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Sample records for factors influencing concentrations

  1. Variance of indoor radon concentration: Major influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmoshenko, I; Vasilyev, A; Malinovsky, G; Bossew, P; Žunić, Z S; Onischenko, A; Zhukovsky, M

    2016-01-15

    Variance of radon concentration in dwelling atmosphere is analysed with regard to geogenic and anthropogenic influencing factors. Analysis includes review of 81 national and regional indoor radon surveys with varying sampling pattern, sample size and duration of measurements and detailed consideration of two regional surveys (Sverdlovsk oblast, Russia and Niška Banja, Serbia). The analysis of the geometric standard deviation revealed that main factors influencing the dispersion of indoor radon concentration over the territory are as follows: area of territory, sample size, characteristics of measurements technique, the radon geogenic potential, building construction characteristics and living habits. As shown for Sverdlovsk oblast and Niška Banja town the dispersion as quantified by GSD is reduced by restricting to certain levels of control factors. Application of the developed approach to characterization of the world population radon exposure is discussed.

  2. Factors influencing serum total tryptase concentrations in a general adult population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Quintela, Arturo; Vizcaino, Luis; Gude, Francisco;

    2010-01-01

    Serum tryptase measurements are increasingly being used in clinical practice. However, there is a paucity of studies focused on factors that influence tryptase concentrations. We investigated the relationships between total tryptase concentrations and age, gender, atopy, alcohol consumption, smok...

  3. Factors influencing serum total tryptase concentrations in a general adult population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Quintela, Arturo; Vizcaino, Luis; Gude, Francisco;

    2010-01-01

    Serum tryptase measurements are increasingly being used in clinical practice. However, there is a paucity of studies focused on factors that influence tryptase concentrations. We investigated the relationships between total tryptase concentrations and age, gender, atopy, alcohol consumption...

  4. Landscape factors and hydrology influence mercury concentrations in wading birds breeding in the Florida Everglades, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Ackerman, Joshua T; Gawlik, Dale E; Beerens, James M

    2013-08-01

    The hydrology of wetland ecosystems is a key driver of both mercury (Hg) methylation and waterbird foraging ecology, and hence may play a fundamental role in waterbird exposure and risk to Hg contamination. However, few studies have investigated hydrological factors that influence waterbird Hg exposure. We examined how several landscape-level hydrological variables influenced Hg concentrations in great egret and white ibis adults and chicks in the Florida Everglades. The great egret is a visual "exploiter" species that tolerates lower prey densities and is less sensitive to hydrological conditions than is the white ibis, which is a tactile "searcher" species that pursues higher prey densities in shallow water. Mercury concentrations in adult great egrets were most influenced by the spatial region that they occupied in the Everglades (higher in the southern region); whereas the number of days a site was dry during the previous dry season was the most important factor influencing Hg concentrations in adult ibis (Hg concentrations increased with the number of days dry). In contrast, Hg concentrations in egret chicks were most influenced by calendar date (increasing with date), whereas Hg concentrations in ibis chicks were most influenced by chick age, region, and water recession rate (Hg concentrations decreased with age, were higher in the southern regions, and increased with positive water recession rates). Our results indicate that both recent (preceding two weeks) hydrological conditions, and those of the prior year, influence Hg concentrations in wading birds. Further, these results suggest that Hg exposure in wading birds is driven by complex relationships between wading bird behavior and life stage, landscape hydrologic patterns, and biogeochemical processes. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Cross-system comparison of factors influencing chlorophyll-a concentration in Oregon estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water column chlorophyll-a (chla) is a proxy for phytoplankton biomass and is often used as a biological response indicator of eutrophication. Although watershed nutrient loading may influence chla concentration in estuaries, factors such as freshwater inflow, residence time, and...

  6. Factors influencing measurement of serum iron concentration in dogs: diurnal variation and hyperferritinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikazawa, Seishiro; Hori, Yasutomo; Kanai, Kazutaka; Ito, Naoyuki; Hoshi, Fumio; Orino, Koichi; Watanabe, Kiyotaka; Higuchi, Seiichi

    2013-12-30

    We evaluated diurnal variation and hyperferritinemia as factors that influence the values of serum iron concentration in dogs, using the International Committee for Standardization in Hematology (ICSH) colorimetric method. Serum iron levels were significantly higher in the morning than in the evening in 6 clinically healthy beagle dogs, and the maximum decrease in serum iron concentration was 47.3%. Moreover, the change in serum iron concentrations in 22 clinical canine cases with various serum ferritin levels was evaluated by immunoprecipitation of ferritin. The rate of decline in the serum iron concentrations positively correlated with serum ferritin levels (r=0.48, P=0.024). These results show that it is necessary to consider the sampling time and serum ferritin level for accurate interpretation of serum iron concentrations in dogs.

  7. BTEX in indoor air of waterpipe cafés: Levels and factors influencing their concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazrati, Sadegh; Rostami, Roohollah; Fazlzadeh, Mehdi

    2015-08-15

    BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene) concentrations, factors affecting their levels, and the exposure risks related to these compounds were studied in waterpipe (Ghalyun/Hookah) cafés of Ardabil city in Islamic Republic of Iran. 81 waterpipe cafés from different districts of Ardabil city were selected and their ambient air was monitored for BTEX compounds. Air samples were taken from standing breathing zone of employees, ~150 cm above the ground level, and were analyzed using GC-FID. In each case, the types of smoked tobacco (regular, fruit flavored), types of ventilation systems (natural/artificial), and the floor level at which the café was located were investigated. A high mean concentration of 4.96±2.63 mg/m(3) corresponding to long term exposure to benzene-related cancer risk of 4314×10(-6) was estimated. The levels of the remaining compounds were lower than the national guideline limits, but their hazard quotients (HQ) for long term exposure to ethylbenzene (1.15) and xylene (17.32) exceeded the HQ unit value. Total hazard indices (HI) of 63.23 were obtained for non-cancer risks. Type of the smoked tobacco was the most important factor influencing BTEX concentrations in the cafés. BTEX concentrations in indoor ambient air of Ardabil waterpipe cafés were noticeably high, and therefore may pose important risks for human health on both short and long term exposures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The influence of selected factors and sport results of endurance horses on their saliva cortisol concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczarek, I; Bereznowski, A; Strzelec, K

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the influence of the selected factors (gender, age, transportation time, riding distance and air temperature during the ride) on the cortisol secretion and finding a correlation between the hormone level and the horses' sport results (veterinary parameters and the ride route parameters). The research was performed on 38 Arabian pure breed horses taking part in the endurance rides. The cortisol level was measured with enzyme-immunological method in saliva samples, taken four times from each horse. In order to verify the differences between the mean results the repeated measures design was applied. The significance of the differences between the mean values was determined by the Tukey test. To evaluate the interrelations between the analysed attributes Pearson's correlation analysis was applied. The cortisol level at rest was not affected by any of the analysed factors. In case of other results, the most significant influence (P cortisol level was noted in mares, horses running the longest distances and at the highest temperatures. A significant increase in the cortisol level was noted when the ride distance was longer. There were no clear correlation between the adrenal cortex activity and the veterinary parameters at different riding speed. High cortisol concentration can negatively affect the heart rate (HR) by increasing it, but it can simultaneously stimulate the body to fight dehydration.

  9. Radiocaesium activity concentrations in macrofungi from Galicia (NW Spain): Influence of environmental and genetic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, M A; Alonso, J; Melgar, M J

    2015-05-01

    Radiocaesium ((137)Cs) is an artificial radionuclide that can be captured from the soil through the mycelium of fungi. However, in Spain there are few data on its presence in edible mushrooms. (137)Cs activity concentrations were determined using 54 samples of wild and cultivated mushrooms and 18 samples of soil, all of them collected in Galicia (NW Spain) during 2010. Samples were analyzed by gamma spectroscopy with a High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. The average activity concentration of (137)Cs in wild mushrooms was 249.2Bqkg(-1) dry weight (dw) and about 24.9Bqkg(-1) fresh weight (fw). Genetic factors (species) influenced the uptake of (137)Cs, highlighting Hydnum repandum as the greatest accumulator of all wild species (1016.4Bqkg(-1) dw), while cultivated species showed much lower levels (1.6Bqkg(-1) fw). Accumulation was also favored by fungal mycorrhizal ecology, whose mycelium was distributed in contaminated soil horizons. The mean levels detected in soils were 14Bqkg(-1) fw. Although some species behaved as bioexclusors of radiocaesium, the transfer factors (TF) suggest that mushrooms preferentially bioaccumulate (137)Cs. No sample reached the limit of 600Bqkg(-1) fw (about 6000Bqkg(-1) dw) indicated in the European legislation. In conclusion, the consumption of mushrooms harvested from the investigated areas poses no toxicological risk to human health due to radiocaesium.

  10. Factors Influencing the Concentration of Certain Liposoluble Components in Cow and Goat Milk: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria COZMA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Milk fat contains a large number of fatty acids (FA and other liposoluble components that exhibit various effects on human health. The present article reviews some of the factors affecting FA, vitamin A and cholesterol concentrations in milk from dairy cow and goat. Milk fat composition is linked to many factors, both intrinsic (animal species, breed, lactation stage and extrinsic (environmental. The effect of animal species on milk fat composition is important, as reflected by higher concentrations of short- and medium-chain FA, vitamin A and cholesterol in goat than in cow milk. In a given ruminant species, the effects linked to breed are significant but limited and they can only be achieved over long periods of time. The lactation stage has an important effect on milk FA composition, mainly linked to body fat mobilisation in early lactation, but it only lasts a few weeks each year. Furthermore, changes in feeding have a marked influence on milk fat composition. Changing the forages in the diet of ruminants, pasture in particular, or supplementing lipids to the diet, represent an efficient mean to modify milk fat composition by decreasing saturated FA and cholesterol, and increasing cis-9,trans-11-CLA and vitamin A. Nutrition therefore constitutes a natural strategy to rapidly modulate milk FA, vitamin A and cholesterol composition, with the overall aim of improving the long-term health of consumers.

  11. Formaldehyde concentration and its influencing factors in residential homes after decoration at Hangzhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Guo; Xiaoqiang Pei; Feifei Mo; Jianlei Liu; Xueyou Shen

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution surveys of formaldehyde (HCHO) were conducted in 2324 rooms decorated within one year in 2007-2009 in Hangzhou,China.The mean HCHO concentration (CHCHO) was 0.107 + 0.095 mg/m3,and 38.9% of samples exceeded the Chinese National Standard GB 50325-2010.Over the past 3 years,the CHCHO decreased with time (p < 0.05).Relationships of potential factors to indoor CHCHO were also evaluated.CHCHO was related to temperature (T),relative humidity (RH),time duration of the windows and doors being closed before sampling (DC),time duration from the end of decoration to sampling (DR) and source characteristics (d).A model to relate indoor CHCHO to these five factors (T,RH,DC,DR,d) was established based on 298 samples (R2 =0.87).Various factors contributed to Cacao in the following order:T,43.7%; d,31.0%; DC,10.2%; DR,8.0%; RH,7.0%; specifically,meteorological conditions (i.e.,RH plus T) accounted for 50.7%.The coefficient of T and RH,RTH,was proposed to describe their combined influence on HCHO emission,which also had a linear relationship (R2 =0.9387) with HCHO release in a simulation chamber test.In addition,experiments confirm that it is a synergistic action as T and RH accelerate the release of HCHO,and that is a significant factor influencing indoor HCHO pollution.These achievements could lead to reference values of measures for the efficient reduction of indoor HCHO pollution.

  12. Indoor carbonyl compounds in an academic building in Beijing, China: concentrations and influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuanjia JIANG; Pengyi ZHANG

    2012-01-01

    Carbonyl compounds in indoor air are of great concern for their adverse health effects. Between February and May, 2009, concentrations of 13 carbonyl compounds were measured in an academic building in Beijing, China. Total concentration of the detected carbonyls ranged from 20.7 to 189.1 I.tg.m3, and among them acetone and formaldehyde were the most abundant, with mean concentrations of 26.4 and 22.6gg.m-3, respectively. Average indoor concentrations of other carbonyls were below I 0 gg. m~3. Principal component analysis identified a combined effect of common indoor carbonyl sources and ventilation on indoor carbonyl levels. Diurnal variations of the carbonyl compounds were investigated in one office room, and carbonyl concentrations tended to be lower in the daytime than at night, due to enhanced ventilation. Average concentrations of carbonyl compounds in the office room were generally higher in early May than in late February, indicating the influence of temperature. Carbo- nyl source emission rates from both the room and human occupants were estimated during two lectures, based on one-compartment mass balance model. The influence of human occupants on indoor carbonyl concentrations varies with environmental conditions, and may become signifi- cant in the case of a large human occupancy.

  13. Rheology and influence factor of low-concentration Konjac gum solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王元兰; 李忠海; 魏玉

    2008-01-01

    Rheological properties of low-concentration Konjac gum and impacts of concentration,shearing rate,pH value and stirring time on its viscosity were studied.The results show that the viscosity of low-concentration Konjac gum increases with the increase of its concentration.The solution presents pseudo-plasticity fluid,which shows the characters of shear thinning as follows:first,its viscosity decreases gradually as the temperature increases,and then increases with the increase of temperature.The viscosity decreases sharply at both acid and alkaline conditions,indicating that it is influenced apparently by pH value.And the viscosity of low-concentration Konjac gum is also impacted by the stirring time.

  14. Use of linear regression models to determine influence factors on the concentration levels of radon in occupied houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buermeyer, Jonas; Gundlach, Matthias; Grund, Anna-Lisa; Grimm, Volker; Spizyn, Alexander; Breckow, Joachim

    2016-09-01

    This work is part of the analysis of the effects of constructional energy-saving measures to radon concentration levels in dwellings performed on behalf of the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection. In parallel to radon measurements for five buildings, both meteorological data outside the buildings and the indoor climate factors were recorded. In order to access effects of inhabited buildings, the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) was measured. For a statistical linear regression model, the data of one object was chosen as an example. Three dummy variables were extracted from the process of the CO2 concentration to provide information on the usage and ventilation of the room. The analysis revealed a highly autoregressive model for the radon concentration with additional influence by the natural environmental factors. The autoregression implies a strong dependency on a radon source since it reflects a backward dependency in time. At this point of the investigation, it cannot be determined whether the influence by outside factors affects the source of radon or the habitant’s ventilation behavior resulting in variation of the occurring concentration levels. In any case, the regression analysis might provide further information that would help to distinguish these effects. In the next step, the influence factors will be weighted according to their impact on the concentration levels. This might lead to a model that enables the prediction of radon concentration levels based on the measurement of CO2 in combination with environmental parameters, as well as the development of advices for ventilation.

  15. Factors influencing serum concentrations of IgD in the adult population: an observational study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, Iago; Rabuñal, Noelia; Alvela, Lucía; Pérez, Luis-Fernando; Vidal, Carmen; Alonso, Manuela; Sopeña, Bernardo; Gude, Francisco; Gonzalez-Quintela, Arturo

    2017-01-27

    Immunoglobulin D (IgD) is the least studied of immunoglobulin classes. This study sought to investigate the potential relationship between demographic, metabolic, lifestyle and immunologic factors, and serum IgD concentrations in a general adult population. We measured serum IgD concentrations by means of a commercial turbidimetric assay in 413 individuals (median age, 55 years; 45% males), randomly selected from the adult population of a Spanish municipality. Serum IgD concentrations displayed considerable variation in the population, ranging from undetectable (immune disease after a median 11.4 years of follow-up. In conclusion, serum IgD concentrations in adults show a wide variation in the population and may be influenced by common factors, particularly age and smoking habit. These factors should be taken into account when defining reference ranges for serum IgD concentrations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Factors influencing pre-race serum concentration of total carbon dioxide in Thoroughbred horses racing in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, N D; Stanley, S D; Arthur, R M; Wang, N

    2006-11-01

    Many racing jurisdictions monitor pre-race serum concentration of total carbon dioxide (TCO2) among racing horses. To our knowledge, factors influencing concentration of TCO2 among horses participating in racing have not been systematically evaluated and reported. To determine if characteristics of horses and racing conditions routinely recorded were significantly associated with pre-race concentration of TCO2, while accounting for and estimating effects of trainer and horse. Pre-race serum TCO2 concentrations from 5028 starts made by 2,349 horses trained by 287 trainers at 2 racetracks in California during 2005 were examined. Data regarding characteristics of starters and race conditions obtained from a commercial database were recorded for each start. Data were analysed using mixed-effects, with TCO2 concentration as the dependent variable, and trainer and horse nested within trainer as random effects. Sex, class and distance of race, frusemide administration and cloudy weather conditions were significantly (Prace TCO2 concentration. Horses that finished in the top 3 positions had values that were slightly (0.2 mmol/) but significantly (Phorses not finishing in the top 3. There were significant effects of trainer on pre-race TCO2 concentration. A variety of factors may influence pre-race TCO2 concentration in horses. Horses with better performance tend to have higher pre-race TCO2 concentrations. TCO2 concentration is associated with improved performance although the magnitude of effect was quite small. Regulatory programmes based on monitoring should consider the influence of other factors on TCO2 concentration.

  17. INFLUENCE OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM INITIAL CONCENTRATION ON RETARDATION FACTOR AND CONTAMINANT VELOCITY IN A SOIL MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. SHIVA PRASHANTH KUMAR

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sources of soil and ground water contamination are many and include many folds of accidental spills and leaks of toxic and hazardous chemicals. Preparation of ground water contamination model needs good understanding of the behavior of contaminant transport through soil media for predicting the level of contamination of ground water in the near future at the intended site conditions. Sorption is a natural process; due to its presence, the contaminant can move slowly as compared to the ground water and hence the effects of sorption must be taken into consideration while predicting the travel time of the contaminant to reach the ground water sources. This paper discusses the results of column test studies carried out in the laboratory under controlled conditions about the spreading of contaminant (Hexavalent chromium, Cr (VI through the clay mixed red soil at two different initial concentrations (800 mg/L and 4200 mg/L. The variations of the contaminant flow velocity and retardation factor for two different initial concentrations of contaminant were brought out and discussed. The contaminant flow velocity drastically coming down for a relative concentration of 0 to 0.2 and beyond this range, the contaminant flow velocity value is decreasing in a slow rate for both the lower and higher initial contaminant concentrations tested. At the lower relative concentration, the higher retardation factor was observed and it may be due to slowly filling the available sorption sites in the soil column.

  18. Revisiting spontaneous silver nanoparticles formation: a factor influencing the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration values?

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    Karolína M. Šišková

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study gives evidence that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs are spontaneously formed from Ag+ ions in Mueller-Hinton broth, which is frequently used as a standard cultivation medium for many types of bacteria. Silver ions often serve as a reference in the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of engineered AgNPs. It is thus a question if the MIC values determined for engineered AgNPs are not influenced by the presence of spontaneously formed AgNPs. Furthermore, as shown here, the addition of augmented concentrations of selected amino acids, namely glutamic acid and glutamine, can change the growth and characteristic features of spontaneously formed AgNPs. For the sake of a direct comparison, the influence of the two selected amino acids on characteristics and MIC values determination of engineered AgNPs has been also investigated. The determined MIC values of all investigated systems (i.e., with and without the presence of engineered AgNPs and their mutual comparison demonstrated that MIC values are slightly influenced by the actual composition of a cultivation medium for bacterial growth. On the other hand, the actual composition of a cultivation medium is crucial for the final characteristics of AgNPs. The changes in characteristic features of spontaneously formed as well as engineered AgNPs are most probably induced by the covalent bonding of amino acids to AgNPs surface which is proven by vibrational spectroscopic techniques.

  19. The influence of meteorological factors and biomass burning on surface ozone concentrations at Tanah Rata, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Ying Ying; Lim, Sze Fook; von Glasow, Roland

    2013-05-01

    The surface ozone concentrations at the Tanah Rata regional Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) station, Malaysia (4°28‧N, 101°23‧E, 1545 m above Mean Sea Level (MSL)) from June 2006 to August 2008 were analyzed in this study. Overall the ozone mixing ratios are very low; the seasonal variations show the highest mixing ratios during the Southwest monsoon (average 19.1 ppb) and lowest mixing ratios during the spring intermonsoon (average 14.2 ppb). The diurnal variation of ozone is characterised by an afternoon maximum and night time minimum. The meteorological conditions that favour the formation of high ozone levels at this site are low relative humidity, high temperature and minimum rainfall. The average ozone concentration is lower during precipitation days compared to non-precipitation days. The hourly averaged ozone concentrations show significant correlations with temperature and relative humidity during the Northeast monsoon and spring intermonsoon. The highest concentrations are observed when the wind is blowing from the west. We found an anticorrelation between the atmospheric pressure tide and ozone concentrations. The ozone mixing ratios do not exceed the recommended Malaysia Air Quality Guidelines for 1-h and 8-h averages. Five day backward trajectories on two high ozone episodes in 07 August 2006 (40.0 ppb) and 24 February 2008 (45.7 ppb) are computed using the HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model to investigate the origin of the pollutants and influence of regional transport. The high ozone episode during 07 August 2006 (burning season during southwest monsoon) is mainly attributed to regional transport from biomass burning in Sumatra, whereas favourable meteorological conditions (i.e. low relative humidity, high temperature and solar radiation, zero rainfall) and long range transport from Indo-China have elevated the ozone concentrations during 24 February 2008.

  20. Investigation of the spatiotemporal variation and influencing factors on fine particulate matter and carbon monoxide concentrations near a road intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanyong; Lu, Qing-Chang; He, Hong-Di; Wang, Dongsheng; Gao, Ya; Peng, Zhong-Ren

    2017-03-01

    The minute-scale variations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations near a road intersection in Shanghai, China were investigated to identify the influencing factors at three traffic periods. Measurement results demonstrate a synchronous variation of pollutant concentrations at the roadside and setbacks, and the average concentration of PM2.5 at the roadside is 7% (44% for CO) higher than that of setbacks within 500 m of the intersection. The pollution level at traffic peak periods is found to be higher than that of off-peak periods, and the morning peak period is found to be the most polluted due to a large amount of diesel vehicles and unfavorable dispersion conditions. Partial least square regressions were constructed for influencing factors and setback pollutant concentrations, and results indicate that meteorological factors are the most significant, followed by setback distance from the intersection and traffic factors. CO is found to be sensitive to distance from the traffic source and vehicle type, and highly dependent on local traffic conditions, whereas PM2.5 originates more from other sources and background levels. These findings demonstrate the importance of localized factors in understanding spatiotemporal patterns of air pollution at intersections, and support decision makers in roadside pollution management and control.

  1. Investigation of the spatiotemporal variation and influencing factors on fine particulate matter and carbon monoxide concentrations near a road intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanyong; Lu, Qing-Chang; He, Hong-Di; Wang, Dongsheng; Gao, Ya; Peng, Zhong-Ren

    2016-05-01

    The minute-scale variations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations near a road intersection in Shanghai, China were investigated to identify the influencing factors at three traffic periods. Measurement results demonstrate a synchronous variation of pollutant concentrations at the roadside and setbacks, and the average concentration of PM2.5 at the roadside is 7% (44% for CO) higher than that of setbacks within 500 m of the intersection. The pollution level at traffic peak periods is found to be higher than that of off-peak periods, and the morning peak period is found to be the most polluted due to a large amount of diesel vehicles and unfavorable dispersion conditions. Partial least square regressions were constructed for influencing factors and setback pollutant concentrations, and results indicate that meteorological factors are the most significant, followed by setback distance from the intersection and traffic factors. CO is found to be sensitive to distance from the traffic source and vehicle type, and highly dependent on local traffic conditions, whereas PM2.5 originates more from other sources and background levels. These findings demonstrate the importance of localized factors in understanding spatiotemporal patterns of air pollution at intersections, and support decision makers in roadside pollution management and control.

  2. Iron and obesity status-associated insulin resistance influence circulating fibroblast-growth factor-23 concentrations.

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    José Manuel Fernández-Real

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23 is known to be produced by the bone and linked to metabolic risk. We aimed to explore circulating FGF-23 in association with fatness and insulin sensitivity, atherosclerosis and bone mineral density (BMD. Circulating intact FGF-23 (iFGF-23 and C-terminal (CtFGF-23 concentrations (ELISA were measured in 133 middle aged men from the general population in association with insulin sensitivity (Cohort 1; and in association with fat mass and bone mineral density (DEXA and atherosclerosis (intima media thickness, IMT in 78 subjects (52 women with a wide range of adiposity (Cohort 2. Circulating iFGF-23 was also measured before and after weight loss. In all subjects as a whole, serum intact and C-terminal concentrations were linearly and positively associated with BMI. In cohort 1, both serum iFGF-23 and CtFGF-23 concentrations increased with insulin resistance. Serum creatinine contributed to iFGF-23 variance, while serum ferritin and insulin sensitivity (but not BMI, age or serum creatinine contributed to 17% of CtFGF-23 variance. In cohort 2, CtFGF-23 levels were higher in women vs. men, and increased with BMI, fat mass, fasting and post-load serum glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and PTH, being negatively associated with circulating vitamin D and ferritin levels. The associations of CtFGF-23 with bone density in the radius, lumbar spine and carotid IMT were no longer significant after controlling for BMI. Weight loss led to decreased iFGF-23 concentrations. In summary, the associations of circulating FGF-23 concentration with parameters of glucose metabolism, bone density and atherosclerosis are dependent on iron and obesity status-associated insulin resistance.

  3. Factors influencing the crystallisation of highly concentrated water-in-oil emulsions: A DSC study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Masalova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Highly concentrated emulsions are used in a variety of applications, including the cosmetics, food and liquid explosives industries. The stability of these highly concentrated water-in-oil emulsions was studied by differential scanning calorimetry. Crystallisation of the emulsions was initiated by exposing the emulsions to a low temperature. The effects of surfactant type, electrolyte concentration and electrolyte composition in the aqueous phase on emulsion crystallisation temperature were studied. Surfactant type affected the emulsion crystallisation temperature in the following order: PIBSA-MEA=PIBSA-UREA < PIBSA-MEA/SMO < PIBSA-IMIDE < SMO. These results are in the same sequence as results obtained for the stability of these emulsions in aging studies, that is, PIBSA-MEA was the most stable with age and SMO was the least. The effect of the surfactant type on emulsion crystallisation can probably be attributed to the differing strengths of the surfactant–electrolyte interactions, which result in different molecular packing geometry and differing mobility of the surfactant lipophilic portion at the interface. These results enhance our understanding of the factors that affect the stability of explosive emulsions.

  4. Factors influencing relationships between personal and ambient concentrations of gaseous and particulate pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kathleen Ward; Sarnat, Jeremy A; Suh, Helen H; Coull, Brent A; Koutrakis, Petros

    2009-06-01

    Previous exposure studies have shown considerable inter-subject variability in personal-ambient associations. This paper investigates exposure factors that may be responsible for inter-subject variability in these personal-ambient associations. The personal and ambient data used in this paper were collected as part of a personal exposure study conducted in Boston, MA, during 1999-2000. This study was one of a group of personal exposure panel studies funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Exposure Research Laboratory to address areas of exposure assessment warranting further study, particularly associations between personal exposures and ambient concentrations of particulate matter and gaseous co-pollutants. Twenty-four-hour integrated personal, home indoor, home outdoor and ambient sulfate, elemental carbon (EC), PM(2.5), ozone (O(3)), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and sulfur dioxide were measured simultaneously each day. Fifteen homes in the Boston area were measured for 7 days during winter and summer. A previous paper explored the associations between personal-indoor, personal-outdoor, personal-ambient, indoor-outdoor, indoor-ambient and outdoor-ambient PM(2.5), sulfate and EC concentrations. For the current paper, factors that may affect personal exposures were investigated, while controlling for ambient concentrations. The data were analyzed using mixed effects regression models. Overall personal-ambient associations were strong for sulfate during winter (ppersonal-ambient mixed model slope for PM(2.5) during winter but was not significant at p=0.10. Personal exposures to most pollutants, with the exception of NO(2), increased with ventilation and time spent outdoors. An opposite pattern was found for NO(2) likely due to gas stoves. Personal exposures to PM(2.5) and to traffic-related pollutants, EC and NO(2), were higher for those individuals living close to a major road. Both personal and indoor sulfate and PM(2.5) concentrations were

  5. Detecting the causality influence of individual meteorological factors on local PM2.5 concentration in the Jing-Jin-Ji region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ziyue; Cai, Jun; Gao, Bingbo; Xu, Bing; Dai, Shuang; He, Bin; Xie, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    Due to complicated interactions in the atmospheric environment, quantifying the influence of individual meteorological factors on local PM2.5 concentration remains challenging. The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (short for Jing-Jin-Ji) region is infamous for its serious air pollution. To improve regional air quality, characteristics and meteorological driving forces for PM2.5 concentration should be better understood. This research examined seasonal variations of PM2.5 concentration within the Jing-Jin-Ji region and extracted meteorological factors strongly correlated with local PM2.5 concentration. Following this, a convergent cross mapping (CCM) method was employed to quantify the causality influence of individual meteorological factors on PM2.5 concentration. The results proved that the CCM method was more likely to detect mirage correlations and reveal quantitative influences of individual meteorological factors on PM2.5 concentration. For the Jing-Jin-Ji region, the higher PM2.5 concentration, the stronger influences meteorological factors exert on PM2.5 concentration. Furthermore, this research suggests that individual meteorological factors can influence local PM2.5 concentration indirectly by interacting with other meteorological factors. Due to the significant influence of local meteorology on PM2.5 concentration, more emphasis should be given on employing meteorological means for improving local air quality.

  6. Detecting the causality influence of individual meteorological factors on local PM2.5 concentration in the Jing-Jin-Ji region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ziyue; Cai, Jun; Gao, Bingbo; Xu, Bing; Dai, Shuang; He, Bin; Xie, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    Due to complicated interactions in the atmospheric environment, quantifying the influence of individual meteorological factors on local PM2.5 concentration remains challenging. The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (short for Jing-Jin-Ji) region is infamous for its serious air pollution. To improve regional air quality, characteristics and meteorological driving forces for PM2.5 concentration should be better understood. This research examined seasonal variations of PM2.5 concentration within the Jing-Jin-Ji region and extracted meteorological factors strongly correlated with local PM2.5 concentration. Following this, a convergent cross mapping (CCM) method was employed to quantify the causality influence of individual meteorological factors on PM2.5 concentration. The results proved that the CCM method was more likely to detect mirage correlations and reveal quantitative influences of individual meteorological factors on PM2.5 concentration. For the Jing-Jin-Ji region, the higher PM2.5 concentration, the stronger influences meteorological factors exert on PM2.5 concentration. Furthermore, this research suggests that individual meteorological factors can influence local PM2.5 concentration indirectly by interacting with other meteorological factors. Due to the significant influence of local meteorology on PM2.5 concentration, more emphasis should be given on employing meteorological means for improving local air quality. PMID:28128221

  7. Analysis of the influence of solar activity and atmospheric factors on 7Be air concentration by seasonal-trend decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, M. C.; Ortiz, J.; Ballesteros, L.; Martorell, S.

    2016-11-01

    7Be air concentrations were measured at the Universitat Politècnica de Valencia campus (in the east of Spain) during the period 2007-2014. The mean values of monthly 7Be concentrations ranged from 2.65 to 8.11 mBq/m3, showing significant intra and interannual variability. A seasonal-trend decomposition methodology was applied to identify the trend-cycle, seasonal and irregular components of the 7Be time series. The decomposition model makes it possible to estimate the influence of solar activity and atmospheric factors on the independent components, in order to find the different sources of 7Be variability. The results show that solar activity is a factor with a high inverse influence on the trend-cycle pattern of 7Be variability. Solar radiation, temperature and relative humidity are positive influential factors on the seasonal 7Be variation with a regular pattern over the years. Finally, the irregular component presents a significant negative correlation with precipitation and wind speed parameters, which have an irregular behavior over the years and seasons.

  8. Factors influencing arsenic concentrations and species in mangrove surface sediments from south-east NSW, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiarachchi, S R; Maher, W A; Krikowa, F; Ubrihien, R

    2017-02-01

    Arsenic concentrations and speciation of 55 mangrove surface sediment samples from the south-eastern coast of NSW, Australia, have been measured. Arsenic concentrations were in the range 1.6-8.6 μg/g dry mass. All arsenic concentration values were well below 20 μg/g, the ANZEC/ARMCANZ interim sediment quality guideline-low trigger value. The bulk sediment pH was 6.0-7.3 and Eh -80 to -260 mV. The sediments contained variable silt-clay (2-30 % w/w), iron (668-12721 μg/g), manganese (1-115 μg/g), sulphur (70-18400 μg/g) and carbon (5-90 mg/g) concentrations. Arsenic concentrations correlated with silt and clay content, iron and manganese concentrations, indicating silt-clay particles covered and coated with iron and manganese (oxy) hydroxides scavenged arsenic. Arsenic extracted with 0.5 M phosphoric acid (68-95 %) was present only as inorganic arsenic (55-91 %), indicating that other arsenic species such as arsenobetaine derived from marine animal tissues rapidly degrade in sediments. The unextractable arsenic was correlated with increases in organic carbon, iron and manganese content. In conclusion, the cycling of arsenic in mangrove sediments is essentially the cycling of inorganic arsenic and primarily controlled by the redox cycling of carbon, sulphur, iron and manganese.

  9. Ventilation scheme, room location and meteorological factors influence indoor birch pollen concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochner, Susanne; Matiu, Michael; Michaelis, Rico; Menzel, Annette

    2017-04-01

    Allergenic pollen, often in co-occurrence with air pollutants from traffic and industries aggravating its pollen allergenicity, constitutes a major health risk for the urban population during the pollen season. Airborne pollen concentrations are traditionally monitored with fixed pollen traps mounted >10 m above ground on flat roof tops. However, the personal exposure of allergic people mostly depends on their main residences and the local emission patterns. Consequently, the assessment of indoor pollen is essential for human health since people stay most of the day inside buildings. In our study, hourly indoor birch pollen concentrations were measured on eight days in April 2015 with portable pollen traps in five rooms of a university building at Freising, Germany. A traditional pollen trap on the roof of the building provided the background birch pollen concentration which was compared to the respective outdoor values right in front of the rooms. The office and lab rooms were characterised by different aspects and window ventilation schemes. Meteorological data were equally measured at a nearby climate station and directly in front of the windows. The observed flowering phenology of 56 birch trees in the nearer surrounding partly explained daily peaks in airborne pollen concentrations. As expected, outdoor pollen concentrations were larger than indoor concentrations: Mean indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratio was highest (0.75) in a south oriented room with fully opened window and additional mechanical ventilation, followed by two rooms with fully opened windows orientated to the west and north (0.35, 0.12) and lowest in east oriented neighbouring rooms with tilted window (0.19) and with windows only opened for short ventilation (0.07). The latter two rooms even had a birch tree directly flowering in front of the façade. Hourly I/O ratios depended on meteorology and increased with outside temperature and wind speed oriented perpendicular to the window opening. As also

  10. Modelling nutrient concentration to determine the environmental factors influencing grass quality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudeni-Tlhone, N

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the spatial and the least squares (Analysis of Covariance-ANCOVA) regression methods to evaluate the important environmental factors in estimating quality grass for grazing (based on the nitrogen (N) content in grass...

  11. Indoor formaldehyde concentrations in urban China: Preliminary study of some important influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shaodan; Wei, Wenjuan; Weschler, Louise B; Salthammer, Tunga; Kan, Haidong; Bu, Zhongming; Zhang, Yinping

    2017-07-15

    The Huai River and Qingling Mountain divide (H-Q) divide China into north and south with respect to public policies for building construction and operation practises. China's building energy efficiency standard mandates that air exchange rates be 0.5h(-1) north of the H-Q divide and 1h(-1) south of the divide. China's heating policy allows space heating systems only north of the H-Q divide. Consequently, indoor temperature and humidity differ considerably between north and south. A theoretical model using indoor temperature, humidity, and air change rate was developed to predict indoor formaldehyde concentrations. Data for 39 cities were obtained from 42 studies. There was good agreement between the literature and modelling in a theoretical reference room. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.EPA) model was applied to estimate cancer risk from formaldehyde exposure indoors. The median indoor formaldehyde concentration for renovation ever from 2002 to 2015 in Chinese cities was 125μg/m(3), which is higher than the WHO threshold, 100μg/m(3). The median indoor formaldehyde concentrations in the north were higher than in the south (0.5 times higher for dwellings renovated within the past year and 0.2 times higher for renovation ever), driven by the much higher northern winter concentrations (40-1320%). The U.S.EPA model predicts that the lifetime formaldehyde related cancer risk for people living north of the H-Q divide is 1.2 times greater than for people living south. This can be partly explained by greater indoor exposure to formaldehyde for Chinese living north of the H-Q divide.

  12. Factors influencing the formation of histaminol, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and tryptophol in wine: Temperature, alcoholic degree, and amino acids concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordiga, M; Lorenzo, C; Pardo, F; Salinas, M R; Travaglia, F; Arlorio, M; Coïsson, J D; Garde-Cerdán, T

    2016-04-15

    The validation of a HPLC-PDA-MS/MS chromatographic method for the quali/quantitative characterization of histaminol, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and tryptophol in wine has been described and discussed. Four standards showed a good linearity with high correlation coefficient values (over 0.9989) and LOD and LOQ were 0.001-0.015 mg/L and 0.004-0.045 mg/L, respectively. Furthermore, this study reported how factors such as temperature, alcoholic degree, and amino acids concentration are able to influence the formation of these four alcohols in Monastrell wines. The quantification values of these alcohols has been detected both at the half and end of alcoholic fermentation, and at the end of malolactic fermentation. In relation to interactions between factors, several significant variations emerged (p ⩽ 0.001). The impact of amino acids supplementation in Monastrell must it has been demonstrated, mainly in regards to histaminol and tryptophol.

  13. Production factors influence fresh lamb longissimus colour more than muscle traits such as myoglobin concentration and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calnan, H; Jacob, R H; Pethick, D W; Gardner, G E

    2016-09-01

    M. longissimus colour was measured from 8165 lambs at 24h post-mortem using a chromameter. The impact of production factors (site and year of production, slaughter group, sex, age and breed type) and muscle traits (hot carcass weight, pH24, isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) activity, myoglobin, iron and zinc concentrations) on meat lightness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), hue and chroma were analysed. Greater differences in meat colour were seen between different slaughter groups and sites of production than across the range of any muscle traits. Of the muscle traits analysed, changes in pH24 had the greatest effect on meat a* (2.5 units), while myoglobin had the greatest effect on meat L* (2.9 units). The 3.1 L* unit darkening of meat with increasing lamb age (from 140 to 400days) was accounted for by increased myoglobin concentration. These results suggest that production factors are having substantial effects on lamb colour independent of known influencing muscle traits such as myoglobin concentration and pH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Examination of the influence of environmental factors in contaminant vapor concentration attenuation factor with U.S. EPA’s vapor intrusion database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yijun; Shen, Rui; Pennell, Kelly G.; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Those charged with the responsibility of estimating the risk posed by vapor intrusion (VI) processes have often looked to information contained in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)’s VI database for insight. Indoor air concentration attenuation factors have always been a key focus of this database, but the roles of different environmental factors in these attenuation processes are still unclear. This study aims to examine the influences of these factors in the context of the information in the VI database. The database shows that the attenuation factors vary over many orders of magnitude, and that no simple statistical fluctuation around any typical mean value exists. Thus far, no simple explanation of this phenomenon has been presented. This paper examines various possible contributing factors to the enormous range of observed values, looking at which ones can plausibly contribute to explaining them. PMID:23252837

  15. Sex, Diet, and the Social Environment: Factors Influencing Hair Cortisol Concentration in Free-Ranging Black Bears (Ursus americanus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana J R Lafferty

    Full Text Available Increasingly, measures of glucocorticoid levels (e.g., cortisol, key components of the neuroendocrine stress axis, are being used to measure past hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA activity to index psychological and physiological stress exhibited by wildlife for assessing individual and population-level well-being. However, many intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect HPA activity in animals. Using American black bears (Ursus americanus; n = 116 as an ecological model and hair cortisol concentration (HCC as an integrative measure of past HPA activity, we evaluated the influence of diet, sex and the social environment on black bear HCC in a free-ranging population that spanned adjoining ecoregions with differing densities of potential conspecific and heterospecific competitors. HCC varied by sex, with female HCC ranging from 0.6 to 10.7 pg/mg (median = 4.5 ± 1.2 mean absolute deviation [MAD] and male HCC ranging from 0.5 to 35.1 pg/mg (median = 6.2 ± 2.6 MAD. We also observed a three-way interaction among sex, δ14C and ecoregion, which may indicate that some differences in HCC between female and male black bears results from variability in the nutritional needs of larger-bodied males relative to smaller-bodied females, slight differences in food resources use between ecoregions as well as sex-based differences regarding the social environment. Once we understand what drives sex-specific differences in HCC, HCC may aid our understanding of the physiological responses by bears and other wildlife to diverse environmental challenges.

  16. Factors that influence the membrane area of a multistage microfiltration process required to produce a micellar casein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Emily E; Barbano, David M

    2015-04-01

    The objective of the work reported in this paper was to develop a theoretical model to determine the effect of type of microfiltration (MF)-process feed, number of stages, and flux on the minimization of the MF membrane area required to produce a 95% serum protein-reduced micellar casein concentrate. The MF feed, number of stages, and flux were all factors that had an effect on the MF membrane area and should be taken into consideration when designing a MF system to produce a 95% serum protein-reduced micellar casein concentrate. Feeding the MF process with a diluted ultrafiltration retentate (DUR) diluted to the protein concentration of skim milk, as opposed to skim milk, reduced the required membrane area by 36% for a 5-stage process. When DUR was the MF feed, feed protein concentration, which depended on the number of MF stages, was optimized. The DUR protein concentration that minimized the required MF membrane area was 2.47, 3.85, 4.77, and 5.41% for a 2-, 3-, 4-, or 5-stage MF process, respectively. For a 5-stage process, increasing the protein concentration of the feed from 3.2 to 5.4% decreased the required MF membrane area by 10%. It was also found that as the number of stages increased from 2 to 5, the required MF membrane area decreased by 39%, when the MF feed was DUR at the optimal feed protein concentration. Finally, increasing the flux from 50 to 60 kg/m(2) per hour decreased the required MF membrane area by 17% when the MF feed was DUR at the optimal MF feed protein concentration. Overall, using DUR as a feed for MF could reduce the amount of MF membrane area required to make a 95% serum protein-reduced micellar casein concentrate.

  17. Factors Influencing Blood Cadmium and Mercury Concentrations in Residents of Agro-Industries along Nam Phong River, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wannanapa Srathonghon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional analytical study aimed to determine the blood levels of cadmium (B-Cd and mercury (B-Hg and identify the factors influencing heavy metal accumulation in residents of Agro-Industries along the Nam Phong River. Quantitative data were collected, and systematic random sampling was used to obtain 420 samples for questionnaire interview and serum heavy metal testing for B-Cd and B-Hg. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify factors influencing the accumulation of heavy metals in the population and report mean differences, 95% confidence intervals and p-values. The results indicated that B-Cd levels were within the recommended safety limits for human health (5 µg/dL. However, 4.29% of respondents had Hg levels higher than the recommended safety limits for human health (10 µg/dL. Factors influencing Cd levels included sex (mean difference=0.13 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.03-0.24, p-value=0.02 and smoking (mean difference=0.14 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.09-0.19, p-value<0.001. Factors influencing Hg levels included smoking (mean difference=1.06 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.52-1.61, p-value<0.001, fish consumption (mean difference=1.11 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.22-2.01, p-value=0.01 and river snail consumption (mean difference=0.56 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.03-0.19, p-value=0.03.

  18. The self-absorption correction factors for (210)Pb concentration in mining waste and influence on environmental radiation risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonczyk, Michal; Michalik, Boguslaw; Chmielewska, Izabela

    2017-03-01

    The radioactive lead isotope (210)Pb occurs in waste originating from metal smelting and refining industry, gas and oil extraction and sometimes from underground coal mines, which are deposited in natural environment very often. Radiation risk assessment requires accurate knowledge about the concentration of (210)Pb in such materials. Laboratory measurements seem to be the only reliable method applicable in environmental (210)Pb monitoring. One of the methods is gamma-ray spectrometry, which is a very fast and cost-effective method to determine (210)Pb concentration. On the other hand, the self-attenuation of gamma ray from (210)Pb (46.5 keV) in a sample is significant as it does not depend only on sample density but also on sample chemical composition (sample matrix). This phenomenon is responsible for the under-estimation of the (210)Pb activity concentration level often when gamma spectrometry is applied with no regard to relevant corrections. Finally, the corresponding radiation risk can be also improperly evaluated. Sixty samples of coal mining solid tailings (sediments created from underground mining water) were analysed. Slightly modified and adapted to the existing laboratory condition, a transmission method has been applied for the accurate measurement of (210)Pb concentration . The observed concentrations of (210)Pb range between 42.2 ÷ 11,700 Bq·kg(-1) of dry mass. Experimentally obtained correction factors related to a sample density and elemental composition range between 1.11 and 6.97. Neglecting this factor can cause a significant error or underestimations in radiological risk assessment. The obtained results have been used for environmental radiation risk assessment performed by use of the ERICA tool assuming exposure conditions typical for the final destination of such kind of waste.

  19. Anadromous char as an alternate food choice to marine animals: A synthesis of Hg concentrations, population features and other influencing factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Marlene S., E-mail: marlene.evans@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, Water Science and Technology Directorate, 11 Innovation Blvd., Saskatoon SK S7N 3H5 (Canada); Muir, Derek C.G. [Environment Canada, Water Science and Technology Directorate, 867 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada); Keating, Jonathan [Environment Canada, Water Science and Technology Directorate, 11 Innovation Blvd., Saskatoon SK S7N 3H5 (Canada); Wang, Xiaowa [Environment Canada, Water Science and Technology Directorate, 867 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    This study was conducted to confirm sporadic measurements made over the late 1970s to the early 1990s which determined that mercury (Hg) concentrations were low in anadromous char across Arctic and subarctic Canada including northern Québec and Labrador. Over 2004–2013, anadromous char populations across northern Canada were investigated at 20 sites for Hg concentrations and life history characteristics. Hg concentrations were extremely low in anadromous char muscle, typically < 0.05 μg/g (wet weight) and, at each location, generally increased with fish length, age and nitrogen isotope (δ{sup 15}N) ratio and decreased with condition factor and %lipid; correlations with carbon isotope (δ{sup 13}C) ratio were inconsistent. Location and year were significant variables influencing Hg concentrations over the study area; longitude and latitude also were significant influencing variables. Char length, weight, age, condition factor and lipid content explained additional variance. A tendency towards higher Hg concentrations with increasing latitude may be partially related to decreasing growth of char towards the north. However, Hg concentrations in char were positively correlated with growth rates suggesting that Hg concentrations in char also were higher in the more productive study areas, including to the west where mainland riverine inputs of terrestrial carbon, nutrients, and Hg were greater. The data base for assessing time trends in char was limited by the small number of years investigated at most locations, variable fish size across years, small sample size, etc. Where temporal trends were detected, they were of increase on the long term (1970s, 1980s or early 1990s to the present) but of decrease on the short term (early 2000s to present) with Nain (Labrador) showing the converse pattern. Higher Hg concentrations were also related to lower condition factor and cooler springs. Hg concentrations in anadromous char are compared with other terrestrial, aquatic

  20. Lead and cadmium in human teeth from Jordan by atomic absorption spectrometry: Some factors influencing their concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alomary, A. [Department of Chemistry, Yarmouk University, Irbid (Jordan)]. E-mail: ahmedalomary1000@hotmail.com; Al-Momani, I.F. [Department of Chemistry, Yarmouk University, Irbid (Jordan); Massadeh, A.M. [Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid (Jordan)

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the concentrations of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in human teeth and to investigate the affecting factors. Teeth samples (n = 268) were collected from people living in different cities in Jordan including Amman, Zarqa, Al-Mafraq and Irbid and analyzed for Pb and Cd using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). A questionnaire was used to gather information on each person, such as age, sex, place where the patient lives, smoking, presence of amalgam fillings inside the mouth, and whether the patient uses toothpaste or not. The mean concentrations of Pb and Cd were 28.91 {mu}g/g and 0.44 {mu}g/g, respectively. The results indicate that there is a clear relation between Pb and Cd concentrations and the presence of amalgam fillings, smoking, and place of living. Pb was sex-dependent, whereas Cd was not. Our results show that Pb and Cd concentrations in samples obtained from Al-Mafraq and Irbid are higher than those obtained from Amman and Zarqa. Pb was highest in Mafraq, whereas Cd was highest in Irbid. The Pb and Cd concentrations in teeth from smokers (means: Pb = 31.89 {mu}g/g, Cd = 0.49 {mu}g/g) were significantly higher than those from nonsmokers (means: Pb = 24.07 {mu}g/g, Cd = 0.37 {mu}g/g). Pb and Cd concentrations in teeth of patients with amalgam fillings (means: Pb = 31.02 {mu}g/g and Cd = 0.52 {mu}g/g) were significantly higher than those from patients without amalgam fillings (means: Pb = 26.87 {mu}g/g and Cd = 0.41 {mu}g/g). Our results show that brushing the teeth daily with toothpaste does not significantly decrease the concentration of both Pb and Cd. The mean concentrations of Pb and Cd do not vary significantly between the ages 20-30, 31-40, and 41-50, but both increased rapidly at age 51-60.

  1. Chromatographic Characterization of Molecularly Imprinted Microspheres Synthesized by Aqueous Microsuspension Polymerization: Influences of pH, Kinds and Concentration of Buffer on Capacity Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI,Jia-Ping(赖家平); LU,Chun-Yang(卢春阳); HE,Xi-Wen(何锡文)

    2002-01-01

    Moleolarly imprinted microspheres (MIMs) were prepared using 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) as template molecule by aqueous microsuspension polymerization. The MIMs were packed into stainless steel cohmn (250 × 4.6 mm I. D. ) for selective separation of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and 2-aminopyridine (2-AP). The influences of pH, kinds and concentration ( c ) of buffer on capacity factors were investigated in detail. The relationships of capacity factor ( k' ) with pH and concentration of buffer are quantitatively described firstly. The effects of pH of phosphate and acetate buffer on capacity factors are very different. The relationship between k' and pH can be described by the following equation: k' = - 8.23 + 9.23 pH- 0.99 pH2 (in phosphate buffer) with R2 = 0.9775 and k' = 6.79 - 3.76 pH + 0.68 pH2(in acetate buffer) with R2=0.9866. Furthermore, the capacity factors were also greatly affected by the concentration of acetate buffer in mobile phase while non-imprinted molecule is poorly changed. It increases with decreasing the concentration of buffer-especially in low concentration buffer ( cacetate < 0.02 mol/L, final concentration in mobile phase). The fit curve of log k' to log c is described by equation: log k'= -0.571- 1.256 × log c - 0.186× (log c)2 with R2 = 0.9979. The ratio of acetate buffer to methanol was investigated and the optimal ratio for separation of 4-AP and 2-AP is below 1:7.5 (V/V).

  2. Factors influencing the atmospheric concentrations of PCBs at an abandoned e-waste recycling site in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Wu, Xiaowei; Hou, Minmin; Zhao, Hongxia; Chen, Ruize; Luo, Chunling; Zhang, Gan

    2017-02-01

    The diurnal atmospheric concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated at an abandoned e-waste recycling site in South China during winter and summer. Total PCB concentrations during winter and summer were 27.6-212 and 368-1704pg/m(3) in the particulate phase and 270-697 and 3000-15,500pg/m(3) in the gaseous phase, respectively. Both gaseous and particulate PCB concentrations and compositions exhibited significant difference between winter and summer samples, but no diurnal variations during the measurement period. The correlation analysis between PCB concentrations and meteorological conditions, including atmospheric temperature, humidity, and mixing layer height, suggested that the seasonal variability of atmospheric PCB concentrations was strongly temperature-dependent, while the diurnal variability was probably source-dependent. The temperature-driven variations can also be proved by the significant linear correlation between ln P and 1/T in the Clausius-Clapeyron plot. Although government has implemented controls to reduce e-waste pollution, both the relatively high concentrations of PCBs and the diurnal variation in the air suggested that emissions from occasional e-waste recycling activities may still exist in this recycling area. These results underline the importance of continuing e-waste recycling site management long after abandonment.

  3. A review of factors influencing milk urea concentration and its relationship with urinary urea excretion in lactating dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, J.W.; Dijkstra, J.; Duinkerken, van G.; Bannink, A.

    2013-01-01

    Milk urea nitrogen (MUN) concentration in dairy cows may serve as an on-farm indicator to guide nutritional strategies and to help reduce emissions of nitrogen (N) to the environment. Excretion of urinary urea nitrogen (UUN) is positively related to MUN, but the relationship is highly variable. The

  4. The influence of meteorological factors on the hazel (Corylus L. pollen concentration in Sosnowiec in the years 1997-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Dąbrowska-Zapart

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of hazel pollen seasons in Sosnowiec was presented on the basis of data from the years 1997-2007. The research was conducted by means of the volumetric method using a Burkard-type spore trap. The duration of pollen seasons was determined by means of the 98% method. The research demonstrated statistically significant correlations between the average, maximum and minimum temperature, relative humidity as well as the number of days with sub-zero temperature and the beginning of the hazel pollen season. It was demonstrated that the duration of the pollen season depended on air relative humidity, insolation and precipitation during the season and the annual sum depended on the weather conditions of the year preceding pollen production and also the weather conditions two years earlier. Significant correlations were also found between weather conditions and the daily concentration of pollen grains. The daily concentration decreased when relative humidity was high and increased with high insolation and air temperature.

  5. Daily changes of radon concentration in soil gas under influence of atmospheric factors: room temperature, soil surface temperature and relative humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara, Evelise G.; Oliveira, Arno Heeren de, E-mail: evelise.lara@gmail.com, E-mail: heeren@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Rocha, Zildete; Rios, Francisco Javier, E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br, E-mail: javier@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This work aims at relating the daily change in the radon concentration in soil gas in a Red Yellow Acrisol (SiBCS) under influence of atmospheric factors: room temperature, soil surface temperature and relative humidity. The {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, U content and permeability were also performed. The measurements of radon soil gas were carried out by using an AlphaGUARD monitor. The {sup 226}Ra activity concentration was made by Gamma Spectrometry (HPGe); the permeability was carried out using the RADON-JOK permeameter and ICP-MS analysis to {sup 232}Th and U content. The soil permeability is 5.0 x 10{sup -12}, which is considered average. The {sup 226}Ra (22.2 ± 0.3 Bq.m{sup -3}); U content (73.4 ± 3.6 Bq.kg{sup -1}) and {sup 232}Th content (55.3 ± 4.0 Bq.kg{sup -1}) were considered above of average concentrations, according to mean values for soils typical (~ 35.0 Bq.kg{sup -1}) by UNSCEAR. The results showed a difference of 26.0% between the highest and the lowest concentration of radon in soil gas: at midnight (15.5 ± 1.0 kBq.m{sup -3}) and 3:00 pm, the highest mean radon concentration (21.0 ± 1.0 kBq.m{sup -3}). The room temperature and surface soil temperature showed equivalent behavior and the surface soil temperature slightly below room temperature during the entire monitoring time. Nevertheless, the relative humidity showed the highest cyclical behavior, showing a higher relationship with the radon concentration in soil gas. (author)

  6. Influencing factors of human blood alcohol concentration detection%人体血液酒精浓度检测的影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萱; 汪炜; 孟祥志

    2014-01-01

    In forensic identification,the blood alcohol concentration detection has to be conducted to get the evidence for drunk driving.Based on the fact that alcohol can be decomposed in human body and there are lots of factors that may affect the physicochemical properties of alcohol, this paper aims to review those factors that may influence the blood alcohol concentration detection, including blood specimen collection and preservation,detection methods, body corruption,diffusion of alcohol in the stomach and disease of the Decedent.It is suggested that all these factors should be considered in future forensic cases to detect accurately blood concentration of drivers.%在法医学鉴定中,为了给交通警察提供酒后驾车或醉酒驾车的证据,必须对驾驶员血液的乙醇浓度进行准确测定,酒精摄入人体后可以被转化分解,并且酒精的理化性质可受外界环境及诸多因素的影响。本文对影响血液酒精浓度测定的诸多因素进行综述,如:血液标本的采集、保存、检测方法,尸体的腐败、胃内酒精的弥散及死者生前罹患的疾病等因素,都可以影响血液乙醇浓度的数值,为了能真实反映当事人血液中的酒精浓度,在今后的日常工作中应该注意以上因素对血液乙醇浓度的影响。

  7. INFLUENCE OF FILLING WATER ON AIR CONCENTRATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jian-hua; MA Fei; DAI Hui-chao

    2011-01-01

    The filling water inside the cavity below an aerator occurs for the flow of low Froude number or the small bottom slope of a spillway.The aerator may cease to protect against cavitation damages,and may even act as a generator of cavitation if it is fully filled by water.The experiments were conducted to investigate the influences of the geometric parameters,and then the filling water on the air concentration.The results show that the filling water,or the net cavity length,is closely related to the plunging jet length for a given aerator,and the air concentration at some section is proportional to the ratio Ln/Lj at a fixed Lj for different geometric parameters of aerators.Secondly,at the same ratio of Ln / Lj,the aerator with a larger height or a larger angle of ramp,or a larger bottom slope,would have a larger plunging jet length,and then a larger net cavity length based on the ratio of Ln / Lj.As a result,the large space of cavity,or the high air concentration of the flow could be obtained although the filling water increases also based on the fact that Lf=Lj- Ln.It is the space of the cavity that is the dominant factor to affect the air concentration of the flow.

