WorldWideScience

Sample records for factors including obesity

  1. Factors contributing to adolescent obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kloub, Manal I; Froelicher, Erika S

    2009-06-01

    Obesity in children is a significant public health concern. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Jordanian children, and adolescents has increased in the last decade. The consequences of obesity to health in childhood and adulthood have both medical, and economic cost to individuals and society. This paper reviews the factors that contribute to adolescent obesity and emphasizes behavioral and environmental factors. An individual's behaviors such as increased consumption of high caloric foods, increased sedentary activity while decreasing physical activity has been identified as key issues in the development of obesity. Additionally, the current environment in homes, schools, and neighborhoods tend to discourage a healthy lifestyle. A comprehensive approach that involves the whole community is the best strategy for preventing adolescent obesity. Nurses are in a unique position to provide leadership in developing programs for healthier lifestyle choices for adolescents' and adoption of these goals into their daily lives.

  2. Risk Factors for Obesity at Age 3 in Alaskan Children, Including the Role of Beverage Consumption: Results from Alaska PRAMS 2005-2006 and Its Three-Year Follow-Up Survey, CUBS, 2008-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, Janet M.; Young, Margaret B.; Perham-Hester, Katherine A.; de Schweinitz, Peter; Gessner, Bradford D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal and early life risk factors are associated with childhood obesity. Alaska Native children have one of the highest prevalences of childhood obesity of all US racial/ethnic groups. Methods Using the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) and the follow-up survey at 3 years of age (CUBS), we evaluated health, behavioral, lifestyle and nutritional variables in relation to obesity (95th percentile for body mass index (BMI)) at 3 years of age. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was conducted using Stata 12.0 to evaluate independent risk factors for obesity in non-Native and Alaska Native children. Results We found an obesity prevalence of 24.9% in all Alaskan and 42.2% in Alaska Native 3 year olds. Among Alaska Native children, obesity prevalence was highest in the Northern/Southwest part of the state (51.6%, 95%CI (42.6-60.5)). Independent predictive factors for obesity at age 3 years in Alaska non-Native children were low income (obesity (OR 2.01, 95%CI 1.01-4.01) and longer duration of breastfeeding was protective (OR 0.95, 95%CI 0.91-0.995). Among Alaska Native children, predictive factors were witnessing domestic violence/abuse as a 3 year-old (OR 2.28, 95%CI 1.17-7.60). Among obese Alaska Native children, there was an increased daily consumption of energy dense beverages in the Northern/Southwest region of the state, which may explain higher rates of obesity in this part of the state. Conclusions The high prevalence of obesity in Alaska Native children may be explained by differences in lifestyle patterns and food consumption in certain parts of the state, specifically the Northern/Southwest region, which have higher consumption of energy dense beverages. PMID:25793411

  3. Gut Microbiota: a contributing factor to obesity

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    Steve M Harakeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, a global epidemic of the modern era, is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD and diabetes. The pervasiveness of obesity and overweight in both developed as well as developing populations is on the rise and placing a huge burden on health and economic resources. Consequently, research to control this emerging epidemic is of utmost importance. Recently, host interactions with their resident gut microbiota (GM have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of many metabolic diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and CVD. Around 1014 microorganisms reside within the lower human intestine and many of these 1014microorganisms have developed mutualistic or commensal associations with the host and actively involved in many physiological processes of the host. However, dysbiosis (altered gut microbial composition with other predisposing genetic and environmental factors, may contribute to host metabolic disorders resulting in many ailments. Therefore, delineating the role of GM as a contributing factor to obesity is the main objective of this review.Obesity research, as a field is expanding rapidly due to major advances in nutrigenomics, metabolomics, RNA silencing, epigenetics and other disciplines that may result in the emergence of new technologies and methods to better interpret causal relationships between microbiota and obesity.

  4. Gut Microbiota: A Contributing Factor to Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Steve M.; Khan, Imran; Kumosani, Taha; Barbour, Elie; Almasaudi, Saad B.; Bahijri, Suhad M.; Alfadul, Sulaiman M.; Ajabnoor, Ghada M. A.; Azhar, Esam I.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, a global epidemic of the modern era, is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes. The pervasiveness of obesity and overweight in both developed as well as developing populations is on the rise and placing a huge burden on health and economic resources. Consequently, research to control this emerging epidemic is of utmost importance. Recently, host interactions with their resident gut microbiota (GM) have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of many metabolic diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and CVD. Around 1014 microorganisms reside within the lower human intestine and many of these 1014 microorganisms have developed mutualistic or commensal associations with the host and actively involved in many physiological processes of the host. However, dysbiosis (altered gut microbial composition) with other predisposing genetic and environmental factors, may contribute to host metabolic disorders resulting in many ailments. Therefore, delineating the role of GM as a contributing factor to obesity is the main objective of this review. Obesity research, as a field is expanding rapidly due to major advances in nutrigenomics, metabolomics, RNA silencing, epigenetics, and other disciplines that may result in the emergence of new technologies and methods to better interpret causal relationships between microbiota and obesity. PMID:27625997

  5. Perinatal risk factors including malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.

    1991-10-01

    The study gives a survey of the factors most frequently mentioned in the literature as factors likely to adversely affect a pregnancy. One essential aspect is the discussion of those factors that can be counted among the causes of malformations, as among others, prenatal radiation exposure. The study prepared within the framework of the research project 'Radiobiological environmental monitoring in Bavaria' is intended to serve as a basis for a retrospective and prospective evaluation of infant mortality, perinatal conditions and occurrence of malformations in Bavaria, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment - related health survey. The study therefore, in addition to ionizing radiation also takes into account other detectable risks within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or urbanity. (orig./MG) [de

  6. Diet-induced obesity, gut microbiota and bone, including alveolar bone loss.

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    Eaimworawuthikul, Sathima; Thiennimitr, Parameth; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2017-06-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for several pathologies, including jaw bone resorption. The underlying mechanisms involved in pathological conditions resulting from obesity include chronic systemic inflammation and the development of insulin resistance. Although numerous studies have indicated the importance of the role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of inflammation and insulin resistance in obesity, only a few studies have established a relationship between obesity, gut microbiota and status of the jaw bone. This review aims to summarize current findings relating to these issues, focusing on the role of obesity and gut microbiota on jaw bone health, including possible mechanisms which can explain this link. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Childhood obesity : medical, cultural and psychological factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radhakishun, N.N.E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to examine medical, cultural and psychological factors of childhood obesity in a multi-ethnic cohort. Medical factors Several associations between weight measured and hormones were determined in obese children between 6 and 18 years. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was

  8. Childhood obesity: medical, cultural and psychological factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radhakishun, N.N.E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to examine medical, cultural and psychological factors of childhood obesity in a multi-ethnic cohort. Medical factors Several associations between weight measured and hormones were determined in obese children between 6 and 18 years. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

  9. Relationship between sleep duration and childhood obesity: Systematic review including the potential underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felső, R; Lohner, S; Hollódy, K; Erhardt, É; Molnár, D

    2017-09-01

    The prevalence of obesity is continually increasing worldwide. Determining risk factors for obesity may facilitate effective preventive programs. The present review focuses on sleep duration as a potential risk factor for childhood obesity. The aim is to summarize the evidence on the association of sleep duration and obesity and to discuss the underlying potential physiological and/or pathophysiological mechanisms. The Ovid MEDLINE, Scopus and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases were searched for papers using text words with appropriate truncation and relevant indexing terms. All studies objectively measuring sleep duration and investigating the association between sleep duration and obesity or factors (lifestyle and hormonal) possibly associated with obesity were included, without making restrictions based on study design or language. Data from eligible studies were extracted in tabular form and summarized narratively. After removing duplicates, 3540 articles were obtained. Finally, 33 studies (including 3 randomized controlled trials and 30 observational studies) were included in the review. Sleep duration seems to influence weight gain in children, however, the underlying explanatory mechanisms are still uncertain. In our review only the link between short sleep duration and the development of insulin resistance, sedentarism and unhealthy dietary patterns could be verified, while the role of other mediators, such as physical activity, screen time, change in ghrelin and leptin levels, remained uncertain. There are numerous evidence gaps. To answer the remaining questions, there is a need for studies meeting high methodological standards and including a large number of children. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  10. Obesity after pediatric liver transplantation: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Shikha S; Alonso, Estella M; Zeitler, Phil; Yin, Wanron; Anand, Ravinder

    2012-12-01

    Pediatric obesity has become a significant public health concern. The historical focus in pediatric liver transplant (LT) has been undernutrition, with limited knowledge regarding obesity. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of obesity in pediatric LT, compare it to National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) data, and identify risk factors for obesity in pediatric LT. SPLIT, which collects pediatric LT data at 39 centers, was queried for subjects ages 2 to 18 years at follow-up, LT between 1995 and 2007, and with at least 1 body mass index measured 1 to 5 years after LT. Of 1706 individuals included, 44% had biliary atresia (47% boys, 58% white, mean age at LT 4.6 years). Of these individuals, 19% were obese at 1 year and 18% at 3 years, higher than in the general pediatric population reported by 2003-2004 NHANES, whereas 11% obesity at 5 years after LT was similar to NHANES data. Using logistic regression, Hispanic ethnicity (odds ratio [OR] 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-2.23), steroid use at follow-up (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.23-1.77), overweight (OR 4.34, 95% CI 2.91-6.68), and obesity (OR 10.62, 95% CI 5.9-19.65) at LT independently predicted post-LT obesity. These findings suggest a need to broaden standard care to include obesity assessment and intervention in routine pre- and posttransplant care.

  11. An epidemiological study of environmental factors associated with canine obesity.

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    Courcier, E A; Thomson, R M; Mellor, D J; Yam, P S

    2010-07-01

    To assess the relationships between socioeconomic and other environmental factors with canine obesity. This was a cross-sectional questionnaire study of dog owners attending five primary veterinary practices in the UK. Owners were asked about dog age, neuter status, feeding habits, dog exercise, household income and owner age. The body condition score of the dogs was also assessed. Factors hypothesised to be associated with obesity were investigated. In total, data from 696 questionnaires were evaluated. Out of those data evaluated, 35.3% of dogs (n=246) were classed as an ideal body shape, 38.9% (n=271) were overweight, 20.4% (n=142) were obese and 5.3% (n=37) were underweight. Identified risk factors associated with obesity included owner age, hours of weekly exercise, frequency of snacks/treats and personal income. Environmental risk factors associated with canine obesity are multifactorial and include personal income, owner age, frequency of snacks/treats and amount of exercise the dog receives. Awareness about health risks associated with obesity in dogs is significantly less in people in lower income brackets. This phenomenon is recognised in human obesity.

  12. Anthropometric and cardiometabolic risk factors in parents and child obesity in Segamat, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partap, Uttara; Young, Elizabeth H; Allotey, Pascale; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Reidpath, Daniel D

    2017-10-01

    There is little evidence regarding risk factors for child obesity in Asian populations, including the role of parental anthropometric and cardiometabolic risk factors. We examined the relation between parental risk factors and child obesity in a Malaysian population. We used data from health and demographic surveillance conducted by the South East Asia Community Observatory in Segamat, Malaysia. Analyses included 9207 individuals (4806 children, 2570 mothers and 1831 fathers). Child obesity was defined based on the World Health Organization 2007 reference. We assessed the relation between parental anthropometric (overweight, obesity and central obesity) and cardiometabolic (systolic hypertension, diastolic hypertension and hyperglycaemia) risk factors and child obesity, using mixed effects Poisson regression models with robust standard errors. We found a high burden of overweight and obesity among children in this population (30% overweight or obese). Children of one or more obese parents had a 2-fold greater risk of being obese compared with children of non-obese parents. Sequential adjustment for parental and child characteristics did not materially affect estimates (fully adjusted relative risk for obesity in both parents: 2.39, 95% confidence interval: 1.82, 3.10, P obesity. Parental obesity was strongly associated with child obesity in this population. Further exploration of the behavioural and environmental drivers of these associations may help inform strategies addressing child obesity in Asia. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  13. Prenatal parental separation and body weight, including development of overweight and obesity later in childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Hohwü

    Full Text Available Early parental separation may be a stress factor causing a long-term alteration in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis activity possibly impacting on the susceptibility to develop overweight and obesity in offspring. We aimed to examine the body mass index (BMI and the risk of overweight and obesity in children whose parents lived separately before the child was born.A follow-up study was conducted using data from the Aarhus Birth Cohort in Denmark and included 2876 children with measurements of height and weight at 9-11-years-of-age, and self-reported information on parental cohabitation status at child birth and at 9-11-years-of-age. Quantile regression was used to estimate the difference in median BMI between children whose parents lived separately (n = 124 or together (n = 2752 before the birth. We used multiple logistic regression to calculate odds ratio (OR for overweight and obesity, adjusted for gender, parity, breast feeding status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, weight gain during pregnancy, age and educational level at child birth; with and without possible intermediate factors birth weight and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Due to a limited number of obese children, OR for obesity was adjusted for the a priori confounder maternal pre-pregnancy BMI only.The difference in median BMI was 0.54 kg/m2 (95% confidence intervals (CI: 0.10; 0.98 between children whose parents lived separately before birth and children whose parents lived together. The risk of overweight and obesity was statistically significantly increased in children whose parents lived separately before the birth of the child; OR 2.29 (95% CI: 1.18; 4.45 and OR 2.81 (95% CI: 1.05; 7.51, respectively. Additional, adjustment for possible intermediate factors did not substantially change the estimates.Parental separation before child birth was associated with higher BMI, and increased risk of overweight and obesity in 9-11-year-old children; this may suggest a fetal

  14. Morbidity, including fatal morbidity, throughout life in men entering adult life as obese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, Esther; Holst, Claus; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2011-01-01

    The association between obesity in adults and excess morbidity and mortality is well established, but the health impact throughout adult life of being obese in early adulthood needs elucidation. We investigated somatic morbidity, including fatal morbidity, throughout adulthood in men starting adult...... life as obese....

  15. Perceived Health Status: Is Obesity Perceived as a Risk Factor and Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, Tommy L.S.; Lakerveld, Jeroen; Olsen, Nanna; Küpers, Leanne; Ramalho, Sofia; Keaver, Laura; Brei, Christina; Bjune, Jan-Inge; Ezquerro, Silvia; Yumuk, Volkan

    2017-01-01

    One might expect that a perception of obesity being a risk factor and disease, contributes to effective obesity prevention and management strategies. However, obesity rates continue to increase worldwide. The question arises whether obesity is truly perceived as a risk factor and a disease. This paper aims at describing perception of obesity as risk factor and disease among individuals seeking care, individuals not seeking care, the society, and different professionals having a role in the field of obesity. The paper is a reflection of the lecture on the topic that was given at the EASO's New Investigators United's Summer School 2016 in Portugal and the discussion with the new investigators and other senior speakers. Individual obese patients seeking help are very much aware of obesity being a risk factor and disease, but perceptions regarding obesity seem to be flawed among those who do not seek help for obesity. Also, misperceptions regarding obesity play a role at different levels, including society, different political levels, the fields of health care and social work, prevention organizations, and the food and marketing industry. The food and marketing industry has an enormous role in changing perceptions by the society and policy makers. Obesity rates will continue to increase as long as individuals, the society, and professionals at different levels have false interpretations of the severity of obesity. Severe action is needed against those who are playing a role in maintaining false perceptions of obesity as a risk factor and disease. PMID:28278496

  16. Association between obesity and socioeconomic factors and lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujić Vera

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing at an alarming rate and it is a manifestation of the epidemics of a sedentary lifestyle and excessive energy intake. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the population of the Province of Vojvodina, Serbia, and to examine the association between obesity and socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. Methods. A cross-sectional study conducted in the Province of Vojvodina in 2006 involved 3 854 participants aged 20 years and over (1 831 men and 2 023 women. The study was a countinuation of the baseline study conducted in 2000 (n = 2 840, 1 255 men and 1 585 women. The main outcome measures were overweight and obesity (Body Mass Index - BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, sociodemographic factors, including nutrition habits - having breakfast everyday and television watching frequency. Results. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in both sexes in 2006 was 57.4% (35.7% were overweight and 21.7% obese. The prevalence of overweight was higher in men (41.1% than in women (30.9% (p < 0.001 while obesity was higher in women (23.1% as compared to men (20.2% (p = 0.035. For both sexes, overweight rates were highest at the age 60-69 (men 44.8% and women 39.1% while obesity rates were peaked to men aged 50-59 (25.1% and women aged 60-69 years (37.8%. Increasing ageing, males, rural population, single examinees, lower educational level, improved income, examinees that never/sometimes have breakfast and frequently watch TV were associated with obesity. Conclusions. The population of Vojvodina, with 23.1% obese women and 20.2% obese men is one of severely affected European populations. High prevalence of obesity requires urgent public health action. Healthy lifestyle, balanced nutrition with low energy intake and increased physical activity have to be promoted within a prevention strategy and obesity management.

  17. [Factors associated with abdominal obesity in children].

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    Melzer, Matheus Ribeiro Theodósio Fernandes; Magrini, Isabella Mastrangi; Domene, Semíramis Martins Álvares; Martins, Paula Andrea

    2015-12-01

    To identify the association of dietary, socioeconomic factors, sedentary behaviors and maternal nutritional status with abdominal obesity in children. A cross-sectional study with household-based survey, in 36 randomly selected census tracts in the city of Santos/SP. 357 families were interviewed and questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were applied in mothers and their 3-0 years-old children. Assessment of abdominal obesity was made by maternal and child's waist circumference measurement; for classification used cut-off points proposed by World Health Organization (1998) and Taylor et al. (2000) were applied. The association between variables was performed by multiple logistic regression analysis. 30.5% of children had abdominal obesity. Associations with children's and maternal nutritional status and high socioeconomic status were shown in the univariate analysis. In the regression model, children's body mass index for age (OR=93.7; 95%CI 39.3-223.3), female gender (OR=4.1; 95%CI 1.8-9.3) and maternal abdominal obesity (OR=2.7; 95%CI 1.2-6.0) were significantly associated with children's abdominal obesity, regardless of the socioeconomic status. Abdominal obesity in children seems to be associated with maternal nutritional status, other indicators of their own nutritional status and female gender. Intervention programs for control of childhood obesity and prevention of metabolic syndrome should consider the interaction of the nutritional status of mothers and their children. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Dietary Factors Associated To Obesity In Ahwaz Primary School Pupils

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    Dorosty A.R; Tabatabaei M

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increase in obesity prevalence in recent years are associated to genetics as well environmental and behavioral factors. Change in dietary patterns including fatty and high density energy foods consumption have been reported to be very important. This study aimed to determine dietary factors (daily energy and macronutrient intakes, energy percentage of macronutrient, energy and macronutrient intakes per kilogram body weight, frequency of cola, natural fruit juice drinking, dairy products except cheese, tomato chips, puff, chocolate and fast food consumption and eating speed associated to obesity in Ahwaz primary school pupils. Materials and Methods: Using two stage cluster sampling from 35 Ahwaz primary schools, all 10-11y students who had a BMI 95th percentile of Hosseini et al. (1999 reference, were identified as obese (n=150 and 150 same age and gender pupils (having BMI0.05. macronutrient intakes per kilogram body weight were significantly lower in obese group (p0.05. Obese students used to eat faster (p<0.05. Conclusion: In conclusion, high intakes of energy, protein, carbohydrate, tomato chips and puff and high eating speed were associated to obesity in Ahwaz primary school pupils.

  19. Obesity related factors in school-aged children.

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    Soltani, Parvaneh Reza; Ghanbari, Atefeh; Rad, Afagh Hasanzadeh

    2013-05-01

    Overweight and obesity is becoming an increasingly prevalent problem in both developed and developing world, and is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21(st) century. Although various studies demonstrated pediatric obesity-related factors, but, due to its ongoing hazardous effects, researchers aimed to assess obesity-related factors in school-aged children in Rasht, Iran. This was a case-control study which was performed in eight primary schools of Rasht. A cluster sampling method was used to select 320 students including 80 in case (BMI ≥85(th) percentile for age and gender) and 240 in control group (BMI = 5(th)-85(th) percentile for age and gender). Data were collected by a scale, a tape meter, and a form which consisted of obesity-related factors, and were analyzed by Chi-square, Mann-Whitney, and stepwise multivariate regression tests in SPSS 19. Findings showed that the mean and standard deviation of birth weight (g) in case and control groups were 3671 ± 5.64 and 190 ± 5.46, respectively (P = 0.000). 82.5% of case and 92.9% of control group had exclusive breastfeeding for 4-6 months (P = 0.024). Also, multivariate regression analysis indicated that birth weight, age, exclusive breastfeeding, and frequency of meals have significant effects on body mass index (BMI). It seems that more accurate interventions for primordial prevention are essential to reduce childhood obesity risk factors, including promotion of pre-pregnancy and prenatal care to have neonates who are appropriate for gestational age and also improving exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life. In addition, identifying children at risk for adolescent obesity provides physicians and midwives with an opportunity for earlier intervention with the goal of limiting the progression of abnormal weight gain.

