; D215% more compact than normal; 30 % more compact than normal), and rice variety into 2 levels (IR64 and Atomita IV). KH 2 32 PO 4 solution was injected into the soil surrounding rice clump to test the root activity at blooming stage of rice plant. Data resulted from this experiment is presented together with additional data from some other experiments of fertilization in the research s erie to study soil compaction. Some information's from experiment results are as following. Both rice varieties tested gave the same response to soil compaction. Root activity, according to data of 32 P absorbed by plant, was not harmed by soil compaction at the degree tested in the experiment. This prediction is supported by the growth by rice observed at generative growth stage, in pot experiment as well as in field experiment, which showed that soil compaction tested did not decrease rice yield but in opposite in tended to increase the yield. In practising soil compaction in land preparation, fertilizers should be applied by deep placement to have higher increasing is rice yield

  14. Lao People’s Democratic Republic: responding to rice price inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Loening, Josef L.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this policy note is to identify likely factors driving rice prices and suggest options to manage rice price volatility in the future. It also provides a snapshot of recent developments in the rice sector, and describes rice and food price trends and their implications. Based on these findings, the note discusses policy options. The policy brief has six chapters, including ...

  15. Crew Factors in Flight Operations XIV: Alertness Management in Regional Flight Operations Education Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Co, Elizabeth L.; Neri, David F.; Oyung, Raymond L.; Mallis, Melissa M.

    2002-01-01

    Regional operations encompass a broad range of pilots and equipment. This module is intended to help all those involved in regional aviation, including pilots, schedulers, dispatchers, maintenance technicians, policy makers, and others, to understand the physiological factors underlying fatigue, how flight operations affect fatigue, and what can be done to counteract fatigue and maximize alertness and performance in their operations. The overall purpose of this module is to promote aviation safety, performance, and productivity. It is intended to meet three specific objectives: (1) to explain the current state of knowledge about the physiological mechanisms underlying fatigue; (2) to demonstrate how this knowledge can be applied to improving flight crew sleep, performance, and alertness; and (3) to offer strategies for alertness management. Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) and National Transportation Safety Board (NISH) reports are used throughout this module to demonstrate that fatigue is a safety issue in the regional operations community. The appendices at the end of this module include the ASRS reports used for the examples contained in this publication, brief introductions to sleep disorders and relaxation techniques, summaries of relevant NASA publications, and a list of general readings on sleep, sleep disorders, and circadian rhythms.

  16. Crew Factors in Flight Operations XV: Alertness Management in General Aviation Education Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Co, Elizabeth L.; Neri, David F.; Oyung, Raymond L.; Mallis, Melissa M.; Cannon, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Regional operations encompass a broad range of pilots and equipment. This module is intended to help all those involved in regional aviation, including pilots, schedulers, dispatchers, maintenance technicians, policy makers, and others, to understand the physiological factors underlying fatigue, how flight operations affect fatigue, and what can be done to counteract fatigue and maximize alertness and performance in their operations. The overall purpose of this module is to promote aviation safety, performance, and productivity. It is intended to meet three specific objectives: (1) to explain the current state of knowledge about the physiological mechanisms underlying fatigue; (2) to demonstrate how this knowledge can be applied to improving flight crew sleep, performance, and alertness; and (3) to offer strategies for alertness management. Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) and National Transportation Safety Board (NISH) reports are used throughout this module to demonstrate that fatigue is a safety issue in the regional operations community. The appendices at the end of this module include the ASRS reports used for the examples contained in this publication, brief introductions to sleep disorders and relaxation techniques, summaries of relevant NASA publications, and a list of general readings on sleep, sleep disorders, and circadian rhythms.

  17. 100-Gb/s InP DP-IQ modulator for small-form-factor pluggable coherent transceivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Nobuhiro; Ogiso, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Eiichi

    2016-02-01

    We developed a compact InP-based DP-IQ modulator for small-form-factor pluggable coherent transceivers. The modulator achieves 112-Gb/s DP-QPSK modulation with a driving voltage of 6 Vppd. In addition, it provides 86-Gb/s DP-16 QAM signal generation and 240-km transmission with negligible degradation of BER performance. The halfwavelength voltage of our recent device is 1.9 V, and a high median extinction ratio of over 32 dB was achieved for more than 1,400 child MZ modulators. We have also proposed an athermal InP-based twin IQ modulator that enables us to use a modulator in a TEC-free operation. It contributes to lowering the power consumption of transceivers. Under a constant driving condition, there is little change in 56-Gb/s x 2 QPSK modulation characteristics in the range of 20 to 80°C.

  18. Cytoplasmic-genetic male sterility gene provides direct evidence for some hybrid rice recently evolving into weedy rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingxu; Lu, Zuomei; Dai, Weimin; Song, Xiaoling; Peng, Yufa; Valverde, Bernal E.; Qiang, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Weedy rice infests paddy fields worldwide at an alarmingly increasing rate. There is substantial evidence indicating that many weedy rice forms originated from or are closely related to cultivated rice. There is suspicion that the outbreak of weedy rice in China may be related to widely grown hybrid rice due to its heterosis and the diversity of its progeny, but this notion remains unsupported by direct evidence. We screened weedy rice accessions by both genetic and molecular marker tests for the cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) genes (Wild abortive, WA, and Boro type, BT) most widely used in the production of indica and japonica three-line hybrid rice as a diagnostic trait of direct parenthood. Sixteen weedy rice accessions of the 358 tested (4.5%) contained the CMS-WA gene; none contained the CMS-BT gene. These 16 accessions represent weedy rices recently evolved from maternal hybrid rice derivatives, given the primarily maternal inheritance of this trait. Our results provide key direct evidence that hybrid rice can be involved in the evolution of some weedy rice accessions, but is not a primary factor in the recent outbreak of weedy rice in China. PMID:26012494

  19. Systematic analysis of Zn2Cys6 transcription factors required for development and pathogenicity by high-throughput gene knockout in the rice blast fungus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Lu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Because of great challenges and workload in deleting genes on a large scale, the functions of most genes in pathogenic fungi are still unclear. In this study, we developed a high-throughput gene knockout system using a novel yeast-Escherichia-Agrobacterium shuttle vector, pKO1B, in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. Using this method, we deleted 104 fungal-specific Zn(2Cys(6 transcription factor (TF genes in M. oryzae. We then analyzed the phenotypes of these mutants with regard to growth, asexual and infection-related development, pathogenesis, and 9 abiotic stresses. The resulting data provide new insights into how this rice pathogen of global significance regulates important traits in the infection cycle through Zn(2Cys(6TF genes. A large variation in biological functions of Zn(2Cys(6TF genes was observed under the conditions tested. Sixty-one of 104 Zn(2Cys(6 TF genes were found to be required for fungal development. In-depth analysis of TF genes revealed that TF genes involved in pathogenicity frequently tend to function in multiple development stages, and disclosed many highly conserved but unidentified functional TF genes of importance in the fungal kingdom. We further found that the virulence-required TF genes GPF1 and CNF2 have similar regulation mechanisms in the gene expression involved in pathogenicity. These experimental validations clearly demonstrated the value of a high-throughput gene knockout system in understanding the biological functions of genes on a genome scale in fungi, and provided a solid foundation for elucidating the gene expression network that regulates the development and pathogenicity of M. oryzae.

  20. The rice transcription factor IDEF1 is essential for the early response to iron deficiency, and induces vegetative expression of late embryogenesis abundant genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takanori; Itai, Reiko Nakanishi; Ogo, Yuko; Kakei, Yusuke; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Takahashi, Michiko; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2009-12-01

    Higher plants maintain iron homeostasis by regulating the expression of iron (Fe)-related genes in accordance with Fe availability. The transcription factor IDEF1 regulates the response to Fe deficiency in Oryza sativa (rice) by recognizing CATGC sequences within the Fe deficiency-responsive cis-acting element IDE1. To investigate the function of IDEF1 in detail, we analyzed the response to Fe deficiency in transgenic rice plants exhibiting induced or repressed IDEF1 expression. Fe-deficiency treatment in hydroponic culture revealed that IDEF1 knock-down plants are susceptible to early-stage Fe deficiency, in contrast to IDEF1-induced plants. Time-course expression analyses using quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR revealed that the IDEF1 expression level was positively correlated with the level of induction of the Fe utilization-related genes OsIRO2, OsYSL15, OsIRT1, OsYSL2, OsNAS1, OsNAS2, OsNAS3 and OsDMAS1, just after the onset of Fe starvation. However, this overall transactivation mediated by IDEF1 became less evident in subsequent stages. Microarray and in-silico analyses revealed that genes positively regulated by IDEF1, especially at the early stage, exhibit over-representation of CATGC and IDE1-like elements within the proximal promoter regions. These results indicate the existence of early and subsequent responses to Fe deficiency, with the former requiring IDEF1 more specifically. Proximal regions of IDEF1-regulated gene promoters also showed enrichment of RY elements (CATGCA), which regulate gene expression during seed maturation. The expression of several genes encoding late embryogenesis abundant proteins, including Osem, was induced in Fe-deficient roots and/or leaves in an IDEF1-dependent manner, suggesting a possible function of seed maturation-related genes in Fe-deficient vegetative organs.

  1. Arctigenin induced gallbladder cancer senescence through modulating epidermal growth factor receptor pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingdi; Cai, Shizhong; Zuo, Bin; Gong, Wei; Tang, Zhaohui; Zhou, Di; Weng, Mingzhe; Qin, Yiyu; Wang, Shouhua; Liu, Jun; Ma, Fei; Quan, Zhiwei

    2017-05-01

    Gallbladder cancer has poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. Arctigenin, a representative dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan, occurs in a variety of plants. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the antitumor effect of arctigenin on gallbladder cancer have not been fully elucidated. The expression levels of epidermal growth factor receptor were examined in 100 matched pairs of gallbladder cancer tissues. A positive correlation between high epidermal growth factor receptor expression levels and poor prognosis was observed in gallbladder cancer tissues. Pharmacological inhibition or inhibition via RNA interference of epidermal growth factor receptor induced cellular senescence in gallbladder cancer cells. The antitumor effect of arctigenin on gallbladder cancer cells was primarily achieved by inducing cellular senescence. In gallbladder cancer cells treated with arctigenin, the expression level of epidermal growth factor receptor significantly decreased. The analysis of the activity of the kinases downstream of epidermal growth factor receptor revealed that the RAF-MEK-ERK signaling pathway was significantly inhibited. Furthermore, the cellular senescence induced by arctigenin could be reverted by pcDNA-epidermal growth factor receptor. Arctigenin also potently inhibited the growth of tumor xenografts, which was accompanied by the downregulation of epidermal growth factor receptor and induction of senescence. This study demonstrates arctigenin could induce cellular senescence in gallbladder cancer through the modulation of epidermal growth factor receptor pathway. These data identify epidermal growth factor receptor as a key regulator in arctigenin-induced gallbladder cancer senescence.

  2. Synthetic PreImplantation Factor (PIF prevents fetal loss by modulating LPS induced inflammatory response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Di Simone

    Full Text Available Maternal control of inflammation is essential during pregnancy and an exaggerated response is one of the underlying causes of fetal loss. Inflammatory response is mediated by multiple factors and Toll-like receptors (TLRs are central. Activation of TLRs results in NALP-3 mediated assembly of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC and caspase-1 into the inflammasome and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. Given that preventing measures are lacking, we investigated PreImplantation Factor (PIF as therapeutic option as PIF modulates Inflammation in pregnancy. Additionally, synthetic PIF (PIF analog protects against multiple immune disorders. We used a LPS induced murine model of fetal loss and synthetic PIF reduced this fetal loss and increased the embryo weight significantly. We detected increased PIF expression in the placentae after LPS insult. The LPS induced serum and placenta cytokines were abolished by synthetic PIF treatment and importantly synthetic PIF modulated key members of inflammasome complex NALP-3, ASC, and caspase-1 as well. In conclusion our results indicate that synthetic PIF protects against LPS induced fetal loss, likely through modulation of inflammatory response especially the inflammasome complex. Given that synthetic PIF is currently tested in autoimmune diseases of non-pregnant subjects (clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02239562, therapeutic approach during pregnancy can be envisioned.

  3. Endogenous ciliary neurotrophic factor modulates anxiety and depressive-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peruga, Isabella; Hartwig, Silvia; Merkler, Doron; Thöne, Jan; Hovemann, Bernhard; Juckel, Georg; Gold, Ralf; Linker, Ralf A

    2012-04-15

    On a molecular level, depression is characterized by an altered monoaminergic neurotransmission as well as a modulation of cytokines and other mediators in the central nervous system. In particular, neurotrophic factors may influence affective behavior including depression and anxiety. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) plays an important role in the regulation of neuronal development, neuroprotection and may also influence cognitive processes. Here we investigate the affective behavior in mice deficient for CNTF (CNTF -/- mice) at young age of 10-20 weeks. CNTF -/- mice displayed an increased anxiety-like behavior with a 30% reduction of the time spent in the bright compartment of the light/dark box as well as a significantly increased startle response. In the learned helplessness paradigm, CNTF -/- mice are more prone to depressive-like behavior. In the hippocampus of 20 weeks old, but not 10 weeks old, CNTF -/- mice, these changes correlated with a loss of parvalbumin immunoreactive GABAergic interneurons and a reduction of serotonin levels as well as 5-HT receptor 1A expression. Modulation of monoaminergic neurotransmitter levels via chronic application of the antidepressants amitriptyline and citalopram did not exert beneficial effects. These data imply that endogenous CNTF plays a pivotal role for the structural maintenance of hippocampal functions and thus has an important impact on the modulation of affective behavior in rodent models of anxiety and depression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Curcumin modulates eukaryotic initiation factors in human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lixia; Tian, Guoqing; Shao, Changxia; Cobos, Everardo; Gao, Weimin

    2010-10-01

    Curcumin, a polyphenolic compound, is the active component of Curcuma longa and has been extensively investigated as an anticancer drug that modulates multiple pathways. Eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) have been known to play important roles in translation initiation, which controls cell growth and proliferation. Little is known about the effects of curcumin on eIFs in lung cancer. The objective of this study was to exam the curcumin cytotoxic effect and modulation of two major rate-limiting translation initiation factors, including eIF2α and eIF4E protein expression levels in lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line A549. Cytotoxicity was measured by MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay and protein changes were determined by Western blot. A549 cells were treated with 0-240 μM curcumin for 4-96 h. The inhibitory effects of curcumin on cytotoxicity were dose- and time-dependent (P cells were treated with 20 and 40 μM curcumin for 24 h. In addition, the effects of curcumin on these protein expression changes followed a significant dose-response (P cell viability through prohibiting the initiation of protein synthesis by modulating eIF2α and eIF4E.

  5. ATXN1L, CIC, and ETS Transcription Factors Modulate Sensitivity to MAPK Pathway Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsic resistance and RTK-RAS-MAPK pathway reactivation has limited the effectiveness of MEK and RAF inhibitors (MAPKi in RAS- and RAF-mutant cancers. To identify genes that modulate sensitivity to MAPKi, we performed genome-scale CRISPR-Cas9 loss-of-function screens in two KRAS mutant pancreatic cancer cell lines treated with the MEK1/2 inhibitor trametinib. Loss of CIC, a transcriptional repressor of ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5, promoted survival in the setting of MAPKi in cancer cells derived from several lineages. ATXN1L deletion, which reduces CIC protein, or ectopic expression of ETV1, ETV4, or ETV5 also modulated sensitivity to trametinib. ATXN1L expression inversely correlates with response to MAPKi inhibition in clinical studies. These observations identify the ATXN1L-CIC-ETS transcription factor axis as a mediator of resistance to MAPKi.

  6. Introduction of the ZmDof1 gene into rice enhances carbon and nitrogen assimilation under low-nitrogen conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurai, Tomohiro; Wakayama, Masataka; Abiko, Tomomi; Yanagisawa, Shuichi; Aoki, Naohiro; Ohsugi, Ryu

    2011-10-01

    The excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer to maximize crop yields causes negative environmental effects such as pollution and ecological imbalance. To overcome this problem, researchers have attempted to improve the nitrogen assimilation capacity of crops. Maize Dof1 (ZmDof1) is a plant-specific transcription factor shown to promote nitrogen assimilation in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) even under nitrogen-deficient conditions. The present study examines the effect of the introduction of the ZmDof1 gene on carbon and nitrogen assimilation in rice. ZmDof1 induced the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) genes in transgenic rice plants and transactivated the PEPC promoters in protoplast transient assays, showing similar effects in rice as in Arabidopsis. Transgenic rice expressing ZmDof1 and grown in the presence of 360 μm (nitrogen-sufficient) or 90 μm (nitrogen-deficient) of nitrogen concentrations showed modulation of metabolite content and gene expression associated with the anaplerotic pathway for the TCA cycle, suggesting an increased carbon flow towards nitrogen assimilation. Furthermore, increases in carbon and nitrogen amounts per seedling were found in Dof1 rice grown under nitrogen-deficient conditions. Nitrogen deficiency also resulted in the predominant distribution of nitrogen to roots, accompanied by significant increases in root biomass and modification of the shoot-to-root ratio. Measurement of the CO₂ gas exchange rate showed a significant increase in the net photosynthesis rate in Dof1 rice under nitrogen-deficient conditions. Taken these together, the present study displayed that ZmDof1 expression in rice could induce gene expressions such as PEPC genes, modulate carbon and nitrogen metabolites, increase nitrogen assimilation and enhance growth under low-nitrogen conditions. © 2011 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2011 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell

  7. Strigolactone Biosynthesis in Medicago truncatula and Rice Requires the Symbiotic GRAS-Type Transcription Factors NSP1 and NSP2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, W.; Kohlen, W.; Lillo, A.; Camp, op den R.; Ivanov, S.; Hartog, M.; Limpens, E.H.M.; Jamil, M.; Smaczniak, C.; Kaufmann, K.; Yang, W.C.; Hooiveld, G.J.E.J.; Charnikhova, T.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Bisseling, T.; Geurts, R.

    2011-01-01

    Legume GRAS (GAI, RGA, SCR)-type transcription factors NODULATION SIGNALING PATHWAY1 (NSP1) and NSP2 are essential for rhizobium Nod factor-induced nodulation. Both proteins are considered to be Nod factor response factors regulating gene expression after symbiotic signaling. However, legume NSP1

  8. Benthic macroinvertebrates in Italian rice fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lupi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice fields can be considered man-managed temporary wetlands. Five rice fields handled with different management strategies, their adjacent channels, and a spring were analysed by their benthic macroinvertebrate community to i evaluate the role of rice agroe- cosystem in biodiversity conservation; ii find indicator species which can be used to compare the ecological status of natural wetlands with rice agroecosystems; and iii find the influence of environmental variables on biodiversity. Different methods of data analysis with increasing degree of complexity – from diversity index up to sophisticated multivariate analysis – were used. The investigation provided a picture of benthic macroinvertebrates inhabiting rice agroecosystems where 173 taxa were identified, 89 of which detected in rice paddies. Among them, 4 phyla (Mollusca, Annelida, Nematomorpha, and Arthropoda, 8 classes (Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Oligochaeta, Hirudinea, Gordioida, Insecta, Branchiopoda, and Malacostraca, 24 orders, 68 families, 127 genera and 159 species have been found. Ten threatened and 3 invasive species were detected in the habitats examined. The information obtained by the different methods of data analysis allowed a more comprehensive view on the value of the components of rice agroecosystems. Data analyses highlighted significant differences between habitats (feeding channel and rice field, with higher diversity observed in channels, and emphasised the role of the water chemical-physical parameters. The period of water permanence in rice fields resulted to be only one of the factors influencing the community of benthic macroinvertebrates. The presence of rare/endangered species allowed characterising some stations, but it was less informative about management strategies in rice paddies because most of these species were absent in rice fields.

  9. Ginger inhibits cell growth and modulates angiogenic factors in ovarian cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Jennifer

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc is a natural dietary component with antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties. The ginger component [6]-gingerol has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects through mediation of NF-κB. NF-κB can be constitutively activated in epithelial ovarian cancer cells and may contribute towards increased transcription and translation of angiogenic factors. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ginger on tumor cell growth and modulation of angiogenic factors in ovarian cancer cells in vitro. Methods The effect of ginger and the major ginger components on cell growth was determined in a panel of epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines. Activation of NF-κB and and production of VEGF and IL-8 was determined in the presence or absence of ginger. Results Ginger treatment of cultured ovarian cancer cells induced profound growth inhibition in all cell lines tested. We found that in vitro, 6-shogaol is the most active of the individual ginger components tested. Ginger treatment resulted in inhibition of NF-kB activation as well as diminished secretion of VEGF and IL-8. Conclusion Ginger inhibits growth and modulates secretion of angiogenic factors in ovarian cancer cells. The use of dietary agents such as ginger may have potential in the treatment and prevention of ovarian cancer.

  10. Differentiation-inducing factor-1 and -2 function also as modulators for Dictyostelium chemotaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidekazu Kuwayama

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the early stages of development of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, chemotaxis toward cAMP plays a pivotal role in organizing discrete cells into a multicellular structure. In this process, a series of signaling molecules, such as G-protein-coupled cell surface receptors for cAMP, phosphatidylinositol metabolites, and cyclic nucleotides, function as the signal transducers for controlling dynamics of cytoskeleton. Differentiation-inducing factor-1 and -2 (DIF-1 and DIF-2 were originally identified as the factors (chlorinated alkylphenones that induce Dictyostelium stalk cell differentiation, but it remained unknown whether the DIFs had any other physiologic functions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To further elucidate the functions of DIFs, in the present study we investigated their effects on chemotaxis under various conditions. Quite interestingly, in shallow cAMP gradients, DIF-1 suppressed chemotaxis whereas DIF-2 promoted it greatly. Analyses with various mutants revealed that DIF-1 may inhibit chemotaxis, at least in part, via GbpB (a phosphodiesterase and a decrease in the intracellular cGMP concentration ([cGMP](i. DIF-2, by contrast, may enhance chemotaxis, at least in part, via RegA (another phosphodiesterase and an increase in [cGMP](i. Using null mutants for DimA and DimB, the transcription factors that are required for DIF-dependent prestalk differentiation, we also showed that the mechanisms for the modulation of chemotaxis by DIFs differ from those for the induction of cell differentiation by DIFs, at least in part. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that DIF-1 and DIF-2 function as negative and positive modulators for Dictyostelium chemotaxis, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report in any organism of physiologic modulators (small molecules for chemotaxis having differentiation-inducing activity.

  11. Regulation of monocyte differentiation by specific signaling modules and associated transcription factor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, René; Pietsch, Daniel; Günther, Johannes; Welz, Bastian; Vogt, Nico; Brand, Korbinian

    2014-01-01

    Monocyte/macrophages are important players in orchestrating the immune response as well as connecting innate and adaptive immunity. Myelopoiesis and monopoiesis are characterized by the interplay between expansion of stem/progenitor cells and progression towards further developed (myelo)monocytic phenotypes. In response to a variety of differentiation-inducing stimuli, various prominent signaling pathways are activated. Subsequently, specific transcription factors are induced, regulating cell proliferation and maturation. This review article focuses on the integration of signaling modules and transcriptional networks involved in the determination of monocytic differentiation.

  12. Splicing factor 1 modulates dietary restriction and TORC1 pathway longevity in C. elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heintz, Caroline; Doktor, Thomas K; Lanjuin, Anne

    2017-01-01

    via splicing factor 1 (SFA-1; the C. elegans homologue of SF1, also known as branchpoint binding protein, BBP). We show that SFA-1 is specifically required for lifespan extension by dietary restriction and by modulation of the TORC1 pathway components AMPK, RAGA-1 and RSKS-1/S6 kinase. We also...... homeostasis is a biomarker and predictor of life expectancy in Caenorhabditis elegans. Using transcriptomics and in-depth splicing analysis in young and old animals fed ad libitum or subjected to dietary restriction, we find defects in global pre-mRNA splicing with age that are reduced by dietary restriction...

  13. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) modulates trophic signaling through interaction with serine protease HTRA1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fex Svenningsen, Åsa; Loering, Svenja; Sørensen, Anna Lahn

    2017-01-01

    its function is far from clear. Here, we report the finding of a new binding partner to MIF, the ser-ine protease HTRA1. This enzyme cleaves several growth factors, extracellular matrix molecules and is implicated in some of the same diseases as MIF. We show that the func-tion of the binding between...... MIF and HTRA1 is to inhibit the proteolytic activity of HTRA1, modulating the availability of molecules that can change cell growth and differentiation. MIF is therefore the first endogenous inhibitor ever found for HTRA1. It was found that both molecules were present in astrocytes...

  14. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met genotype modulates amygdala habituation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Rodriguez, M Mercedes; New, Antonia S; Goldstein, Kim E; Rosell, Daniel; Yuan, Qiaoping; Zhou, Zhifeng; Hodgkinson, Colin; Goldman, David; Siever, Larry J; Hazlett, Erin A

    2017-05-30

    A deficit in amygdala habituation to repeated emotional stimuli may be an endophenotype of disorders characterized by emotion dysregulation, such as borderline personality disorder (BPD). Amygdala reactivity to emotional stimuli is genetically modulated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) variants. Whether amygdala habituation itself is also modulated by BDNF genotypes remains unknown. We used imaging-genetics to examine the effect of BDNF Val66Met genotypes on amygdala habituation to repeated emotional stimuli. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 57 subjects (19 BPD patients, 18 patients with schizotypal personality disorder [SPD] and 20 healthy controls [HC]) during a task involving viewing of unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant pictures, each presented twice to measure habituation. Amygdala responses across genotypes (Val66Met SNP Met allele-carriers vs. Non-Met carriers) and diagnoses (HC, BPD, SPD) were examined with ANOVA. The BDNF 66Met allele was significantly associated with a deficit in amygdala habituation, particularly for emotional pictures. The association of the 66Met allele with a deficit in habituation to unpleasant emotional pictures remained significant in the subsample of BPD patients. Using imaging-genetics, we found preliminary evidence that deficient amygdala habituation may be modulated by BDNF genotype. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Effects of soil's properties on transfer of 137Cs to rice plants through plant uptake after soil deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keum, Dong-Kwon; Lee, Hansoo; Kang, Hee-Seok; Jun, In; Choi, Yong-Ho; Lee, Chang-Woo

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic compartment model to appraise the concentration of 137 Cs in agricultural plants as a result of a soil deposition. The present model used the Absalom model as a module to account for the effects of a soil's properties (pH, soil clay content, organic matter content, and exchangeable potassium) on a plant uptake, and the leaching and fixation process of 137 Cs in a soil. The model was tested by comparing the model predictions of the 137 Cs aggregated transfer factors for rice plants with those obtained as results of simulated 137 Cs soil deposition experiments with seventeen paddy soils of different properties, all of which were performed before a transplanting of the rice. Predicted 137 Cs TF a values of the rice plants were found to be comparable with those observed. (author)

  16. Rice straw as a feedstock for biofuels: Availability, recalcitrance, and chemical properties: Rice straw as a feedstock for biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satlewal, Alok [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Joint Inst. for Biological Sciences, Biosciences Division; Indian Oil Corporation Ltd, Faridabad (India), Dept. of Bioenergy, DBT-IOC Centre for Advanced Bioenergy Research, Research and Development Centre; Agrawal, Ruchi [Indian Oil Corporation Ltd, Faridabad (India), Dept. of Bioenergy, DBT-IOC Centre for Advanced Bioenergy Research, Research and Development Centre; Bhagia, Samarthya [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Das, Parthapratim [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Ragauskas, Arthur J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

    2017-10-17

    The surplus availability of rice straw, its limited usage and environment pollution caused by inefficient burning has fostered research for its valorization to biofuels. This review elucidates the current status of rice straw potential around the globe along with recent advances in revealing the critical factors responsible for its recalcitrance and chemical properties. The role and accumulation of high silica content in rice straw has been elucidated with its impact on enzymatic hydrolysis in a biorefinery environment. The correlation of different pretreatment approaches in modifying the physiochemical properties of rice straw and improving the enzymatic accessibility has also been discussed. This study highlights new challenges, resolutions and opportunities for rice straw based biorefineries.

  17. Recognition of Paddy, Brown Rice and White Rice Cultivars Based on Textural Features of Images and Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Golpour

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Identification of rice cultivars is very important in modern agriculture. Texture properties could be used to identify of rice cultivars among of the various factors. The digital images processing can be used as a new approach to extract texture features. The objective of this research was to identify rice cultivars using of texture features with using image processing and back propagation artificial neural networks. To identify rice cultivars, five rice cultivars Fajr, Shiroodi, Neda, Tarom mahalli and Khazar were selected. Finally, 108 textural features were extracted from rice images using gray level co-occurrence matrix. Then cultivar identification was carried out using Back Propagation Artificial Neural Network. After evaluation of the network with one hidden layer using texture features, the highest classification accuracy for paddy cultivars, brown rice and white rice were obtained 92.2%, 97.8% and 98.9%, respectively. After evaluation of the network with two hidden layers, the average accuracy for classification of paddy cultivars was obtained to be 96.67%, for brown rice it was 97.78% and for white rice the classification accuracy was 98.88%. The highest mean classification accuracy acquired for paddy cultivars with 45 features was achieved to be 98.9%, for brown rice cultivars with 11 selected features it was 93.3% and it was 96.7% with 18 selected features for rice cultivars.

  18. Rice peasants and rice research in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Spijkers, P.A.N.M.

    1983-01-01

    Rice has been grown as a food crop in Latin America from early colonial times. In Colombia rice became a prominent subsistence crop especially on the north coast where it has been grown since the 17th century, sometimes also as a commercial crop. During the last twenty years there has been a sharp increase in rice production, especially in the irrigated sector. This increase can be attributed largely to the work of three organizations: the government-sponsored rice re search program of the In...

  19. Human Factors Support in the Design and Evaluation of the Reactor Protection System Cabinet Operator Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Chul; Lee, Jung Woon

    2005-01-01

    A Korean project group, KNICS, is developing a new digitalized reactor protection system (RPS) and the developed system will be packaged into a cabinet with several racks. The cabinet of the RPS is used for the RPS function testing and monitoring by maintenance operators and is equipped with a flat panel display (FPD) with a touch screen capability as a main user interface for the RPS operation. This paper describes the human factors activities involved in the development process of the RPS: conceptual design, design guidance, and evaluation. The activities include a functional requirements analysis and task analysis, user interface style guide for the RPS cabinet operator module (COM), and a human factors evaluation through an experiment and questionnaires

  20. Modulation of proton pumping across proteoliposome membranes reconstituted with tonoplast H(+)-ATPase from cultured rice (Oryza sativa L. var. Boro) cells by acyl steryl glucoside and steryl glucoside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Mineo; Kasamo, Kunihiro

    2002-07-01

    Tonoplast H(+)-ATPase purified from cultured rice cells (Oryza sativa L. var. Boro) was reconstituted into asolectin liposomes containing steryl glucoside (SG) or acyl steryl glucoside (ASG), and the effects of SG and ASG on proton pumping, ATP-hydrolysis activity and proton permeability of the proteoliposome membranes were investigated. In the proteoliposomes containing 10 mol% SG, proton pumping and ATP-hydrolysis activity were increased to around 140% of those in SG-free proteoliposomes. In the proteoliposomes containing ASG, proton pumping and ATP-hydrolysis activity were decreased to one-tenth of those in ASG-free proteoliposomes at 15 mol% ASG; however, activity increased again slightly in the range between 20 and 40 mol% ASG. The change in proton pumping across the proteoliposome membrane is not due to a change of proteoliposome size nor to the location of the catalytic site of the tonoplast H(+)-ATPase in the proteoliposomes. SG and ASG also reduced the passive proton permeability of the proteoliposomes. These results show that SG and ASG modulate proton pumping across the tonoplast toward stimulation and depression, respectively, and they reduce the passive proton permeability of the tonoplast.

  1. Synergistic Exposure of Rice Seeds to Different Doses of γ-Ray and Salinity Stress Resulted in Increased Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Gene-Specific Modulation of TC-NER Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Macovei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports have underlined the potential of gamma (γ-rays as tools for seed priming, a process used in seed industry to increase seed vigor and to enhance plant tolerance to biotic/abiotic stresses. However, the impact of γ-rays on key aspects of plant metabolism still needs to be carefully evaluated. In the present study, rice seeds were challenged with different doses of γ-rays and grown in absence/presence of NaCl to assess the impact of these treatments on the early stages of plant life. Enhanced germination efficiency associated with increase in radicle and hypocotyl length was observed, while at later stages no increase in plant tolerance to salinity stress was evident. APX, CAT, and GR were enhanced at transcriptional level and in terms of enzyme activity, indicating the activation of antioxidant defence. The profiles of DNA damage accumulation were obtained using SCGE and the implication of TC-NER pathway in DNA damage sensing and repair mechanisms is discussed. OsXPB2, OsXPD, OsTFIIS, and OsTFIIS-like genes showed differential modulation in seedlings and plantlets in response to γ-irradiation and salinity stress. Altogether, the synergistic exposure to γ-rays and NaCl resulted in enhanced oxidative stress and proper activation of antioxidant mechanisms, thus being compatible with plant survival.

  2. Expression Patterns of OsPIL11, a Phytochrome-Interacting Factor in Rice, and Preliminary Analysis of Its Roles in Light Signal Transduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li LI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The expression patterns of OsPIL11, one of six putative phytochrome-interacting factors, were analyzed in different organs of transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum. The expression of OsPIL11 was organ-specific and was regulated by leaf development, abscisic acid (ABA, jasmonic acid (JA and salicylic acid (SA. To further explore the role of OsPIL11 in plant light signal transduction, a plant expression vector of OsPIL11 was constructed and introduced into tobacco. When grown under continuous red light, OsPIL11-overexpressed transgenic tobacco exhibited shorter hypocotyls and larger cotyledons and leaves compared to wild-type seedlings. When grown under continuous far-red light, however, transgenic and wild-type seedlings showed similar phenotypes. These results indicate that OsPIL11 is involved in red light induced de-etiolation, but not in far-red light induced de-etiolation in transgenic tobacco, which lays the foundation for dissecting the function of OsPIL11 in phytochrome-mediated light signal transduction in rice.

  3. Comprehensive analysis of differentially expressed rice actin depolymerizing factor gene family and heterologous overexpression of OsADF3 confers Arabidopsis Thaliana drought tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ya-Chen; Huang, Wen-Lii; Hong, Chwan-Yang; Lur, Hur-Shen; Chang, Men-Chi

    2012-11-27

    Actin depolymerizing factors (ADFs) are small actin-binding proteins. Many higher-plant ADFs has been known to involve in plant growth, development and pathogen defense. However, in rice the temporal and spatial expression of OsADF gene family and their relationship with abiotic stresses tolerance is still unknown. Here we reported the first comprehensive gene expression profile analysis of OsADF gene family. The OsADF genes showed distinct and overlapping gene expression patterns at different growth stages, tissues and abiotic stresses. We also demonstrated that both OsADF1 and OsADF3 proteins were localized in the nucleus. OsADF1 and OsADF3 were preferentially expressed in vascular tissues. Under ABA or abiotic stress treatments, OsADF3::GUS activity was enhanced in lateral roots and root tips. Ectopically overexpressed OsADF3 conferred the mannitol- and drought-stress tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings by increasing germination rate, primary root length and survival. Several drought-tolerance responsive genes (RD22, ABF4, DREB2A, RD29A, PIP1; 4 and PIP2; 6) were upregulated in transgenic Arabidopsis under drought stress. These results suggested that OsADF gene family may participate in plant abiotic stresses response or tolerance and would facilitate functional validation of other OsADF genes.

  4. Phenomenological analysis of near-threshold periodic modulations of the proton timelike form factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianconi, A.; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.

    2016-03-01

    We have recently highlighted the presence of a periodically oscillating 10% modulation in the BABAR Collaboration data on the proton timelike form factors, expressing the deviations from the pointlike behavior of the proton-antiproton electromagnetic current in the reaction e++e-→p ¯+p . Here we deepen our previous data analysis and confirm that in the case of several standard parametrizations it is possible to write the form factor in the form F0+Fosc , where F0 is a parametrization expressing the long-range trend of the form factor (for q2 ranging from the p ¯p threshold to 36 GeV2), and Fosc is a function of the form exp(-B p )cos(C p ) , where p is the relative momentum of the final p ¯p pair. Error bars allow for a clean identification of the main features of this modulation for q2annihilation of p ¯p pairs into multimeson states. We interpret the flux-creating part of the potential as due to the creation of a 1 /q -ranged state when the virtual photon decays into a set of current quarks and antiquarks. This short-lived compact state may be expressed as a sum of several hadronic states including the ones with large mass Qn≫q , that may exist for a time t ˜1 /(Qn-q ) . The decay of these large-mass states leads to an intermediate-stage regeneration of the p ¯p channel.

  5. Rice peasants and rice research in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, P.A.N.M.

    1983-01-01

    Rice has been grown as a food crop in Latin America from early colonial times. In Colombia rice became a prominent subsistence crop especially on the north coast where it has been grown since the 17th century, sometimes also as a commercial crop. During the last twenty years there has been a sharp

  6. Effect of rice bran supplementation on cookie baking quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younis, A.; Bhatti, M.S.; Ahmed, A

    2011-01-01

    Rice bran, a by-product obtained during polishing of un-milled rice, contains a large quantity of essential nutrients such as minerals, vitamins, fiber, amino acids and antioxidants. Supplementation of rice bran in cookies can improve their nutritional value. In the present study, cookies were prepared from wheat flour with supplementation of rice bran at the rate of 5, 10, 15 and 20 percent. The rice bran was stabilized with acid and dry heat treatment before supplementation. Chemical analysis of the cookies revealed that there was no significant difference in chemical and physical properties of cookies supplemented with acid stabilized rice bran (ASRB) and heat stabilized rice bran (HSRB). The moisture, crude protein, fat and mineral contents were significantly increased with the increment of rice bran. Average width, thickness and spread factor of cookies also increased with the increase in percentage of rice bran. Sensory evaluation of cookies showed that scores for color of cookies decreased significantly with increase in level of rice bran and sensory scores were significantly higher in the cookies prepared with HSRB. However the decrease was non-significant at 10 percent level of substitution. Highest scores for overall acceptability of supplemented cookies was recorded at 15 percent level of substitution as compared to other treatments. Hence it is concluded from the results that supplementation of HSRB at the rate of 10 percent is more suitable for production of rice bran supplemented cookies. (author)

  7. Differential growth factor induction and modulation of human gastric epithelial regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetreault, Marie-Pier; Chailler, Pierre; Rivard, Nathalie; Menard, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    While several autocrine/paracrine growth factors (GFs) can all stimulate epithelial regeneration in experimentally wounded primary gastric cultures, clinical relevance for their non-redundant cooperative actions in human gastric ulcer healing is suggested by the sequential pattern of GF gene induction in vivo. Using new HGE cell lines able to form a coherent monolayer with tight junctions as well as using primary human gastric epithelial cultures, we show that EGF, TGFα, HGF and IGFs accelerate epithelial restitution upon wounding, independently of the TGFβ pathway (as opposed to intestinal cells). However, they differently modulate cell behavior: TGFα exerts strong effects (even more than EGF) on cytoplasmic spreading and non-oriented protruding activity of bordering cells whereas HGF preferentially coordinates single lamella formation, cell elongation and migration into the wound. IGF-I and IGF-II rather induce the alignment of bordering cells and maintain a compact monolayer front. The number of mitotic cells maximally increases with EGF, followed by TGFα and IGF-I,-II. The current study demonstrates that GFs differentially regulate the regeneration of human gastric epithelial cells through specific modulation of cell shape adaptation, migration and proliferation, further stressing that a coordination of GF activities would be necessary for the normal progression of post-wounding epithelial repair

  8. Germinated brown rice and its bioactives modulate the activity of uterine cells in oophorectomised rats as evidenced by gross cytohistological and immunohistochemical changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Sani I; Ismail, Maznah; Mahmud, Rozi B; Salisu, Abubakar M; Zakaria, Zuki A

    2013-07-30

    Germinated brown rice (GBR) is gaining momentum in the area of biomedical research due to its increased use as a nutraceutical for the management of diseases. The effect of GBR on the reproductive organs of oophorectomised rats was studied using the gross, cytological, histological and immunohistochemical changes, with the aim of reducing atrophy and dryness of the genital organs in menopause. Experimental rats were divided into eight groups of six rats per group. Groups 1, 2 and 3 (sham-operated (SH), oophorectomised without treatment (OVX) and oophorectomised treated with 0.2 mg/kg oestrogen, respectively) served as the controls. The groups 4,5,6,7 and 8 were treated with 20 mg/kg Remifemin, 200 mg/kg of GBR, ASG, oryzanol and GABA, respectively. All treatments were administered orally, once daily for 8 weeks. Vaginal smear cytology was done at the 7th week on all the rats. The weight and dimensions of the uterus and vagina were determined after sacrifice of the rats. Uterine and vaginal tissues were taken for histology and Immunohistochemical examinations. GBR and its bioactives treated groups significantly increased the weight and length of both the uterus and the vagina when compared to Oophorectomised non-treated group (OVX-non-treated) (p < 0.05). Significant changes were observed in the ratio of cornified epithelial cells and number of leucocytes in the vaginal cytology between the oophorectomised non-treated and treated groups. There was also an increase in the luminal and glandular epithelial cells activity in the treated compared with the untreated groups histologically. Immunohistochemical staining showed specific proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the luminal and glandular epithelium of the treated groups, which was absent in the OVX-non-treated group. GBR improved the length and weight of the uterus and also increased the number of glandular and luminal cells epithelia of the vagina. GBR and its bioactives could be a potential

  9. The bZIP transcription factor MoAP1 mediates the oxidative stress response and is critical for pathogenicity of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Guo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yap1 protein is an AP1-like transcription factor involved in the regulation of the oxidative stress response. An ortholog of Yap1, MoAP1, was recently identified from the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae genome. We found that MoAP1 is highly expressed in conidia and during invasive hyphal growth. The Moap1 mutant was sensitive to H₂O₂, similar to S. cerevisiae yap1 mutants, and MoAP1 complemented Yap1 function in resistance to H₂O₂, albeit partially. The Moap1 mutant also exhibited various defects in aerial hyphal growth, mycelial branching, conidia formation, the production of extracellular peroxidases and laccases, and melanin pigmentation. Consequently, the Moap1 mutant was unable to infect the host plant. The MoAP1-eGFP fusion protein is localized inside the nucleus upon exposure to H₂O₂, suggesting that MoAP1 also functions as a redox sensor. Moreover, through RNA sequence analysis, many MoAP1-regulated genes were identified, including several novel ones that were also involved in pathogenicity. Disruption of respective MGG_01662 (MoAAT and MGG_02531 (encoding hypothetical protein genes did not result in any detectable changes in conidial germination and appressorium formation but reduced pathogenicity, whereas the mutant strains of MGG_01230 (MoSSADH and MGG_15157 (MoACT showed marketed reductions in aerial hyphal growth, mycelial branching, and loss of conidiation as well as pathogenicity, similar to the Moap1 mutant. Taken together, our studies identify MoAP1 as a positive transcription factor that regulates transcriptions of MGG_01662, MGG_02531, MGG_01230, and MGG_15157 that are important in the growth, development, and pathogenicity of M. oryzae.

  10. The bZIP transcription factor MoAP1 mediates the oxidative stress response and is critical for pathogenicity of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Min; Chen, Yue; Du, Yan; Dong, Yanhan; Guo, Wang; Zhai, Su; Zhang, Haifeng; Dong, Suomeng; Zhang, Zhengguang; Wang, Yuanchao; Wang, Ping; Zheng, Xiaobo

    2011-02-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yap1 protein is an AP1-like transcription factor involved in the regulation of the oxidative stress response. An ortholog of Yap1, MoAP1, was recently identified from the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae genome. We found that MoAP1 is highly expressed in conidia and during invasive hyphal growth. The Moap1 mutant was sensitive to H₂O₂, similar to S. cerevisiae yap1 mutants, and MoAP1 complemented Yap1 function in resistance to H₂O₂, albeit partially. The Moap1 mutant also exhibited various defects in aerial hyphal growth, mycelial branching, conidia formation, the production of extracellular peroxidases and laccases, and melanin pigmentation. Consequently, the Moap1 mutant was unable to infect the host plant. The MoAP1-eGFP fusion protein is localized inside the nucleus upon exposure to H₂O₂, suggesting that MoAP1 also functions as a redox sensor. Moreover, through RNA sequence analysis, many MoAP1-regulated genes were identified, including several novel ones that were also involved in pathogenicity. Disruption of respective MGG_01662 (MoAAT) and MGG_02531 (encoding hypothetical protein) genes did not result in any detectable changes in conidial germination and appressorium formation but reduced pathogenicity, whereas the mutant strains of MGG_01230 (MoSSADH) and MGG_15157 (MoACT) showed marketed reductions in aerial hyphal growth, mycelial branching, and loss of conidiation as well as pathogenicity, similar to the Moap1 mutant. Taken together, our studies identify MoAP1 as a positive transcription factor that regulates transcriptions of MGG_01662, MGG_02531, MGG_01230, and MGG_15157 that are important in the growth, development, and pathogenicity of M. oryzae.