  8. Matrix Factorization and Matrix Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Mackey, Lester

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the constrained factorization problems of sparse principal components analysis (PCA) for gene expression modeling, low-rank matrix completion for recommender systems, and robust matrix factorization for video surveillance, this dissertation explores the modeling, methodology, and theory of matrix factorization.We begin by exposing the theoretical and empirical shortcomings of standard deflation techniques for sparse PCA and developing alternative methodology more suitable for def...

  9. Chromatographic Characterization of Molecularly Imprinted Microspheres Synthesized by Aqueous Microsuspension Polymerization:Influences of pH,Kinds and Concentration of Buffer on Capacity Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖家平; 卢春阳; 何锡文

    2002-01-01

    Molecularly imprintde microspheres(MIMs) were prepared using 4-aminopyridine(4-AP) as template molecule by aqueous microsuspension polymerization.The MIMs were packed into stainless steel column(250×4.6mmI.D.)for selective separation of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and 2-aminopyridine (2-AP).The inftuences of pH,kinds and concentration(c) of buffer on capacity factors were investigated in detail.The relationships of capacity factor(k’)with pH and concentration of buffer are quantitatively described firstly.The effects of pH of phosphate and acetate buffer on capacity factors are very different.The relationship between k’ and pH can be described by the following equation:k’=-8.23 9.23pH-0.99pH2(in phosphate buffer) with R2=0.9775and k’=6.79-3.76pH 0.68pH2(in acetate buffer) with R2=0.9866.Furthermore,the capacity factors were also greatly affected by the concentration of acetate buffer in mobile phase while non-imprinted molecule is poorly changed.It increases with decreasing the concentration of buffer-especially in low concentration buffer(cacetase<0.02mol/L,final concentration in mobile phase).The fit curve of log k’ to log c is described by equation:log k’=-0.571-1.256×log c-0.186×(log c)2 with R2=0.9979.The ratio of acetate buffer to methanol was investigated and the optimal ratio for separation of 4-AP and 2-AP is below 1:7.5(V/V).

  10. Factors influencing particle number concentrations, size distributions and modal parameters at a roof-level and roadside site in Leicester, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agus, Emily L; Young, David T; Lingard, Justin J N; Smalley, Robert J; Tate, James E; Goodman, Paul S; Tomlin, Alison S

    2007-11-01

    Measurements of urban particle number concentrations and size distributions in the range 5-1000 nm were taken at elevated (roof-level) and roadside sampling sites on Narborough Road in Leicester, UK, along with simultaneous measurements of traffic, NO(x), CO and 1,3-butadiene concentrations and meteorological parameters. A fitting program was used to determine the characteristics of up to five modal groups present in the particle size distributions. All particle modal concentrations peaked during the morning and evening rush hours. Additional events associated with the smallest mode, that were not observed to be connected to primary emissions, were also present suggesting that this mode consisted of newly formed secondary particles. These events included peaks in concentration which coincided with peaks in solar radiation, and lower concentrations of the larger modes. Investigation into the relationships between traffic flow and occupancy indicated three flow regimes; free-flow, unstable and congested. During free-flow conditions, positive linear relationships existed between traffic flow and particle modal number concentrations. However, during unstable and congested periods, this relationship was shown to break-down. Similar trends were observed for concentrations of the gas phase pollutants NO(x), CO and 1,3-butadiene. Strong linear relationships existed between NO(x), CO, 1,3-butadiene concentrations, nucleation and Aitken mode concentrations at both sampling locations, indicating a local traffic related emission source. At the roadside, both nucleation and Aitken mode are best represented by a decreasing exponential function with wind speed, whereas at the roof-level this relationship only occurred for Aitken mode particles. The differing relationships at the two sampling locations are most likely due to a combination of meteorological factors and distance from the local emission source.

  11. 手工制备浓缩血小板影响因素的探讨%Influence factors of handmade blood platelets concentrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐泽萍

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨手工制备浓缩血小板的影响因素,提高手工浓缩血小板的质量和临床输注效果.方法 随机选择献血前72小时内未服用过阿斯匹林类药物的献血者,外周血小板计数正常,采血顺畅,采用相同的分离方法(富含血小板血浆法)制备手工浓缩血小板,观察不同规格的全血,或不同的离心条件对收集血小板的影响.结果 400ml全血分别在2000、2100和2200 rpm,离心5 min血小板为(84.0±14)、(90.5±10.5)、(3.89±0.48) 109/L,离心6min血小板为(86.3±11.5)、(121.5±17.7)、(85.0±16.5)109/L,经统计学处理2100 rpm离心6 min结果与其它组比较差异显著(P<0.01);其它各组相互比较差异不显著(P>0.5).全血量分别为400、300、200ml时分离出的血小板为(1.46±0.28)、(3.53±0.66)、(4.86±0.71)109/L,400、300ml间比较差异不显著(P>0.5),200ml与400、300ml间比较差异显著(P<0.01).结论 采用相同的分离法,不同的离心条件、血液规格收集血小扳均有影响,400ml的全血,转速为2 100rpm/min,6min,22℃离心制备的浓缩血小板含量最高,收集效果最好.%Objective To analyze the influence factors of handmade blood platelets concentrate and improve the quality and the clinical injection effect of handmade platelets concentrate. Methods The blood donors who hadn't taken aspirin medicine before donating blood in 72 hours were randomly enrolled in this study: peripheral blood platelets counts were normal; blood were collected smoothly; then platelets concentrate were reserved by same centrifuging method ( platelet-rich plasma method) to discuss the influence of centrifugal conditions or whole blood specifications on collecting platelets. Results The 400ml whole blood under 2000rpp, 2100rpm, 2200rpm, centrifugalize 5min platelets (unit:109/ L) 84.0±14,90.5±10.5,3.89±0.48, and 6min platelets (unit: 109/L) 86. 3± 11. 5、121. 5± 17. 7、85. 0± 16. 5. The results under 2100rpm and centrifugalized 6min

  12. Whey protein concentrate enhances intestinal integrity and influences transforming growth factor-β1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways in piglets after lipopolysaccharide challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Kan; Jiao, Lefei; Cao, Shuting; Song, Zehe; Hu, Caihong; Han, Xinyan

    2016-03-28

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC) has been reported to have protective effects on the intestinal barrier. However, the molecular mechanisms involved are not fully elucidated. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is an important component in the WPC, but whether TGF-β1 plays a role in these processes is not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of WPC on the intestinal epithelial barrier as well as whether TGF-β1 is involved in these protection processes in a piglet model after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. In total, eighteen weanling pigs were randomly allocated to one of the following three treatment groups: (1) non-challenged control and control diet; (2) LPS-challenged control and control diet; (3) LPS+5 %WPC diet. After 19 d of feeding with control or 5 %WPC diets, pigs were injected with LPS or saline. At 4 h after injection, pigs were killed to harvest jejunal samples. The results showed that WPC improved (P<0·05) intestinal morphology, as indicated by greater villus height and villus height:crypt depth ratio, and intestinal barrier function, which was reflected by increased transepithelial electrical resistance and decreased mucosal-to-serosal paracellular flux of dextran (4 kDa), compared with the LPS group. Moreover, WPC prevented the LPS-induced decrease (P<0·05) in claudin-1, occludin and zonula occludens-1 expressions in the jejunal mucosae. WPC also attenuated intestinal inflammation, indicated by decreased (P<0·05) mRNA expressions of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-1β. Supplementation with WPC also increased (P<0·05) TGF-β1 protein, phosphorylated-Smad2 expression and Smad4 and Smad7 mRNA expressions and decreased (P<0·05) the ratios of the phosphorylated to total c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 (phospho-JNK:JNK and p-p38:p38), whereas it increased (P<0·05) the ratio of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) (phospho-ERK:ERK). Collectively, these results suggest that dietary inclusion of WPC

  13. Spatiotemporal Pattern of PM2.5 Concentrations in Mainland China and Analysis of Its Influencing Factors using Geographically Weighted Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jieqiong; Du, Peijun; Samat, Alim; Xia, Junshi; Che, Meiqin; Xue, Zhaohui

    2017-01-01

    Based on annual average PM2.5 gridded dataset, this study first analyzed the spatiotemporal pattern of PM2.5 across Mainland China during 1998–2012. Then facilitated with meteorological site data, land cover data, population and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) data, etc., the contributions of latent geographic factors, including socioeconomic factors (e.g., road, agriculture, population, industry) and natural geographical factors (e.g., topography, climate, vegetation) to PM2.5 were explored through Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) model. The results revealed that PM2.5 concentrations increased while the spatial pattern remained stable, and the proportion of areas with PM2.5 concentrations greater than 35 μg/m3 significantly increased from 23.08% to 29.89%. Moreover, road, agriculture, population and vegetation showed the most significant impacts on PM2.5. Additionally, the Moran’s I for the residuals of GWR was 0.025 (not significant at a 0.01 level), indicating that the GWR model was properly specified. The local coefficient estimates of GDP in some cities were negative, suggesting the existence of the inverted-U shaped Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) for PM2.5 in Mainland China. The effects of each latent factor on PM2.5 in various regions were different. Therefore, regional measures and strategies for controlling PM2.5 should be formulated in terms of the local impacts of specific factors.

  14. Influence of environmental and anthropogenic factors on the composition, concentration and spatial distribution of microplastics: A case study of the Bay of Brest (Brittany, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frère, L; Paul-Pont, I; Rinnert, E; Petton, S; Jaffré, J; Bihannic, I; Soudant, P; Lambert, C; Huvet, A

    2017-03-31

    The concentration and spatial distribution of microplastics in the Bay of Brest (Brittany, France) was investigated in two surveys. Surface water and sediment were sampled at nine locations in areas characterized by contrasting anthropic pressures, riverine influences or water mixing. Microplastics were categorized by their polymer type and size class. Microplastic contamination in surface water and sediment was dominated by polyethylene fragments (PE, 53-67%) followed by polypropylene (PP, 16-30%) and polystyrene (PS, 16-17%) microparticles. The presence of buoyant microplastics (PE, PP and PS) in sediment suggests the existence of physical and/or biological processes leading to vertical transfer of lightweight microplastics in the bay. In sediment (upper 5 cm), the percentage of particles identified by Raman micro-spectroscopy was lower (41%) than in surface water (79%) and may explain the apparent low concentration observed in this matrix (0.97 ± 2.08 MP kg(-1) dry sediment). Mean microplastic concentration was 0.24 ± 0.35 MP m(-3) in surface water. We suggest that the observed spatial MP distribution is related to proximity to urbanized areas and to hydrodynamics in the bay. A particle dispersal model was used to study the influence of hydrodynamics on surface microplastic distribution. The outputs of the model showed the presence of a transitional convergence zone in the centre of the bay during flood tide, where floating debris coming from the northern and southern parts of the bay tends to accumulate before being expelled from the bay. Further modelling work and observations integrating (i) the complex vertical motion of microplastics, and (ii) their point sources is required to better understand the fate of microplastics in such a complex coastal ecosystem.

  15. Mobilization of Peripheral Blood Stem Cells and Changes in the Concentration of Plasma Factors Influencing their Movement in Patients with Panic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabłoński, Marcin; Mazur, Jolanta Kucharska; Tarnowski, Maciej; Dołęgowska, Barbara; Pędziwiatr, Daniel; Kubiś, Ewa; Budkowska, Marta; Sałata, Daria; Wysiecka, Justyna Pełka; Kazimierczak, Arkadiusz; Reginia, Artur; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z; Samochowiec, Jerzy

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we examined whether stem cells and factors responsible for their movement may serve as new biological markers of anxiety disorders. The study was carried out on a group of 30 patients diagnosed with panic disorder (examined before and after treatment), compared to 30 healthy individuals forming the control group. We examined the number of circulating HSCs (hematopoetic stem cells) (Lin-/CD45 +/CD34 +) and HSCs (Lin-/CD45 +/AC133 +), the number of circulating VSELs (very small embryonic-like stem cells) (Lin-/CD45-/CD34 +) and VSELs (Lin-/CD45-/AC133 +), as well as the concentration of complement components: C3a, C5a and C5b-9, SDF-1 (stromal derived factor) and S1P (sphingosine-1-phosphate). Significantly lower levels of HSCs (Lin-/CD45 +/AC133 +) have been demonstrated in the patient group compared to the control group both before and after treatment. The level of VSELs (Lin-/CD45-/CD133 +) was significantly lower in the patient group before treatment as compared to the patient group after treatment.The levels of factors responsible for stem cell movement were significantly lower in the patient group compared to the control group before and after treatment. It was concluded that the study of stem cells and factors associated with their movement can be useful in the diagnostics of panic disorder, as well as differentiating between psychotic and anxiety disorders.

  16. Reduction of Influence Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regtien, Paulus P.L.; Sydenham, Peter H.; Thorn, Richard

    Any measurement system has imperfections and any act of measurement is liable to errors. Measurement errors either originate from system deficiencies (for instance system noise, quantization, and drift), or are due to environmental influences such as thermal, electromagnetic, and mechanical

  17. Influence of modified transdermal hormone replacement therapy on the concentrations of hormones, growth factors, and bone mineral density in women with osteopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanosz, Staniaław; Zochowska, Ewa; Safranow, Krzysztof; Sieja, Krzysztof; Stanosz, Małgorzta

    2009-01-01

    The metabolic and therapeutic action of estrogens depends on their type, dosage, form, route of administration, and treatment-free interval during the therapeutic cycle. Hormone therapy is generally subclassified into 2 forms that differ in the type of hormones. In hormonal replacement therapy (HRT), estrogens and progesterone components do not differ in chemical structure and molecular mass from those naturally produced by the female organism. In hormonal supplementary therapy (HST), the estrogen and progestagen components do differ from the natural hormones in structure and mass. The aim of the study was to compare 2 kinds of hormonal therapy in early postmenopausal women with osteopenia. These forms of therapy are modified transdermal HRT and orally given HST. The objective of this study was the estimation of sex hormone, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), prolactin (PRL), osteocalcin, and procollagen concentration in serum as well as the degree of mineralization of the lumbar spine in women in the early postmenopausal period with osteopenia under different kinds of hormonal therapy. The study was conducted in 75 women with an average age of 52.4 +/- 3.5 years and with primary osteopenia, in the early postmenopausal period, who were randomly assigned to 3 groups depending on the form and route of administration of therapy: Group I (n = 25, control) was receiving placebo in the form of patches. Group II (n = 25) was treated with modified transdermal HRT. This group obtained micronized 17beta-estradiol at increasing-decreasing doses and progesterone in the second phase of the therapeutic cycle. Group III (n = 25) was receiving orally given HST and obtained Cyclo-Menorette (Wyeth, Munster, Germany). The therapeutic cycle in each group lasted 21 days, followed by a 7-day medication-free interval. Estradiol concentration in serum was increased 5-fold and estrone (E(1)) was increased about 11-fold in the group of women receiving orally given HST (P hormone was

  18. Phonological Awareness: Factors of Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…

  19. 自体血小板胶中转化生长因子-β1浓度的影响因素%Influencing Factors of Transforming Growth Factor β1 Concentration in Autologous Platelet-rich Gel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱业华; 马春会; 郭如华; 何其通; 谭瑞元; 栾晓军; 梁明

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨自体血小板胶(Autologous platelet-rich gel,APG)中转化生长因子-β1(Transforming growth factor beta 1,TGF-β1)浓度的影响因素.方法 用一体性塑料血袋分别采集40名健康人的静脉血50 ml,采用两次离心法制备富血小板血浆(Platelet-rich plasma,PRP),用血细胞分析仪检测静脉血和PRP中的血小板数目;将PRP与凝血酶和钙剂混合液按体积比10:1的比例混合,制备APG,采用ELISA法定量分析APG中的TGF-β1浓度;选择5个参数(年龄、性别、静脉血血小板计数、PRP中血小板平均计数及静脉血制备前保存温度)进行多元线性回归分析.结果 PRP中血小板平均计数[(1232.23±195.45)×109个/L]约为静脉血[(195.95±42.29)×109个/L]的6倍;APG中TGF-β1的平均浓度为(5.83±2.31)ng/ml,与制备前静脉血保存温度密切相关(P<0.000 5),而与年龄、性别、静脉血血小板计数和PRP中血小板计数无关.结论 制备前APG的静脉血样本应保存于室温(20~24℃)下.%Objective To investigate the influencing factors of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) concentration in autologous platelet-rich gel (APG). Methods Venous blood were collected from 40 healthy volunteers, 50 ml for each, by integrated plastic blood collection bags, with which platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was prepared by two steps of centrifugation. The platelets in venous blood and PRP were counted by blood cell analyzer. APG was prepared by mixing PRP with the mixture of thrombin and calcium, at a volume ratio of 10:1 and determined for TGF-β1 concentration by ELISA. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed on five parameters, i. e. age, sex, platelet count in venous blood, mean platelet count in PRP and temperature for storage of venous blood before preparation of PRP. Results The mean platelet count in PRP[ (1 232. 23 ± 195.45) × 109 platelets/L] was about 6 times higher than that in venous blood [( 195.95 ± 42. 29) × 109 platelets/L]. The mean

  20. Factors Influencing Healthcare Service Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad

    2014-01-01

    Background The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results Quality in healthcare is a production o...

  1. Concentrations and Distribution Patterns of Rare Earth Elements in Water Body from Intertidal Flat of Tianjin and Influence of Various Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立军; 梁涛; 张朝生; 丁士明; 丁立强; 阎欣

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations and distribution patterns of rare earth elements(REEs)in the intertidal flat of Tianjin were studied using P507 resin and ICP-MS analytical technology. The results show that average concentrations of REEs in the filtered(dissolved REEs), unfiltered and interstitial water are 0.461 μg·L-1, 4.98 μg·L-1 and 0.845 μg·L-1, respectively. Their distribution patterns are similar to those in inland natural rivers, but quite different from those in oceans. The average concentrations of REEs in sediments and suspended matters are 161.2 mg·L-1 and 168.1 mg·L-1, respectively, which are much lower than those in sediments of natural rivers but higher than those in sediments of the continental shelf of East China Sea. It is suggested that REEs in sediments and suspended matters of intertidal flat can have mainly originated from terrestrial soils and thus their transportation and transformation processes are similar with those in rivers, and different from those in continental shelves. Pollutants discharged into the Bohai Bay do·not cause significant effect on REEs in the intertidal flat of Tianjin yet.

  2. Influence of emissions on regional atmospheric mercury concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bieser J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a global pollutant that is rapidly transported in the atmosphere. Unlike the majority of air pollutants the background concentrations of mercury play a major role for the atmospheric concentrations on a hemispheric scale. In this study the influence of regional anthropogenic emissions in comparison to the global emissions on mercury concentrations over Europe are investigated. For this purpose an advanced threedimensional model system is used that consists of three components. The emission model SMOKE-EU, the meteorological model COSMO-CLM, and the chemistry transport model (CTM CMAQ. A variety of sensitivity runs is performed in order to determine the influence of different driving factors (i.e. boundary conditions, anthropogenic and natural emissions, emission factors, meteorological fields on the atmoshperic concentrations of different mercury species. This study is part of the European FP7 project GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System. The aim is to identify the most important drivers for atmospheric mercury in order to optimize future regional modelling studies in the course of the GMOS project. Moreover, the model results are used to determine areas of interest for air-plane based in-situ measurements which are also part of GMOS.

  3. Season, molt, and body size influence mercury concentrations in grebes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Christopher; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2017-01-01

    We studied seasonal and physiological influences on mercury concentrations in western grebes (Aechmophorus occidentalis) and Clark's grebes (A. occidentalis) across 29 lakes and reservoirs in California, USA. Additionally, at three of these lakes, we conducted a time series study, in which we repeatedly sampled grebe blood mercury concentrations during the spring, summer, and early fall. Grebe blood mercury concentrations were higher among males (0.61 ± 0.12 μg/g ww) than females (0.52 ± 0.10 μg/g ww), higher among Clark's grebes (0.58 ± 0.12 μg/g ww) than western grebes (0.51 ± 0.10 μg/g ww), and exhibited a strong seasonal pattern (decreasing by 60% from spring to fall). Grebe blood THg concentrations exhibited a shallow, inverse U-shaped pattern with body size, and was lowest among the smallest and largest grebes. Further, the relationship between grebe blood mercury concentrations and wing primary feather molt exhibited a shallow U-shaped pattern, where mercury concentrations were highest among birds that had not yet begun molting, decreased approximately 24% between pre-molt and late molt, and increased approximately 19% from late molt to post-molt. Because grebes did not begin molting until mid-summer, lower grebe blood mercury concentrations observed in late summer and early fall were consistent with the onset of primary feather molt. However, because sampling date was a much stronger predictor of grebe mercury concentrations than molt, other seasonally changing environmental factors likely played a larger role than molt in the seasonal variation in grebe mercury concentrations. In the time series study, we found that seasonal trends in grebe mercury concentrations were not consistent among lakes, indicating that lake-specific variation in mercury dynamics influence the overall seasonal decline in grebe blood mercury concentrations. These results highlight the importance of accounting for sampling date, as well as ecological processes that may

  4. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sam Sx; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Nosaka, Kazunori; Abbiss, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing) within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon.

  5. Factors influencing 14C concentrations of algal and archaeal lipids and their associated sea surface temperature proxies in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusch, Stephanie; Rethemeyer, Janet; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Wacker, Lukas; Mollenhauer, Gesine

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the preservation and deposition history of organic molecules is crucial for the understanding of paleoenvironmental information contained in their abundance ratios such as Uk‧37 and TEX86 used as proxies for sea surface temperature (SST). Based on their relatively high refractivity, alkenones and glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) can survive postdepositional processes like lateral transport, potentially causing inferred SSTs to be misleading. Likewise, selective preservation of alkenones and GDGTs may cause biases of the SST proxies themselves and can lead to decoupling of both proxy records. Here we report compound-specific radiocarbon data of marine biomarkers including alkenones, GDGTs, and low molecular weight (LMW) n-fatty acids from Black Sea sediments deposited under different redox regimes to evaluate the potentially differential preservation of both biomarker classes and its effect on the SST indices Uk‧37 and TEX86. The decadal Δ14C values of alkenones, GDGTs, and LMW n-fatty acids indicate similar preservation under oxic, suboxic, and anoxic redox regimes and no contribution of pre-aged compounds, e.g., by lateral supply. Moreover, similar 14C concentrations of crenarchaeol, alkenones, and LMW n-fatty acids imply that the thaumarchaeotal GDGTs preserved in these sediments are produced in the euphotic zone rather than in subsurface/thermocline waters. However, we observe biomarker-based SSTs that strongly deviate (ΔSST up to 8.4 °C) from in situ measured mean annual SSTs in the Black Sea. This is not due to redox-dependent differential biomarker preservation as implied by their Δ14C values and spatial SST pattern. Since contributions from different sources can largely be excluded, the deviation of the Uk‧37 and TEX86 proxy-derived SSTs from in situ SSTs requires further study of phylogenetic and other yet unknown environmental controls on alkenone and GDGT lipid distributions in the Black Sea.

  6. Microencapsulation techniques, factors influencing encapsulation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothi, N Venkata Naga; Prasanna, P Muthu; Sakarkar, Suhas Narayan; Prabha, K Surya; Ramaiah, P Seetha; Srawan, G Y

    2010-05-01

    Microencapsulation is one of the quality preservation techniques of sensitive substances and a method for production of materials with new valuable properties. Microencapsulation is a process of enclosing micron-sized particles in a polymeric shell. There are different techniques available for the encapsulation of drug entities. The encapsulation efficiency of the microparticle or microsphere or microcapsule depends upon different factors like concentration of the polymer, solubility of polymer in solvent, rate of solvent removal, solubility of organic solvent in water, etc. The present article provides a literature review of different microencapsulation techniques and different factors influencing the encapsulation efficiency of the microencapsulation technique.

  7. Factors Influencing Healthcare Service Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results Quality in healthcare is a production of cooperation between the patient and the healthcare provider in a supportive environment. Personal factors of the provider and the patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare organisation, healthcare system, and the broader environment affect healthcare service quality. Healthcare quality can be improved by supportive visionary leadership, proper planning, education and training, availability of resources, effective management of resources, employees and processes, and collaboration and cooperation among providers. Conclusion This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework that provides policy-makers and managers a practical understanding of factors that affect healthcare service quality.

  8. Influence of emulsifier concentration on nanoemulsion gelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erramreddy, Vivek Vardhan; Ghosh, Supratim

    2014-09-23

    Nanoemulsion gels are a new class of soft materials that manifest stronger elasticity even at lower dispersed phase volume fraction. In this work, gelation in 40 wt % canola oil-in-water nanoemulsions was investigated as a function of emulsifier type (anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or nonionic Tween 20) and concentration. It was observed that the liquid nanoemulsions transformed into viscoelastic gels at a specific concentration range of SDS, whereas no gelation was observed for Tween 20. The apparent viscosity, yield stress, and storage modulus of the nanogels increased with SDS concentration until 15 times critical micelle concentration (CMC), thereafter decreased steadily as the gelation weakened beginning 20 CMC. Three regimes of colloidal interactions in the presence of emulsifier were proposed. (1) Repulsive gelation: at low SDS concentration (0.5-2 times CMC) the repulsive charge cloud around the nanodroplets acted as interfacial shell layer that significantly increased the effective volume fraction of the dispersed phase (ϕ(eff)). When ϕ(eff) became comparable to the volume fraction required for maximal random jamming, nanoemulsions formed elastic gels. (2) Attractive gelation: as the SDS concentration increased to 5-15 times CMC, ϕ(eff) dropped due to charge screening by more counterions from SDS, but depletion attractions generated by micelles in the continuous phase led to extensive droplet aggregation which immobilized the continuous phase leading to stronger gel formation. (3) Decline in gelation due to oscillatory structural forces (OSF): at very high SDS concentration (20-30 time CMC), structural forces were manifested due to the layered-structuring of excess micelles in the interdroplet regions resulting in loss of droplet aggregation. Tween 20 nanoemulsions, on the other hand, did not show repulsive gelation due to lack of charge cloud, while weak depletion attraction and early commencement of OSF regime leading to liquid-like behavior at

  9. Regular physical activity influences plasma ghrelin concentration in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürimäe, Jaak; Cicchella, Antonio; Jürimäe, Toivo; Lätt, Evelin; Haljaste, Kaja; Purge, Pritt; Hamra, Jena; von Duvillard, Serge P

    2007-10-01

    We examined the effect of regular physical activity on plasma ghrelin concentration after onset of puberty in girls. In addition, we also examined the association of fasting plasma ghrelin concentration with various plasma biochemical, body composition, and aerobic capacity variables in healthy adolescent girls. Fifty healthy schoolgirls ages 11 to 16 yr were divided either into a physically active (N = 25) or a physically inactive (N = 25) group. The physically active group consisted of swimmers who had trained on an average of 6.2 +/- 2.0 h.wk(-1) for the last 2 yr, whereas the inclusion criterion for the physically inactive group was the participation in physical education classes only. The subjects were matched for age (+/- 1 yr) and body mass index (BMI; +/- 2 kg.m(-2)). Maturation I group (14 matched pairs) included pubertal stages 2 and 3, and maturation II group (11 matched pairs) included pubertal stages 4 and 5. Physically active girls had significantly higher (P ghrelin levels than the physically inactive girls (maturation I: 1152.1 +/- 312.9 vs 877.7 +/- 114.8 pg.mL(-1); maturation II: 1084.0 +/- 252.5 vs 793.4 +/- 164.9 pg.mL(-1)). Plasma ghrelin concentration was negatively related to percent body fat, fat mass, peak oxygen consumption per kilogram of body mass, leptin, estradiol, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) (r > -0.298; P ghrelin concentration using the variables that were significantly associated with ghrelin concentration demonstrated that plasma IGF-I was the most important predictor of plasma ghrelin concentration (beta = -0.396; P = 0.008). Regular physical activity influences plasma ghrelin concentrations in girls with different pubertal maturation levels. Plasma IGF-I concentration seems to be the main determinant of circulating ghrelin in healthy, normal-weight adolescent girls.

  10. Influence of surfactant concentration on nanohydroxyapatite growth

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Gopi; J Indira; S Nithiya; L Kavitha; U Kamachi Mudali; K Kanimozhi

    2013-10-01

    Nanohydroxyapatite particles with different morphologies were synthesized through a microwave coupled hydrothermal method using CTAB as a template. A successful synthesis of nanosized HAP spheres, rods and fibres is achieved through this method by controlling the concentration of the surfactant. The concentration of the surfactant was tuned in such a way that the desired HAP nanostructures were obtained. The resultant powders were sintered at 900 °C in order to obtain phase pure HAP particles. The results obtained by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT–IR), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques have substantiated the formation of nanosized HAP spheres and fibres.

  11. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu SSX

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sam SX Wu,1 Jeremiah J Peiffer,2 Jeanick Brisswalter,3 Kazunori Nosaka,1 Chris R Abbiss1 1Centre for Exercise and Sports Science Research, School of Exercise and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth, WA, Australia; 2School of Psychology and Exercise Science, Murdoch University, Perth, WA, Australia; 3Laboratory of Human Motricity, Education Sport and Health, University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, Nice, France Abstract: Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon. Keywords: cycle, endurance, multisport, pacing strategy, run, swim

  12. Factors influencing women's decisions to purchase specific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: multi-nutrient supplements; survey; children; women's decisions. Factors influencing .... associations between level of education and various factors influencing women's ..... Social marketing improved the use of multivitamin and ...

  13. Factors Influencing Learner Permit Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnathon P. Ehsani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of countries are requiring an extended learner permit prior to independent driving. The question of when drivers begin the learner permit period, and how long they hold the permit before advancing to independent licensure has received little research attention. Licensure timing is likely to be related to “push” and “pull” factors which may encourage or inhibit the process. To examine this question, we recruited a sample of 90 novice drivers (49 females and 41 males, average age of 15.6 years soon after they obtained a learner permit and instrumented their vehicles to collect a range of driving data. Participants completed a series of surveys at recruitment related to factors that may influence licensure timing. Two distinct findings emerged from the time-to-event analysis that tested these push and pull factors in relation to licensure timing. The first can be conceptualized as teens’ motivation to drive (push, reflected in a younger age when obtaining a learner permit and extensive pre-permit driving experience. The second finding was teens’ perceptions of their parents’ knowledge of their activities (pull; a proxy for a parents’ attentiveness to their teens’ lives. Teens who reported higher levels of their parents’ knowledge of their activities took longer to advance to independent driving. These findings suggest time-to-licensure may be related to teens’ internal motivation to drive, and the ability of parents to facilitate or impede early licensure.

  14. Radium concentration factors and their use in health and environmental risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, A.F.; Hamilton, L.D.

    1991-01-01

    Radium is known to be taken up by aquatic animals, and tends to accumulate in bone, shell and exoskeleton. The most common approach to estimating the uptake of a radionuclide by aquatic animals for use in health and environmental risk assessments is the concentration factor method. The concentration factor method relates the concentration of a contaminant in an organism to the concentration in the surrounding water. Site specific data are not usually available, and generic, default values are often used in risk assessment studies. This paper describes the concentration factor method, summarizes some of the variables which may influence the concentration factor for radium, reviews reported concentration factors measured in marine environments and presents concentration factors derived from data collected in a study in coastal Louisiana. The use of generic default values for the concentration factor is also discussed.

  15. Radium concentration factors and their use in health and environmental risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, A.F.; Hamilton, L.D.

    1991-12-31

    Radium is known to be taken up by aquatic animals, and tends to accumulate in bone, shell and exoskeleton. The most common approach to estimating the uptake of a radionuclide by aquatic animals for use in health and environmental risk assessments is the concentration factor method. The concentration factor method relates the concentration of a contaminant in an organism to the concentration in the surrounding water. Site specific data are not usually available, and generic, default values are often used in risk assessment studies. This paper describes the concentration factor method, summarizes some of the variables which may influence the concentration factor for radium, reviews reported concentration factors measured in marine environments and presents concentration factors derived from data collected in a study in coastal Louisiana. The use of generic default values for the concentration factor is also discussed.

  16. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EVOLUTION OF YOUTH TRAVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Student Claudia MOISĂ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Youth travel is an important part of global tourism, consequently, getting to know the evolution of this form of tourism requires an approach of the aspects regarding the permissive and restrictive factors that influence the youth travel dynamic worldwide. In terms of the factors that influence youth travel, we highlighted these two categories of factors (permissive and restrictive and, within each category, we tried to singularize the influence of every factor over youth travel.

  17. Physiological factors influencing capillary growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egginton, S

    2011-07-01

    (1) Angiogenesis (growth of new capillaries from an existing capillary bed) may result from a mismatch in microvascular supply and metabolic demand (metabolic error signal). Krogh examined the distribution and number of capillaries to explore the correlation between O(2) delivery and O(2) consumption. Subsequently, the heterogeneity in angiogenic response within a muscle has been shown to reflect either differences in fibre type composition or mechanical load. However, local control leads to targetted angiogenesis in the vicinity of glycolytic fibre types following muscle stimulation, or oxidative fibres following endurance training, while heterogeneity of capillary spacing is maintained during ontogenetic growth. (2) Despite limited microscopy resolution and lack of specific markers, Krogh's interest in the structure of the capillary wall paved the way for understanding the mechanisms of capillary growth. Angiogenesis may be influenced by the response of perivascular or stromal cells (fibroblasts, macrophages and pericytes) to altered activity, likely acting as a source for chemical signals modulating capillary growth such as vascular endothelial growth factor. In addition, haemodynamic factors such as shear stress and muscle stretch play a significant role in adaptive remodelling of the microcirculation. (3) Most indices of capillarity are highly dependent on fibre size, resulting in possible bias because of scaling. To examine the consequences of capillary distribution, it is therefore helpful to quantify the area of tissue supplied by individual capillaries. This allows the spatial limitations inherent in most models of tissue oxygenation to be overcome generating an alternative approach to Krogh's tissue cylinder, the capillary domain, to improve descriptions of intracellular oxygen diffusion. © 2010 The Author. Acta Physiologica © 2010 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  18. Classifying bio-concentration factor with random forest algorithm, influence of the bio-accumulative vs. non-bio-accumulative compound ratio to modelling result, and applicability domain for random forest model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piir, G; Sild, S; Maran, U

    2014-01-01

    In environmental risk assessment, the bio-concentration factor (BCF) is a widely used parameter in the estimation of the bio-accumulation potential of chemicals. BCF data often have an uneven distribution of classes (bio-accumulative vs. non-bio-accumulative), which could severely bias the classification results towards the prevailing class. The present study focuses on the influence of uneven distribution of the classes in training phase of Random Forest (RF) classification models. Three different training set designs were used and descriptors selected to the models based on the occurrence frequency in RF trees and considering the mechanistic aspects they reflect. Models were compared and their classification performance was analysed, indicating good predictive characteristics (sensitivity = 0.90 and specificity = 0.83) for the balanced set; also imbalanced sets have their strengths in certain application scenarios. The confidence of classifications was assessed with a new schema for the applicability domain that makes use of the RF proximity matrix by analysing the similarity between the predicted compound and the training set of the model. All developed models were made available in the transparent, accessible and reproducible way in QsarDB repository (http://dx.doi.org/10.15152/QDB.116).

  19. Environmental factors influencing the development of atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Brodziak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present an overview of recent findings on the environmental and behavioral factors influencing the development of atherosclerosis. The authors primarily concentrated on deliberations of possibile main causes of the damage of the endothelium. At the same time the following pathogenic mechanisms as cellular dysfunction, inflammation and coagulation disorders have been enumerated. The links between the state of the vascular endothelium and life style have been emphasized. It is also important to note that the primary causes of the endothelial damage should be traced as originally suggested many years ago viewing such factors as anger, hostility, aggression, impulsiveness and depression but with a new approach. The authors supplement the comments, on the environmental factors influencing the development of atherosclerosis, with basic data on family predisposition to the development of this disease. They highlight that current genetic research have not determined genes responsible for atheroscelosis. According to the authors the considerations and conclusions presented in this overview are important for the educational purposes related to the most frequent disease process resulting in many diseases in medical disciplines.

  20. Influence of Body Mass Index on Hair Ethyl Glucuronide Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crunelle, Cleo L; Neels, Hugo; Maudens, Kristof; De Doncker, Mireille; Cappelle, Delphine; Matthys, Frieda; Dom, Geert; Fransen, Erik; Michielsen, Peter; De Keukeleire, Steven; Covaci, Adrian; Yegles, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) concentrations in hair is increasingly used to estimate the consumption of alcohol of the prior months. Linear correlations between the amount of alcohol consumed and the concentration of EtG in hair have been reported, and several variables that may influence this correlation have been investigated: e.g. cosmetic hair treatments, gender influences or hair color. Here, we investigate the influence of body mass index (BMI) on this correlation. A post hoc analysis on the influence of BMI on the relation between amounts of alcohol consumed and the measured EtG concentrations in hair in 199 participants. Our data show higher EtG concentrations in participants with high BMI (≥25) compared to participants with low BMI (hair EtG concentrations. Ethyl glucuronide concentrations in hair (hEtG) can be used to estimate the consumption of alcohol of the prior months. Body mass index (BMI) influences this relation and BMI should be taken into account when interpreting hEtG concentrations in participants with high BMI (≥25) compared to participants with low BMI (<25). © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of selected factors on induced syneresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Snežana T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Syneresis is the process of whey separation induced by gel contraction resulting in rearranging or restructuring of casein matrix formed during enzymatic coagulation. Numerous factors can influence the process of syneresis. The influences of pH, calcium concentration, temperature of coagulation of milk and applied heat treatment on the syneresis induced by different intensity of centrifugal force have been investigated. Coagulated samples were centrifuged at 1000, 2000 and 3000 rpm for 5 min, respectively. Reconstituted skim milk powder (control sample and reconstituted non-fat milk heat treated at 87ºC/10 min (experimental sample are coagulated at temperatures of 30ºC and 35ºC, at pH value of 5.8 and 6.2, and with the addition of 100, 200 and 400 mg/l of CaCl2, respectively. Centrifugation at 1000 rpm of both control and experimental samples didn’t recover any sera, regardless of the applied coagulation conditions. This indicates that the intensity of centrifugal force wasn’t strong enough to disrupt gel structure and cause syneresis. When the intensity of centrifugal force was increased up to 2000 rpm, the syneresis was induced, but the degree of syneresis depended on the applied factors of coagulation, primary on the applied heat treatments and temperature of coagulation. The amount of added CaCl2 didn’t have a significant influence on the induced syneresis at 2000 rpm. The induced syneresis was very significant for both control and experimental samples when the intensity of centrifugal force of 3000 rpm was applied. It was also noted that curd produced from heat treated milk in which milk protein coaggregates were formed, released less sera regardless of the applied coagulation factors.

  2. Factors affecting pollutant concentrations in the near-road environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Nichole; Gilani, Owais; Raja, Suresh; Batterman, Stuart; Ganguly, Rajiv; Hopke, Philip; Berrocal, Veronica; Robins, Thomas; Hoogterp, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    An improved understanding of traffic-related air pollutants is needed to estimate exposures and adverse health impacts in traffic corridors and near-road environments. In this study, concentrations of black carbon (BC), nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2, NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10, ultrafine particles, and accumulation mode particles, AMP) were measured using a mobile air pollutant laboratory along nine transects across major roads in Detroit, MI in winter 2012. Repeated measurements were taken during rush-hour periods at sites in residential neighborhoods located 50-500 m from both sides of the road. Concentration gradients attributable to on-road emissions were estimated by accounting for traffic volume and mix, wind speed, wind direction, and background concentrations. BC, NO, NOx, and UFP had the strongest gradients, and elevated concentrations of NOx, NO2, PM2.5 and PM10, as well as decreased particle size, were found at the 50 m sites compared to background levels. Exponential models incorporating effects of road size, wind speed, and up- and downwind distance explained from 31 to 53% of the variability in concentration gradients for BC, NO, NOx, UFP and particle size. The expected concentration increments 50 m from the study roads were 17.0 ppb for NO, 17.7 ppb for NOx, 2245 particles/cm3 for UFP, and 0.24 μg/m3 for BC, and the expected distance to decrease increments by half was 89-129 m in the downwind direction, and 14-20 m in the upwind direction. While accounting for portion of the temporal and spatial variability across transects and measurement periods, these results highlight the influence of road-to-road differences and other locally-varying factors important in urban and industrial settings. The study demonstrates a methodology to quantify near-road concentrations and influences on these concentrations while accounting for temporal and spatial variability, and it provides information useful for estimating exposures of

  3. Influence of Blasted Uranium Ore Heap on Radon Concentration in Confined Workspaces of Shrinkage Mining Stope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Y. J.; Liang, T.; Ding, D. X.; Lei, B.; Su, H.; Zhang, Y. F.

    2017-07-01

    A calculation model for radon concentration in shrinkage mining stopes under various ventilation conditions was established in this study. The model accounts for the influence of permeability and area of the blasted ore heap, ventilation air quantity, and airflow direction on radon concentration in a confined workspace; these factors work together to allow the engineer to optimize the ventilation design. The feasibility and effectiveness of the model was verified by applying it to mines with elevated radon radiation exposure. The model was found to accurately changes in radon concentration according to the array of influence factors in underground uranium mines.

  4. Demotivating factors influencing rubber production workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivation is one of the most important factors influencing workers' productivity. An increase in workers' motivation could add more value to organizations' structure and influence the profitability, significantly. In this paper, we study different factors on demotivating workers using questionnaire consist of various questions. The questionnaire is distributed among some employees who work for rubber production units located in Esfahan, Iran. The results of this survey indicate that discrimination on annual job compensation, entrusting responsibilities and unpleasant relationship with family partner are some of the most important factors influencing employees' motivation. While financial factors play important role on increasing employees' motivation, non-financial factors are considered more important.

  5. Influence of concentration polarization on DNA translocation through a nanopore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Shengjie; Zhao, Hui

    2016-05-01

    Concentration polarization can be induced by the unique ion-perm selectivity of small nanopores, leading to a salt concentration gradient across nanopores. This concentration gradient can create diffusio-osmosis and induce an electric field, affecting ionic currents on DNA that translocates through a nanopore. Here this influence is theoretically investigated by solving the continuum Poisson-Nernst-Planck model for different salt concentrations, DNA surface charge densities, and pore properties. By implementing the perturbation method, we can explicitly compute the contribution of concentration polarization to the ionic current. The induced electric field by concentration polarization is opposite to the imposed electric field and decreases the migration current, and the induced diffusio-osmosis can decrease the convection current as well. Our studies suggest that the importance of the concentration polarization can be determined by the parameter λ /G where λ is the double-layer thickness and G is the gap size. When λ /G is larger than a critical value, the influence of concentration polarization becomes more prominent. This conclusion is supported by the studies on the dependence of the ionic current on salt concentration and pore properties, showing that the difference between two models with and without accounting for concentration polarization is larger for low salts and small pores, which correspond to larger λ /G .

  6. Effect of Surface Topography on Stress Concentration Factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Zhengkun; LIAO Ridong

    2015-01-01

    Neuber rule and Arola-Ramulu model are widely used to predict the stress concentration factor of rough specimens. However, the height parameters and effective valley radius used in these two models depend strongly on the resolution of the roughness-measuring instruments and are easily introduce measuring errors. Besides, it is difficult to find a suitable parameter to characterize surface topography to quantitatively describe its effect on stress concentration factor. In order to overcome these disadvantages, profile moments are carried out to characterize surface topography, surface topography is simulated by superposing series of cosine components, the stress concentration factors of different micro cosine-shaped surface topographies are investigated by finite element analysis. In terms of micro cosine-shaped surface topography, an equation using the second profile moment to estimate the stress concentration factor is proposed, predictions for the stress concentration factor using the proposed expression are within 10% error compared with the results of finite element analysis, which are more accurate than other models. Moreover, the proposed equation is applied to the real surface topography machined by turning. Predictions for the stress concentration factor using the proposed expression are within 10% of the maximum stress concentration factors and about 5% of the effective stress concentration factors estimated from the finite element analysis for three levels of turning surface topographies under different simulated scales. The proposed model is feasible in predicting the stress concentration factors of real machined surface topographies.

  7. Concentration and flux of bioaerosol and environmental factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The concentration and flux transportation of bioaerosol are analyzed using the data observed in Nanjing in July 1998. Some results are obtained: (i) the concentration and flux transportation of bioaerosol vary periodically with the cycle of the solar radiation and atmospheric turbulent intensity, (ii) The bioaerosol concentration is affected by both the bioaerosol flux transportation and the environmental factors. The bacterial concentration is obviously affected by the solar radiation while the fungi concentration is significantly affected by temperature.

  8. Influence of coffee intake on urinary hippuric acid concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Masanori; Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Endo, Yoko; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Kayama, Fujio

    2011-01-01

    Intake of foods and drinks containing benzoic acid influences the urinary hippuric acid (HA) concentration, which is used to monitor toluene exposure in Japan. Therefore, it is necessary to control the intake of benzoic acid before urine collection. Recently, some reports have suggested that components of coffee, such as chlorogenic, caffeic, and quinic acids are metabolized to HA. In this study, we evaluated the influence of coffee intake on the urinary HA concentration in toluene-nonexposed workers who had controlled their benzoic acid intake, and investigated which components of coffee influenced the urinary HA concentration. We collected urine from 15 healthy men who did not handle toluene during working hours, after they had consumed coffee, and we measured their urinary HA concentrations; the benzoic acid intake was controlled in these participants during the study period. The levels of chlorogenic, caffeic, and quinic acids in coffee were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Urinary HA concentration increased significantly with increasing coffee consumption. Spectrophotometric LC-MS/MS analysis of coffee indicated that it contained chlorogenic and quinic acids at relatively high concentrations but did not contain benzoic acid. Our findings suggest that toluene exposure in coffee-consuming workers may be overestimated.

  9. Psychological Factors Influencing Consumer Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Vainikka, Bianca

    2015-01-01

    This paper’s aim is to provide an in-depth elucidation of the many aspects that influence consumer behaviour. The study of consumer behaviour emphasizes the “why” and “how” questions involved in decision making and buying behaviour. This exciting field visits a dynamic blend of themes of consumer marketing strategies, psychology and behavioural discipline. Consumer behaviour in this day and age is highly applicable to modern society as it is an integral part of our everyday lives. This paper ...

  10. Influence of drug concentration on the diffusion parameters of caffeine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ben Mustapha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : In the fields of the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries and in toxicology, the study of the skin penetration of molecules is very interesting. Various studies have considered the impact of different physicochemical drug characteristics, skin thickness, and formulations, on the transition from the surface of the skin to the underlying tissues or to the systemic circulation; however, the influence of drug concentration on the permeation flux of molecules has rarely been raised. Our study aims to discover the influence of caffeine concentration in a formulation on the percutaneous penetration from gels, as a result of different dose applications to polysulfate membrane and human skin. Materials and Methods : For this purpose, three identical base gels were used at 1, 3, and 5% of caffeine, to evaluate the effect of the concentration of caffeine on in vitro release through the synthetic membrane and ex vivo permeation through the human skin, using diffusion Franz TM cells. Results : The diffusion through the epidermal tissue was significantly slower than through the synthetic membrane, which recorded an increase of flux with an increase in the concentration of caffeine. The skin permeation study showed that diffusion depended not only on the concentration, but also on the deposited amount of gel. Nevertheless, for the same amount of caffeine applied, the flux was more significant from the less concentrated gel. Conclusion : Among all the different concentrations of caffeine examined, 1% gel of caffeine applied at 5 mg / cm 2 showed the highest absorption characteristics across human skin.

  11. Thymic Output: Influence Factors and Molecular Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Jin; Jun Zhang; Weifeng Chen

    2006-01-01

    Thymus is a primary lymphoid organ, able to generate mature T cells that eventually colonize secondary lymphoid organs, and is therefore essential for peripheral T cell renewal. Recent data showed that normal thymocyte export can be altered by several influence factors including several chemokines,sphingosinel-phosphate (S1P),transcription factors such as Foxjl, Kruppel-like transcription factor 2 (KLF2) and antigen stimulation, etc. In this review, we summarized the recent reports about study strategies, influence factors and possible molecular mechanisms in thymic output.

  12. 31. FACTORS INFLUENCING UTILIZATION OF INTERMITTENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    treatment of malaria during pregnancy(IPTp), effective IPTp service utilization ... effective case management of malaria. Despite the ... Factors influencing IPTp utilization identified in the study included; educational status of a woman,. Medical ...

  13. Home Environmental Factors Influencing Performance and Progress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Factors Influencing Performance and Progress of Primary School Pupils in ... found that parents' educational level and income level have a bearing on school ... on school progress and performance, however; home language did play a role.

  14. Factors Influencing Self Employment Media Service Providers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Self Employment Media Service Providers among Tertiary ... role stereotype and common business practices on media self employment in ... Sex, Psycho-social Characteristics, self Employment, Providing Media Services.

  15. Age-Related Factors That Influence Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be found at the NICHD Pregnancy Loss topic page . Committee on Gynecologic Practice of American College of ... 2012, from http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/pregnancyloss/researchinfo/Pages/default.aspx [top] « Lifestyle Factors That Influence Fertility ...

  16. Factors that negatively influence consumption of traditionally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors that negatively influence consumption of traditionally fermented milk ... of sub-Saharan Africa and a number of health benefits to human beings are ... Key words: Mursik, Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), probiotic, Preschoolers, Focus group

  17. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SELECTION OF DENTAL NURSING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SELECTION OF DENTAL NURSING AS A. PROFESSION ... Colleges of Health Technology undergoing external ... questionnaire requested information on age ... individual with good communication skills and ...

  18. Factors that Influence Adolescents to Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karen H.; Stutts, Mary Ann

    1999-01-01

    A survey of the factors that influence adolescents (n=246) to smoke found that family smoking behavior, peer pressure, and prior beliefs were more important in predicting smoking level than were advertising and antismoking information. (Author/JOW)

  19. FACTORS INFLUENCING SUSTAINED MANAGERIAL EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Marius RIZESCU

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of effectiveness is learnable in economic theory and practice with various forms of manifestation of the results obtained by the managers, such as profitability, the productivity of factors of production, capital efficiency, cost savings, etc. Regarded as the organizing principle and driving activity in the market economy, it has a much richer content and also favorable results of generalizing all derived by managers. Choosing effective in meeting needs with limited resources or powerlessness to maximize resource needs under restrains, are expressions through which efficiency is situated at the heart of economic theory and practice.

  20. ENERGY EFFICIENCY. TRENDS AND INFLUENCE FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zizi GOSCHIN

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is correlated with many factors of influence: Gross National Income per capita, energy imports (% of energy use, renewable combustible and waste (% of total, energy use per capita, services as % of GDP and others. In this paper we are testing a model of piecewise linear regression with breakpoint in order to measure the influence of these factors on the variation of GDP per unit of energy use in Europe in the year 2003.

  1. Nitrogen forms influence microcystin concentration and composition via changes in cyanobacterial community structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Eve Monchamp

    Full Text Available The eutrophication of freshwaters is a global health concern as lakes with excess nutrients are often subject to toxic cyanobacterial blooms. Although phosphorus is considered the main element regulating cyanobacterial biomass, nitrogen (N concentration and more specifically the availability of different N forms may influence the overall toxicity of blooms. In this study of three eutrophic lakes prone to cyanobacterial blooms, we examined the effects of nitrogen species and concentrations and other environmental factors in influencing cyanobacterial community structure, microcystin (MC concentrations and MC congener composition. The identification of specific MC congeners was of particular interest as they vary widely in toxicity. Different nitrogen forms appeared to influence cyanobacterial community structure leading to corresponding effects on MC concentrations and composition. Total MC concentrations across the lakes were largely explained by a combination of abiotic factors: dissolved organic nitrogen, water temperature and ammonium, but Microcystis spp. biomass was overall the best predictor of MC concentrations. Environmental factors did not appear to affect MC congener composition directly but there were significant associations between specific MC congeners and particular species. Based on redundancy analyses (RDA, the relative biomass of Microcystis aeruginosa was associated with MC-RR, M. wesenbergii with MC-LA and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae with MC-YR. The latter two species are not generally considered capable of MC production. Total nitrogen, water temperature, ammonium and dissolved organic nitrogen influenced the cyanobacterial community structure, which in turn resulted in differences in the dominant MC congener and the overall toxicity.

  2. Nitrogen forms influence microcystin concentration and composition via changes in cyanobacterial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monchamp, Marie-Eve; Pick, Frances R; Beisner, Beatrix E; Maranger, Roxane

    2014-01-01

    The eutrophication of freshwaters is a global health concern as lakes with excess nutrients are often subject to toxic cyanobacterial blooms. Although phosphorus is considered the main element regulating cyanobacterial biomass, nitrogen (N) concentration and more specifically the availability of different N forms may influence the overall toxicity of blooms. In this study of three eutrophic lakes prone to cyanobacterial blooms, we examined the effects of nitrogen species and concentrations and other environmental factors in influencing cyanobacterial community structure, microcystin (MC) concentrations and MC congener composition. The identification of specific MC congeners was of particular interest as they vary widely in toxicity. Different nitrogen forms appeared to influence cyanobacterial community structure leading to corresponding effects on MC concentrations and composition. Total MC concentrations across the lakes were largely explained by a combination of abiotic factors: dissolved organic nitrogen, water temperature and ammonium, but Microcystis spp. biomass was overall the best predictor of MC concentrations. Environmental factors did not appear to affect MC congener composition directly but there were significant associations between specific MC congeners and particular species. Based on redundancy analyses (RDA), the relative biomass of Microcystis aeruginosa was associated with MC-RR, M. wesenbergii with MC-LA and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae with MC-YR. The latter two species are not generally considered capable of MC production. Total nitrogen, water temperature, ammonium and dissolved organic nitrogen influenced the cyanobacterial community structure, which in turn resulted in differences in the dominant MC congener and the overall toxicity.

  3. Variation properties of ionospheric eclipse factor and ionospheric influence factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Chunmei; YUAN Yunbin; OU Jikun; CHEN Jinping

    2005-01-01

    The concepts and calculation methods of ionospheric eclipse factor (IEF) and ionospheric influence factor (IFF) are further illustrated. The temporal and spacial variation properties of IEF and IFF are studied, which shows that the properties are influenced by the geographic position and season. The possibility of improving the precision of using GPS data to determine ionospheric delay based on the above variation properties is also analysed.

  4. STUDY ON MAJOR FACTORS INFLUENCING SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION OF COAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Jun; Xu Jingcai; Zhang Xinghai

    2000-01-01

    This paper theoretically analyzes major factors influencing spontaneous combustion of coal, such as molecule structure of coal, porosity, temperature, concentration of oxygen, coal thickness, velocity of face advance, and so on; and probes into how they affect the process of spontaneous combustion of coal, which is of momentous significance to predict or control self-ignition of coal.