  20. Factors mediating the depression in the adult obese outpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudelj-Rakić Jelena

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of obesity is rising to epidemic proportions at the alarming rate in both developed and underdeveloped countries around the world. Current prevalence data from individual national studies suggest that the obesity prevalence in the European countries ranges from 10% to 20% for men, and 10% to 25% for women. Health consequences of obesity imply both a number of fatal and non-fatal health problems (out of which the most common are cardiovascular problems, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, cancers, and also a wide spectrum of psychological consequences from diminished self-esteem to clinical depression. Causal relationship between obesity and many chronic diseases is evidence- based. At the same time, there are marked differences in research data regarding causal obesity-depression relationship. Several studies have found no direct association between obesity and depression, while in others the prevalence of depression in obese patients was up to 50%. Gender, obesity grade, socioeconomic status and asking for professional help are named as moderators and mediators of this relationship. Among recommended screening methods, BDI-II is the most frequently used in the adult outpatient departments. Objective The aim of the study was to determine possible risk factors of depression in adult obese patients treated for obesity. Gender, obesity and education level as well as marital status were analyzed as possible moderators of depression-obesity relationship. Method The research included 267 patients, 38.0±14.6 years of age, who referred to the Outpatient Nutrition Department for dietetic consultation or nutritional medical therapy. Nutritional status was assessed by BMI (kg/mІ, calculated from measured values of body weight and height according to WHO recommendations. An estimate of the existence and/or depression level was investigated by Beck Depression Inventory - self administered questionnaire recommended for use

  1. Risk factors for obesity in Chinese adults. Highlights and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Guasheng

    2002-01-01

    Obesity is now one of the public health concerns in China. Many factors are contributing to obesity. However, the underlying mechanism is not clear. As it is hard to cure it once obesity occurs, the most effective and encouraging strategies is prevention. Risk factors should be identified in order to develop prevention strategies

  2. Risk factors that affect metabolic health status in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmaogullari, Selin; Demirel, Fatma; Hatipoglu, Nihal

    2017-01-01

    While some obese children are metabolically healthy (MHO), some have additional health problems, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and hepatosteatosis, which increase mortality and morbidity related to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) during adulthood. These children are metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO) children. In this study we assessed the factors that affect metabolic health in obesity and the clinical and laboratory findings that distinguish between MHO and MUO children. In total, 1085 patients aged 6-18 years, with age- and sex-matched BMI exceeding the 95th percentile were included in the study (mean 11.1±2.9 years, 57.6% female, 59.7% pubertal). Patients without dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hepatosteatosis, or hypertension were considered as MHO. Dyslipidemia was defined as total cholesterol level over 200 mg/dL, triglyceride over 150 mg/dL, LDL over 130 mg/dL, or HDL under 40 mg/dL. Insulin resistance was calculated using the homeostasis model of assesment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. Hepatosteatosis was evaluated with abdominal ultrasound. Duration of obesity, physical activity and nutritional habits, screen time, and parental obesity were questioned. Thyroid and liver function tests were performed. Six hundred and forty-two cases (59.2%) were MUO. Older age, male sex, increased BMI-SDS, and sedentary lifestyle were associated with MUO. Excessive junk food consumption was associated with MUO particularly among the prepubertal obese patients. Our results revealed that the most important factors that affect metabolic health in obesity are age and BMI. Positive effects of an active lifestyle and healthy eating habits are prominent in the prepubertal period and these habits should be formed earlier in life.

  3. Determinants of Perceived Stress in Individuals with Obesity: Exploring the Relationship of Potentially Obesity-Related Factors and Perceived Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junne, Florian; Ziser, Katrin; Giel, Katrin Elisabeth; Schag, Kathrin; Skoda, Eva; Mack, Isabelle; Niess, Andreas; Zipfel, Stephan; Teufel, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Associations of specific types of stress with increased food intake and subsequent weight gain have been demonstrated in animal models as well as in experimental and epidemiological studies on humans. This study explores the research question of to what extent potentially obesity-related factors determine perceived stress in individuals with obesity. N = 547 individuals with obesity participated in a cross-sectional study assessing perceived stress as the outcome variable and potential determinants of stress related to obesity. Based on the available evidence, a five factorial model of 'obesity-related obesogenic stressors' was hypothesized, including the dimensions, 'drive for thinness', 'impulse regulation', 'ineffectiveness', 'social insecurity', and 'body dissatisfaction'. The model was tested using multiple linear regression analyses. The five factorial model of 'potentially obesity-related stressors' resulted in a total variance explanation of adjusted R² = 0.616 for males and adjusted R² = 0.595 for females for perceived stress. The relative variance contribution of the five included factors differed substantially for the two sexes. The findings of this cross-sectional study support the hypothesized, potentially obesity-related factors: 'drive for thinness', 'impulse regulation', 'ineffectiveness', 'social insecurity', and 'body dissatisfaction' as relevant determinants of perceived stress in individuals with obesity. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  4. Global obesity: trends, risk factors and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Vasanti S; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide increase in obesity and related chronic diseases has largely been driven by global trade liberalization, economic growth and rapid urbanization. These factors continue to fuel dramatic changes in living environments, diets and lifestyles in ways that promote positive energy balance. Nutritional transitions in low-income and middle-income countries are typically characterized by increases in the consumption of animal fat and protein, refined grains, and added sugar. This change is coupled with reductions in physical activity owing to more mechanized and technologically driven lifestyles. Given the high costs of obesity and comorbidities in terms of health-care expenditure and quality of life, prevention strategies are paramount, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries that must manage coexisting infectious diseases and undernutrition in addition to the obesity epidemic. As countries become increasingly urbanized, undernutrition and obesity can exist side by side within the same country, community or household, which is a particular challenge for health systems with limited resources. Owing to the scope and complexity of the obesity epidemic, prevention strategies and policies across multiple levels are needed in order to have a measurable effect. Changes should include high-level global policies from the international community and coordinated efforts by governments, organizations, communities and individuals to positively influence behavioural change.

  5. Obesity as a protective factor for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albala, C; Yáñez, M; Devoto, E; Sostin, C; Zeballos, L; Santos, J L

    1996-11-01

    Obesity is considered a protective factor for osteoporosis improving bone mass and maintaining higher levels of estrogen during menopause. To determine the association of obesity with bone mineral density (BMD), and its relationship with sex hormone levels. A case-control study in Caucasian obese and non obese postmenopausal women. 113 obese and 50 non-obese postmenopausal women. BMD (dual-photon X-ray absorptiometry) at cervical femur. Ward's triangle, proximal radius and lumbar spine. Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, total estrogen, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHA-S) and testosterone. Mean BMD at femoral sites were significantly higher in obese women (femoral neck: 0.849 +/- 0.124 g/cm2 vs 0.753 +/- 0.095 g/cm2, P obese women and 0.849 +/- 0.137 g/cm2 in non obese, P obese women was observed. Although total estrogen were similar in both groups, in obese women, SHBG was lower (68.6 +/- 26.84 nmol/l vs. 85.1 +/- 31.18 nmol/l, P obese (77.2 +/- 50.4 Ul/ml vs. 49.4 +/- 24.1 Ul/ml, P obese women and suggest that obesity exerts protection due to a decreased SHBG thus increasing free sex steroids. Besides, hyperinsulinemia may produce a decline in the production of IGFBG-1, leading to an increase of IGF-1, that may stimulate the proliferation of osteoblasts.

  6. Obesity in Childhood and Adolescence, Genetic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostovski, Marko; Tasic, Velibor; Laban, Nevena; Polenakovic, Momir; Danilovski, Dragan; Gucev, Zoran

    2017-12-01

    Obesity and excess weight are a pandemic phenomenon in the modern world. Childhood and adolescent obesity often ends up in obesity in adults. The costs of obesity and its consequences are staggering for any society, crippling for countries in development. Childhood obesity is also widespread in Macedonia. Metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia and carbohydrate intolerance are found in significant numbers. Parents and grandparents are often obese. Some of the children are either dysmorphic, or slightly retarded. We have already described patients with Prader-Willi syndrome, Bardet-Biedl syndrome or WAGR syndrome. A genetic screening for mutations in monogenic obesity in children with early, rapid-onset or severe obesity, severe hyperphagia, hypogonadism, intestinal dysfunction, hypopigmentation of hair and skin, postprandial hypoglycaemia, diabetes insipidus, abnormal leptin level and coexistence of lean and obese siblings in the family discovers many genetic forms of obesity. There are about 30 monogenic forms of obesity. In addition, obesity is different in ethnic groups, and the types of monogenic obesity differ. In brief, an increasing number of genes and genetic mechanisms in children continue to be discovered. This sheds new light on the molecular mechanisms of obesity and potentially gives a target for new forms of treatment.

  7. Prevalence of and contributing factors to overweight and obesity among the schoolchildren of Podgorica, Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Marina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. Childhood obesity is an emerging public health problem. The national prevalence of child overweight/obesity in Montenegro has increased by one third in the last decade. As the overwhelming majority of Montenegrin population is urban, investigation of obesity and correlates among urban children is of special public health interest. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and contributing factors to obesity among schoolchildren of Podgorica. Method. The sample included 1,134 schoolchildren (49.8% boys aged 7–12 years, from 10 elementary schools in Podgorica. We measured children’s body mass, body height, and waist circumference to calculate body mass index (BMI and waist-to-height ratio. The research instrument was a closed type of the original questionnaire. Nutritional status was assessed according to the criteria recommended by the American Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization and International Obesity Task Force. Results. Among the investigated children there were 21.2% and 6% overweight and obese children, respectively. Obesity was more frequent among boys (7.6% compared to girls (4.4%. In a multiple regression, childhood obesity was positively related to the following: male gender, younger age, lower number of siblings, parental obesity, and low physical activity. Conclusion. One out of five urban Montenegrin schoolchildren is overweight/obese, with obesity being twice as frequent among boys compared to girls. A program against obesity among urban Montenegrin children should focus on the revealed contributing factors.

  8. Morbidity, including fatal morbidity, throughout life in men entering adult life as obese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Zimmermann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association between obesity in adults and excess morbidity and mortality is well established, but the health impact throughout adult life of being obese in early adulthood needs elucidation. We investigated somatic morbidity, including fatal morbidity, throughout adulthood in men starting adult life as obese. METHODS: Among 362,200 Danish young men, examined for military service between 1943 and 1977, all obese (defined as BMI≥31.0 kg/m(2, and, as controls, a random 1% sample of the others was identified. In the age range of 18-25 years, there were 1,862 obese, which encompass the men above the 99.5 percentile, and 3,476 controls. Information on morbidity was obtained via national registers. Cox regression models were used to estimate the relative morbidity assessed as first incidence of disease, occurrence of disease in the year preceding death and prevalent disease at time of death. RESULTS: From age 18 through 80 years the obese had an increased risk of becoming diseased by or die from a broad range of diseases. Generally, the incidence of first event, occurrence in the year prior to death, and prevalence at time of death showed the same pattern. As an example, the relative hazard of type 2 diabetes was constant throughout life at 4.9 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 4.1-5.9, 5.2 (95% CI: 3.6-7.5, and 6.8 (95% CI: 4.6-10.1, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings strongly support the continued need to avoid beginning adult life as obese, as obese young men experience an increased morbidity, including fatal morbidity, from many diseases throughout life.

  9. Magnitude and factors associated with overweight and obesity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fchinenere

    A Food. Frequency Questionnaire and the International Physical Activity ... Keywords: adolescent, overweight, obesity, prevalence, factors, Tanzania ..... Our study reported no association between school type, age, parent education and.

  10. Prevalence and risk factors of obesity among school-aged children in Xi'an, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiaoqing; Yin, Chunyan; Chang, Ming; Xiao, Yanfeng

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and the risk factors associated with obesity among school-aged children in Xi'an city. The body mass index of 6,740 children aged 7-18 years was compared with the Working Group on Obesity in China cut-off value to estimate the prevalence of obesity. A case-control study of obese and non-obese children was carried out to study risk factors for obesity. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect information on possible risk factors causing obesity. Univariate analysis was performed first to compare the distribution of risk factors between cases and controls. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to assess independent risk factors of obesity. The results showed that the overall prevalence of obesity among school-aged children was 4.11% (4.63% for males and 3.57% for females). A total of 516 subjects (258 pairs of cases and controls) were included in the final analysis. High maternal education and a longer sleeping time were shown to be protective factors against obesity (odds ratio [OR] 0.148, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.074-0.296 and OR 0.472, 95% CI 0.342-0.652, respectively). Whereas family history of diabetes (OR 5.498, 95% CI 2.606-11.600), parental overweight (OR 3.720, 95% CI 2.068-6.689), and watching television, playing video games, and using computers (OR 1.564, 95% CI 1.133-2.159) were associated with a higher obesity risk. The prevalence of childhood obesity in Xi'an has become a concern, and sleeping time, sedentary behavior, and family factors have pronounced effects on the prevalence of obesity.

  11. Obesity in childhood and adolescence, genetic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memedi, Rexhep; Tasic, Velibor; Nikolic, Erieta; Jancevska, Aleksandra; Gucev, Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and overweight are a pandemic phenomenon in the modern world. Childhood and adolescent obesity often ends up in obesity in adults. The costs of obesity and its consequences are staggering for any society, crippling for countries in development. The etiology is complex, but most often idiopathic. Hormonal, syndromic and medication-induced obesity are well investigated. Genetic causes are increasingly described. Novel technologies such as whole exome sequencing identify ever more candidate genes influencing or causing obesity. All insights into the complex problem of obesity in a team approach to treatment: diet, psychology, medications and surgery. We briefly review epidemiology, etiology, consequences and treatment approaches in childhood and adolescent obesity, with special emphasis on emerging knowledge of its genetics.

  12. Impact of Severe Obesity on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabarsky, Gali; Beek, Cherise; Hagman, Emilia; Pierpont, Bridget; Caprio, Sonia; Weiss, Ram

    2018-01-01

    To compare cardiovascular risk factor clustering (CVRFC) in severely obese youth with those with lower degrees of obesity. We divided a childhood obesity clinic derived cohort into the degrees of obesity (class I, II, and III) and added a "class IV" category corresponding to >160% of the 95th centile of body mass index (BMI) for age and sex. In a cross-sectional analysis, we investigated the presence of CVRFC in 2244 participants; in 621 who were followed longitudinally, we investigated the determinants of endpoint CVRFC. Class IV obesity was associated with increased risk for CVRFC compared with overweight (OR = 17.26, P obesity (OR = 17.26, P obesity. Baseline class IV obesity was associated with increased risk compared with overweight of having CVRFC at follow-up (OR = 5.76, P = .001), to a similar extent as class III obesity (OR = 5.36, P = .001). Changes in the degree of obesity were significant predictors of CVRFC on follow-up (OR = 1.04, P obesity in childhood is conferred prior to reaching class IV obesity. An individualized risk stratification approach in children with severe obesity should be based on presence of complications rather than simple BMI cutoffs. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01967849. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prenatal parental separation and body weight, including development of overweight and obesity later in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohwü, Lena; Zhu, Jin Liang; Graversen, Lise

    2015-01-01

    ) for overweight and obesity, adjusted for gender, parity, breast feeding status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, weight gain during pregnancy, age and educational level at child birth; with and without possible intermediate factors birth weight and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Due to a limited number...

  14. Obesity as a Risk Factor for Tendinopathy: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Franceschi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In the last few years, evidence has emerged to support the possible association between increased BMI and susceptibility to some musculoskeletal diseases. We systematically review the literature to clarify whether obesity is a risk factor for the onset of tendinopathy. Methods. We searched PubMed, Cochrane Central, and Embase Biomedical databases using the keywords “obesity,” “overweight,” and “body mass index” linked in different combinations with the terms “tendinopathy,” “tendinitis,” “tendinosis,” “rotator cuff,” “epicondylitis,” “wrist,” “patellar,” “quadriceps,” “Achilles,” “Plantar Fascia,” and “tendon.” Results. Fifteen studies were included. No level I study on this subject was available, and the results provided are ambiguous. However, all the 5 level II studies report the association between obesity measured in terms of BMI and tendon conditions, with OR ranging between 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1–2.2 and 5.6 (1.9–16.6. Conclusions. The best evidence available to date indicates that obesity is a risk factor for tendinopathy. Nevertheless, further studies should be performed to establish the real strength of the association for each type of tendinopathy, especially because the design of the published studies does not allow identifying a precise cause-effect relationship and the specific role of obesity independently of other metabolic conditions.

  15. Obesity as a Risk Factor for Tendinopathy: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschi, Francesco; Papalia, Rocco; Franceschetti, Edoardo; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. In the last few years, evidence has emerged to support the possible association between increased BMI and susceptibility to some musculoskeletal diseases. We systematically review the literature to clarify whether obesity is a risk factor for the onset of tendinopathy. Methods. We searched PubMed, Cochrane Central, and Embase Biomedical databases using the keywords “obesity,” “overweight,” and “body mass index” linked in different combinations with the terms “tendinopathy,” “tendinitis,” “tendinosis,” “rotator cuff,” “epicondylitis,” “wrist,” “patellar,” “quadriceps,” “Achilles,” “Plantar Fascia,” and “tendon.” Results. Fifteen studies were included. No level I study on this subject was available, and the results provided are ambiguous. However, all the 5 level II studies report the association between obesity measured in terms of BMI and tendon conditions, with OR ranging between 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1–2.2) and 5.6 (1.9–16.6). Conclusions. The best evidence available to date indicates that obesity is a risk factor for tendinopathy. Nevertheless, further studies should be performed to establish the real strength of the association for each type of tendinopathy, especially because the design of the published studies does not allow identifying a precise cause-effect relationship and the specific role of obesity independently of other metabolic conditions. PMID:25214839

  16. Genetic heritage as a risk factor enabling chilhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Madalena; Aparício, Graça; Duarte, João; Pereira, Anabela; Albuquerque, Carlos; Oliveira, António

    2013-05-01

    Nowadays, it is an evidence that maternal obesity is an important predictor of obesity in the descendants, not being consensual if that influence comes from the interaction between genes and facilitators family contexts or both. 1) To determinate the prevalence of the child overweight; 2) to classify the nutritional status and metabolic risk of the progenitors; 3) to analyze the effect of the markers of the family metabolic risk in the expression of the illness in the child. Descriptive study composed by 1424 children, average age 4.58 years old and their mothers, average age 34.47 years old, living in several parts of Portugal. The children's anthropometric measures were evaluated and classified according to the NCHS referential (CDC, 2000)(1) and of the progenitors by the orientations of the WHO (2000)(2) and Portugal, DGS (2005).(3) Social demographic data was obtained by filling in the Food Frequency Questionnaire adapted from Rito (2007).(4) The overweight affected 34.3% of the children, (including 17.4% obesity), being the higher values on boys (36.8%) and in 5 year old children (39.5). In 41.9% of the progenitors overweight was noted (12.1% obesity), being higher in mothers with low scholarship, low income, older and living in a rural area. The probability of the child to be overweighted was 1.4 times higher when mothers were overweight, and close to 2 times in the relationship mother/daughter. Others enabling factors were revealed, like weight gain above recommended during pregnancy and a higher weight at birth. Due to the obtained interferences, it is accepted the existence of enabling factors of maternal and child markers in the development of overweight in the child, so that the prevention of child obesity should consider not only the environmental dimension but also the genetic heritage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Maternal obesity, environmental factors, cesarean delivery and breastfeeding as determinants of overweight and obesity in children: results from a cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, Daniel S; Vieira, Tatiana O; Matos, Sheila Ma; de Oliveira, Nelson F; Vieira, Graciete O

    2015-04-15

    Overweight and obesity are a public health problem with a multifactorial aetiology. The objective of this study was to evaluate risk factors for overweight and obesity in children at 6 years of age, including type of delivery and breastfeeding. This study relates to a cohort of 672 mother-baby pairs who have been followed from birth up to 6 years of age. The sample included mothers and infants seen at all ten maternity units in a large Brazilian city. Genetic, socioeconomic, demographic variables and postnatal characteristics were analyzed. The outcome analyzed was overweight and/or obesity defined as a body mass index greater than or equal to +1 z-score. The sample was stratified by breastfeeding duration, and a descriptive analysis was performed using a hierarchical logistic regression. P-values of obesity among the children were 15.6% and 12.9%, respectively. Among the subset of breastfed children, factors associated with the outcome were maternal overweight and/or obesity (PR 1.92; 95% confidence interval "95% CI" 1.15-3.24) and lower income (PR 0.50; 95% CI 0.29-0.85). Among children who had not been breastfed or had been breastfed for shorter periods (less than 12 months), predictors were mothers with lower levels of education (PR 0.39; 95% CI 0.19-0.78), working mothers (PR 1.83; 95% CI 1.05-3.21), caesarean delivery (PR 1.98; 95% CI 1.14 - 3.50) and maternal obesity (PR 3.05; 95% CI 1.81 - 5.25). Maternal obesity and caesarean delivery were strongly associated with childhood overweight and/or obesity. Lower family income and lower levels of education were identified as protective factors. Breastfeeding duration appeared to modify the association between overweight/obesity and the other predictors studied.

  18. The effective factors in obesity of Neishabur children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Baygi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increase in the prevalence of childhood and adolescence obesity in recent years caused many investigations to be held on effective factors on childhood obesity. Environmental factors have a strong impact and are investigated in many studies worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the effective factors in Neishabur primary school children.Materials and Method: Using two stage cluster sampling from 60 Neishbur primary schools, all students who had body mass index(BMI 95 percentile, were identified as obese (n=114 and 102 students of the same age and gender were indicated as non-obese pupils. Data were collected by questionnaires. Results: Our analyzed data showed that the mean birth weight in obese cases was significantly more than the others. The ratio of first and second born children in obese group was higher than of the non-obese. The ratio of pupils starting complementary feeding earlier than 6 month of age was significantly higher in obese (80.7% than non-obese children (46.1%. Conclusion: High birth weight, birth order and early treatment with complementary foods were associated with obesity among Neishabur primary school children. This should be noted in interventional planning

  19. Factors Influencing Health-Related Quality of Life of Overweight and Obese Children in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Soon; Park, Jiyoung; Ma, Yumi; Ham, Ok Kyung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of overweight and obese children in Korea. This study employed a cross-sectional descriptive study design. A total of 132 overweight and obese children participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements included body mass index, percent body…

  20. Abdominal obesity as the colorectal adenomas risk factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. Mylytsya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a risk factor for many diseases, including colorectal cancer. Aim: to study association of the constitutional features (height, weight, waist circumference with detection of colon polyps on the screening colonoscopy. Materials and methods: Constitutional features (height, weight, waist circumference of 145 patients were assessed with detection of colon polyps on the screening colonoscopy for the period from 2013to 2015. Exclusion criteria were: cancer of any location in history, surgery within the past two years, the inflammatory bowel diseases (Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, autoimmune diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, HIV, AIDS, SLE, diabetes, chronic liver or kidney disease, family polyposis. Results: the presence of adenomas (OR = 6.0 CI: 2,2-16,7; multiplicity of polyps (the possibility that there will be ≥ 3 polyps was 6.4, CI: 1,4-29,9 were significantly higher in obese patients than in those with normal weight. Subjects with a waist circumference in the highest tertile (>115 cm, were 4.6 times more likely to identify ≥ 3 polyps than those with waist circumference in the lowest tertile (<96 cm . The probability of detection of adenomas in patients with a waist circumference in the highest tertile were 6.2 times higher than in the lowest tertile. Conclusions. Visceral obesity is associated with a morphological type and number of colon polyps. The presence of visceral obesity significantly increases the risk of colon adenomas. Increased visceral fat layer is an indication for colonoscopy especially of the right half of the colon examination. Screening colonoscopy should be recommended for the obese patients after 50 y.o. in order to diagnose adenomas of the colon and colorectal cancer.