  11. Analysis of Factors Influencing the Development of Xerostomia during Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Ken; Stevens, Jason; Yepes, Juan Fernando; Randall, Marcus E.; Kudrimoti, Mahesh; Feddock, Jonathan; Xi, Jing; Kryscio, Richard J.; Miller, Craig S.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Factors influencing xerostomia during intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) were assessed. METHODS A 6-week study of 32 head and neck cancer (HNC) patients was performed. Subjects completed the Xerostomia Inventory (XI) and provided stimulated saliva (SS) at baseline, week two and at end of IMRT. Influence of SS flow rate (SSFR), calcium and mucin 5b (MUC5b) concentrations and radiation dose on xerostomia was determined. RESULTS HNC subjects experienced mean SSFR decline of 36% by visit two (N=27; p=0.012) and 57% by visit three (N=20; p=0.0004), Concentrations of calcium and MUC5b increased, but not significantly during IMRT (p>0.05). Xerostomia correlated most with decreasing salivary flow rate as determined by Spearman correlations (pxerostomia. PMID:23523462

  12. Cycle modulation of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 in human endometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corleta H.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometrium is one of the fastest growing human tissues. Sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone, in interaction with several growth factors, control its growth and differentiation. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 interacts with cell surface receptors and also with specific soluble binding proteins. IGF-binding proteins (IGF-BP have been shown to modulate IGF-1 action. Of six known isoforms, IGF-BP-1 has been characterized as a marker produced by endometrial stromal cells in the late secretory phase and in the decidua. In the current study, IGF-1-BP concentration and affinity in the proliferative and secretory phase of the menstrual cycle were measured. Endometrial samples were from patients of reproductive age with regular menstrual cycles and taking no steroid hormones. Cytosolic fractions were prepared and binding of 125I-labeled IGF-1 performed. Cross-linking reaction products were analyzed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (7.5% followed by autoradiography. 125I-IGF-1 affinity to cytosolic proteins was not statistically different between the proliferative and secretory endometrium. An approximately 35-kDa binding protein was identified when 125I-IGF-1 was cross-linked to cytosol proteins. Secretory endometrium had significantly more IGF-1-BP when compared to proliferative endometrium. The specificity of the cross-linking process was evaluated by the addition of 100 nM unlabeled IGF-1 or insulin. Unlabeled IGF-1 totally abolished the radioactivity from the band, indicating specific binding. Insulin had no apparent effect on the intensity of the labeled band. These results suggest that IGF-BP could modulate the action of IGF-1 throughout the menstrual cycle. It would be interesting to study this binding protein in other pathologic conditions of the endometrium such as adenocarcinomas and hyperplasia.

  13. Overexpression of OrbHLH001, a putative helix-loop-helix transcription factor, causes increased expression of AKT1 and maintains ionic balance under salt stress in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan; Li, Fei; Ma, Yan; Chong, Kang; Xu, Yunyuan

    2013-01-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix family of proteins, which function as transcription factors, have been intensively studied in plants and animals. However, the molecular mechanism of these factors contributing to stress tolerance is unknown. Here, we report on the overexpression of OrbHLH001 from Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) conferring salt tolerance in transgenic rice plants. The expression of OrbHLH001 was tissue specific, mainly in phloem tissues throughout the plant. Ion assay with the scanning ion-selective electrode technique showed that NaCl stress has a greater influence on Na(+) efflux and K(+) influx in OrbHLH001-overexpressed plants than the wild type. OrbHLH001 protein can induce the expression of OsAKT1 to regulate the Na(+)/K(+) ratio in OrbHLH001-overexpressed plants by specifically binding to an E-box motif in the promoter region of OsAKT1. The mechanism may have potential use in rice molecular breeding. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP: modulation by growth factors and its implication in astrocyte differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C.A. Gomes

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate filament (IF proteins constitute an extremely large multigene family of developmentally and tissue-regulated cytoskeleton proteins abundant in most vertebrate cell types. Astrocyte precursors of the CNS usually express vimentin as the major IF. Astrocyte maturation is followed by a switch between vimentin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP expression, with the latter being recognized as an astrocyte maturation marker. Levels of GFAP are regulated under developmental and pathological conditions. Upregulation of GFAP expression is one of the main characteristics of the astrocytic reaction commonly observed after CNS lesion. In this way, studies on GFAP regulation have been shown to be useful to understand not only brain physiology but also neurological disease. Modulators of GFAP expression include several hormones such as thyroid hormone, glucocorticoids and several growth factors such as FGF, CNTF and TGFß, among others. Studies of the GFAP gene have already identified several putative growth factor binding domains in its promoter region. Data obtained from transgenic and knockout mice have provided new insights into IF protein functions. This review highlights the most recent studies on the regulation of IF function by growth factors and hormones.

  15. Modulation of Food Reward by Endocrine and Environmental Factors: Update and Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figlewicz, Dianne P

    2015-01-01

    Palatable foods are frequently high in energy density. Chronic consumption of high-energy density foods can contribute to the development of cardiometabolic pathology including obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This article reviews the contributions of extrinsic and intrinsic factors that influence the reward components of food intake. A narrative review was conducted to determine the behavioral and central nervous system (CNS) related processes involved in the reward components of high-energy density food intake. The rewarding aspects of food, particularly palatable and preferred foods, are regulated by CNS circuitry. Overlaying this regulation is modulation by intrinsic endocrine systems and metabolic hormones relating to energy homeostasis, developmental stage, or gender. It is now recognized that extrinsic or environmental factors, including ambient diet composition and the provocation of stress or anxiety, also contribute substantially to the expression of food reward behaviors such as motivation for, and seeking of, preferred foods. High-energy density food intake is influenced by both physiological and pathophysiological processes. Contextual, behavioral, and psychological factors and CNS-related processes represent potential targets for multiple types of therapeutic intervention.

  16. Social and environmental factors modulate leucocyte profiles in free-living Greylag geese (Anser anser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didone Frigerio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Blood parameters such as haematocrit or leucocyte counts are indicators of immune status and health, which can be affected, in a complex way, by exogenous as well as endogenous factors. Additionally, social context is known to be among the most potent stressors in group living individuals, therefore potentially influencing haematological parameters. However, with few exceptions, this potential causal relationship received only moderate scientific attention. Methods In a free-living and individually marked population of the highly social and long-lived Greylag goose, Anser anser, we relate variation in haematocrit (HCT, heterophils to lymphocytes ratio (H/L and blood leucocyte counts to the following factors: intrinsic (sex, age, raising condition, i.e. goose- or hand-raised, social (pair-bond status, pair-bond duration and parental experience and environmental (biologically relevant periods, ambient temperature factors. Blood samples were collected repeatedly from a total of 105 focal birds during three biologically relevant seasons (winter flock, mating season, summer. Results We found significant relationships between haematological parameters and social as well as environmental factors. During the mating season, unpaired individuals had higher HCT compared to paired and family individuals and this pattern reversed in fall. Similarly, H/L ratio was positively related to pair-bond status in a seasonally dependent way, with highest values during mating and successful pairs had higher H/L ratio than unsuccessful ones. Also, absolute number of leucocytes tended to vary depending on raising condition in a seasonally dependent way. Discussion Haematology bears a great potential in ecological and behavioural studies on wild vertebrates. In sum, we found that HTC, H/L ratio and absolute number of leucocytes are modulated by social factors and conclude that they may be considered valid indicators of individual stress load.

  17. Bran in Nigerian Local Rice Confers a High Degree of Protection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A factor in the aetiology of peptic ulcer might be the absence of protective substances; either as a result of the refining of the staple carbohydrate food or of a low intake of supplementary foods containing such factors. It has been proven that unmilled or freshly-milled rice and fresh rice bran or rice bran oil confer a degree of ...

  18. The LANSCE RICE control system upgrade.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oothoudt, Michael; Schaller, S. (Stuart); Bjorklund, E. A. (Eric A.); Burns, M. J. (Mary J.); Carr, G. (Gary); Carr, G. (Gary); Faucett, John Allen,; Hayden, D. J. (David J.); Lusk, M. D. (Matthew D.); Merl, R. B. (Robert B.); Potter, J. M. (Jerry M.); Reynolds, J. A. (Jerome A.); Romero, D. B. (Dolores B.); Shelley, F. E. (Fred E.)

    2003-01-01

    The LANSCE (Los Alamos Neutron Science Center) control system upgrade program continues with the impending replacement of the RICE (Remote Instrumentation and Control Equipment) subsystem. The RICE subsystem upgrade is a challenge because of its technology (late 1960s), number of channels (>10,000), and unique characteristics (all-modules data takes, timed/flavored data takes). The plan is to replace at least the non-timed data and the command portions of the subsystem with Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs). We discuss motivations, technological challenges, proof-of-principle, and planning. The boundary condition, as usual, is that we must implement these major changes on a running accelerator.

  19. Golden Rice is an effective source of vitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guangwen; Qin, Jian; Dolnikowski, Gregory G; Russell, Robert M; Grusak, Michael A

    2009-06-01

    Genetically engineered "Golden Rice" contains up to 35 microg beta-carotene per gram of rice. It is important to determine the vitamin A equivalency of Golden Rice beta-carotene to project the potential effect of this biofortified grain in rice-consuming populations that commonly exhibit low vitamin A status. The objective was to determine the vitamin A value of intrinsically labeled dietary Golden Rice in humans. Golden Rice plants were grown hydroponically with heavy water (deuterium oxide) to generate deuterium-labeled [2H]beta-carotene in the rice grains. Golden Rice servings of 65-98 g (130-200 g cooked rice) containing 0.99-1.53 mg beta-carotene were fed to 5 healthy adult volunteers (3 women and 2 men) with 10 g butter. A reference dose of [13C10]retinyl acetate (0.4-1.0 mg) in oil was given to each volunteer 1 wk before ingestion of the Golden Rice dose. Blood samples were collected over 36 d. Our results showed that the mean (+/-SD) area under the curve for the total serum response to [2H]retinol was 39.9 +/- 20.7 microg x d after the Golden Rice dose. Compared with that of the [13C10]retinyl acetate reference dose (84.7 +/- 34.6 microg x d), Golden Rice beta-carotene provided 0.24-0.94 mg retinol. Thus, the conversion factor of Golden Rice beta-carotene to retinol is 3.8 +/- 1.7 to 1 with a range of 1.9-6.4 to 1 by weight, or 2.0 +/- 0.9 to 1 with a range of 1.0-3.4 to 1 by moles. Beta-carotene derived from Golden Rice is effectively converted to vitamin A in humans. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00680355.

  20. The rice agroecosystem of the MUDA irrigation scheme: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho Nai Kin

    2002-01-01

    The Green Revolution technologies were introduced to the Muda area of Malaysia in the late 1960s. These technological innovations have resulted in rapid modification of the crop habitat and triggered a chain reaction in the rice agroecosystem. The impact of these technologies on the pest flora and fauna are significant. Indiscriminate use of pesticides causes disruption of natural enemy equilibrium and other undesirable effects to the farmers and the rice environment. The main emphasis of this paper is focused on the interactions between the various biological factors such as pathogenic microorganisms, arthropods, gastropods, fishes, birds, rodents, weeds, and the physical factors in the rice agroecosystem. The impact of double cropping of rice, the provision of irrigation facilities, the changes of crop establishment methods, and the adoption of pesticides on the rice agroecosystem are found to have far reaching effects on the sustainability of rice production in the Muda area. (Author)

  1. Modulating microfibrillar alignment and growth factor stimulation to regulate mesenchymal stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera, Dinorath; Sathy, Binulal N; Carroll, Simon F; Kelly, Daniel J

    2017-12-01

    The ideal tissue engineering (TE) strategy for ligament regeneration should recapitulate the bone - calcified cartilage - fibrocartilage - soft tissue interface. Aligned electrospun-fibers have been shown to guide the deposition of a highly organized extracellular matrix (ECM) necessary for ligament TE. However, recapitulating the different tissues observed in the bone-ligament interface using such constructs remains a challenge. This study aimed to explore how fiber alignment and growth factor stimulation interact to regulate the chondrogenic and ligamentous differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). To this end aligned and randomly-aligned electrospun microfibrillar scaffolds were seeded with bone marrow derived MSCs and stimulated with transforming growth factor β3 (TGFβ3) or connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), either individually or sequentially. Without growth factor stimulation, MSCs on aligned-microfibers showed higher levels of tenomodulin (TNMD) and aggrecan gene expression compared to MSCs on randomly-oriented fibers. MSCs on aligned-microfibers stimulated with TGFβ3 formed cellular aggregates and underwent robust chondrogenesis, evidenced by increased type II collagen expression and sulphated glycosaminoglycans (sGAG) synthesis compared to MSCs on randomly-oriented scaffolds. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and type I collagen gene expression were higher on randomly-oriented scaffolds stimulated with TGFβ3, suggesting this substrate was more supportive of an endochondral phenotype. In the presence of CTGF, MSCs underwent ligamentous differentiation, with increased TNMD expression on aligned compared to randomly aligned scaffolds. Upon sequential growth factor stimulation, MSCs expressed types I and II collagen and deposited higher overall levels of collagen compared to scaffolds stimulated with either growth factor in isolation. These findings demonstrate that modulating the alignment of microfibrillar scaffolds can be used to promote

  2. Rice Farmer Institutional Strengthening Based On Agricultural Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majdah M. Zain

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study generally aims at assessing the competitiveness of rice commodities in South Sulawesi in particular this study is directed to analyze the comparative advantages of rice commodity in South Sulawesi Inter-island rice trade performance marking efficiency and supporting factors of the inter-islands rice trade by the by the strengthening the farmer institutional based on agricultural business. This study was conducted in South Sulawesi using survey method in which the survey locations primary data source are in five regencies of the rice production center and some areas in ports between islands such as Watangpone Bone Regency and Siwa Wajo Regency for east and Pare-pare Pangkajene and Pinrang for west coast areas. The data gathered are about the farmer group and the farm management margin and marking cost structure as well the rice trade pattern between islands in South Sulawesi. In addition secondary data used is the data of rice production series in South Suawesi and Indonesia 2008-2013 inter-island rice trade data 2012-2014 rice price data 2008-20013. Data was analyzed using Location Quotient LQ method Market Share MS Market Concentration Index IKP the market integration model and the Kawagoe model measure marking efficiency and Gravity Model to analyzed the factors that support the rice trade between islands. In the second year there is a production of group-based rice farm management. It ranges from good cultivating process this able to provide the good quality of grain and rice so that the competitiveness of the rice increases to gain bargaining power in marketing. Thus the cultivating system is done based on agricultural business.

  3. Modulation of proteostasis by transcription factor NRF2 and impact in neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Pajares

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative diseases are linked to the accumulation of specific protein aggregates, suggesting an intimate connection between injured brain and loss of proteostasis. Proteostasis refers to all the processes by which cells control the abundance and folding of the proteome thanks to a wide network that integrates the regulation of signaling pathways, gene expression and protein degradation systems. This review attempts to summarize the most relevant findings about the transcriptional modulation of proteostasis exerted by the transcription factor NRF2 (nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2. NRF2 has been classically considered as the master regulator of the antioxidant cell response, although it is currently emerging as a key component of the transduction machinery to maintain proteostasis. As we will discuss, NRF2 could be envisioned as a hub that compiles emergency signals derived from misfolded protein accumulation in order to build a coordinated and perdurable transcriptional response. This is achieved by functions of NRF2 related to the control of genes involved in the maintenance of the endoplasmic reticulum physiology, the proteasome and autophagy.

  4. Not any type of rice performs equally to improve lactose-induced diarrhea characteristics in rats: is amylose an antidiarrheal factor?

    OpenAIRE

    Felipoff,Ana Lia; Zuleta,Angela; Sambucetti,Maria Elena; Rio,Maria Esther

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of different types of rice in relation to their ability to accelerate diarrhea recovering was evaluated in a rat model of osmotic diarrhea (OD). Animals (90-100 g) received protein free diet until reaching up to 20% weight loss, followed by lactose rich diet (LRD) to induce osmotic diarrhea. Rats presenting osmotic diarrhea were divided into 4 groups, which received lactose rich diet for 4 days from 8 am to 8 pm, and one of three experimental products containing 6% rice flou...

  5. Rice that Filipinos Grow and Eat

    OpenAIRE

    de Leon, John C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces rice to the reader and analyzes the changes it has gone through these past 100 years in the shaping hands of varietal improvement science. Here, the richness of the crop as a genetic material and resource is revealed. Landrace rice, pureline selection rice, crossbred rice, semidwarf rice, hybrid rice, new plant type rice, designer rice - from the traditional to modern to futuristic - rice becomes all of these while traversing time in the Philippines. There is rice for th...

  6. Rice trade liberalization and poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Gulati, Ashok; Narayanan, Sudha

    2002-01-01

    Rice is the lifeline of almost 70% of the world's poor residing in Asia, where more than 90% of world rice production and consumption takes place. Rice trade liberalization therefore has tremendous implications for poverty. The world rice market is highly distorted, partly because of the high degree of intervention in rice markets across the world. While poor countries such as Thailand, Vietnam, and India tend to “disprotect” rice sectors, the rich countries of East Asia (Japan and Korea), Eu...

  7. Integrated rice-duck farming mitigates the global warming potential in rice season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guochun; Liu, Xin; Wang, Qiangsheng; Yu, Xichen; Hang, Yuhao

    2017-01-01

    Integrated rice-duck farming (IRDF), as a mode of ecological agriculture, is an important way to realize sustainable development of agriculture. A 2-year split-plot field experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of IRDF on methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions and its ecological mechanism in rice season. This experiment was conducted with two rice farming systems (FS) of IRDF and conventional farming (CF) under four paddy-upland rotation systems (PUR): rice-fallow (RF), annual straw incorporating in rice-wheat rotation system (RWS), annual straw-based biogas residues incorporating in rice-wheat rotation system (RWB), and rice-green manure (RGM). During the rice growing seasons, IRDF decreased the CH 4 emission by 8.80-16.68%, while increased the N 2 O emission by 4.23-15.20%, when compared to CF. Given that CH 4 emission contributed to 85.83-96.22% of global warming potential (GWP), the strong reduction in CH 4 emission led to a significantly lower GWP of IRDF as compared to CF. The reason for this trend was because IRDF has significant effect on dissolved oxygen (DO) and soil redox potential (Eh), which were two pivotal factors for CH 4 and N 2 O emissions in this study. The IRDF not only mitigates the GWP, but also increases the rice yield by 0.76-2.43% compared to CF. Moreover, compared to RWS system, RF, RWB and RGM systems significantly reduced CH 4 emission by 50.17%, 44.89% and 39.51%, respectively, while increased N 2 O emission by 10.58%, 14.60% and 23.90%, respectively. And RWS system had the highest GWP. These findings suggest that mitigating GWP and improving rice yield could be simultaneously achieved by the IRDF, and employing suitable PUR would benefit for relieving greenhouse effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Not any type of rice performs equally to improve lactose-induced diarrhea characteristics in rats: is amylose an antidiarrheal factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lia Felipoff

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of different types of rice in relation to their ability to accelerate diarrhea recovering was evaluated in a rat model of osmotic diarrhea (OD. Animals (90-100 g received protein free diet until reaching up to 20% weight loss, followed by lactose rich diet (LRD to induce osmotic diarrhea. Rats presenting osmotic diarrhea were divided into 4 groups, which received lactose rich diet for 4 days from 8 am to 8 pm, and one of three experimental products containing 6% rice flour differing in amylose content during the night: high (HA, intermediate (IA, and low (LA. A group fed stock diet containing equivalent amount of lactose was taken as control and allowed to recover spontaneously. Amylose and viscosity (cp at 25 °C, 10 rpm of final products were determined. Effectiveness was expressed as the ratio between percentages of normal vs. diarrheic stools during the treatment. Fecal characteristics in this rat model improved only as result of feeding high amylose content (HA type of rice. In this experimental model of osmotic diarrhea in young rats, the antidiarrheal effects of rice were strongly dependent on the type of diet used and appear to be related to its amylose content.

  9. Rice production model based on the concept of ecological footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiz, S. A.; Wicaksono, A. D.; Dinanti, D.

    2017-06-01

    Pursuant to what had been stated in Region Spatial Planning (RTRW) of Malang Regency for period 2010-2030, Malang Regency was considered as the center of agricultural development, including districts bordered with Malang City. To protect the region functioning as the provider of rice production, then the policy of sustainable food farming-land (LP2B) was made which its implementation aims to protect rice-land. In the existing condition, LP2B system was not maximally executed, and it caused a limited extend of rice-land to deliver rice production output. One cause related with the development of settlements and industries due to the effect of Malang City that converted land-function. Location of research focused on 30 villages with direct border with Malang City. Review was conducted to develop a model of relation between farming production output and ecological footprint variables. These variables include rice-land area (X1), built land percentage (X2), and number of farmers (X3). Analysis technique was regression. Result of regression indicated that the model of rice production output Y=-207,983 + 10.246X1. Rice-land area (X1) was the most influential independent variable. It was concluded that of villages directly bordered with Malang City, there were 11 villages with higher production potential because their rice production yield was more than 1,000 tons/year, while 12 villages were threatened with low production output because its rice production yield only attained 500 tons/year. Based on the model and the spatial direction of RTRW, it can be said that the direction for the farming development policy must be redesigned to maintain rice-land area on the regions on which agricultural activity was still dominant. Because rice-land area was the most influential factor to farming production. Therefore, the wider the rice-land is, the higher rice production output is on each village.

  10. Inferring condition-specific modulation of transcription factor activity in yeast through regulon-based analysis of genomewide expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boorsma, A.; Lu, X.-J.; Zakrzewska, A.; Klis, F.M.; Bussemaker, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: A key goal of systems biology is to understand how genomewide mRNA expression levels are controlled by transcription factors (TFs) in a condition-specific fashion. TF activity is frequently modulated at the post-translational level through ligand binding, covalent modification, or

  11. Characterization of connective tissue growth factor expression in primary cultures of human tubular epithelial cells: modulation by hypoxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroening, Sven; Neubauer, Emily; Wullich, Bernd; Aten, Jan; Goppelt-Struebe, Margarete

    2010-01-01

    Kroening S, Neubauer E, Wullich B, Aten J, Goppelt-Struebe M. Characterization of connective tissue growth factor expression in primary cultures of human tubular epithelial cells: modulation by hypoxia. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 298:F796-F806, 2010. First published December 23, 2009;

  12. CLONING AND EXPRESSING TRYPSIN MODULATING OOSTATIC FACTOR IN Chlorella desiccata TO CONTROL MOSQUITO LARVAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovsky, Dov; Sterner, Andeas; Powell, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    The insect peptide hormone trypsin modulating oostatic factor (TMOF), a decapeptide that is synthesized by the mosquito ovary and controls the translation of the gut's trypsin mRNA was cloned and expressed in the marine alga Chlorella desiccata. To express Aedes aegypti TMOF gene (tmfA) in C. desiccata cells, two plasmids (pYES2/TMOF and pYDB4-tmfA) were engineered with pKYLX71 DNA (5 Kb) carrying the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) promoter 35S(2) and the kanamycin resistant gene (neo), as well as, a 8 Kb nitrate reductase gene (nit) from Chlorella vulgaris. Transforming C. desiccata with pYES2/TMOF and pYDB4-tmfA show that the engineered algal cells express TMOF (20 ± 4 μg ± SEM and 17 ± 3 μg ± SEM, respectively in 3 × 10(8) cells) and feeding the cells to mosquito larvae kill 75 and 60% of Ae. aegypti larvae in 4 days, respectively. Southern and Northern blots analyses show that tmfA integrated into the genome of C. desiccata by homologous recombination using the yeast 2 μ circle of replication and the nit in pYES2/TMOF and pYDB4-tmfA, respectively, and the transformed algal cells express tmfA transcript. Using these algal cells it will be possible in the future to control mosquito larvae in the marsh. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Acetylbritannilactone Modulates Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Signaling and Regulates Angiogenesis in Endothelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshan Zhao

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the effects of 1-O-acetylbritannilactone (ABL, a compound extracted from Inula britannica L., on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF signaling and angiogenesis in endothelial cells (ECs. We showed that ABL promotes VEGF-induced cell proliferation, growth, migration, and tube formation in cultured human ECs. Furthermore, the modulatory effect of ABL on VEGF-induced Akt, MAPK p42/44, and p38 phosphorylation, as well as on upstream VEGFR-2 phosphorylation, were associated with VEGF-dependent Matrigel angiogenesis in vivo. In addition, animals treated with ABL (26 mg/kg/day recovered blood flow significantly earlier than control animals, suggesting that ABL affects ischemia-mediated angiogenesis and arteriogenesis in vivo. Finally, we demonstrated that ABL strongly reduced the levels of VEGFR-2 on the cell surface, enhanced VEGFR-2 endocytosis, which consistent with inhibited VE-cadherin, a negative regulator of VEGF signaling associated with VEGFR-2 complex formation, but did not alter VE-cadherin or VEGFR-2 expression in ECs. Our results suggest that ABL may serve as a novel therapeutic intervention for various cardiovascular diseases, including chronic ischemia, by regulating VEGF signaling and modulating angiogenesis.

  14. Thrombospondin-1 modulates vascular endothelial growth factor activity at the receptor level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuefeng; Kazerounian, Shideh; Duquette, Mark; Perruzzi, Carole; Nagy, Janice A; Dvorak, Harold F; Parangi, Sareh; Lawler, Jack

    2009-10-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a well-established stimulator of vascular permeability and angiogenesis, whereas thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is a potent angiogenic inhibitor. In this study, we have found that the TSP-1 receptors CD36 and beta1 integrin associate with the VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2). The coclustering of receptors that regulate angiogenesis may provide the endothelial cell with a platform for integration of positive and negative signals in the plane of the membrane. Thus, this complex may represent a molecular switch that regulates angiogenesis and determines endothelial cell behavior. In this context, physiological levels of TSP-1 appear to support VEGFR2 function on both the cellular and tissue level, because phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and vascular permeability in response to VEGF are decreased in TSP-1-null mice and isolated endothelial cells. A therapeutic agent based on the antiangiogenic domain of TSP-1, designated 3TSR (for three TSP-1 type 1 repeats), has significant antiangiogenic and antitumor efficacy. Systemic treatment of wild-type mice with 3TSR significantly decreased VEGF-induced permeability. Consistent with this result, VEGF-stimulated phosphorylation of VEGFR2 was also significantly decreased in lung extracts from 3TSR-treated mice. Moreover, 3TSR significantly decreased VEGF-stimulated VEGFR2 phosphorylation in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells in culture. Taken together, the results indicate that TSP-1 and 3TSR modulate the function of VEGFR2.

  15. Acetylbritannilactone Modulates Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Signaling and Regulates Angiogenesis in Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingshan; Niu, Honglin; Li, Aiying; Nie, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effects of 1-O-acetylbritannilactone (ABL), a compound extracted from Inula britannica L., on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling and angiogenesis in endothelial cells (ECs). We showed that ABL promotes VEGF-induced cell proliferation, growth, migration, and tube formation in cultured human ECs. Furthermore, the modulatory effect of ABL on VEGF-induced Akt, MAPK p42/44, and p38 phosphorylation, as well as on upstream VEGFR-2 phosphorylation, were associated with VEGF-dependent Matrigel angiogenesis in vivo. In addition, animals treated with ABL (26 mg/kg/day) recovered blood flow significantly earlier than control animals, suggesting that ABL affects ischemia-mediated angiogenesis and arteriogenesis in vivo. Finally, we demonstrated that ABL strongly reduced the levels of VEGFR-2 on the cell surface, enhanced VEGFR-2 endocytosis, which consistent with inhibited VE-cadherin, a negative regulator of VEGF signaling associated with VEGFR-2 complex formation, but did not alter VE-cadherin or VEGFR-2 expression in ECs. Our results suggest that ABL may serve as a novel therapeutic intervention for various cardiovascular diseases, including chronic ischemia, by regulating VEGF signaling and modulating angiogenesis.

  16. Modulation of visceral hypersensitivity by glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family receptor α-3 in colorectal afferents

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, T.; Shinoda, M.; Feng, B.; Albers, K. M.; Gebhart, G. F.

    2010-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is characterized by colorectal hypersensitivity and contributed to by sensitized mechanosensitive primary afferents and recruitment of mechanoinsensitive (silent) afferents. Neurotrophic factors are well known to orchestrate dynamic changes in the properties of sensory neurons. Although pain modulation by proteins in the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family has been documented in various pathophysiological states, their role in colorectal hypersen...

  17. Incidence of and Risk Factors for Mastoiditis after Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Jin Yao

    Full Text Available To report the incidence of and risk factors for mastoiditis after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC.Retrospective analysis of pretreatment and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data for 451 patients with NPC treated with IMRT at a single institution. The diagnosis of mastoiditis was based on MRI; otomastoid opacification was rated as Grade 0 (none, 1 (mild, 2 (moderate or 3 (severe by radiologists blinded to clinical outcome. This study mainly focused on severe mastoiditis; patients were divided into three groups: the G0M (Grade 0 mastoiditis before treatment group, G1-2M (Grade 1 to 2 mastoiditis before treatment group and G3M (Grade 3 mastoiditis before treatment group. The software SAS9.3 program was used to analyze the data.For the entire cohort, the incidence of Grade 3 mastoiditis was 20% before treatment and 31%, 19% and 17% at 3, 12 and 24 months after radiotherapy, respectively. In the G0M group, the incidence of severe mastoiditis was 0% before treatment and 23%, 15% and 13% at 3, 12 and 24 months after radiotherapy, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed T category (OR=0.68, 95% CI = 0.469 to 0.984, time (OR=0.668, 95% CI = 0.59 to 0.757 and chemotherapy (OR=0.598, 95% CI = 0.343 to 0.934 were independent factors associated with severe mastoiditis in the G0M group after treatment.Mastoiditis, as diagnosed by MRI, occurs as a progressive process that regresses and resolves over time in patients with NPC treated using IMRT.

  18. Factors That Modulate Properties of Primary Marine Aerosol Generated From Ambient Seawater on Ships at Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, William C.; Long, Michael S.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Frossard, Amanda A.; Kieber, David J.; Maben, John R.; Russell, Lynn M.; Kinsey, Joanna D.; Quinn, Patricia K.; Bates, Timothy S.

    2017-11-01

    Model primary marine aerosol (mPMA) was produced by bubbling clean air through flowing natural seawater in a high-capacity generator deployed on ships in the eastern North Pacific and western North Atlantic Oceans. Physicochemical properties of seawater and mPMA were quantified to characterize factors that modulated production. Differences in surfactant organic matter (OM) and associated properties including surface tension sustained plumes with smaller bubble sizes, slower rise velocities, larger void fractions, and older surface ages in biologically productive relative to oligotrophic seawater. Production efficiencies for mPMA number (PEnum) and mass (PEmass) per unit air detrained from biologically productive seawater during daytime were greater and mass median diameters smaller than those in the same seawater at night and in oligotrophic seawater during day and night. PEmass decreased with increasing air detrainment rate suggesting that surface bubble rafts suppressed emission of jet droplets and associated mPMA mass. Relative to bubbles emitted at 60 cm depth, PEnum for bubbles emitted from 100 cm depth was approximately 2 times greater. mPMA OM enrichment factors (EFs) and mass fractions based on a coarse frit, fine frits, and a seawater jet exhibited similar size-dependent variability over a wide range in chlorophyll a concentrations. Results indicate that the physical production of PMA number and mass from the ocean surface varies systematically as interrelated functions of seawater type and, in biologically productive waters, time of day; bubble injection rate, depth, size, and surface age; and physical characteristics of the air-water interface whereas size-resolved OM EFs and mass fractions are relatively invariant.

  19. Modulation of PBMC-decay accelerating factor (PBMC-DAF) and cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahwa, Roma; Kumar, Uma; Das, Nibhriti

    2016-03-01

    Studies have suggested that abnormal expression of complement regulatory proteins and cytokines contribute significantly to the path-physiology of rheumatoid arthritis. In this context, Decay accelerating factor (DAF) a complement regulatory protein is gaining increased attention. With the notion that immune effecter mechanisms are all interlinked and circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) should have a role in a systemic disease like rheumatoid arthritis, we studied the modulation and significance of PBMC-DAF and cytokines in RA. Seventy-five RA patients and 75 healthy controls were recruited. Expression of DAF and cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-17A and IL-10) in the PBMCs of patients and controls was determined. Correlations among DAF, cytokines, and disease activity were evaluated by standard statistical methods. The effect of IFN-γ, IL-17A, and IL-10 on the expression of DAF in patients and controls was studied in vitro. Expression of PBMC-DAF declined in patients both at mRNA and surface level and correlated negatively with the disease activity. Expression of IFN-γ also declined in patients but correlated positively with DAF and negatively with disease activity. Expression of IL-17A and IL-10 was higher in patients. The levels correlated positively with disease activity and negatively with DAF both in patients and controls. In vitro studies indicated that IFN-γ up-regulated DAF expression in PBMCs, whereas IL-17A and IL-10 had negative effect on the same. The decline in the PBMC-DAF is a contributing factor in manifestations of RA. Cytokine environment contributes to this decline. These findings brought novel insights into the complement-cytokine axis in the path-physiology of RA.

  20. Determinants for grading Malaysian rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ChePa, Noraziah; Yusoff, Nooraini; Ahmad, Norhayati

    2016-08-01

    Due to un-uniformity of rice grading practices in Malaysia, zones which actively producing rice in Malaysia are using their own way of grading rice. Rice grading is important in determining rice quality and its subsequent price in the market. It is an important process applied in the rice production industry with the purpose of ensuring that the rice produced for the market meets the quality requirements of consumer. Two important aspects that need to be considered in determining rice grades are grading technique and determinants to be used for grading (usually referred as rice attributes). This article proposes the list of determinants to be used in grading Malaysian rice. Determinants were explored through combination of extensive literature review and series of interview with the domain experts and practitioners. The proposed determinants are believed to be beneficial to BERNAS in improving the current Malaysian rice grading process.

  1. Improving zinc bioavailability in transition from flooded to aerobic rice. A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, X.; Hoffland, E.; Stomph, T.J.; Grant, C.A.; Zou, C.; Zhang, F.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a widely occurring constraint for rice production and for human nutrition. Scarcity of water is leading to a shift from flooded to aerobic rice production, which can have an impact on Zn deficiency in rice. Zinc bioavailability is a function of both soil and plant factors

  2. Genetic diversity studies on selected rice varieties grown in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rice grain quality is an important factor that has a great influence on its market value and consumer acceptance. It is determined by three parameters controlling the cooking and eating qualities of rice (amylose content, gelatinization temperature and gel consistency) and by the aroma, which becomes a criterion ...

  3. Adoption of recommended rice production practices among women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the factors influencing adoption of recommended rice production practices by women farmers in Nasarawa State. A total of 203 women rice farmers were selected for the study using multi-stage sampling procedure. Data were collected using structured interview schedule. Descriptive statistics and ...

  4. Market participation among rice producing households in Abia state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the factors affecting market participation among rice producing households in Abia state, Nigeria. Four major rice producing areas of the state namely Bende, Umuahia North, Ikwuano, and Isukwuato local government areas were identified, within which four communities each were selected. Random ...

  5. Particle swarm optimizer for weighting factor selection in intensity-modulated radiation therapy optimization algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Zhang, Pengcheng; Zhang, Liyuan; Shu, Huazhong; Li, Baosheng; Gui, Zhiguo

    2017-01-01

    In inverse treatment planning of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), the objective function is typically the sum of the weighted sub-scores, where the weights indicate the importance of the sub-scores. To obtain a high-quality treatment plan, the planner manually adjusts the objective weights using a trial-and-error procedure until an acceptable plan is reached. In this work, a new particle swarm optimization (PSO) method which can adjust the weighting factors automatically was investigated to overcome the requirement of manual adjustment, thereby reducing the workload of the human planner and contributing to the development of a fully automated planning process. The proposed optimization method consists of three steps. (i) First, a swarm of weighting factors (i.e., particles) is initialized randomly in the search space, where each particle corresponds to a global objective function. (ii) Then, a plan optimization solver is employed to obtain the optimal solution for each particle, and the values of the evaluation functions used to determine the particle's location and the population global location for the PSO are calculated based on these results. (iii) Next, the weighting factors are updated based on the particle's location and the population global location. Step (ii) is performed alternately with step (iii) until the termination condition is reached. In this method, the evaluation function is a combination of several key points on the dose volume histograms. Furthermore, a perturbation strategy - the crossover and mutation operator hybrid approach - is employed to enhance the population diversity, and two arguments are applied to the evaluation function to improve the flexibility of the algorithm. In this study, the proposed method was used to develop IMRT treatment plans involving five unequally spaced 6MV photon beams for 10 prostate cancer cases. The proposed optimization algorithm yielded high-quality plans for all of the cases, without human

  6. Factors influencing the incidence of sinusitis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients after intensity-modulated radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yan-xia; Liu, Lan-ping; Li, Lei; Li, Xu; Cao, Xiu-juan; Dong, Wei; Yang, Xin-hua; Xu, Jin; Yu, Shui; Hao, Jun-fang

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence of sinusitis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients before and after intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and to analyze factors associated with the incidence of sinusitis following IMRT. We retrospectively analyzed 283 NPC patients who received IMRT in our hospital from March 2009 to May 2011. The diagnostic criteria for sinusitis are based on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. CT or MRI scans were performed before and after IMRT to evaluate the incidence of sinusitis. Factors influencing the incidence of sinusitis were analyzed by log-rank univariate and logistic multivariate analyses. Among the 283 NPC patients, 128 (45.2 %) suffered from sinusitis before radiotherapy. The incidence rates of sinusitis in patients with T1, T2, T3, and T4 NPC before radiotherapy were 22.6, 37.5, 46.8, and 61.3 %, respectively (χ 2 = 14.548, p = 0.002). Among the 155 NPC patients without sinusitis before radiotherapy, the incidence rates of sinusitis at the end of radiotherapy and at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months after radiotherapy were 32.9, 43.2, 61.3, 68.4, 73.5, 69.7, and 61.3 %, respectively (χ 2 = 86.461, p < 0.001). Univariate analysis showed that T stage, invasion of the nasal cavity, nasal irrigation, and radiation dose to the nasopharynx were associated with the incidence of sinusitis in NPC patients after IMRT (p = 0.003, 0.006, 0.002, and 0.020). Multivariate analysis showed that T stage, invasion of the nasal cavity, and nasal irrigation were influential factors for the incidence of sinusitis in NPC patients after IMRT (p = 0.002, 0.002, and 0.000). There was a higher incidence of sinusitis with higher T stage among NPC patients before radiotherapy, and the incidence of sinusitis in NPC patients after IMRT was high (45.2 %). The incidence of sinusitis increased rapidly within the first 3 months after IMRT, and the number of sinusitis cases peaked at 6-9 months after

  7. Enhanced Rice Blast Resistance by CRISPR/Cas9-Targeted Mutagenesis of the ERF Transcription Factor Gene OsERF922.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujun Wang

    Full Text Available Rice blast is one of the most destructive diseases affecting rice worldwide. The adoption of host resistance has proven to be the most economical and effective approach to control rice blast. In recent years, sequence-specific nucleases (SSNs have been demonstrated to be powerful tools for the improvement of crops via gene-specific genome editing, and CRISPR/Cas9 is thought to be the most effective SSN. Here, we report the improvement of rice blast resistance by engineering a CRISPR/Cas9 SSN (C-ERF922 targeting the OsERF922 gene in rice. Twenty-one C-ERF922-induced mutant plants (42.0% were identified from 50 T0 transgenic plants. Sanger sequencing revealed that these plants harbored various insertion or deletion (InDel mutations at the target site. We showed that all of the C-ERF922-induced allele mutations were transmitted to subsequent generations. Mutant plants harboring the desired gene modification but not containing the transferred DNA were obtained by segregation in the T1 and T2 generations. Six T2 homozygous mutant lines were further examined for a blast resistance phenotype and agronomic traits, such as plant height, flag leaf length and width, number of productive panicles, panicle length, number of grains per panicle, seed setting percentage and thousand seed weight. The results revealed that the number of blast lesions formed following pathogen infection was significantly decreased in all 6 mutant lines compared with wild-type plants at both the seedling and tillering stages. Furthermore, there were no significant differences between any of the 6 T2 mutant lines and the wild-type plants with regard to the agronomic traits tested. We also simultaneously targeted multiple sites within OsERF922 by using Cas9/Multi-target-sgRNAs (C-ERF922S1S2 and C-ERF922S1S2S3 to obtain plants harboring mutations at two or three sites. Our results indicate that gene modification via CRISPR/Cas9 is a useful approach for enhancing blast resistance in

  8. Sustained Partial Sleep Deprivation: Effects on Immune Modulation and Growth Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullington, Janet M.

    1999-01-01

    from this larger study: a 4.2 hour per night condition, and a 8.2 hour per night condition. During space flight, muscle mass and bone density are reduced, apparently due to loss of GH and IGF-I, associated with microgravity. Since >70% of growth hormone (GH) is secreted at night in normal adults, we hypothesized that the chronic sleep restriction to 4 hours per night would reduce GH levels as measured in the periphery. In this synergy project, in collaboration with the "Muscle Alterations and Atrophy Team ", we are measuring insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in peripheral circulation to test the prediction that it will be reduced by chronic sleep restriction. In addition to stress modulation of immune function, recent research suggests that sleep is also involved. While we all have the common experience of being sleepy when suffering from infection, and being susceptible to infection when not getting enough sleep, the mechanisms involved in this process are not understood and until recently have gone largely overlooked. We believe that the immune function changes seen in spaceflight may also be related to the cumulative effects of sleep loss. Moreover, in space flight, the possibility of compromised immune function or of the reactivation of latent viruses are serious potential hazards for the success of long term missions. Confined living conditions, reduced sleep, altered diet and stress are all factors that may compromise immune function, thereby increasing the risks of developing and transmitting disease. Medical complications, which would not pose serious problems on earth, may be disastrous if they emerged in space.

  9. Gastric pH and Toxin Factors Modulate Infectivity and Disease Progression After Gastrointestinal Exposure to Bacillus anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tao; Rotstein, David; Sun, Chen; Fang, Hui; Frucht, David M

    2017-12-12

    Gastrointestinal (GI) anthrax is the most prevalent form of naturally acquired Bacillus anthracis infection, which is associated with exposure to vegetative bacteria in infected meat (carnivores) or to fermented rumen contents (herbivores). We assessed whether key host and pathogen factors modulate infectivity and progression of infection using a mouse model of GI infection. Gastric acid neutralization increases infectivity, but 30%-40% of mice succumb to infection without neutralization. Mice either fed or fasted before exposure showed similar infectivity rates. Finally, the pathogen's anthrax lethal factor is required to establish lethal infection, whereas its edema factor modulates progression and dissemination of infection. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  10. Transforming Inundated Rice Cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bindraban, P.S.; Hengsdijk, H.; Cao, W.; Shi, Q.; Thiyagarajan, T.M.; Krogt, van der W.; Wardana, P.I.

    2006-01-01

    Almost 90% of global rice is produced under inundated conditions, i.e. in fields with a standing water layer of 5 to 15 cm during the major part of the growing season. Recently, inundated rice cultivation has come under pressure due to declining availability of water and labour, increasing demand

  11. (TGMS) of rice

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B., Singh A. K. and Kole C. 2011 Determination of genetic relationships among elite thermosensitive genic male sterile lines (TGMS) of rice. (Oryza sativa ... Keywords. rice; SSR markers; thermosensitive genic male sterility; morphological traits; genetic diversity. ..... level and have become an important tool in plant genetics.

  12. Rice (Oryza) hemoglobins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice (Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a sin...