  5. FACTORS INFLUENCING COMPOSTING POULTRY WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Kopeć

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Organic recycling of waste, taking into account sanitary safety, should be a fundamental method for recovering the nutrients present in the waste for plants and organic matter. It also refers to by-products of animal origin, which are not intended for consumption by humans. In the present research , composting of hydrated poultry slaughterhouse waste with maize straw was carried out. A combination with fodder yeast and post-cellulose lime was also introduced, which modified chemical and physico-chemical properties of the mixtures. The experiment was carried out by recording the biomass temperature for 110 days in 1.2×1.0×0.8 m reactors with perforated bottoms enabling active aeration. The following parameters were taken into consideration in the composted material: carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, respiratory activity, microorganisms, fractions of compost obtained after washing on sieves. Small amounts of fodder yeast favoured the development of microorganisms and caused a sanitary risk in the final product. At the initial stage, the temperature of raw compost in that object was several degrees lower than in the case of the composted mass without yeast addition. The addition of post-cellulose lime at ratios 6.5:1:6.5 (maize straw: poultry slaughterhouse waste: post-cellulose lime caused a change in the time of microbiological activity, and led to its inhibition in the final process. In comparison to objects with poultry waste, the highest degree of hygienization was found in the compost with post-cellulose lime (with pH close to neutral. By adjusting the ratios of substrates we can influence the microbiological activity, but the amounts of individual substrates should be determined taking into account the quality of the obtained compost.

  6. The influence of thoron on instruments measuring radon activity concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michielsen, N; Bondiguel, S

    2015-11-01

    Thoron, the isotope 220 of radon, is a radionuclide whose concentration may influence the measurement of the activity concentration of (222)Rn in the air. If in the case of continuous and active sampling measuring instruments, using a pump for example, the influence of thoron on radon measurement is obvious and is taken into account in the apparatus, it is often assumed that in the case of a passive sampling, by diffusion through a filter for example, this thoron influence is negligible. This is due to the very short radioactive half-life of thoron, 55.6 s (3.82 d for (222)Rn), and the assumption that the diffusion time of thoron in the detection chamber is long enough beside that of the thoron half-life. The objective of this study is to check whether this assumption is true or not for different kinds of commercial electronic apparatus used to measure radon activity concentration from soil to dwellings. First of all, the devices were calibrated in activity concentration of radon, and then they were exposed to a controlled thoron atmosphere. The experiments concerning the thoron aimed to investigate the sensitivity to thoron in the radon measuring mode of the apparatus. Results of these experiments show that all devices have a very quick answer to thoron atmosphere, even though the sensitivities vary from one instrument to another. Results clearly show that this influence on radon measurement due to the thoron is observed also after the exposition because of the decay of (212)Pb and its progenies. In conclusion, the sensitivity to thoron in the radon measuring mode depends strongly on the type of instruments. The results of the present investigation show that for some apparatus, the influence of thoron cannot be disregarded especially when measuring radon in soil.

  7. Factors Influencing the Quality of Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin ZAMFIROIU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile applications are becoming increasingly used. Mobile devices are becoming indispensable for the user. In the material are claiming the sales of mobile devices internationally and the use of mobile applications compared to traditional internet use on desktop systems for the United States. Are presented influences the quality of mobile applications and based on these influencing factors built a model of choice for optimal application of mobile applications and traditional desktop application. At the end of the material presented methods to increase quality by tracking the influence factors during the development of mobile applications.

  8. Factors influencing alginate gel biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Susan K; Dusseault, Julie; Bilodeau, Stéphanie; Langlois, Geneviève; Hallé, Jean-Pierre; Yahia, L'Hocine

    2011-07-01

    Alginate remains the most popular polymer used for cell encapsulation, yet its biocompatibility is inconsistent. Two commercially available alginates were compared, one with 71% guluronate (HiG), and the other with 44% (IntG). Both alginates were purified, and their purities were verified. After 2 days in the peritoneal cavity of C57BL/6J mice, barium (Ba)-gel and calcium (Ca)-gel beads of IntG alginate were clean, while host cells were adhered to beads of HiG alginate. IntG gel beads, however, showed fragmentation in vivo while HiG gel beads stayed firm. The physicochemical properties of the sodium alginates and their gels were thoroughly characterized. The intrinsic viscosity of IntG alginate was 2.5-fold higher than that of HiG alginate, suggesting a greater molecular mass. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that both alginates were similar in elemental composition, including low levels of counterions in all gels. The wettabilities of the alginates and gels were also identical, as measured by contact angles of water on dry films. Ba-gel beads of HiG alginate resisted swelling and degradation when immersed in water, much more than the other gel beads. These results suggest that the main factors contributing to the biocompatibility of gels of purified alginate are the mannuronate/guluronate content and/or intrinsic viscosity.

  9. What Factors Influence Wind Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Tatiana

    Over the last decade, wind power has emerged as a possible source of energy and has attracted the attention of homeowners and policy makers worldwide. Many technological hurdles have been overcome in the last few years that make this technology feasible and economical. The United States has added more wind power than any other type of electric generation in 2012. Depending on the location, wind resources have shown to have the potential to offer 20% of the nation's electricity; a single, large wind turbine has the capacity to produce enough electricity to power 350 homes. Throughout the development of wind turbines, however, energy companies have seen significant public opposition towards the tall white structures. The purpose of this research was to measure peoples' perceptions on wind turbine development throughout their growth, from proposal to existing phase. Three hypotheses were developed based on the participant's political affiliation, proximity and knowledge of wind turbines. To validate these hypotheses, participants were asked an array of questions regarding their perception on economic, environmental, and social impacts of wind turbines with an online service called Amazon Mechanical Turk. The responses were from residents living in the United States and required them to provide their zip code for subsequent analysis. The analysis from the data obtained suggests that participants are favorable towards wind turbine development and would be supportive of using the technology in their community. Political affiliation and proximity to the nearest wind turbine in any phase of development (proposal, construction, existing) were also analyzed to determine if they had an effect on a person's overall perception on wind turbines and their technology. From the analysis, political affiliation was seen to be an indirect factor to understanding favorability towards wind turbines; the more liberal you are, the more supportive you will be towards renewable energy use

  10. Patient factors that influence warfarin dose response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Pamela J

    2010-06-01

    Warfarin has long been the mainstay of oral anticoagulation therapy for the treatment and prevention of venous and arterial thrombosis. The narrow therapeutic index of warfarin, and the complex number of factors that influence international normalized ratio (INR) response, makes optimization of warfarin therapy challenging. Determination of the appropriate warfarin dose during initiation and maintenance therapy requires an understanding of patient factors that influence dose response: age, body weight, nutritional status, acute and chronic disease states, and changes in concomitant drug therapy and diet. This review will examine specific clinical factors that can affect the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin, as well as the role of pharmacogenetics in optimizing warfarin therapy.

  11. [Differences and sources of CO2 concentration, carbon and oxygen stable isotope composition between inside and outside of a green space system and influencing factors in an urban area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shou-jia; Meng, Ping; Zhang, Jin-song; Shu, Jian-hua; Zheng, Ning

    2015-10-01

    The off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy technique was used to measure air CO2 concentration, stable carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18C) isotope ratios on the Fourth Ring Road (FRR) and in the green space system of Beijing Institute of Landscape Architecture (BILA) in summer and winter seasons. The variations of CO2 concentration, δ13C value, δ18C value and the differences of them between the FRR and the BILA, which were correlated with traffic volume and meteorological factors, were analyzed at half-hour timescale. The results showed that traffic volume on the FRR was large both in summer and winter with obvious morning and evening rush hours, and more than 150 thousands vehicles were observed everyday during the observation periods. Diurnal variation of the CO2 concentration showed a two-peak curve both on the FRR and in the green space system of the BILA. In contrast, diurnal variation of δ13C value was a two-trough curve while diurnal variation of δ18O value was a single-trough curve. The differences of CO2 concentration, δ13C value and δ18O value between the FRR and the green space system of BILA in summer were greater than those in winter. The carbon isotope partitioning results showed that in summer vehicle exhaust contributed 64.9% to total atmospheric CO2 of the FRR during measurement time, while heterotrophic respiration contributed 56.3% to total atmospheric CO2 of the green space system in BILA. However, in winter atmospheric CO2 from both the FRR and green space system mostly came from vehicle exhaust. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that differences of CO2 concentration between the FRR and green space system were significantly related to vehicle volume and solar radiation at half-hour timescale, while solar radiation and relative humidity were the main meteorological factors causing δ13 and δ18O differences between the FRR and green space system. Plants in the green space system strongly assimilated CO2 from fossil fuel burning

  12. Study on Influencing Factors of Viscosity of Low Concentration Food Gum Solutions (4)%常用低浓度食品胶溶液粘度的影响因素研究(4)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢晓黎; 雷鸣; 陈正纲; 肖凯

    2001-01-01

    Food gums are usually used in soft-drink industry in very low-concentration.The influence of agitation on the viscosity of four common food gum solutions was investigated.The visosity of the solutions of 0.10%,0.30% xanthan gum,or 0.50% guar gum increases,but the viscosity of the low concentration solution of agar gum decreases,as the stirring time increases.However,little change of the viscosity of 0.30%,0.60% sodium alginate solutions and 0.25% guar gum solution was observed during agtation.%以食品工业中常用的4种食品胶——黄原胶、海藻酸钠、瓜尔胶和琼脂为研究对象,考察了在低浓度水相体系中搅拌作用对这4种胶体溶液粘度的影响。研究结果表明0.30%、0.60%的海藻酸钠和0.25%的瓜尔胶溶液粘度不受搅拌作用的影响;0.10%、0.30%黄原胶溶液的粘度受搅拌作用而增高;低浓度琼脂溶液的粘度受搅拌作用而降低。

  13. Factors influencing gelation properties of corn germ proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiang Dong; Shi, Dan; Lan, Yu; Yao, Xin Miao; Zhang, Rui Ying; Zhang, Ying Lei; Su, Ping; Shan, Hong

    2017-03-07

    As a by-product of the oil industry, corn germ meal is mainly applied as a high-protein ingredient in animal feeds, without any application of the specific functional properties of corn germ protein (CGP). Factors influencing the gelation properties of CGP in relation to its dynamic rheology are still unclear owing to limited information. CGP concentrate was recovered by the isoelectric precipitation method, and factors affecting its gelation properties were investigated using a rheometer. A weak gel formed at natural pH with 0.3 mol L(-1) NaCl, and the minimum gel-forming concentration was observed at 150 g kg(-1) . Higher CGP protein concentrations induced stiffer gels, and linear relationships were found between protein concentration and gel stiffness (G') as well as between protein concentration and gel viscosity (G″). Lower heating and cooling rate promoted the formation of stiffer gels. CGP gelation was both NaCl- and pH-dependent. Sodium tripolyphosphate significantly increased gel stiffness with increasing concentration. No difference in gel elasticity (tanδ) was observed with the inclusion of various concentrations of sodium tripolyphosphate or sodium polyphosphate. Heating and cooling rate, NaCl, protein concentration, pH and phosphates all impact the gel-forming ability of CGP concentrate. Desired gel properties can be obtained through adjustment of these factors. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. High shear treatment of concentrates and drying conditions influence the solubility of milk protein concentrate powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Mary Ann; Sanguansri, Peerasak; Williams, Roderick; Andrews, Helen

    2012-11-01

    The solubility of milk protein concentrate (MPC) powders was influenced by the method used for preparing the concentrate, drying conditions, and the type of dryer used. Increasing total solids of the ultrafiltered concentrates (23% total solids, TS) by diafiltration to 25% TS or evaporation to 31% TS decreased the solubility of MPC powders (80-83% protein, w/w dry basis), with ultrafiltration followed by evaporation to higher total solids having the greater detrimental effect on solubility. High shear treatment (homogenisation at 350/100 bar, microfluidisation at 800 bar or ultrasonication at 24 kHz, 600 watts) of ultrafiltered and diafiltered milk protein concentrates prior to spray drying increased the nitrogen solubility of MPC powders (82% protein, w/w dry basis). Of the treatments applied, microfluidisation was the most effective for increasing nitrogen solubility of MPC powders after manufacture and during storage. Manufacture of MPC powders (91% protein, w/w dry basis) prepared on two different pilot-scale dryers (single stage or two stage) from milk protein concentrates (20% TS) resulted in powders with different nitrogen solubility and an altered response to the effects of microfluidisation. Microfluidisation (400, 800 and 1200 bar) of the concentrate prior to drying resulted in increased long term solubility of MPC powders that were prepared on a single stage dryer but not those produced on a two stage spray dryer. This work demonstrates that microfluidisation can be used as a physical intervention for improving MPC powder solubility. Interactions between the method of preparation and treatment of concentrate prior to drying, the drying conditions and dryer type all influence MPC solubility characteristics.

  15. Factors influencing dissipation of avermectins in sheep faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virant Celestina, Tina; Kolar, Lucija; Gobec, Ivan; Kuzner, Jernej; Flajs, Vesna Cerkvenik; Pogacnik, Milan; Erzen, Nevenka Kozuh

    2010-01-01

    Factors influencing fate of avermectins (abamectin, doramectin) in faeces of treated sheep were investigated under different experimental conditions. In the laboratory, concentrations of both avermectins were declined in homogenised faeces of treated animals until day 14 of exposure, regardless of experimental conditions. After that day, no significant decrease in concentrations was observed till the end of the experiment. Established DT(50) did not exceed 9 days. In the karst pasture, an average DT(50) of 27 days was established for abamectin and 23 days for doramectin in natural faeces of treated sheep. In the compost mixture, doramectin concentration was decreased by 38.9+/-2.6% during 21 days of the thermophilic phase of composting. Therefore, DT(50) was not established. A possible influence of moisture content of sheep faeces on concentrations of avermectins was observed.

  16. Influencing factors in MMR immunisation decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Marie C; Cox, Carol L

    Immunisation decision making is not a straightforward process for parents. Many factors influence parental decision making on whether they immunise their child with the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine. The feasibility study described in this article provides insight into influencing factors associated with decisions regarding the immunisation of children by parents. The study findings suggest that the practice nurse is a credible source of information for parents seeking informed decision making. At a time when the incidence of measles and mumps is rising in the UK, the provision of appropriate information by the practice nurse has the potential to increase uptake of the MMR vaccine.

  17. The influence of nutrition on the insulin-like growth factor system and the concentrations of growth hormone, glucose, insulin, gonadotropins and progesterone in ovarian follicular fluid and plasma from adult female horses (Equus caballus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Ortiz, Juan; Monget, Philippe; Guillaume, Daniel

    2014-07-31

    Feed intake affects the GH-IGF system and may be a key factor in determining the ovarian follicular growth rate. In fat mares, the plasma IGF-1 concentration is high with low GH and a quick follicular growth rate, in contrast to values observed in thin mares. Nothing is known regarding the long-term effects of differential feed intake on the IGF system. The objective of this experiment was to quantify IGFs, IGFBPs, GH, glucose, insulin, gonadotropin and progesterone (P4) in blood and in preovulatory follicular fluid (FF) in relation to feeding levels in mares. Three years prior to the experiment, Welsh Pony mares were assigned to a restricted diet group (R, n = 10) or a well-fed group (WF, n = 9). All mares were in good health and exhibited differences in body weight and subcutaneous fat thickness. Follicular development was scanned daily and plasma was also collected daily. Preovulatory FF was collected by ultrasound-guided follicular aspiration. Hormone levels were assayed in FF and plasma with a validated RIA. According to scans, the total number of follicles in group R was 53% lower than group WF. Insulin and IGF-1 concentrations were higher in WF than in R mares. GH and IGF-2 concentrations were lower in plasma from WF mares than from R mares, but the difference was not significant in FF. The IGFBP-2/IGFBP-3 ratio in FF was not affected by feeding but was dramatically increased in R mare plasma. No difference in gonadotropin concentration was found with the exception of FSH, which was higher in the plasma of R mares. On the day of puncture, P4 concentrations were not affected by feeding but were higher in preovulatory FF than in plasma. The bioavailability of IGF-1 or IGF-2, represented by the IGFBP2/IGFBP3 ratio, is modified by feed intake in plasma but not in FF. These differences partially explain the variability in follicular growth observed between well-fed mares and mares on restricted diets.

  18. INFLUENCE FACTORS FOR LEASING MARKET CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana BĂRBULESCU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the relationship between leasing contracts and some factors that influence the value of these contracts. In order to do this, we have decided on some quantitative marketing research by appealing to statistics for accomplishing the objectives that we have set: to find a correlation between the turnover percentage assigned to leasing expenses and several influence factors. This study indicated that the more contracts are signed by a firm, the more likely is to assign a bigger fraction of the income to each new leasing contract. The study confirmed that bigger companies are relying more on leasing as a way of financing than small companies. This study also discovered that companies with more employees are using larger contracts in order to sustain their activity. The findings are expected to contribute to adjusting the offers by the leasing companies, taking into consideration these factors and to using these factors in order to better predict the market evolution.

  19. Investigation on hair mercury concentration of people in 8 typical regions of Anhui Province and its influence factors%安徽省典型地区人群头发汞含量及其影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钮志远; 王元; 刘桂建

    2016-01-01

    Mercury and its compounds are harmful to human health due to their strong toxicity and easy volatilization in environment. The exposure of human body to mercury can be estimated with hair mercury concentration. In this study, the total hair mercury level of people in Anhui Province was investigated by determining the mercury concentration of 131 hair samples from people in 8 typical regions with hydride generation flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Data were statistically analyzed by SPSS. It was found that the average hair mercury concentration (0.480±0.896μg·g-1) of people in Anhui Province was at lower level compared to those in some other regions, which indicated low mercury exposure risk to residents in Anhui Province. Hair mercury concentration of people (0.068± 0.054 μg·g-1 ) in Luan was significantly lower than those in other 7 regions, while there was no significant difference of hair mercury content among other 7 regions. Hair mercury concentration was influenced by the age of people rather than their gender. The mercury content in hair of people with the age of 30—50 was significantly higher than those of people of other ages. In addition, mercury concentration of the dyed hair was apparently lower than that of undyed sample. The dyed hair subsequently cannot be used as an indicator of human of exposure to mercury.%汞及其化合物毒性大,挥发性强,在环境中易于迁移,危害人体健康.人发中汞的含量是反映汞的环境暴露对人体的影响的优良指标.本研究利用氢化物发生-原子吸收分光光度法对安徽省合肥、淮南、安庆等8个典型地区人群的131个头发样品中总汞含量进行测定,并用SPSS软件对数据结果进行了统计分析.结果表明,安徽省人群发汞含量为0.480±0.896μg·g-1,与国内外部分地区相比,处于较低水平,人体受汞暴露的风险较低;六安地区人群发汞含量(0.068±0.054μg·g-1)明显低于其他7个地区;男

  20. Texture profile in processed cheese: influence of the use of milk protein concentrates and whey protein concentrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Borges Souza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The techno-functional properties of proteins related with the molecular characteristics are facilitated by partial unfolding of structures. From these interactions, the medium pH is presented as a major interferer in intensity and type of reaction that takes place. The intensity of denaturation and interaction of different proteins occur in different forms and intensity accordingly to the pH value of the medium in which they are located. This study aimed to verify the influence of interactions between whey protein concentrate/milk protein concentrate on the evolution of the texture profile of processed cheese at different pH values. We have analyzed samples of commercial whey protein concentrate (WPC and milk protein concentrate (MPC using 112.5g/kg processed cheese. The results were interpreted in terms of texture profile. It was also possible to optimize the different proportions of WPC and MPC, and pH value change the parameters of texture for creamy processed cheese and the pH was also an influencing factor in this optimization.

  1. A factor analysis to detect factors influencing building national brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    Full Text Available Developing a national brand is one of the most important issues for development of a brand. In this study, we present factor analysis to detect the most important factors in building a national brand. The proposed study uses factor analysis to extract the most influencing factors and the sample size has been chosen from two major auto makers in Iran called Iran Khodro and Saipa. The questionnaire was designed in Likert scale and distributed among 235 experts. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 84%, which is well above the minimum desirable limit of 0.70. The implementation of factor analysis provides six factors including “cultural image of customers”, “exciting characteristics”, “competitive pricing strategies”, “perception image” and “previous perceptions”.

  2. On factors influencing students’ listening abilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡天秀

    2012-01-01

    As we all know,listening,speaking,reading,and writing are four basic skills in language teaching and learning.Listening plays an important role in improving other skills.There are some factors influencing students’ listening abilities.So it’s important for teachers to improve students’ listening abilities.

  3. Factors Influencing High School Students' Career Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mei; Pan, Wei; Newmeyer, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the factors influencing high school students' career aspirations with a study analyzing 141 high school students. The Social Cognitive Career Development Model was utilized to examine the interactive relationships among learning experiences, career self-efficacy, outcome expectations, career interests, and career choices. The…

  4. Factors influencing laser cutting of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    V.G. Barnekov; C.W. McMillin; H.A. Huber

    1986-01-01

    Factors influencing the ability of lasers to cut wood may be generally classified into these three areas: 1) characteristics of the laser beam; 2) equipment and processing variables; and 3) properties of the workpiece. Effects of beam power, mode, polarization, and stability are discussed as are aspects of optics, location of focal point, feed speed, gas-jet assist...

  5. Factors influencing the process of farm liquidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Dudek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the logit analysis was used in order to define the factors influencing farm liquidation. The prevalence of this phenomenon and its regional differences were analysed. Significant and negative impact of the number of people in a family farm and the number of machinery and technical equipment, as well as the positive impact of the farmer’ age are reported.

  6. Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Quansah

    Full Text Available Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals' target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal.ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review.Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence, family income (wealth/poverty and high dependency (multiparousity. These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices.Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother's health knowledge is emphasised.

  7. Atomistic evaluation of the stress concentration factor of graphene sheets having circular holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, S. K.; Beigrezaee, M. J.; Pugno, N. M.

    2017-09-01

    Stress concentration factor concept has been developed for single-layered graphene sheets (SLGSs) with circular holes through an atomistic point of view by the application of molecular structural mechanics (MSM) approach. In this approach the response of SLGSs against unidirectional tensile loading is matched to the response of a frame-like macro structure containing beam elements by making an equivalence between strain energies of beam elements in MSM and potential energies of chemical bonds of SLGSs. Both chirality and size effects are considered and the atomistic evaluation of stress concentration factor is performed for different sizes of circular holes. Also, molecular dynamics simulations are implemented to verify the existence and location of the predicted stress concentration. The results reveal that size effects and the diameters of circular holes have a significant influence on the stress concentration factor of SLGSs and armchair SLGSs show a larger value of stress concentration than zigzag ones.

  8. 离心力、时间对富血小板血浆中生长因子浓度的影响%The Influence of Centrifugal Force and Time on Growth Factor Concentration in Platelet Rich Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林颢; 孙杰聪; 李广盛; 郑锦畅; 魏波

    2014-01-01

    Objective To detect the concentration of TGF-β in platelet rich plasma (PRP) that was prepared under dif erent centrifugal force and time, and make a related analysis. Aiming to investigate the most appropriate centrifugal force and time for preparing PRP. Methods Collect 200ml peripheral blood from volunteers, anticoagulated it with EDTA at stored at 4℃ for later use. Ful-automatic blood analyzer was used for the platelet counting, isolated the PRP by quadratic centrifugation (with dif erent centrifugal force and time),then counted the platelet again with full-automatic blood analyzer. The concentration of TGF-β in PRP was detected by ELISA detection. Results The concentration of platelet in peripheral blood was 146.36í109/L, and in PRP was (757.27±55.07)í109L.The concentration of TGF-β in PRP was (737.68±62.7)ng/ml.We found that the concentration of TGF-β in PRP that isolated under 900g,10min combined with 700g,10min was the highest (881.5í10)9/L,824.2 ng/ml).Conclusion The quality of PRP the preparation is closely related to the centrifugal force and time. The appropriate centrifugation and time is more likely to a get high concentration of PRP that rich in growth factors.%目的探索应用不同的离心速度来制备的富血小板血浆(platelet rich plasma,PRP)中TGF生长因子的含量,并做相关分析,尝试阐明制备PRP最合适的离心次数及速度。方法采集自愿者外周血200ml,应用EDTA抗凝,4º保存以备用。应用全自动血液分析仪进行血小板计数,采用二次离心法(不同的离心速度、时间)分离出PRP,再次用全自动血液分析仪进行血小板计数,然后用ELISA法检测所得的PRP中的TGF-β的浓度。结果外周血中的血小板浓度为146.36×109L,PRP的血小板浓度为(757.27±55.07)×109L。 PRP中的TGF-β浓度为(737.68±62.7)ng/ml。其中以900g,10min,700g,10min,这个离心速度与时间组合所得的PRP血小板

  9. Problem solving III: factors influencing classroom problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayonara Salvador Cabral da Costa

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the literature in the area of problem solving, particularly in physics, focusing only on factors that influence classroom problem solving. Fifty-seven papers have been analyzed in terms of theoretical basis, investigated factors/methodology and findings/relevant factors, which were organized in a table that served as support for a synthesis made by the authors. It is the third of a four-paper series reviewing different aspects of the problem solving subject.

  10. Factors that influence women's dispositions toward science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atria, Catherine Graczyk

    Females have been underrepresented in the study of science and science careers for decades although advancements have been made in closing this gender gap, the gap persists particularly in the physical sciences. Variables which influence a woman's desire to pursue and maintain a science course of study and career must be discovered. The United States lags behind other industrialized countries in the fields of science, math, and engineering. Females comprise an estimated half of the population; their potential contributions cannot be ignored or overlooked. This retrospective research study explores the personal experiences of ten women enrolled in science majors, with science related career plans. The goal of this study is to describe the factors that influence the participants' interest in science. The findings, the effect of science coursework, science teachers' personality and manner, other influential educational personnel, role models and mentors, external influences exclusive of school, parental influence, locus of control and positive attitudes toward science confirm what other researchers have found.

  11. Factors affecting the concentrations of heavy metals in precipitation of Tehran using factor analysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Kamani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds and Objectives: Quantity of trace metals in the wet precipitation can illustrate the environmental pollution of different urban areas. Up to now, there is no study regarding the chemistry of wet precipitation in Tehran .The objectives of this study are: measurement of heavy metal concentrations and identification of the main factors affecting the heavy metal concentrations in wet precipitation using factor analysis method. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study in which measurements of heavy metals were performed in 53 wet precipitation samples collected from a central site of Tehran City, capital of Iran. The samples were collected during November to May in 2010, 2011 and 2012 on the roof of the student’s dormitory building of Tehran University of Medical Sciences and then the concentration of heavy metals in each sample was measured with ICP-MS. Results: pH ranged from 4.2 to 7.1 with a mean value of 5.1 indicating in acidic range. Result of EF calculations revealed that samples were not enriched with Fe and Cr but were enriched with Zn, Cd, Ni, Pb and Cu. Factor Component Analysis with Varimax normalized rotation showed Al, Fe and Cr are originated from crustal source and Zn, Cd, Ni, Pb and Cu are originated from anthropogenic sources.  Conclusion: EF and acidic pH values indicate Tehran is under the influence of extremely anthropogenic activities. Large number of vehicles and industrial activity in the city are undoubtedly responsible for the emission of a wide range of pollution.

  12. Uncovering Factors Influencing Interpersonal Health Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donné, Lennie; Jansen, Carel; Hoeks, John

    2017-01-01

    Talking to friends, family, or peers about health issues might, among other things, increase knowledge of social norms and feelings of self-efficacy in adopting a healthier lifestyle. We often see interpersonal health communication as an important mediating factor in the effects of health campaigns on health behavior. No research has been done so far, however, on factors that influence whether and how people talk about health issues without being exposed to a health campaign first. In this exploratory study, we interviewed 12 participants about their communication behavior concerning six different health themes, like smoking and exercising. The results suggest that at least four types of interpersonal health communication can be distinguished, each influenced by different factors, like conversational partner and objective of the conversation. Future research should take this diversity of interpersonal health communication into account, and focus on designing health campaigns that aim to trigger dialogue within target populations.

  13. Theoretical difference between impact factor and influence factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đilda Pečarić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bibliometric constructions of "knowledge maps" and "cognitive structures of science" do not differentiate between impact and influence factors. The difference can be constructedaccording to different meaning and interpretation of the terms reference and citation. Reference is "acknowledgment which one author gives to another", whereas citation is "acknowledgment which one document receives from another". Development of Information Science according to period and subject area is analyzed on the corpus of citation literature retrieved from doctoral dissertations in Information Science from 1978 to 2007 at Croatian universities. The research aim is to indicate the difference between document impact factor and author's influence factor (i.e. reference ability to produce effects on actions, behavior, and opinions of authors of doctoral theses. The influence factor serves to distinguish the key role of cited authors in time and according to the duration of the influence (the average age for cited papers of dominant authors in different periods is between eight and ten years. The difference between linear and interactive communication seems vital for the interpretation of cited half-life, i.e. the attitude of one science community towards used information resources and cognitive heritage. The analyzed corpus of 22,210 citations can be divided into three communication phases according to influence factor criteria: in the phase of dialogue and interactive communication 25% of bibliographic units are cited in the first four years; in the second phase another 25% of units are cited from the fifth to the ninth year; after ten years, in the dominant linear communication phase, approximately 30% of units are cited.

  14. What Factors Influence Knowledge Sharing in Organizations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmerita, Liana; Kirchner, Kathrin; Nielsen, Pia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Enterprise social media platforms provide new ways of sharing knowledge and communicating within organizations to benefit from the social capital and valuable knowledge that employees have. Drawing on social dilemma and self-determination theory, the aim of the study is to understand what...... factors drive employees’ participation and what factors hamper their participation in enterprise social media. Design/methodology/approach: Based on a literature review, a unified research model is derived integrating demographic, individual, organizational and technological factors that influence...... knowledge sharing framework helps to understand what factors impact engagement on social media. Furthermore the article suggests different types of interventions to overcome the social dilemma of knowledge sharing. Originality/value: The study contributes to an understanding of factors leading...

  15. Investigating important factors influencing purchasing from chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we survey important factors, influencing customers to buy more from one of well known food market operating in capital city of Iran named Shahrvand. The survey studies the effects of six factors including customer's perception, persuasive factors, brand, customers' expectations, product's characteristics and special features of store on attracting more customers. We have distributed questionnaire among 196 customers who regularly visit stores and analyzed details of the data. The results indicate that customers' perception is the most important item, which includes eight components. Years of experience is the most important item in our survey followed by impact of color and working hours. Diversity of services is another factor, which plays the most important role followed by quality of services. Next, fidelity and brand are other most important factors and the name of store and risk are in lower degree of importance.

  16. Serum concentrations of fibroblast growth factor 19 in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus: the influence of acute hyperinsulinemia, very-low calorie diet and PPAR-α agonist treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mráz, M; Lacinová, Z; Kaválková, P; Haluzíková, D; Trachta, P; Drápalová, J; Hanušová, V; Haluzík, M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was to measure serum concentrations of fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF-19) in patients with obesity (OB), obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and healthy subjects (C) at baseline and after selected interventions. We measured serum FGF-19 levels and other biochemical and hormonal parameters in 29 OB and 19 T2DM females and 30 sex- and age-matched control subjects. The interventions were acute hyperinsulinemia during isoglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp (n=11 for T2DM and 10 for C), very-low calorie diet (VLCD, n=12 for OB) and 3 months treatment with PPAR-alpha agonist fenofibrate (n=11 for T2DM). Baseline serum FGF-19 levels were significantly lower in OB relative to C group (132.1+/-12.7 vs. 202.2+/-16.7 pg/ml, pmonths of fenofibrate treatment markedly reduced FGF-19 levels in T2DM patients (194.58+/-26.2 vs. 107.47+/-25.0 pg/ml, pnutritional status, but were not related to parameters of glucose metabolism or insulin sensitivity.

  17. Influence of organizational factors on safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, S.B.; Metlay, D.S.; Crouch, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    There is a need for a better understanding of exactly how organizational management factors at a nuclear power plant (NPP) affect plant safety performance, either directly or indirectly, and how these factors might be observed, measured, and evaluated. The purpose of this research project is to respond to that need by developing a general methodology for characterizing these organizational and management factors, systematically collecting information on their status and integrating that information into various types of evaluative activities. Research to date has included the development of the Nuclear Organization and Management Analysis Concept (NOMAC) of a NPP, the identification of key organizational and management factors, and the identification of the methods for systematically measuring and analyzing the influence of these factors on performance. Most recently, two field studies, one at a fossil fuel plant and the other at a NPP, were conducted using the developed methodology. Results are presented from both studies highlighting the acceptability, practicality, and usefulness of the methods used to assess the influence of various organizational and management factors including culture, communication, decision-making, standardization, and oversight. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Factors Influencing Colorectal Cancer Screening Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Z. Gimeno García

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a major health problem worldwide. Although population-based CRC screening is strongly recommended in average-risk population, compliance rates are still far from the desirable rates. High levels of screening uptake are necessary for the success of any screening program. Therefore, the investigation of factors influencing participation is crucial prior to design and launches a population-based organized screening campaign. Several studies have identified screening behaviour factors related to potential participants, providers, or health care system. These influencing factors can also be classified in non-modifiable (i.e., demographic factors, education, health insurance, or income and modifiable factors (i.e., knowledge about CRC and screening, patient and provider attitudes or structural barriers for screening. Modifiable determinants are of great interest as they are plausible targets for interventions. Interventions at different levels (patient, providers or health care system have been tested across the studies with different results. This paper analyzes factors related to CRC screening behaviour and potential interventions designed to improve screening uptake.

  19. Do the fibrin architecture and leukocyte content influence the growth factor release of platelet concentrates? An evidence-based answer comparing a pure platelet-rich plasma (P-PRP) gel and a leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohan Ehrenfest, David M; Bielecki, Tomasz; Jimbo, Ryo; Barbé, Giovanni; Del Corso, Marco; Inchingolo, Francesco; Sammartino, Gilberto

    2012-06-01

    Platelet concentrates for surgical use are tools of regenerative medicine designed for the local release of platelet growth factors into a surgical or wounded site, in order to stimulate tissue healing or regeneration. Leukocyte content and fibrin architecture are 2 key characteristics of all platelet concentrates and allow to classify these technologies in 4 families, but very little is known about the impact of these 2 parameters on the intrinsic biology of these products. In this demonstration, we highlight some outstanding differences in the growth factor and matrix protein release between 2 families of platelet concentrate: Pure Platelet-Rich Plasma (P-PRP, here the Anitua's PRGF - Preparation Rich in Growth Factors - technique) and Leukocyte- and Platelet-Rich Fibrin (L-PRF, here the Choukroun's method). These 2 families are the extreme opposites in terms of fibrin architecture and leukocyte content. The slow release of 3 key growth factors (Transforming Growth Factor β1 (TGFβ1), Platelet-Derived Growth Factor AB (PDGF-AB) and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)) and matrix proteins (fibronectin, vitronectin and thrombospondin-1) from the L-PRF and P-PRP gel membranes in culture medium is described and discussed. During 7 days, the L-PRF membranes slowly release significantly larger amounts of all these molecules than the P-PRP gel membranes, and the 2 products display different release patterns. In both platelet concentrates, vitronectin is the sole molecule to be released almost completely after only 4 hours, suggesting that this molecule is not trapped in the fibrin matrix and not produced by the leukocytes. Moreover the P-PRP gel membranes completely dissolve in the culture medium after less than 5 days only, while the L-PRF membranes are still intact after 7 days. This simple demonstration shows that the polymerization and final architecture of the fibrin matrix considerably influence the strength and the growth factor trapping/release potential

  20. Investigating Factors that Affect Dissolved Oxygen Concentration in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantzen, Paul G.

    1978-01-01

    Describes activities that demonstrate the effects of factors such as wind velocity, water temperature, convection currents, intensity of light, rate of photosynthesis, atmospheric pressure, humidity, numbers of decomposers, presence of oxidizable ions, and respiration by plants and animals on the dissolved oxygen concentration in water. (MA)

  1. Factors influencing the feasibility of laparoscopy colectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Zhiyun; Zhang Zhongtao

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective was to review the factors affecting the feasibility of performing successful laparoscopic colectomy.Data sources The literatures about the risk factors closely related to the ability to perform laparoscopic colectomy on different surgical diseases of the colon cited in this review were obtained from PubMed published in English from 2006 to 2012.Study selection Original articles regarding the risk factors that affect the ability to perform laparoscopic colectomy were selected.Results Obesity,diabetes,inflammatory bowel diseases,advanced age,emergency operation,and pelvic anatomy are all important risk factors that increase the risk of developing serious complications such as hemorrhage,anastomotic leak,and skin and soft tissue infections following laparoscopic colectomy.These factors also increase the likelihood of conversion to an open operation.In this study,we reviewed the recent original articles about the relationship of laparoscopic colectomy with these risk factors.We also describe some strategies that limit the likelihood of these complications and the likelihood of conversion to an open operation.Conclusions Obesity,diabetes,inflammatory bowel diseases,age,emergency operation,and pelvic anatomy are all important risk factors that increase the risk of either serious complications or conversion to open operation with laparoscopic colectomy.Evaluation of these risk factors preoperatively should influence the decision to perform colectomy using laparoscopic techniques.

  2. Influence of Artificial Sweetener on Human Blood Glucose Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Skokan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial sweeteners, such as saccharin or cyclamic acid are synthetically manufactured sweetenings. Known for their low energetic value they serve especially diabetic and adipose patients as sugar substitutes. It has been hypothesized that the substitution of sugar with artificial sweeteners may induce a decrease of the blood glucose. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of this hypothesis by comparing the influence of regular table sugar and artificial sweeteners on the blood glucose concentration. In this pilot-study 16 patients were included suffering from adiposity, pre-diabetes and hypertension. In the sense of a cross-over design, three test trials were performed at intervals of several weeks. Each trial was followed by a test free interval. Within one test trial each patient consumed 150 ml test solution (water that contained either 6 g of table sugar (“Kandisin” with sweetener free serving as control group. Tests were performed within 1 hr after lunch to ensure conditions comparable to patients having a desert. Every participant had to determine their blood glucose concentration immediately before and 5, 15, 30 and 60 minutes after the intake of the test solution. For statistics an analysis of variance was performed. The data showed no significant changes in the blood glucose concentration. Neither the application of sugar (F4;60 = 1.645; p = .175 nor the consumption of an artificial sweetener (F2.068;31.023 = 1.551; p > .05 caused significant fluctuations in the blood sugar levels. Over a time frame of 60 minutes in the control group a significant decrease of the blood sugar concentration was found (F2.457;36.849 = 4.005; p = .020 as a physiological reaction during lunch digestion.

  3. Factors Influencing Tacit Knowledge in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawahar Nesan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased complexity of the construction business and consequentuse of new management concepts and technologies ledconstruction organisations to focus more on the transfer of explicitknowledge. However, it is the tacit knowledge that determinesthe construction companies’ competitiveness in a business thatis driven by turbulent market conditions and customers’ everincreasingdemands. This paper highlights the importance of tacitknowledge sharing in construction, explores the challenges andopportunities to efficiently share tacit knowledge, and based on theliterature review identifies some critical factors that influence tacitknowledge in construction. It is argued that employees’ knowledgesharing (learning behaviours are influenced by work practices thatare borne by respective organisational behaviours. Organisational,cultural, and project characteristics that facilitate knowledgesharing among construction employees are explored and thepractices that influence the construction employee behaviour insharing tacit knowledge are highlighted.

  4. Factors Influencing Tacit Knowledge in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawahar Nesan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased complexity of the construction business and consequentuse of new management concepts and technologies ledconstruction organisations to focus more on the transfer of explicitknowledge. However, it is the tacit knowledge that determinesthe construction companies’ competitiveness in a business thatis driven by turbulent market conditions and customers’ everincreasingdemands. This paper highlights the importance of tacitknowledge sharing in construction, explores the challenges andopportunities to efficiently share tacit knowledge, and based on theliterature review identifies some critical factors that influence tacitknowledge in construction. It is argued that employees’ knowledgesharing (learning behaviours are influenced by work practices thatare borne by respective organisational behaviours. Organisational,cultural, and project characteristics that facilitate knowledgesharing among construction employees are explored and thepractices that influence the construction employee behaviour insharing tacit knowledge are highlighted.

  5. Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior of Smartphone Users

    OpenAIRE

    Nagarkoti, Bishal

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to know about the factors influencing consumer behavior of Smartphone users. Under this study, the main focus is to identify whether Smartphone users buy Smartphone because of their need or wish, reasons to buy expensive smart phones, how social and personal factors affect them to make purchasing decision, for what purposes they use Smartphone, where and how long a day, change in usage of com-puters due to Smartphone and how high is the phone bill after using Smartphon...

  6. FACTORS INFLUENCING BENDING RIGIDITY OF SUBMERGED VEGETATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Long-hua; YANG Xiao-li

    2011-01-01

    The bending rigidity of submerged vegetation is closely related with vegetative drag force.This work aims at determining the effects of flow conditions and characteristics of vegetation on the bending rigidity of submerged vegetation.Based on the dimensional analysis method,the factors influencing the bending rigidity of individual submerged vegetation were analyzed.The relationship between the relative bending rigidity and its influencing factors was investigated by experimental observation,and a relative bending rigidity expression for submerged vegetation was obtained by means of multiple linear regression method.The results show that the submerged vegetation has three states under different inflow conditions,and the each critical relative bending rigidity of individual submerged vegetation was determined for the different states of submerged vegetation.

  7. Investigating different factors influencing on brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsane Zamanimoghadam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine and prioritize factors influencing on brand equity in consumer’s point of view for a case study of Samsung appliance consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. The study investigates the effects of four factors in terms of the customer's perspective, price, advertisement, family and brand image, by dimensions of brand equity, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, brand loyalty, on brand equity. The research method is based on a descriptive-survey research. The questionnaire includes Samsung consumers in city of Tehran, Iran. To test the hypotheses, SPSS and LISREL software packages are used. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and inferential statistical tests including structural equation modeling and path analysis are used. The results of the survey have indicated that family and brand image influence positively on brand equity but the effects of advertisement and price on brand equity were not confirmed.

  8. Factors Influencing Impulse Buying in Retail Stores

    OpenAIRE

    Giorgadze, Nino

    2014-01-01

    Impulse buying is a widely pervasive phenomenon. Statistics shows that more and more shoppers are experiencing irresistible urge to purchase unplanned and in most cases unnecessary product. Existing researches fall short in identifying most suitable tools that marketers can adopt in order to promote impulsive sales. Therefore, this thesis provides deep analysis of those, controllable factors that influence impulse buying. Particularly four external cues are examined: product display, promotio...

  9. Major Factors influences the 2008 Stock Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 2007 was an unusual year for China's stock market, as the index climbed from 2675 points up to 6124 by the end of the year, setting new records again and again throughout 2007. What will happen to the stock market in the coming 2008? Let's havea look at some of the main factors that will influence the stock market this year, perhaps we can find out if 2008 will be another memorable year full of surprises.

  10. Factors influencing the eicosanoids synthesis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szefel, Jarosław; Kruszewski, Wiesław Janusz; Sobczak, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    External factors activate a sequence of reactions involving the reception, transduction, and transmission of signals to effector cells. There are two main phases of the body's reaction to harmful factors: the first aims to neutralize the harmful factor, while in the second the inflammatory process is reduced in size and resolved. Secondary messengers such as eicosanoids are active in both phases. The discovery of lipoxins and epi-lipoxins demonstrated that not all arachidonic acid (AA) derivatives have proinflammatory activity. It was also revealed that metabolites of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) such as resolvins, protectins, and maresins also take part in the resolution of inflammation. Knowledge of the above properties has stimulated several clinical trials on the influence of EPA and DHA supplementation on various diseases. However, the equivocal results of those trials prevent the formulation of guidelines on EPA and DHA supplementation. Prescription drugs are among the substances with the strongest influence on the profile and quantity of the synthesized eicosanoids. The lack of knowledge about their influence on the conversion of EPA and DHA into eicosanoids may lead to erroneous conclusions from clinical trials.

  11. A Review of Factors Influencing Health Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Almaspoor Khanghah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ​Background and Objectives : Inequity in health is a universal term which is used for showing current differences, variations and inequalities of people in accessing to health services. The current study aimed to assess the factors influencing health inequalities to present the results to the researchers and health care professionals. Material and Methods : In this review, several databases including PubMed, Proquest, Scopus, Google Scholar search engine, SID and IranDoc were searched within 2000-2014 period. We found 746 articles and refined them step by step according to the aim of the study by reviewing the titles, abstracts and full texts. Finally, 16 articles were selected for further study Results: In the present study, identified determinants in health inequalities were as follows: 1- Economic and income factors 2- Political factors, social and public policy 3- Cultural and social values 4- social and demographic factors 5- Behavioral, psychological and biological factors. Although, other factors like governmental, international, social cohesion, incidents and even the health system itself were involved in health inequalities, but the listed determinants were among the most important determinants in health inequalities in the conducted studies. Conclusion : Given the importance of people's health and inequalities in health, the approach should focus on reducing the inequalities in all policies and development programs and the role of these factors should be taken into consideration by managers and policy-makers

  12. Influence of wind direction on pollen concentration in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Palacios, I.; Tormo Molina, R.; Muñoz Rodríguez, A. F.

    The daily pollen concentration in the atmosphere of Badajoz (SW Spain) was analysed over a 6-year period (1993-1998) using a volumetric aerobiological trap. The results for the main pollination period are compared with the number of hours of wind each day in the four quadrants: 1 (NE), 2 (SE), 3 (SW) and 4 (NW). The pollen source distribution allowed 16 pollen types to be analysed as a function of their distribution in the four quadrants with respect to the location of the trap. Four of them correspond to species growing in an irrigated farmland environment (Amaranthaceae-Chenopodiaceae, Plantago, Scirpus, and Typha), five to riparian and woodland species (Salix, Fraxinus, Alnus, Populus, and Eucalyptus), four to urban ornamentals (Ulmus, Arecaceae, Cupressaceae, and Casuarina), and three which include the most frequent pollen grains of widely distributed species (Poaceae, Quercus, and Olea). The results show that the distribution of the sources and the wind direction play a very major role in determining the pollen concentration in the atmosphere when these sources are located in certain quadrants, and that the widely distributed pollen sources show no relationship with wind direction. In some years the values of the correlations were not maintained, which leads one to presume that, in order to draw significant conclusions and establish clear patterns of the influence of wind direction, a continuous and more prolonged study will be required.

  13. CREDIT LEVEL INFLUENCING FACTORS AT HUNGARIAN FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toth Jozsef

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we estimate the impact of different factors on creditability of agricultural farms. According to the literature the collateral (tangible assets, the farm size, productivity, and subsidies should have significant effects on farm loans. We use data from the Hungarian Farm Accountancy Data Network to test our two hypotheses and theoretical assumptions for the period 2001-2010. Because of using panel data, we do our estimations using fixed effects econometrics model to test our assumptions. The results indicate that the chosen factors have significant influence on total liabilities and short- and long-term loans as well. With specially interest of subsidies the growing level of supports decrease the need of other financial tools. At output factors (inclusive farm size have significant and positive effect, same as collateral (tangible assets.

  14. Anthroposophic lifestyle influences the concentration of metals in placenta and cord blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagerstedt, Sara [The Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Kippler, Maria [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Scheynius, Annika; Gutzeit, Cindy [Department of Medicine Solna, Translational Immunology Unit, Karolinska Institutet and University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Mie, Axel [The Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Alm, Johan [The Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Sachs' Children and Youth Hospital, Södersjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden); Vahter, Marie, E-mail: marie.vahter@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-01-15

    Allergic diseases develop in genetically susceptible individuals in a complex interplay with the environment, usually early in life. We have previously shown that the anthroposophic lifestyle is associated with reduced risk of allergic disease in children, but details on the influencing environmental factors are largely unknown. This study aims to elucidate if anthroposophic lifestyle influences fetal exposure to selected toxic and essential elements. Randomly selected non-smoking mothers with (n=40) and without (n=40) anthroposophic lifestyle from the prospective birth cohort ALADDIN were included. Concentrations of 12 toxic and essential elements were analyzed in full term placentas and in the erythrocyte fractions of maternal peripheral blood and of umbilical cord blood, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cadmium concentrations in maternal blood and placenta were significantly higher in mothers with an anthroposophic lifestyle (p<0.001), while concentrations in cord blood were generally low, irrespective of lifestyle. Cobalt concentrations were higher in both maternal blood, placenta and cord blood in the anthroposophic group. Lead concentrations were higher in maternal blood and cord blood, but not placenta, of mothers with anthroposophic lifestyle. Analysis of covariance, including lifestyle, parity, maternal age, gestational age, vegetarian diet, use of herbal medicine and occupation in the model, showed that mainly the anthroposophic lifestyle was significantly associated with cadmium concentrations. In conclusion, women with an anthroposophic lifestyle had higher concentrations of cadmium, cobalt and lead concentrations. Cadmium concentrations might have been influenced by a diet rich in vegetables and/or low iron status of the mothers. - Highlights: • Toxic elements in mother–newborn pairs in relation to anthroposophic lifestyle. • Anthroposophic lifestyle was associated with higher levels of cadmium, cobalt and lead. • A diet rich

  15. The Influence of Distance and Atmospheric Elements on the Concentration of Odour from Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaini Sakawi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Odour is an environmental element that occurs as varieties of aroma, either pleasant or otherwise to its immediate community. The various sources of odour pollution may come from either natural or of human activities. Odour concentration may change due to environmental factors such as atmosphere, topography, distance and mitigation efforts. This study describes a study on the influence of distance and athmospheric elements on concentration of odour generated by the Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF operations. The distribution of odour concentration was measured using Odour concentration meter XP-329 III series per its distance from the RDF operations. The results indicated that distance factors did influence the odour concentration. Results at test stations of distances farther from the RDF showed incrementally higher distribution of odour concentration compared to those nearer to the RDF. In addition, athmosperic elements like temperatures, humidity, wind speed and directions also evidenlty linked to the distribution of odour concentration.

  16. Internal factors influencing the knowledge continuity ensuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Urbancová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the systematic ensuring of knowledge continuity is the continuity of an organisation’s development, the quality of managerial positions and the continuity of decision-making. By ensuring knowledge continuity, organisations may gain a performance-enhancing factor. The objective of the article is to identify the level of impact of decisive internal factors determining knowledge continuity ensuring and contributing to the efficiency of the organisations. Knowledge continuity ensuring as an internal force, however, can together with the right employees, help adapt more quickly to external conditions that organisations can hardly control. Monitoring and ensuring knowledge continuity can contribute to a higher quality of processes in general, in particular processes exploiting knowledge, and thus help improve the level of management. The first part of the article presents theoretical views on the aspects of knowledge continuity ensuring in organisations while the second part analyses the findings of the surveys carried out among managers in organisations in the Czech Republic. Based on the summary of the outcomes obtained it is possible to say that internal factors influence knowledge continuity ensuring in organisations, however, the level of impact of individual factors is determined by their size. The findings regarding the impact of each of the factors show that the most significant barriers to knowledge continuity ensuring are those associated with the human factor.

  17. Geochemical factors controlling free Cu ion concentrations in river water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozan, Tim F.; Benoit, Gaboury

    1999-10-01

    Copper speciation was determined monthly at seven sites on four rivers in southern New England to understand which geochemical factors control free metal ion concentrations in river water. Samples were conventionally filtered (stripping voltammetry (DPASV) was used to quantify natural organic complexation and cathodic stripping square wave voltammetry (CSSWV) to measure directly both Cu sulfide complexes and total EDTA concentrations. The results showed both dissolved organic matter (DOM) and sulfide complexation dominate Cu speciation and control the concentrations of free ion. Free Cu2+ was calculated to be in the subnanomolar range for the majority of the year. Only in the winter months, when concentrations of DOM and metal sulfides complexes were at a minimum were free metal ions directly measurable by DPASV at low nanomolar concentrations. The extent of sulfide complexation appears to be dominated by the size of headwater marshes (upstream sampling sites) and by the amount of sewage treatment plant effluent (downstream sites). DOM complexation was related to the organic matter composition and followed model organic ligands. Indirect evidence suggests variations in river water pH and Ca2+ (metal competition) has only a minor role in Cu complexation. Measured concentrations of total EDTA suggest this synthetic ligand can control Cu speciation in some highly developed watersheds; however, competition from Ni (and possibly Fe) limits the extent of this complexation.

  18. Factors That Influence the Extensional Rheological Property of Saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Amrita; Inui, Taichi; Dodds, Michael; Proctor, Gordon; Carpenter, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The spinnbarkeit of saliva reflects the ability of saliva to adhere to surfaces within the mouth, thereby serving as a protective role and aiding in lubrication. Therefore, alterations in the extensional rheology of saliva may result in the loss in adhesiveness or the ability to bind onto surfaces. Mucin glycoproteins and their structures are known to be important factors for the extensional rheological properties of saliva. The conformation of mucin depends on factors such as pH and ionic strength. Chewing is one of the main stimuli for salivary secretion but creates significant sheer stress on the salivary film which could influence mouthfeel perceptions. The current study investigates the possible factors which affect the extensional rheological properties of saliva by comparing submandibular/sublingual saliva with different oral stimuli within the same group of subjects. Unstimulated and stimulated saliva (chew, smell and taste) salivas were collected primarily from submandibular/sublingual glands. The saliva samples were measured for Spinnbarkeit followed by the measuring mucin, total protein, total calcium and bicarbonate concentrations. The results indicated correlations between rheological properties and mucin/ion concentrations. However, chewing stimulated submandibular/sublingual saliva is shown to have significantly lower Spinnbarkeit, but factors such as mucin, protein and calcium concentrations did not account for this variation. Analysis of the concentration of bicarbonate and pH appears to suggest that it has a prominent effect on extensional rheology of saliva.

  19. Factors That Influence the Extensional Rheological Property of Saliva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Vijay

    Full Text Available The spinnbarkeit of saliva reflects the ability of saliva to adhere to surfaces within the mouth, thereby serving as a protective role and aiding in lubrication. Therefore, alterations in the extensional rheology of saliva may result in the loss in adhesiveness or the ability to bind onto surfaces. Mucin glycoproteins and their structures are known to be important factors for the extensional rheological properties of saliva. The conformation of mucin depends on factors such as pH and ionic strength. Chewing is one of the main stimuli for salivary secretion but creates significant sheer stress on the salivary film which could influence mouthfeel perceptions. The current study investigates the possible factors which affect the extensional rheological properties of saliva by comparing submandibular/sublingual saliva with different oral stimuli within the same group of subjects. Unstimulated and stimulated saliva (chew, smell and taste salivas were collected primarily from submandibular/sublingual glands. The saliva samples were measured for Spinnbarkeit followed by the measuring mucin, total protein, total calcium and bicarbonate concentrations. The results indicated correlations between rheological properties and mucin/ion concentrations. However, chewing stimulated submandibular/sublingual saliva is shown to have significantly lower Spinnbarkeit, but factors such as mucin, protein and calcium concentrations did not account for this variation. Analysis of the concentration of bicarbonate and pH appears to suggest that it has a prominent effect on extensional rheology of saliva.