  1. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor in obese and non obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia-Montilla, Jorly; Álvarez-Mon, Melchor; Reyna-Villasmil, Eduardo; Torres-Cepeda, Duly; Santos-Bolívar, Joel; Reyna-Villasmil, Nadia; Suarez-Torres, Ismael; Bravo-Henríquez, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    To measure macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) concentrations in obese and non-obese women diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Women diagnosed with PCOS and age-matched healthy controls with regular menses and normal ovaries on ultrasound examination were selected and divided into 4 groups (group A, PCOS and obese; group B, PCOS and non-obese; group C, obese controls; and group D, non-obese controls) based on body mass index (obese >30 kg/m2 and non-obese <25 kg/m2). Luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, androstenedione, testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, serum glucose, insulin and MIF levels were measured. Obese and non-obese women with PCOS had higher luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, androstenedione, testosterone, and insulin levels as compared to the obese and non-obese control groups, respectively (P < .0001). Women with PCOS had significantly higher MIF levels (group A, 48.6 ± 9.9 mg/ml; group B, 35.2 ± 6.0 ng/ml) as compared to controls (group C, 13.5 ± 6.0 ng/ml; group D, 12.0 ± 4.3 ng/dl; P < .0001). A weak, positive and significant correlation was seen between fasting blood glucose and insulin levels in women with PCOS (P < .05). Significant differences exist in plasma MIF levels between obese and non-obese women with and without PCOS. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Individual, home and neighborhood factors related to childhood obesity intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Fabiana Brito

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is one of the most pressing global population health issues, and importantly one that affects racial/ethnic minorities and those of low socioeconomic status disproportionately. Obesity tracks from childhood into adulthood and is related to serious medical and economic consequences throughout the life course. Childhood obesity is well recognized as a complex and multifaceted problem influenced by broader social, geographic and environmental factors. A social ecological framework that i...

  3. Prevalence, etiological factors and the treatment of infant exogenous obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Edio Luiz Petroski; Ludmila Dalben Soares

    2003-01-01

    In the last few years, there has been considerable interest in the effects of excessive weight gain during childhood, due to the fact that the development of fat tissue in this period is a determinant of adult body composition. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of infant obesity, to identify possible etiological factors, and to highlight treatments that have been used to reduce and/or prevent child obesity. Results have shown that obesity has increased more than an...

  4. Early dropout predictive factors in obesity treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelini, Ilaria; Falchi, Anna Giulia; Muggia, Chiara; Grecchi, Ilaria; Montagna, Elisabetta; De Silvestri, Annalisa; Tinelli, Carmine

    2014-02-01

    Diet attrition and failure of long term treatment are very frequent in obese patients. This study aimed to identify pre-treatment variables determining dropout and to customise the characteristics of those most likely to abandon the program before treatment, thus making it possible to modify the therapy to increase compliance. A total of 146 outpatients were consecutively enrolled; 73 patients followed a prescriptive diet while 73 followed a novel brief group Cognitive Behavioural Treatment (CBT) in addition to prescriptive diet. The two interventions lasted for six months. Anthropometric, demographic, psychological parameters and feeding behaviour were assessed, the last two with the Italian instrument VCAO Ansisa; than, a semi-structured interview was performed on motivation to lose weight. To identify the baseline dropout risk factors among these parameters, univariate and multivariate logistic models were used. Comparison of the results in the two different treatments showed a higher attrition rate in CBT group, despite no statistically significant difference between the two treatment arms (P = 0.127). Dropout patients did not differ significantly from those who did not dropout with regards to sex, age, Body Mass Index (BMI), history of cycling, education, work and marriage. Regardless of weight loss, the most important factor that determines the dropout appears to be a high level of stress revealed by General Health Questionnaire-28 items (GHQ-28) score within VCAO test. The identification of hindering factors during the assessment is fundamental to reduce the dropout risk. For subjects at risk, it would be useful to dedicate a stress management program before beginning a dietary restriction.

  5. Lifestyle Factors and Incident Mobility Limitation in Obese and Non-obese Older Adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, A.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Newman, A.B.; Visser, M.; van Gool, C.H.; Harris, T.B.; van Eijk, J.T.; Kempen, G.I.; Brach, J.S.; Simonsick, E.M.; Houston, D.K.; Tylavsky, F.A.; Rubin, S.M.; Kritchevsky, S.B.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the association between incident mobility limitation and 4 lifestyle factors: smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, and diet in well-functioning obese (n = 667) and non-obese (n = 2027) older adults. Research Methods and Procedures: Data were from men and women,

  6. Obesity and Cancer Metabolism: A Perspective on Interacting Tumor-Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerstling, Steven S; O'Flanagan, Ciara H; Hursting, Stephen D

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased risk and poor prognosis of many types of cancers. Several obesity-related host factors involved in systemic metabolism can influence tumor initiation, progression, and/or response to therapy, and these have been implicated as key contributors to the complex effects of obesity on cancer incidence and outcomes. Such host factors include systemic metabolic regulators including insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1, adipokines, inflammation-related molecules, and steroid hormones, as well as the cellular and structural components of the tumor microenvironment, particularly adipose tissue. These secreted and structural host factors are extrinsic to, and interact with, the intrinsic metabolic characteristics of cancer cells to influence their growth and spread. This review will focus on the interplay of these tumor cell-intrinsic and extrinsic factors in the context of energy balance, with the objective of identifying new intervention targets for preventing obesity-associated cancer.

  7. Genome-wide association study for the interaction between BMR and BMI in obese Korean women including overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myoungsook; Kwon, Dae Young; Kim, Myung-Sunny; Choi, Chong Ran; Park, Mi-Young; Kim, Ae-Jung

    2016-02-01

    This is the first study to identify common genetic factors associated with the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and body mass index (BMI) in obese Korean women including overweight. This will be a basic study for future research of obese gene-BMR interaction. The experimental design was 2 by 2 with variables of BMR and BMI. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was conducted in the overweight and obesity (BMI > 23 kg/m(2)) compared to the normality, and in women with low BMR (BMR. A total of 140 SNPs reached formal genome-wide statistical significance in this study (P BMR (rs10786764; P = 8.0 × 10(-7), rs1040675; 2.3 × 10(-6)) and BMI (rs10786764; P = 2.5 × 10(-5), rs10786764; 6.57 × 10(-5)). The other genes related to BMI (HSD52, TMA16, MARCH1, NRG1, NRXN3, and STK4) yielded P BMR and BMI, including NRG3, OR8U8, BCL2L2-PABPN1, PABPN1, and SLC22A17 were identified in obese Korean women (P BMR- and BMI-related genes using GWAS. Although most of these newly established loci were not previously associated with obesity, they may provide new insights into body weight regulation. Our findings of five common genes associated with BMR and BMI in Koreans will serve as a reference for replication and validation of future studies on the metabolic rate.

  8. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Obesity and Overweight among Primary School Children in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sadr-Bafghi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity and overweight are one of the health problems in developed and developing countries that are increasing every day. The purpose of this study was to asses the prevalence of obesity and overweight and their risk factors among preschool children in Yazd . .Methods: In a descriptive cross sectional study 400 preschool aged 6 years, including 200 boys and 200 girls were selected via random sampling method from among health assessment clinics and evaluated for obesity and overweight and their risk factors in 2005-2006. BMI for age and sex was based on standardized percentile curves for BMI ( NHNESIII accepted by WHO . Obesity was defined as BMI >95th and overweigh as BMI in 85-95th percentile. The data of the research was collected through complied questionnaire by interviewing parents and then analyzed and evaluated using SPSS: 11.5 software. Results: The prevalence of obesity and overweight was 3.8% and 4.3%, respectively. Frequency of obesity and overweight was approximately 5.5% and 5% in boys and 2%, 3.5% in girls, respectively. Obesity and overweight had a significant statistical relationship with physical activity, amount of television viewing and consumption of fast food and soda, but no statistically significant relationships were seen with sex, birth order and parental educational levels. Conclusion: In this study, prevalence of obesity and overweight was lower than other similar studies, but obesity risk factors should be considered during decision making on preventive measures.

  9. Prevalence and risk factors of obesity among practicing nurses at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to foster healthy lifestyle is essential in health profession and pertinent to prevent obesity and future morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular metabolic risk factors. Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences (2016) 5(3), 45-55. Keywords: Obesity, overweight, risk, practicing Nurses, Kumasi ...

  10. Prevalence and risks factors of overweight/obesity among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obesity and overweight are lifestyle conditions affecting more than half of the younger adult population. This study determined the prevalence and risks factors of obesity and overweight among undergraduate students in Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. This institutional based ...

  11. Lifestyle factors associated with obesity among patients attending a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The study was done to determine the association between lifestyle factors and obesity among the Family Medicine clinic attendees of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH). It is a well-known fact that there is a global increase in the prevalence of obesity especially in the developing countries.

  12. Prevalence of overweight/obesity and central obesity and its associated factors among a sample of university students in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and the lifestyle characteristic of Indian society lead young people to conditions of potential cardiovascular risk. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of overweight/obesity and central obesity and its associated factors in a sample of Indian university students. In a cross-sectional survey assessed anthropometric measurements and a self-administered questionnaire among a sample of randomly selected university students. The sample included 800 university students from non health (mainly sciences) courses Gitam University in India. The students were 541 (67.6%) males and 259 (32.4%) females in the age range of 17-20 years (M age 18.2 years, SD=1.0). 37.5% were overweight or obese, 26.8% overweight (≥23-27.4 BMI) and 10.7% obese (≥27.5 kg/m(2)), 11.7% underweight (obesity (WC ≥90 cm for men and ≥80 cm for women). In multivariate analysis among men lack of non-organised religious activity (odds ratio=OR 0.85, confidence interval=CI 0.77-0.95), lower dietary risk knowledge (OR=0.64, CI=0.41-0.99), tobacco use (OR=2.23, CI=1.14-4.38), and suffering from depression (OR=1.59, CI=1.00-2.47) were associated with overweight/obesity, and younger age (OR=0.32, CI=0.12-0.90), lives away from parents or guardians (OR=1.79, CI=1.04-3.07), healthy dietary practices (OR=1.95, CI=1.02-3.72) and 9 or more hours sleep duration (OR=0.28, CI=0.09-0.96) were associated with central obesity. In bivariate analysis among women, lack of social support, lower dietary risk knowledge, tobacco use, and 9 or more hours sleep duration were associated with overweight/obesity and lives away from parents or guardians and abstinence from alcohol associated with central obesity. The study found a high prevalence of overweight/obesity and central obesity. Several gender specific health risk practices were identified including lack of dietary risk knowledge, shorter sleep duration, living away from parents or guardians, tobacco use and lack of social support and

  13. Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... improve or prevent the health problems associated with obesity. Dietary changes, increased physical activity and behavior changes can ... more calories than you burn. And most Americans' diets are too high in calories and are ... factors Obesity usually results from a combination of causes and ...

  14. Prevalence of and contributing factors for overweight and obesity among Montenegrin schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinovic, Milica; Belojevic, Goran; Evans, Gary W; Lausevic, Dragan; Asanin, Bogdan; Samardzic, Mira; Terzic, Natasa; Pantovic, Snezana; Jaksic, Marina; Boljevic, Jelena

    2015-10-01

    Newly emerging Western style economic systems provide new opportunities to study the prevalence and predictors of childhood obesity. We also provide for the first time a national study of childhood obesity using all three international anthropometric criteria. The sample included 4097 Montenegrin children, 2076 boys (50.7%) and 2021 girls. Anthropometric measurements were performed in school. The questionnaire for parents included questions on 24 potential contributing factors for childhood obesity. Nutritional status was assessed according to World Health Organization, US Center for Disease Prevention and Control and International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria. Overall percentage of Montenegrin children who are overweight or obese (IOTF) is 22.9% of which 5.3% are obese (7.0% boys vs. 3.5% girls). We found 10 factors to be independently associated with child obesity. Positive relations [odds ratio (95% confidence interval)] were found with maternal obesity [2.05 (1.68-2.51)], paternal obesity [1.67 (1.32-2.10)], paternal employment [1.40 (1.12-1.74)], maternal smoking [1.32 (1.08-1.61)], obesity at birth [1.33 (1.04-1.70)] and computer game playing [per hour--1.11 (1.00-1.24)]. Negative relations were found with female gender [0.64 (0.53-0.78)], the number of siblings [0.88 (0.78-0.98)], birth order [0.73 (0.64-0.83)] and age [0.92 (0.88-0.98)]. One out of four Montenegrin children is overweight, with two times more frequent obesity among boys compared with girls. Some previously salient predictors did not appear salient in this sample. To enable worldwide comparability, we propose the use of all three childhood obesity criteria in national studies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  15. Insights into the role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in obesity and insulin resistance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Finucane, Orla M

    2012-11-01

    High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity has emerged as a state of chronic low-grade inflammation characterised by a progressive infiltration of immune cells, particularly macrophages, into obese adipose tissue. Adipose tissue macrophages (ATM) present immense plasticity. In early obesity, M2 anti-inflammatory macrophages acquire an M1 pro-inflammatory phenotype. Pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β produced by M1 ATM exacerbate local inflammation promoting insulin resistance (IR), which consequently, can lead to type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the triggers responsible for ATM recruitment and activation are not fully understood. Adipose tissue-derived chemokines are significant players in driving ATM recruitment during obesity. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a chemokine-like inflammatory regulator, is enhanced during obesity and is directly associated with the degree of peripheral IR. This review focuses on the functional role of macrophages in obesity-induced IR and highlights the importance of the unique inflammatory cytokine MIF in propagating obesity-induced inflammation and IR. Given MIF chemotactic properties, MIF may be a primary candidate promoting ATM recruitment during obesity. Manipulating MIF inflammatory activities in obesity, using pharmacological agents or functional foods, may be therapeutically beneficial for the treatment and prevention of obesity-related metabolic diseases.

  16. Obesity-promoting factors in Mexican children and adolescents: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceves-Martins, Magaly; Llauradó, Elisabet; Tarro, Lucia; Solà, Rosa; Giralt, Montse

    2016-01-01

    Background Mexico is a developing country with one of the highest youth obesity rates worldwide; >34% of children and adolescents between 5 and 19 years of age are overweight or obese. Objectives The current review seeks to compile, describe, and analyze dietary conditions, physical activity, socioeconomic status, and cultural factors that create and exacerbate an obesogenic environment among Mexican youth. Design A narrative review was performed using PubMed and the Cochrane Library databases, as well as grey literature data from the Mexican government, academics, and statistical reports from nongovernmental organizations, included in electronic formats. Results The recent socioeconomic and nutritional transition has resulted in reduced healthy meal options at public schools, high rates of sedentary lifestyles among adolescents, lack of open spaces and playgrounds, socioeconomic deprivation, false or misunderstood sociocultural traditional beliefs, misconceptions about health, a high percentage of overweight or obese adults, and low rates of maternal breastfeeding. Some of the factors identified are exacerbating the obesity problem in this population. Current evidence also shows that more policies and health programs are needed for prevention of childhood and adolescent obesity. Mexico presents alarming obesity levels, which need to be curtailed and urgently reversed. Conclusions The present narrative review presents an overview of dietary, physical activity, societal and cultural preconceptions that are potentially modifiable obesity-promoting factors in Mexican youth. Measures to control these factors need to be implemented in all similar developing countries by governments, policy makers, stakeholders, and health care professionals to tackle obesity in children and young people. PMID:26787421

  17. A scoping review of epidemiologic risk factors for pediatric obesity: Implications for future childhood obesity and dental caries prevention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L; Luu, Monique; Chu, Frances

    2017-06-01

    What are the non-modifiable (socioeconomic, genetic) and modifiable factors (physical activity, dietary behaviors) related to childhood (under age 12) obesity? How can this knowledge be applied to oral health professionals' efforts to prevent or manage dental caries in children? Studies have identified risk factors for childhood obesity. The purpose of this scoping review was to develop a conceptual model to identify non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors for childhood obesity and to illustrate how these findings are relevant in developing interventions aimed at preventing obesity and dental caries in children. The authors searched PubMed and Embase and limited the study to English-language publications. A total of 2,572 studies were identified. After de-duplication, 2,479 studies remained and were downloaded into a citation-management tool. Two authors screened the titles and abstracts for relevance. Two hundred and sixty studies remained and were retrieved for a full-text review, and 80 studies were excluded, resulting in 180 studies included in the scoping review. An inductive content analytic methods was used to organize all statistically significant obesity risk factors into seven domains, which were classified as non-modifiable or modifiable; then a conceptual model of common risk factors associated with childhood obesity and dental caries was developed. Non-modifiable obesity risk factors include biological and developmental (e.g., genes, developmental conditions, puberty), sociodemographic and household (e.g., race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, parent education, unemployment), cultural (e.g., degree of acculturation), and community (e.g., neighborhood composition). Modifiable risk factors included behavioral (e.g., diet, physical activity, weight), psychosocial (e.g., maternal stress, family functioning, parenting practices, child temperament), and medical (e.g., parent smoking, maternal health, child health). Identifying common risk factors has

  18. Psychological Symptoms in Obesity and Related Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Değirmenci, Taner; Kalkan-Oğuzhanoğlu, Nalan; Sözeri-Varma, Gülfizar; Özdel, Osman; Fenkçi, Semin

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between levels of depression and anxiety symptoms and quality of life, self-esteem in obesity. Fifty-two subjects whose Body Mass Index (BMI) is 30 kg/m 2 and over and 43 control whose BMI is normal were recruited for this study. The socio demographic data form, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), Quality of Life Scale Short Form (WHOQOL-Brief-TR), Coopersmith Self Esteem Scale (CSES), The Eating Attitudes (EAT), were applied to the participants. In this study most of the patients are women, married, postgraduated and live in urban areas. It was determined to scores of HAM-D17, HAM-A and EAT are higher in obese group than control group; WHOQOL-Brief-TR physical field scores was lower in obese group than control group. CSES scores wasn't difference between obese and control group. In obese group, there was HAM-D17 and HAM-A scores a negative correlation between quality of life physical field score, negative correlation between CSES score, positive correlation between EAT scale score. There is no correlation between scores of HAM-D17 and HAM-A and BMI. Our results suggest that depressive and anxiety levels are high in induvidual with obesity. They have problems in eating attitudes and their quality of life especially physical field is poor. The psychological symptoms have negative effects on the quality of life, self-esteem, and eating attitudes. Our results suggest that psychiatric support to improving positive effects quality of life and self-esteem in individual with obesity.

  19. Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... we spend more time in front of computers, video games, TV, and other electronic pastimes, we have fewer ... no other risk factors. Overweight and obesity also increase the risks for diabetes, high blood pressure, high ...

  20. prevalence of and factors associated with overweight and obesity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birir Family

    determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among nursery school children aged 3-6 ... These risk factors may operate through the association ... traditional food systems and habits have been preferred over western type cereal based.

  1. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor is elevated in obese adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamchybekov, Uran; Figulla, Hans R.; Gerdes, Norbert; Jung, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The prevalence of obesity in childhood and adolescence is continuing rising. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) participates in inflammatory and immune responses as a pro-inflammatory cytokine. The present study aimed to investigate MIF in overweight adolescents. Methods:

  2. Obesity and Hypertension, Heart Failure, and Coronary Heart Disease—Risk Factor, Paradox, and Recommendations for Weight Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Artham, Surya M.; Lavie, Carl J.; Milani, Richard V.; Ventura, Hector O.

    2009-01-01

    Obesity prevalence has reached epidemic proportions and is independently associated with numerous cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cancers, sleep apnea, and other major CVDs. Obesity has significant negative impact on CVD, including hypertension, coronary heart disease, heart failure, and arrhythmias via its maladaptive effects on individual CVD risk factors and cardiac structure and function. Despite this negative association...

  3. Dietary risk factors for development of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Luis A; Rodríguez, Gerardo

    2007-05-01

    Controversial information exists on the contribution of several dietary factors for overweight development in childhood, but there is no doubt that obesity prevalence is increasing. We review the most up-to-date information in order to clarify the evidence-based dietary aspects influencing obesity development in children and adolescents. Longitudinal studies are the preferred method for analysing the relationship between dietary factors and obesity development. With the exception of infants, there are no conclusive associations between energy intake or diet composition and later overweight development in children. Among formula or mixed-fed infants, the increase in energy intake has been associated with an increased risk of being overweight during childhood. Breastfeeding seems to be a protective factor for later obesity development. In terms of food intake, longitudinal studies have only found a clear and positive association between obesity development and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption; this is not the case with snacking, fast food or food portion sizes. Cross-sectional studies have found correlations between being overweight in childhood and buying lunch at school, eating supper while watching television or without family supervision, consuming less energy at breakfast or more at dinner, and missing breakfast. Results from longitudinal studies must be taken into account in order to design preventive strategies to counteract the increased prevalence of obesity and its consequences in children. Lack of breastfeeding, high early energy intake and high intake of sugar-sweetened beverages seem to be the main dietary factors contributing to obesity development.

  4. Defining Metabolically Healthy Obesity: Role of Dietary and Lifestyle Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Catherine M.; Dillon, Christina; Harrington, Janas M.; McCarthy, Vera J. C.; Kearney, Patricia M.; Fitzgerald, Anthony P.; Perry, Ivan J.