  13. The corticosteroid hormone induced factor: a new modulator of KCNQ1 channels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Thomas; Grunnet, Morten; Rasmussen, Hanne B

    2006-01-01

    systems, we find that CHIF drastically modulates the KCNQ1 current; in the presence of CHIF, the KCNQ1 channels open at all membrane potentials. Thereby, CHIF is the first accessory subunit shown to be capable of modulating both the Na,K-pump and an ion channel. To find a possible physiological function......-regulated subunit CHIF modulates the voltage sensitivity of the KCNQ channels, but so far evidence for an actual co-localization of CHIF and KCNQ1 channels in native tissue is lacking....

  14. Factors modulating bioavailability of quercetin-related flavonoids and the consequences of their vascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terao, Junji

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays dietary flavonoids attract much attention in the prevention of chronic diseases. Epidemiological and intervention studies strongly suggest that flavonoid intake has beneficial effects on vascular health. It is unlikely that flavonoids act as direct antioxidants, although oxidative stress profoundly contributes to vascular impairment leading to cardiovascular diseases. Instead, flavonoids may exert their function by tuning the cellular redox state to an adaptive response or tolerable stress. However, the optimum intake of flavonoids from supplements or diet has not been clarified yet, because a number of exogenous and endogenous factors modulating their bioavailability affect their vascular function. This review will focus on the current knowledge of the bioavailability and vascular function of quercetin as a representative of antioxidative flavonoids. Current intervention studies imply that intake of quercetin-rich onion improves vascular health. Onion may be superior to quercetin supplement from the viewpoint of quercetin bioavailability, probably because the food matrix enhances the intestinal absorption of quercetin. α-Glucosylation increases its bioavailability by elevating the accessibility to the absorptive cells. Prenylation may enhance bioaccumulation at the target site by increasing the cellular uptake. However, these chemical modifications do not guarantee health benefits to the vascular system. Dietary quercetin is exclusively present as their conjugated form in the blood stream. Quercetin may exert its vascular function as an aglycone within macrophage cells after inflammation-induced deconjugation and as conjugated metabolites by targeting endothelial cells. The relationship between the bioavailability and bio-efficacy should be clarified, to evaluate the vascular function of a wide variety of dietary flavonoids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact Factors Analysis of the Hot Side Temperature of Thermoelectric Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingyu; Tan, Gangfeng; Yang, Bo

    2018-03-01

    The thermoelectric generator (TEG) plays a crucial role in converting the waste energy of exhaust into electricity, which ensures energy saving and increased fuel utilization efficiency. In the urban driving cycle, frequent vehicle operation, like deceleration or acceleration, results in continuous variation of the exhaust temperature. In order to make the operating performance stable, and to weaken the adverse effects of the frequent variation of the exhaust temperature on the lifetime and work efficiency of the electronic components of TEG systems, the output voltage of the thermoelectric (TE) module should stay more stable. This article provides an improved method for the temperature stability of the TE material hot side based on sandwiching material. From the view of the TEG system's average output power and the hot side temperature stability of the TE material, the analyzing factors, including the fluctuation frequency of the exhaust temperature and the physical properties and thickness of the sandwiching material are evaluated, respectively, in the sine and new European driving cycle (NEDC) fluctuation condition of the exhaust temperature. The results show few effects of sandwiching material thickness with excellent thermal conductivity on the average output power. During the 150-170 s of the NEDC test condition, the minimum hot side temperatures with a BeO ceramic thickness of 2 mm and 6 mm are, respectively, 537.19 K and 685.70 K, which shows the obvious effect on the hot side temperature stability of the BeO ceramic thickness in the process of acceleration and deceleration of vehicle driving.

  16. Pigment-dispersing factor modulates pheromone production in clock cells that influence mating in Drosophila

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krupp, Joshua J.; Billeter, Jean-Christophe; Wong, Amy; Choi, Charles; Nitabach, Michael N.; Levine, Joel D.

    2013-01-01

    Social cues contribute to the circadian entrainment of physiological and behavioral rhythms. These cues supplement the influence of daily and seasonal cycles in light and temperature. In Drosophila, the social environment modulates circadian mechanisms that regulate sex pheromone production and

  17. Identification and characterization of a novel nanobody against human placental growth factor to modulate angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arezumand, Roghaye; Mahdian, Reza; Zeinali, Sirous; Hassanzadeh-Ghassabeh, Gholamreza; Mansouri, Kamran; Khanahmad, Hossein; Namvar-Asl, Nabiollah; Rahimi, Hamzeh; Behdani, Mahdi; Cohan, Reza Ahangari; Eavazalipour, Mehdi; Ramazani, Ali; Muyldermans, Serge

    2016-10-01

    Placental growth factor (PlGF), a member of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) family, is considered as an important antigen associated with pathological conditions such as cancer cell growth, and metastasis. PlGF-targeting via nanobody (Nb) therefore could be beneficial to modulate these pathologies. In this work, phage-display and computational approach was employed to develop a high affinity PlGF-specific Nb. An Nb library was constructed against human recombinant PlGF (rPlGF). After panning on immobilized rPlGF the periplasmic-extract (PE) of individual colonies were screened by ELISA (PE-ELISA). The 3D structures of selected Nbs were then homology modeled and energy minimized using the AMBER force field. Binding score calculations were also assessed to reveal possible Nb-PlGF interactions. Via ELISA-based affinity/specificity determinations, the best-qualified Nb was further evaluated by proliferation, migration, 3D capillary formation, invasion assays and on Chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model. An immune library of 1.5×10 7 individual Nb clones was constructed. By PE-ELISA 12 clones with strong signals were selected. Three out of 12 sequenced Nbs (Nb-C13, Nb-C18 and Nb-C62) showed high binding scores ranging between -378.7 and -461kcal/mol. Compared to a control Nb, Nb-C18 significantly inhibited proliferation, migration and the 3D-capillary formation of HUVEC cells (p<0.05) with an EC 50 of 35nM, 42nM and 24nM and invasion of MDA-MB231was significantly suppressed (p<0.05) with an EC 50 of57nM. The result of the CAM assay shows that Nb-C18 could inhibit the vascular formation in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane. This Nb can be used as anti-angiogenesis agent in future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Differential activity of Striga hermonthica seed germination stimulants and Gigaspora rosea hyphal branching factors in rice and their contribution to underground communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Cardoso

    Full Text Available Strigolactones (SLs trigger germination of parasitic plant seeds and hyphal branching of symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi. There is extensive structural variation in SLs and plants usually produce blends of different SLs. The structural variation among natural SLs has been shown to impact their biological activity as hyphal branching and parasitic plant seed germination stimulants. In this study, rice root exudates were fractioned by HPLC. The resulting fractions were analyzed by MRM-LC-MS to investigate the presence of SLs and tested using bioassays to assess their Striga hermonthica seed germination and Gigaspora rosea hyphal branching stimulatory activities. A substantial number of active fractions were revealed often with very different effect on seed germination and hyphal branching. Fractions containing (--orobanchol and ent-2'-epi-5-deoxystrigol contributed little to the induction of S. hermonthica seed germination but strongly stimulated AM fungal hyphal branching. Three SLs in one fraction, putative methoxy-5-deoxystrigol isomers, had moderate seed germination and hyphal branching inducing activity. Two fractions contained strong germination stimulants but displayed only modest hyphal branching activity. We provide evidence that these stimulants are likely SLs although no SL-representative masses could be detected using MRM-LC-MS. Our results show that seed germination and hyphal branching are induced to very different extents by the various SLs (or other stimulants present in rice root exudates. We propose that the development of rice varieties with different SL composition is a promising strategy to reduce parasitic plant infestation while maintaining symbiosis with AM fungi.

  19. Life cycle GHG analysis of rice straw bio-DME production and application in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H.; Sagisaka, Masayuki; Yamaguchi, Katsunobu

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Life cycle GHG emissions of rice straw bio-DME production in Thailand are assessed. • Bio-DME replaces diesel in engines and supplements LPG for household application. • Rice straw bio-DME in both cases of substitution helps reduce GHG emissions. - Abstract: Thailand is one of the leading countries in rice production and export; an abundance of rice straw, therefore, is left in the field nowadays and is commonly burnt to facilitate quick planting of the next crop. The study assesses the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of using rice straw for bio-DME production in Thailand. The analysis is divided into two scenarios of rice straw bio-DME utilization i.e. used as automotive fuel for diesel engines and used as LPG supplement for household application. The results reveal that that utilization of rice straw for bio-DME in the two scenarios could help reduce GHG emissions by around 14–70% and 2–66%, respectively as compared to the diesel fuel and LPG substituted. In case rice straw is considered as a by-product of rice cultivation, the cultivation of rice straw will be the major source of GHG emission contributing around 50% of the total GHG emissions of rice straw bio-DME production. Several factors that can affect the GHG performance of rice straw bio-DME production are discussed along with measures to enhance GHG performance of rice straw bio-DME production and utilization

  20. Root distribution and interactions between allelopathic rice and c4 grass weed species as determined by 13c isotope discrimination analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultivars which carry allelopathic traits (traits that enable them to suppress weeds) could improve the economical management and sustainability of rice production. Interactions between roots of rice and weeds are thought to be modulated by the weed-suppressive activity of some rice cultivars, but ...

  1. Prenatal exposure to residential air pollution and infant mental development: modulation by antioxidants and detoxification factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guxens, Mònica; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Lertxundi, Aitana; Lertxundi, Nerea; Mendez, Michelle A; Tardón, Adonina; Vrijheid, Martine; Sunyer, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution effects on children's neurodevelopment have recently been suggested to occur most likely through the oxidative stress pathway. We aimed to assess whether prenatal exposure to residential air pollution is associated with impaired infant mental development, and whether antioxidant/detoxification factors modulate this association. In the Spanish INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA; Environment and Childhood) Project, 2,644 pregnant women were recruited during their first trimester. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and benzene were measured with passive samplers covering the study areas. Land use regression models were developed for each pollutant to predict average outdoor air pollution levels for the entire pregnancy at each residential address. Maternal diet was obtained at first trimester through a validated food frequency questionnaire. Around 14 months, infant mental development was assessed using Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Among the 1,889 children included in the analysis, mean exposure during pregnancy was 29.0 μg/m3 for NO2 and 1.5 μg/m3 for benzene. Exposure to NO2 and benzene showed an inverse association with mental development, although not statistically significant, after adjusting for potential confounders [β (95% confidence interval) = -0.95 (-3.90, 1.89) and -1.57 (-3.69, 0.56), respectively, for a doubling of each compound]. Stronger inverse associations were estimated for both pollutants among infants whose mothers reported low intakes of fruits/vegetables during pregnancy [-4.13 (-7.06, -1.21) and -4.37 (-6.89, -1.86) for NO2 and benzene, respectively], with little evidence of associations in the high-intake group (interaction p-values of 0.073 and 0.047). Inverse associations were also stronger in non-breast-fed infants and infants with low maternal vitamin D, but effect estimates and interactions were not significant. Our findings suggest that prenatal exposure to residential air pollutants may adversely affect infant mental

  2. TALEN-Based Mutagenesis of Lipoxygenase LOX3 Enhances the Storage Tolerance of Rice (Oryza sativa Seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ma

    Full Text Available The deterioration of rice grain reduces the quality of rice, resulting in serious economic losses for farmers. Lipoxygenases (LOXs catalyze the dioxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids with at least one cis,cis-1,4-pentadiene to form hydroperoxide, which is a major factor influencing seed longevity and viability. Recently, genome editing, an essential tool employed in reverse genetics, has been used experimentally to investigate basic plant biology or to modify crop plants for the improvement of important agricultural traits. In this study, we performed targeted mutagenesis in rice using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs to improve seed storability. A modified ligation-independent cloning method (LIC was employed to allow for the quick and efficient directional insertion of TALEN monomer modules into destination vectors used in plants. We demonstrated the feasibility and flexibility of the technology by developing a set of modular vectors for genome editing. After construction and validation, the TALEN pairs were used to create stable transgenic rice lines via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. One heterozygous mutant (4% was recovered from 25 transgenic NPTII-resistant lines, and the mutation was transmitted to the next generation. Further molecular and protein level experiments verified LOX3 deficiency and demonstrated the improvement of seed storability. Our work provides a flexible genome editing tool for improving important agronomic traits, as well as direct evidence that Lox3 has only a limited impact on seed longevity.

  3. TALEN-Based Mutagenesis of Lipoxygenase LOX3 Enhances the Storage Tolerance of Rice (Oryza sativa) Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lei; Zhu, Fugui; Li, Zhenwei; Zhang, Jianfu; Li, Xin; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    The deterioration of rice grain reduces the quality of rice, resulting in serious economic losses for farmers. Lipoxygenases (LOXs) catalyze the dioxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids with at least one cis,cis-1,4-pentadiene to form hydroperoxide, which is a major factor influencing seed longevity and viability. Recently, genome editing, an essential tool employed in reverse genetics, has been used experimentally to investigate basic plant biology or to modify crop plants for the improvement of important agricultural traits. In this study, we performed targeted mutagenesis in rice using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) to improve seed storability. A modified ligation-independent cloning method (LIC) was employed to allow for the quick and efficient directional insertion of TALEN monomer modules into destination vectors used in plants. We demonstrated the feasibility and flexibility of the technology by developing a set of modular vectors for genome editing. After construction and validation, the TALEN pairs were used to create stable transgenic rice lines via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. One heterozygous mutant (4%) was recovered from 25 transgenic NPTII-resistant lines, and the mutation was transmitted to the next generation. Further molecular and protein level experiments verified LOX3 deficiency and demonstrated the improvement of seed storability. Our work provides a flexible genome editing tool for improving important agronomic traits, as well as direct evidence that Lox3 has only a limited impact on seed longevity.

  4. A Mixed-Methods Study on Acceptability, Tolerability, and Substitution of Brown Rice for White Rice to Lower Blood Glucose Levels among Nigerian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally N. Adebamowo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWhole-grain products such as brown rice have been associated with lower risk of metabolic disorders including diabetes. We examined the acceptability and tolerability of substituting brown rice for white rice and the feasibility of introducing brown rice into the diet through a long-term trial to lower the risk of type 2 diabetes.MethodsFifty-one adults residing in Abuja, Nigeria, participated in this study. Using purposeful sampling for focus group discussions (FGDs, participants were enrolled based on their age (19–25 vs. 40–60 years and body mass index (BMI (normal weight vs. overweight/obese. Participants tasted four meals with different constitution of brown and white rice (25:75%, 50:50%, 75:25%, and 100% brown rice. Twelve FGDs were conducted, six before and six after the food tasting. Two-hour postprandial blood glucose was measured after consumption of each rice meal.ResultsThe mean age of the participants was 39 (±14 years, their mean BMI was 25.6 (±5.2 and about half of them were male. Most of the participants (61% reported that rice was their main source of carbohydrate and 67% consumed rice at least five times/week. Before the food tasting, participants considered white polished rice superior to brown rice with regard to quality, taste, and nutritional value. After the food tasting, most of the participants (49% indicated a preference for the 100% brown rice, 19% preferred the 25% brown rice, 18% preferred the 50% brown rice, and 7% preferred the 75% brown rice meals. Factors that may affect the acceptability of brown rice include its appearance, longer cooking time, cost, limited availability, and poor appreciation of its nutritional value. In general, 2-h postprandial glucose levels were lower, after consumption of meals with higher proportion of brown rice.ConclusionThis study provides valuable insight into the acceptability of brown rice as a substitute for white rice in Nigeria. If confirmed in larger studies

  5. Fis is a global regulator critical for modulation of virulence factor production and pathogenicity of Dickeya zeae

    OpenAIRE

    Lv, Mingfa; Chen, Yufan; Liao, Lisheng; Liang, Zhibin; Shi, Zurong; Tang, Yingxin; Ye, Sixuan; Zhou, Jianuan; Zhang, Lianhui

    2018-01-01

    Dickeya zeae is the causal agent of rice foot rot disease, which has recently become a great threat to rice planting countries and regions. The pathogen produces a family of phytotoxins named zeamines that is critical for bacterial virulence, but little is known about the signaling pathways and regulatory mechanisms that govern zeamine production. In this study, we showed that a conserved transcriptional regulator Fis is involved in the regulation of zeamine production in D. zeae strain EC1. ...

  6. Rice Genomics: Gene discovery

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    There is a need for discovering candidate genes( a lot of them all over the genome indeed ) and the unlimited allelic variation that can productively take over rice metabolism when cellular water content falls below threshold levels.

  7. Modulation of the Endocannabinoid System: Vulnerability Factor and New Treatment Target for Stimulant Addiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie eOlière

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis is one of the most widely used illicit substance among users of stimulants such as cocaine and amphetamine. Interestingly, recent accumulating evidence points toward the involvement of the endocannabinoid system (ECBS in the neurobiological processes related to stimulant addiction. This article presents an up-to-date review with deep-insights into the pivotal role of the ECBS in the neurobiology of stimulant addiction and the effects of its modulation on addictive behaviors. The aims of this article are to: 1 review the role of cannabis use and ECBS modulation in the neurobiological substrates of psychostimulant addiction and 2 evaluate the potential of cannabinoid-based pharmacological strategies to treat stimulant addiction. A growing number of studies support a critical role of the ECBS and its modulation by synthetic or natural cannabinoid in various neurobiological and behavioral aspects of stimulants addiction. Thus, cannabinoids modulate brain reward systems closely involved in stimulants addiction, and provide further evidence that the cannabinoid system could be explored as a potential drug discovery target for treating addiction across different classes of stimulants.

  8. Modulators of drug dependence phenomena : factors affecting morphine withdrawal syndrome and cocaine-intake in rodents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L.T. Cappendijk (Susanne)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis compiles the experimental studies on several drugs, which modulate drug dependence phenomena in rodents. The main part of the studies is related to the morphine withdrawal (chapters 3-7), while a minor part is dealing with cocaine psychic dependence (chapter 9).

  9. What Factors Promote Student Resilience on a Level 1 Distance Learning Module?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Joan; Beaumont, Kythe; Holland, Lesley

    2018-01-01

    Resilience is understood to be the ability to adapt positively in the face of adversity. In relation to new students on a distance learning module, this can mean how they adapt and make sense of the demands of their chosen study to enable them to persist in their studies. This article reports a small-scale study involving semi-structured telephone…

  10. Environmental profile of paddy rice cultivation with different straw management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusi, Alessandra; Bacenetti, Jacopo; González-García, Sara; Vercesi, Annamaria; Bocchi, Stefano; Fiala, Marco

    2014-10-01

    Italy is the most important European country in terms of paddy rice production. North Italian districts such as Vercelli, Pavia, Novara, and Milano are known as some of the world's most advanced rice cultivation sites. In 2013 Italian rice cultivation represented about 50% of all European rice production by area, and paddy fields extended for over 216,000 ha. Cultivation of rice involves different agricultural activities which have environmental impacts mainly due to fossil fuels and agrochemical requirements as well as the methane emission associated with the fermentation of organic material in the flooded rice fields. In order to assess the environmental consequences of rice production in the District of Vercelli, the cultivation practices most frequently carried out were inventoried and evaluated. The general approach of this study was not only to gather the inventory data for rice production and quantify their environmental impacts, but also to identify the key environmental factors where special attention must be paid. Life Cycle Assessment methodology was applied in this study from a cradle-to-farm gate perspective. The environmental profile was analyzed in terms of seven different impact categories: climate change, ozone depletion, human toxicity, terrestrial acidification, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, and fossil depletion. Regarding straw management, two different scenarios (burial into the soil of the straw versus harvesting) were compared. The analysis showed that the environmental impact was mainly due to field emissions, the fuel consumption needed for the mechanization of field operations, and the drying of the paddy rice. The comparison between the two scenarios highlighted that the collection of the straw improves the environmental performance of rice production except that for freshwater eutrophication. To improve the environmental performance of rice production, solutions to save fossil fuel and reduce the emissions from

  11. Rice transgene flow: its patterns, model and risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shirong; Yuan, Qianhua; Pei, Xinwu; Wang, Feng; Hu, Ning; Yao, Kemin; Wang, Zhixing

    2014-12-01

    Progress has been made in a 12 year's systemic study on the rice transgene flow including (i) with experiments conducted at multiple locations and years using up to 21 pollen recipients, we have elucidated the patterns of transgene flow to different types of rice. The frequency to male sterile lines is 10(1) and 10(3) higher than that to O. rufipogon and rice cultivars. Wind speed and direction are the key meteorological factors affecting rice transgene flow. (ii) A regional applicable rice gene flow model is established and used to predict the maximum threshold distances (MTDs) of gene flow during 30 years in 993 major rice producing counties of southern China. The MTD0.1% for rice cultivars is basically ≤5 m in the whole region, despite climate differs significantly at diverse locations and years. This figure is particularly valuable for the commercialization and regulation of transgenic rice. (iii) The long-term fate of transgene integrated into common wild rice was investigated. Results demonstrated that the F1 hybrids of transgenic rice/O. rufipogon gradually disappeared within 3-5 years, and the Bt or bar gene was not detectable in the mixed population, suggesting the O. rufipogon may possess a strong mechanism of exclusiveness for self-protection. (iv) The flowering time isolation and a 2-m-high cloth-screen protection were proved to be effective in reducing transgene flow. We have proposed to use a principle of classification and threshold management for different types of rice. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Dynamic viscoelasticity of protease-treated rice batters for gluten-free rice bread making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Yuji; Inoue, Nanami; Sugimoto, Reina; Matsumoto, Kenji; Koda, Tomonori; Nishioka, Akihiro

    2018-03-01

    Papain (cysteine protease), subtilisin (Protin SD-AY10, serine protease), and bacillolysin (Protin SD-NY10, metallo protease) increased the specific volume of gluten-free rice breads by 19-63% compared to untreated bread. In contrast, Newlase F (aspartyl protease) did not expand the volume of the rice bread. In a rheological analysis, the viscoelastic properties of the gluten-free rice batters also depended on the protease categories. Principal component analysis (PCA) analysis suggested that the storage and loss moduli (G' and G″, respectively) at 35 °C, and the maximum values of G' and G″, were important factors in the volume expansion. Judging from the PCA of the viscoelastic parameters of the rice batters, papain and Protin SD-AY10 improved the viscoelasticity for gluten-free rice bread making, and Protin SD-NY effectively expanded the gluten-free rice bread. The rheological properties differed between Protin SD-NY and the other protease treatments.

  13. Effects of Carrier Frequency Offset, Timing Offset, and Channel Spread Factor on the Performance of Hexagonal Multicarrier Modulation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui Xu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hexagonal multicarrier modulation (HMM system is the technique of choice to overcome the impact of time-frequency dispersive transmission channel. This paper examines the effects of insufficient synchronization (carrier frequency offset, timing offset on the amplitude and phase of the demodulated symbol by using a projection receiver in hexagonal multicarrier modulation systems. Furthermore, effects of CFO, TO, and channel spread factor on the performance of signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR in hexagonal multicarrier modulation systems are further discussed. The exact SINR expression versus insufficient synchronization and channel spread factor is derived. Theoretical analysis shows that similar degradation on symbol amplitude and phase caused by insufficient synchronization is incurred as in traditional cyclic prefix orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (CP-OFDM transmission. Our theoretical analysis is confirmed by numerical simulations in a doubly dispersive (DD channel with exponential delay power profile and U-shape Doppler power spectrum, showing that HMM systems outperform traditional CP-OFDM systems with respect to SINR against ISI/ICI caused by insufficient synchronization and doubly dispersive channel.

  14. Autotoxicity mechanism of Oryza sativa: transcriptome response in rice roots exposed to ferulic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Autotoxicity plays an important role in regulating crop yield and quality. To help characterize the autotoxicity mechanism of rice, we performed a large-scale, transcriptomic analysis of the rice root response to ferulic acid, an autotoxin from rice straw. Results Root growth rate was decreased and reactive oxygen species, calcium content and lipoxygenase activity were increased with increasing ferulic acid concentration in roots. Transcriptome analysis revealed more transcripts responsive to short ferulic-acid exposure (1- and 3-h treatments, 1,204 genes) than long exposure (24 h, 176 genes). Induced genes were involved in cell wall formation, chemical detoxification, secondary metabolism, signal transduction, and abiotic stress response. Genes associated with signaling and biosynthesis for ethylene and jasmonic acid were upregulated with ferulic acid. Ferulic acid upregulated ATP-binding cassette and amino acid/auxin permease transporters as well as genes encoding signaling components such as leucine-rich repeat VIII and receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases VII protein kinases, APETALA2/ethylene response factor, WRKY, MYB and Zinc-finger protein expressed in inflorescence meristem transcription factors. Conclusions The results of a transcriptome analysis suggest the molecular mechanisms of plants in response to FA, including toxicity, detoxicification and signaling machinery. FA may have a significant effect on inhibiting rice root elongation through modulating ET and JA hormone homeostasis. FA-induced gene expression of AAAP transporters may contribute to detoxicification of the autotoxin. Moreover, the WRKY and Myb TFs and LRR-VIII and SD-2b kinases might regulate downstream genes under FA stress but not general allelochemical stress. This comprehensive description of gene expression information could greatly facilitate our understanding of the mechanisms of autotoxicity in plants. PMID:23705659

  15. NITROUS OXIDE EMISSION AND NITROGEN UPTAKE AFFECTED BY SOIL AMENDMENT AND NEMATICIDE IN RAINFED RICE SOILS AT CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wihardjaka

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice cultivation is one of the antropogenic sources of nitrous oxide (N2O emission that is produced by microbiological nitrification-denitrification processes. Incorporating soil amendment in rainfed rice soil attempted to increase soil productivity, while nematicide application aimed to maintain root growth system. Incorporating soil amendment and nematicide application are predicted to suppress N2O production in lowland rice. The objective of this research was to study the interaction of soil organic amendment and nematicide on N2O emission and nitrogen uptake from rainfed lowland rice soils. A field experiment was conducted in rainfed lowland rice soils during 2010/2011 wet season (direct seeded rice and 2011 dry season (transplanted rice. The 3 x 3 factorial trial was arranged in a randomized completely block design with three replications. The first factor was soil amendment consisted of without rice straw, fresh rice straw and composted rice straw. The second factor was nematicide application consisted of without nematicide, neemcake and carbofuran. Variables measured were N2O flux, rice grain yield and nitrogen uptake. Incorporation of fresh and composted rice straws reduced N2O flux about 49.2% and 59.9% in transplanted rice, and 32.9% and 28.2% in direct seeded rice, respectively. The neemcake application reduced N2O emission about 44-50%, while carbofuran application decreased N2O emission by 23-35%. Neemcake has a good potential as nitrification inhibitor of N2O emission, so the neem trees have a prospect to be cultivated intensively. The reduction of N2O emission was effective in direct seeded rice system with the application of neemcake and fresh rice straw, however, in transplanted rice system it was effective with neemcake and composted rice straw applications.

  16. Modulation of protein C activation by histones, platelet factor 4, and heparinoids: new insights into activated protein C formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, M Anna; Zhao, Guohua; Zhai, Li; David, George; Marcus, Stephen; Krishnaswamy, Sriram; Poncz, Mortimer

    2014-01-01

    Histones are detrimental in late sepsis. Both activated protein C (aPC) and heparin can reverse their effect. Here, we investigated whether histones can modulate aPC generation in a manner similar to another positively charged molecule, platelet factor 4, and how heparinoids (unfractionated heparin or oxygen-desulfated unfractionated heparin with marked decrease anticoagulant activity) may modulate this effect. We measured in vitro and in vivo effects of histones, platelet factor 4, and heparinoids on aPC formation, activated partial thromboplastin time, and murine survival. In vitro, histones and platelet factor 4 both affect thrombin/thrombomodulin aPC generation following a bell-shaped curve, with a peak of >5-fold enhancement. Heparinoids shift these curves rightward. Murine aPC generation studies after infusions of histones, platelet factor 4, and heparinoids supported the in vitro data. Importantly, although unfractionated heparin and 2-O, 3-O desulfated heparin both reversed the lethality of high-dose histone infusions, only mice treated with 2-O, 3-O desulfated heparin demonstrated corrected activated partial thromboplastin times and had significant levels of aPC. Our data provide a new contextual model of how histones affect aPC generation, and how heparinoid therapy may be beneficial in sepsis. These studies provide new insights into the complex interactions controlling aPC formation and suggest a novel therapeutic interventional strategy.

  17. The stress-response factor SigH modulates the interaction between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and host phagocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noton K Dutta

    Full Text Available The Mycobacterium tuberculosis stress response factor SigH plays a crucial role in modulating the pathogen's response to heat, oxidative-stress, envelope damage and hypoxia. We hypothesized that the lack of this key stress response factor would alter the interaction between the pathogen and its host cells. We compared the interaction of Mtb, Mtb:Δ-sigH and a strain where the mutation had been genetically complemented (Mtb: Δ-sigH:CO with primary rhesus macaque bone marrow derived macrophages (Rh-BMDMs. The expression of numerous inducible and homeostatic (CCL β-chemokines and several apoptotic markers was induced to higher levels in the cells infected with Mtb:Δ-sigH, relative to Mtb or the complemented strain. The differential expression of these genes manifested into functional differences in chemotaxis and apoptosis in cells infected with these two strains. The mutant strain also exhibited reduced late-stage survival in Rh-BMDMs. We hypothesize that the product of one or more SigH-dependent genes may modulate the innate interaction of Mtb with host cells, effectively reducing the chemokine-mediated recruitment of immune effector cells, apoptosis of infected monocytes and enhancing the long-term survival and replication of the pathogen in this milieu The significantly higher induction of Prostaglandin Synthetase 2 (PTGS2 or COX2 in Rh-BMDMs infected with Mtb relative to Mtb: Δ-sigH may explain reduced apoptosis in Mtb-infected cells, as PTGS2 is known to inhibit p53-dependent apoptosis.The SigH-regulon modulates the innate interaction of Mtb with host phagocytes, perhaps as part of a strategy to limit its clearance and prolong its survival. The SigH regulon appears to be required to modulate innate immune responses directed against Mtb.

  18. siRNA Screen Identifies Trafficking Host Factors that Modulate Alphavirus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-20

    of host modulators of virus infection Scott C Weaver, M.S., Ph.D. Professor, Institute for Human Infections and Immunity , The University of Texas...Koyuncu OO, Enquist LW (2011) Subversion of the actin cytoskeleton during 885 viral infection. Nat Rev Microbiol 9: 427-439. 886 40. Sanchez EG...Imelli N, Boucke K, et al. (2008) Subversion of CtBP1-891 controlled macropinocytosis by human adenovirus serotype 3. EMBO J 27: 956-969. 892 43

  19. Fibronectin type III (FN3) modules of the neuronal cell adhesion molecule L1 interact directly with the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahin, Nikolaj; Li, Shizhong; Hinsby, Anders Mørkeberg

    2008-01-01

    The neuronal cell adhesion molecule (CAM) L1 promotes axonal outgrowth, presumably through an interaction with the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR). The present study demonstrates a direct interaction between L1 fibronectin type III (FN3) modules I-V and FGFR1 immunoglobulin (Ig) modules II...

  20. The cytokinin response factors modulate root and shoot growth and promote leaf senescence in Arabidopsis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Raines, T.; Shanks, C.; Cheng, C.Y.; McPherson, D.; Argueso, C.T.; Kim, H.J.; Franco-Zorrilla, J.M.; Lopez-Vidriero, I.; Solano, R.; Vaňková, Radomíra; Schaller, G.E.; Kieber, J.J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 1 (2016), s. 134-147 ISSN 0960-7412 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : cytokinin * two-component signaling * transcription factors Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 5.901, year: 2016

  1. Red Yeast Rice: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Yeast Rice For More Information Key References Acknowledgments © asian-ingredients Red yeast rice is a traditional Chinese ... products varies depending on the yeast strains and culture conditions used to manufacture them. The strains and ...

  2. Multisubunit RNA Polymerase Cleavage Factors Modulate the Kinetics and Energetics of Nucleotide Incorporation: An RNA Polymerase I Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appling, Francis D; Schneider, David A; Lucius, Aaron L

    2017-10-24

    All cellular RNA polymerases are influenced by protein factors that stimulate RNA polymerase-catalyzed cleavage of the nascent RNA. Despite divergence in amino acid sequence, these so-called "cleavage factors" appear to share a common mechanism of action. Cleavage factors associate with the polymerase through a conserved structural element of the polymerase known as the secondary channel or pore. This mode of association enables the cleavage factor to reach through the secondary channel into the polymerase active site to reorient the active site divalent metal ions. This reorientation converts the polymerase active site into a nuclease active site. Interestingly, eukaryotic RNA polymerases I and III (Pols I and III, respectively) have incorporated their cleavage factors as bona fide subunits known as A12.2 and C11, respectively. Although it is clear that A12.2 and C11 dramatically stimulate the polymerase's cleavage activity, it is not known if or how these subunits affect the polymerization mechanism. In this work we have used transient-state kinetic techniques to characterize a Pol I isoform lacking A12.2. Our data clearly demonstrate that the A12.2 subunit profoundly affects the kinetics and energetics of the elementary steps of Pol I-catalyzed nucleotide incorporation. Given the high degree of conservation between polymerase-cleavage factor interactions, these data indicate that cleavage factor-modulated nucleotide incorporation mechanisms may be common to all cellular RNA polymerases.

  3. RpoN Regulates Virulence Factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa via Modulating the PqsR Quorum Sensing Regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhao; Liu, Yang; Chen, Yicai; Yam, Joey Kuok Hoong; Chew, Su Chuen; Chua, Song Lin; Wang, Ke; Givskov, Michael; Yang, Liang

    2015-11-30

    The alternative sigma factor RpoN regulates many cell functions, such as motility, quorum sensing, and virulence in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). P. aeruginosa often evolves rpoN-negative variants during the chronic infection in cystic fibrosis patients. It is unclear how RpoN interacts with other regulatory mechanisms to control virulence of P. aeruginosa. In this study, we show that RpoN modulates the function of PqsR, a quorum sensing receptor regulating production of virulence factors including the phenazine pyocyanin. The ∆rpoN mutant is able to synthesize 4-quinolone signal molecule HHQ but unable to activate PqsR and Pseudomonas quinolone signal (pqs) quorum sensing. The ∆rpoN mutant produces minimal level of pyocyanin and is unable to produce the anti-staphylococcal agents. Providing pqsR in trans in the ∆rpoN mutant restores its pqs quorum sensing and virulence factor production to the wild-type level. Our study provides evidence that RpoN has a regulatory effect on P. aeruginosa virulence through modulating the function of the PqsR quorum sensing regulator.

  4. Rheological properties of rice-blackgram batter while replacing white rice with brown rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickavasagan, Annamalai; Al-Marhubi, Insaaf Mohd; Dev, Satyanarayan

    2014-06-01

    Rice-blackgram batter is a raw material for many traditional convenience foods in Asia. Reformulation of traditional convenience food by replacing white rice with whole rice (brown rice) is a novel method to reduce the consumption of refined grain and increase the intake of whole grain in our diet. In this study, rheological properties of rice-blackgram batter was investigated while replacing white rice with brown rice at five levels (T1--0% replacement (control), T2--25% replacement, T3--50% replacement, T4--75% replacement, and T5--100% replacement). The shear stress versus shear rate plot indicates that the rice-blackgram batter exhibited non-Newtonian fluid behavior (shear thinning property) even after 100% replacement of white rice with brown rice. The rheological characteristics of rice-blackgram batters fitted reasonably well in Cassan (r2 = 0.8521-0.9856) and power law (r2 = 0.8042-0.9823) models. Brown rice replacement at all levels did not affect the flow behavior index, yield stress, consistency coefficient, and apparent viscosity of batter at 25 degrees C. However, at higher temperature, the viscosity was greater for T4 and T5 (no difference between them) than T1, T2, and T3 (no difference between them) batters. Further research is required to determine the sensory attributes and acceptability of the cooked products with brown rice-blended batter.

  5. Glutamate receptor antagonists and growth factors modulate dentate granule cell neurogenesis in organotypic, rat hippocampal slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Frantz Rom; Blaabjerg, Morten; Montero, Maria

    2005-01-01

    Generation of dentate granule cells and its modulation by glutamate receptor antagonists, growth factors and pilocarpine-induced seizure-like activity was investigated in rat hippocampal slice cultures derived from 1-week-old rats and grown for 2 weeks. Focussing on the dentate granule cell layer...... the number of TUC-4-positive cells, just as combining pilocarpine with the neurogenesis-stimulating compounds, prevented or reduced the increase of TUC-4-positive cells. None of the treatments were found to induce dentate granule cell death within the observed period. Labeling of dividing cells by adding 5...

  6. Comparative network analysis reveals that tissue specificity and gene function are important factors influencing the mode of expression evolution in Arabidopsis and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahedi, Sara; Van de Peer, Yves; Vandepoele, Klaas

    2011-07-01

    Microarray experiments have yielded massive amounts of expression information measured under various conditions for the model species Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and rice (Oryza sativa). Expression compendia grouping multiple experiments make it possible to define correlated gene expression patterns within one species and to study how expression has evolved between species. We developed a robust framework to measure expression context conservation (ECC) and found, by analyzing 4,630 pairs of orthologous Arabidopsis and rice genes, that 77% showed conserved coexpression. Examples of nonconserved ECC categories suggested a link between regulatory evolution and environmental adaptations and included genes involved in signal transduction, response to different abiotic stresses, and hormone stimuli. To identify genomic features that influence expression evolution, we analyzed the relationship between ECC, tissue specificity, and protein evolution. Tissue-specific genes showed higher expression conservation compared with broadly expressed genes but were fast evolving at the protein level. No significant correlation was found between protein and expression evolution, implying that both modes of gene evolution are not strongly coupled in plants. By integration of cis-regulatory elements, many ECC conserved genes were significantly enriched for shared DNA motifs, hinting at the conservation of ancestral regulatory interactions in both model species. Surprisingly, for several tissue-specific genes, patterns of concerted network evolution were observed, unveiling conserved coexpression in the absence of conservation of tissue specificity. These findings demonstrate that orthologs inferred through sequence similarity in many cases do not share similar biological functions and highlight the importance of incorporating expression information when comparing genes across species.

  7. Trophic factors as modulators of motor neuron physiology and survival: implications for ALS therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis B Tovar-y-Romo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Motor neuron physiology and development depend on a continuous and tightly regulated trophic support from a variety of cellular sources. Trophic factors guide the generation and positioning of motor neurons during every stage of the developmental process. As well, they are involved in axon guidance and synapse formation. Even in the adult spinal cord an uninterrupted trophic input is required to maintain neuronal functioning and protection from noxious stimuli. Among the trophic factors that have been demonstrated to participate in motor neuron physiology are vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1. Upon binding to membrane receptors expressed in motor neurons or neighboring glia, these trophic factors activate intracellular signaling pathways that promote cell survival and have protective action on motor neurons, in both in vivo and in vitro models of neuronal degeneration. For these reasons these factors have been considered a promising therapeutic method for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases, although their efficacy in human clinical trials have not yet shown the expected protection. In this review we summarize experimental data on the role of these trophic factors in motor neuron function and survival, as well as their mechanisms of action. We also briefly discuss the potential therapeutic use of the trophic factors and why these therapies may have not been yet successful in the clinical use.

  8. Composition and Fatty Acid Profile of Goat Meat Sausages with Added Rice Bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekian, Fatemeh; Khachaturyan, Margarita; Gebrelul, Sebhatu; Henson, James F

    2014-01-01

    A scientific consensus on the relationship between obesity, obesity related diseases, and diet has emerged. One of the factors is overconsumption of the red meats such as pork and beef. Goat meat has the potential to replace these traditionally consumed meats. Rice bran is a rich source of antioxidants such as vitamin E. In this study, goat meat sausages were formulated to contain 0, 1.5 or 3 percent stabilized rice bran. Proximate and fatty acid composition, α-tocopherol, cholesterol concentration, and antioxidant activities of cooked goat meat sausages containing varying percentages of rice bran were measured. Data were analyzed using a fixed effects model. The fat percentage in the goat meat sausages increased in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P sausages increased linearly in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P sausages in response to added rice bran (P sausages did not vary significantly in response to added rice bran.

  9. Germination Time Dependence of Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Germinated Rough Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Anuchita Moongngarm; Ekkalak Khomphiphatkul

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Germinated rice has been recognized as a functional food and its health benefits. However, most related studies were on germinated brown rice but our previous study indicated that germination of rough rice was an effective method to obtain high concentrations of bioactive compounds. Germination time is one of the most important factors affecting the level of biochemical compositions and antioxidant activity. Approach: Rough rice seeds were soaked in water for 2 days and ger...

  10. The domestication of plant architecture in African rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Min; Lv, Shuwei; Wu, Wenguang; Fu, Yongcai; Liu, Fengxia; Wang, Bingbing; Li, Weiguo; Gu, Ping; Cai, Hongwei; Sun, Chuanqing; Zhu, Zuofeng

    2018-03-14

    Plant architecture is a key agronomical factor determining crop yield and has been a major target of cereal crop domestication. The transition of plant architecture from the prostrate tiller of typical African wild rice (Oryza barthii) to the erect tiller of African cultivated rice (Oryza glaberrima) was a key step during domestication of African rice. Here we show that PROG7 (PROSTRATE GROWTH 7), a zinc-finger transcription factor gene on chromosome 7, is required for the prostrate growth of African wild rice. Mutations in the promoter region of prog7 reduced the level of gene expression in the tiller base, leading to erect growth in African cultivated rice. Sequence comparison and haplotype analysis show that 90 varieties of cultivated rice from 11 countries carry the same mutations in the prog7 region. A strong signal in a 60-kb genomic region was detected around the prog7 gene, suggesting that the region was under strong positive selection during the domestication process. Identification of the PROG7 gene provides new insights into the molecular basis of plant architecture in crops and facilitates investigation of the history of domestication of African rice. © 2018 The Authors. The Plant Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Experimental Biology.

  11. Phospholipids in rice: significance in grain quality and health benefits: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Waters, Daniel L E; Rose, Terry J; Bao, Jinsong; King, Graham J

    2013-08-15

    Phospholipids (PLs) are a major class of lipid in rice grain. Although PLs are only a minor nutrient compared to starch and protein, they may have both nutritional and functional significance. We have systemically reviewed the literature on the class, distribution and variation of PLs in rice, their relation to rice end-use quality and human health, as well as available methods for analytical profiling. Phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and their lyso forms are the major PLs in rice. The deterioration of PC in rice bran during storage was considered as a trigger for the degradation of rice lipids with associated rancid flavour in paddy and brown rice. The lyso forms in rice endosperm represent the major starch lipid, and may form inclusion complexes with amylose, affecting the physicochemical properties and digestibility of starch, and hence its cooking and eating quality. Dietary PLs have a positive impact on several human diseases and reduce the side-effects of some drugs. As rice has long been consumed as a staple food in many Asian countries, rice PLs may have significant health benefits for those populations. Rice PLs may be influenced both by genetic (G) and environmental (E) factors, and resolving G×E interactions may allow future exploitation of PL composition and content, thus boosting rice eating quality and health benefits for consumers. We have identified and summarised the different methods used for rice PL analysis, and discussed the consequences of variation in reported PL values due to inconsistencies between methods. This review enhances the understanding of the nature and importance of PLs in rice and outlines potential approaches for manipulating PLs to improve the quality of rice grain and other cereals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Solution structure of CCP modules 10-12 illuminates functional architecture of the complement regulator, factor H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makou, Elisavet; Mertens, Haydyn D T; Maciejewski, Mateusz; Soares, Dinesh C; Matis, Ilias; Schmidt, Christoph Q; Herbert, Andrew P; Svergun, Dmitri I; Barlow, Paul N

    2012-12-14

    The 155-kDa plasma glycoprotein factor H (FH), which consists of 20 complement control protein (CCP) modules, protects self-tissue but not foreign organisms from damage by the complement cascade. Protection is achieved by selective engagement of FH, via CCPs 1-4, CCPs 6-8 and CCPs 19-20, with polyanion-rich host surfaces that bear covalently attached, activation-specific, fragments of complement component C3. The role of intervening CCPs 9-18 in this process is obscured by lack of structural knowledge. We have concatenated new high-resolution solution structures of overlapping recombinant CCP pairs, 10-11 and 11-12, to form a three-dimensional structure of CCPs 10-12 and validated it by small-angle X-ray scattering of the recombinant triple-module fragment. Superimposing CCP 12 of this 10-12 structure with CCP 12 from the previously solved CCP 12-13 structure yielded an S-shaped structure for CCPs 10-13 in which modules are tilted by 80-110° with respect to immediate neighbors, but the bend between CCPs 10 and 11 is counter to the arc traced by CCPs 11-13. Including this four-CCP structure in interpretation of scattering data for the longer recombinant segments, CCPs 10-15 and 8-15, implied flexible attachment of CCPs 8 and 9 to CCP 10 but compact and intimate arrangements of CCP 14 with CCPs 12, 13 and 15. Taken together with difficulties in recombinant production of module pairs 13-14 and 14-15, the aberrant structure of CCP 13 and the variability of 13-14 linker sequences among orthologues, a structural dependency of CCP 14 on its neighbors is suggested; this has implications for the FH mechanism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice...