  20. Factors That Influence the Extensional Rheological Property of Saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Amrita; Inui, Taichi; Dodds, Michael; Proctor, Gordon; Carpenter, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The spinnbarkeit of saliva reflects the ability of saliva to adhere to surfaces within the mouth, thereby serving as a protective role and aiding in lubrication. Therefore, alterations in the extensional rheology of saliva may result in the loss in adhesiveness or the ability to bind onto surfaces. Mucin glycoproteins and their structures are known to be important factors for the extensional rheological properties of saliva. The conformation of mucin depends on factors such as pH and ionic strength. Chewing is one of the main stimuli for salivary secretion but creates significant sheer stress on the salivary film which could influence mouthfeel perceptions. The current study investigates the possible factors which affect the extensional rheological properties of saliva by comparing submandibular/sublingual saliva with different oral stimuli within the same group of subjects. Unstimulated and stimulated saliva (chew, smell and taste) salivas were collected primarily from submandibular/sublingual glands. The saliva samples were measured for Spinnbarkeit followed by the measuring mucin, total protein, total calcium and bicarbonate concentrations. The results indicated correlations between rheological properties and mucin/ion concentrations. However, chewing stimulated submandibular/sublingual saliva is shown to have significantly lower Spinnbarkeit, but factors such as mucin, protein and calcium concentrations did not account for this variation. Analysis of the concentration of bicarbonate and pH appears to suggest that it has a prominent effect on extensional rheology of saliva. PMID:26305698

  1. Contextual factors influencing research use in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Beverley

    2005-01-01

    Contextual factors are perceived to be significant barriers to research-utilisation-related activity, but little is known about how context impacts on specific research-based decisions, or how the individual interacts with the organisation in the requirement for research-based change. This study describes the impact of contextual factors on the practical reasoning of nurse specialists in the construction of policy for practice. Three groups of clinical nurse specialists were observed during a series of meetings convened to construct evidence-based guidelines for nursing practice. Transcripts of the meetings were analysed to identify and categorise the physical, social, political, and economic influences on 31 nursing issues. Multiple contextual factors influenced each decision made, with decisions about nursing practice bounded by setting and system considerations, relationships with others in the care team, and resource constraints. Practitioners were involved in weighing up alternative scenarios, contexts, and contingencies for each decision, requiring strategies to adapt and reconstruct the nature of care, to influence others, and to affect organisational decision-making processes. The practical accomplishment of evidence-based practice required diverse skills: translating between evidence and practice; mediating the values, preferences, and working practices of multiple stakeholders; negotiating organisational complexity and the management of boundaries; and coordinating inter-organisational and inter-agency working. Nurse specialists in this study had a significant role in instigating, fuelling, and coordinating policy review, predominantly by communication across professional and organisational boundaries. Clinical specialists acting as organisational boundary spanners require skills in the informal cultural work of organising, facilitating, and maintaining links across professional, team, and organisational boundaries. If their role in the negotiation of

  2. The influence of hemoglobin concentration on exercise cardiac output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedson, P S

    1981-05-01

    Two experiments were performed to study the cardiac output (Q) vs. hemoglobin concentration (Hb) relationship during constant load submaximum eexercise. The first experiment examined the relationship between submaximum exercise Q and Hb in 28 females. A correlation of r = -0.83 (P less than 0.05) was observed between Q and Hb during xercise at 88 W (mean Q = 11.04 l . min-1) and 118 W (mean Q = 13.10 l . min-1) (mean steady rate VO2 = 1.40 l . min-1 and 1.79 l . min-1, respectively). By removing the influence of stroke volume (SV) from Q (part correlation analyses), the relationship between Q and Hb is compromised (r = -0.29, P greater than 0.05, 88 W and r = -0.33, P greater than 0.05, 118 W). The second experiment compared the VO2 max and submaximum exercise (118 W) Q responses in six males before and after blood donation. Experimentally reducing Hb 18.6% (P less than 0.05) caused a 6.2% decrease (P less than 0.05) in VO2 max. Additionally, submaximum exercise Q increased 12% (P less than 0.05) 6 days following hemodilution., The Q remained elevated 11 days (10% higher, P less than 0.05) and 16 days (9% higher, P less than 0.05) post-blood donation and progressively returned to pre-donation levels by 21 days post-withdrawal. The higher Q's during submaximum exercise were ascribed primarily to an 8% (P less than 0.05) higher SV in comparison to pre-donation levels. collectively, the data from the two experiments indicate that individual differences in submaximum exercise Q are due, in part, to individual differences in Hb concentration. Furthermore, it is suggested that the stimulus for the SV-induced Q vs. Hb association is related to maintaining maximal myocardial efficiency.

  3. Analysis of influencing factors on fine sediment flocculation in the Changjiang Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋国俊; 姚言明; 唐子文

    2002-01-01

    -- Based on the test data in dynamic water and static water, the main factors, which influence the fine sediment flocculation, are analyzed with a gray model method of correlation theory. It is shown that the main influencing factors are water temperature, settling time, salinity, grain size, sediment concentration and current velocity according to the correlation coefficients. Among them, the salinity and the sediment grain size are critical type influencing factors (CrTIF); the settling time, the sediment concentration and the velocity are continuous type influencing factors (CoTIF); and the water temperature has the characteristics of both. When the critical values of CrTIF are reached or exceeded,the fine sediments will be flocculated, but values of CrTIF will not influence the settlement strength of flocs. The influence of CoTIF is continuous. The values of the CoTIF will not only influence the occurrence of flocculation but also the settlement strength of the flocs.

  4. Factors influencing aircraft ground handling performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Problems associated with aircraft ground handling operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft, and aircraft wet runway accident investigation are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

  5. Factors influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takatsu, Hisato; Fujiwara, Hisayoshi [Gifu Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1997-02-01

    Following factors possibly influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation were examined mainly in mice. 1. The specific activity of the MIBG (meta-iodo-benzyl guanidine) on the neuronal and non-neuronal fractions. 2. Motor restriction stress on MIBG accumulation and washout. 3. Loading and restriction of sodium chloride on the accumulation and effect of suppression of renin-angiotensin system. 4. Examinations in Dahl rats. 125I- or 131I-MIBG was intravenously administered to mice at 74 kBq. At 30 min or 4 hr after administration, mice were sacrificed and their left ventricles were dissected out for measurement of radioactivity in a liquid scintillation counter. Salt-sensitive and -resistant Dahl rats were given with 37 MBq of 123I-MIBG and cardiac radioactivity was measured externally for calculation of washout. Factors examined were found highly correlated with the accumulation of MIBG and measurement of its washout was considered useful for evaluating sympathetic activity. (K.H.)

  6. A survey on factors influencing city branding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohsen Mahmoudzadeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the issue of “globalization” is entering to all areas in the world. In addition to products and companies, cities and countries also have the opportunity to see themselves as important actors in international arena. Places define their positions in different fields like business, leisure and recreation, educational opportunities, living, etc. This paper presents an empirical study to introduce city branding as one of the solutions to join globalization process. The method of this research is based on the “descriptive-analytic” and utilize the available literature and experts’ opinions to prioritize the influencing factors of city branding. We use Delphi consensus methods and technique of analytical hierarchy process to evaluate the factors. Finally, the results of the study indicate that security, transportation and mental creativity are the weakest fields and business and shopping facilities are strong fields of city branding in metropolitan of Tehran.

  7. A study of factors influencing advanced puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Jun Park

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the timing of puberty and the factors inducing advanced puberty in elemental school students of low grades. Methods : The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grade elemental students from the Goyang province were randomly selected, and their sexual maturation rate was assessed by physical examination. After obtaining an informed consent, a questionnaire was administered to the parents; eating habits, lifestyle, use of growth-inducing medication, and present illness of the students were evaluated to determine the factors that induced advanced puberty. The data were statistically analyzed. Results : We selected 170 children and the girls:boys sex ratio was 1.2:1. Two 9-year-old boys were in genital stage 2. Two (14.3% 6-year-old girls, 6 (19.4% 7-year-old girls, 15 (39.6% 8-year-old girls, and 4 (57.1% 9-year-old girls were in breast stage 2. The average pubertal timing predicted for girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years. The main factors influencing pubertal timing were obesity scale, frequency of eating fast food, and the use of growth-inducing medication. A high rating on the obesity scale and high frequency of eating fast food indicated advanced stage of puberty. Growth-inducing medication induced puberty through obesity. Conclusion : We proposed that predictive average pubertal timing in girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years, which was consistent with the previously reported findings from abroad. The significant influencing factors in advanced puberty were obesity scale and frequency of fast food.

  8. Evaluating the displacement amplification factors of concentrically braced steel frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Mussa; Zaree, Mahdi

    2013-12-01

    According to seismic design codes, nonlinear performance of structures is considered during strong earthquakes. Seismic design provisions estimate the maximum roof and story drifts occurring during major earthquakes by amplifying the drifts computed from elastic analysis at the prescribed seismic force level with a displacement amplification factor. The present study tries to evaluate the displacement amplification factors of conventional concentric braced frames (CBFs) and buckling restrained braced frames (BRBFs). As such, static nonlinear (pushover) analysis and nonlinear dynamic time history analysis have been performed on the model buildings with single and double bracing bays, and different stories and brace configurations (chevron V, invert V, and X bracing). It is observed that the displacement amplification factors for BRBFs are higher than that of CBFs. Also, the number of bracing bays and height of buildings have a profound effect on the displacement amplification factors. The evaluated ratios between displacement amplification factors and response modification factors are from 1 to 1.12 for CBFs and from 1 to 1.4 for BRBFs.

  9. Factors influencing seed germination in Cerrado grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Marta Kolb

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies address the ecology of herbs of Cerrado grasslands, which are ecosystems where the long dry season, high temperatures, insolation, fire and invasive grasses greatly influencing germination and the establishment of plants. We assessed germination of 13 species of Poaceae from Cerrado grasslands under nursery conditions or in germination chambers, the latter with i recently collected seeds and seeds after six months storage, ii under constant and alternating temperatures, and iii in the presence and absence of light. Germinability, mean germination time (MGT and required light were quantified to elucidate factors involved in successful germination. Germinability was low for most grasses, probably because of low seed viability. For most species, germinability and MGT were not altered by seed storage. Germination percentages were higher at alternating temperatures and in the presence of light, factors that are more similar to natural environmental situations compared with constant temperature or the absence of light. Our findings indicate that alternating temperatures and light incidence are key factors for germination of species of Poaceae. The maintenance of these environmental factors, which are crucial for the conservation of Cerrado grasslands, depends on appropriate management interventions, such as fire management and the control of biological invasion.

  10. Factors Influencing Acceptance Of Contraceptive Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Gupta

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Research Problem: What are the factors influencing acceptance of contraceptive methods.Objective: To study the determinants influencing contra­ceptive acceptance.Study design: Population based cross - sectional study.Setting: Rural area of East DelhiParticipants: Married women in the reproductive age group.Sample:Stratified sampling technique was used to draw the sample.Sample Size: 328 married women of reproductive age group.Study Variables: Socio-economic status, Type of contraceptive, Family size, Male child.Outcome Variables: Acceptance of contraceptivesStatistical Analysis: By proportions.Result: Prevalence of use of contraception at the time of data collection was 40.5%. Tubectomy and vasectomy were most commonly used methods. (59.4%, n - 133. Educational status of the women positively influenced the contraceptive acceptance but income did not. Desire for more children was single most important deterrent for accepting contraception.Recommendations:(i             Traditional method of contraception should be given more attention.(ii            Couplesshould be brought in the contraceptive use net at the early stage of marriage.

  11. Landslide forecasting and factors influencing predictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intrieri, Emanuele; Gigli, Giovanni

    2016-11-01

    Forecasting a catastrophic collapse is a key element in landslide risk reduction, but it is also a very difficult task owing to the scientific difficulties in predicting a complex natural event and also to the severe social repercussions caused by a false or missed alarm. A prediction is always affected by a certain error; however, when this error can imply evacuations or other severe consequences a high reliability in the forecast is, at least, desirable. In order to increase the confidence of predictions, a new methodology is presented here. In contrast to traditional approaches, this methodology iteratively applies several forecasting methods based on displacement data and, thanks to an innovative data representation, gives a valuation of the reliability of the prediction. This approach has been employed to back-analyse 15 landslide collapses. By introducing a predictability index, this study also contributes to the understanding of how geology and other factors influence the possibility of forecasting a slope failure. The results showed how kinematics, and all the factors influencing it, such as geomechanics, rainfall and other external agents, are key concerning landslide predictability.

  12. 循环水提高浓缩倍率的条件和影响因素%Improving the concentration ratio of circulating water cooling water of the conditions and the influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁慧军

    2012-01-01

    Through to the comparison of the operation of circulating water over the years in Tianji Group Gaoping Chemical Co. , Ltd. , the impact of turbidity on the concentration ratio of circulating water is analyzed and a method to reduce the turbidity of circulating water is presented. The measures to improve the concentration ratio of circulating water are presented.%对天脊集团高平公司历年循环水运行情况进行比较,分析了浊度对循环水提高浓缩倍率的影响,提出了降低循环水浊度的办法,介绍了提高循环水浓缩倍率的条件。

  13. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing large African herbivore movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, J.A.; Prins, H.H.T.; Mashanova, A.; Boer, de W.F.; Slotow, R.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding environmental as well as anthropogenic factors that influence large herbivore ecological patterns and processes should underpin their conservation and management. We assessed the influence of intrinsic, extrinsic environmental and extrinsic anthropogenic factors on movement behaviour o

  14. Hemoglobin concentrations and associated factors in adolescentes from Recife, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Barros Soares Mendonça

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of anemia and associated factors in adolescents from the city of Recife in Pernambuco state. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study, involving a random sample of 256 adolescents of both genders, aged 13 to 18, whose hemoglobin concentrations were evaluated, along with their nutritional status and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. RESULTS: The prevalence of inadequate hemoglobin concentrations was 10.2% [CI95%=6.7-14.5], reaching levels considered as mild anemia (9 g/dL 0.05, nor with socioeconomic or demographic characteristics (p>0.05. CONCLUSION: Although the prevalence of anemia was low and classified as a mild health problem, preventive nutrition education involving the dissemination of healthy eating habits in schools and encouraging the consumption of iron-rich foods are strongly recommended.

  15. Physical factors influence for biologic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piruzyan, L. A.

    2005-08-01

    Physical methods are widely spread in diagnostics and therapy of different pathologies, especially in oncology. The application of lasers occurred to be the perspective approach for combined methods application in medicine. Our work is devoted to investigation of thermal effect of focused laser beam in the model of Garding-Passi melanoma and also to the study of free radicals activity after the radiation with non-focused laser beam. The histologic alterations correlated with theoretical calculations of temperature distribution in irradiated tissue for energies 30-60 J attracted our interest. The values of maximal temperatures in depths of tissue for energies 30-60 J were carried out. In the model of permanent magnetic field (PMF) effect for mice ascites sarcoma 37 we have showed the linear dependence of tumor growth inhibition from the period of PMF treatment. Simultaneously we investigated PMF influence for free radical"s (FR) concentrations in mice organs and tissues and potentially appearing questions of PMF effect for biopotential in connection with FR formation. We have also studied the alterations of K, Na and Ca ions concentrations in ascetic fluids after animal"s PMF treatment. We revealed some reasons of biopotential generation and concluded that biopotential is not the result of specific ions gradient only but its generation can be followed by free radicals states appearance and occurrence of semi-conductivity in biostructures.

  16. Examinations of factors influencing toe grip strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soma, Masayuki; Murata, Shin; Kai, Yoshihiro; Nakae, Hideyuki; Satou, Yousuke; Murata, Jun; Miyazaki, Junya

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the relationship between toe grip strength and its associated factors by focusing on factors that were suggested to have a relationship with toe grip strength in previous studies, aiming to clarify the factors influencing the toe grip strength of healthy women. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve healthy young women were selected for this study. Their toe grip strength, angular changes in their ankle joint during toe grip, maximum voluntary contraction activities of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and tibialis anterior muscles, and the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscles were measured using electromyography. Their toe curl ability, foot-arch height ratio, and weight were also measured. [Results] Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the predictors of toe grip strength in the resulting model were foot-arch height ratio and the percentage of integrated electromyography (%IEMG) of the tibialis anterior muscle, as the dependent variables. This reveals that women whose tibialis anterior muscle %IEMG values and foot-arch height ratio are high have greater %IEMG values have greater toe grip strength. [Conclusion] These findings suggest a significant relationship between foot-arch height ratio and toe grip strength, with a reciprocal interaction. These findings further indicate that the risk of falls by the elderly could be decreased if toe grip strength were enhanced, by increasing the height of a low foot-arch with the help of an inserted insole.

  17. Factors influencing trace element composition in human teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandon, L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Iyengar, G.V. [Biomineral Sciences International, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The authors recently compiled and reviewed the literature published in or after 1978 for 45 major, minor, and trace elements in human teeth as a part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) study. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the various factors that influence the concentration levels of certain trace elements in human teeth. The sampling practices and analytical techniques that are applicable for trace element analysis are also discussed. It is also our intention to identify reference range of values, where data permit such conclusions. The scrutiny was designed to identify only the healthy permanent teeth, and values from teeth with fillings, caries, or periodontal diseases were eliminated.

  18. Factors influencing career choice in anaesthesiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Tyagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a shortage of anaesthesiologists in India. The factors that prompt medical students to opt for anaesthesiology as their career are not known; neither do we have any mechanism to know a student′s stress-bearing ability before he/she opts for a stressful career like anaesthesiology. We conducted an anonymous, questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey among 200 post-graduate anaesthesiology students to know various factors that they considered while opting for this speciality, and also evaluated their stress-bearing ability using Antonovsky′s 13-point sense of coherence scale. Methods: Two-hundred anaesthesiology students were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding the factors they considered important while opting for anaesthesiology, also enumerated in order of importance the three most important factors that led to opting this career. Students also answered the questions in Antonovsky′s sense of coherence (SOC scale. Results: Economic security was considered by maximum number of students (67.7%, while intellectual stimulation/challenge offered by anaesthesiology was rated first in order of importance. Influence of doctor−patient relationship was not considered by large number of students. The weak SOC score (55 (25 th percentile was not greatly different than the mean SOC score (60 in the survey. Conclusion: Increasing the exposure of students to anaesthesiology at undergraduate level and building public awareness about the speciality will prompt more students to opt for the speciality, while career counselling with regard to specific needs of a speciality and ability of a student will help in opting the speciality that best suits the student′s personality.

  19. Factors influencing nurses' perceptions of occupational safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samur, Menevse; Intepeler, Seyda Seren

    2017-01-02

    To determine nurses' perceptions of occupational safety and their work environment and examine the sociodemographic traits and job characteristics that influence their occupational safety, we studied a sample of 278 nurses. According to the nurses, the quality of their work environment is average, and occupational safety is insufficient. In the subdimensions of the work environment scale, it was determined that the nurses think "labor force and other resources" are insufficient. In the occupational safety subdimensions "occupational illnesses and complaints" and "administrative support and approaches," they considered occupational safety to be insufficient. "Doctor-nurse-colleague relationships," "exposure to violence," and "work unit" (eg, internal medicine, surgical, intensive care) are the main factors that affect occupational safety. This study determined that hospital administrations should develop and immediately implement plans to ameliorate communication and clinical precautions and to reduce exposure to violence.

  20. Factors Influencing Sulfinatodehalogenation Reactions of Perhalocarbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU,Kai(吴恺); CHEN,Qing-Yun(陈庆云)

    2004-01-01

    The study on the factors influencing sulfinatodehalogenation of perfluorohexyl chloride plus octene-1 by using Na2S2O4/NaHCO3 discovered that among the various solvents tested(e.g.Me2SO,NMP,DMAc,CH3CN,CH3CN/H2O)at different temperatures,Me2SO was found to be the most suitable solvent and the conversion of the chloride was very dependent on the reaction temperature.When Me2SO was used in the reaction of perfluoroalkyl iodides,the reaction temperature could be decreased by 20℃ as compared with that carried out in CH3CN/H2O to reach the comparable yields.

  1. Factors influencing presence in virtual worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Meyrick C M

    2012-01-01

    Virtual worlds are showing potential as an effective platform for a variety of activities, including learning. The concept of presence (the sensation of "being there" in a mediated environment) has received substantial attention from the virtual reality community, and the effectiveness of virtual worlds has often been linked to the feelings of presence reported by their users. The present study examined the effects of attitude and perceived ease of use on sense of presence in Second Life, which is one of the most known and used virtual worlds. Based on data from a survey of 206 nursing students, hypotheses are empirically tested. Findings suggest that users' attitude toward using Second Life and their perceived ease of use of it have a positive effect on their sense of presence in the virtual environment. This study advances our understanding of factors influencing presence in virtual worlds.

  2. Study on Influencing Factors of Viscosity of Low Concentration Food Gum Solutions (3)%常用低浓度食品胶溶液粘度的影响因素研究(3)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷鸣; 卢晓黎; 陈正纲; 肖凯

    2001-01-01

    Food gums used in soft-drink industry are usually in very low-concentration. The effects of alcohol, saccharose, starch or citric acid on viscosity of low concentration food gum solutions are studied. The results show that the viscosity of four kinds of food gums increase with the increasing of the concentration of alcohol . Saccharose could decreases the viscosity of 0.10% xanthan gum and 0.10% agar solutions, but when it mix with 0.25% guar gum and 0.30% sodium alginate, it has the opposite effect. Soluble starch has strong synergic thickening capability with xanthan gum, sodium alginate and guar gum, but it could only increases the viscosity of agar solution a little. Citric acid could dramatically decreases the viscosity of  0.30% sodium alginate, 0.10% xanthan gum, or 0.10% agar solutions, but it little affect guar gum.%以食品工业中常用的4种食品胶——黄原胶、海藻酸钠、瓜尔胶和琼脂为研究对象,考察了在低浓度水相体系中乙醇、蔗糖、淀粉及柠檬酸这四种非盐物质对胶体溶液粘度的影响。研究结果表明,乙醇能使这四种食品胶溶液粘度均增高。蔗糖能明显提高0.25%瓜尔胶和0.30%海藻酸钠溶液的粘度,但使0.10%琼脂及0.10%黄原胶溶液的粘度略为降低。淀粉对琼脂无协同增稠作用,而对瓜尔胶却有非常强的协同增稠作用,对低浓度海藻酸钠及黄原胶溶液在淀粉浓度≥3.0%时才有明显的协同增稠作用。低浓度瓜尔胶溶液粘度几乎不受柠檬酸的影响;0.30%海藻酸钠、0.10%黄原胶及0.10%琼脂溶液的粘度均会受柠檬酸影响而大幅度降低。

  3. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritson Christopher

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. Methods A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Results and discussion Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. Conclusion The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly

  4. Factors influencing women's decision making in hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Monika; Armfield, Nigel R; Page, Katie; Kerr, Gayle; Kurz, Suzanne; Jackson, Graeme; Currie, Jason; Weaver, Edward; Yazdani, Anusch; Obermair, Andreas

    2017-09-12

    To explore factors influencing how well-informed women felt about hysterectomy, influences on their decision making, and on them receiving a less-invasive alternative to open surgery. Online questionnaire, conducted in 2015-2016, of women who had received a hysterectomy in Australia, in the preceding two years. Questionnaires were completed by 2319/6000 women (39% response). Most women (n=2225; 96%) felt well-informed about hysterectomy. Women were more aware of the open abdominal approach (n=1798; 77%), than of less-invasive vaginal (n=1552; 67%), laparoscopic (n=1540; 66%), laparoscopic-assisted (n=1303; 56%), and robotic approaches (n=289; 12%). Most women (n=1435; 62%) reported their gynaecologist was the most influential information source. Women who received information about hysterectomy from a GP (OR=1.47; 95% CI 1.15-1.90), or from a gynaecologist (OR=1.3; 95% CI 1.06-1.58), were more likely to feel better informed (p<0.01). This study is important because it helps clinicians, researchers and health policy makers to understand why many women still receive an open abdominal approach despite many learned societies recommending to avoid it if possible. Additional information, or education about avoiding open abdominal approach where possible may lead to a greater number of women receiving less-invasive types of hysterectomy in the future. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Biodegradation of PAHs in Soil: Influence of Initial PAHs Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamil, N. A. F. M.; Talib, S. A.

    2016-07-01

    Most studies on biodegradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) evaluate the effect of initial PAHs concentration in liquid medium. There are limited studies on evaluation in solid medium such as contaminated soil. This study investigated the potential of the bacteria, Corynebacterium urealyticum isolated from municipal sludge in degrading phenanthrene contaminated soil in different phenanthrene concentration. Batch experiments were conducted over 20 days in reactors containing artificially contaminated phenanthrene soil at different concentration inoculated with a bacterial culture. This study established the optimum condition for phenanthrene degradation by the bacteria under nonindigenous condition at 500 mg/kg of initial phenanthrene concentration. High initial concentration required longer duration for biodegradation process compared to low initial concentration. The bacteria can survive for three days for all initial phenanthrene concentrations.

  6. Factors Influencing Students’ Perceptions of Online Teamwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Falls

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of online teaching in higher education demands a change in the types of pedagogies used in those courses. An example of one of these important pedagogies includes online teamwork. Teamwork in this context is one in which the majority of the individual’s grade is dependent on the positive or negative group experiences. This study utilized the theoretical framework of social motivation and cohesion to identify the factors shaping students’ perceptions of teamwork in online college courses. In these courses, the pedagogical approach known as the Five Pillars of effective collaborative work was applied. An Online Teamwork Learning Survey was developed based on these principles and completed by 62 undergraduate students enrolled in semester-long online courses required in their early childhood education program of study. Using a comparison between pre–postsurveys and regression analysis, the results showed that although the students’ perceptions of teamwork did not significantly change, the factors influencing their responses during the posttest doubled in number. The results showed that through carefully designed virtual teamwork activities, students learned that essential team characteristics such as promotive interaction, individual accountability, and positive interdependence are an integral part of effective collaboration and strong predictors of teamwork perception.

  7. Preoperative factors influencing success in pterygium surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Gimeno Ana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify preoperative, perioperative and postoperative risk factors that influence the success of pterygium surgery. Methods This is a prospective study of thirty-six patients with primary or recurrent pterygia. A detailed anamnesis and an ophthalmological examination were performed looking for the following factors: age, race, latitude and altitude of the main place of residence, hours of exposure to the sun, use of protective measures against UV-radiation, classification of pterygium, width of the pterygium at limbus, surgical technique (conjunctival autograft plus suturing versus tissue glue, graft alterations (misapposition, granuloma, haemorrhage, oedema, retraction or necrosis, and postoperative symptoms (foreign-body sensation, pain. The examinations were performed 2 and 7 days and 2, 6 and 12 months after surgery. In addition, recurrence was defined as any growth of conjunctiva into the cornea. Results A logistic regression and a survival analysis have been used to perform data analysis. A total number of 36 patients completed a one year follow-up. A total of 13 patients were born and lived in Spain, and 26 came from other countries, mostly Latin America. A total number of 8 males (no women presented a recurrence, mainly between 2 and 6 months. The hours of sun exposure through their life was independently related to surgical success. Pterygia of less than 5 mm of base width showed a weak positive correlation with recurrence. None of the other factors considered were significantly related to recurrence. Conclusions Male gender and high sun exposure are strongly and independently related to surgical success after the removal of pterygia.

  8. Influences of rainfall variables and antecedent discharge on urban effluent concentrations and loads in wet weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zuxin; Xiong, Lijun; Li, Huaizheng; Liao, Zhengliang; Yin, Hailong; Wu, Jun; Xu, Jin; Chen, Hao

    2017-04-01

    For storm drainages inappropriately connected with sewage, wet weather discharge is a major factor that adversely affects receiving waters. A study of the wet weather influences of rainfall-discharge variables on storm drainages connected with sewage was conducted in the downtown Shanghai area (374 ha). Two indicators, event mean concentration (EMC) and event pollutant load per unit area (EPL), were used to describe the pollution discharge during 20 rain events. The study showed that the total rainfall and discharge volume were important factors that affect the EMCs and EPLs of the chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus, and especially those of NH4(+)-N. The pollutant concentrations at the beginning of the discharge and the discharge period were also major factors that influence the EMCs of these three pollutants. Regression relationships between the rainfall-discharge variables and discharge volume/ EPLs (R(2) = 0.824-0.981) were stronger than the relationships between the rainfall-discharge variables and EMCs. These regression equations can be considered reliable in the system, with a relative validation error of less than ±10% for the discharge volume, and less than ±20% for the EPLs. The results presented in this paper provide guidance for effectively controlling pollution in similar storm drainages.

  9. Factors influencing the biochemical markers for predicting mammalian oocyte quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ola, Safiriyu Idowu; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    The need for accurate selection of the best oocytes for in vitro fertilization protocols and thus, production of embryos has driven the search for oocyte quality markers from morphological criteria to biochemical parameters. Current studies are focused on the biochemical constituents of the follicular fluid and gene expression profiling of the cumulus cells. These parameters are, however, affected by factors that must be considered before making a judgment of the oocyte's quality. These includes factors such as the type of hormonal stimulation protocol, age of oocyte donor and heat stress on the donor, all of which have been reported to influence the concentrations of many hormones, apolipoproteins, metabolites, fatty acids and growth factors in the follicular fluid and the expression of several genes in the cumulus cells. Another important point to note is species variation in the response to these extraneous influences, which thus calls for species targeted investigations. As reports are still scanty and investigations assumed to be very keen, we employed this review paper to bring attention of researchers and clinicians to those factors that may come to bear on the outcome of their investigations on oocyte and embryo quality.

  10. Decreased plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor and vascular endothelial growth factor concentrations during military training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Suzuki

    Full Text Available Decreased concentrations of plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and serum BDNF have been proposed to be a state marker of depression and a biological indicator of loaded psychosocial stress. Stress evaluations of participants in military mission are critically important and appropriate objective biological parameters that evaluate stress are needed. In military circumstances, there are several problems to adopt plasma BDNF concentration as a stress biomarker. First, in addition to psychosocial stress, military missions inevitably involve physical exercise that increases plasma BDNF concentrations. Second, most participants in the mission do not have adequate quality or quantity of sleep, and sleep deprivation has also been reported to increase plasma BDNF concentration. We evaluated plasma BDNF concentrations in 52 participants on a 9-week military mission. The present study revealed that plasma BDNF concentration significantly decreased despite elevated serum enzymes that escaped from muscle and decreased quantity and quality of sleep, as detected by a wearable watch-type sensor. In addition, we observed a significant decrease in plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF during the mission. VEGF is also neurotrophic and its expression in the brain has been reported to be up-regulated by antidepressive treatments and down-regulated by stress. This is the first report of decreased plasma VEGF concentrations by stress. We conclude that decreased plasma concentrations of neurotrophins can be candidates for mental stress indicators in actual stressful environments that include physical exercise and limited sleep.

  11. Influence of air pollutants and other factors of stress on phytohormone concentrations in trees. Final report. Pt. 2; Einfluss von Luftschadstoffen und weiteren Stressfaktoren auf Phytohormonkonzentrationen in Baeumen. Abschlussbericht. T. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hock, B.; Schneider, P.; Horn, K.

    1990-04-01

    In the framework of research described in this publication, a method for gibberellin extraction from spruce needles and an enzyme immunoassay for quantitative determination of the gibberellins GA{sub 3} und GA{sub 1} in the trace range were developed. HPLC permitted far-reaching clean-up of the extracts to be analyzed for the subsequent enzyme immunoassay. In addition, the separation of the gibberellins GA{sub 3} and GA{sub 1} was achieved. Needle analyses during exposure chamber experiments at GSF-Neuherberg revealed no significant differences between ozone-fumigated and untreated spruces and between different damage categories. Probably, this is to be attributed to the high biological variability between the individual samples. The data obtained for the site `Wank` did not point to any association to be statistically substantiated between a tree`s degree of injury or site altitude and gibberellin content. Merely analyses of symptomless and chlorotic needles corroborated a significant influence on gibberellin content, which is probably due to a seasonal fluctuation of GA{sub 3}. The available data do not permit to conclude that the gibberellins GA{sub 3} and GA{sub 1} have physiological relevance for early indication of forest damage. (orig./UWA) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen der hier beschriebenen Forschungsarbeiten wurde ein Verfahren zur Gibberellinextraktion aus Fichtennadeln aufgebaut und ein Enzymimmunoassay zur quantitativen Bestimmung der Gibberelline GA{sub 3} und GA{sub 1} im Spurenbereich entwickelt. Die HPLC ermoeglichte eine weitgehende Reinigung der zu analysierenden Extrakte fuer den anschliessenden EIA. Zusaetzlich wurde eine Trennung der Gibberelline GA{sub 3} und GA{sub 1} erreicht. Nadelanalysen im Rahmen der Expositionskammerversuche an der GSF-Neuherberg ergaben keine signifikanten Unterschiede zwischen ozonbegasten und unbehandelten Fichten sowie zwischen verschiedenen Schadklassen. Dies ist vermutlich auf die hohe biologische Variabilitaet zwischen

  12. The variation characteristics and effect factors of surface ozone concentration in the Taklimakan Desert hinterland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XinChun Liu; YuTing Zhong; Qing He; YanMei Peng; XingHua Yang; Ali Mamtimin; Wen Huo

    2014-01-01

    Based on automatic continuous surface ozone concentration observation data from June 10, 2010 to March 20, 2012 in the Taklimakan Desert hinterland, combined with corresponding meteorological data, the temporal, seasonal and daily variation characteristics of surface ozone concentrations under different weather conditions were analyzed. At the same time, the main fac-tors affecting ozone variation are discussed. Results show that:(1) Daily variation of ozone concentration was characterized by one obvious peak, with gentle changes during the night and dramatic changes during the day. The lowest concentration was at 09:00 and the highest was at 18:00. Compared to urban areas, there was a slight time delay. (2) Ozone concentration variation had a weekend effect phenomenon. Weekly variation of ozone concentration decreased from Monday to Wednesday with the lowest in Wednesday, and increased after Thursday with the highest in Sunday. (3) The highest monthly average concentration was 89.6μg/m3 in June 2010, and the lowest was 32.0μg/m3 in January 2012. Ozone concentration reduced month by month from June to December in 2010. (4) Ozone concentration in spring and summer was higher than in autumn and winter. The variation trend agreed with those in other large and medium-sized cities. (5) Under four different types of weather, daily ozone concentration var-ied most dramatically in sunny days, followed by slight variation in rain days, and varied gently in cloudy days. Ozone concentra-tion varied inconspicuously before a sandstorm appearance, and dropped rapidly at the onset of a sandstorm. (6) Daily variation of radiation was also characterized by a single peak, and the variation was significantly earlier than ozone concentration variation. Sun radiation intensity had a direct influence on the photochemical reaction speed, leading to variation of ozone concentration. (7) Daily average ozone concentration in dust weather was higher than in slight rain and clear days. The

  13. Remarks on the physical factor influencing the individual language learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晨君

    2015-01-01

    individual language learner as a subject of learning can be influenced by many factors such as physical factor,cognitive factor,and affective factor.All of which play an important role in language learning.These three factors are worthy of our research and physical factor will be discussed in this essay.

  14. Factors affecting plasma aluminum concentrations in nonexposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    House, R.A. (Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, St Michael' s Hospital, University of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1992-10-01

    In this study, the distribution and determinants of plasma aluminum concentrations were examined in 71 office employees not occupationally exposed to aluminum. The samples were analyzed by Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy and were found to be log normally distributed. After using the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) recommended procedure for removal of likely aberrant values, the 95th percentile value was 198 nmol/L (90% CI:165-238); when those using antacids were also excluded, the 95th percentile value fell to 175 nmol/L (90% CI:147-208). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the factors most predictive of log plasma aluminum were the batch in which the sample was analyzed and the use of antacids containing aluminum. The statistical significance of the batch variable likely indicates the well-recognized problem of contamination in sampling and analyzing aluminum.35 references.

  15. The Influence of Aerosol Concentration on Changes in the Volumetric Activities of Indoor Radon Short-Term Decay Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Politova

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the influence of aerosol concentration on changes in the volumetric activities of indoor radon short-term decay products. The concentration of aerosol in the air, equilibrium factors and unattached fraction were measured under normal living conditions when the concentration of aerosol increases, i.e. burning a candle or frankincense in accommodations, smoke-filled accommodations, a steamy kitchen etc. It has been established that when the concentration of aerosol in the air rises, the number of free atoms of radon short-term decay products attached to aerosol particles also increases, and therefore higher volumetric activity of alpha particles is fixed. A tight positive connection of the correlation between equilibrium factor (F and aerosol particle concentration in the air of accommodations as well as a negative correlation between unattached fraction and an equilibrium factor have been determined.Article in Lithuanian

  16. Influence of black tea concentrate on kombucha fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Kombucha is cultivated on substrates prepared with different concentrations of black tea and substrate obtained by diluting a substrate with highest concentration of black tea with cold tap water. Qualify of produced beverages is compared with the beverage obtained in traditional fermentation of 1.5 g/L of black tea, sweetened with 70 g/L of sucrose. Inoculation was performed with 10% (v/v of fermentation liquid from previous process, and the fermentation was carried out at 28°C under aerobic conditions, for ten days. Process of fermentation was monitored by following pH, total acids. D-gluconic acid and caffeine content. Beverages obtained in fermentation with diluted black tea concentrate had similar amounts of investigated metabolites compared with traditional one. Use of diluted black tea concentrate as a substrate needs the shorter time for the substrate preparation, which significantly saves energy.

  17. Do urban canyons influence street level grass pollen concentrations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Kennedy, Roy; Smith, Matt

    2014-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, outdoor exposure to pollen is typically estimated using rooftop monitoring station data, whilst exposure overwhelmingly occurs at street level. In this study the relationship between street level and roof level grass pollen concentrations was investigated for city centre...... street canyon environments in Aarhus, Denmark, and London, UK, during the grass pollen seasons of 2010 and 2011 respectively. For the period mid-day to late evening, street level concentrations in both cities tended to be lower than roof-level concentrations, though this difference was found...... source distribution. In the London study, an increase in relative humidity was linked to a significant decrease in street/roof level concentration ratio, and a possible causative mechanism involving moisture mediated pollen grain buoyancy is proposed. Relationships with the other weather variables were...

  18. Correction factor for real-time determination of wood dust mass concentration by photometric method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankica Čavlović

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Samples of wood dust were collected in the working environment of wood machining processes for the purpose of determining correction factors for measuring mass concentration of wood dust by photometric method. According to the NIOSH 0600 Norm and NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods for photometric measurement, correction factor must be determined before measuring mass concentration of different types of dust. The correction factor is defined as the ratio of mass concentration obtained by the gravimetric method and mass concentration obtained by the photometric method. The correction factor should be determined because of the influence of particle size distribution, density, particle shape and refractive index on values obtained by the photometric method. The aim of the research was to investigate the possibility of using photometric method for the determination of mass concentration of inhalable fraction of airborne wood dust. Sampling was conducted in several woodworking plants during the machining of wet and dry beech-wood, wet and dry oak-wood, wet fir-wood and particleboard. There is a significant correlation between the results obtained by the photometric method and values obtained by the gravimetric method (R2=0.88 and this is the base for using the photometric method in determining mass concentration of airborne wood dust. According to the results of this research, correction factors must be determined and used for measuring mass concentration of inhalable wood dust during the machining of different wood species and wood with different moisture content. The best corresponding results of photometric and gravimetric methods are obtained for the samples collected during machining of wet fir-wood (k=1. The largest correction factor should be used in determining workers exposure to wood dust during machining of dry oak-wood (k=4.4 and particleboard (k=4.5. Only the results of 8-hour measurements of mass concentration by gravimetric methods can

  19. Hydrolysis kinetics of atrazine and influence factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The hydrolysis kinetics of atrazine in distilled water and leaching water from soil, and their influence factors were studied by incubation at 35℃ and HPLC analysis method in this paper. The kinetic process of atrazine hydrolysis can be described by the first-order reaction law. The results showed that the hydrolysis rate constants k in leaching water and distilled water were 1.606x10-3/d and 1.055x10-3/d, respectively; the half-life of atrazine hydrolysis in distilled water at pH 3, pH 4.5 and pH 8 were 373 days, 522 days and 657 days respectively. The results also showed that the proton in reaction solution can catalyze the atrazine hydrolysis; humic acid and NH4+ etc. substances in aqueous solution can facilitate atrazine hydrolysis; rate constants of atrazine hydrolysis with humic acid and NH4NO3 were 2.431x10-3/d and 1.498x10-3/d respectively which were 2.3 and 1.42 times of control(1.055x10-3/d); anion NO3- can inhibit catalysis of humic acid to atrazine hydrolysis.

  20. Factors influencing competitive anxiety in Brazilian athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gimenes Fernandes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of factors influencing competitive anxiety, according to a multidimensional perspective and supported by valid instruments, is scarce among Brazilian athletes of different sports. The present study aims to: i investigate the theoretical relationship between the different dimensions of the multidimensional theory of anxiety (i.e., cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence; and ii investigate the effects of gender, type of sport (individual or collective and competitive experience levels on cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence. A total of 303 athletes (233 males and 70 females, from different sports, aged between 18 and 40 years (M =24.22, SD = 5.07 completed a shortened version of CSAI-2 (i.e., CSAI-2R, about one hour before the start of competitions. Results revealed significant correlations between cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence dimensions, in accordance with the assumptions of the multidimensional theory. Additionally, comparative analyses indicated that female athletes and athletes from collective sports showed higher levels of cognitive anxiety, while male athletes and athletes with high competitive experience reported higher levels of self-confidence. These results were discussed taking into account the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for planning interventions of sport psychology in Brazil with athletes of different contexts.

  1. Factors That Influence Primary Cilium Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyoshi,Ko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Almost all mammalian cells carry one primary cilium that functions as a biosensor for chemical and mechanical stimuli. Genetic damages that compromise cilia formation or function cause a spectrum of disorders referred to as ciliapathies. Recent studies have demonstrated that some pharmacological agents and extracellular environmental changes can alter primary cilium length. Renal injury is a well-known example of an environmental insult that triggers cilia length modification. Lithium treatment causes primary cilia to extend in several cell types including neuronal cells;this phenomenon is likely independent of glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibition. In renal epithelial cell lines, deflection of the primary cilia by fluid shear shortens them by reducing the intracellular cyclic AMP level, leading to a subsequent decrease in mechanosensitivity to fluid shear. Primary cilium length is also influenced by the dynamics of actin filaments and microtubules through the levels of soluble tubulin in the cytosol available for primary cilia extension. Thus, mammalian cells can adapt to the extracellular environment by modulating the primary cilium length, and this feedback system utilizing primary cilia might exist throughout the mammalian body. Further investigation is required concerning the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the control of primary cilium length in response to environmental factors.

  2. Hydrologic and biologic influences on stream network nutrient concentrations: Interactions of hydrologic turnover and concentration-dependent nutrient uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallard, John; McGlynn, Brian; Covino, Tim

    2016-04-01

    Stream networks lie in a crucial landscape position between terrestrial ecosystems and downstream water bodies. As such, whether inferring terrestrial watershed processes from watershed outlet nutrient signals or predicting the effect of observed terrestrial processes on stream nutrient signals, it is requisite to understand how stream networks can modulate terrestrial nutrient inputs. To date integrated understanding and modeling of physical and biological influences on nutrient concentrations at the stream network scale have been limited. However, watershed scale groundwater - surface water exchange (hydrologic turnover), concentration-variable biological uptake, and the interaction between the two can strongly modify stream water nutrient concentrations. Stream water and associated nutrients are lost to and replaced from groundwater with distinct nutrient concentrations while in-stream nutrients can also be retained by biological processes at rates that vary with concentration. We developed an empirically based network scale model to simulate the interaction between hydrologic turnover and concentration-dependent nutrient uptake across stream networks. Exchange and uptake parameters were measured using conservative and nutrient tracer addition experiments in the Bull Trout Watershed, central Idaho. We found that the interaction of hydrologic turnover and concentration-dependent uptake combined to modify and subsequently stabilize in-stream concentrations, with specific concentrations dependent on the magnitude of hydrologic turnover, groundwater concentrations, and the shape of nutrient uptake kinetic curves. We additionally found that by varying these physical and biological parameters within measured ranges we were able to generate a spectrum of stream network concentration distributions representing a continuum of shifting magnitudes of physical and biological influences on in-stream concentrations. These findings elucidate the important and variable role of

  3. Metal concentrations in aquatic environments of Puebla River basin, Mexico: natural and industrial influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-García, S S; Rodríguez-Espinosa, P F; Shruti, V C; Jonathan, M P; Martínez-Tavera, E

    2017-01-01

    The rapid urban expansion and presence of volcanoes in the premises of Puebla River basin in central Mexico exert significant influences over its aquatic environments. Twenty surface sediment samples from Puebla River basin consisting of R. Alseseca, R. Atoyac, and Valsequillo dam were collected during September 2009 and analyzed for major (Al, Fe, Mg, Ba, Ca, and K) and trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, V, and Zn) in order to identify the metal concentrations and their enrichment. R. Atoyac sediments presented higher concentrations of Ba (1193.8 μg g(-1)) and Pb (27.1 μg g(-1)) in comparison with the local reference sample values. All the metal concentrations except Sr for R. Alseseca sediments were within the range of local reference sample values indicating no significant external influence, whereas Valsequillo dam sediments had elevated concentrations of all the metals suggesting both natural and external influences in the study region. The magnitude of metal contamination was assessed using several indices such as geoaccumulation index (I geo), enrichment factor (EF), degree of contamination (C d ), and pollution load index (PLI). The results suggest that As, Pb, and Zn were predominantly enriched in the Puebla River basin sediments. Comparing with sediment quality guidelines and ecotoxicological values, it is revealed that Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni have possible harmful effects on the biological community. The present study provides an outlook of metal enrichment in Puebla River basin sediments, highlighting the necessity to conserve this river ecosystem for the near future.

  4. Urban water consumption and its influencing factors in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Liangxin; Gai, Lingtong; Tong, Yan; Li, Ruihua

    2017-01-01

    Factors that affect water consumption should be identified to develop effective public policies. However, factors influencing domestic water consumption in cities in China, particularly on a national scale, are unclear. In this study, urban water consumption and its influencing factors in 286

  5. What Factors Influence a Teacher's Commitment to Student Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannetta, Vincent

    2002-01-01

    Study of the personal, organizational, student-related factors influencing teacher commitment to student learning. Finds, for example, that among personal factors intrinsic rewards are more important than extrinsic rewards, that among organization factors collegiality is an important influence on commitment to student learning, and that among…

  6. Preparation of Chitosan Nanoparticles: A Study of Influencing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Anupama; Taranjit

    2011-12-01

    Chitosan (CS), a cationic polysaccharide, offers great advantages for ionic interactions with negatively charged species such as sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) leading to the formation of biocompatible crosslinked chitosan nanoparticles In the present work, an attempt has been made to systematically study the following factors influencing the ionotropic gelation of chitosan with STPP to produce CS nanoparticles: effect of pH of solution, CS concentration, STPP concentration and CS/STPP ratio. The results show that with the increase in CS concentration, the yield of the nanoparticle decreases whereas size increases. The mean size of the prepared nanoparticles varied between 120 to 720 nm and zeta potential between +14 mV to +53 mV . Nanoparticle size and yield was found to be strongly dependent on solution pH. Nanoparticle size decreased with increase in solution pH from 4 to 5 and yield was found to be maximum at pH = 5. With increase in STPP concentration, the size and yield of the nanoparticle increased. The potential of CS nanoparticles to trap amoxicillin trihydrate, taken as the model drug, was also studied. The maximum drug loading capacity was found to be 35% at a solution pH = 5 for 0.2% CS and 0.086% STPP.

  7. Influence of mineralogical and heavy metal composition on natural radionuclide concentrations in the river sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, G; Ramasamy, V; Meenakshisundaram, V; Venkatachalapathy, R; Ponnusamy, V

    2011-10-01

    The natural radiation level has been determined for the sediment samples of the Ponnaiyar River with an aim of evaluating the radiation hazard. The mineralogical characterizations of the sediments have been carried out using the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic technique. The relative distribution of major minerals is determined by calculating extinction coefficient. The concentration and spatial distribution of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn and Ni) have been studied to understand the heavy metal contamination and its level of toxicity. To evaluate the potential toxicity, heavy metal concentrations are compared with different toxicological and geological reference values. The comparison results suggest that the present metals create an adverse effect on the aquatic ecosystems associated with this river. To assess the sediment contamination due to the studied heavy metals, the Pollution Load Index (PLI) is calculated. Multivariate Statistical analyses (Pearson Correlation, Cluster and Factor analysis) were carried out between the parameters obtained from radioactivity, mineralogical and geochemical analysis to know the existing relations. Obtained results showed that the effect of mineralogy on level of radioactivity should be significant. However, mineralogy effect on heavy metal composition in the sediments should be limited, indicating that other factors such as vicinity of the pollution sources are more important. Also, the influence of mineralogical characterization on level of radioactivity is significant, whereas the influence of the heavy metal composition on level of radioactivity should be limited.

  8. A Comparison of Factors that Influence the Lyophilization Process

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitru Mnerie; Gabriela-victoria Anghel; Alin Vasile Mnerie; Constantin Cheveresan

    2007-01-01

    The lyophilization (or freeze drying) process for agro-foods products depends on a series of technological factors that are in an inter-dependence with the process performance. This paper presents an expert method and its application. This method characterizes the influence factors of the lyophilization process, after the importance level of some factors in correlation with other factors, is defined. Only the most important factors were considered; influence considerations were made in relati...

  9. The influence of dietary energy concentration and feed intake level ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DM digestibility was not influenced (P = 0.28) by feeding level, but was linearly reduced (P EO 0.05) as C: R ratio decreased ... and in C: R ratio increased rumen OM retention linearly (P EO 0.1>1).Volatile fatty .... program of Harvey (1977).

  10. Multiple sclerosis influences on the augmentation of serum Klotho concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi, Mona; Aleagha, Mohammad Sajad Emami; Harirchian, Mohammad Hossein;

    2016-01-01

    We have already shown that the concentration of secreted form of Klotho decreases in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). The current study aimed at assessing possible changes in the serum Klotho concentration of MS patients. Participants involved...... to be higher in MS patients when compared to control group. This finding might be attributed to treatment of MS patients with immunomodulatory drugs or a compensatory response to enhance CNS regeneration and/or vitamin D biosynthesis. Further studies are required to elucidate the role of Klotho in MS...

  11. Factors Influencing Food Choice in the Elderly Mauritian Population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Food Choice in the Elderly Mauritian Population. ... in influencing food choices and thus food intake of the elderly people in Mauritius. A cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out in different regions around the island ...

  12. Influence of traffic activity on heavy metal concentrations of roadside farmland soil in mountainous areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Yan, Xuedong; Zeng, Chen; Zhang, Man; Shrestha, Suraj; Devkota, Lochan Prasad; Yao, Tandong

    2012-05-01

    Emission of heavy metals from traffic activities is an important pollution source to roadside farmland ecosystems. However, little previous research has been conducted to investigate heavy metal concentrations of roadside farmland soil in mountainous areas. Owing to more complex roadside environments and more intense driving conditions on mountainous highways, heavy metal accumulation and distribution patterns in farmland soil due to traffic activity could be different from those on plain highways. In this study, design factors including altitude, roadside distance, terrain, and tree protection were considered to analyze their influences on Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations in farmland soils along a mountain highway around Kathmandu, Nepal. On average, the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb at the sampling sites are lower than the tolerable levels. Correspondingly, pollution index analysis does not show serious roadside pollution owing to traffic emissions either. However, some maximum Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations are close to or higher than the tolerable level, indicating that although average accumulations of heavy metals pose no hazard in the region, some spots with peak concentrations may be severely polluted. The correlation analysis indicates that either Cu or Cd content is found to be significantly correlated with Zn and Pb content while there is no significant correlation between Cu and Cd. The pattern can be reasonably explained by the vehicular heavy metal emission mechanisms, which proves the heavy metals' homology of the traffic pollution source. Furthermore, the independent factors show complex interaction effects on heavy metal concentrations in the mountainous roadside soil, which indicate quite a different distribution pattern from previous studies focusing on urban roadside environments. It is found that the Pb concentration in the downgrade roadside soil is significantly lower than that in the upgrade soil while the Zn concentration in the

  13. Influence of Traffic Activity on Heavy Metal Concentrations of Roadside Farmland Soil in Mountainous Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tandong Yao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Emission of heavy metals from traffic activities is an important pollution source to roadside farmland ecosystems. However, little previous research has been conducted to investigate heavy metal concentrations of roadside farmland soil in mountainous areas. Owing to more complex roadside environments and more intense driving conditions on mountainous highways, heavy metal accumulation and distribution patterns in farmland soil due to traffic activity could be different from those on plain highways. In this study, design factors including altitude, roadside distance, terrain, and tree protection were considered to analyze their influences on Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations in farmland soils along a mountain highway around Kathmandu, Nepal. On average, the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb at the sampling sites are lower than the tolerable levels. Correspondingly, pollution index analysis does not show serious roadside pollution owing to traffic emissions either. However, some maximum Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations are close to or higher than the tolerable level, indicating that although average accumulations of heavy metals pose no hazard in the region, some spots with peak concentrations may be severely polluted. The correlation analysis indicates that either Cu or Cd content is found to be significantly correlated with Zn and Pb content while there is no significant correlation between Cu and Cd. The pattern can be reasonably explained by the vehicular heavy metal emission mechanisms, which proves the heavy metals’ homology of the traffic pollution source. Furthermore, the independent factors show complex interaction effects on heavy metal concentrations in the mountainous roadside soil, which indicate quite a different distribution pattern from previous studies focusing on urban roadside environments. It is found that the Pb concentration in the downgrade roadside soil is significantly lower than that in the upgrade soil while the Zn

  14. Factors of Influence on Receivables and Payables and Their Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzmin Oleg Ye.; Volovich Yelena B.

    2013-01-01

    The approaches to classification factors of receivables and payables are analyzed in the article. In order to develop effective methods of receivables and payables management, its factors of influence are proposed to divide into three groups - macro factors, the factors of enterprises immediate environment and micro factors.

  15. Influence of geological and hydrogeological factors on the high natural fluoride concentrations in groundwaters in Bambui Group (Neoproterozoic), northern of Minas Gerais state, Brazil; Influencia de los factores geologicos e hidrogeologicos en las altas concentraciones naturales de fluoruro en las aguas subterraneas del Grupo Bambui (Neoproterozoico), norte del estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias Martinez, M.; Velasquez, L. N.M.; Fantinel, L. M.; Uhlein, A.; Melo da Silva, S.; Rodrigues, P. C. H.

    2010-07-01

    In the northern semi-arid and semi-humid region of Minas Gerais State, in the southeast Brazil, substantial part of the water supplying is produced by means of deep wells. In several localities the fluoride concentrations are higher than 1.5 mg/L, maximum acceptable limit for drinking water, endangering the public supply and the public health. Endemies of dental fluorosis have been detected since the decade of 1990. The cause of this problem has been associated to the consumption of local drinking water. Current studies indicate the occurrences of fluorite in the limestones of the Bambui Group as the main mineral-source for the fluoride content in the groundwater, however without identifying the specific contribution of each hydrostratigraphic unit. This work shows the results of stratigraphic studies and hydro-chemical analysis of 144 deep wells and the influence of the carbonatic facies in the fluoride concentrations of the water. Fluoride concentrations are related to fluorite occurrences/mineralizations (lithostratigraphic control) and to circulation depth of groundwater (geochemical control), newly distinguishing three hydrostratigraphic units. The correlation analysis of hydrogeochemic parameters (F-, Mg{sub 2}+, SO{sub 4}{sup 2}- and electric conductivity) corroborates these grouping into three units. The probability of the contamination by fluoride, as a function of the hidroestratigraphic units, in decreasing order, seems to be: top level of the Sete Lagoas Formation; Lagoa do Jacare Formation; and botton and middle levels of the Sete Lagoas Formation. (Author)

  16. Do urban canyons influence street level grass pollen concentrations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Kennedy, Roy; Smith, Matt

    2014-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, outdoor exposure to pollen is typically estimated using rooftop monitoring station data, whilst exposure overwhelmingly occurs at street level. In this study the relationship between street level and roof level grass pollen concentrations was investigated for city cent...

  17. Influence of water concentrations on the phase transformation of a model surfactant/co-surfactant/water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunkad, Raju; Srivastava, Arpita; Debnath, Ananya

    2017-02-01

    The influence of water concentrations on phase transformations of a surfactant/co-surfactant/water system is investigated by using all atom molecular dynamics simulations. At higher water concentrations, where surfactant (behenyl trimethyl ammonium chloride, BTMAC) to co-surfactant (stearyl alcohol, SA) ratio is fixed, BTMAC and SA self-assemble into spherical micelles, which transform into strongly interdigitated one dimensional rippled lamellar phases upon decreasing water concentrations. Fragmentation or fusions of spherical micelles of different sizes are evident from the radial distribution functions at different temperatures. However, at lower water concentrations rippled lamellar phase transforms into an LβI phase upon heating. Our simulations reveal that the concentrations of water can influence available space around the head groups which couple with critical thickness to accommodate the packing fraction required for respective phases. This directs towards obtaining a controlling factor to design desired phases important for industrial and medical applications in the future.

  18. Predicting DUI recidivism: blood alcohol concentration and driver record factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marowitz, L A

    1998-07-01

    This study examined the relationship between blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at arrest, driving history and other demographic factors, and the 1-year post-arrest probability of recidivism for drunk driving (DUI) convictees. Complex and simple prediction models were developed. All models found a statistically significant cubic relationship between BAC and recidivism, reflecting a relatively high rate of recidivism at a BAC of 0.00%, decreasing to a minimum at ca 0.09% BAC, then increasing to another relatively high rate at a BAC of ca 0.29%, followed by a decline in recidivism to BAC levels of 0.35% and beyond. High rates of recidivism at high BACs suggest alcohol dependency, while high rates at low BACs suggest the involvement of other impairing substances. The rate of DUI recidivism for offenders who refused alcohol testing was the same as for aggregated BAC-tested offenders who had prior DUIs at the time of the arrest. The probability of DUI recidivism predicted by a simple model using BAC, prior 2-year traffic convictions, and offender level (first or repeat offender) could be used along with other factors by presentence investigators, judges or in administrative settings to determine appropriate sanctions, treatment or other remedial measures. The findings support the notion that first offenders with high BAC levels and prior 2-year traffic convictions are at as high a risk of recidivating as many repeat offenders, and might therefore benefit from similar sanctions and/or remedial treatment. The findings also support viewing DUI arrestees with very low BACs as probable drug users with relatively high probabilities of recidivating.