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a current lack of consensus on defining metabolically healthy obesity (MHO). Limited data on dietary and lifestyle factors and MHO exist. The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence, dietary factors and lifestyle behaviours of metabolically healthy and unhealthy obese and non-obese subjects according to different metabolic health criteria. Method Cross-sectional sample of 1,008 men and 1,039 women aged 45-74 years participated in the study. Participants were classified as obese (BMI ≥30kg/m2) and non-obese (BMI unhealthy subjects was 21.8% to 87%. Calorie intake, dietary macronutrient composition, physical activity, alcohol and smoking behaviours were similar between the metabolically healthy and unhealthy regardless of BMI. Greater compliance with food pyramid recommendations and higher dietary quality were positively associated with metabolic health in obese (OR 1.45-1.53 unadjusted model) and non-obese subjects (OR 1.37-1.39 unadjusted model), respectively. Physical activity was associated with MHO defined by insulin resistance (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.19-2.92, p = 0.006). Conclusion A standard MHO definition is required. Moderate and high levels of physical activity and compliance with food pyramid recommendations increase the likelihood of MHO. Stratification of obese individuals based on their metabolic health phenotype may be important in ascertaining the appropriate therapeutic or intervention strategy. PMID:24146838

  5. Psychological, behavioral and familial factors in obese Cuban children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Lourdes M; García, Keytel; Herrera, Raúl

    2013-10-01

    The global prevalence of obesity has reached alarming proportions. In Cuba, the rise in numbers of children who are overweight or obese, especially preschoolers and adolescents, is similar to that observed in developed countries. Beyond the physical risk factors, there is evidence that obesity has negative psychological, social, academic and economic effects. Describe the psychological, behavioral and familial factors present in a group of obese children and adolescents in Cuba. This is a qualitative cross-sectional study of 202 obese children and adolescents aged 3-18 years, with an average age of 9.9 years, seen at the Medical-Surgical Research Center (Havana) psychology service from January 2009 through December 2012. Techniques included interviews of patients and parents, projective drawings and the Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank. Unhealthy eating habits were reported in 96% of obese children and adolescents, and sedentary lifestyles in 88.1%. Emotional state was affected in 80.2%, and in 72.3% there were family attitudes with potential to produce psychological disturbances in children. Psychological, behavioral, and familial factors known to foster development and perpetuation of obesity were observed in the majority of cases. This is a first diagnostic stage that will aid in design and implementation of a psychological intervention program for obese and overweight children and their families.

  6. Modifiable Risk Factors and Interventions for Childhood Obesity Prevention within the First 1,000 Days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattilo, Anne M

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, the prevalence of childhood obesity has increased, amounting to 42 million overweight or obese children, and there is increasing evidence that the origins are within the first 1,000 days: the period of conception through 2 years. Antecedents of early childhood obesity are multifactorial, and associations of varying strength have been documented for genetic/epigenetic, biologic, dietary, environmental, social, and behavioral influences. Modifiable factors in pregnancy and early infancy associated with childhood obesity include maternal overweight/obesity, maternal smoking, gestational weight gain, infant and young child feeding, caregiver responsive feeding practices, as well as sleep duration, and physical activity. Promising obesity prevention interventions include those beginning during the first 1,000 days, using a multicomponent approach, with roots in nutrition education theories or behavior change communication that can continue over time. However, the limited number of completed interventions to date (within pediatric clinics or in home-based or community settings) may not be scalable to the magnitude needed for sustainable obesity prevention. Scale-up interventions that can be maintained for the durations needed, addressing infant and young child feeding and other modifiable risk factors associated with childhood obesity are needed. © 2017 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Persistent Organic Pollutants as Risk Factors for Obesity and Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunxue; Kong, Alice Pik Shan; Cai, Zongwei; Chung, Arthur C K

    2017-11-02

    The rising prevalence of obesity and diabetes cannot be fully explained by known risk factors, such as unhealthy diet, a sedentary lifestyle, and family history. This review summarizes the available studies linking persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to obesity and diabetes and discusses plausible underlying mechanisms. Increasing evidence suggest that POPs may act as obesogens and diabetogens to promote the development of obesity and diabetes and induce metabolic dysfunction. POPs are synthesized chemicals and are used widely in our daily life. These chemicals are resistant to degradation in chemical or biological processes, which enable them to exist in the environment persistently and to be bio-accumulated in animal and human tissue through the food chain. Increasingly, epidemiologic studies suggest a positive association between POPs and risk of developing diabetes. Understanding the relationship of POPs with obesity and diabetes may shed light on preventive strategies for obesity and diabetes.

  8. Obesity-hypoventilation syndrome and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espínola Rodríguez, Ana; Lores Obradors, Luis; Parellada Esquius, Neus; Rubio Muñoz, Felisa; Espinosa Gonzalez, Neus; Arellano Marcuello, Elisabet

    2018-02-23

    Obesity causes important alterations in the respiratory physiology like sleep obstructive apnoea (SOA) and obesity-hypoventilation syndrome (OHS), both associated with high morbidity and mortality. Also, these entities are clearly infradiagnosed and in the case of OHS the prevalence is unknown in the general obese population. To determine the prevalence of OHS in the population of patients with morbid obesity and to know the comorbidity related with OHS, the associated respiratory symptoms and the pulse oximetry alterations. Descriptive study. Selection of 136 adult patients with morbid obesity (BMI >40). Collected were, anthropometric data, toxic habits, concomitant disease, symptom data, analytic data, dyspnoea grade, sleepiness scale (Epworth Test), electrocardiogram, chest X-ray, spirometry, nocturne ambulatory pulse oximetry and arterial gasometry. 136 were studied, mean age 60 years old (SD 12.9 years), 73% (98) were women; 6.6% of patients presented diurnal hypercapnia indicative of OHS; 72% presented high blood pressure, 44% dyslipidaemia, 18% presented cardiovascular disease, 83% snored and 46% had apnoea; 30% presented stageII dyspnoea and 10% stageIII. The desaturation/hour index was above 3% ≥30 of occasions in 28.6% of patients and the percentage of patients with saturations <90% more than 30% of the time was 23.5%. The results were worse in patients with OHS. The prevalence of OHS was lower than expected. Noteworthy was the high comorbidity of cardiovascular disease and the high frequency of respiratory symptoms associated with important alterations of pulse oximetry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Overweight and Obesity and its associated factors among high school students of Dibrugarh, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekta Gupta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is emerging as a public health problem in urban India and also contributes to obesity and various non-communicable diseases among adult population. Hence, it is necessary to identify potential risk factors for childhood obesity and formulate early interventions to control this epidemic. Aims & Objectives: To assess the magnitude of overweight and obesity among high-school students of Dibrugarh and to determine factors associated with it. Materials & Methods: A cross-sectional study including students enrolled in 8th- 10th grades in schools of urban Dibrugarh, Assam was conducted from October 2012 to June 2013 wherein 1000 students were selected using stratified random sampling technique. Information regarding dietary intake, amount of physical activity was collected using pre-designed, pre-tested questionnaire followed by anthropometric measurements which included body mass index (BMI, waist and hip circumference was done. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS-16 software. Results: Of the 1000 students enrolled, 119 (11.9% were overweight, 71 (7.1% were obese and 225 (22.5% had high waist-hip ratio. The factors significantly associated with overweight and obesity were higher socio-economic class, frequent intake of fast food items, sedentary lifestyle with less physical activity. Conclusion: Children belonging to higher socio-economic group, consuming fast food and involved in less physical activity were more predisposed to overweight and obesity

  10. Overweight and Obesity and Associated Factors among School-Aged Adolescents in Ghana and Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess overweight and obesity and associated factors in school-going adolescents in low income African countries (Ghana, Uganda. The total sample included 5,613 school children aged 13 to 15 years from nationally representative samples from two African countries. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between dietary behavior, substance use, physical activity, psychosocial factors and overweight or obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was determined based on self-reported height and weight and the international child body mass index standards. Results indicate a prevalence of overweight or obesity of 10.4% among girls and 3.2% among boys, and 0.9% and 0.5% obesity only among girls and boys, respectively. Among girls smoking cigarettes and loneliness and among boys smoking cigarettes were found to be associated with overweight or obesity in multivariable analysis. Overweight status was not associated with the intake of fruits, vegetables, and sedentary behavior. Low prevalence rates of overweight or obesity were found in Ghana and Uganda. Smoking cessation and social programs could be integrated into strategies to prevent and treat overweight and obesity in youth.

  11. Stress as a common risk factor for obesity and addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Rajita; Jastreboff, Ania M

    2013-05-01

    Stress is associated with obesity, and the neurobiology of stress overlaps significantly with that of appetite and energy regulation. This review will discuss stress, allostasis, the neurobiology of stress and its overlap with neural regulation of appetite, and energy homeostasis. Stress is a key risk factor in the development of addiction and in addiction relapse. High levels of stress changes eating patterns and augments consumption of highly palatable (HP) foods, which in turn increases incentive salience of HP foods and allostatic load. The neurobiological mechanisms by which stress affects reward pathways to potentiate motivation and consumption of HP foods as well as addictive drugs is discussed. With enhanced incentive salience of HP foods and overconsumption of these foods, there are adaptations in stress and reward circuits that promote stress-related and HP food-related motivation as well as concomitant metabolic adaptations, including alterations in glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and other hormones related to energy homeostasis. These metabolic changes in turn might also affect dopaminergic activity to influence food motivation and intake of HP foods. An integrative heuristic model is proposed, wherein repeated high levels of stress alter the biology of stress and appetite/energy regulation, with both components directly affecting neural mechanisms contributing to stress-induced and food cue-induced HP food motivation and engagement in overeating of such foods to enhance risk of weight gain and obesity. Future directions in research are identified to increase understanding of the mechanisms by which stress might increase risk of weight gain and obesity. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Obesity and associated factors in young adults attending tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obesity and associated factors in young adults attending tertiary institutions ... and associated factors in a group of university undergraduates in south-east Nigeria. ... being a female (X2 = 47.91), first year student (X2 = 41.82), and having high ...

  13. Assessment of cardiovascular risk factors in obese individual in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Risk factor modification can reduce clinical events and premature death in people with established cardiovascular disease (CVD) as well as in those who are at high cardiovascular risk due to one or more risk factors. Obesity, a common nutritional disorder in industrialized countries is associated with an ...

  14. Risk factors for obesity in 6 to 12-year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Japutra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The causes of obesity in children are multifactorial, including genetics, physiology, metabolism, psychology, socioeconomic status, lifestyle, and culture. Objective To assess for relationships between obesity in 6 to 12-year-old children and maternal nutritional status, maternal education, eating breakfast, eating fast food, physical activity, TV watching, and playing video games. Methods This case-control study included students of Sejahtera Public School aged 6 to 12 years. Questionnaires were distributed to their parents for data on maternal education, eating breakfast, eating fast food, physical activity, TV watching and playing video games. Maternal nutritional status was assessed by one of the researchers. Univariate analysis with Chi–square test was used to assess every risk factor. Those with a P value of <0.25 were subjected to multivariate analysis, performed using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results From June to July 2013, 60 obese children and 60 wellnourished children, as a control group, were enrolled in the study. Obese mothers tended to have obese children [odds ratio/OR 252.48; 95%CI 33.4 to 1908.4]. Children who ate fast food 6–8 times/week, had low physical activity, and watched TV more than 8 hours/week had significantly higher risk for obesity [OR 12.94, 95%CI 1.7 to 100.7; and OR 266.94, 95% CI 7.8 to 9137.7; OR 21.44, 95%CI 2.68 to 171.61; respectively]. Maternal education, eating breakfast, and playing video games were not significant risk factors for childhood obesity. Conclusion Maternal obesity, eating fast food 6-8 times per week, low physical activity and watching TV more than 8 hours/ week are risk factors for childhood obesity.

  15. Improvements on Cardiovascular Diseases Risk Factors in Obese Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes Silva, Humberto José; Andersen, Lars Bo; Lofrano-Prado, Mara Cristina

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear how different exercise intensities affect cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in obese adolescents. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of high intensity (HIT) vs. low intensity (LIT) aerobic training on CVD risk factors in obese adolescents. METHODS......: Forty-three obese adolescents (age: 15.7±1.3y, BMI: 34.3±4.1kg/m2) participated this study either HIT (corresponding to ventilatory threshold-I, VT1; N=20) or LIT (20% below VT1; N=23) for 12 weeks (12W). All sessions were isocaloric (350 kcal). All participants received the same nutritional......, psychological and clinical counseling. Subjects were assessed in fatness, fitness, lipid profile and glucose at baseline and after 12W. The CVD risk factors assessed were waist circumference (WC), total cholesterol (TC), HDL, glucose and fitness, which were single and clustered analyzed (Z-scores sum). RESULTS...

  16. The Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Obesity in Firefighters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise L. Smith

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD mortality. CVD is the leading cause of duty-related death among firefighters, and the prevalence of obesity is a growing concern in the Fire Service. Methods. Traditional CVD risk factors, novel measures of cardiovascular health and a measurement of CVD were described and compared between nonobese and obese career firefighters who volunteered to participate in this cross-sectional study. Results. In the group of 116 men (mean age 43±8 yrs, the prevalence of obesity was 51.7%. There were no differences among traditional CVD risk factors or the coronary artery calcium (CAC score (criterion measure between obese and nonobese men. However, significant differences in novel markers, including CRP, subendocardial viability ratio, and the ejection duration index, were detected. Conclusions. No differences in the prevalence of traditional CVD risk factors between obese and nonobese men were found. Additionally, CAC was similar between groups. However, there were differences in several novel risk factors, which warrant further investigation. Improved CVD risk identification among firefighters has important implications for both individual health and public safety.

  17. Community Stakeholders' Perceptions of Major Factors Influencing Childhood Obesity, the Feasibility of Programs Addressing Childhood Obesity, and Persisting Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganter, Claudia; Aftosmes-Tobio, Alyssa; Chuang, Emmeline; Blaine, Rachel E; Land, Thomas; Davison, Kirsten K

    2016-04-01

    Prior research has identified numerous factors contributing to increased rates of childhood obesity. However, few studies have focused explicitly on the experience of community stakeholders in low-income communities. This study sought to capture the perspectives of these on-the-ground experts regarding major factors contributing to childhood obesity as well as gaps in current prevention and control efforts. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 39 stakeholders from different community sectors (e.g., healthcare providers, childcare providers, teachers). Data were drawn from the Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration project, a multi-level, multi-sector intervention designed to reduce childhood obesity being implemented in two low-income communities in Massachusetts. Interviews were conducted at baseline, transcribed, coded using grounded theory approach, and analyzed in NVivo 10.0. The vast majority of stakeholders had recently participated in obesity prevention strategies, and nearly all of them identified gaps in prevention efforts either within their organizations or in the broader community. In addition to factors previously identified in the literature, several themes emerged including the need to change policies to increase physical activity during school, offer healthier snacks in schools and afterschool programs, and increase communication and collaboration within the community in prevention efforts. Community stakeholders can impact the success of interventions by bridging the gap between science and lived experience. The results of this study can guide future research by highlighting the importance of including stakeholders' frontline experiences with target populations, and using information on identified gaps to augment intervention planning efforts.

  18. Obesity as a Major Risk Factor for Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni De Pergola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of cancer cases caused by being obese is estimated to be 20% with the increased risk of malignancies being influenced by diet, weight change, and body fat distribution together with physical activity. Reports from the International Agency for Research into Cancer and the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF have shown that the strongest evidence exists for an association of obesity with the following cancer types: endometrial, esophageal adenocarcinoma, colorectal, postmenopausal breast, prostate, and renal, whereas the less common malignancies are leukemia, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, multiple myeloma, malignant melanoma, and thyroid tumours. To be able to develop novel methods in prevention and treatment, we first must understand the underlying processes which link cancer to obesity. Four main systems have been identified as potential producers of cancer in obesity: insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I, sex steroids, and adipokines. Various novel candidate mechanisms have been proposed: chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, crosstalk between tumour cells and surrounding adipocytes, migrating adipose stromal cells, obesity-induced hypoxia, shared genetic susceptibility, and the functional defeat of immune function. Herein, we review the major pathogenic links between obesity and susceptibility to cancer.

  19. Multi-level influences on childhood obesity in Sweden: societal factors, parental determinants and child's lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraeus, L; Lissner, L; Yngve, A; Poortvliet, E; Al-Ansari, U; Sjöberg, A

    2012-07-01

    Swedish school children living in rural areas and in areas with low education are at excess risk of becoming overweight. This study examines influences of societal and individual characteristics (children and their parents) on prevalence of overweight and obesity, in a national sample of 7-9-year-old children. Anthropometric and lifestyle data were collected in a nationally representative sample of 3636 Swedish children. Overweight and obesity (International Obesity Task Force (IOTF)) data were analyzed in relation to lifestyle factors, parental weight, education and breast-feeding. The prevalence of overweight was 15.6% including 2.6% obese. Urbanization level and parental characteristics (weight status and education) were related to risk of overweight. Overall less favorable lifestyle characteristics were observed in rural areas and for children of low/medium educated mothers. Boys had greater risk of obesity in semi-urban and rural areas but this was not true for girls. For children's overweight, the living area effect was attenuated in multivariate analysis, while there was an association with origin of parents, high parental weight and medium maternal education. For obesity, the living area effect remained in boys while having two non-Nordic parents predicted obesity in girls. Parental weight status was associated with obesity in both girls and boys. Individual and societal factors influence children's weight status, and parental weight status is a strong determinant. Including overweight and obese parents in future health promoting interventions could be a strategy to prevent children from becoming overweight, but identifying those parents may prove difficult. To ensure reaching children with the greatest needs, targeting high risk areas might be a more effective approach.

  20. Perceived health status : is obesity perceived as a risk factor and disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tommy L.S. Visscher; Jeroen Lakerveld; Nanna Olsen; Leanne Küpers; Sofia Ramalho; Laura Keaver; Christina Brei; Jan-Inge Bjune; Silvia Ezquerro; Volkan Yumuk

    2017-01-01

    One might expect that a perception of obesity being a risk factor and disease, contributes to effective obesity prevention and management strategies. However, obesity rates continue to increase worldwide. The question arises whether obesity is truly perceived as a risk factor and a disease. This

  1. Factors predisposing to obesity: a review of the literature | Ali ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rising prevalence of obesity is a worldwide problem affecting not only the developed world but also developing nations such as South Africa. Excess body fat deposition is caused by an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure and there are many genetic and environmental factors that can influence ...

  2. Prevalence and risk factors of obesity and high blood pressure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of diet-related chronic diseases like hypertension and obesity among others has become a public health concern. Risk factors for these diseases have been well studied in high income countries but less studied in developing countries. Objective: The study was to document the prevalence and ...

  3. Risk Factors Associated with Overweight and Obesity in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Melissa N.; Miller, William C.; Staples, Betty; Bravender, Terrill

    2008-01-01

    College obesity is increasing, but to the authors' knowledge, no researchers to date have evaluated risk factors in this population. Objective: The authors assessed whether abnormal eating perceptions and behaviors were associated with overweight in college students. Participants and Methods: A sample of undergraduates (N = 4,201) completed an…

  4. Prevalence of obesity among the school-going children of Lahore and associated factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, H.; Javaid, A.; Mehmood, M.; Anwar, A.; Anwar, F.A.; Ijaz, A.; Joiya, H.U.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of obesity among the school- going children (6 and 7 grade) of Lahore and ascertain the associated factors. Method: A descriptive study with sample size of 293 children conducted over a period of four months in two private sector schools of Lahore. Information was gathered by the help of a pre designed questionnaire after getting formal consent from parents. Children included in the study were healthy with no reported chronic illness. Body weight was measured in minimal clothing using a weight scale; body height was measured in erect posture without shoes using a stadiometer. Obesity, underweight and overweight were defined by plotting BMI against age (in months and years) on WHO BMI-for-age (5-19 years [percentiles]) charts. Results: Out of 293 children 11.9% were obese (more than 97 percentile) while 21.8% were overweight (85 97 percentile). Among obese children 74.3% were found to watch TV for 1-2 hours daily while 25.7% watch TV for 3-4 hours. 48.6% of obese children did not participate in any field sports while 34.3% have less than 3 hours participation in field sports. Among parents of obese children, 60% were found to have little or no influence on their children's food intake at school whereas 22.9% parents of obese children never advise them against eating junk food. Parents think that ban on advertisements promoting unhealthy foods (75.1%) and use of popular media characters in promoting healthy foods (83.6%) and exercise can help in preventing obesity in children. Conclusion: This study shows that high prevalence of obesity and overweight among children in private schools has direct relationship with decreased physical activity and other factors like watching TV, role of media and lack of diet control by parents. (author)

  5. Lifestyle factors and co-morbidities associated with obesity and overweight in Nkonkobe Municipality of the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otang-Mbeng, Wilfred; Otunola, Gloria Aderonke; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2017-05-25

    Obesity is a global epidemic that affects 500 million people worldwide and is predicted to increase to one billion people by 2030. The prevalence of obesity is increasing across populations in South Africa. However, questions still remain surrounding the predisposing factors and obesity-related health problems especially in the rural areas. This study evaluated several lifestyle factors such as dietary habits, physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake, co-morbidities and their association with the prevalence of obesity and overweight in Nkonkobe Municipality of the Eastern Cape. A cross-sectional, population-based survey was conducted among 118 residents in four rural/sub-urban townships of the study area. Measurements including weight, height, body mass index (BMI), physical activity and dietary habits were determined using a validated questionnaire. The overall prevalence of obesity and overweight was 38 and 19%, respectively. The highest prevalence of obesity (70%) was observed among those who do not undertake any physical activity. Close to half (48.48%) of the respondents who eat fast foods always were obese, and 30.30% were overweight; when combined, the prevalence for obesity is 78.78%. A negative association with obesity was observed among regular smokers (26.92%) and consumers of alcohol (4.00%). Arthritis, hypertension and tuberculosis were co-morbidities significantly (P fast and fried foods, low fruit and vegetable consumption as well as arthritis, hypertension and tuberculosis were significant risk factors of obesity in Nkonkobe Municipality.