  14. Environmental factors as modulators of neurodegeneration: insights from gene-environment interactions in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Christina; Hannan, Anthony J; Renoir, Thibault

    2015-05-01

    Unlike many other neurodegenerative diseases with established gene-environment interactions, Huntington's disease (HD) is viewed as a disorder governed by genetics. The cause of the disease is a highly penetrant tandem repeat expansion encoding an extended polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin protein. In the year 2000, a pioneering study showed that the disease could be delayed in transgenic mice by enriched housing conditions. This review describes subsequent human and preclinical studies identifying environmental modulation of motor, cognitive, affective and other symptoms found in HD. Alongside the behavioral observations we also discuss potential mechanisms and the relevance to other neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. In mouse models of HD, increased sensorimotor and cognitive stimulation can delay or ameliorate various endophenotypes. Potential mechanisms include increased trophic support, synaptic plasticity, adult neurogenesis, and other forms of experience-dependent cellular plasticity. Subsequent clinical investigations support a role for lifetime activity levels in modulating the onset and progression of HD. Stress can accelerate memory and olfactory deficits and exacerbate cellular dysfunctions in HD mice. In the absence of effective treatments to slow the course of HD, environmental interventions offer feasible approaches to delay the disease, however further preclinical and human studies are needed in order to generate clinical recommendations. Environmental interventions could be combined with future pharmacological therapies and stimulate the identification of enviromimetics, drugs which mimic or enhance the beneficial effects of cognitive stimulation and physical activity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Rice Cluster I, an Important Group of Archaea Producing Methane in Rice Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, R.

    2006-12-01

    and emit more methane than when inhabited by Methanomicrobiales, indicating that the methanogenic archaeal community is an important factor for methane emission from rice fields.

  16. Burkholderia glumae: next major pathogen of rice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Jong Hyun; Melanson, Rebecca A; Rush, Milton C

    2011-05-01

    Burkholderia glumae causes bacterial panicle blight of rice, which is an increasingly important disease problem in global rice production. Toxoflavin and lipase are known to be major virulence factors of this pathogen, and their production is dependent on the TofI/TofR quorum-sensing system, which is mediated by N-octanoyl homoserine lactone. Flagellar biogenesis and a type III secretion system are also required for full virulence of B. glumae. Bacterial panicle blight is thought to be caused by seed-borne B. glumae; however, its disease cycle is not fully understood. In spite of its economic importance, neither effective control measures for bacterial panicle blight nor rice varieties showing complete resistance to the disease are currently available. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying B. glumae virulence and of the rice defence mechanisms against the pathogen would lead to the development of better methods of disease control for bacterial panicle blight. Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Betaproteobacteria; Burkholderiales; Burkholderiaceae; Burkholderia. Gram-negative, capsulated, motile, lophotrichous flagella, pectolytic. Aborted seed, empty grains as a result of failure of grain filling, brown spots on panicles, seedling rot. Seed sterilization, planting partially resistant lines (no completely resistant line is available). KNOWN VIRULENCE FACTORS: Toxoflavin, lipase, type III effectors. © 2010 LSU AGCENTER. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2010 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD.

  17. Factores moduladores de la percepción de la calidad docente. [Modulating factors in the perception of teaching quality].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casero, Antonio

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the existing research findings in relation to the research of the factors that are presumably involved in university students’ evaluations of the teaching quality they receive, possibly threatening the validity of the construct. The review is organized around the three implicated sources in the perceptive process of the student, being the student himself, the professor, and the context. The review concludes that, despite some minor effects, the factors under analysis do not represent a substantial threat to the system’s validity. The unproductive debate that has gone on for decades about guarantees in the evaluation of teaching staff has largely been used to cover up the absence of a desire to institutionalize this kind of evaluation system. El presente artículo tiene como objetivo presentar una revisión sobre los hallazgos existentes en relación a la investigación de los factores supuestamente implicados en la valoración que el alumnado universitario realiza sobre la tarea docente de sus profesores, pudiendo suponer una amenaza a la validez de dicho constructo. La revisión se presenta organizada en torno a las tres fuentes implicadas en el proceso perceptivo del alumno, siendo éstas el propio alumno, el profesor y el contexto. La revisión concluye que, a pesar de efectos menores, los factores analizados no representan una amenaza substancial a la validez del sistema. El debate infructuoso que se ha producido durante décadas sobre las garantías en la valoración del personal docente ha sido usado en gran parte para encubrir la falta de deseo de institucionalizar este tipo de sistemas de evaluación.

  18. A systems-wide comparison of red rice (Oryza longistaminata) tissues identifies rhizome specific genes and proteins that are targets for cultivated rice improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ruifeng; Salvato, Fernanda; Park, Jeong-Jin; Kim, Min-Jeong; Nelson, William; Balbuena, Tiago S; Willer, Mark; Crow, John A; May, Greg D; Soderlund, Carol A; Thelen, Jay J; Gang, David R

    2014-02-12

    The rhizome, the original stem of land plants, enables species to invade new territory and is a critical component of perenniality, especially in grasses. Red rice (Oryza longistaminata) is a perennial wild rice species with many valuable traits that could be used to improve cultivated rice cultivars, including rhizomatousness, disease resistance and drought tolerance. Despite these features, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that contribute to rhizome growth, development and function in this plant. We used an integrated approach to compare the transcriptome, proteome and metabolome of the rhizome to other tissues of red rice. 116 Gb of transcriptome sequence was obtained from various tissues and used to identify rhizome-specific and preferentially expressed genes, including transcription factors and hormone metabolism and stress response-related genes. Proteomics and metabolomics approaches identified 41 proteins and more than 100 primary metabolites and plant hormones with rhizome preferential accumulation. Of particular interest was the identification of a large number of gene transcripts from Magnaportha oryzae, the fungus that causes rice blast disease in cultivated rice, even though the red rice plants showed no sign of disease. A significant set of genes, proteins and metabolites appear to be specifically or preferentially expressed in the rhizome of O. longistaminata. The presence of M. oryzae gene transcripts at a high level in apparently healthy plants suggests that red rice is resistant to this pathogen, and may be able to provide genes to cultivated rice that will enable resistance to rice blast disease.

  19. Gasification of rice husks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzetti, P. (ENEA, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Fonti Alternative e Risparmio Energetico)

    The paper outlines the thermochemical processes and equipment involved in the gasification of rice husks. An assessment is made of the feasibility (availability, technology requirements, economics of production and marketing) of this renewable energy source. Results, reported here in tabular form, of experimental trials at an Italian pilot plant (producing, with the use of 165 kg/h of rice husks, 350,000 kcal/h of gas with a conversion yield of 70%) indicated good feasibility. More research is required to improve the combustion qualities of the final product.

  20. Sustainability and the cultural factor. Results from the Dutch GOES Mass Public Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ester, P.; Vinken, H. [Institute for Globalization and Sustainable Development GLOBUS, Tilburg University, Tilburg (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    GOES stands for the GlObal Environmental Survey. The Dutch government declared sustainable development as the cornerstone of its environmental policy. This strategic policy shift presupposes a concerned citizenry willing to accept the way this might affect private lifestyles. The Dutch GOES MASS PUBLIC MODULE - part of a large-scale international study on citizens' environmental perceptions, values, and behaviors - shows the Dutch are concerned about environmental problems. Though they are most worried about classic environmental problems (e.g. air pollution), they realize that more long-term issues (e.g. global warming) are pressing too. They define themselves as being well-informed, feel the individual can make a difference, display a high self-efficacy, and prioritize ecological concerns over economic gains. They, however, do not accept policies that limit personal choice. The Dutch favor soft policies, voluntary lifestyle change, and softer ways of taking action (e.g. checkbook participation). Water and energy conservation no longer seem on the household agenda. Explaining policy preferences, protective action, and individual environmentally-friendly behavior shows environmental attitudes hardly make a difference. Basic values (e.g. post materialism), supporting the environment over economic growth, and a higher education do have an impact as regards protective action. This is less so for policy preferences or environmentally-friendly behavior. The Dutch GOES MASS PUBLIC MODULE points at the imperative necessity to bridge the grand environmental narratives of policy makers, particularly when they frame ecological problems as global, abstract, and long-term issues, and the here-and-now narratives of the well-informed and concerned citizens in their role of responsible consumers.

  1. Survey of arsenic and its speciation in rice products such as breakfast cereals, rice crackers and Japanese rice condiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guo-Xin; Williams, Paul N; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Deacon, Claire; Carey, Anne-Marie; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Joerg; Meharg, Andrew A

    2009-04-01

    Rice has been demonstrated to be one of the major contributors to arsenic (As) in human diets in addition to drinking water, but little is known about rice products as an additional source of As exposure. Rice products were analyzed for total As and a subset of samples were measured for arsenic speciation using high performance liquid chromatography interfaced with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). A wide range of rice products had total and inorganic arsenic levels that typified those found in rice grain including, crisped rice, puffed rice, rice crackers, rice noodles and a range of Japanese rice condiments as well as rice products targeted at the macrobiotic, vegan, lactose intolerant and gluten intolerance food market. Most As in rice products are inorganic As (75.2-90.1%). This study provides a wider appreciation of how inorganic arsenic derived from rice products enters the human diet.

  2. The transcription factor BATF modulates cytokine-mediated responses in T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopel, Nina; Graser, Anna; Mousset, Stephanie; Finotto, Susetta

    2016-08-01

    The transcription factor BATF (basic leucine zipper transcription factor, ATF-like), belongs to the AP-1 family of transcription factors and has been shown to be predominantly expressed in cells of haematopoietic origin, especially in B and T cells. In studies using Batf-deficient mice, a profound defect in the differentiation of T helper cells type 17 (Th17) and follicular T helper cells (Tfh) was described, as well as an impairment of antibody production with switched isotypes. More recently BATF has been described to influence also Th2 and Th9 responses in models of murine experimental asthma. In CD8(+) T cells BATF has been found associated with anti-viral responses. This review summarizes the role of BATF in CD4(+) T cell subsets and in CD8(+) T cells, with particular focus on this transcription factor in the setting of allergic asthma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bioinformatics Identification of Modules of Transcription Factor Binding Sites in Alzheimer's Disease-Related Genes by In Silico Promoter Analysis and Microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Augustin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms and genetic risk factors underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD pathogenesis are only partly understood. To identify new factors, which may contribute to AD, different approaches are taken including proteomics, genetics, and functional genomics. Here, we used a bioinformatics approach and found that distinct AD-related genes share modules of transcription factor binding sites, suggesting a transcriptional coregulation. To detect additional coregulated genes, which may potentially contribute to AD, we established a new bioinformatics workflow with known multivariate methods like support vector machines, biclustering, and predicted transcription factor binding site modules by using in silico analysis and over 400 expression arrays from human and mouse. Two significant modules are composed of three transcription factor families: CTCF, SP1F, and EGRF/ZBPF, which are conserved between human and mouse APP promoter sequences. The specific combination of in silico promoter and multivariate analysis can identify regulation mechanisms of genes involved in multifactorial diseases.

  4. A guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rab5 proteins is essential for intracellular transport of the proglutelin from the Golgi apparatus to the protein storage vacuole in rice endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Masako; Wen, Liuying; Satoh-Cruz, Mio; Kawagoe, Yasushi; Nagamura, Yoshiaki; Okita, Thomas W; Washida, Haruhiko; Sugino, Aya; Ishino, Sonoko; Ishino, Yoshizumi; Ogawa, Masahiro; Sunada, Mariko; Ueda, Takashi; Kumamaru, Toshihiro

    2013-06-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) glutelins are synthesized on the endoplasmic reticulum as a precursor, which are then transported via the Golgi to protein storage vacuoles (PSVs), where they are proteolytically processed into acidic and basic subunits. The glutelin precursor mutant6 (glup6) accumulates abnormally large amounts of proglutelin. Map-base cloning studies showed that glup6 was a loss-of-function mutant of guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), which activates Rab GTPase, a key regulator of membrane trafficking. Immunofluorescence studies showed that the transport of proglutelins and α-globulins to PSV was disrupted in glup6 endosperm. Secreted granules of glutelin and α-globulin were readily observed in young glup6 endosperm, followed by the formation of large dilated paramural bodies (PMBs) containing both proteins as the endosperm matures. The PMBs also contained membrane biomarkers for the Golgi and prevacuolar compartment as well as the cell wall component, β-glucan. Direct evidence was gathered showing that GLUP6/GEF activated in vitro GLUP4/Rab5 as well as several Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Rab5 isoforms to the GTP-bound form. Therefore, loss-of-function mutations in GEF or Rab5 disrupt the normal transport of proglutelin from the Golgi to PSVs, resulting in the initial extracellular secretion of these proteins followed, in turn, by the formation of PMBs. Overall, our results indicate that GLUP6/GEF is the activator of Rab5 GTPase and that the cycling of GTP- and GDP-bound forms of this regulatory protein is essential for the intracellular transport of proglutelin and α-globulin from the Golgi to PSVs and in the maintenance of the general structural organization of the endomembrane system in rice seeds.

  5. Harvest season and head rice yield of upland rice cultivars submitted to parboiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diva Mendonça Garcia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE This work aimed to evaluate the effects of parboiling on the yield of upland rice cultivars harvested at different times. The cultivars were BRS Primavera and BRS Sertaneja, harvested at 30 and 47 days after flowering (DAF. For parboiling, samples were soaked in water bath at 65 °C in grain: water ratio of 1:1.6 in order to reach 25% and 30% moisture, and then were autoclaved for 10 minutes at 120 °C and 1.1 kg/cm2 of pressure. After drying up to 13% moisture in a greenhouse with forced air at 40 °C, samples were benefited, followed by separation using the trieur equipment and weighing to obtain the head rice yield. The results showed a higher yield for head rice harvested at 30 DAF than at 47 DAF (BRS Primavera 63.2 and 38.7%; BRS Sertaneja 68.5 and 55.7%, respectively. Parboiling increased the head rice yield, regardless of harvest season, but partly reflected the potential of the cultivar origin: BRS Primavera 70.06%, BRS Sertaneja 74.94%. It is concluded that the harvest season is one of the factors that most influence the quality of industrial rice and the effect of parboiling also depends on the potential of the material source.

  6. Preimplantation embryo-secreted factors modulate maternal gene expression in rat uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagami, Kazuki; Islam, M Rashedul; Yoshii, Yuka; Mori, Kazuki; Tashiro, Kosuke; Yamauchi, Nobuhiko

    2016-05-01

    In mammalian reproduction, embryo implantation into the uterus is spatiotemporally regulated by a complex process triggered by a number of factors. Although previous studies have suggested that uterine receptivity is mediated by blastocyst-derived factors, specific functions of embryos remain to be defined during preimplantation. Therefore, the present study was conducted to identify the maternal genes regulated by embryo-secreted factors in the rat uterus. RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) data revealed that 10 genes are up-regulated in the delayed implantation uterus compared with the pseudopregnancy uterus. The RNA-seq results were further verified by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Sulf1 expression is significantly (P uterus, although Areg, Calca, Fxyd4 and Lamc3 show a definite but non-statistically significant increase in their expression levels. During early pregnancy, the levels of Areg, Calca, Fxyd4, Lamc3 and Sulf1 expression at 3.5 days post coitus (dpc) are significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those at 1.5 dpc. Treatment with embryo-conditioned media revealed that Lamc3 and Sulf1 are up-regulated compared with the other genes studied. Thus, embryo-derived factors regulate maternal gene expression, with Lamc3 and Sulf1 possibly being suitable markers for a response study of embryo-secreted factors to improve our understanding of embryo-maternal communication.

  7. Social perception of rape: how rape myth acceptance modulates the influence of situational factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, Bettina; Moya, Miguel; Megías, Jesús L

    2004-02-01

    This study assessed the role of rape myth acceptance (RMA) and situational factors in the perception of three different rape scenarios (date rape, marital rape, and stranger rape). One hundred and eighty-two psychology undergraduates were asked to emit four judgements about each rape situation: victim responsibility, perpetrator responsibility, intensity of trauma, and likelihood to report the crime to the police. It was hypothesized that neither RMA nor situational factors alone can explain how rape is perceived; it is the interaction between these two factors that best account for social reactions to sexual aggression. The results generally supported the authors' hypothesis: Victim blame, estimation of trauma, and the likelihood of reporting the crime to the police were best explained by the interaction between observer characteristics, such as RMA, and situational clues. That is, the less stereotypic the rape situation was, the greater was the influence of attitudes toward rape on attributions.

  8. The rice OsNAC6 transcription factor orchestrates multiple molecular mechanisms involving root structural adaptions and nicotianamine biosynthesis for drought tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Keun; Chung, Pil Joong; Jeong, Jin Seo; Jang, Geupil; Bang, Seung Woon; Jung, Harin; Kim, Youn Shic; Ha, Sun-Hwa; Choi, Yang Do; Kim, Ju-Kon

    2017-06-01

    Drought has a serious impact on agriculture worldwide. A plant's ability to adapt to rhizosphere drought stress requires reprogramming of root growth and development. Although physiological studies have documented the root adaption for tolerance to the drought stress, underlying molecular mechanisms is still incomplete, which is essential for crop engineering. Here, we identified OsNAC6-mediated root structural adaptations, including increased root number and root diameter, which enhanced drought tolerance. Multiyear drought field tests demonstrated that the grain yield of OsNAC6 root-specific overexpressing transgenic rice lines was less affected by drought stress than were nontransgenic controls. Genome-wide analyses of loss- and gain-of-function mutants revealed that OsNAC6 up-regulates the expression of direct target genes involved in membrane modification, nicotianamine (NA) biosynthesis, glutathione relocation, 3'-phophoadenosine 5'-phosphosulphate accumulation and glycosylation, which represent multiple drought tolerance pathways. Moreover, overexpression of NICOTIANAMINE SYNTHASE genes, direct targets of OsNAC6, promoted the accumulation of the metal chelator NA and, consequently, drought tolerance. Collectively, OsNAC6 orchestrates novel molecular drought tolerance mechanisms and has potential for the biotechnological development of high-yielding crops under water-limiting conditions. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Modulation of global low-frequency motions underlies allosteric regulation: demonstration in CRP/FNR family transcription factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L Rodgers

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Allostery is a fundamental process by which ligand binding to a protein alters its activity at a distinct site. There is growing evidence that allosteric cooperativity can be communicated by modulation of protein dynamics without conformational change. The mechanisms, however, for communicating dynamic fluctuations between sites are debated. We provide a foundational theory for how allostery can occur as a function of low-frequency dynamics without a change in structure. We have generated coarse-grained models that describe the protein backbone motions of the CRP/FNR family transcription factors, CAP of Escherichia coli and GlxR of Corynebacterium glutamicum. The latter we demonstrate as a new exemplar for allostery without conformation change. We observe that binding the first molecule of cAMP ligand is correlated with modulation of the global normal modes and negative cooperativity for binding the second cAMP ligand without a change in mean structure. The theory makes key experimental predictions that are tested through an analysis of variant proteins by structural biology and isothermal calorimetry. Quantifying allostery as a free energy landscape revealed a protein "design space" that identified the inter- and intramolecular regulatory parameters that frame CRP/FNR family allostery. Furthermore, through analyzing CAP variants from diverse species, we demonstrate an evolutionary selection pressure to conserve residues crucial for allosteric control. This finding provides a link between the position of CRP/FNR transcription factors within the allosteric free energy landscapes and evolutionary selection pressures. Our study therefore reveals significant features of the mechanistic basis for allostery. Changes in low-frequency dynamics correlate with allosteric effects on ligand binding without the requirement for a defined spatial pathway. In addition to evolving suitable three-dimensional structures, CRP/FNR family transcription factors have

  10. Modulation of global low-frequency motions underlies allosteric regulation: demonstration in CRP/FNR family transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Thomas L; Townsend, Philip D; Burnell, David; Jones, Matthew L; Richards, Shane A; McLeish, Tom C B; Pohl, Ehmke; Wilson, Mark R; Cann, Martin J

    2013-09-01

    Allostery is a fundamental process by which ligand binding to a protein alters its activity at a distinct site. There is growing evidence that allosteric cooperativity can be communicated by modulation of protein dynamics without conformational change. The mechanisms, however, for communicating dynamic fluctuations between sites are debated. We provide a foundational theory for how allostery can occur as a function of low-frequency dynamics without a change in structure. We have generated coarse-grained models that describe the protein backbone motions of the CRP/FNR family transcription factors, CAP of Escherichia coli and GlxR of Corynebacterium glutamicum. The latter we demonstrate as a new exemplar for allostery without conformation change. We observe that binding the first molecule of cAMP ligand is correlated with modulation of the global normal modes and negative cooperativity for binding the second cAMP ligand without a change in mean structure. The theory makes key experimental predictions that are tested through an analysis of variant proteins by structural biology and isothermal calorimetry. Quantifying allostery as a free energy landscape revealed a protein "design space" that identified the inter- and intramolecular regulatory parameters that frame CRP/FNR family allostery. Furthermore, through analyzing CAP variants from diverse species, we demonstrate an evolutionary selection pressure to conserve residues crucial for allosteric control. This finding provides a link between the position of CRP/FNR transcription factors within the allosteric free energy landscapes and evolutionary selection pressures. Our study therefore reveals significant features of the mechanistic basis for allostery. Changes in low-frequency dynamics correlate with allosteric effects on ligand binding without the requirement for a defined spatial pathway. In addition to evolving suitable three-dimensional structures, CRP/FNR family transcription factors have been selected to

  11. Development of Fearfulness in Birds: Genetic Factors Modulate Non-Genetic Maternal Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdelier, Cécilia; Lumineau, Sophie; Bertin, Aline; Guibert, Floriane; De Margerie, Emmanuel; Augery, Matthieu; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick

    2011-01-01

    The development of fearfulness and the capacity of animals to cope with stressful events are particularly sensitive to early experience with mothers in a wide range of species. However, intrinsic characteristics of young animals can modulate maternal influence. This study evaluated the effect of intrinsic fearfulness on non-genetic maternal influence. Quail chicks, divergently selected for either higher (LTI) or lower fearfulness (STI) and from a control line (C), were cross-fostered by LTI or STI mothers. Behavioural tests estimated the chicks' emotional profiles after separation from the mother. Whatever their genotype, the fearfulness of chicks adopted by LTI mothers was higher than that of chicks adopted by STI mothers. However, genetic background affected the strength of maternal effects: the least emotional chicks (STI) were the least affected by early experience with mothers. We demonstrated that young animal's intrinsic fearfulness affects strongly their sensitivity to non-genetic maternal influences. A young animal's behavioural characteristics play a fundamental role in its own behavioural development processes. PMID:21298038

  12. Promising rice mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakim, L.; Azam, M.A.; Miah, A.J.; Mansur, M.A.; Akanda, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    Two induced mutants namely, Mut NS 1 (tall) and Mut NS 5 (semi-dwarf) derived from rice variety Nizersail were evaluated for various agronomic characters at four locations in Bangladesh. Both the mutants matured about three weeks earlier and yielded significantly higher than the parent variety Nizersail. (author). 3 tabs., 9 refs

  13. Exploring Local Level Factors Shaping the Implementation of a Blended Learning Module for Information and Geospatial Literacy in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M. Vine

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research study were to examine local level factors shaping the implementation of a blended pedagogical approach for geospatial- and information-literacy, and to understand implementer satisfaction. As such, we addressed the following research questions: What local-level factors shape the implementation of the blended learning model? and How satisfied are implementers (faculty, administrators and library instructional/support staff with the new blended learning model for geospatial and information fluency? Focus groups (n=7 plus one interview (total n=22 were conducted with key stakeholders (e.g., staff, faculty, administrators to better understand facilitators, barriers, and/or issues related to module development, in addition to perceptions about how the modules are utilized by teaching assistants (TAs, instructional assistants (IAs, and instructors. Participants were identified according to their status as either discipline-specific instructional staff (i.e., instructor, TA, IA or staff who supported the development of modules (i.e., library instructional staff, library management, administrators. From an ontological standpoint that privileges an individual perspective on the nature of reality, while epistemologically seeking to understand the relationship between the “knower” and what can be known, we adopted a theory of constructivism to support this inquiry. Transcripts were imported into a qualitative analysis software package (NVivo 8.0 for organization, coding and analysis. Instructors found value in the online modules, particularly in a blended learning setting. Instructors felt that having the material in advance, in-class time could be better focused on interaction, assignments, and assessments and resulted in reduced anxiety in busy lab environments. Several key themes emerged, including: (a instructor expectations (time constraints, sustainability, and collaborative nature of development process and

  14. Adsorptive property of rice husk for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yuan; Yi Facheng

    2011-01-01

    The adsorption experiments were researched by using the rice husk powder as the adsorbent to remove the U(VI) from aqueous solution. The affecting factors on the U(VI) removal rate such as rice husk particle size, pH, initial concentration, adsorption time, temperature and dosage of adsorbent were evaluated, kinetics and adsorption isotherm law were analyzed, and mechanisms for U(VI) removal were discussed by SEM, FT-IR and energy spectrum analysis. The results show that U(VI) removal rate increases with the decrease of the size of adsorbent, and with the increase of adsorbent dosage and temperature. The process of adsorption can be described by an equation of pseudo 2nd-order mode, and the relation coefficient is 1. The process of adsorption also fits to Freundlich isotherm (R 2 =0.995 4). The adsorption of uranium on rice husk changes the surface form of rice husk. Hydroxyl, carboxylic, P-O and Si-O are the main functional groups in the reaction with U(VI). The adsorption mechanism is mixture adsorption, including the physical and chemical adsorption. (authors)

  15. Seed priming with Se alleviate As induced phytotoxicity during germination and seedling growth by restricting As translocation in rice (Oryza sativa L c.v. IET-4094).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulick, Debojyoti; Santra, S C; Ghosh, Dibakar

    2017-11-01

    Interactive aspect of among selenium (Se) and As (As) to mitigate As induced phytotoxicity in rice during germination and seedling growth has been based on mostly to petriplates and hydroponic mode of experiments. In this investigation we explore the consequences of sowing Se primed rice seeds in As spiked soil. Unprimed, hydroprimed and Se primed rice (IET-4094) seeds sown in As spiked soil, with five replications, arranged in complete randomized design for evaluating the impacts of seed priming on germination and seedling growth as well as As uptake and translocation pattern. Se promotes germination, seedling growth by modulating proline content, lipid peroxidation in root and shoot beside enhancing total chlorophyll content significantly in both As free and As spiked soil as compared to their respective unprimed and hydroprimed counterparts grown alike. Findings also indicates that seed priming with Se was able to execute dual roles i.e. a promotive and antagonistic aspect against As by restricting maximum soil As load to the root (with greater bioconcentration factor) and reducing translocation of As from root to shoot in a more practical and farmer friendly way to mitigate As induced toxicity and enhance germination and growth in rice seedlings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Risk Factors for Pelvic Insufficiency Fractures in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer Following Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramlov, Anne; Pedersen, Erik Morre; Røhl, Lisbeth

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the incidence of and risk factors for pelvic insufficiency fracture (PIF) after definitive chemoradiation therapy for locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC). METHODS AND MATERIALS: We analyzed 101 patients with LACC treated from 2008-2014. Patients received weekly cisplatin...

  17. Anti-vascular agent Combretastatin A-4-P modulates Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 and gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Currie Margaret J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A functional vascular network is essential for the survival, growth and spread of solid tumours, making blood vessels a key target for therapeutic strategies. Combretastatin A-4 phosphate (CA-4-P is a tubulin-depolymerising agent in Phase II clinical trials as a vascular disrupting agent. Not much is known of the molecular effect of CA-4-P under tumour conditions. The tumour microenvironment differs markedly from that in normal tissue, specifically with respect to oxygenation (hypoxia. Gene regulation under tumour conditions is governed by hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1, controlling angiogenic and metastatic pathways. Methods We investigated the effect of CA-4-P on factors of the upstream and downstream signalling pathway of HIF-1 in vitro. Results CA-4-P treatment under hypoxia tended to reduce HIF-1 accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner, an effect which was more prominent in endothelial cells than in cancer cell lines. Conversely, CA-4-P increased HIF-1 accumulation under aerobic conditions in vitro. At these concentrations of CA-4-P under aerobic conditions, nuclear factor κB was activated via the small GTPase RhoA, and expression of the HIF-1 downstream angiogenic effector gene, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A, was increased. Conclusion Our findings advance the understanding of signal transduction pathways involved in the actions of the anti-vascular agent CA-4-P.

  18. Analytical Investigation on the Power Factor of a Flux-Modulated Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaoxu; Liu, Xiao; Liu, Jinglin

    2015-01-01

    . An analytical model for the FM-PMSM is developed to obtain the magnetic field distribution, and its accuracy is verified by the finite-element method. On the basis of the developed analytical model, a fast approach is developed to predict the power factor of the FM-PMSM. The analytical results indicate...

  19. Immune modulation and increased neurotrophic factor production in multiple sclerosis patients treated with testosterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giesser Barbara S

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system with a pronounced neurodegenerative component. It has been suggested that novel treatment options are needed that target both aspects of the disease. Evidence from basic and clinical studies suggests that testosterone has an immunomodulatory as well as a potential neuroprotective effect that could be beneficial in MS. Methods Ten male MS patients were treated with 10 g of gel containing 100 mg of testosterone in a cross-over design (6 month observation period followed by 12 months of treatment. Blood samples were obtained at three-month intervals during the observation and the treatment period. Isolated blood peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMCs were used to examine lymphocyte subpopulation composition by flow cytometry and ex vivo protein production of cytokines (IL-2, IFNγ, TNFα, IL-17, IL-10, IL-12p40, TGFβ1 and growth factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor BDNF, platelet-derived growth factor PDGF-BB, nerve growth factor NGF, and ciliary neurotrophic factor CNTF. Delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH skin recall tests were obtained before and during treatment as an in vivo functional immune measure. Results Testosterone treatment significantly reduced DTH recall responses and induced a shift in peripheral lymphocyte composition by decreasing CD4+ T cell percentage and increasing NK cells. In addition, PBMC production of IL-2 was significantly decreased while TGFβ1 production was increased. Furthermore, PBMCs obtained during the treatment period produced significantly more BDNF and PDGF-BB. Conclusion These results are consistent with an immunomodulatory effect of testosterone treatment in MS. In addition, increased production of BDNF and PDGF-BB suggests a potential neuroprotective effect. Trial Registration NCT00405353 http://www.clinicaltrials.gov

  20. Transcriptome markers of viral persistence in naturally-infected andes virus (bunyaviridae seropositive long-tailed pygmy rice rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey L Campbell

    Full Text Available Long-tailed pygmy rice rats (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus are principal reservoir hosts of Andes virus (ANDV (Bunyaviridae, which causes most hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome cases in the Americas. To develop tools for the study of the ANDV-host interactions, we used RNA-Seq to generate a de novo transcriptome assembly. Splenic RNA from five rice rats captured in Chile, three of which were ANDV-infected, was used to generate an assembly of 66,173 annotated transcripts, including noncoding RNAs. Phylogenetic analysis of selected predicted proteins showed similarities to those of the North American deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus, the principal reservoir of Sin Nombre virus (SNV. One of the infected rice rats had about 50-fold more viral burden than the others, suggesting acute infection, whereas the remaining two had levels consistent with persistence. Differential expression analysis revealed distinct signatures among the infected rodents. The differences could be due to 1 variations in viral load, 2 dimorphic or reproductive differences in splenic homing of immune cells, or 3 factors of unknown etiology. In the two persistently infected rice rats, suppression of the JAK-STAT pathway at Stat5b and Ccnot1, elevation of Casp1, RIG-I pathway factors Ppp1cc and Mff, and increased FC receptor-like transcripts occurred. Caspase-1 and Stat5b activation pathways have been shown to stimulate T helper follicular cell (TFH development in other species. These data are also consistent with reports suggestive of TFH stimulation in deer mice experimentally infected with hantaviruses. In the remaining acutely infected rice rat, the apoptotic pathway marker Cox6a1 was elevated, and putative anti-viral factors Abcb1a, Fam46c, Spp1, Rxra, Rxrb, Trmp2 and Trim58 were modulated. Transcripts for preproenkephalin (Prenk were reduced, which may be predictive of an increased T cell activation threshold. Taken together, this transcriptome dataset will permit rigorous

  1. Environmental changes and anthropogenic factors modulate social play in captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serres, Agathe; Delfour, Fabienne

    2017-03-01

    Social play varies among species and individuals and changes in frequency and duration during ontogeny. This type of play is modulated by environmental changes (e.g., resource availability). In captivity, cetaceans and their environment are managed by humans, and training sessions and/or public presentations punctuate the day as well as other frequent or occasional events. There is a lack of research on the effects of environmental events that occur in captivity and might affect dolphins' behavior. We studied the context in which nine bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) played socially and the events that could potentially impact this social interaction. The dolphins' social play behavior was significantly more frequent and lasted longer in the morning than in the afternoon and was present before and after interactions with their trainers with a non-significant tendency to be more frequent before and after a training session than a public presentation. In an experimental paradigm using familiar environmental enrichment, our results demonstrated that environmental enrichment tended to increase social play duration whereas temporary noisy construction work around the pool and display of agonistic behaviors by members of the group significantly decreased it. These results contribute to better understand the social play distribution in captive bottlenose dolphins and the impact of different events within their daily lives. Since play decreases or disappears when animals are facing unfavorable conditions, the evaluation of social play may relate to the animals' current well-being. We suggest that social play has potential to become an indicator of bottlenose dolphins' current welfare state. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Prefrontal cortex modulates the correlations between brain-derived neurotrophic factor level, serotonin, and the autonomic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei Hung; Lee, I Hui; Chi, Mei Hung; Lin, Shih-Hsien; Chen, Kao Chin; Chen, Po See; Chiu, Nan Tsing; Yao, Wei Jen; Yang, Yen Kuang

    2018-02-07

    Top-down regulation in the human brain and anatomical connections between the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and specific catecholamine-related regions have been well-studied. However, the way in which the PFC modulates downstream neuro-networks in terms of serotonin and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) by variation in the level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is still unclear. We recruited sixty-seven healthy subjects. Serotonin transporter (SERT) availability was examined by SPECT with [ 123 I]ADAM analysis; heart rate variability (HRV) testing was performed, and the BDNF level was measured. The Wisconsin card-sorting test (WCST), which assesses PFC activation, was also conducted. The interactions of BDNF level and SERT availability were significant in relation to the HRV indexes of low frequency, high frequency, total power, and mean heart rate range. Moderate to significant positive correlations between SERT availability and the above-mentioned HRV indexes existed only in subjects with a low BDNF level. Furthermore, in the low BDNF level group, only those with high WCST perseveration errors or low category completions exhibited significant positive correlations between SERT availability and HRV indexes. A lower BDNF level and poorer PFC function might modulate the synergistic effects of serotonergic and ANS systems in order to maintain brain physiological and psychological homeostasis.

  3. Nerve Growth Factor Activation of the Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Pathway Is Modulated by Ca2+ and Calmodulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Joaquim; Espinet, Carme; Soler, Rosa M.; Peiró, Sandra; Rocamora, Nativitat; Comella, Joan X.

    2000-01-01

    Nerve growth factor is a member of the neurotrophin family of trophic factors that have been reported to be essential for the survival and development of sympathetic neurons and a subset of sensory neurons. Nerve growth factor exerts its effects mainly by interaction with the specific receptor TrkA, which leads to the activation of several intracellular signaling pathways. Once activated, TrkA also allows for a rapid and moderate increase in intracellular calcium levels, which would contribute to the effects triggered by nerve growth factor in neurons. In this report, we analyzed the relationship of calcium to the activation of the Ras/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway in PC12 cells. We observed that calcium and calmodulin are both necessary for the acute activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases after TrkA stimulation. We analyzed the elements of the pathway that lead to this activation, and we observed that calmodulin antagonists completely block the initial Raf-1 activation without affecting the function of upstream elements, such as Ras, Grb2, Shc, and Trk. We have broadened our study to other stimuli that activate extracellular signal-regulated kinases through tyrosine kinase receptors, and we have observed that calmodulin also modulates the activation of such kinases after epidermal growth factor receptor stimulation in PC12 cells and after TrkB stimulation in cultured chicken embryo motoneurons. Calmodulin seems to regulate the full activation of Raf-1 after Ras activation, since functional Ras is necessary for Raf-1 activation after nerve growth factor stimulation and calmodulin-Sepharose is able to precipitate Raf-1 in a calcium-dependent manner. PMID:10688641

  4. Identification and validation of rice reference proteins for western blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Bai, Hui; Wang, Xianyun; Li, Liyun; Cao, Yinghao; Wei, Jian; Liu, Yumeng; Liu, Lijuan; Gong, Xiaodong; Wu, Lin; Liu, Siqi; Liu, Guozhen

    2011-10-01

    Studies of rice protein expression have increased considerably with the development of rice functional genomics. In order to obtain reliable expression results in western blotting, information on appropriate reference proteins is necessary for data normalization. To date, no published study has identified and systematically validated reference proteins suitable for the investigation of rice protein expression. In this study, nine candidate proteins were selected and their specific antibodies were obtained through immunization of rabbits with either recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli or synthesized peptides. Western blotting was carried out to detect the expression of target proteins in a set of 10 rice samples representing different rice tissues/organs at different developmental stages. The expression stability of the proteins was analysed using geNorm and Microcal Origin 6.0 software. The results indicated that heat shock protein (HSP) and elongation factor 1-α (eEF-1α) were the most constantly expressed among all rice proteins tested throughout all developmental stages, while the proteins encoded by conventional internal reference genes fluctuated in amount. Comparison among the profiling of translation and transcription [expressed sequence tags (EST) and massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS)] revealed that a correlation existed. Based on the standard curves derived from the antigen-antibody reaction, the concentrations of HSP and eEF-1α proteins in rice leaves were ∼0.12%. Under the present experimental conditions, the lower limits of detection for HSP and eEF-1α proteins in rice were 0.24 ng and 0.06 ng, respectively. In conclusion, the reference proteins selected in this study, and the corresponding antibodies, can be used in qualitative and quantitative analysis of rice proteins.

  5. Rice consumption in the United States: recent evidence from food consumption surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batres-Marquez, S Patricia; Jensen, Helen H; Upton, Julie

    2009-10-01

    Little is known about rice consumption, related food intake patterns, and the nutritional contribution that rice provides in the diets of Americans. To provide information about rice consumption in the United States and the diets of rice consumers. Data come from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (1994-1996) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001-2002). Respondents report 24-hour recall dietary intakes. The amount of rice available in foods is estimated using the Food Commodity Intake Database. Consumers are classified based on the amount of rice they consume in foods. The analysis includes information from adult individuals: 9,318 from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals and 4,744 from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Weighted percentages and mean values show the food and nutrient intake amounts. Logistic regression analysis is used to examine relationships among economic, social, and demographic factors that affect rice consumption. Rice is consumed by a significant portion of the US adult population. Compared with others who did not consume rice, rice consumers consumed a smaller share of energy per day from fat and saturated fat; more iron and potassium; and more dietary fiber, meat, vegetables, and grains. Race/ethnicity and education are determinants of the probability of consuming rice, and more so than low-income status. Rice consumers choose a diet that includes more vegetables, a smaller share of energy from fat and saturated fat, more dietary fiber and more iron than those who do not consume rice; the differences have remained relatively stable over the last decade. Accounting for race/ethnicity and income levels is important for better understanding of factors that affect food choices and for effective design of dietary interventions.

  6. Transcutaneous cervical vagal nerve stimulation modulates cardiac vagal tone and tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, C; Brock, B; Aziz, Q; Møller, H J; Pfeiffer Jensen, M; Drewes, A M; Farmer, A D

    2017-05-01

    The vagus nerve is a central component of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathways. We sought to evaluate the effect of bilateral transcutaneous cervical vagal nerve stimulation (t-VNS) on validated parameters of autonomic tone and cytokines in 20 healthy subjects. 24 hours after t-VNS, there was an increase in cardiac vagal tone and a reduction in tumor necrosis factor-α in comparison to baseline. No change was seen in blood pressure, cardiac sympathetic index or other cytokines. These preliminary data suggest that t-VNS exerts an autonomic and a subtle antitumor necrosis factor-α effect, which warrants further evaluation in larger controlled studies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The Modulation of Polymorphonuclear Neutrophil Function by Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor Type 1 - Expressing Uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Ph.D. Professor, Department of Microbiology and Immunology Uropathogenic Escherichia coli ( UPEC ) cause more than 85% of all urinary tract...models of UTI pathogenesis have provided some insight into the role of various UPEC virulence factors. In these animal studies, the toxin Cytotoxic...expressing UPEC infection in the in vivo models was magnitude of the acute iii inflammatory response. Compared to a cnf1 isogenic mutant, CNF1

  8. The Modulation of Polymorphonuclear Neutrophil Function by Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor Type-1 Uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-19

    Alison D. O’Brien, Ph.D. Professor, Department of Microbiology and Immunology Uropathogenic Escherichia coli ( UPEC ) cause more than 85% of all...Animal models of UTI pathogenesis have provided some insight into the role of various UPEC virulence factors. In these animal studies, the toxin...of CNF1-expressing UPEC infection in the in vivo models was magnitude of the acute iii inflammatory response. Compared to a cnf1 isogenic

  9. Modulation of phenotype of human prostatic stromal cells by transforming growth factor-betas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisataki, Toshihiro; Itoh, Naoki; Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Atsushi; Masumori, Naoya; Tohse, Noritsugu; Ohmori, Yuki; Yamada, Shizuo; Tsukamoto, Taiji

    2004-02-01

    We investigated the effects of transforming growth factor (TGF)-betas on morphological and receptor phenotypes, as well as proliferation of four currently established human prostatic myofibroblast cell lines and one commercially available prostatic stromal cell line. The effects of TGF-betas on morphological changes and proliferation of the cells were studied by immunohistochemistry and bromodeoxyuridine assay, respectively. The expression of alpha 1-receptor subtypes was measured by real time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the radioligand binding assay for the receptors was also performed. TGF-betas 1, 2, and 3 induced expression of desmin and myosin of cells of the established cell lines, and significantly inhibited their growth. The alpha 1a-receptor was expressed only in the commercially available cell line and alpha 1b and 1d, in all cell lines. TGF-beta 1 suppressed the expression of all three subtypes of the alpha 1-receptor. The binding sites of cells of all the cell lines were reduced by treatment with this growth factor. TGF-betas may induce human prostatic stromal cells to express the smooth muscle phenotype and inhibited their growth. However, the growth factor reduced the binding sites of the receptor and suppressed mRNA expression of its subtypes, suggesting that morphological and receptor phenotypes may be regulated via more than one pathway by TGF-beta(s). Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Drivers of rice price variation in Nigeria: A two-stage iterative ridge regression approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ayinde Opeyemi E.; Aina Victor I.; Ayinde Kayode; Lukman Adewale F.

    2016-01-01

    Most studies on local rice in Nigeria were centred on increasing production, consumption or competitiveness with very few of them addressing the determinants of the price of rice in an economy. Filling this gap requires a study on the various factors that influence the price of rice. Food price instability is a frequent forerunner of macroeconomic shocks and political turmoil that can discourage long-run investment and curtail growth. In this study, seconda...

  11. Modulation of neutrophil and monocyte function by recombinant human granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor in patients with lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kharazmi, A; Nielsen, H; Hovgaard, D

    1991-01-01

    Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has been shown to inhibit the chemotaxis and enhance the oxidative burst response of human neutrophils in vitro. The present study describes the effect of recombinant GM-CSF on the neutrophil and monocyte function in patients with lymphoma...... undergoing GM-CSF treatment. Patients with either Hodgkin's or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were treated with various dosages (2-16 micrograms kg-1 body weight per day for 5 days) of rhGM-CSF by intravenous or subcutaneous route. Prior to and on day 5 of rhGM-CSF treatment, neutrophil and monocyte chemotaxis...... by up to 43-fold. rhGM-CSF treatment did not affect degranulation of the neutrophils as measured by release of vitamin B12 binding protein. Degree of modulation of neutrophil and monocyte function by rhGM-CSF was independent of rhGM-CSF dosages administered. These data suggest that phagocytic defence...