  19. Geological factors controlling radon hazardous concentration in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przylibski, T. A.

    2009-04-01

    Radon waters are classified as waters containing more than 100 Bq/L of Rn-222. In many regions radon groundwaters are commonly used as a tap waters. Exploitation of radon groundwater without removing radon out of water in the intake may be hazardous for the consumers. Radon removing is relatively simple and cheap, and may be achieved trough the degassing of tapped water. The following factors are crucial for the genesis of radon (Rn-222) and changes in its concentration in groundwaters: the content of parent Ra-226 in the reservoir rock, the emanation coefficient of the reservoir rock, mixing of various groundwater components. Simplifying the geochemical characterisctics of Ra-226, one can say that the highest radium contents outside uranium deposits could be expected above all in crystalline rocks such as granites, ryolites and gneisses, and among sedimentary rocks - in fine-grained rocks - mudstones and clay rocks. Therefore the highest content of Rn-222 is characteristic of groundwaters flowing through the abovementioned rocks. What is very important for the genesis of groundwater dissolved Rn-222 is not only the total content of Ra-226 in the aquifer, but also the distribution of this isotope's atoms in relation to the surface of mineral grains (crystals) and crack surfaces. Only if Ra-226 atoms lie in the outer zone of grains (crystals), they can be the source of Rn-222 atoms released directly or indirectly into pores and fissures. If the pores and fissures are filled with free groundwater, then the radon dissolved in this water can migrate with it. Therefore particularly high Rn-222 concentration values can be expected in groundwaters circulating in zones of strongly cracked reservoir rocks, i.e. in the weathering zone, reaching the depth of several dozen meters below ground surface, as well as in zones of brittle tectonic deformations. The number of Rn-222 atoms formed in groundwater as a result of the decay of Ra-226 ion (Ra2+) dissolved in this water

  20. Influence of FIMA burnup on actinides concentrations in PWR reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oettingen Mikołaj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we present the study on the dependence of actinides concentrations in the spent nuclear fuel on FIMA burnup. The concentrations of uranium, plutonium, americium and curium isotopes obtained in numerical simulation are compared with the result of the post irradiation assay of two spent fuel samples. The samples were cut from the fuel rod irradiated during two reactor cycles in the Japanese Ohi-2 Pressurized Water Reactor. The performed comparative analysis assesses the reliability of the developed numerical set-up, especially in terms of the system normalization to the measured FIMA burnup. The numerical simulations were preformed using the burnup and radiation transport mode of the Monte Carlo Continuous Energy Burnup Code – MCB, developed at the Department of Nuclear Energy, Faculty of Energy and Fuels of AGH University of Science and Technology.

  1. Influence of Anthropogenic Contamination on Fluoride Concentration in Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUDHAKAR M. RAO

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater Contamination is a serious concern in India. Major geogenic contaminants include fluoride, arsenic and iron, while common anthropogenic contaminants include nitrate, metals, organic and microbial contamination. Besides, known point and diffuse sources, groundwater contamination from infiltration of pit toilet leachate is an emerging concern. The study area of this paper is Kolar district in Karnataka that is hot spot of fluoride contamination. The absence of fluoride contamination in Mulbagal town and the alterations in groundwater chemistry from infiltration of pit toilet leachate motivated the author to examine the possible linkages between anthropogenic contamination and fluoride concentration in groundwater of Mulbagal town. Analysis of the groundwater chemistry revealed that the groundwater in Mulbagal town is under saturated with respect to calcite that suppresses the disolution of fluorite and the fluoride concentration in the groundwater. The slightly acidic pH of the groundwater is considered responsible to facilitate calcite dissolution under saturation.

  2. Multiple sclerosis influences on the augmentation of serum Klotho concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mona; Emami Aleagha, Mohammad Sajad; Harirchian, Mohammad Hossein; Yarani, Reza; Tavakoli, Farhad; Siroos, Bahaadin

    2016-03-15

    We have already shown that the concentration of secreted form of Klotho decreases in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). The current study aimed at assessing possible changes in the serum Klotho concentration of MS patients. Participants involved 15 new cases of RRMS patients in the relapse phase, 15 RRMS patients who had been suffering from the disease for more than three years and were under regular treatments (interferon beta-1a) and, finally, 15 non-MS patients who constituted the control group. Beside thorough neurological examinations, demographic and clinical data (e.g. gender, age, duration of disease and expanded disability status scale) were obtained. Serum Klotho concentration was measured using ELISA method. The results showed no statistically meaningful difference between new cases of RRMS (585.56pg/ml±153.99) and control group (556.81pg/ml±120.36; P=0.859). The serum Klotho level, however, was significantly higher in patients with prolonged disease duration (696.94pg/ml±170.52; P=0.037) in comparison with the subjects in the control group. In conclusion, this study showed that serum Klotho concentration tends to be higher in MS patients when compared to control group. This finding might be attributed to treatment of MS patients with immunomodulatory drugs or a compensatory response to enhance CNS regeneration and/or vitamin D biosynthesis. Further studies are required to elucidate the role of Klotho in MS pathophysiology.

  3. Biohydrogen production from lactose: influence of substrate and nitrogen concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, R; Fierro, J; Fernández, C; Cuetos, M J; Gómez, X

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen produced from renewable sources may be considered the energy vector of the future. However, reducing process costs is imperative in order to achieve this goal. In the present research, the effect of nitrogen (N), initial pH and substrate content for starting up the dark fermentative process was studied using the response surface methodology. Anaerobic digested dried sludge (biosolid pellets) was used as the inoculum. Synthetic wastewater was used as the substrate in batch reactors. A decrease in H2 production was observed with the increase in N and lactose concentrations. This drop was considerably greater when the concentration of lactose was at its lower level. Although the increase in lactose concentration results in a lower H2 production, the effect of N on the response is attenuated at higher levels of lactose. On the other hand, the effect of initial pH on the fermentation system was not significant. The evaluation on the process under semi-continuous conditions was performed using anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBRs). The process was evaluated at different C/N ratios using synthetic wastewater. Results showed higher hydrogen yields with the gradual decrease in nitrogen content. The addition of cheese whey to the ASBR resulted in a H2 production rate of 0.18 L H2 L(-1) d(-1).

  4. Factors Impeding Enzymatic Wheat Gluten Hydrolysis at High Solid Concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardt, N.A.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis at high solid concentrations is advantageous from an environmental and economic point of view. However, increased wheat gluten concentrations result in a concentration effect with a decreased hydrolysis rate at constant enzyme-to-substrate ratios and a decreased

  5. School achievement of immigrant children : The decreasing influence of Ethnic concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsberts, Mérove; van der Ploeg, Rozemarijn

    There is an ongoing debate in many countries about the assumed negative influence of ethnically concentrated schools on pupils’ cognitive development. This paper addresses the influence of concentrations of ethnic minority children in schools on the school achievement of their pupils. The analysis

  6. Factors Influencing the Adoption of Minimally Invasive Surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of institutional, patient and surgeon-related factors ... Surgical site infections ... Factors influencing choice of open procedures over MIS are summarized in Table 1. The main .... written with pharmaceutical products in mind (25). ... JAMA Intern.

  7. External factors influencing the environmental performance of South African firms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Peart, R

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the external factors that influence environmental performance of companies in South Africa, drawing on international and local literature. After considering factors within the natural, social, economic and institutional...

  8. Factors influencing knowledge and practice of exclusive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The independent variables were maternal education, marital status, both ... maternal employment status, health factors (place of delivery and maternal chronic illness) ... It was evident that family support is a key factor in the success of EBF with ...

  9. Factors influencing Artemia populations in Antillean salines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kristensen, Ingvar; Hulscher-Emeis, T. Marian

    1972-01-01

    In the Netherlands Antilles two extreme “forms” of Artemia salina, f. arietina and f. milhauseni, show all intermediate gradations. They hybridize constantly. When forma arietina is moved from lower concentrations into highly concentrated brine it will produce offspring that exhibit characteristics

  10. Factors influencing Artemia populations in Antillean salines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kristensen, Ingvar; Hulscher-Emeis, T. Marian

    1972-01-01

    In the Netherlands Antilles two extreme “forms” of Artemia salina, f. arietina and f. milhauseni, show all intermediate gradations. They hybridize constantly. When forma arietina is moved from lower concentrations into highly concentrated brine it will produce offspring that exhibit characteristics

  11. Factors influencing electric utility expansion. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masud, E. [ed.

    1977-01-01

    This report, Vol. 2, submitted by the General Electric Co., identifies factors that should be considered in planning interconnected systems and discusses how these factors relate to one another. The objective is to identify all the factors and classify them by their use and importance in arriving at a decision. Chapter 2 discusses the utility system and its system behavior characteristics, emphasizing behavior that affects the planning of the bulk-power generation and transmission system. Chapter 3 introduces interconnection planning by discussing the new system characteristics brought to operation and planning. Forty-two factors associated with cost, reliability, constraints, and coordination are related to each other by factor trees. Factor trees display the relationship of one factor such as reliability to more-detailed factors which in turn are further related to individual characteristics of facilities. These factor trees provide a structure to the presentation. A questionnaire including the 42 factors was completed by 52 system planners from utility companies and government authorities. The results of these questionnaires are tabulated and presented with pertinent discussion of each factor. Chapter 4 deals with generation planning, recognizing the existence of interconnections. Chapter 5 addresses transmission planning, questions related to reliability and cost measures and constraints, and factors related to both analytical techniques and planning procedures. The chapter ends with a discussion of combined generation-transmission planning. (MCW)

  12. Research of Influence Modification of Natural Concentrate on Quality Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedoseev, S. N.; Gizatulin, R. A.; Korotkova, E. A.

    2016-08-01

    Questions of increase of mechanical, technological and service properties of metal at minimum cost to produce it are relevant for the metallurgical enterprises. Modification of complex steel alloys containing reactive elements is one of the effective ways to improve the quality of steel. At the same time the direct costs for the use of modifiers are 0.2-0.3%, which little effect on the cost of production. The paper presents the results of the application of natural concentrates as a modifier steel. The effects on the metal quality changes due to the impact of the modification concentrates demonstrate the effectiveness of their application. As a result of modification decreased the content of nonmetallic inclusions and grain size. Reduction of impurity modified metal of was the cause more high plastic properties, especially, impact strength at ordinary and low temperatures of tests. Based on the experimental data evaluated hardening mechanisms that lead to a significant improvement of physic-mechanical properties of the metal workpiece after administration modifier.

  13. Influence of pre-hydration and pharmacogenetics on plasma methotrexate concentration and renal dysfunction following high-dose methotrexate therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagimachi, Masakatsu; Goto, Hiroaki; Kaneko, Tetsuji; Naruto, Takuya; Sasaki, Koji; Takeuchi, Masanobu; Tanoshima, Reo; Kato, Hiromi; Yokosuka, Tomoko; Kajiwara, Ryosuke; Fujii, Hisaki; Tanaka, Fumiko; Goto, Shoko; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Mori, Masaaki; Kai, Sumio; Yokota, Shumpei

    2013-12-01

    High-dose methotrexate therapy (HD-MTX) has been well established for the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The aims of this study were to investigate whether clinical and pharmacogenetic factors influence plasma MTX concentration and renal dysfunction in patients treated with HD-MTX. In a total of 127 courses of HD-MTX in 51 patients with childhood ALL, influence of clinical and pharmacogenetic factors on plasma MTX concentration and HD-MTX-related renal dysfunction was evaluated. Clinical factors included age, gender, duration of HD-MTX continuous-infusion and duration of pre-hydration before HD-MTX. Pharmacogenetic factors included 5 gene polymorphisms within the MTX pathway genes, namely, SLC19A1, MTHFR, ABCC2 and ABCG2. Short duration of pre-hydration before HD-MTX is the most important risk factor for prolonged high MTX concentration (p < 0.001, OR 6.40, 95 % CI 2.39-17.16) and renal dysfunction (p = 0.013, OR 3.15, 95 % CI 1.27-7.80). The T allele at MTHFR C677T was the risk factor for prolonged high MTX concentration (p = 0.009, OR 5.54, 95 % CI 1.54-19.85), but not for renal dysfunction. We found the influence of MTHFR C677T polymorphism on prolonged high MTX concentration. We reconfirmed the importance of adequate pre-hydration before HD-MTX to prevent prolonged high MTX concentration and MTX-related renal dysfunction.

  14. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactors and its influencing factors: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akil, K; Jayanthi, S

    2012-04-01

    Anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBR) operate in four cyclic steps: feed, reaction, settling and discharge. ASBRs allow typical biological anaerobic metabolism from substrate consumption to methane and carbon dioxide production. Microorganisms in an ASBR are exposed to variable substrate concentrations over the duration of the cycle, resulting in high rates of substrate conversion and efficient biomass flocculation and settling. High substrate concentrations at the beginning of a cycle result in high metabolic activity and substrate removal. Low substrate concentrations towards the end of the cycle result in low biogas production and allow for good sludge settling. However, the cycles should be as frequent as possible while allowing for completion of each of the four stages. Operating by batches enables the solids residence time to be independent of the hydraulic retention time without recourse to a settling tank, since the reactor functions as a decanter whenever the stirring mechanism is turned off. This review presents an overview of the ASBR process and the various factors influencing its performance.

  15. Community Factors Influencing Birth Spacing among Married ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    outcomes. This study investigates community-level influences on birth spacing outcomes among women aged 15-49 in Uganda ...... childhood stunting in nigeria: A multilevel analysis. ... Equity monitoring for social marketing: Use of wealth.

  16. Dermal factors influencing measurement of skin autofluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Margaretha J.; Lefrandt, Johan; Graaff, Reindert; Smit, Andries J.

    Background: Skin autofluorescence (SAF) is a noninvasive marker of accumulation of advanced glycation end products. It predicts cardiovascular complications and mortality in diabetes and renal failure. We assessed the influence of potential common confounders in SAF measurement, by determining the

  17. Influence of Concentration of Vanadium in Zinc Oxide on Structural and Optical Properties with Lower Concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-Wei; XU Zheng; MENG Li-Jian; Vasco Teixeira; SONG Shi-Geng; XU Xu-Rong

    2009-01-01

    ZnO films doped with different vanadium concentrations are deposited onto glass substrates by dc reactive magnetron sputtering using a zinc target doped with vanadium. The vanadium concentrations are examined by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and the charge state of vanadium in ZnO thin films is characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results of x-ray diffraction (XRD) show that all the films have a wurtzite structure and grow mainly in the c-axis orientation. The grain size and residual stress in the deposited films are estimated by fitting the XRD results. The optical properties of the films are studied by measuring the transmittance. The optical constants (refractive index and extinction coefficient) and the film thickness are obtained by fitting the transmittance. All the results are discussed in relation with the doping of the vanadium.

  18. Socio-economic, cultural and livelihood factors influencing local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic, cultural and livelihood factors influencing local people ... The social and economic circumstances prevailing in Tanzania today have made ... sociocultural and livelihood factors that influence community participation in ... Increased capacity for conservation skills was the most important driver of community ...

  19. Analysis of Factors Influencing Farmers’ Identification of Entrepreneurial Opportunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing; GAO; Fang; YANG

    2013-01-01

    Based on the survey data of entrepreneurship concerning farmers in China,this article uses the multivariate adjustment regression analysis method,to analyze the factors influencing farmers’ identification of entrepreneurial opportunity and the mechanism. The results show that demographic characteristics are still an important factor influencing farmers’ identification of entrepreneurial opportunity,but the extent of its influence is weaker than entrepreneurs’ trait. The new trait theory is verified in farmers’ entrepreneurship opportunity behavior; entrepreneurship environment is becoming an important factor influencing entrepreneurial opportunity identification,whose regulation effect on entrepreneurs’ social network and previous experience is stronger than the regulation effect on entrepreneurs’ psychological trait.

  20. Modeling the Factors Impacting Pesticide Concentrations in Groundwater Wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisopou, Angeliki; Binning, Philip J; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Bjerg, Poul L

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effect of pumping, hydrogeology, and pesticide characteristics on pesticide concentrations in production wells using a reactive transport model in two conceptual hydrogeologic systems; a layered aquifer with and without a stream present. The pumping rate can significantly affect the pesticide breakthrough time and maximum concentration at the well. The effect of the pumping rate on the pesticide concentration depends on the hydrogeology of the aquifer; in a layered aquifer, a high pumping rate resulted in a considerably different breakthrough than a low pumping rate, while in an aquifer with a stream the effect of the pumping rate was insignificant. Pesticide application history and properties have also a great impact on the effect of the pumping rate on the concentration at the well. The findings of the study show that variable pumping rates can generate temporal variability in the concentration at the well, which helps understanding the results of groundwater monitoring programs. The results are used to provide guidance on the design of pumping and regulatory changes for the long-term supply of safe groundwater. The fate of selected pesticides is examined, for example, if the application of bentazone in a region with a layered aquifer stops today, the concentration at the well can continue to increase for 20 years if a low pumping rate is applied. This study concludes that because of the rapid response of the pesticide concentration at the drinking water well due to changes in pumping, wellhead management is important for managing pesticide concentrations.

  1. FACTORS INFLUENCING FRICTION OF PHOSPHATE COATINGS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    surface roughness, crystalline structure , and velocity. The coefficients of friction for manganese phosphate coatings did not differ to any practical...The coefficient of friction was independent of the applied load. Velocity during dynamic testing, surface finish, and crystalline structure influenced

  2. Dermal factors influencing measurement of skin autofluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Margaretha J.; Lefrandt, Johan; Graaff, Reindert; Smit, Andries J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Skin autofluorescence (SAF) is a noninvasive marker of accumulation of advanced glycation end products. It predicts cardiovascular complications and mortality in diabetes and renal failure. We assessed the influence of potential common confounders in SAF measurement, by determining the e

  3. Influence of pumping operational schedule on solute concentrations at a well in randomly heterogeneous aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libera, Arianna; de Barros, Felipe P. J.; Guadagnini, Alberto

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the way diverse groundwater extraction strategies affect the history of solute concentration recovered at a pumping well while taking into account random spatial variability of the system hydraulic conductivity. Considering the joint effects of spatially heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity and temporally varying well pumping rates leads to a realistic evaluation of groundwater contamination risk at the pumping well location. We juxtapose the results obtained when the pumping well extracts a given amount of water operating (a) at a uniform pumping rate and (b) under a transient regime. The analysis is performed within a numerical Monte Carlo framework. Our results show that contaminant concentration breakthrough curves (BTCs) at the well are markedly affected by the transient pumping strategy according to which the well is operated. Our results document the occurrence in time of multiple peaks in the mean and variance of flux-averaged concentrations at the extraction well operating at a transient rate. Our findings suggest that lowest and largest values of mean and variance of flux-averaged concentration at the well tend to occur at the same time. We show that uncertainty associated with detected BTCs at the well increases for pumping regimes displaying a high degree of temporal variability. As such, the choice of the type of engineering control to the temporal sequence of pumping rates could represent a key factor to drive quantification of uncertainty of the contaminant concentration detected at the well. It is documented that pumping rate fluctuations induce a temporally oscillating risk pattern at the well, thus suggesting that the selection of a dynamic pumping regime has a clear influence on the temporal evolution of risk at the well.

  4. Influence of sublethal concentrations of common disinfectants on expression of virulence genes in Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastbjerg, Vicky Gaedt; Larsen, M. H.; Gram, Lone

    2010-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne human pathogen that causes listeriosis, a relatively rare infection with a high fatality rate. The regulation of virulence gene expression is influenced by several environmental factors, and the aim of the present study was to determine how disinfectants used...... routinely in the food industry affect the expression of different virulence genes in L. monocytogenes when added at sublethal concentrations. An agar-based assay was developed to screen the effect of disinfectants on virulence gene promoter expression and was validated at the transcriptional level...... by Northern blot analysis. Eleven disinfectants representing four different groups of active components were evaluated in this study. Disinfectants with the same active ingredients had a similar effect on gene expression. Peroxy and chlorine compounds reduced the expression of the virulence genes...

  5. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology : an expert stakeholder analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured i...

  6. Factors Influencing Job Satisfaction among Army Chaplains

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-20

    supported by Maslow’s need hierarchy, it is not substantiated by Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory. Still another approach is that of Leon Festinger’s...Herzberg, Vroom, McGregor, Lawler and Festinger provide a basic JWM » -, —_—^ . foundation and starting point for examining the factors of chaplain...identity, and autonomy, which are examined in this section. Further, Leon Festinger’s work on "cognitive dissonance" points toward the

  7. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Petrovici, Dan A.; Ritson, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet) regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decis...

  8. Modeling the Factors Impacting Pesticide Concentrations in Groundwater Wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aisopou, Angeliki; Binning, Philip John; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    variability in the concentration at the well, which helps understanding the results of groundwater monitoring programs. The results are used to provide guidance on the design of pumping and regulatory changes for the long-term supply of safe groundwater. The fate of selected pesticides is examined......, for example, if the application of bentazone in a region with a layered aquifer stops today, the concentration at the well can continue to increase for 20 years if a low pumping rate is applied. This study concludes that because of the rapid response of the pesticide concentration at the drinking water well......This study examines the effect of pumping, hydrogeology, and pesticide characteristics on pesticide concentrations in production wells using a reactive transport model in two conceptual hydrogeologic systems; a layered aquifer with and without a stream present. The pumping rate can significantly...

  9. Modeling the Factors Impacting Pesticide Concentrations in Groundwater Wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aisopou, Angeliki; Binning, Philip John; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen;

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effect of pumping, hydrogeology, and pesticide characteristics on pesticide concentrations in production wells using a reactive transport model in two conceptual hydrogeologic systems; a layered aquifer with and without a stream present. The pumping rate can significantly...... affect the pesticide breakthrough time and maximum concentration at the well. The effect of the pumping rate on the pesticide concentration depends on the hydrogeology of the aquifer; in a layered aquifer, a high pumping rate resulted in a considerably different breakthrough than a low pumping rate......, while in an aquifer with a stream the effect of the pumping rate was insignificant. Pesticide application history and properties have also a great impact on the effect of the pumping rate on the concentration at the well. The findings of the study show that variable pumping rates can generate temporal...

  10. Influence of Nutritional Factors on Lipid Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    conditions of chronic high level fat oxidation such as exercise, Askew et al. (121) fed exercising rats diets supplemented with 0.5Z L- carnitine . Although...exercise increased adipose tissue fatty acid turnover, supplemental dietary carnitine neither increased skeletal muscle in vitro fatty acid oxidation...some investigators believe the relative activities of the sn-glycerolphosphate acyltransferase and carnitine palmttyltrans- ferase may influence the

  11. Dermal factors influencing measurement of skin autofluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordzij, Margaretha J; Lefrandt, Joop D; Graaff, Reindert; Smit, Andries J

    2011-02-01

    Skin autofluorescence (SAF) is a noninvasive marker of accumulation of advanced glycation end products. It predicts cardiovascular complications and mortality in diabetes and renal failure. We assessed the influence of potential common confounders in SAF measurement, by determining the effects of endogenous and exogenous local dermal changes by body creams, hyperemia, vasoconstriction, and hydration. SAF was measured before and after local administration of body lotion, day cream, sunscreen, or self-browning cream and after attempts to remove these effects with alcohol swabs and washing. SAF was measured before and during three hyperemia maneuvers: vasoconstriction and on a dry and wet skin. The body lotion increased SAF by 18%. Day cream, sunscreen, and self-browning cream gave an increase of >100%. Except for body lotion, subsequent cleaning with alcohol swabs and washing with soap did not return SAF to baseline values. The effect of self-browning cream persisted for 2 weeks and that of sunscreen for 4 days. Hyperemia caused by a hot bath, capsicum cream, or postocclusive reactive hyperemia gave a decrease in SAF of, respectively, 18%, 22%, and 2.3%. Vasoconstriction caused by immersing the arm in cold water gave a 10% increase. Hydration state did not influence SAF. Measurement of SAF is strongly affected by several skin creams. This effect was often not fully corrected by alcohol swabs and washing with soap and may persist for many days. Marked hyperemia and vasoconstriction also influence SAF. We advise avoiding these potential error sources.

  12. Choice of treatment with antidepressants: influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmerich, Hubertus; Wranik, Dominika W

    2012-01-01

    Depressive disorders place a large burden on patients and on society. Although efficacious treatment options for unipolar depressive disorders exist, substantial gaps in care remain. In part, the challenge lies in the matching of individual patients with appropriate care. This is complicated by the steady increases in the variety of antidepressants available in the market. The goal of this study is to highlight the decision processes in the selection of antidepressants by clinicians, given that most treatments have similar clinical effectiveness profiles. We conducted a systematic literature review of studies that referred to the decisions surrounding treatment with antidepressants for the treatment of non-psychotic unipolar depression. Our analysis of the literature reveals that the choice of treatment is based on a variety of factors, of which clinical evidence is only one. These factors can be categorized into clinical factors such as illness and treatment characteristics, individual factors such as patient and physician characteristics, and contextual factors such as setting characteristics, decision supports and pharmacoeconomic aspects. Illness characteristics are defined by the type and severity of depression. Treatment characteristics include drug properties, efficacy, effectiveness and favorable as well as unintended adverse effects of the drug. Examples for patient characteristics are co-morbidities and individual preferences, and physician characteristics include knowledge, experience, values and beliefs, and the relationship with the patient. Treatment guidelines, algorithms, and most recently, computational supports and biological markers serve as decision supports.

  13. Factors influencing lysis time stochasticity in bacteriophage λ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennehy John J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite identical genotypes and seemingly uniform environments, stochastic gene expression and other dynamic intracellular processes can produce considerable phenotypic diversity within clonal microbes. One trait that provides a good model to explore the molecular basis of stochastic variation is the timing of host lysis by bacteriophage (phage. Results Individual lysis events of thermally-inducible λ lysogens were observed using a temperature-controlled perfusion chamber mounted on an inverted microscope. Both mean lysis time (MLT and its associated standard deviation (SD were estimated. Using the SD as a measure of lysis time stochasticity, we showed that lysogenic cells in controlled environments varied widely in lysis times, and that the level of lysis time stochasticity depended on allelic variation in the holin sequence, late promoter (pR' activity, and host growth rate. In general, the MLT was positively correlated with the SD. Both lower pR' activities and lower host growth rates resulted in larger SDs. Results from premature lysis, induced by adding KCN at different time points after lysogen induction, showed a negative correlation between the timing of KCN addition and lysis time stochasticity. Conclusions Taken together with results published by others, we conclude that a large fraction of λ lysis time stochasticity is the result of random events following the expression and diffusion of the holin protein. Consequently, factors influencing the timing of reaching critical holin concentrations in the cell membrane, such as holin production rate, strongly influence the mean lysis time and the lysis time stochasticity.

  14. Concentration Variations of Growth Factors in Colostrum and Normal Milk of Sows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yao; SHAN An-shan; FENG Zi-ke

    2004-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the concentration variation of epidermal growth factors (EGF), include insulin-like growth factor - Ⅰ (IGF- I ), transforming growth factor-beta(TGF-β), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in colostrum and normal milk of sows within 35 days after parturition. The results showed that the concentration of EGF, IGF- I , TGF-β, bFGF was significantly higher in colostrum than that in normal milk. The concentration of these growth factors in colostrum was significantly decreased with the stage lapse of lactation, and then they remained stable in normal milk. Parity had a slight effect on the concentration of these growth factors.

  15. Factors influencing quality of life in asthmatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-kalemji, Abir; Petersen, Karin Dam; Sørensen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The quality of life (QOL) in persons with asthma is reduced and different factors such as demography, asthma severity and psychiatric comorbidity play an influential role. However, little is known about the interplay of these factors. OBJECTIVE: To describe QOL in relation to asthma...... and analyse for the relative impact of asthma severity, psychiatric comorbidity, lifestyle (smoking and obesity) and demographic determinants on QOL in persons with asthma. METHODS: One thousand one hundred sixty-one subjects from an earlier cohort with and without asthma were sent an asthma screening...... gender and smoking were associated with reduced QOL, suggesting that these factors play an independent role on lowering QOL. Depression did not inflate the relationship between asthma severity and worse QOL, suggesting that asthma severity plays an independent role on everyday life regardless...

  16. Factors influencing nurses' participation in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Ann F; Warner, Andrea M; Fleming, Eileen; Schmidt, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Clinical research is necessary for developing nursing's body of knowledge and improving the quality of gastroenterology nursing care. The support and participation of nursing staff are crucial to conducting interventional research. Identification of characteristics of nurses and their work settings that facilitate or impede participation in research is needed. The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to examine the effect of personal and professional characteristics and attitudes about nursing research on staff nurses' participation in a clinical nursing research project. A questionnaire measuring nurses' attitudes, perceptions of availability of support, and research use was distributed to staff nurses working on an endoscopy lab and two same-day surgery units where a nursing research study had recently been conducted. Investigator-developed items measured nurses' attitudes about the utility and feasibility of the interventions tested in the original study. A total of 36 usable questionnaires comprised the sample. Factor analysis of the two questionnaires resulted in three-factor (Importance of Research, Interest in Research, and Environment Support of Research) and two-factor (Value of Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions [CBIs] and Participation in Study) solutions, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in mean scores for the five factors between nurses who did (n = 19) and those who did not (n = 17) participate in the original study. The Participation in Research Factor was significantly negatively correlated with years in nursing (r = -.336, p body of knowledge about factors that facilitate or impede staff nurses' involvement in research. This knowledge will be useful for nurse researchers planning intervention studies to forecast and foster staff nurse involvement in their projects. Findings may also be useful to nurse managers, nurse educators, and staff development personnel in assessing and promoting staff nurses

  17. Influencing factors of infrared surveying in roadway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Kang-xu; GUO Da

    2006-01-01

    The main factors that affect infrared surveying in roadway include that property of rock, electromechanical equipments running, environmental temperature, hydrogeology and support material etc. This paper sums up the expression features of these disturbing factor through theoretical analysis and actual measurement contrasts and considers that some tunnel section does not suit to go on infrared survey, for instance, soft rock meets water to expanse, and surround rock has obviously pouring water. The basic methods had made evading disturbing of electromechanical equipments, environmental temperature and protect material etc to become possible. It is helpful that offers infrared surveying technical service for production safety better in roadway.

  18. Environmental Factors and Seasonality Affect the Concentration of Rotundone in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Howell, Kate; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Barlow, Edward William R.; Fuentes, Sigfredo

    2015-01-01

    Rotundone is a sesquiterpene that gives grapes and wine a desirable ‘peppery’ aroma. Previous research has reported that growing grapevines in a cool climate is an important factor that drives rotundone accumulation in grape berries and wine. This study used historical data sets to investigate which weather parameters are mostly influencing rotundone concentration in grape berries and wine. For this purpose, wines produced from 15 vintages from the same Shiraz vineyard (The Old Block, Mount Langi Ghiran, Victoria, Australia) were analysed for rotundone concentration and compared to comprehensive weather data and minimal temperature information. Degree hours were obtained by interpolating available temperature information from the vineyard site using a simple piecewise cubic hermite interpolating polynomial method (PCHIP). Results showed that the highest concentrations of rotundone were consistently found in wines from cool and wet seasons. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that the concentration of rotundone in wine was negatively correlated with daily solar exposure and grape bunch zone temperature, and positively correlated with vineyard water balance. Finally, models were constructed based on the Gompertz function to describe the dynamics of rotundone concentration in berries through the ripening process according to phenological and thermal times. This characterisation is an important step forward to potentially predict the final quality of the resultant wines based on the evolution of specific compounds in berries according to critical environmental and micrometeorological variables. The modelling techniques described in this paper were able to describe the behaviour of rotundone concentration based on seasonal weather conditions and grapevine phenological stages, and could be potentially used to predict the final rotundone concentration early in future growing seasons. This could enable the adoption of precision irrigation and canopy

  19. Environmental Factors and Seasonality Affect the Concentration of Rotundone in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Howell, Kate; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Barlow, Edward William R; Fuentes, Sigfredo

    2015-01-01

    Rotundone is a sesquiterpene that gives grapes and wine a desirable 'peppery' aroma. Previous research has reported that growing grapevines in a cool climate is an important factor that drives rotundone accumulation in grape berries and wine. This study used historical data sets to investigate which weather parameters are mostly influencing rotundone concentration in grape berries and wine. For this purpose, wines produced from 15 vintages from the same Shiraz vineyard (The Old Block, Mount Langi Ghiran, Victoria, Australia) were analysed for rotundone concentration and compared to comprehensive weather data and minimal temperature information. Degree hours were obtained by interpolating available temperature information from the vineyard site using a simple piecewise cubic hermite interpolating polynomial method (PCHIP). Results showed that the highest concentrations of rotundone were consistently found in wines from cool and wet seasons. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that the concentration of rotundone in wine was negatively correlated with daily solar exposure and grape bunch zone temperature, and positively correlated with vineyard water balance. Finally, models were constructed based on the Gompertz function to describe the dynamics of rotundone concentration in berries through the ripening process according to phenological and thermal times. This characterisation is an important step forward to potentially predict the final quality of the resultant wines based on the evolution of specific compounds in berries according to critical environmental and micrometeorological variables. The modelling techniques described in this paper were able to describe the behaviour of rotundone concentration based on seasonal weather conditions and grapevine phenological stages, and could be potentially used to predict the final rotundone concentration early in future growing seasons. This could enable the adoption of precision irrigation and canopy management

  20. Environmental Factors and Seasonality Affect the Concentration of Rotundone in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz Wine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pangzhen Zhang

    Full Text Available Rotundone is a sesquiterpene that gives grapes and wine a desirable 'peppery' aroma. Previous research has reported that growing grapevines in a cool climate is an important factor that drives rotundone accumulation in grape berries and wine. This study used historical data sets to investigate which weather parameters are mostly influencing rotundone concentration in grape berries and wine. For this purpose, wines produced from 15 vintages from the same Shiraz vineyard (The Old Block, Mount Langi Ghiran, Victoria, Australia were analysed for rotundone concentration and compared to comprehensive weather data and minimal temperature information. Degree hours were obtained by interpolating available temperature information from the vineyard site using a simple piecewise cubic hermite interpolating polynomial method (PCHIP. Results showed that the highest concentrations of rotundone were consistently found in wines from cool and wet seasons. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA showed that the concentration of rotundone in wine was negatively correlated with daily solar exposure and grape bunch zone temperature, and positively correlated with vineyard water balance. Finally, models were constructed based on the Gompertz function to describe the dynamics of rotundone concentration in berries through the ripening process according to phenological and thermal times. This characterisation is an important step forward to potentially predict the final quality of the resultant wines based on the evolution of specific compounds in berries according to critical environmental and micrometeorological variables. The modelling techniques described in this paper were able to describe the behaviour of rotundone concentration based on seasonal weather conditions and grapevine phenological stages, and could be potentially used to predict the final rotundone concentration early in future growing seasons. This could enable the adoption of precision irrigation and

  1. Is the quickness of resuscitation after hypoxia influenced by the oxygen concentration? Metabolomics in piglets resuscitated with different oxygen concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Murgia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal asphyxia is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the neonatal period. There is an on-going debate in the literature concerning the correct oxygen concentration to be used during neonatal resuscitation. Aim of this study was to investigate whether different metabolic profiles occurred according to oxygen concentration administered and quickness of resuscitation. We tested the hypothesis that the metabolic profile may be affected by the response to the different oxygen concentration and influenced the different time of recovery. Forty male Landrace/Large newborn piglets were the subjects of the present study. As a consequence of the different time of resuscitation, a metabolomics analysis between the two classes of reoxygenated piglets with the slowest and fastest recovery was carried out: first group (4 piglets RT < 15 minutes and second group (6 piglets RT > 68 minutes. In addition, 1H-NMR metabolomics study was performed showing different metabolic profiles between the two groups. The most significant metabolites were: N-phenylacetylglycine, acetoacetate, methanol, glucose, sarcosine, succinate, dimethylamine and alanine. Our results seem to indicate that the rapidity of resuscitation is influenced by the oxygen concentration. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  2. Negative phototropism of rice root and its influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Zhong(王忠); MO; Yiwei(莫亿伟); QIAN; Shanqin(钱善勤); GU; Yunjie(顾蕴洁)

    2002-01-01

    Some characteristics of the rice (Oryza sativa L.) root were found in the experiment of unilaterally irradiating the roots which were planted in water: (ⅰ) All the seminal roots, adventitious roots and their branched roots bent away from light, and their curvatures ranged from 25° to 60°. The curvature of adventitious root of the higher node was often larger than that of the lower node, and even larger than that of the seminal root. (ⅱ) The negative phototropic bending of the rice root was mainly due to the larger growth increment of root-tip cells of the irradiated side compared with that of the shaded side. (ⅲ) Root cap was the site of light perception. If root cap was shaded while the root was irradiated the root showed no negative phototropism, and the root lost the characteristic of negative phototropism when root cap was divested. Rice root could resume the characteristic of negative phototropism when the new root cap grew up, if the original cells of root cap were well protected while root cap was divested. (ⅳ) The growth increment and curvature of rice root were both influenced by light intensity. Within the range of 0-100μmol@m-2@s-1, the increasing of light intensity resulted in the decreasing of the growth increment and the increasing of the curvature of rice root. (ⅴ) The growth increment and the curvature reached the maximum at 30℃ with the temperature treatment of 10-40℃. (ⅵ) Blue-violet light could prominently induce the negative phototropism of rice root, while red light had no such effect. (ⅶ) The auxin (IAA) in the solution, as a very prominent influencing factor, inhibited the growth, the negative phototropism and the gravitropism of rice root when the concentration of IAA increased. The response of negative phototropism of rice root disappeared when the concentration of IAA was above 10 mg@L-1.

  3. Emergency department crowding: Factors influencing flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focuses on emergency department (ED) crowding. In the first part (ED crowding in the Netherlands) the current state of EDs regarding patients’ length of stay and ED managers’ experiences of crowding are described. Part two (input factors) contains three studies which describe the case lo

  4. [Factors that influence student ratings of instruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Su Jin; Choung, Yun Hoon; Chung, Yoon Sok

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of student ratings of instruction by analyzing their relationships with several variables, including gender, academic rank, specialty, teaching time, and teaching method, at a medical school. This study analyzed the student ratings of 297 courses at Ajou University School of Medicine in 2013. SPSS version 12.0 was used to analyze the data and statistics by t-test, analysis of variance, and Scheffe test. There were no statistically significant differences in student ratings between gender, rank, and specialty. However, student ratings were significantly influenced by teaching times and methods (pStudent ratings were high for teaching times of 10 hours or more and small-group learning, compared with lectures. There was relatively mean differences in students ratings by teaching times, specialty and rank, although the difference in ratings was not statistically significant. Student ratings can be classified by teaching time and method for summative purposes. To apply student ratings to the evaluation of the performance of faculty, further studies are needed to analyze the variables that influence student ratings.

  5. Statistical approach for assessing the influence of synoptic and meteorological conditions on ozone concentrations over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Noelia; Butler, Tim; Sillmann, Jana

    2015-04-01

    Air pollution has become a serious problem in many industrialized and densely-populated urban areas due to its negative effects on human health, damages agricultural crops and ecosystems. The concentration of air pollutants is the result of several factors, including emission sources, lifetime and spatial distribution of the pollutants, atmospheric properties and interactions, wind speed and direction, and topographic features. Episodes of air pollution are often associated with stationary or slowly migrating anticyclonic (high-pressure) systems that reduce advection, diffusion, and deposition of atmospheric pollutants. Certain weather conditions facilitate the concentration of pollutants, such as the incidence of light winds that contributes to the increasing of stagnation episodes affecting air quality. Therefore, the atmospheric circulation plays an important role in air quality conditions that are affected by both, synoptic and local scale processes. This study assesses the influence of the large-scale circulation along with meteorological conditions on tropospheric ozone in Europe. The frequency of weather types (WTs) is examined under a novel approach, which is based on an automated version of the Lamb Weather Types catalog (Jenkinson and Collison, 1977). Here, we present an implementation of such classification point-by-point over the European domain. Moreover, the analysis uses a new grid-averaged climatology (1°x1°) of daily surface ozone concentrations from observations of individual sites that matches the resolution of global models (Schnell,et al., 2014). Daily frequency of WTs and meteorological conditions are combined in a multiple regression approach for investigating the influence on ozone concentrations. Different subsets of predictors are examined within multiple linear regression models (MLRs) for each grid cell in order to identify the best regression model. Several statistical metrics are applied for estimating the robustness of the

  6. Total flavonoid concentrations of bryophytes from Tianmu Mountain, Zhejiang Province (China): Phylogeny and ecological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jianguo; Dai, Xiling; Xiao, Jianbo; Wu, Yuhuan; Wang, Quanxi

    2017-01-01

    The flavonoids in bryophytes may have great significance in phylogeny and metabolism research. However, to date there has been little research on bryophyte metabolites, especially flavonoids. To redress this somewhat, we determined flavonoid concentrations of bryophytes from Tianmu Mountain through a colorimetric assay and considered the factors influencing the results. This is the first time that the flavonoid contents of bryophytes have been examined in detail. The results revealed a range of total flavonoid concentrations in 90 samples collected from Tianmu Mountain from 1.8 to 22.3 mg/g (w/w). The total flavonoid contents of liverworts were generally higher than those of mosses; acrocarpous mosses had generally higher values than that of pleurocarpous mosses. The total flavonoid contents of bryophytes growing at lower light levels were general higher than those growing in full-sun. The total flavonoid contents of epiphytic bryophytes were highest, while those of aquatic bryophytes were the lowest. Total flavonoid contents of species growing at low-latitudes were much higher than those at high-latitude individuals. In conclusion, total flavonoid contents of bryophytes have some connection with plant phylogeny; more flavonoids might be contained in relatively primitive bryophytes. Meanwhile, the effects of ecological factors on total flavonoid contents of bryophytes exist; light and habitat (especially tree habitat and river habitat) might be representative factor. PMID:28263997

  7. Total flavonoid concentrations of bryophytes from Tianmu Mountain, Zhejiang Province (China): Phylogeny and ecological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Cao, Jianguo; Dai, Xiling; Xiao, Jianbo; Wu, Yuhuan; Wang, Quanxi

    2017-01-01

    The flavonoids in bryophytes may have great significance in phylogeny and metabolism research. However, to date there has been little research on bryophyte metabolites, especially flavonoids. To redress this somewhat, we determined flavonoid concentrations of bryophytes from Tianmu Mountain through a colorimetric assay and considered the factors influencing the results. This is the first time that the flavonoid contents of bryophytes have been examined in detail. The results revealed a range of total flavonoid concentrations in 90 samples collected from Tianmu Mountain from 1.8 to 22.3 mg/g (w/w). The total flavonoid contents of liverworts were generally higher than those of mosses; acrocarpous mosses had generally higher values than that of pleurocarpous mosses. The total flavonoid contents of bryophytes growing at lower light levels were general higher than those growing in full-sun. The total flavonoid contents of epiphytic bryophytes were highest, while those of aquatic bryophytes were the lowest. Total flavonoid contents of species growing at low-latitudes were much higher than those at high-latitude individuals. In conclusion, total flavonoid contents of bryophytes have some connection with plant phylogeny; more flavonoids might be contained in relatively primitive bryophytes. Meanwhile, the effects of ecological factors on total flavonoid contents of bryophytes exist; light and habitat (especially tree habitat and river habitat) might be representative factor.

  8. Low dialysate potassium concentration: an overrated risk factor for cardiac arrhythmia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, J Gary

    2015-01-01

    Serum potassium concentrations rise with dietary potassium intake between dialysis sessions and are often at hyperkalemic levels by the next session. Conversely, potassium concentrations fall during each hemodialysis, and sometimes reach hypokalemic levels by the end. Low potassium dialysate, which rapidly decreases serum potassium and often brings it to hypokalemic levels, is almost universally considered a risk factor for life-threatening arrhythmias. While there is little doubt about the threat of lethal arrhythmias due to hyperkalemia, convincing evidence for the danger of low potassium dialysate and rapid or excess potassium removal has not been forthcoming. The original report of more frequent ventricular ectopy in early dialysis that was improved by reducing potassium removal has received very little confirmation from subsequent studies. Furthermore, the occurrence of ventricular ectopy during dialysis does not appear to predict mortality. Studies relating sudden deaths to low potassium dialysate are countered by studies with more thorough adjustment for markers of poor health. Dialysate potassium concentrations affect the excursions of serum potassium levels above or below the normal range, and have the potential to influence dialysis safety. Controlled studies of different dialysate potassium concentration and their effect on mortality and cardiac arrests have not been done. Until these results become available, I propose interim guidelines for the setting of dialysate potassium levels that may better balance risks and benefits.

  9. Influence of sampling procedure, sampling location and skin contamination on skatole and indole concentrations in adipose tissue of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesoly, Raffael; Stefanski, Volker; Weiler, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Skatole leads to off-odor in pork and is influenced by several factors such as sex and management conditions of pigs, but the causal relationships have not yet been clarified. In the present study, physiological skatole concentrations along the carcass were monitored and the transdermal diffusion of skatole was experimentally studied with skatole-spiked feces. Additionally, the impact of different biopsy techniques on skatole in fat and blood was studied. Monitoring of skatole along the carcass revealed higher skatole concentrations in the belly than in dorsal cuts. Topical application of spiked feces increased skatole in fat strictly at the application site. In contrast to punch biopsies, surgical biopsies significantly affected skatole and cortisol levels in blood, but not in fat. We conclude that biopsies for skatole measurements should be taken without anesthesia from the dorsal side of the animals. Fecal contaminations on the ventral side are not likely to influence overall concentrations.

  10. Factors influencing women's attitudes towards midwifery: Tool validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rajabi, Omaymah; Al-Hadid, Lourance; Subih, Maha

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate a tool that explores the factors influencing women's opinion of and attitudes towards midwifery. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used. The sample consisted of 526 Jordanian women. Cluster sampling was used to ensure a representative sample; then, convenience sampling was performed. The instrument asked non-identifying demographic questions and covered factors reported in literature to influence women's attitudes towards and views of the profession. The resulting instrument consisted of five factors explained by 29 items. These factors were women's general view of midwives, midwife duties, professional ethics, media influence and demotivating factors associated with working as a midwife. Although the instrument is valid and reliable, it needs further testing in other studies. Taking the factors reported on by the present study into account in public policy-making could promote better understanding of midwifery and improve its status in the community. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Factors influencing medication label viewing in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Yong Kang; Chong, Yen Wan

    2016-07-12

    The misuse of medicine is a serious public health issue worldwide. An important factor that contributes to the misuse of medicine is the lack of medication label viewing by consumers. The objective of the present study is to examine the socio-economic, demographic and lifestyle factors associated with medication label viewing among Malaysian adults. The empirical analysis is based on a nationally representative data set of 30,992 respondents. An ordered probit model is used to examine different types of medication label viewers. The results of this study suggest that socio-economic (i.e. age, income level, education level, location of residence), demographic (i.e. gender, ethnicity, marital status) and lifestyle factors (i.e. physical activity, smoking) have significant effects on medication label viewing. It is found that age, low-income and low-education level reduce the likelihood of viewing medication label. Based on these findings, several policy implications are suggested. The present study provides policy makers with baseline information regarding which cohorts of individuals to focus on in efforts to increase the frequency of medication label viewing.

  12. Factors influencing early survival after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, P G; Estrin, J A; Fryd, D S; Payne, W D; Belani, K G; Elick, B A; Najarian, J S; Ascher, N L

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze data from all adult and pediatric liver transplants performed between January 1, 1983 and January 15, 1986 at the University of Minnesota Hospital and identify perioperative variables that predict patient survival and could aid in patient selection. Charts, intraoperative anesthesia records, blood bank records, flow sheets, outpatient records, and autopsy reports were examined in 45 pediatric and 15 adult patients who underwent primary orthotopic liver transplantation. Analysis of the data can be summarized as follows: (1) Pediatric patients whose coagulation parameters could not be corrected prior to operation and who consequently required preoperative exchange transfusion had poorer outcomes than those not requiring an exchange to correct coagulation parameters. (2) The rapid infusion technique for massive blood transfusion resulted in significantly decreased blood loss and intraoperative blood product replacement. (3) Twenty-four hour postoperative factor V levels were good predictors of survival. Patients with poor factor V levels required rigorous replacement of coagulation factors. (4) Pediatric patients with uncorrectable coagulopathies requiring immediate postoperative exchange transfusion had extremely high mortality.

  13. Factors influencing recognition of interrupted speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Humes, Larry E

    2010-10-01

    This study examined the effect of interruption parameters (e.g., interruption rate, on-duration and proportion), linguistic factors, and other general factors, on the recognition of interrupted consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words in quiet. Sixty-two young adults with normal-hearing were randomly assigned to one of three test groups, "male65," "female65" and "male85," that differed in talker (male/female) and presentation level (65/85 dB SPL), with about 20 subjects per group. A total of 13 stimulus conditions, representing different interruption patterns within the words (i.e., various combinations of three interruption parameters), in combination with two values (easy and hard) of lexical difficulty were examined (i.e., 13×2=26 test conditions) within each group. Results showed that, overall, the proportion of speech and lexical difficulty had major effects on the integration and recognition of interrupted CVC words, while the other variables had small effects. Interactions between interruption parameters and linguistic factors were observed: to reach the same degree of word-recognition performance, less acoustic information was required for lexically easy words than hard words. Implications of the findings of the current study for models of the temporal integration of speech are discussed.

  14. Clinically important factors influencing endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vapaatalo, H; Mervaala, E

    2001-01-01

    The endothelium, a continuous cellular monolayer lining the blood vessels, has an enormous range of important homeostatic roles. It serves and participates in highly active metabolic and regulatory functions including control of primary hemostasis, blood coagulation and fibrinolysis, platelet and leukocyte interactions with the vessel wall, interaction with lipoprotein metabolism, presentation of histocompatibility antigens, regulation of vascular tone and growth and further of blood pressure. Many crucial vasoactive endogenous compounds like prostacyclin, thromboxane, nitric oxide, endothelin, angiotensin, endothelium derived hyperpolarizing factor, free radicals and bradykinin are formed in the endothelial cells to control the functions of vascular smooth muscle cells and of circulating blood cells. These versatile and complex systems and cellular interactions are extremely vulnerable. The balances may be disturbed by numerous endogenous and exogenous factors including psychological and physical stress, disease states characterized by vasospasm, inflammation, leukocyte and platelet adhesion and aggregation, thrombosis, abnormal vascular proliferation, atherosclerosis and hypertension. The endothelial cells are also the site of action of many drugs and exogenous toxic substances (e.g. smoking, alcohol). As markers and assays for endothelial dysfunction, direct measurement of nitric oxide, its metabolites from plasma and urine, functional measurement of vascular nitric oxide dependent responses and assay of different circulating markers have been used. In numerous pathological conditions (e.g. atherosclerosis, hypertension, congestive heart failure, hyperhomocysteinemia, diabetes, renal failure, transplantation, liver cirrhosis) endothelial dysfunction has been described to exist. Some of them, as well as hormonal and nutritional factors and drug treatment will be discussed in this short review.

  15. Influence of Soil Moisture on Soil Gas Vapor Concentration for Vapor Intrusion

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Rui; Pennell, Kelly G.; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical models have been widely used in analyzing the effects of various environmental factors in the vapor intrusion process. Soil moisture content is one of the key factors determining the subsurface vapor concentration profile. This manuscript considers the effects of soil moisture profiles on the soil gas vapor concentration away from any surface capping by buildings or pavement. The “open field” soil gas vapor concentration profile is observed to be sensitive to the soil moisture di...

  16. ADAMTS13 content in plasma-derived factor VIII/von Willebrand factor concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyvandi, Flora; Mannucci, Pier M; Valsecchi, Carla; Pontiggia, Silvia; Farina, Claudio; Retzios, Anastassios D

    2013-10-01

    Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a microangiopathy syndrome caused by a congenital or acquired deficiency of ADAMTS13, a plasma metalloprotease that cleaves von Willebrand factor (VWF) and thus prevents the formation of platelet-rich thrombi in the microcirculation. TTP can be fatal if not appropriately and timely treated with the infusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) or exchange plasmapheresis, that reverse the process of microangiopathy by removing anti-ADAMTS13 autoantibodies and replacing functional ADAMTS13. The treatment of TTP with FFP is not free from risks and must be administered in hospitals or clinics, owing to the substantial amount of plasma volume infused or exchanged and the frequent need of catheter application. Moreover, most FFPs are not subjected to treatments to remove or inactivate blood-borne infectious agents. A number of recent reports indicate that certain plasma-derived VWF-factor VIII (FVIII) concentrates are clinically effective in the treatment of congenital TTP. In this study, we measured ADAMTS13 levels in various plasma-derived VWF-FVIII concentrates, showing that Koate(®) -DVI (Grifols), contained relatively high amounts of ADAMTS13 and that Alphanate(®) (Grifols) was the closest other product in terms of protease content. Koate(®) -DVI contains, on average (five lots tested), 0.091 ± 0.007 Units of ADAMTS13 activity per IU of FVIII. On the basis of this analysis and other reports of VWF-FVIII concentrate utilization in congenital TTP, potential dosing, and future clinical developments are discussed.

  17. Study on Influencing Factors of Capital Structure of Energy Listed Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Guo-liang; LI Qiang

    2005-01-01

    Based on the determinative factors school of capital structure theory, this paper uses the data of 35 Chinese energy listed companies from 2000 to 2003, and adopts multi-variable regression method to make an empirical study of the influencing factors of their capital structure. The results indicate that the factors of size, income volatility, and the concentration of owner's equity have positive relation with the capital structure, while the relation between profitability and capital structure is negative. It is also found that the influencing of growth and secured asset on the capital structure are relatively insignificant.

  18. Factors Influencing the Performance of Coal Briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unsia HABIB

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous supply of energy resources is essential for the development of any nation. The economic and social life of any nation depends enormously on the energy resources. Over the past few years the energy crisis is becoming a major issue in developing countries as Pakistan. Oil, Natural gas and hydro are the three major energy resources of the Pakistan. These conventional energy resources were being exploited in the past leading to an issue of energy crisis in the country. Replacing expensive imported energy resources with coal briquettes made from indigenous coal reserves can provide fuel for the local residential and commercial markets. Coal briquettes formation is a process to convert coal powder into a specific shape with the help of a binder. An external force is applied to the coal binder mixture to make a firm body of desired shape. The briquettes formed this way will not disintegrate under normal conditions of transportation and use. Coal briquettes are preferred over raw coal because they are a smokeless, strong and low emissive fuel that can be used in numerous domestic and commercial applications. The performance of coal briquettes formed is dependent largely upon its thermal properties and the mechanical strength. Nowadays an environmentally safe briquettes formation process is also included in the performance criteria of coal briquettes. The mechanical strength of coal briquettes affects its storage and transportation to the intended market. The studies on coal briquettes show that coal briquettes quality depends on many factors like the type of binder, quantity of binder, grade of coal, moisture level, coal particle size and its distribution etc. These factors along with some of the factors as time of compaction, compaction temperature, and compaction pressure and moisture level are discussed in this paper to evaluate the performance of briquetting technology in future.

  19. Organizational Culture Factors that Can Influence Knowledge Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Pastor

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper tries to establish the correlation that exists between the types of organizational culture and the factors that influence knowledge transfer. We started from the hypothesis that organizations which have high scores for cultural factors of openness to change and innovation as well as for task-oriented organizational growth will have the tendency of being favourable to knowledge transfer. Moreover, we started from the hypothesis that organizations that have high scores for bureaucracy and competition factors will have the tendency of being unfavourable to knowledge transfer. The research reached the conclusion that there seems to be a correlation between organizational culture and the factors that influence knowledge transfer.

  20. Factors influencing condom use among Nigerian undergraduates: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing condom use among Nigerian undergraduates: A mixed method study. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... group discussions) and quantitative (cross-sectional survey) methods were utilised for this study.