  6. Assessing factors related to waist circumference and obesity: application of a latent variable model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvand, Sahar; Koohpayehzadeh, Jalil; Karimlou, Masoud; Asgari, Fereshteh; Rafei, Ali; Seifi, Behjat; Niksima, Seyed Hassan; Bakhshi, Enayatollah

    2015-01-01

    Because the use of BMI (Body Mass Index) alone as a measure of adiposity has been criticized, in the present study our aim was to fit a latent variable model to simultaneously examine the factors that affect waist circumference (continuous outcome) and obesity (binary outcome) among Iranian adults. Data included 18,990 Iranian individuals aged 20-65 years that are derived from the third National Survey of Noncommunicable Diseases Risk Factors in Iran. Using latent variable model, we estimated the relation of two correlated responses (waist circumference and obesity) with independent variables including age, gender, PR (Place of Residence), PA (physical activity), smoking status, SBP (Systolic Blood Pressure), DBP (Diastolic Blood Pressure), CHOL (cholesterol), FBG (Fasting Blood Glucose), diabetes, and FHD (family history of diabetes). All variables were related to both obesity and waist circumference (WC). Older age, female sex, being an urban resident, physical inactivity, nonsmoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, diabetes, and having family history of diabetes were significant risk factors that increased WC and obesity. Findings from this study of Iranian adult settings offer more insights into factors associated with high WC and high prevalence of obesity in this population.

  7. Assessing Factors Related to Waist Circumference and Obesity: Application of a Latent Variable Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Dalvand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Because the use of BMI (Body Mass Index alone as a measure of adiposity has been criticized, in the present study our aim was to fit a latent variable model to simultaneously examine the factors that affect waist circumference (continuous outcome and obesity (binary outcome among Iranian adults. Methods. Data included 18,990 Iranian individuals aged 20–65 years that are derived from the third National Survey of Noncommunicable Diseases Risk Factors in Iran. Using latent variable model, we estimated the relation of two correlated responses (waist circumference and obesity with independent variables including age, gender, PR (Place of Residence, PA (physical activity, smoking status, SBP (Systolic Blood Pressure, DBP (Diastolic Blood Pressure, CHOL (cholesterol, FBG (Fasting Blood Glucose, diabetes, and FHD (family history of diabetes. Results. All variables were related to both obesity and waist circumference (WC. Older age, female sex, being an urban resident, physical inactivity, nonsmoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, diabetes, and having family history of diabetes were significant risk factors that increased WC and obesity. Conclusions. Findings from this study of Iranian adult settings offer more insights into factors associated with high WC and high prevalence of obesity in this population.

  8. Coping with perceived racism: a significant factor in the development of obesity in African American women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwendwa, Denee T; Gholson, Georica; Sims, Regina C; Levy, Shellie-Anne; Ali, Mana; Harrell, C Jules; Callender, Clive O; Campbell, Alfonso L

    2011-07-01

    African American women have the highest rates of obesity in the United States. The prevalence of obesity in this group calls for the identification of psychosocial factors that increase risk. Psychological stress has been associated with obesity in women; however, there is scant literature that has explored the impact of racism on body mass index (BMI) in African American women. The current study aimed to determine whether emotional responses and behavioral coping responses to perceived racism were associated with BMI in African American women. A sample of 110 African American women participated in a community-based study. Height and weight measurements were taken to calculate BMI and participants completed the Perceived Racism Scale and the Perceived Stress Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated a significant relationship between BMI and behavioral coping responses to perceived racism. Findings for emotional responses to perceived racism and appraisal of one's daily life as stressful were nonsignificant. Mean comparisons of BMI groups showed that obese African American women used more behavioral coping responses to perceived racism as compared to normal-weight and overweight women in the sample. Findings suggest that behavioral coping responses better explained increased risk for obesity in African American women. A biobehavioral pathway may explain this finding with a stress-response process that includes cortisol reactivity. Maladaptive behavioral coping responses may also provide insight into obesity risk. Future research is needed to determine which behavioral coping responses place African American women at greater risk for obesity.

  9. Obesity is a significant susceptibility factor for idiopathic AA amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Norbert; Hegenbart, Ute; Dietrich, Sascha; Brune, Maik; Beimler, Jörg; Röcken, Christoph; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Lorenz, Hanns-Martin; Schönland, Stefan O

    2018-03-01

    To investigate obesity as susceptibility factor in patients with idiopathic AA amyloidosis. Clinical, biochemical and genetic data were obtained from 146 patients with AA amyloidosis. Control groups comprised 40 patients with long-standing inflammatory diseases without AA amyloidosis and 56 controls without any inflammatory disease. Patients with AA amyloidosis had either familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) or long-standing rheumatic diseases as underlying inflammatory disease (n = 111, median age 46 years). However, in a significant proportion of patients with AA amyloidosis no primary disease was identified (idiopathic AA; n = 37, median age 60 years). Patients with idiopathic AA amyloidosis were more obese and older than patients with AA amyloidosis secondary to FMF or rheumatic diseases. Serum leptin levels correlated with the body mass index (BMI) in all types of AA amyloidosis. Elevated leptin levels of more than 30 µg/l were detected in 18% of FMF/rheumatic + AA amyloidosis and in 40% of patients with idiopathic AA amyloidosis (p = .018). Finally, the SAA1 polymorphism was confirmed as a susceptibility factor for AA amyloidosis irrespective of the type of the disease. Obesity, age and the SAA1 polymorphism are susceptibility factors for idiopathic AA amyloidosis. Recent advances in treatment of FMF and rheumatic disorders will decrease the incidence of AA amyloidosis due to these diseases. Idiopathic AA, however, might be an emerging problem in the ageing and increasingly obese population.

  10. Excess vitamin intake: An unrecognized risk factor for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shi-Sheng; Zhou, Yiming

    2014-02-15

    Over the past few decades, food fortification and infant formula supplementation with high levels of vitamins have led to a sharp increase in vitamin intake among infants, children and adults. This is followed by a sharp increase in the prevalence of obesity and related diseases, with significant disparities among countries and different groups within a country. It has long been known that B vitamins at doses below their toxicity threshold strongly promote body fat gain. Studies have demonstrated that formulas, which have very high levels of vitamins, significantly promote infant weight gain, especially fat mass gain, a known risk factor for children developing obesity. Furthermore, ecological studies have shown that increased B vitamin consumption is strongly correlated with the prevalence of obesity and diabetes. We therefore hypothesize that excess vitamins may play a causal role in the increased prevalence of obesity. This review will discuss: (1) the causes of increased vitamin intake; (2) the non-monotonic effect of excess vitamin intake on weight and fat gain; and (3) the role of vitamin fortification in obesity disparities among countries and different groups within a country.

  11. Obesity-associated Breast Cancer: Analysis of risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engin, Atilla

    2017-01-01

    Several studies show that a significantly stronger association is obvious between increased body mass index (BMI) and higher breast cancer incidence. Furthermore, obese women are at higher risk of all-cause and breast cancer specific mortality when compared to non-obese women with breast cancer. In this context, increased levels of estrogens due to excessive aromatization activity of the adipose tissue, overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, insulin resistance, hyperactivation of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) pathways, adipocyte-derived adipokines, hypercholesterolemia and excessive oxidative stress contribute to the development of breast cancer in obese women. While higher breast cancer risk with hormone replacement therapy is particularly evident among lean women, in postmenopausal women who are not taking exogenous hormones, general obesity is a significant predictor for breast cancer. Moreover, increased plasma cholesterol leads to accelerated tumor formation and exacerbates their aggressiveness. In contrast to postmenopausal women, premenopausal women with high BMI are inversely associated with breast cancer risk. Nevertheless, life-style of women for breast cancer risk is regulated by avoiding the overweight and a high-fat diet. Estrogen-plus-progestin hormone therapy users for more than 5 years have elevated risks of both invasive ductal and lobular breast cancer. Additionally, these cases are more commonly node-positive and have a higher cancer-related mortality. Collectively, in this chapter, the impacts of obesity-related estrogen, cholesterol, saturated fatty acid, leptin and adiponectin concentrations, aromatase activity, leptin and insulin resistance on breast cancer patients are evaluated. Obesity-related prognostic factors of breast cancer also are discussed at molecular basis.

  12. Overweight, abdominal obesity and associated factors in technical administrative servants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Berria

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence rates of excess weight and abdominal obesity among technical and administrative staff at the Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC using a range of different anthropometric indicators and to identify sociodemographic factors associated with these rates. This was a cross-sectional study of 615 members of staff at UFSC (283 men and 332 women. The following anthropometric indicators were analyzed: body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC and waist to height ratio (WHtR. The following sociodemographic variables were also analyzed: age, sex, skin color, marital status, socioeconomic status, educational level and employment grade. Statistical analysis was conducted using Student’s t test, the Mann-Whitney U test and Poisson regression (with a 95% confidence interval. Prevalence rates for men and women respectively were as follows; excess weight: 63.6% and 49.7% (BMI; abdominal obesity (WC: 33.5% and 42.4%; and abdominal obesity (WHtR: 61 .8% and 40.6%. Age greater than 40 years was associated with a higher probability of excess weight and abdominal obesity in men (by BMI and WHtR and women (by BMI, WC and WHtR. Women who had spent 8 years or fewer in education had lower probabilities of excess weight (PR=0.67; 95%Cl=0.49; 0.94 and abdominal obesity, by both WC (PR=0.62; 95%Cl=0.44; 0.90 and WHtR (PR=0.49; 95%Cl=0.39; 0.64. These results indicate an elevated prevalence of excess weight and abdominal obesity and show that the factors associated with these outcomes vary by sex and depending on the anthropometric indicator analyzed.

  13. Interrelation between Obesity, Oral Health, and Life-Style Factors among Turkish School Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cinar, Ayse Basak; Murtomaa, Heikki

    2011-01-01

    Obesity, dental caries, and periodontal diseases are among major public health concerns which may affect children's growth and development. This study seeks any clustering between obesity, oral health, and life-style factors among school children in Istanbul, Turkey. A cross-sectional study...... (BMI), and life-style factors (tooth-brushing frequency, milk consumption at breakfast and bedtimes on school nights) of children were examined. Data analysis included factor analysis, Student's t-test, and Chi-square tests by cross-tabulation. Public school children were more dentally diseased...... but less obese than were those in private school (P calculus (62%) and reported non-recommended tooth-brushing (68%) than did those in private school (37%, 56), (P

  14. Risk Factors for Childhood Obesity in the First 1,000 Days: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo Baidal, Jennifer A; Locks, Lindsey M; Cheng, Erika R; Blake-Lamb, Tiffany L; Perkins, Meghan E; Taveras, Elsie M

    2016-06-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that the origins of childhood obesity and related disparities can be found as early as the "first 1,000 days"-the period from conception to age 2 years. The main goal of this study is to systematically review existing evidence for modifiable childhood obesity risk factors present from conception to age 2 years. PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were searched for studies published between January 1, 1980, and December 12, 2014, of childhood obesity risk factors present during the first 1,000 days. Prospective, original human subject, English-language research with exposure occurrence during the first 1,000 days and with the outcome of childhood overweight or obesity (BMI ≥85th percentile for age and sex) collected between age 6 months and 18 years were analyzed between December 13, 2014, and March 15, 2015. Of 5,952 identified citations, 282 studies met inclusion criteria. Several risk factors during the first 1,000 days were consistently associated with later childhood obesity. These included higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, prenatal tobacco exposure, maternal excess gestational weight gain, high infant birth weight, and accelerated infant weight gain. Fewer studies also supported gestational diabetes, child care attendance, low strength of maternal-infant relationship, low SES, curtailed infant sleep, inappropriate bottle use, introduction of solid food intake before age 4 months, and infant antibiotic exposure as risk factors for childhood obesity. Modifiable risk factors in the first 1,000 days can inform future research and policy priorities and intervention efforts to prevent childhood obesity. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Early life factors and childhood obesity development

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Barrés, Sílvia

    2016-01-01

    La obesidad infantil es uno de los mayores problemas en Salud Pública y empieza en edad temprana. Por lo tanto, identificar factores de riesgo podría ayudar en la prevención del desarrollo de obesidad infantil. El objetivo principal de esta tesis fue investigar la asociación prospectiva entre factores de riesgo durante el embarazo y la primera infancia, y el desarrollo de obesidad infantil. Usamos datos de dos cohortes de nacimiento del Proyecto INMA (España) y del Proyecto Viva (Estados Unid...

  16. Factors associated with obesity in Chinese-American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jyu-Lin; Kennedy, Christine

    2005-01-01

    A cross-sectional study design was utilized to examine factors associated with obesity in Chinese-American children. Chinese-American children (8 to 10 years old) and their mothers (N = 68) in California participated in the study. Mothers completed demographic information, the Family Assessment Device, Attitudes Toward Child Rearing Scale, and Suinn-Lew Asian Self-identity Acculturation Scale. Children's body mass index was measured, and children completed a self-administered physical activity checklist, Food Frequency Questionnaire, and the Schoolagers' Coping Strategies Inventory. Results indicated three variables that predicted children's body mass index: older age, a more democratic parenting style, and poor communication (R2=.263, F=8.727, p = .0001). Children whose mothers had a low level of acculturation were also more likely to be overweight than were children whose mothers were highly acculturated. This study revealed that children's ages, a democratic parenting style, and poor family communication contribute to increased body mass index in Chinese-American children. Other factors related to children's BMI and dietary intake include acculturation level of the mother and family affective responses. Future studies should examine the change in BMI over time and in different age groups and why parenting and family communication impact children's body weight.

  17. Understanding the complexity of biopsychosocial factors in the public health epidemic of overweight and obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenbaum, Diane L; White, Kamila S

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a complex and multifaceted public health problem. This commentary reflects on a new theoretical model of obesity (i.e. Homeostatic Theory of Obesity proposed by Marks), and calls for additional research to examine biopsychosocial factors that may be of importance in developing interventions that promote long-term maintenance of weight loss and in developing obesity prevention programs. Furthermore, we discuss the role of socioeconomic factors in obesity and call for interdisciplina...

  18. Risk factors associated with treatment abandonment by overweight or obese children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Soares Mariz

    Full Text Available Objective.To evaluate the risk factors associated with treatment abandonment by overweight or obese children and adolescents. Methods. A cross-sectional study, conducted in 2011, at the Childhood Obesity Center, in Campina Grande, Brazil, with the records of 208 children and adolescents, between three and 18 years of age, divided into two groups: Group I included those who abandoned treatment, and Group II included those who did not abandon treatment. Results. Non-adherence was significantly associated with higher income (OR=5.8, high maternal education (OR=2.4, white skin color (OR=2.9, and obesity (OR=3.6. Conclusion. Despite the new academic-care approach, the non-adherence to treatment rate was high, and was associated with sociodemographic and nutritional factors.

  19. Risk factors associated with treatment abandonment by overweight or obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares Mariz, Larissa; Campos Muniz Medeiros, Carla; Cruz Enders, Bertha; Nascimento Kluczynik Vieira, Caroline Evelin; Aires Silva Medeiros, Kaio Keomma; Silva Coura, Alexsandro

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the risk factors associated with treatment abandonment by overweight or obese children and adolescents. A cross-sectional study, conducted in 2011, at the Childhood Obesity Center, in Campina Grande, Brazil, with the records of 208 children and adolescents, between three and 18 years of age, divided into two groups: Group I included those who abandoned treatment, and Group II included those who did not abandon treatment. Non-adherence was significantly associated with higher income (OR=5.8), high maternal education (OR=2.4), white skin color (OR=2.9), and obesity (OR=3.6). Despite the new academic-care approach, the non-adherence to treatment rate was high, and was associated with sociodemographic and nutritional factors.

  20. Reducing Hispanic children's obesity risk factors in the first 1000 days of life: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo Baidal, Jennifer A; Criss, Shaniece; Goldman, Roberta E; Perkins, Meghan; Cunningham, Courtney; Taveras, Elsie M

    2015-01-01

    Modifiable behaviors during the first 1000 days (conception age 24 months) mediate Hispanic children's obesity disparities. We aimed to examine underlying reasons for early life obesity risk factors and identify potential early life intervention strategies. We conducted 7 focus groups with 49 Hispanic women who were pregnant or had children trump healthy eating and physical activity; early life weight gain is unrelated to later life obesity; fear of infant hunger drives bottle and early solids introduction; beliefs about infant taste promote early solids and sugary beverage introduction; and belief that screen time promotes infant development. Mothers identified physicians, nutritionists, and relatives as important health information sources and expressed interest in mobile technology and group or home visits for interventions. Opportunities exist in the first 1000 days to improve Hispanic mothers' understanding of the role of early life weight gain in childhood obesity and other obesity risk factors. Interventions that link health care and public health systems and include extended family may prevent obesity among Hispanic children.

  1. Practice nurses and obesity: professional and practice-based factors affecting role adequacy and role legitimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Christine; Deehan, Ann; Wylie, Ann; Jones, Roger

    2012-10-01

    This qualitative study explored the professional and practice-based factors affecting the role legitimacy and adequacy of practice nurses in managing obese patients. There are strong clinical, financial and practical reasons for tackling obesity in UK general practice. Although practice nurses may seem to be in an ideal position to manage obesity, there remain questions about their role adequacy (sense of self-efficacy in responding to patients' problems) and role legitimacy (their perceived boundaries of professional responsibility and right to intervene). Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 22 practice nurses in Lambeth, Southwark and Lewisham in South London. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed. Key themes were identified following coding of the data. Findings Factors that positively affected nurses' role adequacy and legitimacy were: their belief that obesity management was part of their chronic disease management and health promotion remit; their confidence in their own communication skills and ability to build rapport with patients; having attended training and being supported to take extra time for obesity management. Factors negatively affecting their role legitimacy and adequacy were: their low awareness and use of guidance; lack of knowledge of referral options; limited knowledge and use of non-medical and non-persuasive approaches; perceived lack of expertise in motivating patients, as well as in nutrition, child obesity and assessment; belief that there were some contexts in which it was more appropriate to raise the issue than others; lack of culturally appropriate materials and language barriers; belief that they had limited impact on outcome and that the patient is responsible for lack of success. Other factors negatively affecting their role adequacy and legitimacy included their ambivalence about the effectiveness of the interventions offered; perceived lack of priority for obesity management within practices

  2. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer, Including Occupational Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Weiderpass

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr. For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as “carcinogenic to humans” (Group 1: alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure. Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification “probably carcinogenic to humans” (Group 2A includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women.

  3. Epicardial adipose tissue and cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight and obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schusterova, I; Leenen, F H H; Jurko, A; Sabol, F; Takacova, J

    2014-02-01

    What is already known about this subject The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased markedly in the past 2 decades. Abdominal fat is a better predictor of risk than body mass index. Waist circumference (WC) as a measure of abdominal fat has limited sensitivity and specificity. What this study adds Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) as measured by echocardiography represents a simple and reliable marker of visceral adiposity. In children, both body mass index and EAT show a similar or better correlation with markers of cardiometabolic risk than does waist circumference. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is the visceral fat deposit around the heart and is commonly increased in obese subjects. EAT is related to cardiometabolic risk factors and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in adults, but this relationship is not well known in children. Echocardiographic assessment of EAT and its association with cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight and obese children. In 25 (mean age 13.0 ± 2.3) overweight and obese subjects and 24 lean controls, blood pressure (BP), WC, fasting plasma glucose and insulin, lipids, uric acid and hepatic enzymes were measured. EAT thickness was measured by transthoracic echocardiography. In overweight and obese subjects, EAT was significantly higher compared to normal weight children. Overweight and obese children had significantly higher body mass index (BMI), WC, BP, triglycerides (TAG), low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol, hepatic enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and γ-glutamyl transferase, and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). EAT correlated significantly with BP, TAG, uric acid, HDL-C, apoprotein B and ALT. Correlation coefficients were similar or better than for WC, but similar or lower than for BMI. EAT thickness in children is associated with an unfavourable cardiometabolic risk profile including biochemical signs of NAFLD and hyperuricaemia, but is not a stronger indicator than BMI.

  4. Do Maternal Caregiver Perceptions of Childhood Obesity Risk Factors and Obesity Complications Predict Support for Prevention Initiatives Among African Americans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Dayna S; Alfonso, Moya L; Cao, Chunhua; Wright, Alesha R

    2017-07-01

    Objectives African American maternal caregiver support for prevention of childhood obesity may be a factor in implementing, monitoring, and sustaining children's positive health behaviors. However, little is known about how perceptions of childhood obesity risk factors and health complications influence caregivers' support of childhood obesity prevention strategies. The objective of this study was to determine if childhood obesity risk factors and health complications were associated with maternal caregivers' support for prevention initiatives. Methods A convenience sample of maternal caregivers (N = 129, ages 22-65 years) completed the childhood obesity perceptions (COP) survey. A linear regression was conducted to determine whether perceptions about childhood obesity risk factors and subsequent health complications influenced caregivers' support for prevention strategies. Results Caregivers' perceptions of childhood obesity risk factors were moderate (M = 3.4; SD = 0.64), as were their perceptions of obesity-related health complications (M = 3.3; SD = 0.75); however, they perceived a high level of support for prevention strategies (M = 4.2; SD = 0.74). In the regression model, only health complications were significantly associated with caregiver support (β = 0.348; p obesity prevention efforts should emphasize health complications by providing education and strategies that promote self-efficacy and outcome expectations among maternal caregivers.