  12. Anaesthetics modulate tumour necrosis factor α: effects of L-carnitine supplementation in surgical patients. Preliminary results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Delogu

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Both anaesthetics and surgical trauma could strongly affect the production of tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα. During in vitro experiments the authors found that anaesthetics modulate the production of TNFα by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Notably, Pentothal strongly increased the production of the cytokine as compared to both lipopolysacchride treated and control mononuclear cells, whereas in supernatants from Leptofen driven mononuclear cells TNFα was strongly reduced. On the other hand, Pavulon did not significantly affect the cytokine production. In the in vivo study, in an attempt to ameliorate the metabolic response to surgical trauma, L-carnitine was administered to 20 surgical patients, then the circulating TNFα was measured. The results indicate that the levels of circulating TNFα were strongly increased following surgery and that L-carnitine administration resulted in a strong reduction of TNFα. Thus, the data suggest that L-carnitine could be helpful in protecting surgical patients against dysmetabolism dependent on dysregulated production of TNFα.

  13. The carboxy-terminal domain of Dictyostelium C-module-binding factor is an independent gene regulatory entity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Lucas

    Full Text Available The C-module-binding factor (CbfA is a multidomain protein that belongs to the family of jumonji-type (JmjC transcription regulators. In the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, CbfA regulates gene expression during the unicellular growth phase and multicellular development. CbfA and a related D. discoideum CbfA-like protein, CbfB, share a paralogous domain arrangement that includes the JmjC domain, presumably a chromatin-remodeling activity, and two zinc finger-like (ZF motifs. On the other hand, the CbfA and CbfB proteins have completely different carboxy-terminal domains, suggesting that the plasticity of such domains may have contributed to the adaptation of the CbfA-like transcription factors to the rapid genome evolution in the dictyostelid clade. To support this hypothesis we performed DNA microarray and real-time RT-PCR measurements and found that CbfA regulates at least 160 genes during the vegetative growth of D. discoideum cells. Functional annotation of these genes revealed that CbfA predominantly controls the expression of gene products involved in housekeeping functions, such as carbohydrate, purine nucleoside/nucleotide, and amino acid metabolism. The CbfA protein displays two different mechanisms of gene regulation. The expression of one set of CbfA-dependent genes requires at least the JmjC/ZF domain of the CbfA protein and thus may depend on chromatin modulation. Regulation of the larger group of genes, however, does not depend on the entire CbfA protein and requires only the carboxy-terminal domain of CbfA (CbfA-CTD. An AT-hook motif located in CbfA-CTD, which is known to mediate DNA binding to A+T-rich sequences in vitro, contributed to CbfA-CTD-dependent gene regulatory functions in vivo.

  14. Cortical-limbic regions modulate depression and anxiety factors in functional dyspepsia. A PET-CT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Mailan; Liang Fanrong; Zeng Fang; Tang Yong; Lan Lei; Song Wenzhong

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to observe some specific brain areas or cerebral functional network participating in the modulation of depression and anxiety factors in functional dyspepsia (FD) patients by detecting cerebral glucose metabolism (CGM) in fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scans. Eight FD patients with depression and anxiety (DA-FD group) and eight FD patients without depression and anxiety (non-DA-FD group) were recruited and evaluated by the Nepean Dyspepsia Index (NDI) and Dyspepsia Symptom Scores (DSS). Cerebral 18 F-FDG PET-CT scans were performed on the DA-FD group and non-DA-FD group, respectively. The differences in CGM between the two groups were analyzed with Statistical Parametric Mapping 2.0 (SPM2). Extensive changes in the CGM signals were observed in the cerebral cortex and limbic system of FD patients with depression and anxiety. Compared to non-DA-FD patients, DA-FD patients showed a higher glucose metabolism in the right postcentral gyrus (BA 1 and 5), inferior frontal gyrus (BA 45), superior temporal gyrus (BA 22), middle temporal gyrus (BA 22), inferior parietal lobule (BA 40), lingual gyrus (BA 18) and the left middle occipital gyrus (BA 37), as well as the limbic system including the left thalamus, lateral globus pallidus, parahippocampal gyrus (BA 35), right insular cortex (BA 13) and parahippocampal gyrus (BA 18); a lower glucose metabolism was presented in the left middle cingulated gyrus (BA 24), the right superior frontal gyrus (BA 6), the medial frontal gyrus (BA 6) and middle temporal gyrus (BA 21). An extensive cortical-limbic brain network might modulate the procession of FD patients with depression and anxiety factors. (author)

  15. Tillering and yield formation of a temperate Japonica rice cultivar in a Mediterranean rice agrosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Eixarch, M.; Català, M.M.; Tomàs, N.; Pla, E; Zhu, D.

    2015-07-01

    Rice tillering is a crucial stage for yield formation. Deep understanding of the relationship between tillering dynamics and yield formation in a particular agrosystem is crucial to boost rice productivity. Research on rice tillering is mainly focused on tropical agrosystems whereas less is done in the Mediterranean, with direct water-seeding and Japonica cultivars. This study aims at characterizing tillering dynamics and identifying the main explanatory tillering traits of yield in a Mediterranean rice agrosystem, Ebro Delta (Northern Spain). A temperate Japonica cultivar grown in Spain, Gleva, was utilized. Plants and tillers were tagged to assess emergence and fertility ratios and grain yield; while changes in tillering number over time, yield and yield components for unit area were measured. Plant and tillering dynamics in the Ebro Delta rice fields can be accurately predicted through equations herein provided, which are based either on thermal time or leaf development. Plants grown under regional standard agricultural practices produced up to eight primary tillers of which two or three become productive. Maximum tiller number was the main explanatory variable of yield while high-yielding tillers within a plant are located on nodes with the highest emergence ratios and, after the main stem, they are the major contributors to yield. The decisive role of tiller development on yield along with the predictability of tiller dynamics raises options to optimize grain yield through tillering modulation. In this sense, results from this study suggests the promotion of early tillering followed by inhibition of late tillering as a strategy of tillering regulation. (Author)

  16. Transcription factors CEP-1/p53 and CEH-23 collaborate with AAK-2/AMPK to modulate longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsin-Wen; Pisano, Steve; Chaturbedi, Amaresh; Chen, Jennifer; Gordon, Sarah; Baruah, Aiswarya; Lee, Siu Sylvia

    2017-08-01

    A decline in mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) function has long been implicated in aging and various diseases. Recently, moderate mitochondrial ETC dysfunction has been found to prolong lifespan in diverse organisms, suggesting a conserved and complex role of mitochondria in longevity determination. Several nuclear transcription factors have been demonstrated to mediate the lifespan extension effect associated with partial impairment of the ETC, suggesting that compensatory transcriptional response to be crucial. In this study, we showed that the transcription factors CEP-1/p53 and CEH-23 act through a similar mechanism to modulate longevity in response to defective ETC in Caenorhabditis elegans. Genomewide gene expression profiling comparison revealed a new link between these two transcription factors and AAK-2/AMP kinase (AMPK) signaling. Further functional analyses suggested that CEP-1/p53 and CEH-23 act downstream of AAK-2/AMPK signaling and CRTC-1 transcriptional coactivator to promote stress resistance and lifespan. As AAK-2, CEP-1, and CEH-23 are all highly conserved, our findings likely provide important insights for understanding the organismal adaptive response to mitochondrial dysfunction in diverse organisms and will be relevant to aging and pathologies with a mitochondrial etiology in human. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Investigating the neurobiology of music: brain-derived neurotrophic factor modulation in the hippocampus of young adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelucci, Francesco; Fiore, Marco; Ricci, Enzo; Padua, Luca; Sabino, Andrea; Tonali, Pietro Attilio

    2007-09-01

    It has been shown that music might be able to improve mood state in people affected by psychiatric disorders, ameliorate cognitive deficits in people with dementia and increase motor coordination in Parkinson patients. Robust experimental evidence explaining the central effects of music, however, is missing. This study was designed to investigate the effect of music on brain neurotrophin production and behavior in the mouse. We exposed young adult mice to music with a slow rhythm (6 h/day; mild sound pressure levels, between 50 and 60 db) for 21 consecutive days. At the end of the treatment, mice were tested for passive avoidance learning and then killed for analysis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in selected brain regions. We found that music-exposed mice showed increased BDNF, but not nerve growth factor in the hippocampus. Furthermore, we observed that music exposure significantly enhanced learning performance, as measured by the passive avoidance test. Our results demonstrate that exposure to music can modulate the activity of the hippocampus by influencing BDNF production. Our findings also suggest that music exposure might be of help in several central nervous system pathologies.

  18. Personality profile of binge drinking in university students is modulated by sex. A study using the Alternative Five Factor Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adan, Ana; Navarro, José Francisco; Forero, Diego A

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of binge drinking (BD), found especially among young people, is increasing worldwide and has become an important social and health concern. We studied, for the first time, the personality profile, using the Alternative Five Factor Model, among university students with BD and healthy controls, taking into account the possible influence of sex. 70 participants with BD (30 men) and 70 healthy controls (30 men) were included, selected to control for characteristics that are known to be related to BD (physical and mental disorders, consumption of other drugs, circadian rhythms), completed the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ). The scores on Neuroticism-Anxiety and Impulsive Sensation-Seeking were higher in the BD group compared to the controls (pAnxiety are due to higher scores in the women's group (p=0.014), while those in Impulsive Sensation-Seeking are due to higher scores in the men's group (p=0.009), both in the Impulsivity and in the Sensation-Seeking subscales (p<0.045). Sex could be a factor that modulates the endophenotype of drug dependence (impulsive and anxious personality) and the prevention and/or treatment programs for BD should include not only the management of the personality risk factors but also different tailored approaches according to sex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative transcriptome analysis of two rice varieties in response to rice stripe virus and small brown planthoppers during early interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Zheng

    Full Text Available Rice stripe, a virus disease, transmitted by a small brown planthopper (SBPH, has greatly reduced production of japonica rice in East Asia, especially in China. Although we have made great progress in mapping resistance genes, little is known about the mechanism of resistance. By de novo transcriptome assembling, we gained sufficient transcript data to analyze changes in gene expression of early interaction in response to SBPH and RSV infection in rice. Respectively 648 and 937 DEGs were detected from the disease-resistant (Liaonong 979 and the susceptible (Fengjin varieties, most of which were up-regulated. We found 37 genes related to insect resistance, which mainly included genes for jasmonate-induced protein, TIFY protein, lipoxygenase, as well as trypsin inhibitor genes and transcription factor genes. In the interaction process between RSV and rice, 87 genes were thought to be related to RSV resistance; these primarily included 12 peroxidase biosynthesis genes, 12 LRR receptor-like protein kinase genes, 6 genes coding pathogenesis-related proteins, 4 glycine-rich cell wall structural protein genes, 2 xyloglucan hydrolase genes and a cellulose synthase. The results indicate that the rice-pathogen interaction happened both in disease-resistant and susceptible varieties, and some genes related to JA biosynthesis played key roles in the interaction between SBPHs and rice. When rice was infected by RSV a hypersensitive reaction (HR in the disease-resistant variety was suppressed, which resulted from an increase in peroxidase expression and down-regulation of LRR receptor-like protein kinase and pathogenesis-related proteins, while, the changes of peroxidase biosynthesis, glycine-rich cell wall structural protein, cellulose synthase and xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase could lead to the strengthening of physical barriers of rice, which may be an important resistance mechanism to RSV in rice.

  20. Comparative transcriptome analysis of two rice varieties in response to rice stripe virus and small brown planthoppers during early interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wenjing; Ma, Li; Zhao, Jiaming; Li, Zhiqiang; Sun, Fuyu; Lu, Xiaochun

    2013-01-01

    Rice stripe, a virus disease, transmitted by a small brown planthopper (SBPH), has greatly reduced production of japonica rice in East Asia, especially in China. Although we have made great progress in mapping resistance genes, little is known about the mechanism of resistance. By de novo transcriptome assembling, we gained sufficient transcript data to analyze changes in gene expression of early interaction in response to SBPH and RSV infection in rice. Respectively 648 and 937 DEGs were detected from the disease-resistant (Liaonong 979) and the susceptible (Fengjin) varieties, most of which were up-regulated. We found 37 genes related to insect resistance, which mainly included genes for jasmonate-induced protein, TIFY protein, lipoxygenase, as well as trypsin inhibitor genes and transcription factor genes. In the interaction process between RSV and rice, 87 genes were thought to be related to RSV resistance; these primarily included 12 peroxidase biosynthesis genes, 12 LRR receptor-like protein kinase genes, 6 genes coding pathogenesis-related proteins, 4 glycine-rich cell wall structural protein genes, 2 xyloglucan hydrolase genes and a cellulose synthase. The results indicate that the rice-pathogen interaction happened both in disease-resistant and susceptible varieties, and some genes related to JA biosynthesis played key roles in the interaction between SBPHs and rice. When rice was infected by RSV a hypersensitive reaction (HR) in the disease-resistant variety was suppressed, which resulted from an increase in peroxidase expression and down-regulation of LRR receptor-like protein kinase and pathogenesis-related proteins, while, the changes of peroxidase biosynthesis, glycine-rich cell wall structural protein, cellulose synthase and xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase could lead to the strengthening of physical barriers of rice, which may be an important resistance mechanism to RSV in rice.

  1. Modulation of neurogenesis via neurotrophic factors in acupuncture treatments for neurological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Lee, Sae-Won; Choi, Byung Tae

    2017-10-01

    Acupuncture is one of the main healing arts in Oriental medicine. It has long been used in East Asian countries, including Korea and China, and is thought to be an effective alternative treatment for various neurological diseases. The therapeutic effects of acupuncture come from inserting a needle at specific acupoints on the body surface, with subsequent delivery of stimulation via manual rotation or electric pulses (electroacupuncture, EA). In various neurological disease models, peripheral nerve stimulation using acupuncture or EA may have protective effects on neural tissues by increasing expression of neurotrophic factors (NTFs), such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glial-derived neurotrophic factor, in the central nervous system, especially the brain. In addition, acupuncture may contribute to recovery from functional impairments following brain damage by encouraging neural stem cell proliferation, which is active at the initial stage of injury, and by further facilitating differentiation. Hence, acupuncture may act as a stimulator activating peripheral nerves at specific acupoints and inducing the expression of various NTFs in the brain. Subsequently, NTFs induced by this treatment trigger autocrine or paracrine signaling, which stimulates adult neurogenesis, thereby exerting therapeutic effects on functional impairments in neurological diseases. Acupuncture may offer an alternative treatment that promotes adult neurogenesis through the expression of NTFs in the brain. It may also have synergistic effects when combined with pharmacological interventions, again facilitating neurogenesis. This review examines recent studies concerning the effects of acupuncture and EA on adult neurogenesis associated with NTF expression in neurological diseases, in particular stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Complement C3 is a novel modulator of the anti-factor VIII immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayes, Julie; Ing, Mathieu; Delignat, Sandrine; Peyron, Ivan; Gilardin, Laurent; Vogel, Carl-Wilhelm; Fritzinger, David C; Frémeaux-Bacchi, Véronique; Kaveri, Srinivas V; Roumenina, Lubka T; Lacroix-Desmazes, Sébastien

    2018-02-01

    Development of neutralizing antibodies against therapeutic Factor VIII (FVIII) is the most serious complication of the treatment of hemophilia A. There is growing evidence to show the multifactorial origin of the anti-FVIII immune response, combining both genetic and environmental factors. While a role for the complement system on innate as well as adaptive immunity has been documented, the implication of complement activation on the onset of the anti-FVIII immune response is unknown. Here, using in vitro assays for FVIII endocytosis by human monocyte-derived dendritic cells and presentation to T cells, as well as in vivo complement depletion in FVIII-deficient mice, we show a novel role for complement C3 in enhancing the immune response against therapeutic FVIII. In vitro , complement C3 and its cleavage product C3b enhanced FVIII endocytosis by dendritic cells and presentation to a FVIII-specific CD4 + T-cell hybridoma. The C1 domain of FVIII had previously been shown to play an important role in FVIII endocytosis, and alanine substitutions of the K2092, F2093 and R2090 C1 residues drastically reduce FVIII uptake in vitro Interestingly, complement activation rescued the endocytosis of the FVIII C1 domain triple mutant. In a mouse model of severe hemophilia A, transient complement C3 depletion by humanized cobra venom factor, which does not generate anaphylatoxin C5a, significantly reduced the primary anti-FVIII immune response, but did not affect anti-FVIII recall immune responses. Taken together, our results suggest an important adjuvant role for the complement cascade in the initiation of the immune response to therapeutic FVIII. Copyright© 2018 Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  3. Transcriptome sequencing reveals the roles of transcription factors in modulating genotype by nitrogen interaction in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiuyue; Liu, Zhipeng; Wang, Baobao; Wang, Xufeng; Lai, Jinsheng; Tian, Feng

    2015-10-01

    Global transcriptome analysis in maize revealed differential nitrogen response between genotypes and implicate a crucial role of transcription factors in driving genotype by nitrogen interactions at gene expression level. Developing nitrogen-efficient cultivars are essential for sustainable and productive agriculture. Nitrogen use efficiency of plants is highly dependent on the interaction of environmental and genetic variation and results in adaptive phenotypes. This study used transcriptome sequencing to perform a comprehensive genotype by nitrogen (G × N) interaction analysis for two elite Chinese maize inbreds grown at normal and low nitrogen levels in field conditions. We demonstrated that the two maize inbreds showed contrasting agronomic and transcriptomic responses to changes in nitrogen availability. A total of 96 genes with a significant G × N interaction were detected. After characterizing the expression patterns of G × N interaction genes, we found that the G × N interaction genes tended to show condition-specific differential expression. The functional annotations of G × N interaction genes revealed that many different kinds of genes were involved in G × N interactions, but a significant enrichment for transcription factors was detected, particularly the AP2/EREBP and WRKY family, suggesting that transcription factors might play important roles in driving G × N interaction at gene expression level for nitrogen response in maize. Taken together, these results not only provide novel insights into the mechanism of nitrogen response in maize and set important basis for further characterization but also have important implications for other genotype by stress interaction.

  4. The N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor and dysbindin interact to modulate synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Avanti; Mullin, Ariana P; Zlatic, Stephanie A; Easley, Charles A; Merritt, Megan E; Raj, Nisha; Larimore, Jennifer; Gordon, David E; Peden, Andrew A; Sanyal, Subhabrata; Faundez, Victor

    2015-05-13

    Dysbindin is a schizophrenia susceptibility factor and subunit of the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex 1 (BLOC-1) required for lysosome-related organelle biogenesis, and in neurons, synaptic vesicle assembly, neurotransmission, and plasticity. Protein networks, or interactomes, downstream of dysbindin/BLOC-1 remain partially explored despite their potential to illuminate neurodevelopmental disorder mechanisms. Here, we conducted a proteome-wide search for polypeptides whose cellular content is sensitive to dysbindin/BLOC-1 loss of function. We identified components of the vesicle fusion machinery as factors downregulated in dysbindin/BLOC-1 deficiency in neuroectodermal cells and iPSC-derived human neurons, among them the N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF). Human dysbindin/BLOC-1 coprecipitates with NSF and vice versa, and both proteins colocalized in a Drosophila model synapse. To test the hypothesis that NSF and dysbindin/BLOC-1 participate in a pathway-regulating synaptic function, we examined the role for NSF in dysbindin/BLOC-1-dependent synaptic homeostatic plasticity in Drosophila. As previously described, we found that mutations in dysbindin precluded homeostatic synaptic plasticity elicited by acute blockage of postsynaptic receptors. This dysbindin mutant phenotype is fully rescued by presynaptic expression of either dysbindin or Drosophila NSF. However, neither reduction of NSF alone or in combination with dysbindin haploinsufficiency impaired homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Our results demonstrate that dysbindin/BLOC-1 expression defects result in altered cellular content of proteins of the vesicle fusion apparatus and therefore influence synaptic plasticity. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/357643-11$15.00/0.

  5. Risk Factors for Pelvic Insufficiency Fractures in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer Following Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramlov, Anne, E-mail: anraml@rm.dk [Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Pedersen, Erik Morre; Røhl, Lisbeth [Department of Radiotherapy, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Worm, Esben [Department of Medical Physics, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Fokdal, Lars; Lindegaard, Jacob Chr. [Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Tanderup, Kari [Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Department of Medical Physics, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark)

    2017-04-01

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence of and risk factors for pelvic insufficiency fracture (PIF) after definitive chemoradiation therapy for locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC). Methods and Materials: We analyzed 101 patients with LACC treated from 2008-2014. Patients received weekly cisplatin and underwent external beam radiation therapy with 45 Gy in 25 fractions (node-negative patients) or 50 Gy in 25 fractions with a simultaneous integrated boost of 60 Gy in 30 fractions (node-positive patients). Pulsed dose rate magnetic resonance imaging guided adaptive brachytherapy was given in addition. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging was performed routinely at 3 and 12 months after the end of treatment or based on clinical indication. PIF was defined as a fracture line with or without sclerotic changes in the pelvic bones. D{sub 50%} and V{sub 55Gy} were calculated for the os sacrum and jointly for the os ileum and pubis. Patient- and treatment-related factors including dose were analyzed for correlation with PIF. Results: The median follow-up period was 25 months. The median age was 50 years. In 20 patients (20%), a median of 2 PIFs (range, 1-3 PIFs) were diagnosed; half were asymptomatic. The majority of the fractures were located in the sacrum (77%). Age was a significant risk factor (P<.001), and the incidence of PIF was 4% and 37% in patients aged ≤50 years and patients aged >50 years, respectively. Sacrum D{sub 50%} was a significant risk factor in patients aged >50 years (P=.04), whereas V{sub 55Gy} of the sacrum and V{sub 55Gy} of the pelvic bones were insignificant (P=.33 and P=.18, respectively). A dose-effect curve for sacrum D{sub 50%} in patients aged >50 years showed that reduction of sacrum D{sub 50%} from 40 Gy{sub EQD2} to 35 Gy{sub EQD2} reduces PIF risk from 45% to 22%. Conclusions: PIF is common after treatment of LACC and is mainly seen in patients aged >50 years. Our data indicate that PIFs are not related to lymph node

  6. Transfer of radioactive and chemical pollutants into irrigated rice fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myttenaere, C.; Mousny, J.-M.; Dabin, P.; Bittel, R.

    1975-01-01

    In a general study on the consequences of radioactive and chemical releases in continental waters, flooded rice fields must be considered as a very important ecosystem due to the very large quantities of water used. In order to approach as much as possible to the natural conditions (irrigated rice fields of Northern Italy) ''mini-rice fields'' were built and local practices were respected. The behavior of activation and fission products ( 137 Cs, 60 Co, 65 Zn, 51 Cr...) and heavy metals pollutants (Cd, Cr, Sn) was studied and the transfer from water to soil and plant was followed. Concentration factors were calculated for the different organs of the plant and the impact of rice ingested to the dose delivered to man was evaluated [fr

  7. Fibroblast Growth Factor 14 Modulates the Neurogenesis of Granule Neurons in the Adult Dentate Gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshammari, Musaad A; Alshammari, Tahani K; Nenov, Miroslav N; Scala, Federico; Laezza, Fernanda

    2016-12-01

    Adult neurogenesis, the production of mature neurons from progenitor cells in the adult mammalian brain, is linked to the etiology of neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. However, a thorough understanding of the molecular elements at the base of adult neurogenesis remains elusive. Here, we provide evidence for a previously undescribed function of fibroblast growth factor 14 (FGF14), a brain disease-associated factor that controls neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity, in regulating adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG). We found that FGF14 is dynamically expressed in restricted subtypes of sex determining region Y-box 2 (Sox2)-positive and doublecortin (DCX)-positive neural progenitors in the DG. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation studies and confocal imaging revealed that genetic deletion of Fgf14 in Fgf14 -/- mice leads to a significant change in the proportion of proliferating and immature and mature newly born adult granule cells. This results in an increase in the late immature and early mature population of DCX and calretinin (CR)-positive neurons. Electrophysiological extracellular field recordings showed reduced minimal threshold response and impaired paired-pulse facilitation at the perforant path to DG inputs in Fgf14 -/- compared to Fgf14 +/+ mice, supporting disrupted synaptic connectivity as a correlative read-out to impaired neurogenesis. These new insights into the biology of FGF14 in neurogenesis shed light into the signaling pathways associated with disrupted functions in complex brain diseases.

  8. IQGAP1 Protein Binds Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2) and Modulates Trastuzumab Resistance*

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Colin D.; Li, Zhigang; Dillon, Deborah A.; Sacks, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is overexpressed in 20–25% of breast cancers. Increased HER2 expression is an adverse prognostic factor and correlates with decreased patient survival. HER2-positive (HER2(+)) breast cancer is treated with trastuzumab. Unfortunately, some patients are intrinsically refractory to therapy, and many who do respond initially become resistant within 1 year. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying HER2 signaling and trastuzumab resistance is essential to reduce breast cancer mortality. IQGAP1 is a ubiquitously expressed scaffold protein that contains multiple protein interaction domains. By regulating its binding partners IQGAP1 integrates signaling pathways, several of which contribute to breast tumorigenesis. We show here that IQGAP1 is overexpressed in HER2(+) breast cancer tissue and binds directly to HER2. Knockdown of IQGAP1 decreases HER2 expression, phosphorylation, signaling, and HER2-stimulated cell proliferation, effects that are all reversed by reconstituting cells with IQGAP1. Reducing IQGAP1 up-regulates p27, and blocking this increase attenuates the growth inhibitory effects of IQGAP1 knockdown. Importantly, IQGAP1 is overexpressed in trastuzumab-resistant breast epithelial cells, and reducing IQGAP1 both augments the inhibitory effects of trastuzumab and restores trastuzumab sensitivity to trastuzumab-resistant SkBR3 cells. These data suggest that inhibiting IQGAP1 function may represent a rational strategy for treating HER2(+) breast carcinoma. PMID:21724847

  9. Is the renal kallikrein-kinin system a factor that modulates hypercalciuria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Luis Negri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal tubular calcium reabsorption is one of the principal factors that determine serum calcium concentration and calcium excretion. Calcium excretion is regulated by the distal convoluted tubule and connecting tubule, where the epithelial calcium channel TRPV5 can be found, which limits the rate of transcellular calcium transport. The dynamic presence of the TRPV5 channel on the surface of the tubular cell is mediated by an endosomal recycling process. Different intrarenal factors are involved in calcium channel fixation in the apical membrane, including the anti-ageing hormone klotho and tissue kallikrein (TK. Both proteins are synthesised in the distal tubule and secreted in the tubular fluid. TK stimulates active calcium reabsorption through the bradykinin receptor B2 that compromises TRPV5 activation through the protein kinase C pathway. TK-deficient mice show hypercalciuria of renal origin comparable to that seen in TRPV5 knockout mice. There is a polymorphism with loss of function of the human TK gene R53H (allele H that causes a marked decrease in enzymatic activity. The presence of the allele H seems to be common at least in the Japanese population (24%. These individuals have a tendency to greater calcium and sodium excretion in urine that is more evident during furosemide infusion. Future studies should analyse if manipulating the renal kallikrein-kinin system can correct idiopathic hypercalciuria with drugs other than thiazide diuretics.

  10. Technical Efficiency and Its Determinants of Rice Production in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokvibol Kea

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to measure the technical efficiency and establish core factors affecting rice production in Cambodia. A four‐year dataset generated from the central government document “Profile on Economics and Social” of 25 entire provinces between 2012 and 2015 and the stochastic production frontier model (SFA was applied. The results indicated that the level of output (quantity of Cambodian rice production varied according to the different level of capital investment in agricultural machineries, total rice actual harvested area, and technical fertilizer application within provinces. Furthermore, evidence revealed that the overall mean efficiency of rice production is 78.4%, which implies that there is still room to further improve technical efficiency given the same level of inputs and technology. More importantly, the findings revealed that irrigation, production techniques and amount of agricultural supporting staff are the most important influencing factors of rice production’s technical efficiency in Cambodia. In conclusion, the present study strongly recommends the development of irrigation systems and good water management practices to be considered and bring about more effective actions by the central government as well as related agencies for improving rice production in Cambodia in addition to capital investment and improving technical skills of supporting staff and rural farmers.

  11. Hypoxia inducible factor signaling modulates susceptibility to mycobacterial infection via a nitric oxide dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elks, Philip M; Brizee, Sabrina; van der Vaart, Michiel; Walmsley, Sarah R; van Eeden, Fredericus J; Renshaw, Stephen A; Meijer, Annemarie H

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a current major world-health problem, exacerbated by the causative pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), becoming increasingly resistant to conventional antibiotic treatment. Mtb is able to counteract the bactericidal mechanisms of leukocytes to survive intracellularly and develop a niche permissive for proliferation and dissemination. Understanding of the pathogenesis of mycobacterial infections such as tuberculosis (TB) remains limited, especially for early infection and for reactivation of latent infection. Signaling via hypoxia inducible factor α (HIF-α) transcription factors has previously been implicated in leukocyte activation and host defence. We have previously shown that hypoxic signaling via stabilization of Hif-1α prolongs the functionality of leukocytes in the innate immune response to injury. We sought to manipulate Hif-α signaling in a well-established Mycobacterium marinum (Mm) zebrafish model of TB to investigate effects on the host's ability to combat mycobacterial infection. Stabilization of host Hif-1α, both pharmacologically and genetically, at early stages of Mm infection was able to reduce the bacterial burden of infected larvae. Increasing Hif-1α signaling enhanced levels of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in neutrophils prior to infection and was able to reduce larval mycobacterial burden. Conversely, decreasing Hif-2α signaling enhanced RNS levels and reduced bacterial burden, demonstrating that Hif-1α and Hif-2α have opposing effects on host susceptibility to mycobacterial infection. The antimicrobial effect of Hif-1α stabilization, and Hif-2α reduction, were demonstrated to be dependent on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) signaling at early stages of infection. Our findings indicate that induction of leukocyte iNOS by stabilizing Hif-1α, or reducing Hif-2α, aids the host during early stages of Mm infection. Stabilization of Hif-1α therefore represents a potential target for therapeutic

  12. Hypoxia inducible factor signaling modulates susceptibility to mycobacterial infection via a nitric oxide dependent mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M Elks

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a current major world-health problem, exacerbated by the causative pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, becoming increasingly resistant to conventional antibiotic treatment. Mtb is able to counteract the bactericidal mechanisms of leukocytes to survive intracellularly and develop a niche permissive for proliferation and dissemination. Understanding of the pathogenesis of mycobacterial infections such as tuberculosis (TB remains limited, especially for early infection and for reactivation of latent infection. Signaling via hypoxia inducible factor α (HIF-α transcription factors has previously been implicated in leukocyte activation and host defence. We have previously shown that hypoxic signaling via stabilization of Hif-1α prolongs the functionality of leukocytes in the innate immune response to injury. We sought to manipulate Hif-α signaling in a well-established Mycobacterium marinum (Mm zebrafish model of TB to investigate effects on the host's ability to combat mycobacterial infection. Stabilization of host Hif-1α, both pharmacologically and genetically, at early stages of Mm infection was able to reduce the bacterial burden of infected larvae. Increasing Hif-1α signaling enhanced levels of reactive nitrogen species (RNS in neutrophils prior to infection and was able to reduce larval mycobacterial burden. Conversely, decreasing Hif-2α signaling enhanced RNS levels and reduced bacterial burden, demonstrating that Hif-1α and Hif-2α have opposing effects on host susceptibility to mycobacterial infection. The antimicrobial effect of Hif-1α stabilization, and Hif-2α reduction, were demonstrated to be dependent on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS signaling at early stages of infection. Our findings indicate that induction of leukocyte iNOS by stabilizing Hif-1α, or reducing Hif-2α, aids the host during early stages of Mm infection. Stabilization of Hif-1α therefore represents a potential target for

  13. Nicaragua - Rice and Banana Farmers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This report is an impact evaluation of two components of the Rural Business Development Program (RBD) in Nicaragua, specifically the components benefitting rice and...

  14. Resveratrol, by modulating RNA processing factor levels, can influence the alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Andrea Markus

    Full Text Available Alternative pre-mRNA splicing defects can contribute to, or result from, various diseases, including cancer. Aberrant mRNAs, splicing factors and other RNA processing factors have therefore become targets for new therapeutic interventions. Here we report that the natural polyphenol resveratrol can modulate alternative splicing in a target-specific manner. We transfected minigenes of several alternatively spliceable primary mRNAs into HEK293 cells in the presence or absence of 1, 5, 20 and 50 µM resveratrol and measured exon levels by semi-quantitative PCR after separation by agarose gel electrophoresis. We found that 20 µg/ml and 50 µg/ml of resveratrol affected exon inclusion of SRp20 and SMN2 pre-mRNAs, but not CD44v5 or tau pre-mRNAs. By Western blotting and immunofluorescence we showed that this effect may be due to the ability of resveratrol to change the protein level but not the localization of several RNA processing factors. The processing factors that increased significantly were ASF/SF2, hnRNPA1 and HuR, but resveratrol did not change the levels of RBM4, PTBP1 and U2AF35. By means of siRNA-mediated knockdown we depleted cells of SIRT1, regarded as a major target of resveratrol, and showed that the effect on splicing was not dependent on SIRT1. Our results suggest that resveratrol might be an attractive small molecule to treat diseases in which aberrant splicing has been implicated, and justify more extensive research on the effects of resveratrol on the splicing machinery.

  15. Radiosensitivity modulating factors: Role of PARP-1, PARP-2 and Cdk5 proteins and chromatin implication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudra, M.T.

    2011-12-01

    The post-translational modifications of DNA repair proteins and histone remodeling factors by poly(ADP-ribose)ylation and phosphorylation are essential for the maintenance of DNA integrity and chromatin structure, and in particular in response to DNA damaging produced by ionizing radiation (IR). Amongst the proteins implicated in these two processes are the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase -1 (PARP-1) and PARP-2, and the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk5: PARP-1 and 2 are involved in DNA single strand break (SSB) repair (SSBR) and Cdk5 depletion has been linked with increased cell sensitivity to PARP inhibition. We have shown by using HeLa cells stably depleted for either CdK5 or PARP-2, that the recruitment profile of PARP-1 and XRCC-1, two proteins involved in the short-patch (SP) SSBR sub-pathway, to DNA damage sites is sub-maximal and that of PCNA, a protein involved in the long-patch (LP) repair pathway, is increased in the absence of Cdk5 and decreased in the absence of PARP-2 suggesting that both Cdk5 and PARP-2 are involved in both SSBR sub-pathways. PARP-2 and Cdk5 also impact on the poly(ADP-ribose) levels in cells as in the absence of Cdk5 a hyper-activation of PARP-1 was found and in the absence of PARP-2 a reduction in poly(ADP-ribose) glyco-hydrolase (PARG) activity was seen. However, in spite of these changes no impact on the repair of SSBs induced by IR was seen in either the Cdk5 or PARP-2 depleted cells (Cdk5 KD or PARP-2 KD cells) but, interestingly, increased radiation sensitivity in terms of cell killing was noted in the Cdk5 depleted cells. We also found that Cdk5, PARP-2 and PARG were all implicated in the regulation of the recruitment and the dissociation of the chromatin-remodeling factor ALC1 from DNA damage sites suggesting a role for these three proteins in changes in chromatin structure after DNA photo-damage. These results, taken together with the observation that PARP-1 recruitment is sub-optimal in both Cdk5 KD and PARP-2 KD cells, show that

  16. Sorghum and rice: Mali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Agriculture is the mainstay of the Malian economy and yet cereal imports absorb 6.5% of GDP. Food self-sufficiency is therefore a national priority. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division is supporting a programme to improve local varieties of sorghum and rice by using nuclear techniques to develop new cultivars that will produce higher yields under Mali's semi-arid climatic conditions. (IAEA)

  17. Evaluation of Integrated Farming of Rice and Duck on Rice Grain Yield in Gilan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Mofidian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate integrated farming of rice and duck on rice grain yield, an experiment was performed on Oryza sativa L. in Gilan, Iran in 2013. This experiment was performed based on factorial split and it was also according to plan of randomized complete block (RCB in three replications. In this experiment the main factor of duck was between two levels (by presence of duck and without presence of duck and the minor factor was the factorial combination of weeding levels (weeding on the releasing day of ducks and not weeding on the releasing day of ducks; and also the planting spaces were 20×20 cm, 25×25 cm, 30×30 cm.The results of the analysis of variance show that the presence of duck in a rice field causes increasing in plant height, the number of grains per panicle, the number of filled grains per panicle, weight of thousands grains, harvest index (HI and grain yield. In total, results and statistics show that using duck in rice fields causes increasing in grain yield and consequently it increases farmer’s income and also reduction of using agricultural pesticides and protecting the environment.

  18. Supra-optimal expression of the cold-regulated OsMyb4 transcription factor in transgenic rice changes the complexity of transcriptional network with major effects on stress tolerance and panicle development

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Myoungryoul

    2010-09-28

    The R2R3-type OsMyb4 transcription factor of rice has been shown to play a role in the regulation of osmotic adjustment in heterologous overexpression studies. However, the exact composition and organization of its underlying transcriptional network has not been established to be a robust tool for stress tolerance enhancement by regulon engineering. OsMyb4 network was dissected based on commonalities between the global chilling stress transcriptome and the transcriptome configured by OsMyb4 overexpression. OsMyb4 controls a hierarchical network comprised of several regulatory sub-clusters associated with cellular defense and rescue, metabolism and development. It regulates target genes either directly or indirectly through intermediary MYB, ERF, bZIP, NAC, ARF and CCAAT-HAP transcription factors. Regulatory sub-clusters have different combinations of MYB-like, GCC-box-like, ERD1-box-like, ABRE-like, G-box-like, as1/ocs/TGA-like, AuxRE-like, gibberellic acid response element (GARE)-like and JAre-like cis-elements. Cold-dependent network activity enhanced cellular antioxidant capacity through radical scavenging mechanisms and increased activities of phenylpropanoid and isoprenoid metabolic processes involving various abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), ethylene and reactive oxygen species (ROS) responsive genes. OsMyb4 network is independent of drought response element binding protein/C-repeat binding factor (DREB/CBF) and its sub-regulons operate with possible co-regulators including nuclear factor-Y. Because of its upstream position in the network hierarchy, OsMyb4 functions quantitatively and pleiotrophically. Supra-optimal expression causes misexpression of alternative targets with costly trade-offs to panicle development. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Modulation of Tumor-Associated Macrophages (TAM) Phenotype by Platelet-Activating Factor (PAF) Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Junior, Ildefonso Alves; Stone, Simone Cardozo; Rossetti, Renata Marques; Jancar, Sonia; Lepique, Ana Paula

    2017-01-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of several types of tumors. The biological effects of PAF are mediated by the PAF receptor (PAFR), which can be expressed by tumor cells and host cells that infiltrate the tumor microenvironment. In the present study, we investigated the role of PAFR expressed by leukocytes that infiltrate two types of tumors, one that expresses PAFR (TC-1 carcinoma) and another that does not express the receptor (B16F10 melanoma) implanted in mice that express the receptor or not (PAFR KO). It was found that both tumors grew significantly less in PAFR KO than in wild-type (WT) mice. Analysis of the leukocyte infiltration shown in PAFR KO increased the frequency of neutrophils (Gr1 + ) and of CD8 + lymphocytes in B16F10 tumors and of CD4 + lymphocytes in TC-1 tumors. PAFR KO also had a higher frequency of M1-like (CD11c + ) and lower M2-like (CD206 + ) macrophages infiltrated in both tumors. This was confirmed in macrophages isolated from the tumors that showed higher iNOS, lower arginase activity, and lower IL10 expression in PAFR KO tumors than WT mice. These data suggest that in the tumor microenvironment, endogenous PAF-like activity molecules bind PAFR in macrophages which acquire an M2-like profile and this promotes tumor growth.

  20. Modulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha production with anti-hypertensive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzawa, M; Satoh, J; Ohta, S; Takahashi, K; Miyaguchi, S; Qiang, X; Sakata, Y; Nakazawa, T; Takizawa, Y; Toyota, T

    2000-06-01

    It is well known that some anti-hypertensive drugs affect insulin sensitivity and that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a mediator of obesity-associated insulin resistance. In this study, we have investigated the effect of anti-hypertensive drugs, calcium (Ca) channel blockers (amlodipine, manidipine and nicardipine), an alpha(1)-blocker (doxazosin), a beta(1)-blocker (metoprolol), and a thiazide diuretic (hydrochlorothiazide), on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TNF-alpha production. TNF-alpha production, measured with a bioassay and an immunoassay, was evaluated both in vivo and in vitro, by utilizing mice and a human peripheral blood mononuclear cell culture, respectively. Nicardipine, or amlodipine, manidipine and doxazosin significantly inhibited TNF-alpha production in mice at doses more than one or ten times higher than those used clinically, respectively. On the other hand, metoprolol increased TNF-alpha production at doses of more than 10 times those used clinically, whereas hydrochlorothiazide did not alter production of the cytokine. The in vivo effects of these drugs were not necessary parallel to the in vitro effects. Because high doses of these drugs in mice correspond to clinical doses and effects in human, these actions may be related to beneficial and/or harmful effects of these drugs on TNF-alpha mediated diseases, including insulin resistance.

  1. Interstitial cystitis antiproliferative factor (APF as a cell-cycle modulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Chen-Ou

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interstitial cystitis (IC is a chronic bladder disorder of unknown etiology. Antiproliferative factor (APF, a peptide found in the urine of IC patients, has previously been shown to decrease incorporation of thymidine by normal bladder epithelial cells. This study was performed to determine the effect of APF on the cell cycle of bladder epithelial cells so as to better understand its antiproliferative activity. Methods Explant cultures from normal bladder biopsy specimens were exposed to APF or mock control. DNA cytometry was performed using an automated image analysis system. Cell cycle phase fractions were calculated from the DNA frequency distributions and compared by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results APF exposure produced statistically significant increases in the proportion of tetraploid and hypertetraploid cells compared to mock control preparations, suggesting a G2 and/or M phase cell cycle block and the production of polyploidy. Conclusions APF has a specific effect on cell cycle distributions. The presence of a peptide with this activity may contribute to the pathogenesis of interstitial cystitis through disruption of normal urothelial proliferation and repair processes.

  2. siRNA Screen Identifies Trafficking Host Factors that Modulate Alphavirus Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheli R Radoshitzky

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the repertoire of cellular factors involved in the replication of pathogenic alphaviruses. To uncover molecular regulators of alphavirus infection, and to identify candidate drug targets, we performed a high-content imaging-based siRNA screen. We revealed an actin-remodeling pathway involving Rac1, PIP5K1- α, and Arp3, as essential for infection by pathogenic alphaviruses. Infection causes cellular actin rearrangements into large bundles of actin filaments termed actin foci. Actin foci are generated late in infection concomitantly with alphavirus envelope (E2 expression and are dependent on the activities of Rac1 and Arp3. E2 associates with actin in alphavirus-infected cells and co-localizes with Rac1-PIP5K1-α along actin filaments in the context of actin foci. Finally, Rac1, Arp3, and actin polymerization inhibitors interfere with E2 trafficking from the trans-Golgi network to the cell surface, suggesting a plausible model in which transport of E2 to the cell surface is mediated via Rac1- and Arp3-dependent actin remodeling.

  3. Standardized hydrogen storage module with high utilization factor based on metal hydride-graphite composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürger, Inga; Dieterich, Mila; Pohlmann, Carsten; Röntzsch, Lars; Linder, Marc

    2017-02-01

    In view of hydrogen based backup power systems or small-scale power2gas units, hydrogen storages based on metal hydrides offer a safe and reliable solution. By using Hydralloy C5 as suitable hydride forming alloy, the present tank design guarantees very simple operating conditions: pressures between 4 bar and 30 bar, temperatures between 15 °C and 40 °C and minimal efforts for thermal management in combination with fast and constant charging and discharging capabilities. The modular tank consists of 4 layers with 5 reactor tubes each that are filled with metal hydride-graphite composites of a diameter of 21 mm. Experiments show that each layer of this tank is able to desorb the desired amount of hydrogen for a fuel cell operation at electrical power of 160 Wel for 100 min reaching a utilization factor of 93% of the stored hydrogen at RC. Furthermore, the experimental results of modularity, increasing loads and the electric air ventilation are presented.