  1. Social and economic factors influencing the patronage and use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social and economic factors influencing the patronage and use of complementary and alternative medicine in Enugu. ... Journal of Pharmacy & Bioresources ... approaches to medical treatment that are outside of mainstream medical training.

  2. Personal and Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Female Choice of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Personal and Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Female Choice of Courses in ... Female students in six (Arts, Education, Pharmacy, Science, Social Sciences and ... services to secondary school students in the choice of courses and career.

  3. Factors Influencing the Development of Practical Skills of Interns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing the Development of Practical Skills of Interns Working in ... It starts with a good theoretical preparation and some practical experience at university. ... The relationship between intern and senior doctor was important when it ...

  4. Factors influencing the job satisfaction of academics in higher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing the job satisfaction of academics in higher education. ... 94 respondents from similar departments at a residential and a distance education institution. A questionnaire focused on teaching, research, community service, ...

  5. Assessment of risk factors that influence pregnancy outcomes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Pregnancy outcome, low birth weight, Apgar score, maternal age, Tanzania ... (2006) reported that, several risk factors influence neonatal mortality. ..... which is the lowest cut off point for the classification of normal blood pressure.

  6. 'Mum never loved me.' How structural factors influence adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    How structural factors influence adolescent sexual and reproductive health ... Research in high income countries shows parent–child connectedness to be ... to young people's low self-esteem and risky sexual behaviour while unplanned ...

  7. Analysis of Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Farmers' Adoption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Farmers' Adoption of Rice ... Farming experience, household size, farm size and extension contact ... gender, market availability, education, extension contact, labour availability and farm size.

  8. Factors Influencing Farmer Output in the International Fund for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kim

    Department of Rural Sociology and Extension. Michael Okpara ... This study analysed factors influencing International Fund for Agricultural. Development ..... farmers (50.9%) acquired secondary education as against Cross River IFAD farmers.

  9. Factors Influencing the Consumption of Pulses in Rural and Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing the Consumption of Pulses in Rural and Urban Areas of Tanzania. ... Model results revealed that household sizes and education levels of the ... To increase the market share of pulses, traders should devise effective ...

  10. Characteristics and factors influencing fast food intake of young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characteristics and factors influencing fast food intake of young adult consumers in Johannesburg, South Africa. ... their reasons for and frequency of fast food consumption, their specific fast food choices, and their attitudes towards health.

  11. LITERATURE REVIEW ON FACTORS INFLUENCING MILK PURCHASE BEHAVIOUR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klaudia Kurajdova; Janka Taborecka-Petrovicova

    2015-01-01

    In today’s highly informed, competitive and saturated market, a key to success of any business depends on knowing consumer and his consumption patterns and recognizing and understanding factors influencing...

  12. Socio-Demographic Factors Influencing Work-Role Salience Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-Demographic Factors Influencing Work-Role Salience Among ... The findings showed that students from lower socio-economic status homes and those ... The need to involve the students\\' parents in career education programmes and ...

  13. Factors Influencing Food Choice in the Elderly Mauritian Population

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admpather

    Only the factor of taste influencing food choice was significantly different between the two ..... available through the media, promotions, and advertising may confuse consumers and cause ... Predictors of self-initiated, healthful dietary change.

  14. Factors Influencing the Consumption of Pulses in Rural and Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    factors that influenced the extent of consumption in urban areas. In summary, the model .... model to control for self-selection bias because some potential consumers may ... accommodate consumer's zero value of purchase as an outcome of a ...

  15. Factors influencing eating attitudes in secondary-school girls in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing eating attitudes in secondary-school girls in South Africa - a preliminary stud. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) ... South African Medical Journal. Journal Home ...

  16. Factors influencing utilization of Natural Family Planning among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing utilization of Natural Family Planning among Child Bearing Women in Chilonga ... Medical Journal of Zambia ... The literature review was mainly obtained from studies conducted globally, regionally and Zambia inclusively.

  17. Factors influencing choice of paediatrics as a career among medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    female students (30%) considered gender distribution to be a factor influencing their career choice (p=0.046). ... role models in the specialty, job opportunities and financial .... of non-responder bias, although the relatively high response.

  18. Prevalence Of Early Childhood Malnutrition And Influencing Factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    therefore, to asses the prevalence of malnutrition and the factors influencing the ... childhood malnutrition in Kabarole District and other areas in Uganda, and ..... Jitta JJ, Migadde M and J Mudusu Determinants of Malnutrition in under-fives.

  19. INFLUENCING FACTORS OF PRICE AND ASSOCIATED STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Liviu NEAMTU; NEAMTU Adina Claudia

    2012-01-01

    The price is an important element in product position; it is a means of sending signals to consumers about the nature and quality of the product. When, for a certain business environment, the demand curve is known in relation to market (competition) costs and prices, the firm can choose a pricing policy simultaneously with business strategy. This study synthesizes the key-factors occurring in choosing a business strategy and the game of price and cost on the market As an approach to pricing p...

  20. Emotional Factors Influencing Students’ English Writing Competence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂勇伟

    2015-01-01

    As an international common language,English becomes more and more important.Students try their best to improve their English writing competence,especially as the social’s requirements for their English writing become higher and higher.However,students’English writing is very poor,fewer and fewer of them can write fluent English.Through the study of this topic,the author hopes it can remove students’emotional obstacles of English writing learning,master the direction of emotional factor,arouse students’interesting in learning oral English,make them practice English writing positively and obtain a better teaching effect

  1. Treatment Factors That Influence Mortality in Acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, John; Ayuk, John; Sherlock, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Acromegaly is a rare condition characterized by excessive secretion of growth hormone (GH), which is almost always due to a pituitary adenoma. Acromegaly is associated with significant morbidity such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes, cardiomyopathy, obstructive sleep apnoea, malignancy and musculoskeletal abnormalities. Acromegaly has also been associated with increased mortality in several retrospective studies. This review will focus on the epidemiological data relating to mortality rates in acromegaly, the relationship between acromegaly and malignancy, the role of GH and insulin-like growth factor-I in assessing the risk of future mortality, and the impact of radiotherapy and hypopituitarism on mortality.

  2. Research on various factors influencing the moisture absorption property of sodium polyacrylate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Sodium polyacrylate was synthesized with acrylic acid as the monomer, and sodium bisulfate and ammonium persulfate as the initiator, by means of aqueous solution polymerization. The factors influencing the properties of moisture absorption, such as monomer concentration, dosage of initiator, and reaction temperature were systematically investigated. The experimental results indicate that the moisture-absorbing property of this polymer was better than other traditional material, such as silica gel, and molecular sieve. The best reaction condition and formula are based on the orthogonal experiment design. The optimum moisture absorbency of sodium polyacrylate reaches 1.01 g/g. The mathematical correlation of this polymer with various factors and moisture absorbency is obtained based on the multiple regression analysis. The moisture content intuitive analysis table shows that neutralization degree has the most significant influence on moisture absorbency, followed by monomer concentration and reaction temperature, while other factors have less influence.

  3. Factors influencing consumer satisfaction with health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Satish P; Deshpande, Samir S

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors that impact consumer satisfaction with health care. This is a secondary analysis of the Center for Studying Health System Change's 2010 Health Tracking Household Survey. Regression analysis was used to examine the impact of treatment issues, financial issues, family-related issues, sources of health care information, location, and demographics-related factors on satisfaction with health care. The study involved 12280 subjects, 56% of whom were very satisfied with their health care, whereas 66% were very satisfied with their primary care physician. Fourteen percent of the subjects had no health insurance; 34% of the subjects got their health care information from the Web. Satisfaction with primary care physician, general health status, promptness of visit to doctor, insurance type, medical cost per family, annual income, persons in family, health care information from friends, and age significantly impacted satisfaction with health care. The regression models accounted for 23% of the variance in health care satisfaction. Satisfaction with primary care physicians, health insurance, and general health status are the 3 most significant indicators of an individual's satisfaction with health care.

  4. Factors influencing the intention to watch online video advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joonghwa; Lee, Mira

    2011-10-01

    This study examines the factors influencing consumer intention to watch online video ads, by applying the theory of reasoned action. The attitude toward watching online video ads, the subjective norm, and prior frequency of watching online video ads positively influence the intention to watch online video ads. Further, beliefs held about entertainment and information outcomes from watching online video ads and subjective norm influence attitude toward watching these ads.

  5. FACTORS INFLUENCING BRAND EQUITY OF BALI AS A TOURISM DESTINATION

    OpenAIRE

    I Ketut Surya Diarta; I Gde Pitana; Nyoman Darma Putra; Agung Suryawan Wiranatha

    2016-01-01

    Globally, competition among tourism destinations is more stringent in getting foreign tourists, including Bali. One effort to win the competition is increasing destination brand equity through maintaining its influencing factors and gaining tourist positive behavior toward destination. This effort, in long run, will increase and stabilize destination revenue and sustainability. This research aims to analyze factors influencing brand equity of Bali as a tourism destination. This research was c...

  6. Factors Influencing the Disabled's Employment in the Competitive Labour Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannila, Simo

    1995-01-01

    Factors influencing the job search outcomes of 1,353 Finnish individuals with disabilities were studied, focusing on age, gender, domicile, basic education, vocational training, and type of disability. Results showed that age, education, and domicile influenced outcomes, and labor market status was to some extent gender specific. (JDD)

  7. STUDY ON FACTORS INFLUENCING INK ABSORPTION OF COATED PAPER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanxin Liu; Chuanshan Zhao; Shuxia Shang; Zhongwei Sun

    2004-01-01

    Ink absorption is one of the most important factors which influence printing properties. This article had discussed the influence of coating properties,technologies of heating and pressure etc. on ink absorption and showed that ink absorption can be adjusted and coating surface structure can be improved when technologies of heating and pressure change, pigment and adhesive altered.

  8. On influence of some ecological factors on intensity of the oyster filtration (Ostrea edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Sitnik

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative regularities of the filtration feeding of the Black Sea oyster depending on some ecological factors were studied. Influence of food concentration on filtration activity of shellfish is described. Dependences of filtration speed are certain on the body mass of oysters under different temperature conditions were found. The seasonal changes of its intensity in the Kerch Strait and the Donuzlav Estuary are illustrated. Influence of water salinity on filtration activity of the oyster is established.

  9. Linguistic Factors Influencing Speech Audiometric Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coene, Martine; Krijger, Stefanie; Meeuws, Matthias; De Ceulaer, Geert; Govaerts, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    In speech audiometric testing, hearing performance is typically measured by calculating the number of correct repetitions of a speech stimulus. We investigate to what extent the repetition accuracy of Dutch speech stimuli presented against a background noise is influenced by nonauditory processes. We show that variation in verbal repetition accuracy is partially explained by morpholexical and syntactic features of the target language. Verbs, prepositions, conjunctions, determiners, and pronouns yield significantly lower correct repetitions than nouns, adjectives, or adverbs. The reduced repetition performance for verbs and function words is probably best explained by the similarities in the perceptual nature of verbal morphology and function words in Dutch. For sentences, an overall negative effect of syntactic complexity on speech repetition accuracy was found. The lowest number of correct repetitions was obtained with passive sentences, reflecting the cognitive cost of processing a noncanonical sentence structure. Taken together, these findings may have important implications for the audiological practice. In combination with hearing loss, linguistic complexity may increase the cognitive demands to process sentences in noise, leading to suboptimal functional hearing in day-to-day listening situations. Using test sentences with varying degrees of syntactic complexity may therefore provide useful information to measure functional hearing benefits.

  10. The influence of a cooked meat meal on creatinine plasma concentration and creatinine clearance.

    OpenAIRE

    Mayersohn, M; Conrad, K A; Achari, R

    1983-01-01

    1 The influence of a meal containing cooked meat (225 g) on creatinine plasma concentration, creatinine urinary excretion and creatinine clearance was determined in six healthy male subjects. 2 The meat meal produced an average 52% increase in creatinine plasma concentration within 1.5 to 3.5 h after ingestion. The 24 h area under the creatinine plasma concentration-time curve increased by about 19%. Urinary creatinine excretion during 24 h increased by an average of 13%. Creatinine clearance...

  11. Exploring factors influencing smoking behaviour in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Yong Kang; Naidu, Balkish Mahadir

    2012-01-01

    The objective of present study is to investigate the determinants of smoking behaviour among adults in Malaysia. Findings of the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-3) by the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, were used. The sample consisted of 34,539 observations. A logistic regression model was thus applied to estimate the probability to participate in smoking. Age, income, gender, marital status, ethnicity, employment status, residential area, education, lifestyle and health status were statistically significant in affecting the likelihood of smoking. Specifically, youngsters, low income earners, males, unmarried individuals, Malays, employed individuals, rural residents and primary educated individuals were more likely to smoke. In conclusion, socio-demographic, lifestyle and health factors have significant impacts on smoking participation in Malaysia. Based on these empirical findings, several policy implications are suggested.

  12. Factors influencing dependence on mobile phone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Hossein Biglu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of current study was to investigate the relationship between the problematic use of mobile phone and Big Five personality traits among students of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in Tabriz, Iran. Methods: A total number of 120 students (80 females and 40 males were selected by applying proportional randomized classification sampling method from Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. The Mobile Phone Problematic Use Scale (MPPUS and demographic questionnaire were used to gather data. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Analysis of gathered data showed that gender, neuroticism, extraversion, and openness to experience had positive correlation with the problematic use of mobile phone, whereas conscientiousness and agreeableness were not correlated with the problematic use of mobile phone. Conclusion: The evaluation of Big Five personality traits would be a reliable factor for predicting the problematic use of mobile phone among students.

  13. Factors influencing citizen participation in community management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study is to assess the factors affecting citizen participation in community management in district 13 of Tehran Municipality. Measured variables are: social cohesion, profitable partnerships, social-economic agencies, trust among civilians, trust in municipality management, feelings of powerlessness and social anomie. The results of the implementation of Pearson correlation test show that all of these variables had significant relationships with community participation in neighborhood management. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that three variables of social cohesion, profitable partnerships and socio-economic status had explained 37% of changes in citizen participation in community management while the changing social cohesion maintained the highest impact.

  14. Factors influencing excessive daytime sleepiness in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Souza Vilela

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Sleep deprivation in adolescents has lately become a health issue that tends to increase with higher stress prevalence, extenuating routines, and new technological devices that impair adolescents' bedtime. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the excessive sleepiness frequency and the factors that might be associated to it in this population. Methods: The cross-sectional study analyzed 531 adolescents aged 10–18 years old from two private schools and one public school. Five questionnaires were applied: the Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire; the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children; the Brazilian Economic Classification Criteria; the General Health and Sexual Maturation Questionnaire; and the Physical Activity Questionnaire. The statistical analyses were based on comparisons between schools and sleepiness and non-sleepiness groups, using linear correlation and logistic regression. Results: Sleep deprivation was present in 39% of the adolescents; sleep deficit was higher in private school adolescents (p < 0.001, and there was a positive correlation between age and sleep deficit (p < 0.001; r = 0.337. Logistic regression showed that older age (p = 0.002; PR: 1.21 [CI: 1.07–1.36] and higher score level for sleep hyperhidrosis in the sleep disturbance scale (p = 0.02; PR: 1.16 [CI: 1.02–1.32] were risk factors for worse degree of sleepiness. Conclusions: Sleep deficit appears to be a reality among adolescents; the results suggest a higher prevalence in students from private schools. Sleep deprivation is associated with older age in adolescents and possible presence of sleep disorders, such as sleep hyperhidrosis.

  15. Factors influencing weight gain after renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C P; Gallagher-Lepak, S; Zhu, Y R; Porth, C; Kelber, S; Roza, A M; Adams, M B

    1993-10-01

    Weight gain following renal transplantation occurs frequently but has not been investigated quantitatively. A retrospective chart review of 115 adult renal transplant recipients was used to describe patterns of weight gain during the first 5 years after transplantation. Only 23 subjects (21%) were overweight before their transplant. Sixty-six subjects (57%) experienced a weight gain of greater than or equal to 10%, and 49 subjects (43%) were overweight according to Metropolitan relative weight criteria at 1 year after transplantation. There was an inverse correlation between advancing age and weight gain, with the youngest patients (18-29 years) having a 13.3% weight gain and the oldest patients (age greater than 50 years) having the lowest gain of 8.3% at 1 year (P = 0.047). Black recipients experienced a greater weight gain than whites during the first posttransplant year (14.6% vs. 9.0%; P = 0.043), and maintained or increased this difference over the 5-year period. Men and women experienced comparable weight gain during the first year (9.5% vs. 12.1%), but women continued to gain weight throughout the 5-year study (21.0% total weight gain). The men remained stable after the first year (10.8% total weight gain). Recipients who experienced at least a 10% weight gain also increased their serum cholesterol (mean 261 vs. 219) and triglyceride (mean 277 vs. 159) levels significantly, whereas those without weight gain did not. Weight gain did not correlate with cumulative steroid dose, donor source (living-related versus cadaver), rejection history, pre-existing obesity, the number of months on dialysis before transplantation, or posttransplant renal function. Posttransplant weight gain is related mainly to demographic factors, not to treatment factors associated with the transplant. The average weight gain during the first year after renal transplantation is approximately 10%. This increased weight, coupled with changes in lipid metabolism, may be significant in

  16. Factors influencing professional life satisfaction among neurologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira-Poit, Stephanie M; Halpern, Michael T; Kane, Heather L; Keating, Michael; Olmsted, Murrey

    2017-06-19

    Predicted shortages in the supply of neurologists may limit patients' access to and quality of care for neurological disorders. Retaining neurologists already in practice provides one opportunity to support the overall supply of practicing neurologists. Understanding factors associated with professional life satisfaction (and dissatisfaction) and implementing policies to enhance satisfaction may encourage neurologists to remain in clinical practice. In this paper, we present results from the first study examining factors associated with professional life satisfaction among a large sample of U.S, neurologists. We collaborated with the AAN to survey a sample of U.S. neurologists about their professional life satisfaction. Analyses examined the association of physician and practice characteristics with aspects of professional life satisfaction, including satisfaction with their career in medicine, medical specialty, current position, relationship with colleagues, relationship with patients, work/life balance, and pay. The study population consisted of 625 neurologists. In multivariate regression analyses, no single group or population stratum indicated high (or low) responses to all aspects of satisfaction. Older neurologists reported higher satisfaction with career, specialty, and relationship with patients than younger neurologists. Female neurologists had significantly lower satisfaction with pay than male neurologists. Neurologists who spent more time in research and teaching had greater satisfaction with specialty, relationship with colleagues, and relationship with patients than those spending no time in research. Neurologists who practiced in small cities/rural areas reported lower satisfaction across multiple dimensions than those practicing in large urban areas. Neurologists in solo practice had greater satisfaction with the relationship with their patients, but lower satisfaction with pay. Satisfaction is a multidimensional construct that is associated with

  17. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I Serum Levels Influence Ischemic Stroke Outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Smedt, Ann; Brouns, Raf; Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; De Raedt, Sylvie; Moens, Maarten; Wilczak, Nadine; Luijckx, Gert-Jan; De Keyser, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose-Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is neuroprotective in animal models of stroke. We investigated whether serum IGF-I levels in patients with acute ischemic stroke influence stroke severity and outcome. Methods-Concentrations of IGF-I and IGF binding protein 3 were measured

  18. Fish consumption preferences and factors influencing it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ferit Can

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish consumption preferences are affected by individuals’ socioeconomic characteristics. The aims of the present paper were (i to obtain information on fish consumption level and frequency; (ii to investigate the associations between the socioeconomic characteristics of consumers and their preferences; and (iii to examine the influence of determinants on fish consumption. Data were gathered through a questionnaire completed by a total of 127 randomly selected individuals from different socioeconomic backgrounds from the Antakya, Turkey. The average consumption was found to be 2.98 kg/person/year for fish. Anchovies, gilt-head sea bream, and sea bass were reported as the most consumed three species, respectively. Significant differences in fish consumption were found among age groups, gender groups, and education groups, as well as between marital statuses. A majority of the consumers eat fish once a month throughout the year or only during the winter months. Fish consumption level and frequency were significantly positively correlated with education (p<0.01, income (p<0.05 and total meat consumption (p<0.01. The stepwise multiple regression model explained 41.7% (p<0.01 of the total variance for fish consumption. The amount and frequency of the consumption in the region, which is very far below the world and Turkey average especially for lower socioeconomic groups and for less-consumed fish species, can be increased by certain policies, such as training, advertising and different marketing strategies. Moreover, consumption should be distributed equally throughout the year instead of consuming only in certain seasons.

  19. Influence and Analysis of Concentrate Degree of Plasma Arc for Heat Process of Hardening Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shuo-gui; YAN Hong-ri

    2004-01-01

    According to the practicable model of the plasma arc surface quench, the influence law of the heat process、cooling course、 temperature field about surface quench treatment by plasma arc due to the concentrate degree of plasma arc heat source are discussed in this paper. It shows that the concentrate degree of plasma arc heat source can change the width of the hardening zone and can not change the maximum harden depth. With the increase of the concentrate degree, the area of the heat influence zone is decreased and its shape is narrowed after the heat source. Relative to cooling rate, the influence of the heat source concentrate degree for heat absorption is bigger. The correctness of the practical model are proved with experimental results for quench hardening of 45# steel by plasma arc.

  20. Influence and Analysis of Concentrate Degree of Plasma Arc for Heat Process of Hardening Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGShuo-gui; YANHong-ri

    2004-01-01

    According to the practicable model of the plasma arc surtace quench, the influence law ot me heat process, cooling course, temperature field about surface quench treatment by plasma arc due to the concentrate degree of plasma arc heat source are discussed in this paper. It shows that the concentrate degree of plasma arc heat source can change the width of the hardening zone and can not change the maximum harden depth. With the increase of the concentrate degree, the area of the heat influence zone is decreased and its shape is narrowed after the heat source. Relative to cooling rate, the influence of the heat source concentrate degree for heat absorption is bigger. The correctness of the practical model are proved with experimental results for quench hardening of 45# steel by plasma arc.

  1. Subinhibitory concentrations of perilla oil affect the expression of secreted virulence factor genes in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiazhang Qiu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pathogenicity of staphylococcus aureus is dependent largely upon its ability to secrete a number of virulence factors, therefore, anti-virulence strategy to combat S. aureus-mediated infections is now gaining great interest. It is widely recognized that some plant essential oils could affect the production of staphylococcal exotoxins when used at subinhibitory concentrations. Perilla [Perilla frutescens (L. Britton], a natural medicine found in eastern Asia, is primarily used as both a medicinal and culinary herb. Its essential oil (perilla oil has been previously demonstrated to be active against S. aureus. However, there are no data on the influence of perilla oil on the production of S. aureus exotoxins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of perilla oil against S. aureus strains. Hemolysis, tumour necrosis factor (TNF release, Western blot, and real-time RT-PCR assays were performed to evaluate the effects of subinhibitory concentrations of perilla oil on exotoxins production in S. aureus. The data presented here show that perilla oil dose-dependently decreased the production of α-toxin, enterotoxins A and B (the major staphylococcal enterotoxins, and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1 in both methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The production of α-toxin, SEA, SEB, and TSST-1 in S. aureus was decreased by perilla oil. These data suggest that perilla oil may be useful for the treatment of S. aureus infections when used in combination with β-lactam antibiotics, which can increase exotoxins production by S. aureus at subinhibitory concentrations. Furthermore, perilla oil could be rationally applied in food systems as a novel food preservative both to inhibit the growth of S. aureus and to repress the production of exotoxins, particularly staphylococcal enterotoxins.

  2. Factors influencing phototaxis in nocturnal migrating birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuebing; Chen, Mingyan; Wu, Zhaolu; Wang, Zijiang

    2014-12-01

    Many migratory bird species fly during the night (nocturnal migrants) and have been shown to display some phototaxis to artificial light. During 2006 to 2009, we investigated phototaxis in nocturnal migrants at Jinshan Yakou in Xinping County (N23°56', E101°30'; 2400 m above sea-level), and at the Niaowang Mountain in Funing County (N23°30', E105°35'; 1400 m above sea-level), both in the Yunnan Province of Southwest China. A total of 5069 birds, representing 129 species, were captured by mist-netting and artificial light. The extent of phototaxis effect on bird migration was examined during all four seasons, three phases of the moon, and under two weather conditions (mist and wind). Data were statistically analyzed to determine the extent to which these factors may impact phototaxis of nocturnal migrants. The results point to phototaxis in birds migrating in the spring and autumn, especially in the autumn. Furthermore, migrating birds were more readily attracted to artificial lights during nights with little moonlight, mist, and a headwind. Regardless of the initial orientation in which birds flew, either following the wind or against the wind, birds would always fly against the wind when flying towards the light. This study broadens our understanding of the nocturnal bird migration, potentially resulting in improved bird ringing practices, increased awareness, and better policies regarding bird protection.

  3. Factors influencing riverine fish assemblages in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David S.; Richards, Todd A.; Levin, Sara B.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation, Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, and the Massachusetts Department of Fish and Game, conducted an investigation of fish assemblages in small- to medium-sized Massachusetts streams. The objective of this study was to determine relations between fish-assemblage characteristics and anthropogenic factors, including impervious cover and estimated flow alteration, relative to the effects of environmental factors, including physical-basin characteristics and land use. The results of this investigation supersede those of a preliminary analysis published in 2010. Fish data were obtained for 669 fish-sampling sites from the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife fish-community database. A review of the literature was used to select fish metrics - species richness, abundance of individual species, and abundances of species grouped on life history traits - responsive to flow alteration. The contributing areas to the fish-sampling sites were delineated and used with a geographic information system to determine a set of environmental and anthropogenic factors that were tested for use as explanatory variables in regression models. Reported and estimated withdrawals and return flows were used together with simulated unaltered streamflows to estimate altered streamflows and indicators of flow alteration for each fish-sampling site. Altered streamflows and indicators of flow alteration were calculated on the basis of methods developed in a previous U.S. Geological Survey study in which unaltered daily streamflows were simulated for a 44-year period (water years 1961-2004), and streamflow alterations were estimated by use of water-withdrawal and wastewater-return data previously reported to the State for the 2000-04 period and estimated domestic-well withdrawals and septic-system discharges. A variable selection process, conducted using principal

  4. INFLUENCE OF ACID CONCENTRATION, TEMPERATURE, AND TIME ON THE CONCENTRATED SULFURIC ACID HYDROLYSIS OF PINEWOOD AND ASPENWOOD: A STATISTICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kando K. Janga

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects on sugar yields of acid concentration, temperature, and time in the first (decrystallization stage of a two-stage concentrated sulfuric acid hydrolysis of softwood (Scots pine and hardwood (aspen were investigated. The study focused on the multi-variable effects of the decrystallization stage and applied a statistical modeling with Central Composite Face (CCF design of experiment to systematically study and simulate the effect of decrystallization reaction conditions on hydrolysis products and degradation products. The models were statistically significant and showed that for both aspen and pine, the reaction temperature and acid concentration were the most influential variables on monosaccharides and total sugar yields compared to the reaction time. The interaction between temperature and acid concentration was the most important for both species. The sugar degradation products were much influenced by the decrystallization temperature on both aspen and pine. The models were validated by a test-set and showed a good agreement between the experimental and predicted values. The optimum predicted total sugar yields were 56 g / 100 g d.w for aspen (74% theoretical and 64 g / 100 g d.w for pine (91% theoretical.

  5. Factors influencing particulate lipid production in the East Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gašparović, B.; Frka, S.; Koch, B. P.; Zhu, Z. Y.; Bracher, A.; Lechtenfeld, O. J.; Neogi, S. B.; Lara, R. J.; Kattner, G.

    2014-07-01

    Extensive analyses of particulate lipids and lipid classes were conducted to gain insight into lipid production and related factors along the biogeochemical provinces of the Eastern Atlantic Ocean. Data are supported by particulate organic carbon (POC), chlorophyll a (Chl a), phaeopigments, Chl a concentrations and carbon content of eukaryotic micro-, nano- and picophytoplankton, including cell abundances for the latter two and for cyanobacteria and prokaryotic heterotrophs. We focused on the productive ocean surface (2 m depth and deep Chl a maximum (DCM). Samples from the deep ocean provided information about the relative reactivity and preservation potential of particular lipid classes. Surface and DCM particulate lipid concentrations (3.5-29.4 μg L-1) were higher than in samples from deep waters (3.2-9.3 μg L-1) where an increased contribution to the POC pool was observed. The highest lipid concentrations were measured in high latitude temperate waters and in the North Atlantic Tropical Gyral Province (13-25°N). Factors responsible for the enhanced lipid synthesis in the eastern Atlantic appeared to be phytoplankton size (micro, nano, pico) and the low nutrient status with microphytoplankton having the most expressed influence in the surface and eukaryotic nano- and picophytoplankton in the DCM layer. Higher lipid to Chl a ratios suggest enhanced lipid biosynthesis in the nutrient poorer regions. The various lipid classes pointed to possible mechanisms of phytoplankton adaptation to the nutritional conditions. Thus, it is likely that adaptation comprises the replacement of membrane phospholipids by non-phosphorus containing glycolipids under low phosphorus conditions. The qualitative and quantitative lipid compositions revealed that phospholipids were the most degradable lipids, and their occurrence decreased with increasing depth. In contrast, wax esters, possibly originating from zooplankton, survived downward transport probably due to the fast sinking

  6. Factors influencing ring closure through olefin metathesis - A perspective

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subrata Ghosh; Sarita Ghosh; Niladri Sarkar

    2006-05-01

    Success of ring closure reactions of substrates having two terminal alkenes through olefin metathesis depends on a number of factors such as catalysts, nature and size of the rings to be formed and the substituents/functional groups present on the alkenes as well as at the allylic position. This article presents an overview of these influencing factors with illustrative examples.

  7. Professional Identity Development in Higher Education: Influencing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarà-i-Molinero, Alba; Cascón-Pereira, Rosalía; Hernández-Lara, Ana beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In the last few years, the interest on professional identity development (PID) and the factors that influence PID has become central in higher education (HE) literature. However, the knowledge developed in this domain has focussed on a factor at a time and on a degree or discipline, thus being difficult to have a general picture of all…

  8. Influence of Psychological Factors on the Improvement of Spoken English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董宁

    2013-01-01

      From learner's innermost feelings,the author attempts to elaborate the influences of psychological factors on improving the spoken language. The study of spoken English is a very complex process, which is affected easily by learner's linguistic environment and character. We can draw a conclusion that psychological factors are an important problem and cannot be neglected.

  9. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology : an expert stakeholder analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, N.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Lans, van der I.A.; Frewer, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an import

  10. The influence of motivational factors on choice behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Amelsfort, D.H.; Steg, L.; Bliemer, M.C.J.; Schuitema, G.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we investigate if and how motivational factors influence choice behaviour. We study four motivational factors: attitude towards car use, personal norm to reduce car use, car use habit, and perceived behavioural control to change car use to explain the choice behaviour of respondents in

  11. Using mixed methods to identify factors influencing patient flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vaerenbergh, Cindy

    2009-11-01

    An effective method of identifying operational factors that influence patient flow can potentially lead to improvements and thus have huge benefits on the efficiency of hospital departments. This paper presents a new inductive mixed-method approach to identify operational factors that influence patient flow through an accident and emergency (A&E) department. Preliminary explorative observations were conducted, followed by semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders. A questionnaire survey of all medical, nursing, porter and clerical staff was then conducted. The observations provided factors for further exploration: skill-mix, long working hours, equipment availability, lack of orientation programmes, inefficient IT use and issues regarding communication structures. Interviewees highlighted several factors, including availability of medical supervision and senior nursing staff, nursing documentation issues, lack of morale due to overcrowding, personality differences and factors relating to the department layout. The questionnaire respondents strongly supported the importance of the previously identified factors. This paper demonstrates an effective mixed-method approach that can be replicated by other health-care managers to identify factors influencing patient flow. Further benefits include increased volume and quality of data, increased staff awareness for the influence of internal factors on patient flow and enhancing the evidence base for future decision making when prioritizing A&E projects.

  12. Psychosocial Factors Influencing Competency of Children's Statements on Sexual Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Kyung; Choi, Soul; Shin, Yee Jin

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study are to assess children's competence to state their traumatic experience and to determine psychosocial factors influencing the competency of children's statements, such as emotional factors of children and parents and trauma-related variables, in Korean child sex abuse victims. Methods: We enrolled 214…

  13. Factors Influencing Technology Planning in Developing Countries: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keengwe, Jared; Malapile, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    This article is a literature review concerning the factors that play an important role in the development of educational technology plans in the educational system of developing countries (DCs). Largely, the technology plans are influenced by factors that emanates from within the country (internal) and those outside of their borders (external).…

  14. Factors that Influence Students' Decision to Dropout of Online Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willging, Pedro A.; Johnson, Scott D.

    2009-01-01

    Although there are many reasons why students dropout of college courses, those reasons may be unique for students who are enrolled in an online program. Issues of isolation, disconnectedness, and technological problems may be factors that influence a student to leave a course. To understand these factors, an online survey was developed to collect…

  15. Factors Influencing Psychological Help Seeking in Adults: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topkaya, Nursel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current research is to identify which factors, and in what direction these factors influence adults' decisions to seek psychological help for their personal problems. The research was designed as a phenomenology model; the data was gathered through the semi-structured interview technique, which is mostly used in qualitative research…

  16. FACTORS INFLUENCING YIELD SPREADS OF THE MALAYSIAN BONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norliza Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysian bond market is developing rapidly but not much is understood in terms of macroeconomic factors that could influence the yield spread of the Ringgit Malaysian denominated bonds. Based on a multifactor model, this paper examines the impact of four macroeconomic factors namely: Kuala Lumpur Composite Index (KLCI, Industry Production Index (IPI, Consumer Price Index (CPI and interest rates (IR on bond yield spread of the Malaysian Government Securities (MGS and Corporate Bonds (CBs for a period from January 2001 to December 2008. The findings support the expected hypotheses that CPI and IR are the major drivers that influence the changes in MGS yield spreads. However IPI and KLCI have weak and no influence on MGS yield spreads respectively Whilst IR, CPI and IPI have significant influence on the yield spreads of CB1, CB2 and CB3, KLCI has significant influence only on the CB1 yield spread but not on CB2 and CB3 yield spreads.

  17. Spatial and temporal variations in concentration factors in NW European seas - secondary use of monitoring data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kershaw, P.J.; Mcmahon, C.A.; Rudjord, A.L.; Smedley, C.; Nawakowski, C.; Leonard, K.S. [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS), Lowestoft (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents new data on concentration factors (CFs: concentration kg-1 biota/concentration l-1 seawater) for several marine species-radionuclide pairs, in three regions: coastal waters of Ireland, eastern Irish Sea, coastal waters of Norway. The CFs were estimated using data from long-term monitoring programmes, obtained for radiological protection purposes. The practical constraints of using such data sources are discussed. CFs were obtained for Mytilus edulis (mussels), Nephrops norvegicus (Norway lobster/Dublin Bay prawn/scampi), Pleuronectes platessa (plaice), Cancer pagurus (edible crab), Littorina littoria (winkles) and Fucus vesiculosus, for one or more of the following radionuclides: {sup 99}Tc, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am. In general, there was a relatively high degree of variability in the values obtained, and it was not possible to discern systematic regional or time-dependent differences. However, for two datasets in the eastern Irish Sea ({sup 137}Cs in winkles and crabs) there was a statistically-significant increase in the CF over the 40 year monitoring period. In several cases the range of values obtained exceeded the range recommended by the IAEA. In 2002, the average {sup 99}Tc CF for F. vesiculosus from the eastern Irish Sea coastline was 26, significantly lower than the IAEA recommended valve (1 x 10{sup 3} - 1 x 10{sup 5}).The results are discussed in relation to the influence of contemporaneous discharges and the possible impact of re-mobilised radionuclides. (author)

  18. 先天性心脏病患儿血浆内皮素-1变化及其临床意义的研究%CHANGES AND INFLUENCING FACTORS OF PLASMA ENDOTHELIN CONCENTRATIONS IN CHILDREN ASSOCIATED WITH CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵翠芬; 王玉玮; 夏伟; 杨兴季

    2001-01-01

    目的:研究先天性心脏病(CHD)患儿血浆内皮素-1(ET-1)浓度的变化,分析各种因素对ET-1浓度的影响,探讨CHD患儿血浆ET-1水平变化的机制和意义。方法:对照组:30例。观察组:97例CHD患儿,其中肺充血组69例,肺缺血组28例;肺充血伴肺动脉高压(肺高压,PH)50例,不伴PHl9例。用放免法直接测定每例静脉血中ET-1含量。结果:①左向右分流的CHD患儿血浆ET-1浓度明显增加,达正常对照约2.5倍,在PH形成之前ET-1浓度已经升高,达正常对照约1.5倍;②PH病人ET-l含量增高且随肺动脉压的升高而增高;③心脏扩大对血浆ET-1浓度无影响;④前列腺素E1(20~40ng·kg-1.min-1)可降低肺高压患儿血浆ET-1水平。结论:肺血流量增加是ET-1生成增多的主要原因;ET-1可引起肺高压,肺高压可促进ET-1的产生,PGE1可延缓PH的形成和发展。%Objective:The present study was to make sure how the plasma ET-1 levels changed in congenital heart defects(CHD)patients and search for the mechanism and significance of the changes in ET-1 concentrations through comparing various influencing factors of ET-1 levels. Methods: Control group: 30 healthy children. Observation group:Selected 97 CHD patients including 69 pulmonary congestive CHD patients and 28pulmonary ischemic CHD patients. Their plasma ET-1 concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. Results:CHD patients with left to right shunts and increased pulmonary blood flow had elevated peripheral venous endothelin- 1 concentrations in contrast with normal subjects; Pulmonary hypertension(PH) associated with CHD patients had higher ET-1 levels than those without PH patients and the severer the PH was, the higher the ET-1 concentrations were. Enlargement of the heart size could not increase the plasma ET-1 levels; Intravenous PGE1 treatment can decrease the plasma ET-1 concentrations. Conclusion:Increased pulmonary blood flow is the main

  19. Reservoirs and water management influence fish mercury concentrations in the western United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willacker, James J.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Lutz, Michelle A.; Tate, Michael T.; Lepak, Jesse M.; Ackerman, Josh

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic manipulation of aquatic habitats can profoundly alter mercury (Hg) cycling and bioaccumulation. The impoundment of fluvial systems is among the most common habitat manipulations and is known to increase fish Hg concentrations immediately following impoundment. However, it is not well understood how Hg concentrations differ between reservoirs and lakes at large spatial and temporal scales or how reservoir management influences fish Hg concentrations. This study evaluated total Hg (THg) concentrations in 64,386 fish from 883 reservoirs and 1387 lakes, across the western United States and Canada, to assess differences between reservoirs and lakes, as well as the influence of reservoir management on fish THg concentrations. Fish THg concentrations were 1.4-fold higher in reservoirs (0.13 ± 0.011 μg/g wet weight ± standard error) than lakes (0.09 ± 0.006), though this difference varied among ecoregions. Fish THg concentrations were 1.5- to 2.6-fold higher in reservoirs than lakes of the North American Deserts, Northern Forests, and Mediterranean California ecoregions, but did not differ between reservoirs and lakes in four other ecoregions. Fish THg concentrations peaked in three-year-old reservoirs then rapidly declined in 4–12 year old reservoirs. Water management was particularly important in influencing fish THg concentrations, which were up to 11-times higher in reservoirs with minimum water storage occurring in May, June, or July compared to reservoirs with minimum storage occurring in other months. Between-year changes in maximum water storage strongly influenced fish THg concentrations, but within-year fluctuations in water levels did not influence fish THg concentrations. Specifically, fish THg concentrations increased up to 3.2-fold over the range of between-year changes in maximum water storage in all ecoregions except Mediterranean California. These data highlight the role of reservoir creation and management in influencing fish

  20. Factors influencing nursing career choices and choice of study program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haron, Yafa; Reicher, Sima; Riba, Shoshana

    2014-01-01

    In advance of a recruitment campaign, Israeli first-year nursing students of all ethnicities were surveyed to elucidate what factors had influenced them to make nursing their career and what sort of training track they preferred. The responses made it clear that different factors influence different groups differently. There were noticeable differences by gender, age, and ethnicity. Overall, training institutions were chosen for their closeness to the student's home but other factors also operated among particular groups, such as institutional prestige and flexible entry criteria. There was a blatant preference for academic, particularly university-sited, programs over diploma programs.

  1. A Discussion on Motivation Factor Influencing Second Language Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛芊芊

    2016-01-01

    Various characteristics can influence students'second language acquisition and language development, which in-cludes age, gender, personality, cognitive ability, motivation, learning strategies and so on. Among all these factors mentioned, motivation factor that is categorized into learner factors affects learner's learning effect to a great extent. In this paper, motiva-tion characteristic that influences second language learning are discussed. At last, some strategies on the real classroom teaching application are provided after the discussion, which aims at making contribution to the second language teaching process as well as students'language development.

  2. Nurturing Sport Expertise: Factors Influencing the Development of Elite Athlete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joseph; Horton, Sean; Robertson-Wilson, Jennifer; Wall, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The development of expertise in sport is the result of successful interaction of biological, psychological, and sociological constraints. This review examines the training and environmental factors that influence the acquisition of sport expertise. Research examining the quality and quantity of training indicate that these two elements are crucial predictors of attainment. In addition, the possession of resources such as parental support and adequate coaching are essential. Social factors such as cultural influences and the relative age effect are also considered as determinants of sport expertise. Although it is evident that environmental factors are essential to the acquisition of high levels of sport development, further research is clearly required. PMID:24616603

  3. NURTURING SPORT EXPERTISE: FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DEVELOPMENT OF ELITE ATHLETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wall

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of expertise in sport is the result of successful interaction of biological, psychological, and sociological constraints. This review examines the training and environmental factors that influence the acquisition of sport expertise. Research examining the quality and quantity of training indicate that these two elements are crucial predictors of attainment. In addition, the possession of resources such as parental support and adequate coaching are essential. Social factors such as cultural influences and the relative age effect are also considered as determinants of sport expertise. Although it is evident that environmental factors are essential to the acquisition of high levels of sport development, further research is clearly required

  4. Which factors influence women in the decision to breastfeed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida Canicali Primo

    Full Text Available Objective.Identify the factors that influence women in the decision to breastfeed. Methods. Integrative review. Information was gathered from original articles, case studies, theoretical studies, consensus and systematic reviews published between 2007-2013 in Spanish, Portuguese and English and recovered in the databases MEDLINE and LILACS. The descriptors used in this study were: breastfeeding, maternal behavior, risk factors, lactation and newborn. Results. Were included 30 articles, grouped into five categories. Factors influencing the decision of the breastfeeding woman are a convergence of breastfeeding's advantages, benefits and justifications, family, social and professional support, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of women, personal experience and family tradition and personal choice. Conclusion. The decision to breastfeed by women is influenced by a convergence of factors. It is essential the role of nursing to encourage women in the decision to initiate and maintain breastfeeding her child.

  5. Factors affecting yearly variations of indoor radon concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steck, D.J.; Baynes, S.A. [John`s Univ., Collegeville, MN (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Since indoor radon exposures take place over many years while radon measurement periods are shorter, we are studying the yearly variation of indoor radon concentrations in approximately 100 houses located throughout Minnesota. Most houses were initially measured for one or more years in the late 1980`s and for 5 consecutive years starting in 1990. Two houses have been monitored for 12 y. Each year, two alpha track detectors were placed on the two lowest livable levels. The year-to-year variations averaged about 35% (corrected for instrumental uncertainties) in both basements and first floors. The minimum observed variation was 5% and the maximum was 130%. Some homes have shown substantial variation associated with Structural modifications. While most homes show no obvious systematic trends, a few houses have shown temporal trends that may be associated with aging or climate. We are studying possible correlation between year-to-year radon variation, climatic variables (yearly-average and seasonal such as heating/cooling degree days, precipitation, soil moisture), and structural changes.

  6. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH: a new sleep factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo eTorterolo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Neurons that utilize the neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH as a neuromodulator are mainly located in the lateral hypothalamus and the incerto-hypothalamic area, and have widespread projections throughout the brain. While the biological functions of this neuropeptide are exerted in humans through two metabotropic receptors, the MCHR1 and MCHR2, only the MCHR1 is present in rodents. Recently, it has been shown that the MCHergic system is involved in the control of sleep. We can summarize the experimental findings as follows:1. The areas related to the control of sleep and wakefulness have an important density of MCHergic fibers and receptors.2. MCHergic neurons are active during sleep, especially during REM sleep.3. Genetically-modified animals without MCH have less REM sleep, notably under conditions of negative energy balance. 4. Systemically administered MCHR1 antagonists reduce sleep. 5. Intraventricular microinjection of MCH increases both slow wave sleep (SWS and REM sleep; however, the increment in REM sleep is more pronounced.6. Microinjection of MCH into the dorsal raphe nucleus increases REM sleep time. REM seep is inhibited by immunoneutralization of MCH within this nucleus.7. Microinjection of MCH in the nucleus pontis oralis of the cat enhances REM sleep time and reduces REM sleep latency.All these data strongly suggest that MCH has a potent role in the promotion of sleep. Although both SWS and REM sleep are facilitated by MCH, REM sleep seems to be more sensitive to MCH modulation.

  7. RISK FACTORS INFLUENCING CONSTRUCTION PROCUREMENT PERFORMANCE IN NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Dahiru, A; Aminu, Muhammad Bashir

    2016-01-01

    One of the challenges facing construction procurement performance is the failure to determine the risk related factors limiting its success. These risk factors can cause a significant increase in the procurement cost leading to an increase in the overall project cost. The purpose of this study is to identify and evaluate the risk factors influencing construction procurement performance with a view to achieve the overall project performance. The objectives are to establish a relative significa...

  8. Environmental factors influencing asexual reproductive processes in echinoderms

    OpenAIRE

    Mladenov, Pv

    1996-01-01

    This review provides a brief update of the occurrence and adaptive significance of asexual reproduction in echinoderms. It then focuses on the state of knowledge of biotic and abiotic factors that influence asexual processes in this group, particularly factors that may play a role in regulating the expression and relative proportion of asexual versus sexual phenotypes within populations of species, as well as factors modulating and triggering asexual processes. The information presented in th...

  9. Factors Influencing Mathematic Problem-Solving Ability of Sixth Grade Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakorn Pimta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study aims to investigate factors influencing mathematic problem-solving ability of sixth grade students. One thousand and twenty eight of sixth grade students, studying in the second semester of academic year 2007 were sampled by stratified random sampling technique. Approach: The research instruments used in the study included mathematic problem-solving ability test and questionnaires. Data was analyzed by Path Analysis. Results: Factors influencing mathematic problem-solving ability were represented as following: (1 direct factors influencing mathematic problem-solving ability were described that direct and indirect factors influencing mathematic problem-solving ability were attitude towards mathematics, self-esteem and teachers’ teaching behavior. Indirect factors influencing mathematic problem-solving ability were motivation and self-efficacy (2 factor models influencing mathematic problem-solving ability of sixth grade students was associated with visual data (3 The developed model could describe variance of skill in mathematic problem-solving at 63.00 % (R2 = 0.63. Conclusion: Teacher’s behaviors took both direct and indirect effects on the students’ mathematic problem solving. The teachers are supposed to study the methods to develop this ability deeply and then bring them to manage the activities in class that encourage students to be enthusiastic to learn and have good attitude toward mathematic learning or to get students’ concentration.

  10. Influence of meal composition on postprandial peripheral plasma concentrations of vasoactive peptides in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen-Bjergaard, U; Høst, U; Kelbaek, H

    1996-01-01

    In a randomized cross-over study healthy non-obese male human subjects received standardized isocaloric, isovolumetric meals consisting of either carbohydrate, protein or fat and a non-caloric control meal consisting of an equal volume of water. Peripheral venous plasma concentrations of calcitonin...... that the postprandial peripheral plasma concentrations of CGRP, VIP and PYY are dependent on the caloric meal composition. The VIP, but not the CGRP and PYY concentrations seem to be influenced by gastric distension. The physiological significance of the postprandial alterations in peripheral concentrations...

  11. Concentration influences on recovery in a high gradient magnetic separation axial filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murariu, V.; Rezlescu, N.; Rotariu, O.; Badescu, V. [Inst. of Technical Physics, Iasi (Romania)

    1998-05-01

    The buildup differential equations for the case of a single wire in high gradient magnetic filtration (HGMF)-axial configuration taking into account the suspension concentration are solved. A new equation for the deposit contour surface at different moments and for different suspension concentrations are obtained. The existence of a particulate suspension concentration, for which the radial extension velocity of deposit is maximum, is evidenced. The recovery for an ordered ferromagnetic matrix is calculated. The influence of the solid particle concentration from suspension on the filtration efficiency is presented.

  12. Factors Influencing High School Students' Science Enrollments Patterns: Academic Abilities, Parental Influences, and Attitudes toward Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Ghada A.; Voss, Burton E.

    This study was designed, using a path analytic model, to assess the relative impact of different factors on science concentration decisions made by grade 10 high school students (N=237). Included in the model were selected demographic and socioeconomic factors, academic abilities factors (including logical thinking), indicators of home and school…

  13. Genetic and environmental factors influencing the Placental Growth Factor (PGF) variation in two populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorice, Rossella; Ruggiero, Daniela; Nutile, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    . However, to date, no information is available regarding the genetics of PGF variability. Furthermore, even though the effect of environmental factors (e.g.: cigarette smoking) on angiogenesis has been explored, no data on the influence of these factors on PGF levels have been reported so far. Here we have...... strongly replicated in the Danish sample. These results, for the first time, support the hypothesis of the presence of genetic and environmental factors influencing PGF plasma variability....

  14. 基于表面等离子共振GGBP胺耦合绑定的葡萄糖浓度测量影响因素%Influencing Factors in Glucose Concentration Detection by Surface Plasmon Resonance with GGBP Amine Coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍鹏; 栗大超; 杨佳; 朱芮; 徐可欣

    2012-01-01

    The glucose concentration of human interstitial fluid is closely related to that of human blood. The minimally invasive blood glucose monitoring can be realized by measuring the glucose concentration of interstitial fluid. Considering the complexity of the interstitial fluid, the D-galactose/D-glucose binding protein (GGBP) which can specifically absorb glucose molecules can be used to modify the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor with amine coupling method to realize glucose selective measurement. The measuring process is complicated, so the factors which influence the measurement accuracy need to be evaluated to obtain the optimized measurement condition. A SPR glucose concentration detection system based on a miniature integrated SPR sensor was set up, the factors affecting the measurement results were studied systemically by experiments, including protein purification, protein activity, baseline, flow velocity, mass transfer effect, temperature and bubble, and some solutions were proposed accordingly. The study optimizes the measurement process and provides important instruction for the standardization and development of miniaturization instrument.%人体组织液中的葡萄糖浓度与血糖浓度密切相关,微创血糖检测通过测量组织液中的葡萄糖浓度来预测血糖浓度,而组织液中成分复杂,利用对葡萄糖有特异性吸附作用的D-半乳糖/D-葡萄糖结合蛋白(GGBP)胺耦合绑定修饰表面等离子共振(SPR)传感器可以实现葡萄糖选择性测量.但是由于测量过程复杂,需要对影响测量精度的因素进行评价,确定最佳测量条件,以微型SPR传感器为核心搭建了一套葡萄糖浓度测量系统,系统地分析研究了GGBP胺耦合绑定SPR葡萄糖浓度测量过程中的各种影响因素,在不同实验条件下进行了测量实验,获得了蛋白质纯化、蛋白质活性、基线、流速、传质效应、温度和气泡等对测量结果的影响机制,提出了相应的解

  15. The wills of older people: risk factors for undue influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peisah, C; Finkel, S; Shulman, K; Melding, P; Luxenberg, J; Heinik, J; Jacoby, R; Reisberg, B; Stoppe, G; Barker, A; Firmino, H; Bennett, H

    2009-02-01

    As people live longer, there is increasing potential for mental disorders to interfere with testamentary distribution and render older people more vulnerable to "undue influence" when they are making a will. Accordingly, clinicians dealing with the mental disorders of older people will be called upon increasingly to advise the courts about a person's vulnerability to undue influence. A Subcommittee of the IPA Task Force on Testamentary Capacity and Undue Influence undertook to establish consensus on the definition of undue influence and the provision of guidelines for expert assessment of risk factors for undue influence. International jurisdictions differ in their approach to the notion of undue influence. Despite differences in legal systems, from a clinical perspective, the subcommittee identified some common "red flags" which might alert the expert to risk of undue influence. These include: (i) social or environmental risk factors such as dependency, isolation, family conflict and recent bereavement; (ii) psychological and physical risk factors such as physical disability, deathbed wills, sexual bargaining, personality disorders, substance abuse and mental disorders including dementia, delirium, mood and paranoid disorders; and (iii) legal risk factors such as unnatural provisions in a will, or provisions not in keeping with previous wishes of the person making the will, and the instigation or procurement of a will by a beneficiary. This review provides some guidance for experts who are requested by the courts to provide an opinion on the risk of undue influence. Whilst international jurisdictions require different thresholds of proof for a finding of undue influence, there is good international consensus on the clinical indicators for the concept.

  16. [Factors influencing research activity of Andalusian nurses and improvement strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Alonso, Sergio R; Gálvez González, María; Amezcua, Manuel

    2013-04-01

    To identify factors influencing research activity of Andalusian nurses and to find improvement strategies. Qualitative research using SWOT analysis (weaknesses, threats, strengths, opportunities). Nurses were selected deliberately in eight groups according to predetermined criteria. Analysis included categorization and relationship of factors and strategies. 81 participants were included in groups of 7-12 range. 45 categories were identified with 212 factors: 12 weaknesses (50 factors), 10 strengths (44 factors), 12 threats (68 factors) and 11 opportunities (50 factors). In addition, 32 categories were identified with 53 strategies: 14 categories of W-T strategies (42 strategies), 3 categories of S-T strategies (11 strategies), 5 categories of W-O strategies (13 strategies) and 10 categories of S-O strategies (41 strategies). Nurses identified numerous factors, mainly threats. The strategies are focused on W-T but they also suggest many but weak 5-0 strategies due to the low potential of the opportunities and strengths perceived.

  17. Factors influencing adherence among older people with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loew, Laurianne; Brosseau, Lucie; Kenny, Glen P; Durand-Bush, Natalie; Poitras, Stéphane; De Angelis, Gino; Wells, George A

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to identify potential factors that could affect adherence and influence the implementation of an evidence-based structured walking program, among older adults diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis. A total of 69 participants with mild to moderate osteoarthritis of the knee fulfilled an online survey on potential factors that could affect their adherence to an evidence-based structured walking program. Adherence with regard to the influencing factors was explored using a logistic regression model. Results tend to show higher odds of adhering to the evidence-based walking program if the participants were supervised (more than 2.9 times as high), supported by family/friends (more than 3.7 times as high), and not influenced by emotional involvement (more than 11 times as high). The odds of adhering were 3.6 times lower for participants who indicated a change in their medication intake and 3.1 times lower for individuals who considered themselves as less physically active (95 % confidence interval (CI)). Our exploratory findings identified and defined potential adherence factors that could guide health professionals in their practice to better identify positive influences and obstacles to treatment adherence, which would lead to the adoption of a more patient-centered approach. A large-scale study is required to clearly delineate the key factors that would influence adherence. We addressed a new knowledge gap by identifying the main strategies to promote the long-term adherence of community-based walking program.

  18. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in UK soils and the influence of soil, vegetation type and seasonality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Leon J L; Shotbolt, Laura; Ashmore, Mike R

    2012-06-15

    Given the lack of studies which measured dissolved organic carbon (DOC) over long periods, especially in non-forest habitat, the aim of this study was to expand the existing datasets with data of mainly non-forest sites that were representative of the major soil and habitat types in the UK. A further aim was to predict DOC concentrations from a number of biotic and abiotic explanatory variables such as rainfall, temperature, vegetation type and soil type in a multivariate way. Pore water was sampled using Rhizon or Prenart samplers at two to three week intervals for 1 year. DOC, pH, organic carbon, carbon/nitrogen (C:N) ratios of soils and slope were measured and data on vegetation, soil type, temperature and precipitation were obtained. The majority of the variation in DOC concentrations between the UK sites could be explained by simple empirical models that included annual precipitation, and soil C:N ratio with precipitation being negatively related to DOC concentrations and C:N ratio being positively related to DOC concentrations. Our study adds significantly to the data reporting DOC concentrations in soils, especially in grasslands, heathlands and moorlands. Broad climatic and site factors have been identified as key factors influencing DOC concentrations.