  5. OBESITY AS A RISK FACTOR FOR PULMONARY EMBOLISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ya. Vasiltseva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study. Based on the data of the Register of new cases of hospital pulmonary embolism (PE in hospitals in Tomsk (2003–2012, to explore the contribution of obesity to the development of venous thromboembolism.Material and Methods. Study were subjected to medical history and records of autopsies of patients treated in hospitals in Tomsk in 2003–2012, who at patologoanatomic and/or instrumental study revealed pulmonary embolism. The degree of obesity was assessed according to WHO criteria (1997. Statistical processing of the results was carried out using the software package for PC Statistica 8.0 for Windows. To test the normality of the distribution of quantitative traits using the Shapiro–Wilk test and the Kolmogorov–Smirnov with the adjusted Lillieforsa. Check the equality of the population variance was performed using Fisher's exact test and Cochran. Was considered statistically significant level of p < 0.05.The results of the study. In Western Siberia, Tomsk, a register of hospital pulmonary embolism (2003–2012. In the register included 720 patients with in vivo and/or post mortem revealed pulmonary embolism (PE. Analyzed data from medical records and autopsy reports. Revealed statistically significant differences in BMI (p = 0.033 and the presence of obesity (p = 0.002 in patients with pulmonary embolism, holding medical and surgical beds. As of medical, surgical and among patients with thromboembolism, obesity is significantly more common in women than men (p = 0.050 and p = 0.041 respectively. According to the study, obesity grade 1 or 2 alone (at the isolated presence of the patient is not significantly increased the odds of a massive thromboembolism. However, grade 3 obesity increased the odds of a massive pulmonary embolism by more than 2.7 times (OR = 2.708, CI: 1,461–5,020.

  6. Obesity as a causal risk factor for deep venous thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klovaite, Jolanta; Benn, M; Nordestgaard, B G

    2015-01-01

    available for 87, 574 individuals of Danish descent from the adult general population. All subjects completed questionnaires and were genotyped for the FTO rs9939609 variant. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: First events of DVT with or without pulmonary embolism (PE). ANALYSIS: The results were assessed using Cox...... and 3.4 (2.6-4.6) in severely obese compared with normal-weight individuals. For DVT complicated by PE, corresponding hazard ratios (95% CI) were 1.2 (0.8-1.8), 2.1 (1.3-3.5) and 5.1 (2.8-9.2). FTO AA versus TT genotype was associated with a 2.4% increase in BMI with hazard ratios (95% CI) of 1.09 (0.......e. those aged >60 years and homozygous for Factor V Leiden) was 35% in obese individuals and 18% in normal-weight individuals. CONCLUSION: A strong observational association between obesity and DVT with or without PE, supported by a direct genetic association between the obesity-specific locus FTO and DVT...

  7. Prevalence and factors associated with childhood overweight/obesity of private school children in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koirala, M; Khatri, R B; Khanal, V; Amatya, A

    2015-01-01

    Childhood overweight/obesity is a global health problem because of adverse health and nutrition consequences worldwide. Currently, there is a paucity of information on childhood overweight/obesity in Nepal. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of, and the factors associated with, childhood overweight/obesity among primary school children. A cross-sectional study was conducted in June-December, 2013. We collected data using the structured self-administered questionnaire with parents of children aged 6-13 years in grades 1-6 studying at private schools of the Lalitpur district of Nepal. Height and weight measurements of 986 children were taken, and the corresponding body mass index (BMI)-for-age was calculated. The prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity was reported in proportion. Factors associated with childhood overweight/obesity were examined using the Chi-square tests followed by multiple logistic regression analyses. Of 986 children, 144 (14.6%) were overweight and 111 (11.3%) were obese. Overall, 255 (25.9%) children were found to be overweight/obese. Children from families, having ≤2 siblings (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=1.958, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.163-3.296), upper class family (aOR=3.672; 95% CI: 1.154-11.690), and advantaged ethnic group (aOR=1.561; 95% CI: 1.00-2.437) and children who were of larger birth weight (>4.0kg) had a greater likelihood of being (aOR=2.557, 95% CI: 1.222-5.349) overweight/obese. A quarter of children were found to be overweight/obese in private primary schools. Preventive interventions should focus on the advantaged ethnic groups, families with fewer siblings, and upper class families. A greater emphasis ought to be placed on formulation and implementation of policies aimed at addressing the newly emerging problems of childhood overweight/obesity in Nepal. New school health programs are to be launched and strengthened including avoidance of high energy junk food, and promoting outdoor

  8. Comparison of CAD risk factors in abdominal obesity versus General obesity with normal WC in adult males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamran, S.M.; Iftikhar, R.; Khan, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the presence of coronary artery disease risk factors in patients with abdominal obesity versus generalised obesity and to determine the probability of developing the disease in both groups. Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried out at the Department of Medicine, Combined Military Hospital, Okara, from January 2012 to April 2013. Using consecutive sampling, 785 outdoor healthy adult males were enrolled. Body mass index >25kg/m/sup 2/ and waist circumference >90cm defined obesity and abdominal obesity respectively. Blood pressure >140/90mmHg defined Hypertension. All the subjects underwent BSF, electrocardiogram, Lipid profile, personality and physical activity assessment. Risk estimation was done using Eric Brittain scoring system. Data was analysed using SPSS 16. Results: In patients with abdominal obesity, 583 (99.2 %) individuals had at least 1 risk factor for coronary artery disease, while in those with generalised obesity this prevalence was 96.5% (n=191). In patients with abdominal obesity, 52.9% had more than 4% risk of developing the disease in the next 6 years compared to 36.9% individuals with generalised obesity. Conclusion: Both increasing body mass index and waist circumference are associated with increased risk of developing coronary artery disease, with significantly higher risk prevalence in the latter group. Moreover, those with abdominal obesity had a higher risk of developing CAD in next 6 years as compared to those with generalised obesity. Thus waist circumference offers additional prognostic information beyond body mass index. (author)

  9. Vitamin D deficiency and insulin resistance as risk factors for dyslipidemia in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, Meltem; Bostan Gayret, Özlem; Hamilçıkan, Şahin; Can, Emrah; Yiğit, Özgu L

    2017-04-01

    Dyslipidemia is one of the major complications of obesity; vitamin D deficiency and insulin resistance are attending metabolic complications in dyslipidemic obese children. Objective. To determine if vitamin D deficiency and insulin resistance are risk factors for dyslipidemia in obese children. This study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics at Bagcilar Training and Research Hospital in Istanbul, Turkey between 2014 and 2015. Obese patients whose age range was 8-14 were included in the study. The serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting glucose, insulin, alanine aminotransferase, vitamin D levels were measured; a liver ultrasonography was performed. Homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR), was used to calculate insulin resistance. 108 obese children were included; 39 (36.11%) had dyslipidemia. The average fasting blood glucose (88.74 ± 7.58 vs. 95.31 ± 6.82; p= 0.0001), insulin level (14.71 ± 12.44 vs. 24.39 ± 15.02; p= 0.0001) and alanine aminotransferase level (23.45 ± 11.18 vs. 30.4 ± 18.95; p= 0.018) were significantly higher in the children with dyslipidemia. In the dyslipidemic obese children, the average hepatosteatosis rate and HOMA-IR level were higher; 28 (71.9%) had hepatosteatosis, 37 (94.87%) had insulin resistance; the vitamin D levels were dyslipidemia. Obese children in our region exhibit low vitamin D and increased HOMA-IR levels, which are efficient risk factors of dyslipidemia.

  10. Determinants of Perceived Stress in Individuals with Obesity: Exploring the Relationship of Potentially Obesity-Related Factors and Perceived Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Florian Junne; Katrin Ziser; Katrin Elisabeth Giel; Kathrin Schag; Eva Skoda; Isabelle Mack; Andreas Niess; Stephan Zipfel; Martin Teufel

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Associations of specific types of stress with increased food intake and subsequent weight gain have been demonstrated in animal models as well as in experimental and epidemiological studies on humans. This study explores the research question of to what extent potentially obesity-related factors determine perceived stress in individuals with obesity. Methods: N = 547 individuals with obesity participated in a cross-sectional study assessing perceived stress as the outcome variable ...

  11. Racial/ethnic differences in early-life risk factors for childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveras, Elsie M; Gillman, Matthew W; Kleinman, Ken; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L

    2010-04-01

    By the preschool years, racial/ethnic disparities in obesity prevalence are already present. The objective of this study was to examine racial/ethnic differences in early-life risk factors for childhood obesity. A total of 1343 white, 355 black, and 128 Hispanic mother-child pairs were studied in a prospective study. Mother's reported child's race/ethnicity. The main outcome measures were risk factors from the prenatal period through 4 years old that are known to be associated with child obesity. In multivariable models, compared with their white counterparts, black and Hispanic children exhibited a range of risk factors related to child obesity. In pregnancy, these included higher rates of maternal depression (odds ratio [OR]: 1.55 for black, 1.89 for Hispanic); in infancy more rapid weight gain (OR: 2.01 for black, 1.75 for Hispanic), more likely to introduce solid foods before 4 months of age (OR: 1.91 for black, 2.04 for Hispanic), and higher rates of maternal restrictive feeding practices (OR: 2.59 for black, 3.35 for Hispanic); and after 2 years old, more televisions in their bedrooms (OR: 7.65 for black, 7.99 for Hispanic), higher intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (OR: 4.11 for black, 2.48 for Hispanic), and higher intake of fast food (OR: 1.65 for black, 3.14 for Hispanic). Black and Hispanic children also had lower rates of exclusive breastfeeding and were less likely to sleep at least 12 hours/day in infancy. Racial/ethnic differences in risk factors for obesity exist prenatally and in early childhood. Racial/ethnic disparities in childhood obesity may be determined by factors that operate at the earliest stages of life.

  12. Including Overweight or Obese Students in Physical Education: A Social Ecological Constraint Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weidong; Rukavina, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we propose a social ecological constraint model to study inclusion of overweight or obese students in physical education by integrating key concepts and assumptions from ecological constraint theory in motor development and social ecological models in health promotion and behavior. The social ecological constraint model proposes…

  13. Assessing Factors Related to Waist Circumference and Obesity: Application of a Latent Variable Model

    OpenAIRE

    Dalvand, Sahar; Koohpayehzadeh, Jalil; Karimlou, Masoud; Asgari, Fereshteh; Rafei, Ali; Seifi, Behjat; Niksima, Seyed Hassan; Bakhshi, Enayatollah

    2015-01-01

    Background. Because the use of BMI (Body Mass Index) alone as a measure of adiposity has been criticized, in the present study our aim was to fit a latent variable model to simultaneously examine the factors that affect waist circumference (continuous outcome) and obesity (binary outcome) among Iranian adults. Methods. Data included 18,990 Iranian individuals aged 20–65 years that are derived from the third National Survey of Noncommunicable Diseases Risk Factors in Iran. Using latent variabl...

  14. Abdominal obesity: causal factor or simply a symptom of obesity-related health risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sechang Oh,1 Kiyoji Tanaka,2 Jin-won Noh,3 Rina So,2,4 Takehiko Tsujimoto,2 Hiroyuki Sasai,1,4 Mijung Kim,5 Junichi Shoda11Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan; 2Faculty of Health and Sports Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan; 3Department of Healthcare Management, Eulji University, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea; 4Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, Japan; 5Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, JapanBackground: Abdominal fat (AF reduction is advocated in the treatment of obesity-related diseases. Nonetheless, recent studies have shown additional beneficial effects against obesity-related health risks, independent of AF reduction. Therefore it is important to determine whether AF plays a causal role in promoting metabolic disorders or is simply a symptom of increased obesity-related health risk factors. Clarification of the primary role of AF in the pathogenesis of obesity-related disease is also important.Objective: This retrospective study was conducted with the objectives of 1 comparison between groups exhibiting equivalent amounts of AF loss that resulted from distinct treatments (exercise and dietary restriction with respect to degrees of improvement in obesity-related health risk factors and 2 determination of definite differences in the outcomes of obesity-related health risk in subjects receiving identical treatment (exercise but exhibiting a remarkable difference in AF reduction.Design: In 66 subjects who completed a 12-week exercise or dietary restriction program, 17 parameters (systolic blood pressure [SBP] and diastolic blood pressure [DBP]; high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP]; leptin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-6; alanine aminotransferase [ALT], gamma glutamyl transpeptidase [γGT]; lipid profile: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDLC], triglyceride [TG

  15. Identifying risk profiles for childhood obesity using recursive partitioning based on individual, familial, and neighborhood environment factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hulst, Andraea; Roy-Gagnon, Marie-Hélène; Gauvin, Lise; Kestens, Yan; Henderson, Mélanie; Barnett, Tracie A

    2015-02-15

    Few studies consider how risk factors within multiple levels of influence operate synergistically to determine childhood obesity. We used recursive partitioning analysis to identify unique combinations of individual, familial, and neighborhood factors that best predict obesity in children, and tested whether these predict 2-year changes in body mass index (BMI). Data were collected in 2005-2008 and in 2008-2011 for 512 Quebec youth (8-10 years at baseline) with a history of parental obesity (QUALITY study). CDC age- and sex-specific BMI percentiles were computed and children were considered obese if their BMI was ≥95th percentile. Individual (physical activity and sugar-sweetened beverage intake), familial (household socioeconomic status and measures of parental obesity including both BMI and waist circumference), and neighborhood (disadvantage, prestige, and presence of parks, convenience stores, and fast food restaurants) factors were examined. Recursive partitioning, a method that generates a classification tree predicting obesity based on combined exposure to a series of variables, was used. Associations between resulting varying risk group membership and BMI percentile at baseline and 2-year follow up were examined using linear regression. Recursive partitioning yielded 7 subgroups with a prevalence of obesity equal to 8%, 11%, 26%, 28%, 41%, 60%, and 63%, respectively. The 2 highest risk subgroups comprised i) children not meeting physical activity guidelines, with at least one BMI-defined obese parent and 2 abdominally obese parents, living in disadvantaged neighborhoods without parks and, ii) children with these characteristics, except with access to ≥1 park and with access to ≥1 convenience store. Group membership was strongly associated with BMI at baseline, but did not systematically predict change in BMI. Findings support the notion that obesity is predicted by multiple factors in different settings and provide some indications of potentially

  16. Alcohol, appetite and energy balance: is alcohol intake a risk factor for obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Martin R

    2010-04-26

    The increased recognition that the worldwide increase in incidence of obesity is due to a positive energy balance has lead to a focus on lifestyle choices that may contribute to excess energy intake, including the widespread belief that alcohol intake is a significant risk factor for development of obesity. This brief review examines this issue by contrasting short-term laboratory-based studies of the effects of alcohol on appetite and energy balance and longer-term epidemiological data exploring the relationship between alcohol intake and body weight. Current research clearly shows that energy consumed as alcohol is additive to that from other dietary sources, leading to short-term passive over-consumption of energy when alcohol is consumed. Indeed, alcohol consumed before or with meals tends to increase food intake, probably through enhancing the short-term rewarding effects of food. However, while these data might suggest that alcohol is a risk factor for obesity, epidemiological data suggests that moderate alcohol intake may protect against obesity, particularly in women. In contrast, higher intakes of alcohol in the absence of alcohol dependence may increase the risk of obesity, as may binge-drinking, however these effects may be secondary to personality and habitual beverage preferences. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Adolescent obesity as a risk factor for high-level nicotine addiction in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussaini, Aliya Esmail; Nicholson, Lisa Marie; Shera, David; Stettler, Nicolas; Kinsman, Sara

    2011-11-01

    Obesity and cigarette smoking are two of the most frequent and preventable causes of disease and death in the United States; both are often established during youth. We hypothesized that obese, adolescent girls would be at higher risk for nicotine addiction in young adulthood, and that particular individual and social factors would mediate this association. Students surveyed in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative school-based and in-home survey conducted in three waves, comprised the sample. More than 4,000 respondents were used for the multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses used to determine the association between obesity and level of nicotine addiction. Potential mediation effects of the association were also examined. Obesity doubled the risk of the highest level of nicotine addiction after controlling for demographic factors, parent and friend smoking, and baseline smoking (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.22-3.68). Family smoking was the strongest predictor of nicotine addiction (OR, 4.72; 95% CI, 2.89-7.72). Grade point average was a partial mediator of this relationship (OR, .48; 95% CI, .32-.74). Obese, adolescent females are at increased risk for high-level nicotine addiction in young adulthood as compared with their nonobese peers. Grade point average partially mediates the association, and may represent a confluence of factors including increased absenteeism, social marginalization, biases, and lack of confidence in academic ability. Obese, adolescent females may require targeted interventions to address their risk of subsequent high-level nicotine addiction, especially if risk factors such as parental smoking and poor school performance are present. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Is Obesity a Risk Factor for Adverse Events After Knee Arthroscopy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, David C; Luan, Tammy F; Feeley, Brian T; Zhang, Alan L

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate how body mass index (BMI) affects rates of 30-day complication, hospital readmissions, and mortality in patients undergoing knee arthroscopy. Patients undergoing knee arthroscopy procedures between 2006 and 2013 were identified in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Patient demographics and preoperative risk factors including BMI were analyzed for postoperative complications within 30 days. Cochran-Armitage testing was performed to detect differences in complication rates across BMI categories according to World Health Organization classification. The independent risk of BMI was assessed using multivariate regression analysis. Of 41,919 patients with mean age 48 years undergoing knee arthroscopy, 20% were classified as normal weight (BMI 18.5 to 24), 35% overweight (BMI 25 to 29), 24% obese class I (BMI 30 to 34), 12% class II (BMI 35 to 40), and 9% class III (BMI ≥40). Risk of complication increased significantly with increasing BMI (normal: 1.5%, overweight: 1.6%, obese class I: 1.7%, obese class II: 1.8%, obese class III: 1.9%, P = .043). On multivariate analysis, there was no increased risk of postoperative complication directly attributed to patient BMI. Independent risk factors for medical and surgical complications after knee arthroscopy included American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) rating (class 4 v class 1 odds ratio [OR]: 5.39 [95% confidence interval: 3.11-9.33], P arthroscopy patients qualify as obese. Although univariate analysis suggests that obesity is associated with increased postoperative complications within 30 days of surgery, BMI alone does not predict complications. Independent predictors of complications include patients with high ASA classification, dependent functional status, renal comorbidities, and a recent history of wound infection. Level IV, prognostic case series. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  19. Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease: a Risk Factor or a Risk Marker?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandviwala, Taher; Khalid, Umair; Deswal, Anita

    2016-05-01

    In the USA, 69 % of adults are either overweight or obese and 35 % are obese. Obesity is associated with an increased incidence of various cardiovascular disorders. Obesity is a risk marker for cardiovascular disease, in that it is associated with a much higher prevalence of comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome, which then increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. However, in addition, obesity may also be an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, although obesity has been shown to be an independent risk factor for several cardiovascular diseases, it is often associated with improved survival once the diagnosis of the cardiovascular disease has been made, leading to the term "obesity paradox." Several pathways linking obesity and cardiovascular disease have been described. In this review, we attempt to summarize the complex relationship between obesity and cardiovascular disorders, in particular coronary atherosclerosis, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation.

  20. Obesity, knee osteoarthritis, and polypathology: factors favoring weight loss in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isla Pera, Pilar; Ferrér, M Carmen Olivé; Nuñez Juarez, Montserrat; Nuñez Juarez, Esther; Maciá Soler, Loreto; López Matheu, Carmen; Rigol Cuadra, Assumpta; Pérez, María Honrubia; Marre, Diana

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to explore the meaning of obesity in elderly persons with knee osteoarthritis (KO) and to determine the factors that encourage or discourage weight loss. Various studies have demonstrated that body mass index is related to KO and that weight loss improves symptoms and functional capacity. However, dietary habits are difficult to modify and most education programs are ineffective. A phenomenological qualitative study was conducted. Intentional sampling was performed in ten older persons with KO who had lost weight and improved their health-related quality of life after participating in a health education program. A thematic content analysis was conducted following the stages proposed by Miles and Huberman. Participants understood obesity as a risk factor for health problems and stigma. They believed that the cause of obesity was multifactorial and criticized health professionals for labeling them as "obese" and for assigning a moral value to slimness and diet. The factors identified as contributing to the effectiveness of the program were a tolerant attitude among health professionals, group education that encouraged motivation, quantitative dietary recommendations, and a meaningful learning model based on social learning theories. Dietary self-management without prohibitions helped participants to make changes in the quantity and timing of some food intake and to lose weight without sacrificing some foods that were deeply rooted in their culture and preferences. Dietary education programs should focus on health-related quality of life and include scientific knowledge but should also consider affective factors and the problems perceived as priorities by patients.

  1. Overweight and obesity: prevalence and determining social factors of overweight in the peruvian population (2009-2010)

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez-Dongo, Doris; Centro Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Nutricionista.; Sánchez-Abanto, José; Centro Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. nutricionista magíster en nutrición.; Gómez-Guizado, Guillermo; Centro Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. médico.; Tarqui-Mamani, Carolina; Centro Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Departamento de Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública, Facultad de Medicina Humana, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. obstetriz magíster en Epidemiología con especialidad en Estadística.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Estimate the prevalence of overweight, obesity and the determining social factors of overweight in the Peruvian population. Materials and methods. A cross-cut study was conducted which included family members from homes in the sample of the National Household Survey, 2009-2010. Stratified random and multistage sampling was used. The sample included 69 526 members; the anthropometric measurements were done based on the international methodology. To evaluate overweight and obesity, ...

  2. Reducing Hispanic Children’s Obesity Risk Factors in the First 1000 Days of Life: A Qualitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. Woo Baidal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Modifiable behaviors during the first 1000 days (conception age 24 months mediate Hispanic children’s obesity disparities. We aimed to examine underlying reasons for early life obesity risk factors and identify potential early life intervention strategies. Methods. We conducted 7 focus groups with 49 Hispanic women who were pregnant or had children < age 24 months. Domains included influences on childhood obesity risk factors and future intervention ideas. We analyzed data with immersion-crystallization methods until no new themes emerged. Results. Themes included coping with pregnancy may trump healthy eating and physical activity; early life weight gain is unrelated to later life obesity; fear of infant hunger drives bottle and early solids introduction; beliefs about infant taste promote early solids and sugary beverage introduction; and belief that screen time promotes infant development. Mothers identified physicians, nutritionists, and relatives as important health information sources and expressed interest in mobile technology and group or home visits for interventions. Conclusion. Opportunities exist in the first 1000 days to improve Hispanic mothers’ understanding of the role of early life weight gain in childhood obesity and other obesity risk factors. Interventions that link health care and public health systems and include extended family may prevent obesity among Hispanic children.