  4. IMPACT OF ROW-PLANTING ADOPTION ON PRODUCTIVITY OF RICE FARMING IN NORTHERN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel DONKOR

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper employed the endogenous switching regression and propensity score matching methods to analyse the impact of row-planting technology on rice productivity using 470 rice farms in Northern Ghana. The empirical findings showed that the adoption of row-planting technology exerted greater positive impact on rice yields of smallholder farmers. In addition, rice yields of adopters and non-adopters are driven by farm inputs, socioeconomic, institutional and technological factors. We suggest that achieving self-sufficiency in rice and rural economic transformation in sub-Saharan Africa requires promotion of agricultural technologies including row-planting. Different specific policy interventions are also required to promote rice yields for adopters and non-adopters.

  5. Physiochemical properties of rice starch for production of vermicelli with premium quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, L H; Tang, S Q; Luo, J; Wei, X J; Shao, G N; Jiao, G A; Sheng, Z H; Hu, P S

    2017-11-01

    Rice vermicelli is a main food consumed in China and Southeast Asia. Quality of rice vermicelli varies with rice cultivars. Parameters including amylose content, amylopectin distribution, thermal and pasting characteristics, gel texture and starch granules of three rice cultivars "Zhongjiazao 17", "Xiangzaoxian 24" and "Thai Jasmine Rice", were studied for their impacts on vermicelli quality. Results showed significant differences for the measurements of the quality traits and indicated that a favorable quality of vermicelli was not determined by any single factor instead of a combination of multi-parameters. A vermicelli with a favorable quality could be produced from a rice variety with a high apparent amylose content (>25%), a protein content of 11%, an intermediate gelatinization temperature and gel consistency, and a gel hardness (~3 N for a Rapid Viscosity Analyzer pasting) and moderate retrogradation capacity (a setback viscosity of 30-100 RVU).

  6. Amended final report on the safety assessment of Oryza Sativa (rice) Bran Oil, Oryza Sativa (rice) Germ Oil, Rice Bran Acid,Oryza Sativa (rice) Bran Wax, Hydrogenated Rice Bran Wax, Oryza Sativa (rice)Bran Extract, Oryza Sativa (rice) Extract, Oryza Sativa (rice) Germ Powder, Oryza Sativa (rice) Starch, Oryza Sativa (rice) Bran, Hydrolyzed Rice Bran Extract, Hydrolyzed Rice Bran Protein, Hydrolyzed Rice Extract, and Hydrolyzed Rice Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This report addresses the safety of cosmetic ingredients derived from rice, Oryza sativa. Oils, Fatty Acids, and Waxes: Rice Bran Oil functions in cosmetics as a conditioning agent--occlusive in 39 formulations across a wide range of product types. Rice Germ Oil is a skin-conditioning agent--occlusive in six formulations in only four product categories. Rice Bran Acid is described as a surfactant-cleansing agent, but was not in current use. Rice Bran Wax is a skin-conditioning agent--occlusive in eight formulations in five product categories. Industry did not directly report any use of Rice Bran Wax. Hydrogenated Rice Bran Wax is a binder, skin-conditioning agent--occlusive, and viscosity-increasing agent--nonaqueous in 11 formulations in six product categories. Rice Bran Oil had an oral LD50 of > 5 g/kg in white rats and Rice Wax had an oral LD50 of > 24 g/kg in male mice. A three-generation oral dosing study reported no toxic or teratologic effects in albino rats fed 10% Rice Bran Oil compared to a control group fed Peanut Oil. Undiluted Rice Bran Oil, Rice Germ Oil, and Hydrogenated Rice Bran Wax were not irritants in animal skin tests. Rice Bran Oil was not a sensitizer. Rice Bran Oil, Rice Germ Oil, Rice Wax, and Hydrogenated Rice Bran Wax were negative in ocular toxicity assays. A mixture of Rice Bran Oil and Rice Germ Oil had a ultraviolet (UV) absorption maximum at 315 nm, but was not phototoxic in a dermal exposure assay. Rice Bran Oil was negative in an Ames assay, and a component, gamma-oryzanol, was negative in bacterial and mammalian mutagenicity assays. Rice oils, fatty acids, and waxes were, at most, mildly irritating in clinical studies. Extracts: Rice Bran Extract is used in six formulations in four product categories. Rice Extract is a hair-conditioning agent, but was not in current use. Hydrolyzed Rice Extract is used in four formulations and current concentration of use data were provided for other uses. Hydrolyzed Rice Bran Extract, described

  7. PTEN enhances TNF-induced apoptosis through modulation of nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway in human glioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koul, Dimpy; Takada, Yasunari; Shen, Ruijun; Aggarwal, Bharat B.; Yung, W.K. Alfred

    2006-01-01

    The PTEN tumor suppressor gene modulates cell growth and survival known to be regulated by the activation of the transcription factor NFκB, suggesting PTEN might affect the NFκB activation pathway. We found that PTEN inhibited NFκB activation induced by TNF. The suppression of NFκB activation correlated with sequential inhibition of the tumor necrosis factor-induced expression of NFκB-regulated anti-apoptotic (IAP1, IAP2, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, cFLIP, Bfl-1/A1, and survivin) gene products. Downregulation of the antiapoptotic genes by PTEN increased TNF-induced apoptosis, as indicated by caspase activation, TUNEL, annexin staining, and esterase assay. We conclude that the ectopic expression of PTEN enhances TNF-induced apoptosis and downregulates the proliferation of glioma cells through the suppression of various molecules including NFκB, and various mediators of cellular survival and proliferation, and that this targets might be essential for its central role in the growth and survival of glioma cancer cells

  8. The GATA transcription factor ELT-2 modulates both the expression and methyltransferase activity of PRMT-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araoi, Sho; Daitoku, Hiroaki; Yokoyama, Atsuko; Kako, Koichiro; Hirota, Keiko; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi

    2018-01-18

    Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) catalyzes asymmetric arginine dimethylation of cellular proteins and thus modulates various biological processes, including gene regulation, RNA metabolism, cell signaling and DNA repair. Since prmt-1 null mutant completely abolishes asymmetric dimethylarginine in C. elegans, PRMT-1 is thought to play a crucial role in determining levels of asymmetric arginine dimethylation. However, the mechanism underlying the regulation of PRMT-1 activity remains largely unknown. Here we explored for transcription factors that induce the expression of PRMT-1 by an RNAi screen using transgenic C. elegans harboring prmt-1 promoter upstream of gfp. Of 529 clones, we identify a GATA transcription factor elt-2 as a positive regulator of Pprmt-1::gfp expression and show that elt-2 RNAi decreases endogenous PRMT-1 expression at mRNA and protein levels. Nevertheless, surprisingly arginine methylation levels are increased when elt-2 is silenced, implying that ELT-2 may also have ability to inhibit methyltransferase activity of PRMT-1. Supporting this idea, GST pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays demonstrate the interaction between ELT-2 and PRMT-1. Furthermore, we find that ELT-2 interferes with PRMT-1-induced arginine methylation in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, our results illustrate the two modes of PRMT-1 regulation, which could determine the levels of asymmetric arginine dimethylation in C. elegans. © The Authors 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  9. How Social Psychological Factors May Modulate Auditory and Cognitive Functioning During Listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    The framework for understanding effortful listening (FUEL) draws on psychological theories of cognition and motivation. In the present article, theories of social-cognitive psychology are related to the FUEL. Listening effort is defined in our consensus as the deliberate allocation of mental resources to overcome obstacles in goal pursuit when carrying out a task that involves listening. Listening effort depends not only on hearing difficulties and task demands but also on the listener's motivation to expend mental effort in challenging situations. Listeners' cost/benefit evaluations involve appraisals of listening demands, their own capacity, and the importance of listening goals. Social psychological factors can affect a listener's actual and self-perceived auditory and cognitive abilities, especially when those abilities may be insufficient to readily meet listening demands. Whether or not listeners experience stress depends not only on how demanding a situation is relative to their actual abilities but also on how they appraise their capacity to meet those demands. The self-perception or appraisal of one's abilities can be lowered by poor self-efficacy or negative stereotypes. Stress may affect performance in a given situation and chronic stress can have deleterious effects on many aspects of health, including auditory and cognitive functioning. Social support can offset demands and mitigate stress; however, the burden of providing support may stress the significant other. Some listeners cope by avoiding challenging situations and withdrawing from social participation. Extending the FUEL using social-cognitive psychological theories may provide valuable insights into how effortful listening could be reduced by adopting health-promoting approaches to rehabilitation.

  10. Modulation of Regorafenib effects on HCC cell lines by epidermal growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Rosalba; Refolo, Maria Grazia; Lippolis, Catia; Carella, Nicola; Messa, Caterina; Cavallini, Aldo; Carr, Brian Irving

    2015-06-01

    Blood platelet numbers are correlated to growth and aggressiveness of several tumor types, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We previously found that platelet lysates (hPLs) also stimulated growth and migration, and antagonized the growth-inhibitory and apoptotic effects of both Sorafenib and Regorafenib, two multikinase inhibitors, on three HCC cell lines. In this study, in vitro function of human epidermal growth factor (EGF) with and without Sorafenib or Regorafenib was investigated. An ELISA kit was used to evaluate the EGF concentrations in hPLs. In vitro function of EGF was assessed with proliferation MTT test. Apoptosis assay, scratch assays, and Transwell assays were performed for apoptosis, invasion, and migration, respectively. MAPK Activation Kit was used to explore MAPK phosphorylation. EGF antagonized the growth inhibition of Regorafenib on three HCC cell lines. Regorafenib-mediated growth inhibition was blocked by 70 % when the cells were pre-treated with EGF. EGF also blocked Regorafenib-induced apoptosis, as well as Regorafenib-induced decreases in cell migration and invasion. The EGF effects were in turn antagonized by concomitant addition to the cultures of EGF receptor antagonist Erlotinib, showing that the EGF receptor was involved in the mechanisms of EGF-mediated blocking of Regorafenib effects. Erlotinib also partially blocked the effects of hPLs in antagonizing Regorafenib-mediated growth inhibition, showing that EGF was an important component of hPL actions. All these results show that EGF antagonized Regorafenib-mediated growth and migration inhibition and apoptosis induction in HCC cells and reinforce the idea that microenvironment can influence cancer drug actions.

  11. Electroconvulsive therapy modulates plasma pigment epithelium-derived factor in depression: a proteomics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, K M; Glaviano, A; O'Donovan, S M; Kolshus, E; Dunne, R; Kavanagh, A; Jelovac, A; Noone, M; Tucker, G M; Dunn, M J; McLoughlin, D M

    2017-03-28

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective treatment for severe depression, yet its mechanism of action is not fully understood. Peripheral blood proteomic analyses may offer insights into the molecular mechanisms of ECT. Patients with a major depressive episode were recruited as part of the EFFECT-Dep trial (enhancing the effectiveness of electroconvulsive therapy in severe depression; ISRCTN23577151) along with healthy controls. As a discovery-phase study, patient plasma pre-/post-ECT (n=30) was analyzed using 2-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Identified proteins were selected for confirmation studies using immunodetection methods. Samples from a separate group of patients (pre-/post-ECT; n=57) and matched healthy controls (n=43) were then used to validate confirmed changes. Target protein mRNA levels were also assessed in rat brain and blood following electroconvulsive stimulation (ECS), the animal model of ECT. We found that ECT significantly altered 121 protein spots with 36 proteins identified by mass spectrometry. Confirmation studies identified a post-ECT increase (P<0.01) in the antiangiogenic and neuroprotective mediator pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF). Validation work showed an increase (P<0.001) in plasma PEDF in depressed patients compared with the controls that was further increased post-ECT (P=0.03). PEDF levels were not associated with mood scores. Chronic, but not acute, ECS increased PEDF mRNA in rat hippocampus (P=0.02) and dentate gyrus (P=0.03). This study identified alterations in blood levels of PEDF in depressed patients and further alterations following ECT, as well as in an animal model of ECT. These findings implicate PEDF in the biological response to ECT for depression.

  12. Factors modulating the pH at which calcium and magnesium phosphates precipitate from human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suller, M T E; Anthony, V J; Mathur, S; Feneley, R C L; Greenman, J; Stickler, D J

    2005-08-01

    The factors controlling the rate at which crystalline bacterial biofilms develop on indwelling bladder catheters are poorly understood. It is known that normally the pH of voided urine (pHv) is lower than the pH at which calcium and magnesium phosphates come out of urine solution (pHn). In patients who develop infections with urease producing bacteria, however, the pHv rises above the pHn and precipitation of the phosphates occurs in the urine and the biofilm. The aim of this study was to examine ways of manipulating the pHn of urine so that more of its calcium and magnesium remain in solution under alkaline conditions. The experimental data show that pHn can be elevated by decreasing the calcium, magnesium and phosphate concentrations. Increasing the fluid intake of a human subject so that the urinary calcium fell from 120 mg/l to 25 mg/l, for example, resulted in the pHn increasing from 6.48 to 8.22. The addition of citrate to urine also produced a rise in the pHn. The daily consumption of 500 ml of fresh orange juice increased urinary citrate concentrations from 0.35 to around 1.21 mg/ml and the pHn rose from 7.24 to 8.2. The pHn of urine is thus a highly variable parameter. It can be manipulated by controlling the urinary concentrations of magnesium, calcium, phosphate and citrate ions. We suggest that increasing fluid intake with citrate containing drinks would reduce the extent of encrustation on catheters in patients infected with urease producing bacteria.

  13. Cardioprotection by modulation of mitochondrial respiration during ischemia–reperfusion: Role of apoptosis-inducing factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Aijun [Department of Internal Medicine (Division of Cardiology), Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 (United States); Department of Anesthesiology, Tongji Hospital, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030 (China); Szczepanek, Karol; Hu, Ying [Department of Internal Medicine (Division of Cardiology), Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 (United States); Lesnefsky, Edward J. [Department of Internal Medicine (Division of Cardiology), Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 (United States); Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 (United States); McGuire Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Richmond, VA 23249 (United States); Chen, Qun, E-mail: qchen8@vcu.edu [Department of Internal Medicine (Division of Cardiology), Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 (United States)

    2013-06-14

    Highlights: •Blockade of electron transport prevents the loss of AIF from mitochondria during IR. •Blockade of electron transport decreases caspase-independent cell death during IR. •Mitochondrial AIF content is down-regulated in Harlequin mice. •Blockade of electron transport protects Harlequin mouse hearts during IR. •Amobarbital protection is partially dependent on mitochondrial AIF content. -- Abstract: The transient, reversible blockade of electron transport (BET) during ischemia or at the onset of reperfusion protects mitochondria and decreases cardiac injury. Apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) is located within the mitochondrial intermembrane space. A release of AIF from mitochondria into cytosol and nucleus triggers caspase-independent cell death. We asked if BET prevents the loss of AIF from mitochondria as a mechanism of protection in the buffer perfused heart. BET during ischemia with amobarbital, a rapidly reversible inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I, attenuated a release of AIF from mitochondria into cytosol, in turn decreasing the formation of cleaved and activated PARP-1. These results suggest that BET-mediated protection may occur through prevention of the loss of AIF from mitochondria during ischemia–reperfusion. In order to further clarify the role of mitochondrial AIF in BET-mediated protection, Harlequin (Hq) mice, a genetic model with mitochondrial AIF deficiency, were used to test whether BET could still decrease cell injury in Hq mouse hearts during reperfusion. BET during ischemia protected Hq mouse hearts against ischemia–reperfusion injury and improved mitochondrial function in these hearts during reperfusion. Thus, cardiac injury can still be decreased in the presence of down-regulated mitochondrial AIF content. Taken together, BET during ischemia protects both hearts with normal mitochondrial AIF content and hearts with mitochondrial AIF deficiency. Although preservation of mitochondrial AIF content plays a key role in

  14. Modulation of cultured porcine granulosa cell responsiveness to follicle stimulating hormone and epidermal growth factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    Ovarian follicular development is dependent upon the coordinated growth and differentiation of the granulosa cells which line the follicle. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) induces granulosa cell differentiation both in vivo and in vitro. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates granulosa cell proliferation in vitro. The interaction of these two effectors upon selected parameters of growth and differentiation was examined in monolayer cultures of porcine granulose cells. Analysis of the EGF receptor by 125 I-EGF binding revealed that the receptor was of high affinity with an apparent dissociation constant of 4-6 x 10 -10 M. The average number of receptors per cell varied with the state of differentiation both in vivo and in vitro; highly differentiated cells bound two-fold less 125 I-EGF and this effect was at least partially induced by FSH in vitro. EGF receptor function was examined by assessing EGF effects on cell number and 3 H-thymidine incorporation. EGF stimulated thymidine incorporation in both serum-free and serum-supplemented culture, but only in serum-supplemented conditions was cell number increased. EGF receptor function was inversely related to the state of differentiation and was attenuated by FSH. The FSH receptor was examined by 125 I-FSH binding. EGF increased FSH receptor number, and lowered the affinity of the receptor. The function of these receptors was assessed by 125 I-hCG binding and progesterone radioimmunoassay. If EGF was present continuously in the cultures. FSH receptor function was attenuated regardless of FSH receptor number. A preliminary effort to examine the mechanism of this interaction was performed by analyzing hormonally controlled protein synthesis with 35 S-methionine labeling, SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography. FSH promoted the expression of a 27,000 dalton protein. This effect was attenuated by EGF

  15. Halofuginone has anti-proliferative effects in acute promyelocytic leukemia by modulating the transforming growth factor beta signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena L de Figueiredo-Pontes

    Full Text Available Promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor alpha (PML-RARα expression in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL impairs transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ signaling, leading to cell growth advantage. Halofuginone (HF, a low-molecular-weight alkaloid that modulates TGFβ signaling, was used to treat APL cell lines and non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID mice subjected to transplantation with leukemic cells from human chorionic gonadotrophin-PML-RARα transgenic mice (TG. Cell cycle analysis using incorporated bromodeoxyuridine and 7-amino-actinomycin D showed that, in NB4 and NB4-R2 APL cell lines, HF inhibited cellular proliferation (P<0.001 and induced apoptosis (P = 0.002 after a 24-hour incubation. Addition of TGFβ revealed that NB4 cells were resistant to its growth-suppressive effects and that HF induced these effects in the presence or absence of the cytokine. Cell growth inhibition was associated with up-regulation of TGFβ target genes involved in cell cycle regulation (TGFB, TGFBRI, SMAD3, p15, and p21 and down-regulation of MYC. Additionally, TGFβ protein levels were decreased in leukemic TG animals and HF in vivo could restore TGFβ values to normal. To test the in vivo anti-leukemic activity of HF, we transplanted NOD/SCID mice with TG leukemic cells and treated them with HF for 21 days. HF induced partial hematological remission in the peripheral blood, bone marrow, and spleen. Together, these results suggest that HF has anti-proliferative and anti-leukemic effects by reversing the TGFβ blockade in APL. Since loss of the TGFβ response in leukemic cells may be an important second oncogenic hit, modulation of TGFβ signaling may be of therapeutic interest.

  16. Differential role of entorhinal and hippocampal nerve growth factor in short- and long-term memory modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walz R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of infusion of nerve growth factor (NGF into the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex of male Wistar rats (250-300 g, N = 11-13 per group on inhibitory avoidance retention. In order to evaluate the modulation of entorhinal and hippocampal NGF in short- and long-term memory, animals were implanted with cannulae in the CA1 area of the dorsal hippocampus or entorhinal cortex and trained in one-trial step-down inhibitory avoidance (foot shock, 0.4 mA. Retention tests were carried out 1.5 h or 24 h after training to measure short- and long-term memory, respectively. Immediately after training, rats received 5 µl NGF (0.05, 0.5 or 5.0 ng or saline per side into the CA1 area and entorhinal cortex. The correct position of the cannulae was confirmed by histological analysis. The highest dose of NGF (5.0 ng into the hippocampus blocked short-term memory (P < 0.05, whereas the doses of 0.5 (P < 0.05 and 5.0 ng (P < 0.01 NGF enhanced long-term memory. NGF administration into the entorhinal cortex improved long-term memory at the dose of 5.0 ng (P < 0.05 and did not alter short-term memory. Taken as a whole, our results suggest a differential modulation by entorhinal and hippocampal NGF of short- and long-term memory.

  17. Acetylcholine Modulates the Hormones of the Growth Hormone/Insulinlike Growth Factor-1 Axis During Development in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, Marie-José; Bertolus, Chloé; Ramanantsoa, Nélina; Saurini, Françoise; Callebert, Jacques; Sénamaud-Beaufort, Catherine; Ringot, Maud; Bourgeois, Thomas; Matrot, Boris; Collet, Corinne; Nardelli, Jeannette; Mallet, Jacques; Vodjdani, Guilan; Gallego, Jorge; Launay, Jean-Marie; Berrard, Sylvie

    2018-04-01

    Pituitary growth hormone (GH) and insulinlike growth factor (IGF)-1 are anabolic hormones whose physiological roles are particularly important during development. The activity of the GH/IGF-1 axis is controlled by complex neuroendocrine systems including two hypothalamic neuropeptides, GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SRIF), and a gastrointestinal hormone, ghrelin. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) is involved in tuning GH secretion, and its GH-stimulatory action has mainly been shown in adults but is not clearly documented during development. ACh, together with these hormones and their receptors, is expressed before birth, and somatotroph cells are already responsive to GHRH, SRIF, and ghrelin. We thus hypothesized that ACh could contribute to the modulation of the main components of the somatotropic axis during development. In this study, we generated a choline acetyltransferase knockout mouse line and showed that heterozygous mice display a transient deficit in ACh from embryonic day 18.5 to postnatal day 10, and they recover normal ACh levels from the second postnatal week. This developmental ACh deficiency had no major impact on weight gain and cardiorespiratory status of newborn mice. Using this mouse model, we found that endogenous ACh levels determined the concentrations of circulating GH and IGF-1 at embryonic and postnatal stages. In particular, serum GH level was correlated with brain ACh content. ACh also modulated the levels of GHRH and SRIF in the hypothalamus and ghrelin in the stomach, and it affected the levels of these hormones in the circulation. This study identifies ACh as a potential regulator of the somatotropic axis during the developmental period.

  18. GRAB - WRS system module number 60221 for calculating gamma-ray penetration in slab shields by the method of kernel integration with build-up factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimstone, M.J.

    1978-06-01

    The WRS Modular Programming System has been developed as a means by which programmes may be more efficiently constructed, maintained and modified. In this system a module is a self-contained unit typically composed of one or more Fortran routines, and a programme is constructed from a number of such modules. This report describes one WRS module, the function of which is to calculate the gamma-ray flux, dose, or heating rate in a slab shield using the build-up factor method. The information given in this manual is of use both to the programmer wishing to incorporate the module in a programme, and to the user of such a programme. (author)

  19. Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of early seed development in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jiehua; Hou, Yuxuan; Tong, Xiaohong; Wang, Yifeng; Lin, Haiyan; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Wen; Li, Zhiyong; Nallamilli, Babi R; Zhang, Jian

    2016-02-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) seed serves as a major food source for over half of the global population. Though it has been long recognized that phosphorylation plays an essential role in rice seed development, the phosphorylation events and dynamics in this process remain largely unknown so far. Here, we report the first large scale identification of rice seed phosphoproteins and phosphosites by using a quantitative phosphoproteomic approach. Thorough proteomic studies in pistils and seeds at 3, 7 days after pollination resulted in the successful identification of 3885, 4313 and 4135 phosphopeptides respectively. A total of 2487 proteins were differentially phosphorylated among the three stages, including Kip related protein 1, Rice basic leucine zipper factor 1, Rice prolamin box binding factor and numerous other master regulators of rice seed development. Moreover, differentially phosphorylated proteins may be extensively involved in the biosynthesis and signaling pathways of phytohormones such as auxin, gibberellin, abscisic acid and brassinosteroid. Our results strongly indicated that protein phosphorylation is a key mechanism regulating cell proliferation and enlargement, phytohormone biosynthesis and signaling, grain filling and grain quality during rice seed development. Overall, the current study enhanced our understanding of the rice phosphoproteome and shed novel insight into the regulatory mechanism of rice seed development.

  20. Identification of New Factors Modulating Adhesion Abilities of the Pioneer Commensal Bacterium Streptococcus salivarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Couvigny

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Biofilm formation is crucial for bacterial community development and host colonization by Streptococcus salivarius, a pioneer colonizer and commensal bacterium of the human gastrointestinal tract. This ability to form biofilms depends on bacterial adhesion to host surfaces, and on the intercellular aggregation contributing to biofilm cohesiveness. Many S. salivarius isolates auto-aggregate, an adhesion process mediated by cell surface proteins. To gain an insight into the genetic factors of S. salivarius that dictate host adhesion and biofilm formation, we developed a screening method, based on the differential sedimentation of bacteria in semi-liquid conditions according to their auto-aggregation capacity, which allowed us to identify twelve mutations affecting this auto-aggregation phenotype. Mutations targeted genes encoding (i extracellular components, including the CshA surface-exposed protein, the extracellular BglB glucan-binding protein, the GtfE, GtfG and GtfH glycosyltransferases and enzymes responsible for synthesis of cell wall polysaccharides (CwpB, CwpK, (ii proteins responsible for the extracellular localization of proteins, such as structural components of the accessory SecA2Y2 system (Asp1, Asp2, SecA2 and the SrtA sortase, and (iii the LiaR transcriptional response regulator. These mutations also influenced biofilm architecture, revealing that similar cell-to-cell interactions govern assembly of auto-aggregates and biofilm formation. We found that BglB, CshA, GtfH and LiaR were specifically associated with bacterial auto-aggregation, whereas Asp1, Asp2, CwpB, CwpK, GtfE, GtfG, SecA2 and SrtA also contributed to adhesion to host cells and host-derived components, or to interactions with the human pathogen Fusobacterium nucleatum. Our study demonstrates that our screening method could also be used to identify genes implicated in the bacterial interactions of pathogens or probiotics, for which aggregation is either a virulence

  1. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 modulates upregulation of mutT homolog-1 in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yuan; Zheng, Hong; Sun, Li-Hua; Peng, Ke; Xiao, Wei-Dong; Yang, Hua

    2015-12-28

    To investigate the roles and interactions of mutT homolog (MTH)-1 and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α in human colorectal cancer (CRC). The expression and distribution of HIF-1α and MTH-1 proteins were detected in human CRC tissues by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). SW480 and HT-29 cells were exposed to normoxia or hypoxia. Protein and mRNA levels of HIF-1α and MTH-1 were analyzed by western blotting and qRT-PCR, respectively. In order to determine the effect of HIF-1α on the expression of MTH-1 and the amount of 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine triphosphate (dGTP) in SW480 and HT-29 cells, HIF-1α was silenced with small interfering RNA (siRNA). Growth studies were conducted on cells with HIF-1α inhibition using a xenograft tumor model. Finally, MTH-1 protein was detected by western blotting in vivo. High MTH-1 mRNA expression was detected in 64.2% of cases (54/84), and this was significantly correlated with tumor stage (P = 0.023) and size (P = 0.043). HIF-1α protein expression was correlated significantly with MTH-1 expression (R = 0.640; P < 0.01) in human CRC tissues. Hypoxic stress induced mRNA and protein expression of MTH-1 in SW480 and HT-29 cells. Inhibition of HIF-1α by siRNA decreased the expression of MTH-1 and led to the accumulation of 8-oxo-dGTP in SW480 and HT-29 cells. In the in vivo xenograft tumor model, expression of MTH-1 was decreased in the HIF-1α siRNA group, and the tumor volume was much smaller than that in the mock siRNA group. MTH-1 expression in CRC cells was upregulated via HIF-1α in response to hypoxic stress, emphasizing the crucial role of HIF-1α-induced MTH-1 in tumor growth.

  2. The Haitian Rice Tariff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Lundahl

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Se ha argumentado que los problemas agríco-las de Haití derivan de la tarifa del arroz de a mediados de los años noventa. Antes, supues-tamente, Haití fue autosuficiente, abastecida por su producción doméstica. Después de la reducción, el mercado haitiano se inundó en importaciones de arroz barato de los EEUU, lo cual despojó a los campesinos de sus fincas, convirtiendolos en migrantes internos, hacia los empleos de bajo pago de las ciudades. El artículo rechaza ese argumento y demuestra que es falso. La malnutrición fue un fenómeno extendido en Haití mucho antes de la reducción de la tarifa del arroz, la cual tampoco tuvo un gran impacto en la importación y la producción doméstica del arroz. Lo que sí impulsó el aumento de las importaciones fue el crecimiento de la población. También el artículo argumenta que un aumento de la tarifa del arroz no solucionará el problema de la alimentación que sufre Haití. English: It has been argued that Haiti’s agricultural problems derive from the reduction of the rice tariff in the mid-1990s. Before that Haiti was allegedly able to meet its food needs by domestic production. After the reduction the Haitian market was swamped by imports of cheap American rice which drove the farmers off their lands and forced them to migrate to low-wage industrial jobs in the cities. The article demonstrates that the argument is false. Malnutrition was widespread in Haiti long before the rice tariff reduction, and the latter did not have much of an impact on rice imports and domestic production. Instead, the main driving force behind imports appears to be population growth. It is also shown that an increase of the rice tariff will not solve Haiti’s food problem.

  3. Comparative analysis of profitability of NERICA rice and local rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the costs and returns and the problems confronting rice production. One hundred and eighty (180) farmers were randomly selected from one thousand two hundred rice producers from two districts, namely Kujama and Kakau of Chukun LGA of Kaduna State. Data collection was done using structured ...

  4. Evaluation and Deployment of Rice Genotypes Resistant to Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation and Deployment of Rice Genotypes Resistant to Rice Yellow Mottle Virus Disease in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania. ... Susceptible cultivars recorded up to 75% reduction in height and death of plants whereas those resistant had mild symptoms and negligible plant height reduction. Highly resistant ...

  5. Uptake of C-14 tagged acetate by rice in a paddy soil-to-rice plant system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo [Research Center for Radiation Protection, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    rice plants in the control group. Similar phenomena should also be found for spiked group so that it was difficult to estimate root uptake rate from soil. The highest activity was 1.3 x 10{sup 3} ± 2.3 x 10{sup 2} Bq/g of the rice husk sample in the spiked group, and the C-14 activities in each plant part of the spiked group decreased in the same order as those of the control group. The average soil-to-plant transfer factor for C-14 in white rice (TF: Bq/g-dry of C-14 in white rice/ Bq/g-dry of C-14 in the soil) was 6.8. This TF includes the C-14 uptake by rice plants from the atmosphere. Therefore, new environmental parameter, which considers the transfer of C-14 from atmosphere, is desired. This work has been partially supported by the Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, the Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI) Japan. (authors)

  6. Programmed hyperphagia in offspring of obese dams: Altered expression of hypothalamic nutrient sensors, neurogenic factors and epigenetic modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Mina; Han, Guang; Ross, Michael G

    2016-04-01

    Maternal overnutrition results in programmed offspring obesity, mediated in part, by hyperphagia. This is remarkably similar to the effects of maternal undernutrition on offspring hyperphagia and obesity. In view of the marked differences in the energy environment of the over and under-nutrition exposures, we studied the expression of select epigenetic modifiers associated with energy imbalance including neurogenic factors and appetite/satiety neuropeptides which are indicative of neurogenic differentiation. HF offspring were exposed to maternal overnutrition (high fat diet; HF) during pregnancy and lactation. We determined the protein expression of energy sensors (mTOR, pAMPK), epigenetic factors (DNA methylase, DNMT1; histone deacetylase, SIRT1/HDAC1), neurogenic factors (Hes1, Mash1, Ngn3) and appetite/satiety neuropeptides (AgRP/POMC) in newborn hypothalamus and adult arcuate nucleus (ARC). Despite maternal obesity, male offspring born to obese dams had similar body weight at birth as Controls. However, when nursed by the same dams, male offspring of obese dams exhibited marked adiposity. At 1 day of age, HF newborn males had significantly decreased energy sensors, DNMT1 including Hes1 and Mash1, which may impact neuroprogenitor cell proliferation and differentiation. This is consistent with increased AgRP in HF newborns. At 6 months of age, HF adult males had significantly increased energy sensors and decreased histone deactylases. In addition, the persistent decreased Hes1, Mash1 as well as Ngn3 are consistent with increased AgRP and decreased POMC. Thus, altered energy sensors and epigenetic responses which modulate gene expression and adult neuronal differentiation may contribute to hyperphagia and obesity in HF male offspring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Geothermal rice drying unit in Kotchany, Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovski, K.; Dimitrov, K.; Andrejevski, B.; Popovska, S.

    1992-01-01

    A geothermal field in Kotchany (Macedonia) has very advantageous characteristics for direct application purposes. Low content of minerals, moderate temperature (78C) and substantial available geothermal water flow (up to 300 1/s) enabled the establishment of a district heating scheme comprising mainly agricultural and industrial uses. A rice drying unit of 10 t/h capacity was installed 8 years ago, using the geothermal water as the primary heat source. A temperature drop of 75/50C enables the adaptation of conventional drying technology, already proven in practice in the surrounding rice growing region. Water to air heat exchanger and all necessary equipment and materials are of local production, made of copper and carbon steel. The use of such drying units is strongly recommended for the concrete district heating scheme because it offers a very simple geothermal application and enables improvement in the annual heating load factor without high investments in geothermal water distribution lines

  8. Evaluation of potential effects of soil available phosphorus on soil arsenic availability and paddy rice inorganic arsenic content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Hou, Qingye; Yang, Zhongfang; Zhong, Cong; Zheng, Guodong; Yang, Zhiqiang; Li, Jie

    2014-05-01

    The transfer of arsenic from paddy field to rice is a major exposure route of the highly toxic element to humans. The aim of our study is to explore the effects of soil available phosphorus on As uptake by rice, and identify the effects of soil properties on arsenic transfer from soil to rice under actual field conditions. 56 pairs of topsoil and rice samples were collected. The relevant parameters in soil and the inorganic arsenic in rice grains were analyzed, and then all the results were treated by statistical methods. Results show that the main factors influencing the uptake by rice grain include soil pH and available phosphorus. The eventual impact of phosphorus is identified as the suppression of As uptake by rice grains. The competition for transporters from soil to roots between arsenic and phosphorus in rhizosphere soil has been a dominant feature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Linking large-scale bean-rice rotation with increased rice yield in remote sensing experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ling; Zhu, Zesheng

    2017-08-01

    In this study, the two different treatments are continuous rice and rice in rotation with bean, and the response is the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of rice or the rice yield. This study is to determine whether the rice in rotation with bean results in a significant effect—increasing the rice yield. In this completely randomized experiment, we randomly assigned 40 samples to the continuous rice and 40 samples to the rice in rotation with bean. Then the rice NDVIs of all 80 samples were computed. Because the statistical significance of the rice NDVI of the rotation treatment was observed in the experiment, we can be confident in the conclusion that it was the difference in treatments that resulted in the difference in the rice yield. That is, we can be confident that a cause-and-effect relationship between the rice in rotation with bean and the rice yield increase has been found.

  10. scale rice farmers in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    costs for domestic rice. This implies an outward shift of the domestic rice supply curve. This outward shift creates an economic surplus for the economy, typically shared between producers and consumers depending on the slopes of the supply and demand curves. This economic surplus could conceivably amount to some.

  11. Effect of brown rice consumption on inflammatory marker and cardiovascular risk factors among overweight and obese non-menopausal female adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Kazemzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The present results suggest that BR replacement in the diet may be useful to decrease inflammatory marker level and several cardiovascular risk factors among non-menopausal overweight or obese female.

  12. Outcrossing Potential between U.S. Blackhull Red Rice and Indica Rice Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weedy red rice is a major weed pest of rice in the southern U.S. Outcrossing between red rice and commercial tropical japonica rice cultivars has resulted in new weed biotypes that further hinder the effectiveness of weed management. In recent years, indica rice has been used increasingly as a ger...

  13. Maximum outcrossing rate and genetic compatibility between red rice (Oryza sativa) biotypes and Clearfield™ rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although red rice can be selectively controlled with imazethapyr in ClearfieldTM (CL) rice, the transfer of the imazethapyr-resistant gene from CL rice to red rice is an ecological risk. Previous experiments indicated that flowering synchronization and genetic compatibility between cultivated rice a...

  14. Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Aslam K. Khalil

    2009-07-16

    This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small

  15. Correlation Feature Selection and Mutual Information Theory Based Quantitative Research on Meteorological Impact Factors of Module Temperature for Solar Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujing Sun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The module temperature is the most important parameter influencing the output power of solar photovoltaic (PV systems, aside from solar irradiance. In this paper, we focus on the interdisciplinary research that combines the correlation analysis, mutual information (MI and heat transfer theory, which aims to figure out the correlative relations between different meteorological impact factors (MIFs and PV module temperature from both quality and quantitative aspects. The identification and confirmation of primary MIFs of PV module temperature are investigated as the first step of this research from the perspective of physical meaning and mathematical analysis about electrical performance and thermal characteristic of PV modules based on PV effect and heat transfer theory. Furthermore, the quantitative description of the MIFs influence on PV module temperature is mathematically formulated as several indexes using correlation-based feature selection (CFS and MI theory to explore the specific impact degrees under four different typical weather statuses named general weather classes (GWCs. Case studies for the proposed methods were conducted using actual measurement data of a 500 kW grid-connected solar PV plant in China. The results not only verified the knowledge about the main MIFs of PV module temperatures, more importantly, but also provide the specific ratio of quantitative impact degrees of these three MIFs respectively through CFS and MI based measures under four different GWCs.

  16. Relationship Between Allelopathic Effects and Functional Traits of Different Allelopathic Potential Rice Accessions at Different Growth Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Gaofeng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effects of temperature, light and their interactions on allelopathic effects and the functional traits specific leaf area (SLA and stem mass fraction (SMF of different allelopathic potential rice accessions at different growth stages were analyzed. The main results were as follows: Allelopathic responses to temperature and light varied with different allelopathic potential rice accessions at different growth stages. With the rise of temperature and the extension of photoperiod, allelopathic effect increased firstly and then decreased at 2–3 leaf stage, but increased constantly at the 4–5 and 7–8 leaf stages in strong allelopathic rice accessions [O. longistaminata, F1 (O. longistaminata × RD23, F2 (RL159 and RL169]. Temperature had significant impact on allelopathic effect without considering light factors, but light showed little effect on rice allelopathy at the same temperature conditions. The greatest allelopathic effect was attained with moderate temperature and long photoperiod at 2–3 leaf stage in strong allelopathic rice accessions, but all the rice accessions showed weak allelopathic effects at the low temperature condition (15 °C/10 °C, and the influence of different factors on allelopathy followed a general trend as temperature > leaf stage > light, indicating that among the multiple factors impacting rice allelopathy, temperature was the main factor. Allelopathic characteristics of F1 and F2 to various temperature and light were similar to O. longistaminata, showing that allelopathic genes from wild rice can be expressed in its descendants. Temperature and light also had significant effects on SLA and SMF, and rice allelopathy was closely correlative to SLA in strong allelopathic rice accessions at the 4–5 and 7–8 leaf stages, but there was no correlation between rice allelopathy and SMF at different growth stages. These results suggested that rice adjust the relationship between allelopathy and SLA

  17. Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors Protect Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cells Against Oxidation by Modulating Nitric Oxide Release and Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano De Cillà

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: the anti-vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF, Aflibercept and Ranibizumab, are used for the treatment of macular degeneration. Here we examined the involvement of nitric oxide (NO, mitochondria function and of apoptosis/autophagy in their antioxidant effects in human retinal pigment epithelium cells (RPE. Methods: RPE were exposed to Ranibizumab/Aflibercept in the absence or presence of NO synthase (NOS inhibitor and of autophagy activator/blocker, rapamicyn/3-methyladenine. Specific kits were used for cell viability, NO and reactive oxygen species detection and mitochondrial membrane potential measurement, whereas Western Blot was performed for apoptosis/ autophagy markers and other kinases detection. Results: In RPE cultured in physiological conditions, Aflibercept/Ranibizumab increased NO release in a dose and time-dependent way. Opposite results were obtained in RPE pretreated with hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, both the anti-VEGF agents were able to prevent the fall of cell viability and of mitochondrial membrane potential. Those effects were reduced by the NOS inhibitor and 3-methyladenine and were potentiated by rapamycin. Finally, Aflibercept and Ranibizumab counteracted the changes of apoptosis/autophagy markers, NOS, Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase/Protein Kinase B and Extracellular signal–regulated kinases 1/2 caused by peroxidation. Conclusion: Aflibercept and Ranibizumab protect RPE against peroxidation through the modulation of NO release, apoptosis and autophagy.

  18. Baicalin Ameliorates Experimental Liver Cholestasis in Mice by Modulation of Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and NRF2 Transcription Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kezhen Shen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental cholestatic liver fibrosis was performed by bile duct ligation (BDL in mice, and significant liver injury was observed in 15 days. Administration of baicalin in mice significantly ameliorates liver fibrosis. Experimental cholestatic liver fibrosis was associated with induced gene expression of fibrotic markers such as collagen I, fibronectin, alpha smooth muscle actin (SMA, and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF; increased inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, MIP1α, IL1β, and MIP2; increased oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species- (ROS- inducing enzymes (NOX2 and iNOS; dysfunctional mitochondrial electron chain complexes; and apoptotic/necrotic cell death markers (DNA fragmentation, caspase 3 activity, and PARP activity. Baicalin administration on alternate day reduced fibrosis along with profibrotic gene expression, proinflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress, and cell death whereas improving the function of mitochondrial electron transport chain. We observed baicalin enhanced NRF2 activation by nuclear translocation and induced its target genes HO-1 and GCLM, thus enhancing antioxidant defense. Interplay of oxidative stress/inflammation and NRF2 were key players for baicalin-mediated protection. Stellate cell activation is crucial for initiation of fibrosis. Baicalin alleviated stellate cell activation and modulated TIMP1, SMA, collagen 1, and fibronectin in vitro. This study indicates that baicalin might be beneficial for reducing inflammation and fibrosis in liver injury models.

  19. O-GlcNAc Transferase/Host Cell Factor C1 Complex Regulates Gluconeogenesis by Modulating PGC-1α Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Hai-Bin; Han, Xuemei; Li, Min-Dian; Singh, Jay Prakash; Qian, Kevin; Azarhoush, Sascha; Zhao, Lin; Bennett, Anton M.; Samuel, Varman T.; Wu, Jing; Yates, John R.; Yang, Xiaoyong

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY A major cause of hyperglycemia in diabetic patients is inappropriate hepatic gluconeogenesis. PGC-1α is a master regulator of gluconeogenesis, and its activity is controlled by various post-translational modifications. A small portion of glucose metabolizes through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, which leads to O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification of cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins. Using a proteomic approach, we identified a broad variety of proteins associated with O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), among which host cell factor C1 (HCF-1) is highly abundant. HCF-1 recruits OGT to O-GlcNAcylate PGC-1α and O-GlcNAcylation facilitates the binding of the deubiquitinase BAP1, thus protecting PGC-1α from degradation and promoting gluconeogenesis. Glucose availability modulates gluconeogenesis through the regulation of PGC-1α O-GlcNAcylation and stability by the OGT/HCF1 complex. Hepatic knockdown of OGT and HCF-1 improves glucose homeostasis in diabetic mice. These findings define the OGT/HCF-1 complex as a glucose sensor and key regulator of gluconeogenesis, shedding light on new strategies for treating diabetes. PMID:22883232

  20. Structural and functional analysis of rice genome

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    unraveling the identity of rice genes expressing in temporal and spatial manner and should help target candidate genes useful for improving traits of agronomic importance. Simultaneously ...... Harris S. B. 2002 Virtual rice: Japan sets up the rice simulator project to create an in silico rice plant. EMBO Rep. 3, 511–. 513.

  1. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched rice. 137.350 Section 137.350 Food and... Related Products § 137.350 Enriched rice. (a) The foods for which definitions and standards of identity are prescribed by this section are forms of milled rice (except rice coated with talc and glucose and...

  2. Arsenic uptake in organic rice production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic in rice is known to be a problem in some rice-producing countries that have high levels of inorganic arsenic naturally occurring in water resources. However, it was never considered an issue for USA produced rice until international market surveys were published, indicating some USA rice sam...