  19. MILK WITH INCREASED CONCENTRATION OF MELATONIN PACKAGING FACTORS ON CONSUMER PURCHASE INTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Patricia Milagres

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The conjoint analysis of factors was used employed to develop a label for the packaging of milk with increased concentration of melatonin. Three factors were selected with three or two levels for the assembly of packaging: packaging design (“blue design with stars and pouring milk”, “white without drawing” and “blue stars with and without drawing”, name (“milk night “and” melatonin “ and informative text about getting natural melatonin by night milking, and the benefits of this compound (“with” and “without”. Twelve packaging designs were created based on a complete factorial arrangement. The designs were presented to 144 consumers who were asked to assess purchase intent of each package. For the joint analysis of factors, the ideal product or more likely to purchase for the most consumers would be blue with stars and packaging design of milk pouring, named milk night and in the presence of informational text, demonstrating that consumers like a package that brings the product and that contains information described. Therefore, the packaging has a major influence on consumer choice and can contribute positively or negatively to the acceptance of food.

  20. A survey on critical factors influencing organizational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Kheirkhah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Organizational commitment is an important issue and organization attitude has become an area of study among many researchers in the fields of organizational behavior. In fact, there are many studies on human resource management where the effects of organizational commitment on other issues have been investigated and the purpose of this research is to find critical factors influencing on organizational commitment. Based on an exploration of the literature review and interviews, the proposed study of this paper extracts 24 variables and using factor analysis, we select the most important factors, which are grouped in four categories. The implementation of our factor analysis has revealed Affective commitment, Continuous commitment, Moral commitment and Enduring commitment are the most important factors influencing organizational commitment.

  1. A survey on critical factors influencing agricultural insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Valipour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural business is a very high-risk job and an increase demand for agricultural products from one side and steady increase in production cost and weather changes, on the other side, have motivated many to use insurance for agricultural products. Insurance plays an important role in influencing crop production and insured satisfaction or farmers. The purpose of this research is to find critical components in agricultural insurance. Based on an exploration of the literature review and interviews, the proposed study of this paper extracts 24 variables and using factor analysis, we select the most important factors, which are grouped in seven categories. The implementation of our factor analysis has revealed uncertainty, moderator, market equilibrium, risky environment, empowering factor, education, training, structural hazards and natural ecosystems as the most important factors influencing agricultural industry.

  2. FACTORS INFLUENCING BRAND EQUITY OF BALI AS A TOURISM DESTINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Surya Diarta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Globally, competition among tourism destinations is more stringent in getting foreign tourists, including Bali. One effort to win the competition is increasing destination brand equity through maintaining its influencing factors and gaining tourist positive behavior toward destination. This effort, in long run, will increase and stabilize destination revenue and sustainability. This research aims to analyze factors influencing brand equity of Bali as a tourism destination. This research was conducted in Bali’s five major tourism objects. The 240 foreign tourists were chosen as respondents through convenience sampling technique. Data were analyzed using factor analysis. The results showed that factors that significantly influenced Bali brand equity were: symbolic and experiential benefit factor, direct and indirect destinations attributes, destination reliability and tangibility, assurance and empathy, brand destinations recognition and recall, destinations common psychological attributes, destination common functional attributes, unique functional attributes, behavioral loyalty, destination awareness, and attitudinal loyalty. Given the fluctuative nature of brand equity, Bali needs a consistent effort to maintain or to enhance brand equity of Bali as a tourism destination. Maintaining the dominant factors that influence the strength of brand equity can be used as a basis to develop destination branding strategy to expand market segment,  choose the right target market, and anchoring destination position in world market competition.

  3. Factors negatively influencing knowledge sharing in software development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas T. Khoza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: ‘Knowledge is power’ and software developing organisations are dependent on knowledge to achieve and maintain a competitive advantage. Subsequently, knowledge sharing is a key factor for modern software developing organisations to succeed in today’s competitive environment. For software developing organisations to reach their goals and objectives, knowledge sharing – and in particular the sharing of useful knowledge – needs to be targeted. To promote knowledge sharing, factors influencing knowledge sharing need to be identified and understood.Objective: This study seeks to identify factors that negatively influence knowledge sharing in software development in the developing country context.Method: Expert sampling as a subcategory of purposive sampling was employed to extract information, views and opinions from experts in the field of information and communication technology, more specifically from those who are involved in software development projects. Four Johannesburg-based software developing organisations listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE, South Africa, participated in this research study. Quantitative data were collected using an online questionnaire with closed-ended questions.Results: Findings of this research reveal that job security, motivation, time constraints, physiological factors, communication, resistance to change and rewards are core factors negatively influencing knowledge sharing in software developing organisations.Conclusions: Improved understanding of factors negatively influencing knowledge sharing is expected to assist software developing organisations in closing the gap for software development projects failing to meet the triple constraint of time, cost and scope.

  4. Influence of social factors on lead exposure and child development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornschein, R.L.

    1985-10-01

    A brief overview of current views of child development is provided, with particular attention given to the role the child's physical and social environment plays in influencing the developmental process. Examples from the recent literature are used to illustrate how these factors can influence lead exposure and most importantly how they might interact with lead to ameliorate or exacerbate possible lead effects. An example is provided which demonstrates that failure to control adequately and to adjust the data statistically to correct for the influence of these factors can lead one erroneously to attribute cognitive and behavioral changes to lead. Finally, data from the Cincinnati Prospective Lead Study are presented to illustrate the application of structural equation modeling as a means for unraveling the complex web of sociodemographic, environmental and behavioral influences on childhood lead exposure.

  5. ICT Interventions for Girls: Factors Influencing ICT Career Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gorbacheva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Intervention programs aimed at promoting study and work opportunities in the Information and Communications Technology (ICT field to schoolgirls have been encouraged to combat a decline in the interest among girls to study ICT at school. The goal of our study is to investigate the influence of such interventions on schoolgirls’ intentions to choose a career in the ICT field by analysing comprehensive survey data (n = 3577, collected during four interventions in Australia, using the Partial Least Squares method. Our study is also aimed at identifying other factors influencing ICT career intentions. We found that the attitude towards interventions has an indirect influence on ICT career intentions by affecting interest in ICT. Our results also challenge several existing theoretical studies by showing that factors that had previously been suggested as influencers were found to have little or no impact in this study, these being same-sex education and computer usage.

  6. [Influence of Perftoran nanoemulsion on blood plasma concentrations of lipophilic drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pshenkina, N N

    2012-01-01

    The influence of perfluorocarbon blood substitute Perfloran on the plasma concentrations of bendazole, drotaverine, ketorolac and verapamil upon intravenous introduction after Perfloran infusion (5 ml/kg) has been investigated on rabbits. It has been found that the plasma concentrations of verapamil, drotaverine and bendazole (highly lipophilic drugs with log(P) = 4.5, 4.9 and 3.5, respectively) increased in the presence of Perfloran. The influence of Perfloran on the concentration of weakly lipophilic ketorolac was less significant. Perfloran effectively bound drotaverine, ketorolac and verapamil in vitro, whereas the binding of ketorolac by the emulsion particles was weak. Evidently, the infusion of hydrophobic nanoemulsion Perftoran elevates the sorption capacity of plasma and creates prerequisites for the redistribution drugs and favors increase in their concentrations.

  7. A STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF INTERFACIAL DAMAGE ON STRESS CONCENTRATIONS IN INTRAPLY HYBRID COMPOSITES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng Qingdun; Lin Xuehui

    2001-01-01

    In the axial tensile failure process of intraply hybrid composites, the breakage of some fibers may lead to interfacial damage, thus directly influencing the local stress concentrations near the sites of breakage. A modified shear-lag model, in which the interfacial damage is considered, is proposed. Based on the model, the influence of interfacial shear strength on the stress concentrations and the lengths of interfacial damage zone is first studied. The present results also provide an important theoretical basis for investigating the failure mechanism and hybrid effects for such kind of composites.

  8. Factors Influencing the Intended Likelihood of Exposing Sexual Infidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Daniel J; Fisher, Maryanne L; Fitzgerald, Carey J

    2015-08-01

    There is a considerable body of literature on infidelity within romantic relationships. However, there is a gap in the scientific literature on factors influencing the likelihood of uninvolved individuals exposing sexual infidelity. Therefore, we devised an exploratory study examining a wide range of potentially relevant factors. Based in part on evolutionary theory, we anticipated nine potential domains or types of influences on the likelihoods of exposing or protecting cheaters, including kinship, strong social alliances, financial support, previous relationship behaviors (including infidelity and abuse), potential relationship transitions, stronger sexual and emotional aspects of the extra-pair relationship, and disease risk. The pattern of results supported these predictions (N = 159 men, 328 women). In addition, there appeared to be a small positive bias for participants to report infidelity when provided with any additional information about the situation. Overall, this study contributes a broad initial description of factors influencing the predicted likelihood of exposing sexual infidelity and encourages further studies in this area.

  9. Empirical Analysis on Factors Influencing Distribution of Vegetal Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjie; WU

    2015-01-01

    Since the reform and opening-up,there has been a great change in spatial pattern of China’s vegetable production. This paper studied vegetable production in provinces of China in 1978- 2013. From the sequential characteristics,China’s vegetable production area is constantly growing and takes on stage characteristic. From the spatial distribution,China’s vegetable production takes on the trend of " going down the south" and " marching the west". In order to grasp rules of changes of vegetable production and the influence factors,this paper made theoretical and empirical analysis on factors possibly influencing distribution of vegetable production. Results show that major factors influencing distribution of China’s vegetable production include irrigation condition,non-agricultural employment,market demand,knowledge spillover,comparative effectiveness,rural road and government policies.

  10. MOTIVATIONS AND FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DECISION OF ONLINE TRADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Ancuta IANCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, using survey data, we explore motivations and factors that influence the Romanian investors to trade online even if they initially traded through a broker. To identify the factors we used secondary sources and for exploring the factors that influence the decision of trading online we used primary data. We find that investors decide to trade online especially because they spend less time, they have an easier access to information (due to the fact that most of the online trading platforms have notifications and alarms for news that can affect the stock market and they know how to use the internet. We discover that only a few investors are influenced by advertising and the fact that it is fashionable to trade online.

  11. Factors influencing the tolerance of flufenacet applications in winter rye

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In winter rye which is grown mostly on locations with a lighter soil texture loose silky-bent grass (Apera spica-venti) is a dominate weed grass. Because of increasing herbicide resistance the control of A. spica-venti becomes more difficult. To manage resistant weed grass populations in winter rye flufenacet is a very important active substance. However, the application of flufenacet can lead to substantially culture damage. The influence of different factors influencing the tolerance of ...

  12. Colloid's influences on microalgae growth as a potential environmental factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵新淮; 张正斌; 刘莲生

    2003-01-01

    The role of colloid as "colloid pump" in the ocean is well known. The important influence of colloid in seawater on the growth of microalga was found in our 1999-2000 study. Colloid concentrates were obtained by employing a cross-flow filtration systen to ultrafilter seawater (which had been pre-filtrated by 0.45 μm acetate cellulose membrane) successively with different membranes. Ultrafiltration retentions (we called them colloid concentrates ) together with control sample ( seawater without colloid) were then inoculated with two species of microalgae and cultivated in selected conditions. Monitoring of microalgae growth during cultivation showed that all colloid concentrates had obvious influence on the growth of the microalgae studied. Addition of Fe(OH)3 colloid or organic colloid (protein or carbohydrate) to the control sample enhanced the microalgae's growth.

  13. Influence of CO2 Concentration on Adsorption Behavior of 99Tc in Clay Under Hypoxic Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG; Zhi-xin; BAO; Liang-jin; JIANG; Tao; CHEN; Xi

    2013-01-01

    Under hypoxic conditions,using the Beishan groundwater the influence of the CO2 concentration on the adsorption behavior of 99Tc in the Longdong clay was studied by batch method.Meanwhile,the buffering effect of clay rocks on the pH value of aqueous solution at different CO2 concentrations was discussed.The adsorption behavior of 99Tc on clay at different initial pH values was also researched.

  14. Concentrations and characteristics of organic carbon in surface water in Arizona: Influence of urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhoff, P.; Anning, D.

    2000-01-01

    Dissolved (DOC) and total (TOC) organic carbon concentrations and compositions were studied for several river systems in Arizona, USA. DOC composition was characterized by ultraviolet and visible absorption and fluorescence emission (excitation wavelength of 370 nm) spectra characteristics. Ephemeral sites had the highest DOC concentrations, and unregulated perennial sites had lower concentrations than unregulated intermittent sites, regulated sites, and sites downstream from wastewater-treatment plants (p wastewater-treatment plant effluent were higher in DOC concentration (p wastewater-treatment plants) was found to affect temporal variability in DOC concentration and composition. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.Dissolved (DOC) and total (TOC) organic carbon concentrations and compositions were studied for several river systems in Arizona, USA. DOC composition was characterized by ultraviolet and visible absorption and fluorescence emission (excitation wavelength of 370 nm) spectra characteristics. Ephemeral sites had the highest DOC concentrations, and unregulated perennial sites had lower concentrations than unregulated intermittent sites, regulated sites, and sites downstream from wastewater-treatment plants (pwastewater-treatment plant effluent were higher in DOC concentration (pwastewater-treatment plants) was found to affect temporal variability in DOC concentration and composition.The influence of urbanization, becoming increasingly common in arid regions, on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in surface water resources was studied. DOC concentration and composition, seasonal watershed runoff events, streamflow variations, water management practices, and urban infrastructure in several Arizona watersheds were monitored. Ephemeral sites had the highest DOC levels, and unregulated perennial sites and lower concentrations than unregulated intermittent sites, regulated sites, and sites downstream from wastewater treatment plants. Reservoir outflows

  15. Factors influencing consumer behaviour in market vegetables in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarish H. Al-Gahaifi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to understand factors influencing consumer behaviour when buying vegetables in Republic of Yemen. Data collection was done by structured questionnaire administered through schools, universities, government offices, and markets from 13 provinces in 5 governorates. Random convenience sampling technique was used. Total sample comprised of 463 completed questionnaires which were used for analysis. The respondents were classified into five categories on the base of their monthly income, age, education, gender, and type of settlement. Authors present the factors that can influence significantly this behaviour, e.g. price, quality, the location of seller, habit, personal relationship between consumer and seller, occasions, discount, sorting, word-mouth, time of purchase, the way of products display, and recommendation of friends and families. From the obtained results, it is obvious that there was high influence on the behaviour of Yemeni consumer when buying vegetables for factors price, occasions, discontent, and time of purchase, while factors habit, display, sorting, and the location of seller suggests medium influence, and the influence was low for word-mouth.

  16. Psychosocial factors for influencing healthy aging in adults in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, KyungHun; Lee, YunJung; Gu, JaSung; Oh, Hee; Han, JongHee; Kim, KwuyBun

    2015-03-07

    Healthy aging includes physical, psychological, social, and spiritual well-being in later years. The purpose of this study is to identify the psychosocial factors influencing healthy aging and examining their socio-demographic characteristics. Perceived health status, depression, self-esteem, self-achievement, ego-integrity, participation in leisure activities, and loneliness were identified as influential factors in healthy aging. 171 Korean adults aged between 45 and 77 years-old participated in the study. Self-reporting questionnaires were used, followed by descriptive statistics and multiple regressions as inferential statistical analyses. There were significant differences between participants' general characteristics: age, education, religion, housing, hobby, and economic status. The factors related to healthy aging had positive correlation with perceived health status, self-esteem, self-achievements, and leisure activities, and negative correlation with depression and loneliness. The factors influencing healthy aging were depression, leisure activities, perceived health status, ego integrity, and self-achievements. These factors were able to explain 51.9%. According to the results, depression is the factor with the greatest influence on healthy aging. Perceived health status, ego integrity, self-achievement, self-esteem, participation of leisure activities were also influential on healthy aging as beneficial factors.

  17. Influence of temperature, concentration and shear rate on the rheological behavior of malay apple (Syzygium malaccense juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Santos

    Full Text Available Summary The aim of this study was to evaluate the rheological behavior of malay apple, a traditional Amazonian fruit with high bioactive properties, at different temperatures and soluble solids concentrations. The experiments were carried out in a Brookfield R/S Plus rheometer with concentric cylinders geometry. Power Law, Herschel-Bulkley, Mizrahi-Berk, and Sisko rheological models were fitted to the experimental data. The malay apple juice (pulp and skin showed a pseudoplastic behavior for all temperatures and concentrations with flow behavior indexes lower than 1. The temperature effect on the samples’ apparent viscosity was analyzed by the Arrhenius equation. The activation energy increased with a decrease in the soluble solids concentration, showing that the lower the concentration, the greater the temperature influence on the apparent viscosity. The soluble solids effect was described by the exponential equation. The exponential factor increased with the temperature increasing, showing that the higher the temperature, the greater the effect of the soluble solids concentration on samples’ apparent viscosity. Finally, a triparametric mathematical model combining temperature, concentration, and shear rate was proposed aiming to evaluate its effects on the samples’ apparent viscosity and has accurately adjusted to the data with high correlation index R2.

  18. Factors of influence and changes in the tourism consumer behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fratu, D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer behaviour is a very important aspect to be studied in every marketing activity, therefore in tourism marketing as well. Defining and identifying the factors that influence consumers help in understanding individual needs and buying processes in their whole complexity. Consumers have changed their behaviour over the last two years due to the instability of the economic environment. The author describes in this article the factors which influence consumer behaviour and also presents how it has changed over the past two years.

  19. Examination of patient factors and contrast medium factors that exert influence on contrast enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Isao; Morimoto, Akira; Shouga, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Noriyuki [Kure Kyosai Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between patient factors and contrast medium factors, both of which influence contrast enhancement. Our goal was to achieve improved standardization and reproducibility of enhancement based on the findings of this study. Enhancement units (EU) and the contrast enhancement index (CE index) were calculated in the areas of the hepatic parenchyma and abdominal aorta in 370 subjects who underwent our hepatic dynamic study. We analyzed the obtained values in terms of differences in age, sex, body weight, iodine volume per body weight, and volume and concentration of contrast medium. Changes in EU values were dependent on total iodine volume and body weight, showing a positive correlation with iodine volume per body weight. When assessed in terms of fixed total volume, the values were found to show a negative correlation with body weight. The obtained CE index values were closely distributed on a fixed iodine volume per weight, with slight variations that were related to sex, body weight, and age. Particularly, in the analysis of changes in enhancement levels according to age, a notable increase in contrast enhancement in inverse relationship with decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with aging was observed. (author)

  20. Influence of acid volatile sulfide and metal concentrations on metal bioavailability to marine invertebrates in contaminated sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B.-G.; Lee, J.-S.; Luoma, S.N.; Choi, H.J.; Koh, C.-H.

    2000-01-01

    An 18-day microcosm study was conducted to evaluate the influence of acid volatile sulfides (AVS) and metal additions on bioaccumulation from sediments of Cd, Ni, and Zn in two clams (Macoma balthica and Potamocorbula amurensis) and three marine polychaetes (Neanthes arenaceodentata, Heteromastus filiformis, and Spiophanes missionensis). Manipulation of AVS by oxidation of naturally anoxic sediments allowed use of metal concentrations typical of nature and evaluation of processes important to chronic metal exposure. A vertical sediment column similar to that often found in nature was used to facilitate realistic biological behavior. Results showed that AVS or porewater (PW) metals controlled bioaccumulation in only 2 of 15 metal-animal combinations. Bioaccumulation of all three metals by the bivalves was related significantly to metal concentrations extracted from sediments (SEM) but not to [SEM - AVS] or PW metals. SEM predominantly influenced bioaccumulation of Ni and Zn in N. arenaceodentata, but Cd bioaccumulation followed PW Cd concentrations. SEM controlled tissue concentrations of all three metals in H. filiformis and S. missionensis, with minor influences from metal-sulfide chemistry. Significant bioaccumulation occurred when SEM was only a small fraction of AVS in several treatments. Three factors appeared to contribute to the differences between these bioaccumulation results and the results from toxicity tests reported previously: differences in experimental design, dietary uptake, and biological attributes of the species, including mode and depth of feeding.An 18-day microcosm study was conducted to evaluate the influence of acid volatile sulfides (AVS) and metal additions on bioaccumulation from sediments of Cd, Ni, and Zn in two clams (Macoma balthica and Potamocorbula amurensis) and three marine polychaetes (Neanthes arenaceodentata, Heteromastus filiformis, and Spiophanes missionensis). Manipulation of AVS by oxidation of naturally anoxic sediments

  1. Population Distribution and Influencing Factors Based on ESDA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lv Chen; Fan Jie; Sun Wei

    2012-01-01

    Based on the exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) technique and geographic information system (GIS) platform, with statistic data of counties in 2005, this paper confirms that there is a large population density gap between counties in 2005 because the Gini coefficient is 0.55. Population distribution does not change a lot during the past decades, and the southeast China is still much more densely populated than the northwest China. The global spa- tial autoeorrelation of population distribution is obvious because Moran's I scores 0.42 and local spatial autocorrelation is partly significant. Climate and elevation are still the main natural influ- encing factors. Meanwhile industrial structure and transportation significantly influence population distribution. Different combinations of natural factors have different effects on population distribution. For a long term, climate and terrain factor stability affect population distribution. But its influence will be weakened by progress of technology. Economic development is the main factor that changes population distribution for a short term.

  2. Influence of nanoparticle concentration on thermo-physical properties of CuO-propylene glycol nanofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganthi, Kuppusamy Swaminathan; Radhakrishnan, Anju K; Anusha, Natarajan; Rajan, Kalpoondi Sekar

    2014-06-01

    Experiments were performed on the preparation and characterization of CuO-propylene glycol nanofluids. The influence of nanoparticle concentration and temperature on nanofluid viscosity reveals existence of a range of nanoparticle concentration and temperature in which the viscosity of nanofluid is lower than that of propylene glycol, possibly due to interactions between nanoparticles and propylene glycol. A temperature-independent, thermal conductivity enhancement of 38% was obtained for nanoparticle concentration of 1.5 vol% over a temperature range of 10-60 degrees C. We believe that particle clustering contributes to the thermal conductivity enhancement in CuO-propylene glycol nanofluids.

  3. Influence of starter culture on total free aminoacids concentration during ripening of Krk cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Biljana Radeljević; Nataša Mikulec; Neven Antunac; Zvonimir Prpić; Mirjana Maletić; Jasmina Havranek

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of microbial (commercial starter) culture on concentration of total free amino groups (amino acids) in cheeses in different ripening stages. Free amino groups were determined by reaction with ninhydrin with cadmium (Cd) in the water soluble cheese extract, and were expressed as the concentration of leucine in cheese dry matter. Changes in concentration of total free amino acids during cheese ripening (0th, 30th, 60th, 90th and 120th day) we...

  4. A statistical evaluation of the influence of housing characteristics and geogenic radon potential on indoor radon concentrations in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoury, C; Ielsch, G; Hemon, D; Laurent, O; Laurier, D; Clavel, J; Guillevic, J

    2013-12-01

    Radon-222 is a radioactive natural gas produced by the decay of radium-226, known to be the main contributor to natural background radiation exposure. Effective risk management needs to determine the areas in which the density of buildings with high radon levels is likely to be highest. Predicting radon exposure from the location and characteristics of a dwelling could also contribute to epidemiological studies. Beginning in the nineteen-eighties, a national radon survey consisting in more than 10,000 measurements of indoor radon concentrations was conducted in French dwellings by the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN). Housing characteristics, which may influence radon accumulation in dwellings, were also collected. More recently, the IRSN generated a French geogenic radon potential map based on the interpretation of geological features. The present study analyzed the two datasets to investigate the factors influencing indoor radon concentrations using statistical modeling and to determine the optimum use of the information on geogenic radon potential that showed the best statistical association with indoor radon concentration. The results showed that the variables associated with indoor radon concentrations were geogenic radon potential, building material, year of construction, foundation type, building type and floor level. The model, which included the surrounding geogenic radon potential (i.e. the average geogenic radon potential within a disc of radius 20 km centered on the indoor radon measurement point) and variables describing house-specific factors and lifestyle explained about 20% of the overall variability of the logarithm of radon concentration. The surrounding geogenic radon potential was fairly closely associated with the local average indoor radon concentration. The prevalence of exposure to radon above specific thresholds and the average exposures to radon clearly increased with increasing classes of geogenic radon

  5. What factors influence UK medical students' choice of foundation school?

    OpenAIRE

    Miah, S.; Pang, K.H.; Rebello, W.; Rubakumar, Z.; Fung, V; Venugopal, S.; Begum, H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: We aimed to identify the factors influencing UK medical student applicants’ choice of foundation school. We also explored the factors that doctors currently approaching the end of their 2-year program believe should be considered. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted during the 2013–2014 academic year. An online questionnaire was distributed to 2092 final-year medical students from nine UK medical schools and 84 foundation year-2 (FY2) doctors from eight foundation sc...

  6. Psychosocial factors for influencing healthy aging in adults in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Han, KyungHun; Lee, YunJung; Gu, JaSung; Oh, Hee; Han, JongHee; Kim, KwuyBun

    2015-01-01

    Background Healthy aging includes physical, psychological, social, and spiritual well-being in later years. The purpose of this study is to identify the psychosocial factors influencing healthy aging and examining their socio-demographic characteristics. Perceived health status, depression, self-esteem, self-achievement, ego-integrity, participation in leisure activities, and loneliness were identified as influential factors in healthy aging. Methods 171 Korean adults aged between 45 and 77 y...

  7. Influence of food concentration, temperature and salinity on the larval development of Balanus amphitrite

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anil, A.C.; Kurian, J.

    Influence of food concentration (0.5, 1 and 2 x 10 sup(5) cell ml sup(-1) of Skeletonema costatum), temperature (20 and 30 degrees C) and salinity (15, 25 and 35 ppt) on the larval development of Balanus amphitrite (Cirripedia: Thoracica...

  8. The influence of preanalytical conditions on the DJ-1 concentration in human cerebrospinal fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvesen, Lisette; Tanassi, Julia T; Bech, Sara

    2014-01-01

    : Centrifugation at 2000 × g resulted in significantly lower CSF DJ-1 concentrations compared with no centrifugation and centrifugation at a lower g-force. There was a significant difference in the hemoglobin concentration between centrifuged and uncentrifuged CSF. In all centrifuged samples the hemoglobin......AIM: The purpose of this study was to establish the influence of centrifugation and protease activity on the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of DJ-1 and hemoglobin. MATERIALS & METHODS: The concentrations of DJ-1 and hemoglobin were determined in 12 (DJ-1) and six (hemoglobin) pairs of CSF...... samples, with one sample being stored without centrifugation and the other being centrifuged at 2000 × g before storage. The DJ-1 concentration was also determined in centrifuged and uncentrifuged CSF containing protease inhibitors and compared with values determined in centrifuged and uncentrifuged CSF...

  9. Factors influencing crude oil biodegradation by Yarrowia lipolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Felix Ferreira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Yarrowia lipolytica is unique strictly aerobic yeast with the ability to efficiently degrade hydrophobic substrates such as n-alkenes, fatty acids, glycerol and oils. In the present work, a 2(4 full factorial design was used to investigate the influence of the independent variables of temperature, agitation, initial cell concentration and initial petroleum concentration on crude oil biodegradation. The results showed that all variables studied had significant effects on the biodegradation process. Temperature, agitation speed and initial cell concentration had positive effects, and initial petroleum concentration had a negative effect. Among the crude oil removal conditions studied, the best temperature and agitation conditions were 28ºC and 250 rpm, respectively.

  10. Multilevel factors influencing preterm birth in an urban setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba W. Masho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Racial disparity in preterm is a major problem in the US. Although significant strides have been made in identifying some of the risk factors, the complexities between community and individual factors are not understood. This study examines the influence of individual and community level factors affecting preterm birth among Black and White women in an urban setting. A 10-year live birth registry dataset from a mid-sized, racially diverse city was analyzed (N = 30,591. Data were geocoded and merged with block group level Census data. Five hierarchical models were examined using PROC GLIMMIX. Education, illicit drug use, pregnancy complications, previous preterm birth, paternal presence, inadequate and adequate plus prenatal care, and poverty were associated with preterm births in both Blacks and Whites. In Black women, increasing maternal age, maternal smoking, and a previous infant death were significant predictors of preterm births, which was not the case for White women. Residing in medium or high poverty neighborhoods resulted in 19% and 28% higher odds, respectively, of preterm birth for Black women. In addition to individual level factors, neighborhood poverty is an important risk factor influencing preterm birth. It is essential to engage multisectoral agencies in addressing factors influencing preterm birth.

  11. Postmortem measurement of caffeine in bone marrow: influence of sample location and correlation with blood concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartiser, N; Bévalot, F; Chatenay, C; Le Meur, C; Gaillard, Y; Malicier, D; Guitton, J; Fanton, L

    2011-07-15

    Bone marrow (BM) analysis is of forensic interest in postmortem toxicological investigation in case of limited, unavailable or unusable blood samples. However, it remains difficult to determine whether a drug BM concentration is therapeutic or represents overdose, due to the lack of studies on this alternative matrix. Given the variations in BM composition in the body, sample location was suggested to be a relevant factor in assessing BM concentration. The aim of the present study was to compare postmortem caffeine concentrations in various BM sample locations and secondly to consider the correlation between BM and blood concentrations. Six BM samples (right and left side: proximal and medial femur and 5th rib) and a blood sample were collected from 21 forensic autopsies. Gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was performed. Blood caffeine concentrations ranged from 60 to 7591ng/mL. Femoral and rib BM concentrations ranged from 51 to 6171ng/g and 66 to 7280ng/g, respectively. Blood concentrations were always higher than BM concentrations. As a good correlation was demonstrated between blood and rib BM and between blood and the average of the four femoral BM concentrations, blood caffeine concentrations could be correctly extrapolated from BM concentrations. BM caffeine concentration was found to depend on sample location. Rib BM caffeine concentrations appeared to be systematically greater than averaged femur values and concentrations were much more variable between the 4 femur BM samples than between the 2 ribs. From a practical point of view, for caffeine analysis, rib BM appeared more relevant than femoral BM, which requires multisampling to overcome the concentration variability problem.

  12. VOCs in industrial, urban and suburban neighborhoods—Part 2: Factors affecting indoor and outdoor concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chunrong; Batterman, Stuart; Godwin, Christopher

    Many microenvironmental and behavioral factors can affect concentrations of and exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Identifying these determinants is important to understand exposures and risks, and also to design policies and strategies that minimize concentrations. This study is aimed at determining factors associated with VOC concentrations found indoors in residences and outdoors in ambient air. It utilizes results from a comprehensive field study in which 98 VOCs were measured both inside and outside of 159 residences in three communities in southeast Michigan, USA. Additional measurements included indoor CO 2 concentrations, temperature, relative humidity, building and neighborhood characteristics, and occupant activities, assessed using a questionnaire and comprehensive walkthrough investigation. Factors potentially affecting concentrations were identified using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Outdoors, seasonal and community effects were observed. Indoors, seasonal effects were limited to the urban and industrial communities, largely due to changes in ambient levels. Elevated indoor VOC concentrations were associated with eight sources or activities: the presence of an attached garage; recent renovations; older residences; indoor smoking; less frequent window or door opening; higher CO 2 concentrations; and lower ventilation rates. VOC levels were uninfluenced by building materials (wood vs. brick), flooring type (carpeting vs. wood), stove type (gas or electric), number of occupants, air freshener use, and hobbies involving arts and crafts. Factor analyses identified up to five factors for the ambient VOC measurements, and up to 10 factors for the indoor measurements, which further helped to explain the variability of concentrations and associations between VOCs.

  13. Infrapopliteal Percutaneous Transluminal Balloon Angioplasty: Clinical Results and Influence Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jang Hyeon; Lee, Seung Jin; Jung, Hye Doo; Lim, Jae Hoon; Chang, Nam Kyu; Yim, Nam Yeol; Kim, Jae Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Keun Bae [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    To assess the efficacy of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in patients with infrapopliteal arterial disease, and to determine the influencing factor for prognosis. A total of 55 patients (60 limbs) with infrapopliteal arterial stenosis or occlusion underwent PTA. Atherosclerotic risk factors, clinical symptoms, TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) classification, and vascular wall calcification were evaluated before PTA. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries was estimated, and the outcome was evaluated by symptom relief and limb salvage. Technical success was achieved in 53/60 limbs (88.3%) and 81/93 arteries (87.1%), TASC classification (p = 0.038) and vascular calcification (p = 0.002) influenced on technical failure. During follow-up, 26 of 55 limbs (47%) achieved symptom relief and 42/55 limbs (76%) underwent limb salvage. Non-diabetic patients (9/12, 75%) were superior to diabetic patients (17/43, 40%) in terms of symptom relief (p = 0.024). TASC classification and vascular wall calcification influenced on symptom relief and limb salvage. The number of patent infrapopliteal arteries after PTA influenced symptom relief (p < 0.001) and limb amputation (p = 0.003). PTA in patients with chronic critical limb ischemia is worthwhile as a primary treatment. The influence factors should be considered before PTA, and PTA should be performed in as many involved arteries as possible.

  14. [Estimation of average traffic emission factor based on synchronized incremental traffic flow and air pollutant concentration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Run-Kui; Zhao, Tong; Li, Zhi-Peng; Ding, Wen-Jun; Cui, Xiao-Yong; Xu, Qun; Song, Xian-Feng

    2014-04-01

    On-road vehicle emissions have become the main source of urban air pollution and attracted broad attentions. Vehicle emission factor is a basic parameter to reflect the status of vehicle emissions, but the measured emission factor is difficult to obtain, and the simulated emission factor is not localized in China. Based on the synchronized increments of traffic flow and concentration of air pollutants in the morning rush hour period, while meteorological condition and background air pollution concentration retain relatively stable, the relationship between the increase of traffic and the increase of air pollution concentration close to a road is established. Infinite line source Gaussian dispersion model was transformed for the inversion of average vehicle emission factors. A case study was conducted on a main road in Beijing. Traffic flow, meteorological data and carbon monoxide (CO) concentration were collected to estimate average vehicle emission factors of CO. The results were compared with simulated emission factors of COPERT4 model. Results showed that the average emission factors estimated by the proposed approach and COPERT4 in August were 2.0 g x km(-1) and 1.2 g x km(-1), respectively, and in December were 5.5 g x km(-1) and 5.2 g x km(-1), respectively. The emission factors from the proposed approach and COPERT4 showed close values and similar seasonal trends. The proposed method for average emission factor estimation eliminates the disturbance of background concentrations and potentially provides real-time access to vehicle fleet emission factors.

  15. Intertidal Concentrations of Microplastics and Their Influence on Ammonium Cycling as Related to the Shellfish Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluzard, Melanie; Kazmiruk, Tamara N; Kazmiruk, Vasily D; Bendell, L I

    2015-10-01

    Microplastics are ubiquitous within the marine environment. The last 10 years have seen research directed at understanding the fate and effect of microplastics within the marine environment; however, no studies have yet addressed how concentrations of these particles could affect sedimentary processes such as nutrient cycling. Herein we first determine the concentration and spatial distribution of microplastics within Baynes Sound, a key shellfish-growing area within coastal British Columbia (BC). We also determined sediment grain size and % organic matter (OM) such that we could relate spatial patterns in sediment microplastic concentrations to sedimentary processes that determine zones of accretion and erosion. Using field-determined concentrations of microplastics, we applied laboratory microcosms studies, which manipulated sediment concentrations of microplastics, OM, and bivalves to determine the influence of sediment microplastics on ammonium cycling within intertidal sediments. Concentrations of microplastics determined within the intertidal sediment varied spatially and were similar to those found in other coastal regions of high urban use. Concentrations were independent of grain size and OM suggesting that physical processes other than those that govern natural sediment components determine the fate of microplastics within sediments. Under laboratory conditions, concentrations of ammonium were significantly greater in the overlying water of treatments with microplastics, clams, and OM compared with treatments without microplastics. These preliminary studies suggest that high concentrations of microplastics have the potential to alter key sedimentary processes such as ammonium flux. This could have serious implications, for example, contributing to eutrophication events in regions of the coast that are highly urbanized.

  16. Factors that influence the speed of bacterial wood degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, R.K.W.M.; Overeem, van B.S.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial wood decay is a serious threat to the many wooden foundation piles in the Netherlands. In order to learn more about the factors that influence the process of decay, approx. 2000 wood samples taken from Amsterdam piles heads were analysed on type and degree of decay and for 59 extracted pil

  17. Modifiable factors influencing relapses and disability in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'hooghe, M. B.; Nagels, G.; Bissay, V.; De Keyser, J.

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of literature indicates that the natural course of multiple sclerosis can be influenced by a number of factors. Strong evidence suggests that relapses can be triggered by infections, the postpartum period and stressful life events. Vaccinations against influenza, hepatitis B and tetan

  18. Factors Influencing the Academic Persistence of College Students with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melara, Claudia Alexia

    2012-01-01

    Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at greater risk for failing to complete their postsecondary educational degrees than their typical peers. The present qualitative sought to identify factors influencing the academic persistence of students with ADHD in postsecondary settings. Utilizing direct interviews with…

  19. Information Booklets about Cancer: Factors Influencing Patient Satisfaction and Utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butow, Phyllis; Brindle, Elizabeth; McConnell, David; Boakes, Robert; Tattersall, Martin

    1998-01-01

    Explored factors influencing patient satisfaction with and utilization of information booklets. Patients (N=36) rated five booklets, and strongly preferred one with a grade-eight reading level. The relationship of preference and recall was investigated. No difference between those who seek or avoid information was found. Additional findings are…

  20. Factors Influencing Consent to Having Videotaped Mental Health Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kenton; Goebert, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors critically reviewed the literature regarding factors influencing consent to having videotaped mental health sessions. Methods: The authors searched the literature in PubMed, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and Web of Science from the mid-1950s through February 2009. Results: The authors identified 27 studies, of which 19 (73%)…

  1. Identifying factors that influence workplace learning in postgraduate medical education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok-Koch, E.G.H.J.; Bolhuis, S.M.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: In their postgraduate educational programs, residents are immersed in a complex workplace. To improve the quality of the training program, it is necessary to gain insight into the factors that influence the process of learning in the workplace. METHODS: An exploratory study was carried out

  2. The genetic factors influencing the development of trichotillomania

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Koushik Chatterjee

    2012-08-01

    Trichotillomania (TTM), an obsessive–compulsive spectrum disorder (OCSD), is a psychiatric condition characterized by repetitive hair pulling. Evidence from family and twin studies suggest a heritable link of TTM. Functional polymorphisms in genes involved in neuronal pathways might influence the susceptibility to TTM. This review is an attempt to compile the genetic factors reported to modify the development of TTM.

  3. Abuse of Working Children and Influencing Factors, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncu, Emine; Kurt, Ahmet Oner; Esenay, Figen Isik; Ozer, Fatma

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The study was planned as the research of the kind/kinds of abuse and the factors influencing the abuse that the children under 18 who are working full-time at a workplace and enrolled in a vocational training center subjected to. Method: Questionnaires were administered to 595 apprentices who were attending a vocational training center.…

  4. Social Factors Influencing Participation in Sport for the Deaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David A.

    1987-01-01

    The article looks at social factors influencing participation in sport by the deaf including communication mode and value orientations of community, family, school, and peers of both the hearing and deaf world. A model for integration of the deaf into sports is offered. (DB)

  5. Factors Influencing Stress, Burnout, and Retention of Secondary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Molly H.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the stress, burnout, satisfaction, and preventive coping skills of nearly 400 secondary teachers to determine variables contributing to these major factors influencing teachers. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistics were conducted that found the burnout levels between new and experienced teachers are significantly different,…

  6. Investigation and control of factors influencing resistance upset butt welding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, N.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the factors influencing the resistance upset butt welding process to obtain an understanding of the metal behaviour and welding process characteristics, so that new automotive steels can be welded with reduced development time and fewer failures in

  7. Factors that Influence Informal Learning in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Shelley A.; Chyung, Seung Youn

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to investigate factors that influence informal learning in the workplace and the types of informal learning activities people engage in at work. More specifically, the research examined: the relationship between informal learning engagement and the presence of learning organization characteristics; and…

  8. Factors Influencing the Academic Persistence of College Students with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melara, Claudia Alexia

    2012-01-01

    Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at greater risk for failing to complete their postsecondary educational degrees than their typical peers. The present qualitative sought to identify factors influencing the academic persistence of students with ADHD in postsecondary settings. Utilizing direct interviews with…

  9. Factors influencing career choice after initial training in surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, Seamus

    2011-03-01

    Irish general surgery faces a recruitment crisis with only 87 of 145 (60%) basic surgical training (BST) places filled in 2009. We assessed basic surgical trainees to identify objective, and potentially modifiable, factors that influence ultimate recruitment into a general surgical career.

  10. Factors Influencing Career Choice of Management Students in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwala, Tanuja

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the influence of a range of factors on the career choice of management students in India. The importance of different individuals in the family and at work in making career choices among these students is also to be explored. In addition, the study seeks to address the relationship of the cultural values of…

  11. Hepatitus B virus infection : factors influencing the outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Hattum (Jan)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractThis study was designed to find correlations between the various courses of disease after hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and factors that could conceivably have influenced the course of disease. The aim of the study was to find correlations between parameters of viral replication and

  12. Modifiable factors influencing relapses and disability in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'hooghe, M. B.; Nagels, G.; Bissay, V.; De Keyser, J.

    A growing body of literature indicates that the natural course of multiple sclerosis can be influenced by a number of factors. Strong evidence suggests that relapses can be triggered by infections, the postpartum period and stressful life events. Vaccinations against influenza, hepatitis B and

  13. Consumers with Major Depressive Disorder: Factors Influencing Job Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Haase, Eileen; Zeglin, Robert J.; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was applied to study the factors that influence the intention of public rehabilitation placement professionals to place consumers with major depressive disorder (MDD) in jobs. A sample of 108 public rehabilitation placement professionals in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States completed the MDD…

  14. Investigation and control of factors influencing resistance upset butt welding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, N.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the factors influencing the resistance upset butt welding process to obtain an understanding of the metal behaviour and welding process characteristics, so that new automotive steels can be welded with reduced development time and fewer failures in producti

  15. Factors Influencing the Occurrence of Adult Agricultural Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmas, Oren L.; Warmbrod, J. Robert

    A study examined the institutional factors the influence whether or not adult agricultural education programs are offered in high schools. All Ohio secondary schools that offered vocational agriculture programs in agricultural production or farm business management during 1985-1986 (a total of 260 schools) were included in the study. Data were…

  16. Social and Environmental Factors Influencing In-Prison Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, James

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: There is a strong political imperative to regard the prison as a key social setting for health promotion, but evidence indicates that drug misuse continues to be a significant issue for many prisoners. This paper aims to examine the social and environmental factors within the setting that influence individuals' drug taking.…

  17. Leadership Factors Influencing the Performance of Educational Institutions. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Fred E.

    This document is the summary report of a study having as its main objectives: (1) an intensive study of organizational and group-structural factors influencing the research and teaching effectiveness of individual faculty members and their relations to the students; (2) research investigating the effect of academic area and technology on…

  18. Factors Influencing Latino Participation in Community-Based Diabetes Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Sarah L.; Noterman, Amber; Litchfield, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    An Extension diabetes program (DP) was revised for Latinos; however, participation was limited. Factors influencing low participation rates were examined. Five Latinos interested in the DP participated in a focus group discussion. Transcripts were analyzed for themes. Preferred education programs were multi-session, local, group classes led by an…

  19. Hepatitus B virus infection : factors influencing the outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Hattum (Jan)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractThis study was designed to find correlations between the various courses of disease after hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and factors that could conceivably have influenced the course of disease. The aim of the study was to find correlations between parameters of viral replication and

  20. Factors Influencing Student Participation in College Study Abroad Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Soumava; Bandyopadhyay, Kakoli

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework to investigate the factors that influence student participation in college study abroad programs. The authors posit that students' general perceptions regarding the study abroad experience and their expectations of intercultural awareness from study abroad programs will impact their perceptions of…

  1. Factors that Influence Women's Technical Skill Development in Outdoor Adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Karen; Loeffler, TA

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical foundation for understanding women's technical skill development (TSD) in outdoor adventure. An examination of societal and biological factors influencing women's TSD focuses on gender role socialization, sense of competence, technical conditioning, sexism, spatial ability, and risk-taking. The article suggests…

  2. Identifying factors that influence workplace learning in postgraduate medical educaton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Stok-Koch; R. Koopmans; Dr. S. Bolhuis

    2007-01-01

    In their postgraduate educational programs, residents are immersed in a complex workplace. To improve the quality of the training program, it is necessary to gain insight into the factors that influence the process of learning in the workplace. An exploratory study was carried out among 56 nursing

  3. Factors influencing adherence to an emergency department national protocol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebben, R.H.A.; Vloet, L.C.M.; Groot, J.M. de; Achterberg, T. van

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors that influence emergency nurses' adherence to an emergency department national protocol (EDNP). A survey of emergency nurses (n=200) and physicians with medical end responsibility on an emergency department (n=103) was carried out. Emergency nurses

  4. External and Internal Factors Influencing Happiness in Elite Collegiate Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Katherine G.; Steiner, Hans

    2009-01-01

    When under conditions of high demand and allostatic load, are happiness and satisfaction in four domains (family, friends, academics, recreation) influenced more by external or internal factors? Do student-athletes who lead exceedingly complicated lives report happiness as a function of athletic achievement or internal disposition? Stanford…

  5. Product development alliances: factors influencing formation and success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Johanne Rønnow; Harmsen, Hanne; Friis, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - The objective of this paper is to develop a framework, based on existing literature, for factors influencing the formation and success of product development alliances, and relate this specifically to the food industry. Design/methodology/approach - Case study of a product development a...

  6. Factors influencing beta-amylase activity in sorghum malt

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taylor, JRN

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available An investigation into factors influencing beta-amylase activity in sorghum malt confirmed that ungerminated sorghum grain exhibited essentially no beta-amylase activity. Malted sorghum had beta-amylase activity less than 25% of the level in barley...

  7. INFLUENCE FACTOR ANALYSIS OF CHINESE STUDENTS' LERANING STYLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周平

    2009-01-01

    Learning style, aiming at language learner, is a hot issue of second language acquisition. The article first reviews the various definitions of learning style. From the perspective of cognition, three influence factors of Chinese students' learning styles are analyzed. Suggestions are proposed for teachers to help students develop learning styles.

  8. International preferences for pork appearance: II. Factors influencing consumer choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngapo, T.M.; Martin, J.F.; Dransfield, E.

    2007-01-01

    The preference for pork varying in its fat cover, lean colour, marbling and drip differs among countries, but the influence of socio-demographic factors is unknown. In this study of 11,717 consumers from 22 countries, more than 80% of consumers liked pork, thought that pork quality was at least

  9. Identifying factors that influence workplace learning in postgraduate medical education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok-Koch, E.G.H.J.; Bolhuis, S.M.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: In their postgraduate educational programs, residents are immersed in a complex workplace. To improve the quality of the training program, it is necessary to gain insight into the factors that influence the process of learning in the workplace. METHODS: An exploratory study was carried out

  10. Identifying factors that influence workplace learning in postgraduate medical educaton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok-Koch, L.; Bolhuis, S.; Koopmans, R.

    2007-01-01

    In their postgraduate educational programs, residents are immersed in a complex workplace. To improve the quality of the training program, it is necessary to gain insight into the factors that influence the process of learning in the workplace. An exploratory study was carried out among 56 nursing h

  11. Consumers with Major Depressive Disorder: Factors Influencing Job Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Haase, Eileen; Zeglin, Robert J.; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was applied to study the factors that influence the intention of public rehabilitation placement professionals to place consumers with major depressive disorder (MDD) in jobs. A sample of 108 public rehabilitation placement professionals in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States completed the MDD…

  12. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE PURCHASE DECISION OF ORGANIC TOFU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantry Nugroho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the factors that influence consumers in making the decision to buy organic tofu. The theory of factors that influence the purchasing behavior developed by Kotler was used as the analytical tool, and these factors include cultural factors, social factors, personal factors, psychological factors and purchasing process. These data were collected through interview techniques and analyzed descriptively using multinomial logistic regression. The characteristics of respondents indicated the consumers who never bought organic tofu are mostly at the age of 26-35 years old and university graduates, do not work, have an expenditure from Rp 1 million to Rp 2.5 million, are highly knowledge, and have the highest scores on the perceptions on sustainable and environmentally friendly organic farming, health benefits, and a more expensive price. There are a number of factors that influence consumers in making purchase decisions of organic tofu including age, education, knowledge and product external factors. The consumers who are potentially interested in purchasing the organic tofu are at the age of 36–50 years old, university graduates, highly knowledgeable in food and organic tofu products, because the higher the education and knowledge, the greater the interest in buying the products, and they approved of the external products such as price, advertising, personal selling and places of selling which are also potentially equal. The managerial implications for the business agents of tofu organic product is that they must be more active in assuring the consumers that these products are good for them by creating a blog, an ad in the local paper, or a pamphlet containing information of the product.Keywords: purchase decision, logistic regression, organic tofu product, purchasing interest

  13. Evaluation of the efficacy of factors influencing on marketing SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Yaghoubi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of different factors influencing on marketing in small and medium enterprises (SMEs in city of Tehran, Iran. The study has been accomplished among 57 SMEs out of 70 active business units who were involved in hand made carpet. The survey uses a questionnaire originally developed by Merrilees et al. (2011 [Merrilees, B., Rundle-Thiele, S., & Lye, A. (2011. Marketing capabilities: Antecedents and implications for B2B SME performance. Industrial Marketing Management, 40(3, 368-375.] to determine the factors influencing on marketing SMEs. Using structural equation modeling, the results of survey indicate that market orientation, management capability, innovation capability and brand capability of SME's marketing performance influence on development of marketing, positively.

  14. The Influence Factors and Mechanism of Societal Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rui; Shi, Kan; Li, Shu

    Risk perception is one of important subjects in management psychology and cognitive psychology. It is of great value in the theory and practice to investigate the societal hazards that the public cares a lot especially in Socio-economic transition period. A survey including 30 hazards and 6 risk attributes was designed and distributed to about 2, 485 residents of 8 districts, Beijing. The major findings are listed as following: Firstly, a scale of societal risk perception was designed and 2 factors were identified (Dread Risk & Unknown Risk). Secondly, structural equation model was used to analyze the influence factors and mechanism of societal risk perception. Risk preference, government support and social justice could influence societal risk perception directly. Government support fully moderated the relationship between government trust and societal risk perception. Societal risk perception influenced life satisfaction, public policy preferences and social development belief.

  15. Factors influencing the flavour of game meat: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neethling, J; Hoffman, L C; Muller, M

    2016-03-01

    Flavour is a very important attribute contributing to the sensory quality of meat and meat products. Although the sensory quality of meat includes orthonasal and retronasal aroma, taste, as well as appearance, juiciness and other textural attributes, the focus of this review is primarily on flavour. The influence of species, age, gender, muscle anatomical location, diet, harvesting conditions, ageing of meat, packaging and storage, as well as cooking method on the flavour of game meat are discussed. Very little research is available on the factors influencing the flavour of the meat derived from wild and free-living game species. The aim of this literature review is thus to discuss the key ante- and post-mortem factors that influence the flavour of game meat, with specific focus on wild and free-living South African game species.

  16. Factors Influencing Renewable Energy Production & Supply - A Global Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Anika; Saqlawi, Juman Al

    2016-04-01

    Renewable energy is one of the key technologies through which the energy needs of the future can be met in a sustainable and carbon-neutral manner. Increasing the share of renewable energy in the total energy mix of each country is therefore a critical need. While different countries have approached this in different ways, there are some common aspects which influence the pace and effectiveness of renewable energy incorporation. This presentation looks at data and information from 34 selected countries, analyses the patterns, compares the different parameters and identifies the common factors which positively influence renewable energy incorporation. The most successful countries are analysed for their renewable energy performance against their GDP, policy/regulatory initiatives in the field of renewables, landmass, climatic conditions and population to identify the most influencing factors to bring about positive change in renewable energy share.

  17. Understanding how roadside concentrations of NOx are influenced by the background levels, traffic density, and meteorological conditions using Boosted Regression Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayegh, Arwa; Tate, James E.; Ropkins, Karl

    2016-02-01

    Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) is a major component of photochemical smog and its constituents are considered principal traffic-related pollutants affecting human health. This study investigates the influence of background concentrations of NOx, traffic density, and prevailing meteorological conditions on roadside concentrations of NOx at UK urban, open motorway, and motorway tunnel sites using the statistical approach Boosted Regression Trees (BRT). BRT models have been fitted using hourly concentration, traffic, and meteorological data for each site. The models predict, rank, and visualise the relationship between model variables and roadside NOx concentrations. A strong relationship between roadside NOx and monitored local background concentrations is demonstrated. Relationships between roadside NOx and other model variables have been shown to be strongly influenced by the quality and resolution of background concentrations of NOx, i.e. if it were based on monitored data or modelled prediction. The paper proposes a direct method of using site-specific fundamental diagrams for splitting traffic data into four traffic states: free-flow, busy-flow, congested, and severely congested. Using BRT models, the density of traffic (vehicles per kilometre) was observed to have a proportional influence on the concentrations of roadside NOx, with different fitted regression line slopes for the different traffic states. When other influences are conditioned out, the relationship between roadside concentrations and ambient air temperature suggests NOx concentrations reach a minimum at around 22 °C with high concentrations at low ambient air temperatures which could be associated to restricted atmospheric dispersion and/or to changes in road traffic exhaust emission characteristics at low ambient air temperatures. This paper uses BRT models to study how different critical factors, and their relative importance, influence the variation of roadside NOx concentrations. The paper

  18. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE PERFORMANCE OF CLUSTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANA-CODRUŢA DUDĂ-DĂIANU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic performance is an objective of each cluster and innovation is a result of future performance indicator. The working paper proposed to measure the cluster performance based on three success factors: competitiveness cluster, cluster growth and the degree of the objectives. Based on Porter's diamond model will be a breakdown of the main factors influencing the development of clusters and their delineation in general and specific factors cluster. In the same time, will analyze the main directions that define performance clusters: access to resources, access to specialized knowledge, entrepreneurship based on the opportunities, collaboration between organizations and cluster specific organizational culture.

  19. Estimation of liver iron concentration by dual energy CT images: influence of X-ray energy on sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvarosa, I; Massaroni, C; Liguori, C; Paul, J; Beomonte Zobel, B; Saccomandi, P; Vogl, T J; Silvestri, S; Schena, E

    2014-01-01

    In hemochromatosis an abnormal accumulation of iron is present in parenchymal organs and especially in liver. Among the several techniques employed to diagnose the iron overload, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Computed Tomography (CT) are the most promising non-invasive ones. MRI is largely used but shows limitation including an overestimation of iron and inability to quantify iron at very high concentrations. Therefore, some research groups are focusing on the estimation of iron concentration by CT images. Single X-ray CTs are not able to accurately perform this task in case of the presence of confounding factors (e.g., fat). A potential solution to overcome this concern is the employment of Dual-Energy CT (DECT). The aim of this work is to investigate influence of the kVp and mAs on CT number sensitivity to iron concentration. A phantom with test tubes filled with homogenized porcine liver at different iron concentrations, has been scanned with DECT at different mAs. The images have been analyzed using an ad-hoc developed algorithm which allows minimizing the influence of air bubbles present in the homogenized. Data show that the sensitivity is strongly influenced by kVp (its value almost halves from 80 kVp to 140 kVp; e.g. 0.41 g·μmol(-1) and 0.19 g·μmol(-1) at 80 kVp/120 mAs and 140 kVp/60 mAs respectively), on the other hand the influence of mAs value is negligible.

  20. The influence of cholesterol and biomass concentration on the uptake of cholesterol by Lactobacillus from MRS broth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Ziarno

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the determination of some factors influence (i.e. the vitality of bacteria cells and the cholesterol concentration on the ability of selected Lactobacillus sp. to cholesterol uptake during culture in MRS broth. Three Lactobacillus strains (Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lb. acidophilus, Lb. casei isolated from commercial single species lyophilized dairy starter cultures and three Lactobacillus strains (Lb. plantarum, Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lb. acidophilus originated from commercial pharmaceuticals were used in this study. The uptake of cholesterol from MRS broth during the growth of Lactobacillus sp., expressed as the difference between the final and the initial concentrations of cholesterol, ranged from 0.053 to 0.153 g/dm³, apart from the initial cholesterol content and the origin of Lactobacillus sp. The results confirmed that biomass concentration have a statistically significant effect on uptake of cholesterol. The ten-fold increase of the amount of intact cells biomass caused about 1.5-2-fold increase of the amount of cholesterol removed. The influence of the concentration of biomass of alive cells on the removal of cholesterol was bigger than in case of the heat-sterilized cells.