  3. Associated factors of obesity in Spanish representative samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega Anta, Rosa M; López-Solaber, Ana M; Pérez-Farinós, Napoleón

    2013-09-01

    Given the dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity and the serious health and economic consequences, the scientific community, health professionals and health agencies are looking for the best strategies to prevent/ fight this trend. In order to plan the most appropriate intervention measures the first step is to identify the associated factors of obesity. This paper presents the results of research conducted/coordinated by our research team and promoted by the Spanish Food Safety Agency (AESAN), in the last five years. These studies were focussed on representative samples of the Spanish population, paying attention to the condition of overweight/obesity and their associated factors. The first study, FANPE ("Fuentes alimentarias de nutrientes de la población española") (2009), was centered in 418 adults (18-60 years) from 15 provinces (30 sampling points). Its aim was to analyze the dietary sources of nutrients, paying particular attention to sodium. This research showed that the risk of overweight/obesity increa ses with age, in people who have follow weight control diets, in ex-smokers, married people and those who slept less than 8.5 hours per day, while the risk is lower in women, people who make sport and those with a University degree. It was also found that overweight people had higher sodium intake and urine excretion. Therefore, and having in mind that 88.2% of the subjects took more than 2 g/day of sodium (the maximum recommended), it is advised to lower the sodium intake not only from the health point of view but also as a probably strategy against obesity. The study ALADINO (Estudio de Alimentación, Actividad física, Desarrollo Infantil y Obesidad--Study of the Diet, Physical Activity, Child Development and Obesity) (2010-2011) was focused on 7659 children (6-9 years) from 19 autonomous communities. We founded a higher percentage of overweight/obesity in boys than in girls, and a significant increase in the figures from the age of 7. Being

  4. Pre and post-natal risk and determination of factors for child obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Trandafir, LM; Temneanu, OR

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is considered a condition presenting a complex, multi-factorial etiology that implies genetic and non-genetic factors. The way the available information should be efficiently and strategically used in the obesity and overweight prohylaxisprogrammes for children all over the world is still unclear for most of the risk factors. Mothers? pre-conception weight and weight gain during pregnancy are two of the most important prenatal determinants of childhood obesity. Maternal obesity and ge...

  5. Prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors and metabolic syndrome in obese Kuwaiti adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boodai SA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Shurooq A Boodai,1 Lynne M Cherry,2 Naveed A Sattar,2 John J Reilly3 1University of Glasgow School of Medicine, Yorkhill Hospitals, Glasgow, Scotland; 2Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, British Heart Foundation Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland; 3University of Strathclyde Physical Activity for Health Group, School of Psychological Sciences and Health, Glasgow, Scotland Background: Childhood and adolescent obesity is associated with insulin resistance, abnormal glucose metabolism, hypertension, dyslipidemia, inflammation, liver disease, and compromised vascular function. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factor abnormalities and metabolic syndrome (MetS in a sample of obese Kuwaiti adolescents, as prevalence data might be helpful in improving engagement with obesity treatment in future. Methods: Eighty obese Kuwaiti adolescents (40 males with a mean (standard deviation age of 12.3 years (1.1 years participated in the present study. All participants had a detailed clinical examination and anthropometry, blood pressure taken, and assessment of fasting levels of C-reactive protein, intracellular adhesion molecule, interleukin-6, fasting blood glucose, insulin, liver function tests (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyltransferase, lipid profile (cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment, and adiponectin. MetS was assessed using two recognized criteria modified for use in younger individuals. Results: The cardiometabolic risk factors with highest prevalence of abnormal values included aspartate aminotransferase (88.7% of the sample and insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment (67.5%, intracellular adhesion molecule (66.5%, fasting insulin (43.5%, C-reactive protein (42.5%, low

  6. The role of family and maternal factors in childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Lisa Y; Byrne, Susan M; Davis, Elizabeth A; Blair, Eve; Jacoby, Peter; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2007-06-04

    To investigate the relationship between a child's weight and a broad range of family and maternal factors. Cross-sectional data from a population-based prospective study, collected between January 2004 and December 2005, for 329 children aged 6-13 years (192 healthy weight, 97 overweight and 40 obese) and their mothers (n=265) recruited from a paediatric hospital endocrinology department and eight randomly selected primary schools in Perth, Western Australia. Height, weight and body mass index (BMI) of children and mothers; demographic information; maternal depression, anxiety, stress and self-esteem; general family functioning; parenting style; and negative life events. In a multilevel model, maternal BMI and family structure (single-parent v two-parent families) were the only significant predictors of child BMI z scores. Childhood obesity is not associated with adverse maternal or family characteristics such as maternal depression, negative life events, poor general family functioning or ineffective parenting style. However, having an overweight mother and a single-parent (single-mother) family increases the likelihood of a child being overweight or obese.

  7. Obese parents--obese children? Psychological-psychiatric risk factors of parental behavior and experience for the development of obesity in children aged 0-3: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Matthias; Bergmann, Sarah; Keitel, Anja; Herfurth-Majstorovic, Katharina; Wendt, Verena; von Klitzing, Kai; Klein, Annette M

    2013-12-17

    The incidences of childhood overweight and obesity have increased substantially and with them the prevalence of associated somatic and psychiatric health problems. Therefore, it is important to identify modifiable risk factors for early childhood overweight in order to develop effective prevention or intervention programs. Besides biological factors, familial interactions and parental behavioral patterns may influence children's weight development. Longitudinal investigation of children at overweight risk could help to detect significant risk and protective factors. We aim to describe infants' weight development over time and identify risk and protective factors for the incidence of childhood obesity. Based on our findings we will draw up a risk model that will lay the foundation for an intervention/prevention program. We present the protocol of a prospective longitudinal study in which we investigate families with children aged from 6 months to 47 months. In half of the families at least one parent is obese (risk group), in the other half both parents are normal weight (control group). Based on developmental and health-psychological models, we consider measurements at three levels: the child, the parents and parent-child-relationship. Three assessment points are approximately one year apart. At each assessment point we evaluate the psychological, social, and behavioral situation of the parents as well as the physical and psychosocial development of the child. Parents are interviewed, fill in questionnaires, and take part in standardized interaction tasks with their child in a feeding and in a playing context in our research laboratory. The quality of these video-taped parent-child interactions is assessed by analyzing them with standardized, validated instruments according to scientific standards. Strengths of the presented study are the prospective longitudinal design, the multi-informant approach, including the fathers, and the observation of parent

  8. Obesity and associated cardiovascular risk factors among schoolchildren in Greece: a cross-sectional study and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollias, Anastasios; Skliros, Efstathios; Stergiou, George S; Leotsakos, Nikolaos; Saridi, Maria; Garifallos, Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    To examine the prevalence and determinants of obesity and associated cardiovascular risk factors in a sample of Greek children. This is a cross-sectional, school-based study of 780 students (9.2 +/- 1.8 years old, 415 boys) conducted in Eastern Attica, the greater area of the city of Athens. The study protocol included anthropometric, blood pressure (BP), and biochemical measurements, as well as dietary and lifestyle habits assessment. A review of Greek studies on childhood obesity was also performed. Approximately 22% of the participants were overweight and 8% were obese, which is in accordance with the results of 24 previous Greek studies showing the childhood overweight/obesity prevalence in the range of 30%. Overweight/obese children compared with normal-weight children had higher BP, lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and higher triglycerides (p consumption of sweets and fast-food, and decreased physical activity were independent determinants of being overweight/obese. Furthermore, overweight/obesity predicted the presence of high BP, low HDL-C, and high triglycerides. A close association was revealed between obesity and metabolic abnormalities, underlining the need for early screening and intervention in overweight children in order to address the emerging childhood obesity epidemic in Greece.

  9. The prevalence and factors associated with obesity among adult women in Selangor, Malaysia

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    Sidik Sherina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The prevalence of obesity in developing countries especially among women is on the rise. This matter should be taken seriously because it can burden the health care systems and lower the quality of life. Aim The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity among adult women in Selangor and to determine factors associated with obesity among these women. Methods This community based cross sectional study was conducted in Selangor in January 2004. Multi stage stratified proportionate to size sampling method was used. Women aged 20–59 years old were included in this study. Data was collected using a questionnaire-guided interview method. The questionnaire consisted of questions on socio-demographic (age, ethnicity, religion, education level, occupation, monthly income, marital status, Obstetric & Gynaecology history, body mass index (BMI, and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Results Out of 1032 women, 972 agreed to participate in this study, giving a response rate of 94.2%. The mean age was 37.91 ± 10.91. The prevalence of obesity among the respondents was 16.7% (mean = 1.83 ± 0.373. Obesity was found to be significantly associated with age (p = 0.013, ethnicity (p = 0.001, religion (p = 0.002, schooling (p = 0.020, educational level (p = 0.016, marital status (p = 0.001 and the history of suffering a miscarriage within the past 6 months (p = 0.023. Conclusion The prevalence of obesity among adult women in this study was high. This problem needs to be emphasized as the prevalence of obesity keeps increasing, and will continue to worsen unless appropriate preventive measures are taken.

  10. Inequality of obesity and socioeconomic factors in Iran: a systematic review and meta- analyses.

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    Djalalinia, Shirin; Peykari, Niloofar; Qorbani, Mostafa; Larijani, Bagher; Farzadfar, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic status and demographic factors, such as education, occupation, place of residence, gender, age, and marital status have been reported to be associated with obesity. We conducted a systematic review to summarize evidences on associations between socioeconomic factors and obesity/overweight in Iranian population. We systematically searched international databases; ISI, PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and national databases Iran-medex, Irandoc, and Scientific Information Database (SID). We refined data for associations between socioeconomic factors and obesity/overweight by sex, age, province, and year. There were no limitations for time and languages. Based on our search strategy we found 151 records; of them 139 were from international databases and the remaining 12 were obtained from national databases. After removing duplicates, via the refining steps, only 119 articles were found related to our study domains. Extracted results were attributed to 146596 person/data from included studies. Increased ages, low educational levels, being married, residence in urban area, as well as female sex were clearly associated with obesity. RESULTS could be useful for better health policy and more planned studies in this field. These also could be used for future complementary analyses.

  11. The role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in obesity-associated type 2 diabetes in mice

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    Saksida Tamara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF is implicated in the pathogenesis of several inflammationrelated diseases, including obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D. However, MIF deficiency itself promotes obesity and glucose intolerance in mice. Here we show that the introduction of a high-fat diet (HFD further aggravates the parameters of obesity-associated T2D: weight gain and glucose intolerance. Furthermore, in contrast to MIF-KO mice on standard chow, HFD-fed MIF-KO mice develop insulin resistance. Although the clinical signs of obesity-associated T2D are upgraded, inflammation in MIF-deficient mice on HFD is significantly lower. These results imply that MIF possesses a complex role in glucose metabolism and the development of obesity-related T2D. However, the downregulation of inflammation upon MIF inhibition could be a useful tool in short-term T2D therapy for preventing pancreatic islet deterioration. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173013

  12. The most effective factors to offset sarcopenia and obesity in the older Korean: Physical activity, vitamin D, and protein intake.

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    Oh, Chorong; Jeon, Byeong Hwan; Reid Storm, Shaun Nicholas; Jho, Sunkug; No, Jae-Kyung

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the types and levels of physical activity in conjunction with protein intake and vitamin D on sarcopenia and obesity status in an elderly population. Study participants (N = 4452) were ages ≥60 y and included 1929 men and 2523 women who completed a body composition analysis with a dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and provided health and dietary data. Higher appendicular skeletal muscle mass/weight was observed in the non-obese group, although obese participants had greater weights. The non-obese sarcopenia subgroup showed health problems related to insulin resistance and metabolic-related factors compared with the nonsarcopenic group. The total metabolic equivalent was significantly different in both obese categories, regardless of sarcopenic status. The prevalence of obesity, sarcopenia, and sarcopenic obesity relatively increased with a diet deficient of protein intake and vitamin D. These data suggest that sarcopenia had a significant association with metabolic-related factors; physical activity, especially vigorous activity; and protein intake and vitamin D levels in a non-obese elderly population. Therefore, maintaining healthy body weight by means of resistance exercise and enhanced protein intake and vitamin D may help offset sarcopenia in this age group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Association of socio‐demographic factors with overweight and obesity among rural school going adolescents in Rohtak district, Haryana

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    BM Vashisht

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century. The problem is global and is steadily affecting many low‐income and middle‐income countries. Childhood obesity is associated with higher chances of premature deaths and disabilities in adulthood. It is also evident that nearly 75% of the obese adolescents remain obese as adults thus increasing the risk of Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs. Aim and Objectives To study the prevalence and associated socio‐demographic factors of overweight and obesity among rural school going adolescents. Material and Methods The present study was conducted in Lakhanmajra block of Rohtak district over a period of one year from July 2016 to June 2017. 750 students from six co‐ educational government senior secondary schools were included in the study. Data were collected using pre‐designed, pre‐tested, semi structured interview schedule. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Results Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 6.7% and 1.1% respectively. Maximum prevalence of obesity/overweight was found in the age group 13‐14 years (11.2%. Obesity/overweight was more prevalent in males (9.4% in comparison to females (3.4%. 14.3% of the study subjects belonging to three generation family, 11.7% belonging to joint and 4.5% belonging to the nuclear families were found to obese/ overweight. 11% and 5.1% of the study subjects with 6‐10 family members and 5 and less than five family members were obese/ overweight. Conclusion Childhood obesity continues in adult life and thus gives rise to diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Thus it is the need of the hour to address this problem and to devise programs and strategies to prevent overweight/obesity among children and adolescents because today’s children are future of the nation.

  14. Stress as a factor contributing to obesity in patients qualified for bariatric surgery ? studies in a selected group of patients (a pilot study)

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    Boniecka, Iwona; Wile?ska, Helena; Jeznach-Steinhagen, Anna; Czerwonogrodzka-Senczyna, Aneta; Seku?a, Marzena; Pa?nik, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Recently, the incidence of obesity, especially extreme obesity, has significantly increased. It is connected with inappropriate lifestyle, including a high calorie diet, psychological and genetic factors, some medications, diseases or infectious factors. Nowadays, the consumption of food is not only to satisfy a physiological need, but also fulfils psychological needs. The most effective method of morbid obesity treatment is metabolic surgery. Moreover, food is considered to be a...

  15. Lipid regulatory genes polymorphism in children with and without obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors: The CASPIAN-III study.

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    Hovsepian, Silva; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy; Mansourian, Marjan; Hashemipour, Mahin; Tajadini, Mohamadhasan; Kelishadi, Roya

    2018-01-01

    Genetically, predisposed children are considered as at-risk individuals for cardiovascular disease. In this study, we aimed to compare the frequency of four-lipid regulatory polymorphism in obese and normal-weight children with and without cardiometabolic risk factors. In this nested case-control study, 600 samples of four groups of participants consisted of those with normal weight with and without cardiometabolic risk factors and obese with and without cardiometabolic risk factors. Allelic and genotypic frequencies of GCKR (rs780094), GCKR (rs1260333), MLXIPL (rs3812316), and FADS (rs174547) polymorphisms were compared in the four studied groups. Data of 528 samples were complete and included in this study. The mean (standard deviation) age of participants was 15.01 (2.21) years. Frequency of tt allele (minor allele) of GCKR (rs1260333) polymorphism was significantly lower in normal weight metabolically healthy participants than metabolically unhealthy normal weight (MUHNW) and obese children with and without cardiometabolic risk factor ( P = 0.01). Frequency of ga allele of GCKR (rs780094) polymorphism was significantly higher in normal weight children with cardiometabolic risk factor than in their obese counterparts with cardiometabolic risk factor ( P = 0.04). Frequency of cg and gg alleles (minor type) of MLXIPL (rs3812316) polymorphism in normal weight metabolically healthy participants was significantly higher than MUHNW ( P = 0.04) and metabolically healthy obese children ( P = 0.04). The findings of our study indicated that the minor allele of GCKR (rs1260333) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could have pathogenic effect for obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors. Ga allele of GCKR (rs780094) SNPs had a protective effect on obesity. Minor alleles of MLXIPL (rs3812316) could have a protective effect for obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors.

  16. [Overweight and obesity: prevalence and determining social factors of overweight in the Peruvian population (2009-2010)].

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    Álvarez-Dongo, Doris; Sánchez-Abanto, Jose; Gómez-Guizado, Guillermo; Tarqui-Mamani, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Estimate the prevalence of overweight, obesity and the determining social factors of overweight in the Peruvian population. A cross-cut study was conducted which included family members from homes in the sample of the National Household Survey, 2009-2010. Stratified random and multistage sampling was used. The sample included 69 526 members; the anthropometric measurements were done based on the international methodology. To evaluate overweight and obesity, weight-for-height (children Overweight and obesity were higher in young adults (62.3%) and lower in children overweight according to age group were: not being poor (child Overweight and obesity are indeed a public health issue in Peru. Not being poor and living in urban areas are determining social factors of overweight among Peruvian people.

  17. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Obesity among Elderly Attending Geriatric Outpatient Clinics in Mansoura City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebl, Amany Mohamed; Hatata, El Sayed Zaki; Boughdady, Aziza Mahmoud; El-Sayed, Sally Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem affecting all ages in both developed and developing countries. It is considered the fifth leading risk factor for deaths all over the world as about 2.8 million people die due to obesity each year directly or indirectly. Obesity in elderly is considered one of the most serious public health challenges for…

  18. Risk factors for overweight and obesity in children aged 2-6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondolot, Meda; Poyrazoğlu, Serpil; Horoz, Duygu; Borlu, Arda; Altunay, Canan; Balcı, Elcin; Öztürk, Ahmet; Mazıcıoğlu, Mümtaz M; Kurtoğlu, Selim

    2017-05-01

    Understanding risk factors that may vary culturally can help improve preventive strategies for obesity. This is the first cross-sectional study aimed to determine the risk factors for overweight/obesity in children aged 2-6 years in a central Anatolian city in Turkey. A total of 1582 children (1351 healthy, 231 overweight/obese) aged 2-6 years were included from the Anthropometry of Turkish Children aged 0-6 years database. Age, gender, birth weight, birth order, mother's age, mother's body mass index (BMI), weight gain of mothers during pregnancy, presence of gestational diabetes, breastfeeding duration, history of formula feeding, mother's and father's education, mother's job, monthly income, smoking at home and physical activity, sleep duration and duration of television (TV) watching of the children were evaluated as independent risk factors. Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate risk factors for overweight/obesity. Having a high family income compared to bad [odds ratio (OR)=1.96; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.237-3.106], increased the time of watching TV during the weekend (OR=1.094; 95% CI: 1.032-1.159), and similar physical activity level according to their peers compared to less (OR=2.957; 95% CI: 1.056-8.282) were found to be significantly associated with a higher risk of overweight/obesity in children aged 2-6 years old. The early childhood period seems to be important in the establishment of healthy behavioral patterns, especially limitation of TV watching and encouragement of physical activity. Obesogenic environment in families with high incomes need to be revealed.

  19. The influence of clinical and genetic factors on the development of obesity in children with type 1 diabetes.

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    Łuczyński, Włodzimierz; Głowińska-Olszewska, Barbara; Bossowski, Artur

    2016-10-01

    The exact cause of the obesity epidemic remains unknown; however, both environmental and genetic factors are involved. People at risk of developing obesity include children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), which in turn increases their cardiovascular disease risk. Here, we discuss the clinical and genetic factors influencing weight in patients with T1DM. In children with T1DM, the presence of obesity depends mainly on sex, metabolic control, and disease duration. However, genetic factors, including the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene, are also associated with body weight. Indeed, children with the FTO gene rs9939609 obesity-risk allele (homozygous = AA or heterozygous = AT) are predisposed to a higher body mass index and have a greater risk of being overweight or obese. However, in this review, we show that FTO gene polymorphisms only have a small effect on body weight in children, much weaker than the effect of clinical factors. The association between FTO gene polymorphisms and body weight is only statistically significant in children without severe obesity. Moreover, other genetic factors had no effect on weight in patients with T1DM, and further research involving larger populations is required to confirm the genetic basis of diabetes and obesity. Therefore, identifying the clinical features of children with T1DM, such as their initial body mass index, sex, metabolic control, and disease duration, will still have the strongest effect on reducing risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Physicians should pay close attention to modifiable elements of these relationships, for example, metabolic control and energy and insulin intake, when caring for patients with T1DM. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Obesity as a risk factor for sciatica: a meta-analysis.

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    Shiri, Rahman; Lallukka, Tea; Karppinen, Jaro; Viikari-Juntura, Eira

    2014-04-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the associations of overweight and obesity with lumbar radicular pain and sciatica using a meta-analysis. We searched the PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science databases from 1966 to July 2013. We performed a random-effects meta-analysis and assessed publication bias. We included 26 (8 cross-sectional, 7 case-control, and 11 cohort) studies. Both overweight (pooled odds ratio (OR) = 1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14, 1.33; n = 19,165) and obesity (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.27, 1.55; n = 19,165) were associated with lumbar radicular pain. The pooled odds ratio for physician-diagnosed sciatica was 1.12 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.20; n = 109,724) for overweight and 1.31 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.62; n = 115,661) for obesity. Overweight (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.24; n = 358,328) and obesity (OR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.23, 1.54; n = 358,328) were associated with increased risk of hospitalization for sciatica, and overweight/obesity was associated with increased risk of surgery for lumbar disc herniation (OR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.25, 2.86; n = 73,982). Associations were similar for men and women and were independent of the design and quality of included studies. There was no evidence of publication bias. Our findings consistently showed that both overweight and obesity are risk factors for lumbar radicular pain and sciatica in men and women, with a dose-response relationship.

  1. Acantosis nigricansis associated with risk factors related to cardiovascular disease in Mexican children with obesity.