  3. Relation of Dietary Sodium (Salt) to Blood Pressure and Its Possible Modulation by Other Dietary Factors: The INTERMAP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamler, Jeremiah; Chan, Queenie; Daviglus, Martha L; Dyer, Alan R; Van Horn, Linda; Garside, Daniel B; Miura, Katsuyuki; Wu, Yangfeng; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Zhao, Liancheng; Elliott, Paul

    2018-04-01

    Available data indicate that dietary sodium (as salt) relates directly to blood pressure (BP). Most of these findings are from studies lacking dietary data; hence, it is unclear whether this sodium-BP relationship is modulated by other dietary factors. With control for multiple nondietary factors, but not body mass index, there were direct relations to BP of 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and the urinary sodium/potassium ratio among 4680 men and women 40 to 59 years of age (17 population samples in China, Japan, United Kingdom, and United States) in the INTERMAP (International Study on Macro/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure), and among its 2195 American participants, for example, 2 SD higher 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (118.7 mmol) associated with systolic BP 3.7 mm Hg higher. These sodium-BP relations persisted with control for 13 macronutrients, 12 vitamins, 7 minerals, and 18 amino acids, for both sex, older and younger, blacks, Hispanics, whites, and socioeconomic strata. With control for body mass index, sodium-BP-but not sodium/potassium-BP-relations were attenuated. Normal weight and obese participants manifested significant positive relations to BP of urinary sodium; relations were weaker for overweight people. At lower but not higher levels of 24-hour sodium excretion, potassium intake blunted the sodium-BP relation. The adverse association of dietary sodium with BP is minimally attenuated by other dietary constituents; these findings underscore the importance of reducing salt intake for the prevention and control of prehypertension and hypertension. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00005271. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Heparin modulates chemokines in human endometrial stromal cells by interaction with tumor necrosis factor α and thrombin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratte, Julia; Schönborn, Magdalena; Treder, Nora; Bornkessel, Frauke; Zygmunt, Marek; Fluhr, Herbert

    2015-05-01

    To study the impact of heparins on chemokines in decidualized human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) in vitro. In vitro experiment. Research laboratory. Premenopausal women undergoing hysterectomy for benign reasons. ESCs were isolated from hysterectomy specimens, decidualized in vitro and incubated with unfractionated heparin and low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) as well as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α or thrombin with or without heparins. Chemokines CXCL1, CXCL5, CXCL8, CCL2, and CCL5 were measured with the use of ELISA, and CXCL5, CXCL8, CCL2, and CCL5 were detected with the use of real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Cell viability was determined with the use of a fluorometric assay. TNF-α and thrombin stimulated distinct patterns of chemokines in ESCs. Unfractionated heparin and LMWHs attenuated the TNF-α-mediated induction of CXCL8 and enhanced CXCL5, CCL2, and CCL5. The stimulating effect of thrombin on CXCL8 could be inhibited by heparin, whereas heparin had no impact on thrombin-induced CXCL1 and CCL2. Nuclear factor of transcription κB signaling mediated the effects of TNF-α. The effects of thrombin were mediated via extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1/2. Heparins have modulating effects on TNF-α- and thrombin-induced endometrial chemokines, which might have implications in the regulation of endometrial receptivity and early implantation. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Rhesus factor modulation of effects of smoking and age on psychomotor performance, intelligence, personality profile, and health in Czech soldiers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Flegr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rhesus-positive and rhesus-negative persons differ in the presence-absence of highly immunogenic RhD protein on the erythrocyte membrane. This protein is a component of NH(3 or CO(2 pump whose physiological role is unknown. Several recent studies have shown that RhD positivity protects against effects of latent toxoplasmosis on motor performance and personality. It is not known, however, whether the RhD phenotype modifies exclusively the response of the body to toxoplasmosis or whether it also influences effects of other factors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present cohort study, we searched for the effects of age and smoking on performance, intelligence, personality and self-estimated health and wellness in about 3800 draftees. We found that the positive effect of age on performance and intelligence was stronger in RhD-positive soldiers, while the negative effect of smoking on performance and intelligence was of similar size regardless of the RhD phenotype. The effect of age on four Cattell's personality factors, i.e., dominance (E, radicalism (Q(1, self-sentiment integration (Q(3, and ergic tension (Q(4, and on Cloninger's factor reward dependency (RD was stronger for RhD-negative than RhD-positive subjects, while the effect of smoking on the number of viral and bacterial diseases was about three times stronger for RhD-negative than RhD-positive subjects. CONCLUSIONS: RhD phenotype modulates the influence not only of latent toxoplasmosis, but also of at least two other potentially detrimental factors, age and smoking, on human behavior and physiology. The negative effect of smoking on health (estimated on the basis of the self-rated number of common viral and bacterial diseases in the past year was much stronger in RhD-negative than RhD-positive subjects. It is critically needed to confirm the differences in health response to smoking between RhD-positive and RhD-negative subjects by objective medical examination in

  6. More CH4 is emitted during the fallow than during the growing season in a Mediterranean rice agrosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Eixarch, Maite; Ibàñez, Carles; Alcaraz, Carles; Viñas, Marc; Aranda, Xavier; Saldaña, J. Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Paddy rice fields are an important source of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) as they contribute 5 to 20 % of the global anthropogenic CH4 emissions. The Ebre Delta (Catalonia, NE Spain) is one of the most important wetland complexes in the Western Mediterranean with 65 % of its area covered by rice fields. The results herein presented assess the annual pattern of CH4 emissions from paddy rice in Ebre Delta, including the growing and fallow seasons as well as the major environmental variables modulating such emissions. Fifteen rice fields covering the geo-physical variability of the Ebre Delta were selected for GHG monitoring. Common agronomic management was practiced: water direct-seeding, permanent flooding and moderate mineral fertilization during the growing season and straw incorporation, progressive drainage of the fields after the harvest. Fields are left fallow during the winter. GHG were monthly sampled, from May to December in 2015. In each field, three closed chambers were used; from each of these, four gas samples were taken over a 30-minute period. Simultaneously, hydrological regime, soil physic-chemical parameters and plant cover were measured. GHG were analysed by gas chromatography. A Generalized linear model analysis (GLM) was performed to assess the most important influencing factors on CH4 emissions. An information-theoretic approach was used to find the best approximating models. Overall, the CH4 emissions showed a bi-modal pattern, with peaks in July-August and in October. Emissions rates ranged from 2.1 ± 0.5 to 7.5 ± 1.4 mg C-CH4 m-2 h-1 in the growing season (May to September) and from 25.0 ± 5.7 to 20.1 ± 3.3 mg C-CH4 m-2 h-1 at post-harvest (October to December). In total, 314 kg C-CH4 ha-1 were emitted from Ebre Delta rice fields, of which 70 % during post-harvest. Larger off-season emissions were likely induced by straw incorporation. The results of the GLM-IT analysis revealed that during the growing season, soil Eh and water level

  7. [Impacts of climate warming on growth period and yield of rice in Northeast China during recent two decades].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wen-jia; Geng, Ting; Chen, Qun; Chen, Chang-qing

    2015-01-01

    By using rice growth period, yield and climate observation data during the recent two decades, the impact of climate warming on rice in Northeast China was investigated by mathematical statistics methods. The results indicated that in the three provinces of Northeast China, the average, maximum and minimum temperatures in rice growing season were on the. rise, and the rainfall presented a downward trend during 1989-2009. Compared to 1990s, the rice whole growth periods of Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning provinces in 2000s were prolonged 14 d, 4.5 d and 5.1 d, respectively. The increase of temperature in May, June and September could extend the rice growth period, while that in July would shorten the growth duration. The rice growth duration of registered varieties and experiment sites had a similar increasing trend in Northeast China except for the Heilongjiang Province, and the extension of registered varieties growth period was the main factor causing the prolonged growth period of rice at experiment sites. The change in daily average, minimum and maximum temperatures all could affect the rice yield in Northeast China. The increasing temperature significantly increased the rice yield in Heilongjiang Province, especially in the west region of Sanjiang Plain. Except for the south of Liaoning Province, rice yields in other regions of Northeast China were promoted by increasing temperature. Proper measures for breeding, cultivation and farming, could be adopted to fully improve the adaptation of rice to climate warming in Northeast China.

  8. Analyzing the impact of price subsidy on rice self-sufficiency level in Malaysia: A preliminary finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Farah Hanim Abdul; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal; Hawari, Nurul Nazihah

    2017-11-01

    The Malaysian government had targeted for the rice industry in the country to achieve 100% rice self-sufficiency where Malaysia's rice self-sufficiency level (SSL) is currently at 65% to 75%. Thus, the government had implemented few policies to increase the rice production in Malaysia in order to meet the growing demand of rice. In this paper, the effect of price support on the rice production system in Malaysia is investigated. This study utilizes the system dynamics approach of the rice production system in Malaysia where the complexity of the factor is interrelated and changed dynamically through time. Scenario analysis was conducted using system dynamics model by making changes on the price subsidy to see its effect on the rice production and rice SSL. The system dynamics model provides a framework for understanding the effect of price subsidy on the rice self-sufficiency level. The scenario analysis of the model shows that a 50% increase in the price subsidy leads to a substantial increase in demand as the rice price drops. Accordingly, the local production increases by 15%. However, the SSL slightly decreases as the local production is insufficient to meet the large demand.

  9. Effects of Low Light on Agronomic and Physiological Characteristics of Rice Including Grain Yield and Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-hua LIU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Light intensity is one of the most important environmental factors that determine the basic characteristics of rice development. However, continuously cloudy weather or rainfall, especially during the grain-filling stage, induces a significant loss in yield and results in poor grain quality. Stress caused by low light often creates severe meteorological disasters in some rice-growing regions worldwide. This review was based on our previous research and related research regarding the effects of low light on rice growth, yield and quality as well as the formation of grain, and mainly reviewed the physiological metabolism of rice plants, including characteristics of photosynthesis, activities of antioxidant enzymes in rice leaves and key enzymes involved in starch synthesis in grains, as well as the translocations of carbohydrate and nitrogen. These characteristics include various grain yield and rice quality components (milling and appearance as well as cooking, eating and nutritional qualities under different rates of shading imposed at the vegetative or reproductive stages of rice plants. Furthermore, we discussed why grain yield and quality are reduced under the low light environment. Next, we summarized the need for future research that emphasizes methods can effectively improve rice grain yield and quality under low light stress. These research findings can provide a beneficial reference for rice cultivation management and breeding program in low light environments.

  10. Rice (Oryza sativa L) plantation affects the stability of biochar in paddy soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mengxiong; Feng, Qibo; Sun, Xue; Wang, Hailong; Gielen, Gerty; Wu, Weixiang

    2015-05-01

    Conversion of rice straw into biochar for soil amendment appears to be a promising method to increase long-term carbon sequestration and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The stability of biochar in paddy soil, which is the major determining factor of carbon sequestration effect, depends mainly on soil properties and plant functions. However, the influence of plants on biochar stability in paddy soil remains unclear. In this study, bulk and surface characteristics of the biochars incubated without rice plants were compared with those incubated with rice plants using a suite of analytical techniques. Results showed that although rice plants had no significant influence on the bulk characteristics and decomposition rates of the biochar, the surface oxidation of biochar particles was enhanced by rice plants. Using 13C labeling we observed that rice plants could significantly increase carbon incorporation from biochar into soil microbial biomass. About 0.047% of the carbon in biochar was incorporated into the rice plants during the whole rice growing cycle. These results inferred that root exudates and transportation of biochar particles into rice plants might decrease the stability of biochar in paddy soil. Impact of plants should be considered when predicting carbon sequestration potential of biochar in soil systems.

  11. Evaluation of soil characteristics potentially affecting arsenic concentration in paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdan, Katja, E-mail: katja.bogdan@pflern.uni-hannover.d [Institute of Plant Nutrition, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Herrenhaeuser Str. 2, 30419 Hannover (Germany); Schenk, Manfred K., E-mail: schenk@pflern.uni-hannover.d [Institute of Plant Nutrition, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Herrenhaeuser Str. 2, 30419 Hannover (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Paddy rice may contribute considerably to the human intake of As. The knowledge of soil characteristics affecting the As content of the rice plant enables the development of agricultural measures for controlling As uptake. During field surveys in 2004 and 2006, plant samples from 68 fields (Italy, Po-area) revealed markedly differing As concentration in polished rice. The soil factors total As{sub (aquaregia)}, pH, grain size fractions, total C, plant available P{sub (CAL)}, poorly crystalline Fe{sub (oxal.)} and plant available Si{sub (Na-acetate)} content that potentially affect As content of rice were determined. A multiple linear regression analysis showed a significant positive influence of the total As{sub (aquaregia)} and plant available P{sub (CAL)} content and a negative influence of the poorly crystalline Fe{sub (oxal.)} content of the soil on the As content in polished rice and rice straw. Si concentration in rice straw varied widely and was negatively related to As content in straw and polished rice. - Field selection for total As, poorly crystalline Fe and plant available P in soil might contribute to control As content of paddy rice.

  12. Households’ Preference for Local Rice in the Upper East Region, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Sedem Ehiakpor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the increasing demand in the rice industry, the study was undertaken to determine the factors influencing household preference for locally produced rice in the Upper East Region, Ghana. Primary data was obtained from a sample of 180 households with the aid of a structured questionnaire. Probit model and Kendall’s coefficient of concordance were used to analyze the data. Significant socioeconomic factors include income, age, sex, and marital status, whereas the quality factors such as the absence of foreign materials, packaging, and aroma were also significant determinants of preference for local rice. The top three traits consumers consider in their choice for local rice were good-looking grains, excellent packaging, and absence of foreign materials in the rice. There was an evidence of an increased preference for quality local rice. Hence, increased investment in the rice value chain, particularly the processing stage where quality standards remain the topmost priority, will help boost consumers’ confidence in the local rice market.

  13. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β inactivation inhibits tumor necrosis factor-α production in microglia by modulating nuclear factor κB and MLK3/JNK signaling cascades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Wu-Fu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deciphering the mechanisms that modulate the inflammatory response induced by microglial activation not only improves our insight into neuroinflammation but also provides avenues for designing novel therapies that could halt inflammation-induced neuronal degeneration. Decreasing glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β activity has therapeutic benefits in inflammatory diseases. However, the exact molecular mechanisms underlying GSK-3β inactivation-mediated suppression of the inflammatory response induced by microglial activation have not been completely clarified. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α plays a central role in injury caused by neuroinflammation. We investigated the regulatory effect of GSK-3β on TNF-α production by microglia to discern the molecular mechanisms of this modulation. Methods Lipopolysaccharide (LPS was used to induce an inflammatory response in cultured primary microglia or murine BV-2 microglial cells. Release of TNF-α was measured by ELISA. Signaling molecules were analyzed by western blotting, and activation of NF-κB and AP-1 was measured by ELISA-based DNA binding analysis and luciferase reporter assay. Protein interaction was examined by coimmunoprecipitation. Results Inhibition of GSK-3β by selective GSK-3β inhibitors or by RNA interference attenuated LPS-induced TNF-α production in cultured microglia. Exploration of the mechanisms by which GSK-3β positively regulates inflammatory response showed that LPS-induced IκB-α degradation, NF-κBp65 nuclear translocation, and p65 DNA binding activity were not affected by inhibition of GSK-3β activity. However, GSK-3β inactivation inhibited transactivation activity of p65 by deacetylating p65 at lysine 310. Furthermore, we also demonstrated a functional interaction between mixed lineage kinase 3 (MLK3 and GSK-3β during LPS-induced TNF-α production in microglia. The phosphorylated levels of MLK3, MKK4, and JNK were increased upon LPS treatment

  14. Promotion factors of flavor production in a liquid fermentation. : Study on the formation of flavor Components (3)

    OpenAIRE

    仲田, 冨士男; 浜地, 正昭; 本馬, 健光; FUJIO, NAKADA; MASAAKI, HAMAJI; TAKEMITSU, HONMA; 大関酒造(株)総合研究所; 大関酒造(株)総合研究所; 大関酒造(株)総合研究所; General Research Institute, Ozeki Sake Brewing Co., Ltd.,; General Research Institute, Ozeki Sake Brewing Co., Ltd.,; General Research Institute, Ozeki Sake Brewing Co., Ltd.,

    1988-01-01

    To examine some reasons for the higher content of flavor components in the sake fermented with saccharified solutions of brown rice and rice bran, some compositions of the sacchrified solutions were analyzed. There was more Mg^, K^+, PO_4^, thiamine, phytin, and pantothenic acid in saccharified solutions of brown rice and rice bran than in that of polished rice.The increase of iso-amyl acetate was minor when these factors were added individually to the saccharified solutions of polished rice....

  15. Eugenol reduces acute pain in mice by modulating the glutamatergic and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Bó, Wladmir; Luiz, Ana Paula; Martins, Daniel F; Mazzardo-Martins, Leidiane; Santos, Adair R S

    2013-10-01

    Eugenol is utilized together with zinc oxide in odontological clinical for the cementation of temporary prostheses and the temporary restoration of teeth and cavities. This work explored the antinociceptive effects of the eugenol in different models of acute pain in mice and investigated its possible modulation of the inhibitory (opioid) and excitatory (glutamatergic and pro-inflammatory cytokines) pathways of nociceptive signaling. The administration of eugenol (3-300 mg/kg, p.o., 60 min or i.p., 30 min) inhibited 82 ± 10% and 90 ± 6% of the acetic acid-induced nociception, with ID₅₀ values of 51.3 and 50.2 mg/kg, respectively. In the glutamate test, eugenol (0.3-100 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced the response behavior by 62 ± 5% with an ID₅₀ of 5.6 mg/kg. In addition, the antinociceptive effect of eugenol (10 mg/kg, i.p.) in the glutamate test was prevented by the i.p. treatment for mice with naloxone. The pretreatment of mice with eugenol (10 mg/kg, i.p.) was able to inhibit the nociception induced by the intrathecal (i.t.) injection of glutamate (37 ± 9%), kainic (acid kainite) (41 ± 12%), α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) (55 ± 5%), and substance P (SP) (39 ± 8%). Furthermore, eugenol (10 mg/kg, i.p.) also inhibited biting induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, 65 ± 8%). These results extend our current knowledge of eugenol and confirm that it promotes significant antinociception against different mouse models of acute pain. The mechanism of action appears to involve the modulation of the opioid system and glutamatergic receptors (i.e., kainate and AMPA), and the inhibition of TNF-α. Thus, eugenol could represent an important compound in the treatment for acute pain. © 2012 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  16. Rice-Map: a new-generation rice genome browser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Jingchu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concurrent release of rice genome sequences for two subspecies (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica and Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica facilitates rice studies at the whole genome level. Since the advent of high-throughput analysis, huge amounts of functional genomics data have been delivered rapidly, making an integrated online genome browser indispensable for scientists to visualize and analyze these data. Based on next-generation web technologies and high-throughput experimental data, we have developed Rice-Map, a novel genome browser for researchers to navigate, analyze and annotate rice genome interactively. Description More than one hundred annotation tracks (81 for japonica and 82 for indica have been compiled and loaded into Rice-Map. These pre-computed annotations cover gene models, transcript evidences, expression profiling, epigenetic modifications, inter-species and intra-species homologies, genetic markers and other genomic features. In addition to these pre-computed tracks, registered users can interactively add comments and research notes to Rice-Map as User-Defined Annotation entries. By smoothly scrolling, dragging and zooming, users can browse various genomic features simultaneously at multiple scales. On-the-fly analysis for selected entries could be performed through dedicated bioinformatic analysis platforms such as WebLab and Galaxy. Furthermore, a BioMart-powered data warehouse "Rice Mart" is offered for advanced users to fetch bulk datasets based on complex criteria. Conclusions Rice-Map delivers abundant up-to-date japonica and indica annotations, providing a valuable resource for both computational and bench biologists. Rice-Map is publicly accessible at http://www.ricemap.org/, with all data available for free downloading.

  17. Diurnal Solar Energy Conversion and Photoprotection in Rice Canopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, Katherine; Sirault, Xavier; Quick, W Paul; von Caemmerer, Susanne; Furbank, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Genetic improvement of photosynthetic performance of cereal crops and increasing the efficiency with which solar radiation is converted into biomass has recently become a major focus for crop physiologists and breeders. The pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorescence technique (PAM) allows quantitative leaf level monitoring of the utilization of energy for photochemical light conversion and photoprotection in natural environments, potentially over the entire crop lifecycle. Here, the diurnal relationship between electron transport rate (ETR) and irradiance was measured in five cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa) in canopy conditions with PAM fluorescence under natural solar radiation. This relationship differed substantially from that observed for conventional short term light response curves measured under controlled actinic light with the same leaves. This difference was characterized by a reduced curvature factor when curve fitting was used to model this diurnal response. The engagement of photoprotective processes in chloroplast electron transport in leaves under canopy solar radiation was shown to be a major contributor to this difference. Genotypic variation in the irradiance at which energy flux into photoprotective dissipation became greater than ETR was observed. Cultivars capable of higher ETR at midrange light intensities were shown to produce greater leaf area over time, estimated by noninvasive imaging. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Improving the phenotypic expression of rice genotypes: Rethinking “intensification” for production systems and selection practices for rice breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Uphoff

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Intensification in rice crop production is generally understood as requiring increased use of material inputs: water, inorganic fertilizers, and agrochemicals. However, this is not the only kind of intensification available. More productive crop phenotypes, with traits such as more resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and shorter crop cycles, are possible through modifications in the management of rice plants, soil, water, and nutrients, reducing rather than increasing material inputs. Greater factor productivity can be achieved through the application of new knowledge and more skill, and (initially more labor, as seen from the System of Rice Intensification (SRI, whose practices are used in various combinations by as many as 10 million farmers on about 4 million hectares in over 50 countries. The highest yields achieved with these management methods have come from hybrids and improved rice varieties, confirming the importance of making genetic improvements. However, unimproved varieties are also responsive to these changes, which induce better growth and functioning of rice root systems and more abundance, diversity, and activity of beneficial soil organisms. Some of these organisms as symbiotic endophytes can affect and enhance the expression of rice plants' genetic potential as well as their phenotypic resilience to multiple stresses, including those of climate change. SRI experience and data suggest that decades of plant breeding have been selecting for the best crop genetic endowments under suboptimal growing conditions, with crowding of plants that impedes their photosynthesis and growth, flooding of rice paddies that causes roots to degenerate and forgoes benefits derived from aerobic soil organisms, and overuse of agrochemicals that adversely affect these organisms as well as soil and human health. This review paper reports evidence from research in India and Indonesia that changes in crop and water management can improve the

  19. Induction of drought tolerant mutants of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hissewy, A.A.; Abd Allah, A.

    2001-01-01

    The ultimate goal of crop breeding is to develop varieties with a high yield potential and desirable agronomic characteristics. In Egypt, the most important qualities sought by breeders have been high yield potential, resistance to major diseases and insects, and improved grain and eating quality. However, breeding efforts should concentrate on varieties with the potential to minimize yield losses under unfavorable conditions such as drought, and to maximize yields when conditions are favorable. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Egypt is completely irrigated and a significant portion of the rice cultivated area is subject to water deficit resulting from an inadequate or insufficient irrigation supply. Drought tolerance is a complex trait in that it results from the interaction of histological and physiological characters of plant with environmental factors, both above-ground and under-ground. Accordingly, root characters are closely related to drought tolerance. Little attention has been paid in Egyptian breeding programs to root characters and their relation to shoot characters. Furthermore, induced mutations are considered as one of the most important methods to induce useful mutants, especially with improved root characters, to overcome the drought problem. The present investigation aimed to study the effect of different doses of gamma rays on several characters of three Egyptian rice varieties, i.e. 'Giza 171', 'Giza 175' and 'Giza 176' and to induce one or more mutants possessing drought tolerance

  20. International Experience in Standards and Labeling Programs for Rice Cookers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Zheng, Nina

    2008-05-01

    program is similar to Hong Kong in program design but has 5 efficiency grades; Japan's program is distinct in its adoption of the 'Top Runner' approach, in which, the future efficiency standards is set based on the efficiency levels of the most efficient product in the current domestic market. Although the standards are voluntary, penalties can still be evoked if the average efficiency target is not met. Both Hong Kong and South Korea's tests involve pouring water into the inner pot equal to 80% of its rated volume; however, white rice is used as a load for its tests in Hong Kong whereas no rice is used for tests in South Korea. In Japan's case, water level specified by the manufactures is used and milled rice is used as a load only partially in the tests. Moreover, Japan does not conduct heat efficiency test but its energy consumption measurements tests are much more complex, with 4 different tests are conducted to determine the annual average energy consumption. Hong Kong and Thailand both set Minimum Allowable Heat Efficiency for different rated wattages. The energy efficiency requirements are identical except that the minimum heat efficiency in Thailand is 1 percentage point higher for all rated power categories. In South Korea, MEPS and label's energy efficiency grades are determined by the rice cooker's Rated Energy Efficiency for induction, non-induction, pressure, nonpressure rice cookers. Japan's target standard values are set for electromagnetic induction heating products and non-electromagnetic induction heating products by different size of rice cookers. Specific formulas are used by type and size depending on the mass of water evaporation of the rice cookers. Japan has been the leading country in technology development of various types of rice cookers, and developed concrete energy efficiency standards for rice cookers. However, as consumers in Japan emphasize the deliciousness of cooked rice over other factors, many

  1. Enhancing blast disease resistance by overexpression of the calcium-dependent protein kinase OsCPK4 in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundó, Mireia; Coca, María

    2016-06-01

    Rice is the most important staple food for more than half of the human population, and blast disease is the most serious disease affecting global rice production. In this work, the isoform OsCPK4 of the rice calcium-dependent protein kinase family is reported as a regulator of rice immunity to blast fungal infection. It shows that overexpression of OsCPK4 gene in rice plants enhances resistance to blast disease by preventing fungal penetration. The constitutive accumulation of OsCPK4 protein prepares rice plants for a rapid and potentiated defence response, including the production of reactive oxygen species, callose deposition and defence gene expression. OsCPK4 overexpression leads also to constitutive increased content of the glycosylated salicylic acid hormone in leaves without compromising rice yield. Given that OsCPK4 overexpression was known to confer also salt and drought tolerance in rice, the results reported in this article demonstrate that OsCPK4 acts as a convergence component that positively modulates both biotic and abiotic signalling pathways. Altogether, our findings indicate that OsCPK4 is a potential molecular target to improve not only abiotic stress tolerance, but also blast disease resistance of rice crops. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Zinc fertilization of flooded rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    Local scientists studied Zn fertilization of flooded rice soils in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Egypt, the Philippines, Thailand and Turkey. Diagnosis of Zn deficiency was carried out for submerged rice soils. Soil maps were prepared, designating areas as low, medium and high in Zn, based on Zn extraction with DTPA and HCl solutions and on rice leaf analysis. The effectiveness of various Zn fertilizer sources and methods of application in field and greenhouse experiments was measured, using 65 Zn. The percent Zn derived from fertilizer was shown to be a much more sensitive measure of efficiency than yield or total uptake

  3. Modulation of fibroblast growth factor 19 expression by bile acids, meal replacement and energy drinks, milk, and coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styer, Amanda M; Roesch, Stephen L; Argyropoulos, George

    2014-01-01

    The enterohepatic pathway involving the fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) and bile acids (BA) has been linked with the etiology and remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D) following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. Specifically, diabetic patients had lower FGF19 circulating levels but postoperative FGF19 and BA levels were higher in diabetic patients that experience remission of T2D, as compared to non-diabetic patients and diabetic patients that do not experience remission. It has been proposed that this may be due to the direct flow of digestate-free bile acids into the ileum benefiting mostly T2D patients without severe diabetes. We used a human colorectal cell line (LS174T) that endogenously expresses FGF19, real time PCR, and Elisas for precise quantitation of FGF19 mRNA and secreted protein levels. We report here that BA and fractions of BA stimulated FGF19 in vitro but this effect was partially blocked when BA were pre-incubated with a lipoprotein mix which emulates digested food. In addition, we show that FGF19 mRNA was stimulated by meal replacement drinks (Ensure, Glucerna, SlimFast), non-fat milk, and coffee which has been linked with reduced risk for developing diabetes. Pure caffeine and the 5-hour Energy drink, on the other hand, decreased FGF19 mRNA. In summary, FGF19 expression in vitro is modifiable by popular drinks suggesting that such approaches could potentially be used for modulating FGF19 expression in humans.

  4. Arabidopsis WRKY2 and WRKY34 transcription factors interact with VQ20 protein to modulate pollen development and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Rihua; Li, Xiaoli; Ma, Zhenbing; Lv, Yan; Hu, Yanru; Yu, Diqiu

    2017-09-01

    Plant male gametogenesis is tightly regulated, and involves complex and precise regulations of transcriptional reprogramming. WRKY transcription factors have been demonstrated to play critical roles in plant development and stress responses. Several members of this family physically interact with VQ motif-containing proteins (VQ proteins) to mediate a plethora of programs in Arabidopsis; however, the involvement of WRKY-VQ complexes in plant male gametogenesis remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that WRKY2 and WKRY34 interact with VQ20 both in vitro and in vivo. Further experiments displayed that the conserved VQ motif of VQ20 is responsible for their physical interactions. The VQ20 protein localizes in the nucleus and specifically expresses in pollens. Phenotypic analysis showed that WRKY2, WRKY34 and VQ20 are crucial for pollen development and function. Mutations of WRKY2, WRKY34 and VQ20 simultaneously resulted in male sterility, with defects in pollen development, germination and tube growth. Further investigation revealed that VQ20 affects the transcriptional functions of its interacting WRKY partners. Complementation evidence supported that the VQ motif of VQ20 is essential for pollen development, as a mutant form of VQ20 in which LVQK residues in the VQ motif were replaced by EDLE did not rescue the phenotype of the w2-1 w34-1 vq20-1 triple-mutant plants. Further expression analysis indicated that WRKY2, WRKY34 and VQ20 co-modulate multiple genes involved in pollen development, germination and tube growth. Taken together, our study provides evidence that VQ20 acts as a key partner of WRKY2 and WKRY34 in plant male gametogenesis. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Modulation of fibroblast growth factor 19 expression by bile acids, meal replacement and energy drinks, milk, and coffee.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M Styer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The enterohepatic pathway involving the fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19 and bile acids (BA has been linked with the etiology and remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB surgery. Specifically, diabetic patients had lower FGF19 circulating levels but postoperative FGF19 and BA levels were higher in diabetic patients that experience remission of T2D, as compared to non-diabetic patients and diabetic patients that do not experience remission. It has been proposed that this may be due to the direct flow of digestate-free bile acids into the ileum benefiting mostly T2D patients without severe diabetes. METHODS/RESULTS: We used a human colorectal cell line (LS174T that endogenously expresses FGF19, real time PCR, and Elisas for precise quantitation of FGF19 mRNA and secreted protein levels. We report here that BA and fractions of BA stimulated FGF19 in vitro but this effect was partially blocked when BA were pre-incubated with a lipoprotein mix which emulates digested food. In addition, we show that FGF19 mRNA was stimulated by meal replacement drinks (Ensure, Glucerna, SlimFast, non-fat milk, and coffee which has been linked with reduced risk for developing diabetes. Pure caffeine and the 5-hour Energy drink, on the other hand, decreased FGF19 mRNA. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, FGF19 expression in vitro is modifiable by popular drinks suggesting that such approaches could potentially be used for modulating FGF19 expression in humans.

  6. Genetic modulation of the FV(Leiden)/normal FV ratio and risk of venous thrombosis in factor V Leiden heterozygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segers, O; Simioni, P; Tormene, D; Bulato, C; Gavasso, S; Rosing, J; Castoldi, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    The factor (F)V Leiden mutation causes activated protein C (APC) resistance by decreasing the susceptibility of FVa to APC-mediated inactivation and by impairing the APC-cofactor activity of FV in FVIIIa inactivation. However, APC resistance and the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) vary widely among FV Leiden heterozygotes. Common F5 genetic variation probably contributes to this variability. APC resistance was determined in 250 FV Leiden heterozygotes and 133 normal relatives using the prothrombinase-based assay, which specifically measures the susceptibility of plasma FVa to APC. The effects of 12 F5 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the normalized APC sensitivity ratio (nAPCsr) and on FV levels were determined by multiple regression analysis. In FV Leiden heterozygotes,VTE risk increased with increasing nAPCsr, reaching an odds ratio (OR) of 9.9 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2–80.5) in the highest nAPCsr quartile. The minor alleles of several F5 SNPs, including 327 A/G (Q51Q), 409 G/C (D79H), 2663 A/G(K830R, T2 haplotype), 6533 T/C (M2120T) and 6755 A/G (D2194G, R2 haplotype), increased the nAPCsr in FV Leiden heterozygotes, but not in their normal relatives. Most of these effects could be attributed to a shift in the FV(Leiden)/normal FV ratio. Four FV Leiden heterozygotes with extremely high nAPCsr turned out to be pseudo-homozygotes, i.e. they carried a deleterious mutation on the non-Leiden allele. In FV Leiden heterozygotes, the prothrombinase-based nAPCsr is a marker of VTE risk and is modulated by common F5 SNPs that affect the FV(Leiden)/normal FV ratio in plasma.

  7. Insulin-like growth factor-1 inhibits adult supraoptic neurons via complementary modulation of mechanoreceptors and glycine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ster, Jeanne; Colomer, Claude; Monzo, Cécile; Duvoid-Guillou, Anne; Moos, Françoise; Alonso, Gérard; Hussy, Nicolas

    2005-03-02

    In the CNS, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is mainly known for its trophic effect both during development and in adulthood. Here, we show than in adult rat supraoptic nucleus (SON), IGF-1 receptor immunoreactivity is present in neurons, whereas IGF-1 immunoreactivity is found principally in astrocytes and more moderately in neurons. In vivo application of IGF-1 within the SON acutely inhibits the activity of both vasopressin and oxytocin neurons, the two populations of SON neuroendocrine cells. Recordings of acutely isolated SON neurons showed that this inhibition occurs through two rapid and reversible mechanisms, both involving the neuronal IGF-1 receptor but different intracellular messengers. IGF-1 inhibits Gd3+-sensitive and osmosensitive mechanoreceptor cation current via phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI3) kinase activation. IGF-1 also potentiates taurine-activated glycine receptor (GlyR) Cl- currents by increasing the agonist sensitivity through a extremely rapid (within a second) PI3 kinase-independent mechanism. Both mechanoreceptor channels and GlyR, which form the excitatory and inhibitory components of SON neuron osmosensitivity, are active at rest, and their respective inhibition and potentiation will both be inhibitory, leading to strong decrease in neuronal activity. It will be of interest to determine whether IGF-1 is released by neurons, thus participating in an inhibitory autocontrol, or astrocytes, then joining the growing family of glia-to-neuron transmitters that modulate neuronal and synaptic activity. Through the opposite and complementary acute regulation of mechanoreceptors and GlyR, IGF-1 appears as a new important neuromodulator in the adult CNS, participating in the complex integration of neural messages that regulates the level of neuronal excitability.

  8. Mechanism study of sulfur fertilization mediating copper translocation and biotransformation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lijuan; Yang, Jianjun; Fang, Huaxiang; Xu, Chen; Peng, Cheng; Huang, Haomin; Lu, Lingli; Duan, Dechao; Zhang, Xiangzhi; Shi, Jiyan

    2017-07-01

    Metabolism of sulfur (S) is suggested to be an important factor for the homeostasis and detoxification of Cu in plants. We investigated the effects of S fertilizers (S 0 , Na 2 SO 4 ) on Cu translocation and biotransformation in rice plants by using multiple synchrotron-based techniques. Fertilization of S increased the biomass and yield of rice plants, as well as the translocation factor of Cu from root to shoot and shoot to grain, resulting in enhanced Cu in grain. Sulfur K-edge X-ray near edge structure (XANES) analysis showed that fertilization of S increased the concentration of glutathione in different rice tissues, especially in rice stem and leaf. Copper K-edge XANES results indicated that a much higher proportion of Cu (I) species existed in rice grain than husk and leaf, which was further confirmed by soft X-ray scanning transmission microscopy results. Sulfur increased the proportion of Cu (I) species in rice grain, husk and leaf, suggesting the inducing of Cu (II) reduction in rice tissues by S fertilization. These results suggested that fertilization of S in paddy soils increased the accumulation of Cu in rice grain, possibly due to the reduction of Cu (II) to Cu (I) by enhancing glutathione synthesis and increasing the translocation of Cu from shoot to grain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Study of the interaction of the Ig2 module of the fibroblast growth factor receptor, FGFR Ig2, with the fibroblast growth factor 1, FGF1, by means of NMR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kochoyan, Artur; Poulsen, Flemming M; Berezin, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor (FGFR) consists extracellularly of three immunoglobulin (Ig) modules (Ig1-3). Currently, there are two competing models (symmetric and asymmetric) of the FGF-FGFR-heparin complex based on crystal structures. Indirect evidence exists in support of both models...

  10. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor and estrogen receptor alpha differentially modulate nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 transactivation in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Raymond; Matthews, Jason, E-mail: jason.matthews@utoronto.ca

    2013-07-15

    Nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (NRF2; NFE2L2) plays an important role in mediating cellular protection against reactive oxygen species. NRF2 signaling is positively modulated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) but inhibited by estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). In this study we investigated the crosstalk among NRF2, AHR and ERα in MCF-7 breast cancer cells treated with the NRF2 activator sulforaphane (SFN), a dual AHR and ERα activator, 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) or 17β-estradiol (E2). SFN-dependent increases in NADPH-dependent oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and heme oxygenase I (HMOX1) mRNA levels were significantly reduced after co-treatment with E2. E2-dependent repression of NQO1 and HMOX1 was associated with increased ERα but reduced p300 recruitment and reduced histone H3 acetylation at both genes. In contrast, DIM + SFN or TCDD + SFN induced NQO1 and HMOX1 mRNA expression to levels higher than SFN alone, which was prevented by RNAi-mediated knockdown of AHR. DIM + SFN but not TCDD + SFN also induced recruitment of ERα to NQO1 and HMOX1. However, the presence of AHR at NQO1 and HMOX1 restored p300 recruitment and histone H3 acetylation, thereby reversing the ERα-dependent repression of NRF2. Taken together, our study provides further evidence of functional interplay among NRF2, AHR and ERα signaling pathways through altered p300 recruitment to NRF2-regulated target genes. - Highlights: • We examined crosstalk among ERα, AHR, and NRF2 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. • AHR enhanced the mRNA expression levels of two NRF2 target genes – HMOX1 and NQO1. • ERα repressed HMOX1 and NQO1 expression via decreased histone acetylation. • AHR prevented ERα-dependent repression of HMOX1 and NQO1.

  11. SALINITY TOLERANCE OF SEVERAL RICE GENOTYPES AT SEEDLING STAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heni Safitri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the most serious problems in rice cultivation. Salinity drastically reduced plant growth and yield, especially at seedling stage. Several rice genotypes have been produced, but their tolerance to salinity has not yet been evaluated. The study aimed to evaluate salinity tolerance of rice genotypes at seedling stage. The glasshouse experiment was conducted at Cimanggu Experimental Station, Bogor, from April to May 2013. Thirteen rice genotypes and two check varieties, namely Pokkali (salt tolerant and IR29 (salt sensitive were tested at seedling stage. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications and two factors, namely the levels of NaCl (0 and 120 mM and 13 genotypes of rice. Rice seedlings were grown in the nutrient culture (hydroponic supplemented with NaCl at different levels. The growth and salinity injury levels of the genotypes were recorded periodically. The results showed that salinity level of 120 mM NaCl reduced seedling growth of all rice genotypes, but the tolerant ones were survived after 14 days or until the sensitive check variety died. Based on the visual injury symptoms on the leaves, five genotypes, i.e. Dendang, Inpara 5, Inpari 29, IR77674-3B-8-2-2-14-4-AJY2, and IR81493-BBB-6-B- 2-1-2 were tolerant to 120 mM salinity level, while Inpara 4 was comparable to salt sensitive IR29. Hence, Inpara 4 could be used as a salinity sensitive genotype for future research of testing tolerant variety. Further evaluation is needed to confirm their salinity tolerance under field conditions. 

  12. Regulatory cross-talks and cascades in rice hormone biosynthesis pathways contribute to stress signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindam Deb

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Crosstalk among different hormone signaling pathways play an important role in modulating plant response to both biotic and abiotic stress. Hormone activity is controlled by its bio-availability, which is again influenced by its biosynthesis. Thus independent hormone biosynthesis pathways must be regulated and co-ordinated to mount an integrated response. One of the possibilities is to use cis-regulatory elements to orchestrate expression of hormone biosynthesis genes. Analysis of CREs, associated with differentially expressed hormone biosynthesis related genes in rice leaf under Magnaporthe oryzae attack and drought stress enabled us to obtain insights about cross-talk among hormone biosynthesis pathways at the transcriptional level. We identified some master transcription regulators that co-ordinate different hormone biosynthesis pathways under stress. We found that Abscisic acid and Brassinosteroid regulate Cytokinin conjugation; conversely Brassinosteroid biosynthesis is affected by both Abscisic acid and Cytokinin. Jasmonic acid and Ethylene biosynthesis may be modulated by Abscisic acid through DREB transcription factors. Jasmonic acid or Salicylic acid biosynthesis pathways are co-regulated but they are unlikely to influence each other’s production directly. Thus multiple hormones may modulate hormone biosynthesis pathways through a complex regulatory network, where biosynthesis of one hormone is affected by several other contributing hormones.

  13. Deforestation and Rice: Using Methods in Modeling and Remote Sensing to Project Patterns of Forest Change in Eastern Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, A. H.; Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Fischer, R.; Huth, A.; Shugart, H. H.

    2013-12-01

    review) Madagascar FORMIX3 Model (see Huth and Ditzer, 2000) by incorporating rice economy, selective logging and political stability modules into the model to control certain species groups (i.e. selective harvest) and fire frequency (encroachment). The improved FORMIX3 model was then used to investigate and project forest growth response to a variety of impact scenarios ranging from an increase in overall deforestation to a decrease in deforestation and increase in protection enforcement. Our findings showed a significant positive correlation between increasing deforestation rates and higher local rice prices due to political regime and international market factors. This research resulted in the first quantitative analysis of the relationship between the international rice market and local land-use in terms of slash and burn agriculture, illegal logging of precious hardwood in Madagascar.

  14. Stem Cell Differentiation Stage Factors from Zebrafish Embryo: A Novel Strategy to Modulate the Fate of Normal and Pathological Human (Stem) Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biava, Pier M; Canaider, Silvia; Facchin, Federica; Bianconi, Eva; Ljungberg, Liza; Rotilio, Domenico; Burigana, Fabio; Ventura, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the growing body of evidence on the biology of the Zebrafish embryo and stem cells, including the use of Stem Cell Differentiation Stage Factors (SCDSFs) taken from Zebrafish embryo to impact cancer cell dynamics, comparatively little is known about the possibility to use these factors to modulate the homeostasis of normal human stem cells or to modulate the behavior of cells involved in different pathological conditions. In the present review we recall in a synthetic way the most important researches about the use of SCDSFs in reprogramming cancer cells and in modulating the high speed of multiplication of keratinocytes which is characteristic of some pathological diseases like psoriasis. Moreover we add here the results about the capability of SCDSFs in modulating the homeostasis of human adiposederived stem cells (hASCs) isolated from a fat tissue obtained with a novel-non enzymatic method and device. In addition we report the data not yet published about a first protein analysis of the SCDSFs and about their role in a pathological condition like neurodegeneration.

  15. Effect Of Shade Organic Materials And Varieties On Growth And Production Of Upland Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatan Ginting

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is a shade factor and low organic matter content of the soil is a problem that needs to be addressed in the development of upland rice cultivation as intercrops in the plantation area. Based on these considerations then one study that needs to be done is to conduct experiments on the effect of shade factor combined with the the provision of the organic material to the some varieties of upland rice that has been recommended nationally. The objective of experiment is to study the influence of shade organic materials and varieties on the growth and production of upland rice. This research using experimental design of Split - Split Plot Design with 3 treatment factors and 3 replications or blocks. The first factor is the treatment of shade with 3 levels shade percentage 0 20 and 40. The second factor is the dosage of organic material consists of 3 levels 0 g polybag 25 g polybag 50 g polybag and 75 g polybag. The third factor is the treatment of varieties consists of 4 types of upland rice varieties Si Kembiri Situ Patengggang Situ Bagendit and Tuwoti. The research results showed that the effect of shade on upland rice varieties decrease number of tillers number of panicles number of productive grains grain production per hill of uplnd rice plants and total sugar content of upland rice plants. Effect of organic matter increases number of panicles number of productive grains grain production per hill of upland rice plants and total sugar content of upland rice plants. It is known that the the variety of Situ Patenggang provides better growth and production compared with three other varieties Si Kembiri Situ Bagendit and Tuwoti in shaded conditions.