  1. [Influencing factor and mechanism analysis of adverse drug reaction in traditional Chinese medicine injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xu; Xie, Yan-Ming

    2012-09-01

    Adverse drug reaction (ADR) is the key contents in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) injection safety research. However, influencing factors of ADR is not clearly, mechanism research is relatively rare, which are to be found in the literature to date. Qualified drugs and normal usage and dosage are the premise condition of ADR judgment. Age, sex, basic diseases, allergic constitution or drug allergy history are common factors. Kinds of solvent, drug concentration, storage time after liquid drug preparation, dripping speed, incompatibility of TCM injection and clinical commonly used medicine are the major ADR research factors. Adverse events mechanism should be synthetically judged by pre-clinical research, clinical manifestation, drug epidemiological trials results. In order to judge and study ADR correctly, It should be acquainted with TCM injection adverse events or ADR influencing factors,improve injection specification, and pay attention to the ADR mechanism, promote post-marketed reevaluation of safety in TCM injection.

  2. Why neurology? Factors which influence career choice in neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Dara V; Hoyle, Chad; Yin, Han; McCoyd, Matthew; Lukas, Rimas V

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the factors which influence the decision to pursue a career in neurology. An anonymous survey was developed using a Likert scale to rate responses. The survey was sent to adult and child neurology faculty, residents and fellows, as well as medical students applying for neurology. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the factors of influence. Respondents were subsequently categorized into pre-neurology trainees, neurology trainees, child neurologists and adult neurologists, and differences between the groups were analysed using Pearson's chi-square test. One hundred and thirty-three anonymous responses were received. The respondents were neurologists across all levels of training and practice. Across all respondents, the most common factor of high importance was intellectual content of specialty, challenging diagnostic problems, type of patient encountered and interest in helping people. Responses were similar across the groups; however, the earliest trainees cited interest in helping people as most important, while those in neurology training and beyond cite intellectual content of the specialty as most important. As trainees transition from their earliest levels of clinical experience into working as residents and faculty, there is a shift in the cited important factors. Lifestyle and financial factors seem to be the least motivating across all groups. Encouragement from peers, mentors, faculty and practicing physicians is considered high influences in a smaller number of neurologists. This may present an opportunity for practicing neurologists to make connections with medical students early in their education in an effort to encourage and mentor candidates.

  3. A Review of Factors Influencing Athletes' Food Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenhead, Karen L; Slater, Gary

    2015-11-01

    Athletes make food choices on a daily basis that can affect both health and performance. A well planned nutrition strategy that includes the careful timing and selection of appropriate foods and fluids helps to maximize training adaptations and, thus, should be an integral part of the athlete's training programme. Factors that motivate food selection include taste, convenience, nutrition knowledge and beliefs. Food choice is also influenced by physiological, social, psychological and economic factors and varies both within and between individuals and populations. This review highlights the multidimensional nature of food choice and the depth of previous research investigating eating behaviours. Despite numerous studies with general populations, little exploration has been carried out with athletes, yet the energy demands of sport typically require individuals to make more frequent and/or appropriate food choices. While factors that are important to general populations also apply to athletes, it seems likely, given the competitive demands of sport, that performance would be an important factor influencing food choice. It is unclear if athletes place the same degree of importance on these factors or how food choice is influenced by involvement in sport. There is a clear need for further research exploring the food choice motives of athletes, preferably in conjunction with research investigating dietary intake to establish if intent translates into practice.

  4. Factors influencing first childbearing timing decisions among men: Path analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariman, Nourossadat; Amerian, Maliheh; Jannati, Padideh; Salmani, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Factors that influence men’s childbearing intentions have been relatively unexplored in the literature. Objective: This study aimed to determine the influencing factors about the first childbearing timing decisions of men. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 300 men who were referred to private and governmental healthcare centers in Shahrood, Iran were randomly recruited from April to September 2014. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, the Quality of Life Questionnaire; ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire, Synder’s Hope Scale, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Results: After removing the statistically insignificant paths, men’s age at marriage had the highest direct effect (β=0.86) on their first childbearing decision. Marital satisfaction (β=-0.09), social support (β=0.06), economic status (β=0.06), and quality of life (β=-0.08) were other effective factors on men’s first childbearing decisions. Moreover, marital satisfaction and social support had significant indirect effects on men’s childbearing decisions (β=-0.04 and -0.01, respectively). Conclusion: Many factors, including personal factors (age at marriage and quality of life), family factors (marital satisfaction), and social factors (social support), can affect men’s decision to have a child. Policymakers are hence required to develop strategies to promote the socioeconomic and family conditions of the couples and to encourage them to have as many children as they desire at an appropriate time. PMID:27738661

  5. Influence of Soil Moisture on Soil Gas Vapor Concentration for Vapor Intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Rui; Pennell, Kelly G; Suuberg, Eric M

    2013-10-01

    Mathematical models have been widely used in analyzing the effects of various environmental factors in the vapor intrusion process. Soil moisture content is one of the key factors determining the subsurface vapor concentration profile. This manuscript considers the effects of soil moisture profiles on the soil gas vapor concentration away from any surface capping by buildings or pavement. The "open field" soil gas vapor concentration profile is observed to be sensitive to the soil moisture distribution. The van Genuchten relations can be used for describing the soil moisture retention curve, and give results consistent with the results from a previous experimental study. Other modeling methods that account for soil moisture are evaluated. These modeling results are also compared with the measured subsurface concentration profiles in the U.S. EPA vapor intrusion database.

  6. Consumer's Online Shopping Influence Factors and Decision-Making Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiangbin; Dai, Shiliang

    Previous research on online consumer behavior has mostly been confined to the perceived risk which is used to explain those barriers for purchasing online. However, perceived benefit is another important factor which influences consumers’ decision when shopping online. As a result, an integrated consumer online shopping decision-making model is developed which contains three elements—Consumer, Product, and Web Site. This model proposed relative factors which influence the consumers’ intention during the online shopping progress, and divided them into two different dimensions—mentally level and material level. We tested those factors with surveys, from both online volunteers and offline paper surveys with more than 200 samples. With the help of SEM, the experimental results show that the proposed model and method can be used to analyze consumer’s online shopping decision-making process effectively.

  7. Factors influencing Neurodevelopment after Cardiac Surgery during Infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedwig Hubertine Hövels-Gürich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Short- and long-term neurodevelopmental (ND disabilities with negative impact on psychosocial and academic performance, quality of life and independence in adulthood are known to be the most common sequelae for surviving children after surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD. This article reviews influences and risk factors for ND impairment. For a long time, the search for independent risk factors was focused on the perioperative period and modalities of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB. CPB operations to ensure intraoperative vital organ perfusion and oxygen supply with or without circulatory arrest or regional cerebral perfusion bear specific risks. Examples for such risks are embolization, deep hypothermia, flow rate, hemodilution, blood gas management, postoperative hyperthermia, systemic-inflammatory response and capillary leak syndrome. However, influences of these procedure-specific risk factors on ND outcome have not been found as strong as expected. Furthermore, modifications have not been found to support the effectiveness of the currently used neuroprotective strategies.Postoperative factors, such as need for extracorporal membrane oxygenation or assist device support and duration of hospital stay, significantly influence ND parameters. On the other hand, the so-called innate, less modifiable patient-specific risk factors have been found to exert significant influences on ND outcomes. Examples are type and severity of CHD, genetic or syndromic abnormalities as well as prematurity and low birth weight.Structural and hemodynamic characteristics of different CHDs are assumed to result in impaired brain growth and delayed maturation with special respect to the white matter. Beginning in the fetal period, this so-called encephalopathy of CHD is suggested a major innate risk factor for pre-, peri- and postoperative additional hypoxic or ischemic brain injury and subsequent ND impairment. Furthermore, MRI studies on brain volume, structure and

  8. Factors Influencing Neurodevelopment after Cardiac Surgery during Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hövels-Gürich, Hedwig Hubertine

    2016-01-01

    Short- and long-term neurodevelopmental (ND) disabilities with negative impact on psychosocial and academic performance, quality of life, and independence in adulthood are known to be the most common sequelae for surviving children after surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD). This article reviews influences and risk factors for ND impairment. For a long time, the search for independent risk factors was focused on the perioperative period and modalities of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). CPB operations to ensure intraoperative vital organ perfusion and oxygen supply with or without circulatory arrest or regional cerebral perfusion bear specific risks. Examples of such risks are embolization, deep hypothermia, flow rate, hemodilution, blood gas management, postoperative hyperthermia, systemic inflammatory response, and capillary leak syndrome. However, influences of these procedure-specific risk factors on ND outcome have not been found as strong as expected. Furthermore, modifications have not been found to support the effectiveness of the currently used neuroprotective strategies. Postoperative factors, such as need for extracorporal membrane oxygenation or assist device support and duration of hospital stay, significantly influence ND parameters. On the other hand, the so-called “innate,” less modifiable patient-specific risk factors have been found to exert significant influences on ND outcomes. Examples are type and severity of CHD, genetic or syndromic abnormalities, as well as prematurity and low birth weight. Structural and hemodynamic characteristics of different CHDs are assumed to result in impaired brain growth and delayed maturation with respect to the white matter. Beginning in the fetal period, this so-called “encephalopathy of CHD” is suggested a major innate risk factor for pre-, peri-, and postoperative additional hypoxic or ischemic brain injury and subsequent ND impairment. Furthermore, MRI studies on brain volume, structure, and

  9. Neuromuscular performance of maximal voluntary explosive concentric contractions is influenced by angular acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, D; Bakenecker, P; Zinke, F

    2016-12-28

    Torque production during maximal voluntary explosive contractions is considered to be a functionally more relevant neuromuscular measure than steady-state torque, but little is known about accelerated concentric contractions. This study investigated torque, muscle activity, and fascicle behavior during isometric and fast concentric contractions of quadriceps femoris. Ten participants performed maximal voluntary explosive isometric, isovelocity, and additional concentric knee extensions at angular accelerations ranging from 700 to 4000° s(-2) that resulted in an angular velocity of 300° s(-1) at 40° knee flexion. Concentric torque at 40° knee flexion was corrected for inertia, and the corresponding isometric torque was matched to the time when the target knee angle of 40° was reached during concentric contractions. Electromyography of quadriceps femoris and hamstrings and ultrasound of vastus lateralis were measured to determine muscle activity, fascicle length, and fascicle velocity (FV). The faster the acceleration, the more torque was produced during concentric contractions at 40° knee flexion, which was accompanied by a reduction in FV. In comparison with isometric conditions, concentric quadriceps muscle activity was increased and torque during accelerations ≥3000° s(-2) equaled the time-matched isometric torque. Our results provide novel evidence that acceleration influences torque production during maximal voluntary explosive concentric contractions. This is suggested to be due to series elasticity and reduced force depression.

  10. An exploration study on factors influencing Iranian food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Hosseinzadeh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The proposed study of this paper present an empirical investigation to detect important factors impacting on food market using factor analysis. The proposed study designed a questionnaire, distributed among 207 customers who were regular customers of two food chains in city of Tehran, Iran named Shahrvand and Hyperstar. The results of our survey indicate that six major factors including brand loyalty, physical characteristics, pricing effects, performance characteristics, brand relationship and brand position influence food industry, significantly. In terms of the first factor, brand loyalty, “Trust”, “Packaging design characteristics”, “Competitive pricing strategy”, “Stability in quality”, “External relationships” and “Meeting expectations” are important factors in different categories.

  11. A field study to evaluate the impact of different factors on the nutrient pollutant concentrations in green roof runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaochen; Zhao, Xinhua; Peng, Chenrui; Zhang, Xinbo; Wang, Jianghai

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to investigate the impact of different factors on the nutrient pollutant concentrations in green roof runoff and to provide reference data for the engineering design of dual substrate layer green roofs. The data were collected from eight different trays under three kinds of artificial rains. The results showed that except for total phosphorus, dual substrate layer green roofs behaved as a sink for most of the nutrient pollutants (significant at p < 0.05), and the first-flush effect did not occur during the 27 simulated rain events. The results also revealed that the concentration of these nutrient pollutants in the runoff strongly depended on the features of the nutrient substrates used in the green roof and the depth of the adsorption substrates. Compared with the influence of the substrates, the influence of the plant density and drainage systems was small.

  12. Influences of Ice Crystal Number Concentrations and Habits on Arctic Mixed-Phase Cloud Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komurcu, Muge

    2016-09-01

    Mixed-phase clouds are frequently present in the Arctic atmosphere, and strongly affect the surface energy budget. In this study, the influences of ice crystal number concentrations and crystal growth habits on the Arctic mixed-phase cloud microphysics and dynamics are investigated for internally and externally driven cloud systems using an eddy-resolving model. Separate simulations are performed with increasing ice concentrations and different ice crystal habits. It is found that the habit influence on cloud microphysics and dynamics is as pronounced as increasing the ice crystal concentrations for internally driven clouds and more dominant for externally driven clouds. Habit influence can lead to a 10 % reduction in surface incident longwave radiation flux. Sensitivity tests are performed to identify the interactions between processes affecting cloud dynamics that allow for persistent clouds (i.e., the radiative cooling at cloud top, ice precipitation stabilization at cloud-base). When cloud-base stabilization influences of ice precipitation are weak, cloud dynamics is more sensitive to radiative cooling. Additional sensitivity simulations are done with increasing surface latent and sensible heat fluxes to identify the influences of external forcing on cloud dynamics. It is found that the magnitude of cloud circulations for an externally driven cloud system with strong precipitation and weak surface fluxes is similar to a weakly precipitating, optically thick, internally driven cloud. For cloud systems with intense ice precipitation obtained through either increasing ice crystal concentrations or assuming ice crystal shapes that grow rapidly and fall fast, the cloud layer may collapse despite the moistening effect of surface fluxes.

  13. 大量输血前后血钾浓度变化及高钾血症发生的影响因素%Analysis on the factors influencing the serum potassium concentration changes before and after massive blood transfusion and transfusion hyperkalemia occurred

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾学平

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究大量输血前后血钾浓度的变化情况以及输血后高钾血症发生的影响因素。方法:将132例非挤压伤患者随机分为非输血治疗组(对照组)、大量输血治疗组(观察组),比较两组患者输血前后的血钾变化情况,同时分析其相关的影响因素。结果:输血前、后及手术过程中两组患者的血钾水平未见明显差异,但术后12 h内,观察组患者的血钾水平明显高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(t=1.562,P<0.05),术后12 h之外两组患者的血钾水平比较未见明显差异。结论:临床上大量输血并不是引起患者高钾血症的主要原因,但某些患者在大量输血后会出现血钾升高,因此在进行输血过程中应对患者血钾水平进行密切监测和观察,且应注意肾功能变化,以排除由于肾功能受损导致的血钾升高,降低并发症的发生率。%Objective: To study the changes of blood transfusion and blood potassium concentration and the occurrence of hyperkalemia after transfusion factors influence. Methods: In our hospital from 2010 April to select the diagnosis and treatment of -2012 in April 132 cases of non crush injury patients, these patients were randomly divided into two groups, the control group without blood transfusion therapy group, the observation group for massive transfusion treatment group, changes of serum potassium were compared between the two groups before and after transfusion, and to analyze the related effect factors. Results:The serum potassium levels showed no significant difference between the two groups of patients before and after blood transfusion, operation process, but the postoperative within 12h, observation of blood potassium level group were significantly higher than that in control group, the difference is significant, with statistical significance (t=1.562, P<0.05), in addition to 12h after operation, blood potassium levels between the two

  14. Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Inventory Management in Manufacturing SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Shiau Wei; Tasmin, R.; Nor Aziati, A. H.; Zuraidah Rasi, Raja; Ismail, Fadillah Binti; Yaw, Li Ping

    2017-08-01

    Effectiveness of inventory management is a vital part in the manufacturing organization to be more competitive. The previous studies have indicated that there are several factors influencing the effectiveness of inventory management in the organization but there is lack of researchers who carried out the research in the manufacturing small medium enterprise in Johor. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to identify the problem of inventory management faced by the manufacturing small medium enterprise and also to determine the factors that will influence the effectiveness of inventory management. In completing this research, 80 employees were selected randomly from the manufacturing small medium enterprise in Batu Pahat, Johor and they were requested to complete questionnaires. The result have shown that the problems of inventory management faced by manufacturing organization were underproduction, overproduction, stock out situation, delays in the delivery of raw materials and discrepancy of records. The factors, documentation/store records, planning, knowledge of employees/staff skill have shown to significantly influence the effectiveness of inventory management while the funds have shown slightly significant influence on the inventory management in manufacturing small medium enterprises. This quantitative study is important to the manufacturing organization in Malaysia because it provides the guidelines to the employers of manufacturing small medium enterprises in Batu Pahat, Johor.

  15. Standardizing acute toxicity data for use in ecotoxicology models: influence of test type, life stage, and concentration reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondo, Sandy; Vivian, Deborah N; Barron, Mace G

    2009-10-01

    Ecotoxicological models generally have large data requirements and are frequently based on existing information from diverse sources. Standardizing data for toxicological models may be necessary to reduce extraneous variation and to ensure models reflect intrinsic relationships. However, the extent to which data standardization is necessary remains unclear, particularly when data transformations are used in model development. An extensive acute toxicity database was compiled for aquatic species to comprehensively assess the variation associated with acute toxicity test type (e.g., flow-through, static), reporting concentrations as nominal or measured, and organism life stage. Three approaches were used to assess the influence of these factors on log-transformed acute toxicity: toxicity ratios, log-linear models of factor groups, and comparison of interspecies correlation estimation (ICE) models developed using either standardized test types or reported concentration type. In general, median ratios were generally less than 2.0, the slopes of log-linear models were approximately one for well-represented comparisons, and ICE models developed using data from standardized test types or reported concentrations did not differ substantially. These results indicate that standardizing test data by acute test type, reported concentration type, or life stage may not be critical for developing ecotoxicological models using large datasets of log-transformed values.

  16. Light climate and dissolved organic carbon concentration influence species-specific changes in fish zooplanktivory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidel, Brian C.; Baglini, Katherine; Jones, Stuart E.; Kelly, Patrick T.; Solomon, Christopher T.; Zwart, Jacob A.

    2017-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in lakes reduces light penetration and limits fish production in low nutrient lakes, reportedly via reduced primary and secondary production. Alternatively, DOC and light reductions could influence fish by altering their visual feeding. Previous studies report mixed effects of DOC on feeding rates of zooplanktivorous fish, but most investigators tested effects of a single concentration of DOC against clear-water, turbid, or algal treatments. We used a controlled laboratory study to quantify the effects of a DOC gradient (3–19 mg L−1) on average light climate and the zooplankton feeding rate of 3 common, north temperate fishes. Light availability, which was inversely related to DOC concentration, had a positive and linear effect on zooplankton consumption by juvenile largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), explaining 22% and 28% of the variation in consumption, respectively. By contrast, zooplankton feeding rates by fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) were best predicted by a nonlinear, negative influence of light (R2 = 0.13). In bluegill feeding trials we found a general trend for positive selection of larger zooplankton (Cladocera and Chaoboridae); however, the light climate did not influence the selection of prey type. Largemouth bass selected for larger-bodied zooplankton, with weak evidence that selectivity for large Cladocera changed from negative to neutral selection based on electivity values across the light gradient. Our results suggest that the effect of DOC on the light climate of lakes may directly influence fish zooplanktivory and that this influence may vary among fish species.

  17. Influences of dissolved oxygen concentration on biocathodic microbial communities in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rago, Laura; Cristiani, Pierangela; Villa, Federica; Zecchin, Sarah; Colombo, Alessandra; Cavalca, Lucia; Schievano, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) at cathodic interface is a critical factor influencing microbial fuel cells (MFC) performance. In this work, three MFCs were operated with cathode under different DO conditions: i) air-breathing (A-MFC); ii) water-submerged (W-MFC) and iii) assisted by photosynthetic microorganisms (P-MFC). A plateau of maximum current was reached at 1.06±0.03mA, 1.48±0.06mA and 1.66±0.04mA, increasing respectively for W-MFC, P-MFC and A-MFC. Electrochemical and microbiological tools (Illumina sequencing, confocal microscopy and biofilm cryosectioning) were used to explore anodic and cathodic biofilm in each MFC type. In all cases, biocathodes improved oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) as compared to abiotic condition and A-MFC was the best performing system. Photosynthetic cultures in the cathodic chamber supplied high DO level, up to 16mgO2L(-1), which sustained aerobic microbial community in P-MFC biocathode. Halomonas, Pseudomonas and other microaerophilic genera reached >50% of the total OTUs. The presence of sulfur reducing bacteria (Desulfuromonas) and purple non-sulfur bacteria in A-MFC biocathode suggested that the recirculation of sulfur compounds could shuttle electrons to sustain the reduction of oxygen as final electron acceptor. The low DO concentration limited the cathode in W-MFC. A model of two different possible microbial mechanisms is proposed which can drive predominantly cathodic ORR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Influence of ecologic factors on respiratory diseases in urban residents of Kazakhstan Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrayeva, L K; Amanbekova, A U; Turgunova, L G; Lariushina, E M

    2015-01-01

    The authors studied influence of ecologic factors on respiratory diseases development in urban residents of Kazakhstan Republic. Multivariate (correlation and regression) analysis demonstrates that chronic obstructive lung disease development is contributed by high concentration of nitrogen oxide in ambient air (r = -0.75; p = 0.005) in Temirtau, Kamenogorsk and Aktau cities, high lead content of sedimented dust (r = 0.64; p = 0.02) in Temirtau, Ust'-Kamenogorsk and Ekibastuz cities.

  19. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Nidhi, E-mail: nidhi.gupta@wur.nl; Fischer, Arnout R. H., E-mail: arnout.fischer@wur.nl; Lans, Ivo A. van der, E-mail: Ivo.vanderLans@wur.nl [Wageningen University, Marketing and Consumer Behaviour Group (Netherlands); Frewer, Lynn J., E-mail: lynn.frewer@newcastle.ac.uk [Newcastle University, School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public.

  20. Monitoring Athletes Through Self-Report: Factors Influencing Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E. Saw

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring athletic preparation facilitates the evaluation and adjustment of practices to optimize performance outcomes. Self-report measures such as questionnaires and diaries are suggested to be a simple and cost-effective approach to monitoring an athlete’s response to training, however their efficacy is dependent on how they are implemented and used. This study sought to identify the perceived factors influencing the implementation of athlete self-report measures (ASRM in elite sport settings. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with athletes, coaches and sports science and medicine staff at a national sporting institute (n = 30. Interviewees represented 20 different sports programs and had varying experience with ASRM. Purported factors influencing the implementation of ASRM related to the measure itself (e.g., accessibility, timing of completion, and the social environment (e.g., buy-in, reinforcement. Social environmental factors included individual, inter-personal and organizational levels which is consistent with a social ecological framework. An adaptation of this framework was combined with the factors associated with the measure to illustrate the inter-relations and influence upon compliance, data accuracy and athletic outcomes. To improve implementation of ASRM and ultimately athletic outcomes, a multi-factorial and multi-level approach is needed.

  1. Factors that influence on the decisions of battered women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana Robledo Martín

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Violence towards and against women consists in any kind of violation of woman’s personality, her physical integrity or her freedom of movement. Nowadays, gender-based violence is considered a state and public health problem as well as a social concerning subject.Objective: To identify the factors that influence on the decisions that battered women make.Methodology: The study population are battered women who live in Madrid province and who are being attended in the Municipal Points of the Regional Observatory against the Gender Violence.The information was collected by performing focus groups and deep interviews.Results: There are several factors which influence on the decisions that battered women make, like the existence or not of children they have to take care of, the economic dependence and the ignorance of the woman, in some cases, of the existence of this ill-treatment, but over all, we could even say beyond all these, there is one that is the most important, common and we could say it is the main axis that determine their behaviour. This factor is fear.Discussion: When attending these women we may be aware of the psychological situation they are, and we should be able to identify if the woman is asking us for help when she comes to us and try to identify and treat this factor that influences the decisions the woman we attend makes.

  2. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Fischer, Arnout R H; van der Lans, Ivo A; Frewer, Lynn J

    2012-05-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11051-012-0857-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  3. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; van der Lans, Ivo A.; Frewer, Lynn J.

    2012-05-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public.

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF CORPORATE SPECIFIC FACTORS UPON FINANCING DECISIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacatus Viorel-Dorin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the existing theories for the capital structure of a corporation and to determine the factors that influence the financing decisions of Romanian corporations. The gearing ratios vary a lot among Romanian corporations pointing out the fact that the internal specific factors are the ones with a greater impact upon their capital structure, and not the external factors. Our empiric research evaluates the determining factors for the debt ratio (total debt/total assets of some Romanian corporations, focusing on its explanatory variables by including them within simple and multiple econometric models. The panel data indicators computed for the companies in the Cluj area listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange were evaluated with the OLS and FEM techniques.The results have been interpreted, pointing out that company size and asset turnover seem to have a positive influence upon the debt ratio of selected companies, while profitability and liquidity seem to influence the debt ratio of selected companies negatively.

  5. Tretinoin-based formulations - influence of concentration and vehicles on skin penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edileia Bagatin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tretinoin is used in the management of acne and it is part of a gold standard treatment for photoaging. It has also been reported as an agent for superficial chemical peeling in highly concentrated formulations with few considerations about skin penetration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of drug concentration and vehicles currently used on skin penetration of tretinoin. In vitro permeation tests were carried out using Franz diffusion cells fitted with porcine ear skin and 10% aqueous methanol in the receptor compartment. Formulations studied, cream or hydroalcoholic dispersion, containing 0.25%, 1% and 5% of tretinoin were placed in the donor compartment for six hours. Tretinoin concentration in skin layers was measured by high performance liquid chromatography. The largest amount of tretinoin from both vehicles was detected in stratum corneum with significant differences among the three concentrations. The hydroalcoholic dispersion was the best vehicle. Significant amounts of tretinoin were found even in deep layers of epidermis. The formulation with 0.25% tretinoin showed better results when considered the amount of tretinoin on skin in terms of percentage. Finally, skin penetration of tretinoin was influenced by vehicle and concentration of this drug used in formulation.

  6. Influences of the (NH2)2CO concentration on magnetic photocatalytic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liŭ, Dan; Li, Ziheng; Wang, Wenquan; Liú, Dan; Wang, Guoqiang; Lin, Junhong; He, Yingqiao; Li, Xiangru

    2016-11-01

    Magnetic photocatalytic Fe3O4@TiO2 composites have been fabricated by changing the concentration of (NH2)2CO. Samples were named as low (NH2)2CO concentration group which the (NH2)2CO concentration in the synthesis process was below 2.25 mol/L and high (NH2)2CO concentration group which the (NH2)2CO concentration was above 2.5 mol/L. Photocatalytic degradation experiments of methyl orange showed that the final degradation rates of low (NH2)2CO concentration group samples were higher than that of high (NH2)2CO concentration group, even better than P25 at the same test conditions. And it was interesting that samples of low (NH2)2CO concentration group had smaller values of BET surface areas than that of high (NH2)2CO concentration group. It indicated that the improvement of photocatalytic activity which was effected by BET surface areas was not obvious. There were two main factors enhancing the photocatalytic property of low (NH2)2CO concentration group: First, diffusing reflection spectra showed that the low (NH2)2CO concentration group samples had lower reflectivity, this suggested that the structure improved the efficiency of light absorption; Second, NH4+ would take up the active sites on the surface of the TiO2 particles, the FT-IR test results showed that the samples of the low (NH2)2CO concentration group samples bonded less NH4+, thus leading to the higher photocatalytic activity. It had enlightenment role for optimizing the performance of photocatalytic materials.

  7. The influence of environmental variables on platelet concentration in horse platelet-rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinnovati, Riccardo; Romagnoli, Noemi; Gentilini, Fabio; Lambertini, Carlotta; Spadari, Alessandro

    2016-07-04

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) commonly refers to blood products which contain a higher platelet (PLT) concentration as compared to normal plasma. Autologous PRP has been shown to be safe and effective in promoting the natural processes of soft tissue healing or reconstruction in humans and horses. Variability in PLT concentration has been observed in practice between PRP preparations from different patients or from the same individual under different conditions. A change in PLT concentration could modify PRP efficacy in routine applications. The aim of this study was to test the influence of environmental, individual and agonistic variables on the PLT concentration of PRP in horses. Six healthy Standardbred mares were exposed to six different variables with a one-week washout period between variables, and PRP was subsequently obtained from each horse. The variables were time of withdrawal during the day (morning/evening), hydration status (overhydration/dehydration) treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs and training periods on a treadmill. The platelet concentration was significantly higher in horses treated with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (P = 0.03). The leukocyte concentration increased 2-9 fold with respect to whole blood in the PRP which was obtained after exposure to all the variable considered. Environmental variation in platelet concentration should be taken into consideration during PRP preparation.

  8. Parametric Equation of Stress Concentration Factor for Circular X-Joints Under Axial Loads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Shu-ying; ZHANG Guo-dong; ZHANG Bao-feng; WANG Xin-jian

    2007-01-01

    In engineering practice,tubular X-joints have been widely used in offshore structures.The fatigue failure of tubular X-joints in offshore engineering is mainly caused by axial tensile stress.In this study,the stress concentration factor distribution along the weld toe in the hot spot stress region for tubular X-joints subject to axial loads have been analyzed by use of finite element method.Through numerical analysis,it has been found that the peak stress concentration factor is located at the saddle position.Thereafter,80 models have been analyzed,and the effect of the geometric parameters of a tubular X-joint on the stress concentration factor has been investigated.Based on the experimental values of the numerical stress concentration factor,a parametric equation to calculate the stress concentration factor of tubular X-joints has been proposed.The accuracy of this equation has been verified against the requirement of the Fatigue Guidance Review Panel,and the proposed equation is found capable of producing reasonably accurate stress concentration factor values for tubular X-joints subject to axial loads.

  9. The influence of the training of resistance and the aerobic training on the hormonal concentrations of testosterone and cortisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Araújo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to review the influence of aerobic training and resistance in the acute and chronic concentrations of hormones testosterone and cortisol. In addition, it looks at other important factors, such as age, feeding and circadian rhythm which can modify the concentration of testosterone and cortisol acutely thus making it difficult the understanding of the hormonal answers unchained by the training. Although the diverse controversies found in the present study, the periodical and high intensity activitiesseem to stimulate bigger releases of testosterone and little release of cortisol, contributing , consequently, to the levels of force and muscular hypertrophy. However, new studies need to be carried out with adjusted delineations respecting the diverse interactions (feeding, age, sex, level of experience with the physical training, etc. that involve the physical training.

  10. An exploration study on factors influencing green marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Esmaeeli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available These days, there have been tremendous efforts on offering products, which are environment friendly. Green marketing plays an important role for attracting new customer and customer retention. This paper presents an empirical investigation based on the implementation of factor analysis to locate important factors influencing green marketing planning and strategies. building market oriented business units. The study designs a questionnaire including 23 questions and the questionnaire was distributed among 200 people who were visiting organic product exhibition. Cronbach alpha was calculated as 0.845, which is well above the minimum acceptable limit and validates the results. The results of factor analysis reveal four major factors including green labeling, compatibility, product value and marketing component and size.

  11. Journal impact factor: this editorial, academic and scientific influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Milton Artur; Greco, Oswaldo Tadeu; Braile, Domingo Marcolino

    2009-01-01

    In this report the authors present information on the bibliometric instruments and their importance in measuring the quality of scientific journals and researchers. They in particular the history and deployment of the impact factor of the existing Institute for Scientific Information since 1955. Are presented and discussed the criticism regarding the inadequacy of the impact factor for evaluation of scientific production, misuse and strategies editorial handling of the bibliometric index. It is presented to the new classification CAPES for the journals, based on various criteria and the impact factor and its influence on national scientific and academic life. The authors conclude that, despite all obstacles and discussions, the impact factor of the Institute for Scientific Information is still an useful tool and the only isolation available to assess the scientific and intellectual productivity.

  12. Factor Influencing Creative Industries Development in Kenjeran Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto, V. K.; Santoso, E. B.

    2017-07-01

    Indonesia needs to improve the competitiveness of local products to optimize its contribution to the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) for the welfare of the population. This can be done by improving the development of creative industries. Kenjeran Sub District is one of the coastal villages in the city of Surabaya, which has a large number of poor people. The potential of the creative industries is still not visible in efforts to increase public welfare. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the factors that influence the development of creative industries in Kenjeran. This study using in-depth interview were analysed using content analysis and Cartesian diagram to determine the important factors that affect the development of creative industries in Sub district of Kenjeran. By using five respondents from the government shows that the factors that have a high level of importance and advantages are low among other regulatory factors of raw materials, import and export, extortion, and administrative procedures.

  13. Succesful Lean Manufacturing Implementation: Internal Key Influencing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia, Iuga; Claudiu, Kifor

    2015-09-01

    Manufacturing sectors and companies all over the world are successfully implementing lean principles within their processes. Nowadays, lean has become an indispensable part of global players. Companies worldwide need to be aware of multiple factors which weigh heavily on the success or failure of lean implementation. This paper focuses on giving a brief and structured overview over the fundamental organizational factors which play a substantial role for the lean manufacturing (LM) implementation process. The study below focuses on internal factors which are indispensable for a successful LM implementation within organizations. It is imperative that these internal factors are known, recognized and taken into consideration during the whole LM implementation process. Ignoring their influence on the process's implementation may lead to endangering the expected results or to making the process more difficult which could result in much higher human resource consumption.

  14. The Influence of Contextual and Psychosocial Factors on Handwashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimetz, Elisabeth; Boyayo, Anne-Marie; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2016-06-01

    Even though washing hands with soap is among the most effective measures to reduce the risk of infection, handwashing rates in infrastructure-restricted settings remain seriously low. Little is known about how context alone and in interaction with psychosocial factors influence hand hygiene behavior. The aim of this article was to explore how both contextual and psychosocial factors affect handwashing practices. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 660 caregivers of primary school children in rural Burundi. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that household wealth, the amount of water per person, and having a designated place for washing hands were contextual factors significantly predicting handwashing frequency, whereas the contextual factors, time spent collecting water and amount of money spent on soap, were not significant predictors. The contextual factors explained about 13% of the variance of reported handwashing frequency. The addition of the psychosocial factors to the regression model resulted in a significant 41% increase of explained variation in handwashing frequency. In this final model, the amount of water was the only contextual factor that remained a significant predictor. The most important predictors were a belief of self-efficacy, planning how, when, and where to wash hands, and always remembering to do so. The findings suggest that contextual constraints might be perceived rather than actual barriers and highlight the role of psychosocial factors in understanding hygiene behaviors. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  15. The influence of various factors on milk clotting time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Snežana T.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of pH (6.5 and 5.8, amount of added CaCl2 (0, 200 and 400 mg/l, coagulation temperature (30ºC and 35ºC and heat treatment of milk (65ºC/30 min and 87ºC/10 min on the rate of rennet induced milk coagulation (s were investigated. The time (s from rennet addition to onset of gelation (as indicated by the first visible floccules was measured. The milk samples heat-treated at 87ºC/10 min, with 400 mg/l added CaCl2, which were coagulated at 35ºC and pH 5.8, coagulated 23.28-fold faster than the same samples without added CaCl2, which were coagulated at 30ºC and pH 6.5. The results of investigations related to the influence of particular coagulation factors on the coagulation rate of heat-treated milk showed that at pH 6.5 the most pronounced influence was demonstrated by the amount of Ca2+ and temperature of coagulation. At pH 5.8, different amounts of Ca2 and used temperatures of coagulation did not influence coagulation rate regardless of the used heat treatment of milk. The influence of used heat treatment of milk was particularly pronounced during coagulation of samples without added CaCl2 that coagulated at 30ºC and pH 6.5. The used heat treatment of milk practically did not influence the milk coagulation rate at pH 5.8. The greatest influence on milk coagulation rate was showed by pH. This influence was the most marked in coagulation of samples in which the coaggregates were formed, regardless of the amount of added Ca2+ and used coagulation temperatures.

  16. Evaluation of factors important in modeling plasma concentrations of tetracycline hydrochloride administered in water in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Sharon E; Almond, Glen W; Riviere, Jim E; Baynes, Ronald E

    2012-10-01

    To model the plasma tetracycline concentrations in swine (Sus scrofa domestica) treated with medication administered in water and determine the factors that contribute to the most accurate predictions of measured plasma drug concentrations. Plasma tetracycline concentrations measured in blood samples from 3 populations of swine. Data from previous studies provided plasma tetracycline concentrations that were measured in blood samples collected from 1 swine population at 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 32, 48, 56, 72, 80, 96, and 104 hours and from 2 swine populations at 0, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours hours during administration of tetracycline hydrochloride dissolved in water. A 1-compartment pharmacostatistical model was used to analyze 5 potential covariate schemes and determine factors most important in predicting the plasma concentrations of tetracycline in swine. 2 models most accurately predicted the tetracycline plasma concentrations in the 3 populations of swine. Factors of importance were body weight or age of pig, ambient temperature, concentration of tetracycline in water, and water use per unit of time. The factors found to be of importance, combined with knowledge of the individual pharmacokinetic and chemical properties of medications currently approved for administration in water, may be useful in more prudent administration of approved medications administered to swine. Factors found to be important in pharmacostatistical models may allow prediction of plasma concentrations of tetracycline or other commonly used medications administered in water. The ability to predict in vivo concentrations of medication in a population of food animals can be combined with bacterial minimum inhibitory concentrations to decrease the risk of developing antimicrobial resistance.

  17. Influence of atmospheric stability and transport on CH{sub 4} concentrations in northern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García, M. Ángeles, E-mail: magperez@fa1.uva.es; Sánchez, M. Luisa; Pérez, Isidro A.; Ozores, Marta I.; Pardo, Nuria

    2016-04-15

    Continuous methane (CH{sub 4}) concentrations were measured in Northern Spain over two years (2011–2012) by multi-point sampling at 1.8, 3.7 and 8.3 m using a Picarro analyser. The technique is based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy. The contrast in mean concentrations was about 1.2 ppb, with 95th percentiles differing by 2.2 ppb and mean minimum concentrations proving similar. Temporal variations of CH{sub 4} were also analysed, with a similar seasonal variability being found for the three heights. The highest CH{sub 4} concentrations were obtained in late autumn and winter and the lowest in summer, yielding a range of 52 ppb. This variation may depend on the active photochemical reaction with OH radical during a period of intense solar radiation and changes in soil conditions together with variations in emissions. Peak concentration levels were recorded at night-time, between 5:00–7:00 GMT, with mean values ranging between 1920 and 1923 ppb. The lowest value, around 1884 ppb, was obtained at 16:00 GMT. This diurnal variation was mainly related to vertical mixing and photochemistry. Therefore, CH{sub 4} concentrations were also examined using the bulk Richardson number (R{sub B}) as a stability indicator. Four groups were distinguished: unstable cases, situations with pure shear flow, transitional stages and drainage flows. The highest contrast in mean CH{sub 4} concentrations between lower and upper heights was obtained for the transition and drainage cases, mainly associated to high concentrations from nearby sources. The impact of long range transport was analysed by means of 3-day isobaric backward air mass trajectories, which were calculated taking into account origins from Europe, Africa, the Atlantic Ocean and Local conditions. Assessment of the results showed the influence of S and SE wind sectors, especially with Local conditions associated with low winds. Finally, an estimation of the background CH{sub 4} concentration in the study period provided an

  18. [Mathematic analysis of risk factors influence on occupational respiratory diseases development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budkar', L N; Bugaeva, I V; Obukhova, T Iu; Tereshina, L G; Karpova, E A; Shmonina, O G

    2010-01-01

    Analysis covered 1348 case histories of workers exposed to industrial dust in Urals region. The analysis applied mathematical processing of survival theory and correlation analysis. The authors studied influence of various factors: dust concentration, connective tissue dysplasia, smoking habits--on duration for diseases caused by dust to appear. Findings are that occupational diseases develop reliably faster with higher ambient dust concentrations and with connective tissue dysplasia syndrome. Smoking habits do not alter duration of pneumoconiosis development, but reliably increases development of occupational dust bronchitis.

  19. Health related quality of life and influencing factors among welders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxiang Qin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. Welders are exposed to many occupational hazards; these hazards might cause some occupational diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQL of electric welders in Shanghai China and explore influencing factors to HRQL of welders. METHODS: 301 male welders (without pneumoconiosis and 305 non-dust male workers in Shanghai were enrolled in this study. Short Form-36 (SF-36 health survey questionnaires were applied in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic, working and health factors were also collected. Multiple stepwise regress analysis was used to identify significant factors related to the eight dimension scores. RESULTS: Six dimensions including role-physical (RP, bodily pain (BP, general health (GH, validity (VT, social function (SF, and mental health (MH were significantly worse in welders compared to non-dust workers. Multiple stepwise regress analysis results show that native place, monthly income, quantity of children, drinking, sleep time, welding type, use of personal protective equipment (PPE, great events in life, and some symptoms including dizziness, discomfort of cervical vertebra, low back pain, cough and insomnia may be influencing factors for HRQL of welders. Among these factors, only sleep time and the use of PPE were salutary. CONCLUSIONS: Some dimensions of HRQL of these welders have been affected. Enterprises which employ welders should take measures to protect the health of these people and improve their HRQL.

  20. Influences of environmental factors on bacterial extracellular polymeric substances production in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lu; Zheng, Xilai; Shao, Haibing; Xin, Jia; Peng, Tao

    2014-11-01

    Bioclogging of natural porous media occurs frequently under a wide range of conditions. It may influence the performance of permeable reactive barrier and constructed wetland. It is also one of the factors that determine the effect of artificial groundwater recharge and in situ bioremediation process. In this study, a series of percolation column experiments were conducted to simulate bioclogging process in porous media. The predominant bacteria in porous media which induced clogging were identified to be Methylobacterium, Janthinobacterium, Yersinia, Staphylococcus and Acidovorax, most of which had been shown to effectively produce viscous extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The column in which EPS production was maximized also coincided with the largest reduction in saturated hydraulic conductivity of porous media. In addition, carbon concentration was the most significant factor to affect polysaccharide, protein and EPS secretion, followed by phosphorus concentration and temperature. The coupled effect of carbon and phosphorus concentration was also very important to stimulate polysaccharide and EPS production.

  1. Study of Influencing Factors on ConsumerOnline Impulse Buying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The convenience and anonymity of online shopping have stimulated people's impulse buying tendency. Impulse buying is notonly a competitive method for businesses, but also a crucial factor influencing sales of e-commerce. Based on a systematic reviewof literatures, this paper explores factors affecting the online impulse buying. Moreover, by using the S-O-R model, this paperdescribes the formation mechanism of the online impulse buying behavior. At Last, it points out issues worthy of future studies.For example, this paper suggests to take into consideration of sociocultural impact and to put more emphasis on empirical studies.

  2. Children's disaster reactions: the influence of family and social factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Jacobs, Anne K; Houston, J Brian; Griffin, Natalie

    2015-07-01

    This review examines family (demographics, parent reactions and interactions, and parenting style) and social (remote effects, disaster media coverage, exposure to secondary adversities, and social support) factors that influence children's disaster reactions. Lower family socioeconomic status, high parental stress, poor parental coping, contact with media coverage, and exposure to secondary adversities have been associated with adverse outcomes. Social support may provide protection to children in the post-disaster environment though more research is needed to clarify the effects of certain forms of social support. The interaction of the factors described in this review with culture needs further exploration.

  3. INVESTIGATING FACTORS INFLUENCING STUDENTS’ LEARNING IN A TEAM TEACHING SETTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Team teaching factors, including mission clarity, affiliation, innovativeness, and fairness, are examined to determine how they influence student learning in a team-taught course. The study involved 184 college students enrolled in an Introduction to Computers course delivered in a team-taught format in a large university located in the United States. The collaborative teaching design followed a traditional team teaching approach with an instructor team teaching the same course collaboratively. Students enrolled in the team-taught course filled out an online survey targeted at identifying key factors that influence student-based outcomes (satisfaction and competency in the course. Results showed that instructor team mission clarity, affiliation, and fairness are significantly related to students’ satisfaction while instructor team mission clarity and fairness are significantly related to students’ competency.

  4. Factors Influencing Rural Teacher Flow in Yunnan Ethnic Minority Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; SUN; Zhaochang; REN; Yang; HE; Haijiao; ZHU

    2013-01-01

    Ethnic minority areas area old revolutionary base areas,areas inhabited by ethnic minorities,remote areas,impoverished areas, and also difficult areas for construction of socialist harmonious society.Studying on factors influencing rural teacher flow in ethnic minority areas is of great significance to improving local teacher team structure and promoting balanced development of urban and rural education.However,it lacks empirical analysis based on field survey for the nonce.In this study,based on interview and questionnaire data of education departments and school leaders in 4 ethnic minority areas of Yunnan Province,it established binary Logistic model,analyzed factors influencing rural teacher flow in ethnic minority areas of Yunnan Province,and finally present policy recommendations.

  5. Factors influencing energy efficiency investments in existing Swedish residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Gireesh; Gustavsson, Leif; Mahapatra, Krushna [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, SE-83125 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2010-06-15

    We used the data from a survey conducted in 2008 of 3,000 owners of detached houses to analyse the factors that influence the adoption of investment measures to improve the energy efficiency of their buildings. For the majority of Swedish homeowners, it was important to reduce their household energy use, and most of them undertook no-cost measures as compared to investment measures. Personal attributes such as income, education, age and contextual factors, including age of the house, thermal discomfort, past investment, and perceived energy cost, influence homeowners' preference for a particular type of energy efficiency measure. The implications for promoting the implementation of energy efficiency investment measures are discussed. (author)

  6. Factors influencing prehospital delay for patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shujuan CHENG; Lufen GUO; Juyuan LIU; Xiaoling ZHU; Hongbing YAN

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influencing factors for prehospital delay in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).Methods A total of 807 consecutive patients with AMI who presented to the emergency department of Beijing Anzhen Hospital were analyzed. The influence of several potential risk factors on the prehospital delay time (PDT) was evaluated by comparing patients admitted more than 2 hours after onset of chese pain with those admitted within 2 hours after onset. Results Among 807 patients, 402 came to the hospital within 2 hours while the others arrived at the hospital after 2 hours. The median PDT was 130 min. Among the potential variables, advanced age, history of diabetes mellitus, occurrence of symptom at night and use of emergency medical service significantly affected PDT by multivariate analysis. Conclusion Interventions aimed at reducing the prehospital delay in AMI should primarily focus on the awareness of the risk and help-seeking behavior of patients.

  7. Influence of environmental factors on lipase production by Lactobacillus plantarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, M de F; Cunha, A E; Clemente, J J; Carrondo, M J; Crespo, M T

    1999-02-01

    A strain of Lactobacillus plantarum, DSMZ 12028 (Deutsch Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen), isolated from a Portuguese dry fermented sausage, "chouriço", was found to produce true lipase, producing free fatty acids from triolein (olive oil). This enzymatic activity was found in whole cells, but was negligible in comparison to lipolytic activity in culture supernatant. Therefore, only extracellular activity was studied. The effect of pH, temperature and glucose concentration on extracellular lipase production was studied in continuously stirred tank reactors, the first time this technology has been used to study the production of this enzyme in lactobacilli. Maximum lipase production was achieved at a pH of 5.5 and 30 degrees C and was kept at a significant level over a wide range of dilution rates (0.05-0.4 h-1); the production of lipase was still significant for low pH values, temperature and glucose concentration, conditions that are close to the ones present during chouriço ripening. The effect of glucose concentration was also studied in a batch system. The control of lipase production was found to be related both to glucose concentration in the medium and to the growth rate/dilution rate. Glucose concentration was found to be important for fast lipase production, although it did not influence the maximum lipase activity reached in a batch culture.

  8. Factors influencing methane fermentation of micro-algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, P.H.

    1987-01-01

    The study included both treatment of harvested algae prior to the admission to the fermentation reactor and operational variables within the fermentation reactor. In the case of pretreatment best conversion efficiency was attained with temperature of 100/sup 0/C for 8 hours at a concentration of 3.7% solid and zero NaOH. A mathematical model of the process was then constructed to predict efficiency as a function of all levels of these variables. For digestion conditions the best efficiency was attained at pH 7.0 to 8.1, volatile acid concentration under 500 mg/1 as acetic acid, alkalinity at 3000 to 8000 mg/1 as CaCo/sub 3/, C/N ratio of 30, mixing speed of 100 rpm, retention time of 30 days, feed concentration of 3.5% and temperature of 40/sup 0/C. Greatest gas yield was attained with Dunaliella species and least with Euglena viridis. Based on these data and the mathematical model a computer simulation model was designed to predict the combined influence on efficiency of fermentation on pretreatment time, pretreatment temperature, pretreatment concentration, mixing speed, digestion temperature, feeding concentration, and retention time.

  9. WHICH ARE THE FACTORS INFLUENCING FINANCING DECISIONS IN SMEs?

    OpenAIRE

    Flavia-Diana NISTOR

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I review the literature in search of the factors that influence financing decisions in SMEs. Financial theories suggest that the only goal of a company is value maximization, but empirical studies have shown that small companies’ owners can have other goals than profit maximization, this being reflected in their financing decisions. Also the personal characteristics of SMEs’ founders are relevant in establishing the companies financing strategy

  10. Influence of environmental factors on corrosion damage of aircraft structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Corrosion is one of the important structural integrity concerns of aging aircraft, and it is estimated that a significant portion of airframe maintenance budgets is directed towards corrosion-related problems for both military and commercial aircraft. In order to better understand how environmental factors influence the corrosion damage initiation and propagation on aircraft structure and to predict pre-corrosion test pieces of fatigue life and structural integrity of an effective approach, this paper uses ...

  11. Generational Approach to Factors Influencing Career Choice in Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jony Hsiao

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This research aims to grasp which factors influence the generation Y to choose accounting as its career. A significant decline in the number of candidates willing to pursue a career as accountant has been observed abroad - USA, Australia, and Japan. However, in other countries - Brazil, Singapore, and Hong Kong - the opposite has been observed. Another issue is the decline in educational qualification of those pursuing an accounting career, contributing in a way that many talented students change their career choice. This may be explained by the fact that people tend to believe accounting is an exact science, full of calculations, boring, and not very creative, bringing an unbalance between the traits an individual should have according to the job market and those perceived by society. In order to give a contribution to literature concerning the factors that influence the generation Y in its career choice, a goal of this research was conducting an exploratory study where some hypotheses were formulated to support the discussion. We used Mannheim's Generational Theory and the literature on career choice. Data collection was carried out using a questionnaire, based on Schwartz's Portrait Value Questionnaire and Germeijs and Verschueren's Student Choice Task Inventory, adapted through focus group interview. Data were fully collected online and the sample consisted of 665 subjects. The results showed that people who chose accounting as their career were influenced by factors such as creativity, independence, challenging and dynamic environment, job security, money-making, job availability, and other significant people - friends and teachers. The subjects were not influenced by social factors, such as working with people and making contributions to society and family. They wish for more autonomy, creativity, and flexibility at work, and people still care about job security and money-making.

  12. Analysis of Factors Influencing English Listening Teaching and the Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Tian

    2013-01-01

    English teaching focuses on cultivating and improving students’listening, speaking, reading, writing and translating skills, which are complementary to each other. Among these five skills, listening, as an important basic skill, should be put into top priority in English teaching. Mainly based on the analysis of factors influencing English listening teaching, the paper puts for-ward some effective countermeasures in improving teaching effectiveness.

  13. Factors Influencing Beta-Thalassemia Awareness in Western India

    OpenAIRE

    Ashwin P Patel; Prakash H Parmar; Rupesh B Patel; Nikhil M Trivedi; Nileshkumar A Bhartiya

    2016-01-01

    "Context: Beta-thalassemia is highly prevalent in western India. Our organization runs a screening and prevention program to create awareness and reduce the incidence of homozygous beta-thalassemia cases. Aims: The study was designed to evaluate factors influencing awareness about Beta-thalassemia. Methodology: This cross sectional survey was conducted at six colleges, two medical clinics, and a thalassemia transfusion centre. It involved 398 adults ( and #8805;18 years).The survey form...

  14. Factors Influencing the HRD Climate of an Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Neeraj Kumari

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to find out which factor (s) influence the HRD climate of the company. The descriptive research design was under taken with the help of the structured questionnaire to study the OCTAPACE culture of Spanco Ltd. which was based on the responses of the various levels of employees working in it. Thesample consistsof 59 employees.Employees believe that the top management gives importance to the human resource and all the employees are treated humanely in the organization. ...

  15. Mechanisms and factors that influence high frequency retroviral recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delviks-Frankenberry, Krista; Galli, Andrea; Nikolaitchik, Olga;

    2011-01-01

    With constantly changing environmental selection pressures, retroviruses rely upon recombination to reassort polymorphisms in their genomes and increase genetic diversity, which improves the chances for the survival of their population. Recombination occurs during DNA synthesis, whereby reverse t......, and vaccine development....... transcriptase undergoes template switching events between the two copackaged RNAs, resulting in a viral recombinant with portions of the genetic information from each parental RNA. This review summarizes our current understanding of the factors and mechanisms influencing retroviral recombination, fidelity...

  16. Factors Influencing Beta-Thalassemia Awareness in Western India

    OpenAIRE

    Ashwin P Patel; Prakash H Parmar; Rupesh B Patel; Nikhil M Trivedi; Nileshkumar A Bhartiya

    2016-01-01

    "Context: Beta-thalassemia is highly prevalent in western India. Our organization runs a screening and prevention program to create awareness and reduce the incidence of homozygous beta-thalassemia cases. Aims: The study was designed to evaluate factors influencing awareness about Beta-thalassemia. Methodology: This cross sectional survey was conducted at six colleges, two medical clinics, and a thalassemia transfusion centre. It involved 398 adults ( and #8805;18 years).The survey form...

  17. Factors Influencing Bonding Strength of Laminated Bamboo Strips Lumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Factors influencing bonding strength of laminated bamboo strips lumber (LBSL) were investigated in this paper. In order to find an optimized technology, this paper investigated how the thickness of bamboo strips, the assembly orientation of bamboo curtain, the type of adhesives, as well as coupling agent treatment of bamboo curtain affected the bonding strength. The following conclusions were drawn: 1)The thinner the thickness of the bamboo strips, the bigger the bonding strength of LBSL; 2) The assembly or...

  18. Investigation on influencing factors of 5-HMF content in Schisandra *

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Qing; Li, Ying-Hua; Lü, Xiu-yang

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the influencing factors of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (5-HMF) content in Schisandra, confirm the theory of 5-HMF deriving mainly from Schisandra processing course, and give some suggestions about the Schisandra processing method, the 5-HMF contents in decoctions of Schisandra under different heating temperature, decocting time, soaking time, processing methods and treatment with different solvents before decocting the Schisandra were measured by RP-HPLC method. The ...

  19. The growth of foot arches and influencing factors

    OpenAIRE

    Ferial Hadipoetro Idris

    2016-01-01

    Background Foot arches are important components for body sup- port. Foot arch deformity caused by growth abnormalities cause serious limitations in daily activities. Objectives To determine the patterns of foot arch growth, factors influencing foot arch growth, and the timing for intervention in er- rant growth patterns. Methods A cross-sectional study evaluated the foot arches of chil- dren aged 0-18 years according to age and sex. Subjects included had no evidence of...

  20. Mechanisms and factors that influence high frequency retroviral recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delviks-Frankenberry, Krista; Galli, Andrea; Nikolaitchik, Olga;

    2011-01-01

    With constantly changing environmental selection pressures, retroviruses rely upon recombination to reassort polymorphisms in their genomes and increase genetic diversity, which improves the chances for the survival of their population. Recombination occurs during DNA synthesis, whereby reverse...... transcriptase undergoes template switching events between the two copackaged RNAs, resulting in a viral recombinant with portions of the genetic information from each parental RNA. This review summarizes our current understanding of the factors and mechanisms influencing retroviral recombination, fidelity......, and vaccine development....