  16. Spiritual quality of life and spiritual coping: evidence for a two-factor structure of the WHOQOL spirituality, religiousness, and personal beliefs module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krägeloh, Christian U; Billington, D Rex; Henning, Marcus A; Chai, Penny Pei Minn

    2015-02-25

    The WHOQOL-SRPB has been a useful module to measure aspects of QOL related to spirituality, religiousness, and personal beliefs, but recent research has pointed to potential problems with its proposed factor structure. Three of the eight facets of the WHOQOL-SRPB have been identified as potentially different from the others, and to date only a limited number of factor analyses of the instrument have been published. Analyses were conducted using data from a sample of 679 university students who had completed the WHOQOL-BREF quality of life questionnaire, the WHOQOL-SRPB module, the Perceived Stress scale, and the Brief COPE coping strategies questionnaire. Informed by these analyses, confirmatory factor analyses suitable for ordinal-level data explored the potential for a two-factor solution as opposed to the originally proposed one-factor solution. The facets WHOQOL-SRPB facets connected, strength, and faith were highly correlated with each other as well as with the religious coping sub-scale of the Brief COPE. Combining these three facets to one factor in a two-factor solution for the WHOQOL-SRPB yielded superior goodness-of-fit indices compared to the original one-factor solution. A two-factor solution for the WHOQOL-SRPB is more tenable, in which three of the eight WHOQOL-SRPB facets group together as a spiritual coping factor and the remaining facets form a factor of spiritual quality of life. While discarding the facets connectedness, strength, and faith without additional research would be premature, users of the scale need to be aware of this alternative two-factor structure, and may wish to analyze scores using this structure.

  17. Tablet-based two-dimensional measurement for estimating the embryo area of brown rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intaravanne, Yuttana; Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Chaitavon, Kosom; Chanhorm, Sataporn; Pongsoon, Prasit; Prasertsak, Anchalee

    2014-10-01

    The embryo or germ of a rice seed is growing to the shoot and the root parts of a seedling. In the early stage, the germinated embryo directly receives food from the endosperm. How healthy of the seedling can be physically predicted by measuring the areas of the embryo and endosperm. In this work, we show for the first time how the embryo and endosperm areas of a brown rice can be spatially measured. Our key design is based on the utilization of a tablet equipped with our lens module for capturing the rice seed image under white light illumination. Our Windows-based program is developed to analyze and separate the image of the whole brown rice into the embryo and endosperm parts within 2 seconds per seed. Our tablet-based system is just 30×30×6 cm3 with 1 kilogram in weight, capable to easily carry to perform in the field.

  18. Concentrations of oligomers and polymers of proanthocyanidins in red and purple rice bran and their relationships to total phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant capacity and whole grain color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proanthocyanidins, a flavonoids subgroup, are proposed to have chronic disease modulation properties. With the eventual goal of enhancing rice phytonutrient concentrations, we investigated the genotypic variation of the concentrations of individual oligomers and polymers of proanthocyanidins in dark...

  19. Rice vaikib salavanglaist / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    2005-01-01

    Euroopasse visiidile sõitev USA välisminister Condoleezza Rice külastab Saksamaad, Rumeeniat, Ukrainat ja Belgiat. Süüdistusi CIA lennukite maandumiste ja salavanglate kohta ei olevat tal kavas kommenteerida

  20. Mutant heterosis in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    In the variety TKM6 a high yielding semidwarf mutant has been induced. This TKM6 mutant was used in test crosses with a number of other varieties and mutants to examine the extent of heterosis of dwarfs in rice and to select superior crosses. An excerpt of the published data is given. It appears from the backcross of the mutant with its original variety, that an increase in number of productive tillers occurs in the hybrid, leading to a striking grain yield increase, while the semi-dwarf culm length (the main mutant character) reverts to the normal phenotype. In the cross with IR8 on the other hand, there is only a minimal increase in tiller number but a substantial increase in TGW leading to more than 30% yield increase over the better parent

  1. Occurrence and partitioning of cadmium, arsenic and lead in mine impacted paddy rice: Hunan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul N; Lei, Ming; Sun, Guoxin; Huang, Qing; Lu, Ying; Deacon, Claire; Meharg, Andrew A; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2009-02-01

    Paddy rice has been likened to nictiana sp in its ability to scavenge cadmium (Cd) from soil, whereas arsenic (As) accumulation is commonly an order of magnitude higher than in other cereal crops. In areas such as those found in parts of Hunan province in south central China, base-metal mining activities and rice farming coexist. Therefore there is a considerable likelihood that lead (Pb), in addition to Cd and As, will accumulate in rice grown in parts of this region above levels suitable for human consumption. To test this hypothesis, a widespread provincial survey of rice from mine spoilt paddies (n = 100), in addition to a follow-up market grain survey (n = 122) conducted in mine impacted areas was undertaken to determine the safety of local rice supply networks. Furthermore, a specific Cd, As, and Pb biogeochemical survey of paddy soil and rice was conducted within southern China, targeting sites impacted by mining of varying intensities to calibrate rice metal(loid) transfer models and transfer factors that can be used to predict tissue loading. Results revealed a number of highly significant correlations between shoot, husk, bran, and endosperm rice tissue fractions and that rice from mining areas was enriched in Cd, As, and Pb. Sixty-five, 50, and 34% of all the mine-impacted field rice was predicted to fail national food standards for Cd, As, and Pb, respectively. Although, not as elevated as the grains from the mine-impacted field survey, it was demonstrated that metal(loid) tainted rice was entering food supply chains intended for direct human consumption.

  2. Adubarroz: a brazilian experience for fertilization and liming recommendation of irrigated rice via computational system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe de Campos Carmona

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Recommendations for fertilizing irrigated rice in southern Brazil have been constantly evolving over years. In this process, the influence of factors such as the development cycle of varieties and sowing period increased. Thus, computational tools that take these and others important aspects into account can potentiate the fertilization response of rice. This study describes the computer program "ADUBARROZ". The software provides recommendations of fertilizer rates and liming requirements of irrigated rice, based on information entered by the user. The system takes various factors that regulate the crop response to fertilization into account. A final report is established with the graphical representation of input management over time.

  3. The ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction of rice bran oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoei, Maryam; Chekin, Fereshteh

    2016-03-01

    In this work, aqueous extraction of rice bran oil was done without and with ultrasound pretreatment. Key factors controlling the extraction and optimal operating conditions were identified. The highest extraction efficiency was found at pH=12, temperature of 45°C, agitation speed of 800rpm and agitation time of 15min, ultrasound treatment time of 70min and ultrasound treatment temperature of 25°C. Moreover, extraction yields were compared to ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction and Soxhlet extraction. The results showed that the yield of rice bran oil at ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction was close to the yield of oil extracted by hexane Soxhlet extraction. This result implied that the yield of rice bran oil was significantly influenced by ultrasound. With regard to quality, the oil extracted by ultrasound-assisted aqueous process had a lower content of free fatty acid and lower color imparting components than the hexane-extracted oil. Also, effect of parboiling of paddy on hexane and ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction was studied. Both extraction methods gives higher percentage of oil from par boiled rice bran compared with raw rice bran. This may be due to the fact that parboiling releases the oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Performance evaluation of diesel engine using rice bran biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Chhabra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of fuels in the world is increasing rapidly and it affects the global economy of all the countries so this factor forced all the countries to find the alternative fuel to reduce and even replace the usage of petroleum. Thus use of biodiesel from non-edible oil sources serves as an alternative to this problem. The present study focuses on impact assessment of rice bran and crude rice bran biodiesel and its blends with diesel on diesel engine performance. The experimental investigation provides in depth detail of the biodiesel production process, evaluation of fuel properties and impact on engine performance. The study also investigates the optimization of the Compression ratio (CR of a compression ignition engine fueled with blends of biodiesel. In order to find out the optimum CR of the engine, experiments were conducted at different CRs ranging from 12 to 18. Then the experiments were conducted using B10, B20 and B40 blends of crude rice bran bio-diesel and diesel at CR of 12 and 14 and these results were compared with the results obtained when the same engine was tested on conventional diesel fuel. Similarly the experimental results of B10, B20 and B40 blends of rice bran bio-diesel at CR 14 were investigated and analyzed. Based on the experimental investigation the blends of crude rice bran bio-diesel can be used as fuel in diesel engine without making any modification to the diesel engine.

  5. Kinetic parameters of silicon uptake by rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Oliveira Martins

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Silicon is considered an important chemical element for rice, because it can improve tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress. However, in many situations no positive effect of silicon was observed, probably due to genetic factors. The objective of this research was to monitor Si uptake kinetics and identify responses of rice cultivars in terms of Si uptake capacity and use. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse of the São Paulo State University (UNESP, Brazil. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized, factorial design with three replications. that consisted of two rice cultivars and two Si levels. Kinetic parameters (Vmax, Km, and Cmin, root morphology variables, dry matter yield, Si accumulation and levels in shoots and roots, uptake efficiency, utilization efficiency, and root/shoot ratio were evaluated. Higher Si concentrations in the nutrient solution did not increase rice dry matter. The development of the low-affinity silicon uptake system of the rice cultivar 'Caiapó' was better than of 'Maravilha'.

  6. Dark septate endophyte decreases stress on rice plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Gomes dos Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract Abiotic stress is one of the major limiting factors for plant development and productivity, which makes it important to identify microorganisms capable of increasing plant tolerance to stress. Dark septate endophytes can be symbionts of plants. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of dark septate endophytes isolates to reduce the effects of water stress in the rice varieties Nipponbare and Piauí. The experiments were performed under gnotobiotic conditions, and the water stress was induced with PEG. Four dark septate endophytes were isolated from the roots of wild rice (Oryza glumaepatula collected from the Brazilian Amazon. Plant height as well as shoot and root fresh and dry matter were measured. Leaf protein concentrations and antioxidant enzyme activity were also estimated. The dark septate endophytes were grown in vitro in Petri dishes containing culture medium; they exhibited different levels of tolerance to salinity and water stress. The two rice varieties tested responded differently to inoculation with dark septate endophytes. Endophytes promoted rice plant growth both in the presence and in the absence of a water deficit. Decreased oxidative stress in plants in response to inoculation was observed in nearly all inoculated treatments, as indicated by the decrease in antioxidant enzyme activity. Dark septate endophytes fungi were shown to increase the tolerance of rice plants to stress caused by water deficiency.

  7. A Survey of Myanmar Rice Production and Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A.A. Naing

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Although modern high yielding varieties were introduced into Myanmar in the early 1980s, the national average of rice grain yield has stagnated at 3.2-3.4 t ha-1. To identify yield constraints, input intensities and the general practices of rice cultivation in Myanmar, a survey was conducted during the wet seasons of 2001 and 2002. A total of 98 farmers from five townships in Upper Myanmar and 16 in Lower Myanmar representing the most important areas of rice production were questioned on their management practices, yields, and perceived yield constraints over the previous four years. There was a recent decrease in the overall average rate of fertilizer application, an increase in the prevalence of rice-legume cropping systems, and only localized insect pest or disease problems. Additionally, rice yields were found to be higher in Upper Myanmar, likely the results of more suitable weather conditions, better irrigation, and ready market access. Furthermore, a number of critical factors affecting production are identified and possible solutions discussed.

  8. Marker-assisted backcrossing: a useful method for rice improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Muhammad Mahmudul; Rafii, Mohd Y; Ismail, Mohd R; Mahmood, Maziah; Rahim, Harun A; Alam, Md Amirul; Ashkani, Sadegh; Malek, Md Abdul; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

    2015-03-04

    The world's population is increasing very rapidly, reducing the cultivable land of rice, decreasing table water, emerging new diseases and pests, and the climate changes are major issues that must be addressed to researchers to develop sustainable crop varieties with resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, recent scientific discoveries and advances particularly in genetics, genomics and crop physiology have opened up new opportunities to reduce the impact of these stresses which would have been difficult if not impossible as recently as the turn of the century. Marker assisted backcrossing (MABC) is one of the most promising approaches is the use of molecular markers to identify and select genes controlling resistance to those factors. Regarding this, MABC can contribute to develop resistant or high-yielding or quality rice varieties by incorporating a gene of interest into an elite variety which is already well adapted by the farmers. MABC is newly developed efficient tool by which using large population sizes (400 or more plants) for the backcross F 1 generations, it is possible to recover the recurrent parent genotype using only two or three backcrosses. So far, many high yielding, biotic and abiotic stresses tolerance, quality and fragrance rice varieties have been developed in rice growing countries through MABC within the shortest timeframe. Nowadays, MABC is being used widely in plant breeding programmes to develop new variety/lines especially in rice. This paper reviews recent literature on some examples of variety/ line development using MABC strategy.

  9. Realistic Simulation of Rice Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-long DING

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The existing research results of virtual modeling of rice plant, however, is far from perfect compared to that of other crops due to its complex structure and growth process. Techniques to visually simulate the architecture of rice plant and its growth process are presented based on the analysis of the morphological characteristics at different stages. Firstly, the simulations of geometrical shape, the bending status and the structural distortion of rice leaves are conducted. Then, by using an improved model for bending deformation, the curved patterns of panicle axis and various types of panicle branches are generated, and the spatial shape of rice panicle is therefore created. Parametric L-system is employed to generate its topological structures, and finite-state automaton is adopted to describe the development of geometrical structures. Finally, the computer visualization of three-dimensional morphologies of rice plant at both organ and individual levels is achieved. The experimental results showed that the proposed methods of modeling the three-dimensional shapes of organs and simulating the growth of rice plant are feasible and effective, and the generated three-dimensional images are realistic.

  10. Understanding the genetic and epigenetic architecture in complex network of rice flowering pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Changhui; Chen, Dan; Fang, Jun; Wang, Pingrong; Deng, Xiaojian; Chu, Chengcai

    2014-12-01

    Although the molecular basis of flowering time control is well dissected in the long day (LD) plant Arabidopsis, it is still largely unknown in the short day (SD) plant rice. Rice flowering time (heading date) is an important agronomic trait for season adaption and grain yield, which is affected by both genetic and environmental factors. During the last decade, as the nature of florigen was identified, notable progress has been made on exploration how florigen gene expression is genetically controlled. In Arabidopsis expression of certain key flowering integrators such as FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) and FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) are also epigenetically regulated by various chromatin modifications, however, very little is known in rice on this aspect until very recently. This review summarized the advances of both genetic networks and chromatin modifications in rice flowering time control, attempting to give a complete view of the genetic and epigenetic architecture in complex network of rice flowering pathways.

  11. mathematical model for scheduling irrigation for swamp rice in port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-24

    Mar 24, 2017 ... Kc – Crop factor. Mc – Soil moisture content (mm). PwP – Permanent wilting point (mm). INTRODUCTION. Rice is a food crop universally accepted and eaten all over the world. It is the most important staple food for about half of the human .... and Federal Ministry of Aviation, all in Port. Harcourt, Rivers State ...

  12. Organic rice IPM research update in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. organic rice production has steadily increased over the past decade, with a majority of the acreage being grown in the southern region. Because of the warm and humid environments and the long growing season in the region, weed, disease and insect pests are among the primary factors limiting org...

  13. Comparative analysis of drought resistance genes in Arabidopsis and rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trijatmiko, K.R.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords: rice, Arabidopsis, drought, genetic mapping,microarray, transcription factor, AP2/ERF, SHINE, wax, stomata, comparative genetics, activation tagging, Ac/Ds, En/IThis thesis describes the use of genomics information and tools from Arabidopsis and

  14. Efficacy and economics of different herbicides in aerobic rice system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-03

    Aug 3, 2011 ... technological and economic factors (Moody, 1991). Herbicide has become an attractive alternative to manual weeding due to its high efficacy and low cost. Most farmers in Malaysia are presently using herbicides as an effective tool in controlling weeds in wet direct seeded or transplanted rice (Karim et al., ...

  15. Yield constraints of rainfed lowland rice in Central Java, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boling, A.A.; Tuong, T.P.; Jatmiko, S.Y.; Burac, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The low and unstable yields of rainfed lowland rice in Central Java can be attributed to drought, nutrient stress, pest infestation or a combination of these factors. Field experiments were conducted in six crop seasons from 1997 to 2000 at Jakenan Experiment Station to quantify the yield loss due

  16. Evaluation of rice and cassava processing wastes for suitability as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OGBO

    ABSTRACT. The quality of carrier is a vital factor in determining microbial load and shelf life of biofertilizers. Rice husk and cassava peels are abundant and practically of no economic value in many developing countries and thus satisfy two important requirements of biofertilizer-carrier materials. This study evaluated other.

  17. Not just a grain of rice: the quest for quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fizgerald, M.A.; McCouch, S.R.; Hall, R.D.

    2009-01-01

    A better understanding of the factors that contribute to the overall grain quality of rice (Oryza sativa) will lay the foundation for developing new breeding and selection strategies for combining high quality, with high yield. This is necessary to meet the growing global demand for high quality

  18. Peasant rice agriculture: Its character and mechanisms of genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The factors implicated in the genetic erosion of peasant rice germplasm are; mode of harvesting, inherent population dynamics like choking up of late emergents, loss of lodging and shattering genotypes, loss of late-maturing genotypes, seed dormancy. Wholesale loss due to adoption of improved varieties and complete ...

  19. 10559 A NATIONAL SURVEY OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) GRAIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The average values of individual grading factors obtained from different sources and ... The average number of paddy (non-dehulled grains) in 1kg of milled rice .... but only to a point. It might be helpful to note that each major grade limiting constraint must be recognized as binding constraints limiting the attainable quality.

  20. Influence of moisture content, particle size and forming temperature on productivity and quality of rice straw pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Kazuei, E-mail: k-ishii@eng.hokudai.ac.jp; Furuichi, Toru

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Optimized conditions were determined for the production of rice straw pellets. • The moisture content and forming temperature are key factors. • High quality rice pellets in the lower heating value and durability were produced. - Abstract: A large amount of rice straw is generated and left as much in paddy fields, which causes greenhouse gas emissions as methane. Rice straw can be used as bioenergy. Rice straw pellets are a promising technology because pelletization of rice straw is a form of mass and energy densification, which leads to a product that is easy to handle, transport, store and utilize because of the increase in the bulk density. The operational conditions required to produce high quality rice straw pellets have not been determined. This study determined the optimal moisture content range required to produce rice straw pellets with high yield ratio and high heating value, and also determined the influence of particle size and the forming temperature on the yield ratio and durability of rice straw pellets. The optimal moisture content range was between 13% and 20% under a forming temperature of 60 or 80 °C. The optimal particle size was between 10 and 20 mm, considering the time and energy required for shredding, although the particle size did not significantly affect the yield ratio and durability of the pellets. The optimized conditions provided high quality rice straw pellets with nearly 90% yield ratio, ⩾12 MJ/kg for the lower heating value, and >95% durability.

  1. Influence of moisture content, particle size and forming temperature on productivity and quality of rice straw pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Kazuei; Furuichi, Toru

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimized conditions were determined for the production of rice straw pellets. • The moisture content and forming temperature are key factors. • High quality rice pellets in the lower heating value and durability were produced. - Abstract: A large amount of rice straw is generated and left as much in paddy fields, which causes greenhouse gas emissions as methane. Rice straw can be used as bioenergy. Rice straw pellets are a promising technology because pelletization of rice straw is a form of mass and energy densification, which leads to a product that is easy to handle, transport, store and utilize because of the increase in the bulk density. The operational conditions required to produce high quality rice straw pellets have not been determined. This study determined the optimal moisture content range required to produce rice straw pellets with high yield ratio and high heating value, and also determined the influence of particle size and the forming temperature on the yield ratio and durability of rice straw pellets. The optimal moisture content range was between 13% and 20% under a forming temperature of 60 or 80 °C. The optimal particle size was between 10 and 20 mm, considering the time and energy required for shredding, although the particle size did not significantly affect the yield ratio and durability of the pellets. The optimized conditions provided high quality rice straw pellets with nearly 90% yield ratio, ⩾12 MJ/kg for the lower heating value, and >95% durability

  2. Abscisic Acid Promotes Susceptibility to the Rice Leaf Blight Pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae by Suppressing Salicylic Acid-Mediated Defenses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xu

    Full Text Available The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA is involved in a wide variety of plant processes, including the initiation of stress-adaptive responses to various environmental cues. Recently, ABA also emerged as a central factor in the regulation and integration of plant immune responses, although little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Aiming to advance our understanding of ABA-modulated disease resistance, we have analyzed the impact, dynamics and interrelationship of ABA and the classic defense hormone salicylic acid (SA during progression of rice infection by the leaf blight pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo. Consistent with ABA negatively regulating resistance to Xoo, we found that exogenously administered ABA renders rice hypersusceptible to infection, whereas chemical and genetic disruption of ABA biosynthesis and signaling, respectively, led to enhanced Xoo resistance. In addition, we found successful Xoo infection to be associated with extensive reprogramming of ABA biosynthesis and response genes, suggesting that ABA functions as a virulence factor for Xoo. Interestingly, several lines of evidence indicate that this immune-suppressive effect of ABA is due at least in part to suppression of SA-mediated defenses that normally serve to limit pathogen growth. Resistance induced by the ABA biosynthesis inhibitor fluridone, however, appears to operate in a SA-independent manner and is likely due to induction of non-specific physiological stress. Collectively, our findings favor a scenario whereby virulent Xoo hijacks the rice ABA machinery to cause disease and highlight the importance of ABA and its crosstalk with SA in shaping the outcome of rice-Xoo interactions.

  3. Structure, divergence, and distribution of the CRR centromeric retrotransposon family in rice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nagaki, K.; Neumann, Pavel; Zhang, D.; Ouyang, S.; Buell, C.R.; Cheng, Z.; Jiang, J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 22, - (2005), s. 845-855 ISSN 0737-4038 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5051902 Keywords : rice * chromosomes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.233, year: 2005

  4. Fermentation Quality and Additives: A Case of Rice Straw Silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladosu, Yusuff; Magaji, Usman; Hussin, Ghazali; Ramli, Asfaliza; Miah, Gous

    2016-01-01

    Rice cultivation generates large amount of crop residues of which only 20% are utilized for industrial and domestic purposes. In most developing countries especially southeast Asia, rice straw is used as part of feeding ingredients for the ruminants. However, due to its low protein content and high level of lignin and silica, there is limitation to its digestibility and nutritional value. To utilize this crop residue judiciously, there is a need for improvement of its nutritive value to promote its utilization through ensiling. Understanding the fundamental principle of ensiling is a prerequisite for successful silage product. Prominent factors influencing quality of silage product include water soluble carbohydrates, natural microbial population, and harvesting conditions of the forage. Additives are used to control the fermentation processes to enhance nutrient recovery and improve silage stability. This review emphasizes some practical aspects of silage processing and the use of additives for improvement of fermentation quality of rice straw. PMID:27429981

  5. Fermentation Quality and Additives: A Case of Rice Straw Silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuff Oladosu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice cultivation generates large amount of crop residues of which only 20% are utilized for industrial and domestic purposes. In most developing countries especially southeast Asia, rice straw is used as part of feeding ingredients for the ruminants. However, due to its low protein content and high level of lignin and silica, there is limitation to its digestibility and nutritional value. To utilize this crop residue judiciously, there is a need for improvement of its nutritive value to promote its utilization through ensiling. Understanding the fundamental principle of ensiling is a prerequisite for successful silage product. Prominent factors influencing quality of silage product include water soluble carbohydrates, natural microbial population, and harvesting conditions of the forage. Additives are used to control the fermentation processes to enhance nutrient recovery and improve silage stability. This review emphasizes some practical aspects of silage processing and the use of additives for improvement of fermentation quality of rice straw.

  6. Fermentation Quality and Additives: A Case of Rice Straw Silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladosu, Yusuff; Rafii, Mohd Y; Abdullah, Norhani; Magaji, Usman; Hussin, Ghazali; Ramli, Asfaliza; Miah, Gous

    2016-01-01

    Rice cultivation generates large amount of crop residues of which only 20% are utilized for industrial and domestic purposes. In most developing countries especially southeast Asia, rice straw is used as part of feeding ingredients for the ruminants. However, due to its low protein content and high level of lignin and silica, there is limitation to its digestibility and nutritional value. To utilize this crop residue judiciously, there is a need for improvement of its nutritive value to promote its utilization through ensiling. Understanding the fundamental principle of ensiling is a prerequisite for successful silage product. Prominent factors influencing quality of silage product include water soluble carbohydrates, natural microbial population, and harvesting conditions of the forage. Additives are used to control the fermentation processes to enhance nutrient recovery and improve silage stability. This review emphasizes some practical aspects of silage processing and the use of additives for improvement of fermentation quality of rice straw.

  7. Differentiation of weedy traits in ALS-resistant red rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red rice is a weedy form of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) that competes aggressively with rice in the southern U.S., reduces yields and contaminates rice grains. The introduction of ClearfieldTM rice, a nontransgenic, herbicide-resistant rice cultivar a decade ago has led to increased use of imazet...

  8. Tightly Controlled Expression of bHLH142 Is Essential for Timely Tapetal Programmed Cell Death and Pollen Development in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swee-Suak Ko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Male sterility is important for hybrid seed production. Pollen development is regulated by a complex network. We previously showed that knockout of bHLH142 in rice (Oryza sativa causes pollen sterility by interrupting tapetal programmed cell death (PCD and bHLH142 coordinates with TDR to modulate the expression of EAT1. In this study, we demonstrated that overexpression of bHLH142 (OE142 under the control of the ubiquitin promoter also leads to male sterility in rice by triggering the premature onset of PCD. Protein of bHLH142 was found to accumulate specifically in the OE142 anthers. Overexpression of bHLH142 induced early expression of several key regulatory transcription factors in pollen development. In particular, the upregulation of EAT1 at the early stage of pollen development promoted premature PCD in the OE142 anthers, while its downregulation at the late stage impaired pollen development by suppressing genes involved in pollen wall biosynthesis, ROS scavenging and PCD. Collectively, these events led to male sterility in OE142. Analyses of related mutants further revealed the hierarchy of the pollen development regulatory gene network. Thus, the findings of this study advance our understanding of the central role played by bHLH142 in the regulatory network leading to pollen development in rice and how overexpression of its expression affects pollen development. Exploitation of this novel functionality of bHLH142 may confer a big advantage to hybrid seed production.

  9. Functional Characterization of a Novel R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor Modulating the Flavonoid Biosynthetic Pathway from Epimedium sagittatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Huang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Epimedium species have been widely used both as traditional Chinese medicinal plants and ornamental perennials. Both flavonols, acting as the major bioactive components (BCs and anthocyanins, predominantly contributing to the color diversity of Epimedium flowers belong to different classes of flavonoids. It is well-acknowledged that flavonoid biosynthetic pathway is predominantly regulated by R2R3-MYB transcription factor (TF as well as bHLH TF and WD40 protein at the transcriptional level. MYB TFs specifically regulating anthocyanin or flavonol biosynthetic pathway have been already isolated and functionally characterized from Epimedium sagittatum, but a R2R3-MYB TF involved in regulating both these two pathways has not been functionally characterized to date in Epimedium plants. In this study, we report the functional characterization of EsMYB9, a R2R3-MYB TF previously isolated from E. sagittatum. The previous study indicated that EsMYB9 belongs to a small subfamily of R2R3-MYB TFs containing grape VvMYB5a and VvMYB5b TFs, which regulate flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. The present studies show that overexpression of EsMYB9 in tobacco leads to increased transcript levels of flavonoid pathway genes and increased contents of anthocyanins and flavonols. Yeast two-hybrid assay indicates that the C-terminal region of EsMYB9 contributes to the autoactivation activity, and EsMYB9 interacts with EsTT8 or AtTT8 bHLH regulator. Transient reporter assay shows that EsMYB9 slightly activates the expression of EsCHS (chalcone synthase promoter in transiently transformed leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana, but the addition of AtTT8 or EsTT8 bHLH regulator strongly enhances the transcriptional activation of EsMYB9 against five promoters of the flavonoid pathway genes except EsFLS (flavonol synthase. In addition, co-transformation of EsMYB9 and EsTT8 in transiently transfected tobacco leaves strongly induces the expressions of flavonoid biosynthetic genes. The

  10. Meal replacement based on Human Ration modulates metabolic risk factors during body weight loss: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Natalia Elizabeth Galdino; Enes, Bárbara Nery; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Alfenas, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha

    2014-04-01

    A meal replacement may be an effective strategy in the management of obesity to increase antioxidant intake, attenuating oxidative stress and inflammation. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of a new nutritional supplement to reduce metabolic risk parameters in obese women. In a randomized controlled crossover study (2 × 2), 22 women (percentage body fat 40.52 ± 3.75%; body mass index-BMI 28.72 ± 2.87 kg/m²; 35.04 ± 5.6 years old) were allocated into two treatments: hypocaloric diet and drink containing "Human Ration" (HR) consumption (CRHR), and hypocaloric diet and control drink consumption (CR). The study consisted of 2 periods of 5 weeks with 1 week of washout in two orders (CR → CRHR and CRHR → CR). Caloric restriction was 15%, based on estimated energy requirement. Anthropometric, clinical and metabolic risk parameters were assessed at baseline and at the end of each period. Some metabolic risk factors were favorably modulated in both interventions: reduction in body weight (CR -0.74 ± 1.27 kg; p = 0.01; CRHR -0.77 ± 1.3 kg; p = 0.02), body mass index (BMI) (CR -0.27 ± 0.51 kg/m²; p = 0.02; CRHR -0.30 ± 0.52 kg/m²; p = 0.01) and HOMA-IR (CR -0.35 ± 0.82; p = 0.02, CRHR -0.41 ± 0.83; p = 0.03). However, CRHR reduced waist circumference (-2.54 ± 2.74 cm; p < 0.01) and gynoid fat (-0.264 ± 0.28 g; p < 0.01), and increased HDL-c levels (0.08 ± 0.15 mmol/l; p = 0.04). Associated with hypocaloric diet, the intake of a nutritional supplement rich in phytochemicals as a breakfast substitute for 5 weeks had no additional effect on weight reduction than caloric restriction alone, but increased central lipolysis and improved the lipoprotein profile.

  11. Estresse oxidativo: conceito, implicações e fatores modulatórios Oxidative stress: concept, implications and modulating factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiriaque Barra Ferreira Barbosa

    2010-08-01

    relevant agents of the antioxidant defense system on the biomarkers of oxidative stress. The main exogenous factors that modulate oxidative stress will also be discussed.

  12. Soil tillage, rice straw and flooded irrigated rice yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amauri Nelson Beutler

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was evaluate the effect of management systems and straw in flooded irrigated rice yield. The experimental design was a completely randomized with three experiments and, 10 replications in experiment 1 and 2 and, 6 replications in experiment 3. The experiments were: E1 – no-till system (E1PD and conventional system with two harrowings at 0.0–0.07 m layer and leveling with remaplam (E1PC, after three years of sowing rice, after fallow of rice tillage, with sowing of rye grass in winter and grazing; E2 – no-till system (E2PD and conventional system after native field (E2PC; E3 – no-till without straw on soil surface (E30P, current straw on soil surface of 3,726 kg ha-1 (E31P, two times current straw of 7,452 kg ha-1 (E32P and three times current straw of 11,178 kg ha-1 (E33P. In soil, were evaluated the average geometric diameter of aggregates, soil bulk density, soil porosity, macro and microporosity, in 0.0-0.05 and 0.05-0.10 m layer. In harvest were evaluated the panicles number in 0,25 m2 area, number of filled, empty an total grains in 10 panicles, mass of one thousand seeds and rice grains yield in 2 m2. The conventional system presented greater macroporosity and total porosity, compared with no-till system, however, does not result in differences in production components and rice grains yield. Soil tillage in no-till, with rice straw on soil surface up to 11,178 kg ha-1, before sowing, not reduces flooded irrigated rice grains yield.

  13. Composition and Fatty Acid Profile of Goat Meat Sausages with Added Rice Bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Malekian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A scientific consensus on the relationship between obesity, obesity related diseases, and diet has emerged. One of the factors is overconsumption of the red meats such as pork and beef. Goat meat has the potential to replace these traditionally consumed meats. Rice bran is a rich source of antioxidants such as vitamin E. In this study, goat meat sausages were formulated to contain 0, 1.5 or 3 percent stabilized rice bran. Proximate and fatty acid composition, α-tocopherol, cholesterol concentration, and antioxidant activities of cooked goat meat sausages containing varying percentages of rice bran were measured. Data were analyzed using a fixed effects model. The fat percentage in the goat meat sausages increased in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P<0.001. Saturated fatty acids concentration decreased linearly (P<0.01, while unsaturated fatty acids and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids increased linearly in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P<0.05. The concentration of α-tocopherol in sausages increased linearly in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P<0.01. Also, antioxidant activity increased linearly in sausages in response to added rice bran (P<0.01. The cholesterol concentration of sausages did not vary significantly in response to added rice bran.

  14. A Study Of Biogas Production From Rice Straw In An Underground Digester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akpabio, O; Sambo, A.S; Fai, F

    2002-01-01

    The rising cost of petroleum products, the growing world population with diminishing resources and increasing wastes has brought about the need for sourcing alternative resources in order to bring about sustainable development. In this regard. this research was conceived to innovate design and construction of a biogas digester and to study the production of biogas from rice straw. An underground biogas digester was designed. Constructed and tested. The test digestion produced biogas yield of 0.020 M/KXg from green cow dung. In the study of biogas production from rice straw, four bench digesters of one d m3 (I litre) each were used. The bench digester produced biogas yields of 0.0149 m3/kg of rice straw, 0.0389 m3/kg of a mixture of rice straw and cow dung and 0.0792 m3/kg of cow dung. Scaled up digestion of rice straw in the underground digester gave biogas yield of 7.37 x 104 m3/kg. The biogas produced from rice straw was found to contain 38.52% of carbon dioxide and no hydrogen sulphide. It was concluded that the biogas generation from rice straw was encouraging, but scale up yields was low. The limiting factors on biogas production from rice straw with the effect of digester design or biogas production are presented and discussed

  15. Air pollutant emissions from rice straw open field burning in India, Thailand and the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadde, Butchaiah; Bonnet, Sebastien; Menke, Christoph; Garivait, Savitri

    2009-01-01

    Rice is a widely grown crop in Asia. China (30%) and India (21%) contribute to about half of the world's total rice production. In this study, three major rice-producing countries in Asia are considered, India, Thailand and the Philippines (the later two contributing 4% and 2% of the world's rice production). Rice straw is one of the main field based residues produced along with this commodity and its applications vary widely in the region. Although rice production practises vary from one country to another, open burning of straw is a common practice in these countries. In this study, an approach was followed aiming at (a) determining the quantity of rice straw being subject to open field burning in those countries, (b) congregating pollutant specific emissions factors for rice straw burning, and (c) quantifying the resulting air pollutant emissions. Uncertainties in the results obtained as compared to a global approach are also discussed. - This research work contributes to enhance scientific knowledge for estimating air pollutant emissions from open burning of crop residues and improve emission results accuracy.

  16. Photosynthetic Characteristics of Flag Leaves in Rice White Stripe Mutant 6001 During Senescence Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-hui ZHEN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Physiological, biochemical and electron microscopy analyses were used to investigate the photosynthetic performance of flag leaves in rice white stripe mutant 6001 during the senescence process. Results showed that the chlorophyll content at the heading and milk-ripe stages in rice mutant 6001 were about 34.78% and 3.00% less than those in wild type 6028, respectively. However, the chlorophyll content at the fully-ripe stage in rice mutant 6001 was higher than that in wild type 6028. At the heading stage, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn in rice mutant 6001 was lower than that in wild type 6028. Rice mutant 6001 also exhibited a significantly slower decrease rate of Pn than wild type 6028 during the senescence progress, especially at the later stage. Furthermore, Ca2+-ATPase, Mg2+-ATPase and photophosphorylation activities exhibited the similar trends as the Pn. During the senescence process, the 68 kDa polypeptide concentrations in the thylakoid membrane proteins exhibited a significant change, which was one of the critical factors that contributed to the observed change in photosynthesis. We also observed that the chloroplasts of rice mutant 6001 exhibited higher integrity than those of wild type 6028, and the chloroplast membrane of rice mutant 6001 disintegrated more slow during the senescence process. In general, rice mutant 6001 had a relatively slower senescence rate than wild type 6028, and exhibited anti-senescence properties.

  17. The Dynamics Of Rice Field Conversion Into Settlement In The District Of Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Chofyan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bandung District as one of the rice-producing areas in West Java has a strong interest in maintaining rice field. However, the land conversion of rice field in the Bandung District continues to occur with various factors. This study aims to identify the elements that make up the structure of the phenomenon and the linkages between these elements which lead to the conversion of rice fields and recommend some policy alternatives that are useful for efforts to control the conversion of rice field. In order to achieve the stated goals, this study uses system dynamics which is one method of thinking system that could see the various aspects of integral and structurally enable to explain the phenomenon of land conversion happens. On this study determines 4 scenarios consists of a basic scenario, rice field cropping intensity scenarios (RFCI, necessity standard of land settlement scenarios (NSLS, and food diversification scenarios (FD. The final result of this study states that the necessity standard of land settlement scenarios result in a decrease in the rate of land conversion is smaller and the rice stock inventory is more stable compared to other scenarios. Under these conditions, policies that support the above scenario should be established, namely the policy of land-saving settlement development and establishment of sustainable rice field.

  18. OsNF-YC2 and OsNF-YC4 proteins inhibit flowering under long-day conditions in rice

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, SoonKap

    2015-11-05

    OsNF-YC2 and OsNF-YC4 proteins regulate the photoperiodic flowering response through the modulation of three flowering-time genes ( Ehd1, Hd3a , and RFT1 ) in rice. Plant NUCLEAR FACTOR Y (NF-Y) transcription factors control numerous developmental processes by forming heterotrimeric complexes, but little is known about their roles in flowering in rice. In this study, it is shown that some subunits of OsNF-YB and OsNF-YC interact with each other, and among them, OsNF-YC2 and OsNF-YC4 proteins regulate the photoperiodic flowering response of rice. Protein interaction studies showed that the physical interactions occurred between the three OsNF-YC proteins (OsNF-YC2, OsNF-YC4 and OsNF-YC6) and three OsNF-YB proteins (OsNF-YB8, OsNF-YB10 and OsNF-YB11). Repression and overexpression of the OsNF-YC2 and OsNF-YC4 genes revealed that they act as inhibitors of flowering only under long-day (LD) conditions. Overexpression of OsNF-YC6, however, promoted flowering only under LD conditions, suggesting it could function as a flowering promoter. These phenotypes correlated with the changes in the expression of three rice flowering-time genes [Early heading date 1 (Ehd1), Heading date 3a (Hd3a) and RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (RFT1)]. The diurnal and tissue-specific expression patterns of the subsets of OsNF-YB and OsNF-YC genes were similar to those of CCT domain encoding genes such as OsCO3, Heading date 1 (Hd1) and Ghd7. We propose that OsNF-YC2 and OsNF-YC4 proteins regulate the photoperiodic flowering response by interacting directly with OsNF-YB8, OsNF-YB10 or OsNF-YB11 proteins in rice.

  19. Rice allergy demonstrated by double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge in peach-allergic patients is related to lipid transfer protein reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorello, Elide Anna; Scibilia, Joseph; Farioli, Laura; Primavesi, Laura; Giuffrida, Maria Gabriella; Mascheri, Ambra; Piantanida, Marta; Mirone, Corrado; Stafylaraki, Chrysi; Violetta, Marta Riva; Nichelatti, Michele; Preziosi, Donatella; Losappio, Laura; Pravettoni, Valerio

    2013-01-01

    The risk factors for sensitisation to rice and the involved allergens are still partially unknown. In this study we evaluated the clinically relevant aspects of rice allergy in DBPCF-positive patients, the major rice allergens, the severity of peach- and rice-induced symptoms in respect to Pru p 3 sensitisation and the role of anti-rPru p 3 IgE levels as a risk factor for rice allergy. In 148 peach-allergic subjects, patients with allergic reactions to rice and rice-positive serum IgE were selected. Symptoms were verified by double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFCs), performed at a maximum dosage of 25 g. Rice allergens, identified by IgE immunoblotting, were characterised by N-terminal amino acid sequencing. The relationship between anti-rPru p 3, 1 and 4 IgE levels and rice symptoms were statistically analysed. Eight out of 10 recruited rice-allergic patients had positive DBPCFCs, while 2 patients were not challenged due to their previously documented severe reactions. All patients with rice-induced symptoms were Pru p 3 positive and presented with higher anti-rPru p 3 levels than the rice-sensitised but tolerant patients. A 9-kDa lipid transfer protein, which was highly homologous to Pru p 3, was identified as the major rice allergen and elicited a positive response in all of the patients. Five patients reacted to a putative 15- to 17-kDa rice allergenic protein, and 3 patients reacted to an [alpha]-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor that was approximately 20 kDa. Rarely, allergic reactions to rice can arise in patients with peach allergies who are sensitised to Pru p 3, particularly in patients with high anti-rPru p 3 IgE levels. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Elemental composition of Malawian rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Edward J M; Louise Ander, E; Broadley, Martin R; Young, Scott D; Chilimba, Allan D C; Hamilton, Elliott M; Watts, Michael J

    2017-08-01

    Widespread potential dietary deficiencies of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), iodine (I), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) have been identified in Malawi. Several deficiencies are likely to be compounded by high phytic acid (PA) consumption. Rice (Oryza sativa) is commonly consumed in some Malawian populations, and its mineral micronutrient content is important for food security. The considerable irrigation requirements and flooded conditions of paddy soils can also introduce or mobilise potentially toxic elements including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). The aim of this study was to determine the mineral composition of rice sampled from farmers' fields and markets in Malawi. Rice was sampled from 18 extension planning areas across Malawi with 21 white (i.e. polished) and 33 brown samples collected. Elemental composition was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Arsenic speciation was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ICP-MS. Concentration of PA was determined using a PA-total phosphorus assay. Median total concentrations (mg kg -1 , dry weight) of elements important for human nutrition in brown and white rice, respectively, were: Ca = 66.5 and 37.8; Cu = 3.65 and 2.49; Fe = 22.1 and 7.2; I = 0.006 and rice samples, respectively, median PA concentrations were 5438 and 1906 mg kg -1 , and median PA:Zn molar ratios were 29 and 13. Concentrations of potentially toxic elements (mg kg -1 , dry weight) in brown and white rice samples, respectively, were: As = 0.030 and 0.006; Cd  ≤ 0.002 and 0.006; Pb = 0.008 and 0.008. Approximately 95 % of As was found to be inorganic As, where this could be quantified. Malawian rice, like the more widely consumed staple grain maize, contains inadequate Ca, I, Se or Zn to meet dietary requirements. Biofortification strategies could significantly increase Se and Zn concentrations and require further investigation. Concentrations of Fe in rice grain varied

  1. Processing Conditions, Rice Properties, Health and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobutaka Nakamura

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice is the staple food for nearly two-thirds of the world’s population. Food components and environmental load of rice depends on the rice form that is resulted by different processing conditions. Brown rice (BR, germinated brown rice (GBR and partially-milled rice (PMR contains more health beneficial food components compared to the well milled rice (WMR. Although the arsenic concentration in cooked rice depends on the cooking methods, parboiled rice (PBR seems to be relatively prone to arsenic contamination compared to that of untreated rice, if contaminated water is used for parboiling and cooking. A change in consumption patterns from PBR to untreated rice (non-parboiled, and WMR to PMR or BR may conserve about 43–54 million tons of rice and reduce the risk from arsenic contamination in the arsenic prone area. This study also reveals that a change in rice consumption patterns not only supply more food components but also reduces environmental loads. A switch in production and consumption patterns would improve food security where food grains are scarce, and provide more health beneficial food components, may prevent some diseases and ease the burden on the Earth. However, motivation and awareness of the environment and health, and even a nominal incentive may require for a method switching which may help in building a sustainable society.

  2. Processing Conditions, Rice Properties, Health and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Poritosh; Orikasa, Takahiro; Okadome, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Nobutaka; Shiina, Takeo

    2011-01-01

    Rice is the staple food for nearly two-thirds of the world’s population. Food components and environmental load of rice depends on the rice form that is resulted by different processing conditions. Brown rice (BR), germinated brown rice (GBR) and partially-milled rice (PMR) contains more health beneficial food components compared to the well milled rice (WMR). Although the arsenic concentration in cooked rice depends on the cooking methods, parboiled rice (PBR) seems to be relatively prone to arsenic contamination compared to that of untreated rice, if contaminated water is used for parboiling and cooking. A change in consumption patterns from PBR to untreated rice (non-parboiled), and WMR to PMR or BR may conserve about 43–54 million tons of rice and reduce the risk from arsenic contamination in the arsenic prone area. This study also reveals that a change in rice consumption patterns not only supply more food components but also reduces environme