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    Martínez-Rojano, Hugo; Pizano-Zárate, María Luisa; Sánchez-Jiménez, Bernarda; Sámano, Reyna; López-Portillo, Armando

    2016-09-20

    The prevalence of obesity in Mexican children has increased during the last decade, as has the risk of early onset metabolic disorders and cardiovascular disease. To determine the association ofAcantosis nigricans (AN)with dyslipidemia, high blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), and risk factors related to eating behavior in overweight and obese children. This transverse analytical study, conducted in two Mexico City primary schools, included 300 boys and girls. Information was gathered on hereditary and perinatal background. A physical examination provided data on the presence/absence of AN, blood pressure, weight and height. The BMI and Z-score were calculated. The serum concentration of glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides was quantified and the lipoprotein profile determined. The prevalence of AN was 41.7%. An association was found between ANand risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including BMI (rS 0.432; p 48%) (RM: 3.591; p = 0.001). A high prevalence of ANwas found in overweight and obese children. There was an association between ANand risk factors of cardiovascular disease, including Z-score, BMI, dyslipidemia, and high blood pressure.

  2. Identifying Contextual and Emotional Factors to Explore Weight Disparities between Obese Black and White Women

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    NiCole R. Keith

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Obese black women enrolled in weight loss interventions experience 50% less weight reduction than obese white women. This suggests that current weight loss strategies may increase health disparities. Objective We evaluated the feasibility of identifying daily contextual factors that may influence obesity. Methods In-home interviews with 16 obese (body mass index ≥ 30 black and white urban poor women were performed. For 14 days, ecological momentary assessment (EMA was used to capture emotion and social interactions every other day, and day reconstruction method surveys were used the following day to reconstruct the context of the prior day's EMA. Results Factors included percentage of participants without weight scales (43.8% or fitness equipment (68.8% in the home and exposed to food at work (55.6%. The most frequently reported location, activity, and emotion were home (19.4 ± 8.53, working (7.1 ± 8.80, and happy (6.9 ± 10.03, respectively. Conclusion Identifying individual contexts may lead to valuable insights about obesogenic behaviors and new interventions to improve weight management.

  3. Economic Differences in Risk Factors for Obesity among Overweight and Obese Children

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    Kim, Hee Soon; Ham, Ok Kyung; Jang, Mi Na; Yun, Hyun Jung; Park, Jiyoung

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the economic differences in familial, physiological, psychological, and lifestyle characteristics associated with overweight and obese children in South Korea. A total of 407 overweight and obese children participated in the study. The obesity rate was 69.0% and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) was…

  4. The impact of obesity on risk factors and prevalence and prognosis of coronary heart disease-the obesity paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schutter, Alban; Lavie, Carl J; Milani, Richard V

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a host of cardiovascular risk factors and its prevalence is rising rapidly. Despite strong evidence that obesity predisposes to the development and progression of coronary heart disease (CHD), numerous studies have shown an inverse relationship between various measures of obesity (most commonly body mass index) and outcomes in established CHD. In this article we review the evidence surrounding the ≪obesity paradox≫ in the secondary care of CHD patients and the CHD presentations where a paradox has been found. Finally we discuss the impact of cardiorespiratory fitness and a number of mechanisms which may offer potential explanations for this puzzling phenomenon. © 2014.

  5. Changes in serum aldosterone are associated with changes in obesity-related factors in normotensive overweight and obese young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jennifer N; Fried, Linda; Tepper, Ping; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Conroy, Molly B; Evans, Rhobert W; Mori Brooks, Maria; Woodard, Genevieve A; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim

    2013-10-01

    Recent data suggest excess circulating aldosterone promotes cardiometabolic decline. Weight loss may lower aldosterone levels, but little longitudinal data is available in normotensive adults. We aimed to determine whether, independent of changes in sodium excretion, reductions in serum aldosterone are associated with favorable changes in obesity-related factors in normotensive overweight/obese young adults. We studied 285 overweight/obese young adult participants (body mass index ≥ 25 andobesity-related factors were measured at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 months. Weight loss was significant at 6 (7%), 12 (6%) and 24 months (4%; all Pobesity-related factors are associated with reductions in aldosterone in young adults with no risk factors besides excess weight, an important finding, given aldosterone's emergence as an important cardiometabolic risk factor.

  6. Nutritional status and risk factors of overweight and obesity for children aged 9-15 years in Chengdu, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Yang, Fan; Xiong, Fei; Huo, Tingzhu; Tong, Yu; Yang, Sufei; Mao, Meng

    2012-08-10

    Obesity is widespread in the world including developing countries. However malnutrition in poor areas is still a serious problem. Few investigations, especially in a large sample, have been performed in Western area of China. This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional status of school children aged 9-15 years in large Southwest city of China, and identify the differential impact of aberrant birth categories and family history of obesity related disease on childhood overweight and obesity development. A multistage random cluster sampling was performed to evaluate the prevalence of thinness, overweight and obesity, which were defined by the new age-, sex-, specific BMI reference developed by World Health Organization (WHO) (2007). And then a frequency matched case-control study was performed to identify the risk factors of overweight and obesity. 7,194 children (3,494 boys, 3,700 girls) were recruited, and 1,282 (17.8%) had excess bodyweight (14.5% overweight, 3.3% obesity). The combined prevalence gradually decreased with age, and were more prevalent among boys than girls (P 0.05). Preterm large for gestational age (OR = 2.746), maternal history of obesity related disease (OR = 1.713), paternal history of obesity related disease (OR = 1.583), preterm appropriate for gestational age (OR = 1.564), full term small for gestational age (OR = 1.454) and full term large for gestational age (OR = 1.418) were recognized as significant risk factors in the multivariate regression analysis (P obesity was dramatically spreading, malnutrition still remained a serious problem. This unmatched nutritional status should be emphasized in backward cities of China. Children born of both preterm and LGA, whose parents particularly mothers had a history of obesity related disease, should be emphatically intervened as early as possible.

  7. Dietary factors and cancer chemoprevention: An overview of obesity-related malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy N

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a growing health problem in developed nations and in countries that are in the process of westernization like India. Obesity is linked with several health disorders such as hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, Type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and certain cancers. Currently, obesity-related malignancies, e.g., cancers of the breast, prostate and colon are the leading cancers in the industrialized societies. An increased amount of fat or adipose tissue in an overweight or obese person probably influences the development of cancer by releasing several hormone-like factors or adipokines. The majority of adipokines are pro-inflammatory, which promote pathological conditions like insulin resistance and cancer. On the other hand, many recent studies have shown that adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory adipokine, has anti-cancer and insulin-sensitizing effects. Adiponectin exerts its physiological functions chiefly by activation of AMP kinase via adiponectin receptors. Interestingly, several fruits and vegetables may contain adiponectin-like molecules or may increase the biosynthesis of adiponectin in our body. Studies on adiponectin analogues or adiponectin receptor agonists are a promising area of cancer chemoprevention research. In general, fruits and vegetables contain various dietary substances such as vitamins, minerals (like calcium and selenium, fiber and phytochemicals or phenolic compounds (like flavonoids and vanilloids, which may act as anti-cancer agents. Similarly, several dietary constituents including phytochemicals may have anti-obesity effects. Consumption of such dietary compounds along with caloric restriction and physical activity may be helpful in preventing obesity-related cancers. For this review article, we searched PubMed primarily to get the relevant literature.

  8. Prevalence of Dyslipidemia and Associated Factors in Obese Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmaoğulları, Selin; Tepe, Derya; Uçaktürk, Seyit Ahmet; Karaca Kara, Fatma; Demirel, Fatma

    2015-09-01

    Childhood-onset obesity is associated with increased mortality and morbidity related to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) during adulthood. Dyslipidemia has a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of CVD. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of dyslipidemia and related factors among obese children and adolescents. Obese patients aged between 2 and 18 years were included in the study. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), fasting glucose levels, insulin, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and liver ultrasound findings were evaluated retrospectively. Among 823 obese patients, 353 (42.9%) met the dyslipidemia criteria: 21.7% had hypertriglyceridemia, 19.7% had low levels of HDL-C, 18.6% had hypercholesterolemia, and 13.7% had high levels of LDL-C. Older age and/or high body mass index (BMI) were related to increased prevalence of dyslipidemia. Hepatosteatosis was more common among dyslipidemic patients. The frequency of insulin resistance (IR) and of higher levels of ALT and TSH were also detected in dyslipidemic patients. Patients with both dyslipidemia and grade 2-3 hepatosteatosis had higher levels of ALT, AST and TSH and lower levels of fT4. Prevalence of dyslipidemia is high in obese children, and hypertriglyceridemia is in the foreground. Higher levels of IR and more apparent abnormal liver function test results are observed in the context of dyslipidemia and hepatosteatosis coexistence. Metabolic and hormonal alterations related with thyroid functions may also be associated with dyslipidemia and hepatosteatosis in obese patients.

  9. Genetic factors in exercise adoption, adherence and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, M P; Sailors, M H; Bray, M S

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity and exercise play critical roles in energy balance. While many interventions targeted at increasing physical activity have demonstrated efficacy in promoting weight loss or maintenance in the short term, long term adherence to such programmes is not frequently observed. Numerous factors have been examined for their ability to predict and/or influence physical activity and exercise adherence. Although physical activity has been demonstrated to have a strong genetic component in both animals and humans, few studies have examined the association between genetic variation and exercise adherence. In this review, we provide a detailed overview of the non-genetic and genetic predictors of physical activity and adherence to exercise. In addition, we report the results of analysis of 26 single nucleotide polymorphisms in six candidate genes examined for association to exercise adherence, duration, intensity and total exercise dose in young adults from the Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) Study. Based on both animal and human research, neural signalling and pleasure/reward systems in the brain may drive in large part the propensity to be physically active and to adhere to an exercise programme. Adherence/compliance research in other fields may inform future investigation of the genetics of exercise adherence. © 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  10. The prevalence of obesity and influence of early life and behavioral factors on obesity in Chinese children in Guangzhou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Cai, Li; Ma, Lu; Jing, Jin; Chen, Yajun; Ma, Jun

    2016-09-09

    Childhood obesity has become a public health concern in many countries. In Southern China, the prevalence of childhood obesity increased from 6.2 to 7.5 % between 2007 and 2011. This study aimed to report the current prevalence of overweight and obesity, analyzed the early life and behavioral determinants of obesity, and investigated the weight-loss practices among Chinese children in Guangzhou. Three thousand seven hundred sixty-six primary school students aged 7-12 years were recruited in Guangzhou, China in 2013. Questionnaires were used to assess (1) early life factors: birth weight, delivery mode, gestational age and feeding patterns; (2) behavioral factors: dietary intake, eating speed, sedentary time, physical activities and sleep duration; and (3) weight-loss practices: improving diet, increasing exercise, taking weight-loss drugs and undergoing a diet. The criteria of Working Group of Obesity in China were applied to classify overweight and obesity based on measured weight and height. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the determinants of overweight/obesity and adoption of weight-loss practices. The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity were 11.2 and 10.0 %, respectively. High birth weight (≥4.0 kg versus 2.5 ~ 4.0 kg, odd ratio [OR]: 2.34; 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.53-3.58), sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) intake (OR: 1.39; 95 % CI: 1.05-1.85), vegetable intake (OR: 1.12; 95 % CI: 1.01-1.24), and doing homework (OR: 1.24; 95 % CI: 1.08-1.43) were positively associated with obesity. Eating speed faster than peers was positively associated with obesity and yielded the highest OR (versus "as fast as peers", OR: 3.18; 95 % CI: 2.28-4.44). Approximately 57, 81 and 87 % of normal-weight, overweight and obese children, respectively, reported weight-loss practices. Self-perception of weight status presented as the strongest determinant for weight-loss practices. The prevalence of overweight and

  11. The prevalence of obesity and influence of early life and behavioral factors on obesity in Chinese children in Guangzhou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity has become a public health concern in many countries. In Southern China, the prevalence of childhood obesity increased from 6.2 to 7.5 % between 2007 and 2011. This study aimed to report the current prevalence of overweight and obesity, analyzed the early life and behavioral determinants of obesity, and investigated the weight-loss practices among Chinese children in Guangzhou. Methods Three thousand seven hundred sixty-six primary school students aged 7–12 years were recruited in Guangzhou, China in 2013. Questionnaires were used to assess (1 early life factors: birth weight, delivery mode, gestational age and feeding patterns; (2 behavioral factors: dietary intake, eating speed, sedentary time, physical activities and sleep duration; and (3 weight-loss practices: improving diet, increasing exercise, taking weight-loss drugs and undergoing a diet. The criteria of Working Group of Obesity in China were applied to classify overweight and obesity based on measured weight and height. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the determinants of overweight/obesity and adoption of weight-loss practices. Results The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity were 11.2 and 10.0 %, respectively. High birth weight (≥4.0 kg versus 2.5 ~ 4.0 kg, odd ratio [OR]: 2.34; 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.53–3.58, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs intake (OR: 1.39; 95 % CI: 1.05–1.85, vegetable intake (OR: 1.12; 95 % CI: 1.01–1.24, and doing homework (OR: 1.24; 95 % CI: 1.08–1.43 were positively associated with obesity. Eating speed faster than peers was positively associated with obesity and yielded the highest OR (versus “as fast as peers”, OR: 3.18; 95 % CI: 2.28–4.44. Approximately 57, 81 and 87 % of normal-weight, overweight and obese children, respectively, reported weight-loss practices. Self-perception of weight status presented as the strongest determinant

  12. Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too ... what's considered healthy for his or her height. Obesity happens over time when you eat more calories ...

  13. Child fitness and father's BMI are important factors in childhood obesity: a school based cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinead Brophy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study examines obesity and factors associated with obesity in children aged 11-13 years in the UK. METHODS: 1147 children from ten secondary schools participated in a health survey that included blood samples, fitness test and anthropometric measures. Factors associated with obesity were examined using multilevel logistic regression. FINDINGS: Of the children examined (490 male; 657 female a third were overweight, 1 in 6 had elevated blood pressure, more than 1 in 10 had high cholesterol, 58% consumed more fat than recommended, whilst 37% were classified as unfit. Children in deprived areas had a higher proportion of risk factors; for example, they had higher blood pressure (20% (deprived compared to 11% (non-deprived, difference: 9.0% (95%CI: 4.7%-13.4%. Obesity is associated with risk factors for heart disease and diabetes. Maintaining fitness is associated with a reduction in the risk factors for heart disease (high blood pressure and cholesterol but not on risk factors for diabetes (insulin levels. In order of importance, the main risk factors for childhood obesity are being unfit, having an obese father, and being large at birth. CONCLUSION: The high proportion of children with risk factors suggests future interventions need to focus on community and policy change to shift the population norm rather than targeting the behaviour of high risk individuals. Interventions need to focus on mothers' lifestyle in pregnancy, fathers' health, as well as promoting fitness among children. Obesity was not associated with deprivation. Therefore, strategies should be adopted in both deprived and non deprived areas.

  14. Risk Factors of Obesity in Children 5-15 Years Old

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    Ratu Ayu Dewi Sartika

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is the result of positive energy balance for long periods of time. The problem of obesity can occur at the age of children, teens to adults. The purpose of this study is to identify the most dominant factor of obesity in children (5-15 years using Basic Health Research in 2007. The proportion of obesity (percentile >95 in children (5-15 years old was 8.3%. The risk factor which mostly associated with obesity was the level of education after being controlled by sex, father's obesity, exercise and smoking habits and intake of protein. To overcome obesity problem in children (5-15 years old, it is needed to provide health education for children from an early age through enhanced IEC (Information, Education and Communication such as anti smoking program, love of fiber (vegetables and fruits and develop a culture of sport activities.

  15. Prevalence, etiological factors and the treatment of infant exogenous obesity

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    Edio Luiz Petroski

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, there has been considerable interest in the effects of excessive weight gain during childhood, due to the fact that the development of fat tissue in this period is a determinant of adult body composition. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of infant obesity, to identify possible etiological factors, and to highlight treatments that have been used to reduce and/or prevent child obesity. Results have shown that obesity has increased more than any other nutritional problem in both developed and developing countries over the last decade. Etiological factors linked to childhood obesity were early weaning, introduction of inadequate nutrition, and physical inactivity. The treatment of childhood obesity requires a multidisciplinary team consisting of a doctor, nutritionist, psychologist, and physical educator. There are also some general recommendations to be followed: a balanced diet for adequate growth and weight control, and controlled physical exercise together with individual and family emotional support. Parental cooperation is important for the best results. Schools also have a fundamental role in teaching children positive attitudes and behavior towards physical activity and nutrition. RESUMO Nos últimos anos, o interesse sobre os efeitos do ganho de peso excessivo na infância tem aumentado consideravelmente, devido ao fato que o desenvolvimento da celularidade adiposa neste período ser determinante nos padrões de composição corporal de um indivíduo adulto. Este trabalho teve como objetivo investigar a prevalência da obesidade infantil, identificar os possíveis fatores etiológicos além de verifi car quais as intervenções que se destacaram nesta última década como forma de diminuir e/ou prevenir a obesidade em crianças. Os resultados encontrados foram que a obesidade é uma das enfermidades nutricionais que mais têm apresentado aumento de sua prevalência, tanto nos pa

  16. The clinical obesity maintenance model: an integration of psychological constructs including mood, emotional regulation, disordered overeating, habitual cluster behaviours, health literacy and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Jayanthi; Smith, Evelyn; Hay, Phillipa

    2013-01-01

    Psychological distress and deficits in executive functioning are likely to be important barriers to effective weight loss maintenance. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, in the light of recent evidence in the fields of neuropsychology and obesity, particularly on the deficits in the executive function in overweight and obese individuals, a conceptual and theoretical framework of obesity maintenance is introduced by way of a clinical obesity maintenance model (COMM). It is argued that psychological variables, that of habitual cluster Behaviors, emotional dysregulation, mood, and health literacy, interact with executive functioning and impact on the overeating/binge eating behaviors of obese individuals. Second, cognizant of this model, it is argued that the focus of obesity management should be extended to include a broader range of maintaining mechanisms, including but not limited to cognitive deficits. Finally, a discussion on potential future directions in research and practice using the COMM is provided.

  17. The Clinical Obesity Maintenance Model: An Integration of Psychological Constructs including Mood, Emotional Regulation, Disordered Overeating, Habitual Cluster Behaviours, Health Literacy and Cognitive Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanthi Raman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychological distress and deficits in executive functioning are likely to be important barriers to effective weight loss maintenance. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, in the light of recent evidence in the fields of neuropsychology and obesity, particularly on the deficits in the executive function in overweight and obese individuals, a conceptual and theoretical framework of obesity maintenance is introduced by way of a clinical obesity maintenance model (COMM. It is argued that psychological variables, that of habitual cluster Behaviors, emotional dysregulation, mood, and health literacy, interact with executive functioning and impact on the overeating/binge eating behaviors of obese individuals. Second, cognizant of this model, it is argued that the focus of obesity management should be extended to include a broader range of maintaining mechanisms, including but not limited to cognitive deficits. Finally, a discussion on potential future directions in research and practice using the COMM is provided.

  18. The effects of aerobic exercise training on oxidant–antioxidant balance, neurotrophic factor levels, and blood–brain barrier function in obese and non-obese men

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    Hee-Tae Roh

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: These results suggest that obesity can reduce serum neurotrophic factor levels and can induce BBB dysfunction. On the other hand, aerobic exercise can improve an oxidant–antioxidant imbalance in obese subjects and limit BBB dysfunction.

  19. Hypertensive heart disease and obesity: a complex interaction between hemodynamic and not hemodynamic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarzani, Riccardo; Bordicchia, Marica; Spannella, Francesco; Dessì-Fulgheri, Paolo; Fedecostante, Massimiliano

    2014-06-01

    The worldwide prevalence of obesity has nearly doubled, with an increase in obesity-related cardiovascular disease and mortality. Several factors are involved in the genesis of hypertension and hypertensive heart disease (HHD) in overweight/obesity. This review is focused on bridging factors between excessive adiposity and HHD, presenting a unifying hypothesis of vascular-metabolic syndrome, where an "handicap" of the natriuretic peptide system has a central role both in adipocyte dysmetabolism as well as in increased blood pressure and HHD.

  20. Factors that encourage and discourage policy-making to prevent childhood obesity: Experience in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkow, Lainie; Jones-Smith, Jesse; Walters, Hannah J; O'Hara, Marguerite; Bleich, Sara N

    2016-12-01

    Policy-makers throughout the world seek to address childhood obesity prevention, yet little is known about factors that influence policy-makers' decisions on this topic. From September 2014 to April 2015, we conducted 43 semi-structured interviews about factors that encourage and discourage policy-makers' support for childhood obesity prevention policies. We interviewed policy-makers (n = 12) and two other groups engaged with childhood obesity prevention policies: representatives of non-governmental organizations (n = 24) and academics (n = 7). Factors that encourage policy-makers' support for childhood obesity prevention policies included: positive impact on government finances, an existing evidence base, partnerships with community-based collaborators, and consistency with policy-makers' priorities. Factors that discourage policy-makers' support included the following: perceptions about government's role, food and beverage industry opposition, and policy-makers' beliefs about personal responsibility. As public health practitioners, advocates, and others seek to advance childhood obesity prevention in the U.S. and elsewhere, the factors we identified offer insights into ways to frame proposed policies and strategies to influence policy-makers.

  1. The Association between Family and Parental Factors and Obesity among Children in Nanchang, China

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    Peng Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: With rapid economic development in China, traditional patterns of health behaviors are changing, concurrent with a rise in childhood obesity. While the home environment and parenting behaviors are modifiable factors that could be targeted for intervention, little is known about their relationship with children’s health behaviors. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between obesity and home and parenting factors in Chinese children. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Nanchang, China in 2013 with caregivers (N = 470 of a child between the ages of 2-10 years. Regression analyses were conducted to determine risk factors for childhood obesity. Results: Obesity prevalence (21.7% did not differ by demographic variables. Eight physical activity, nutrition, and sedentary variables had significant relationships to obesity status. Logistic regression analysis revealed three significant predictors of obesity: the number of days the family eats meals together (odds ratio = 0.84, 95% CI 0.73-0.96 and parental home computer use time (odds ratio = 0.83, 95% CI 0.72-0.96 were related to lower levels of obesity, while parental television time (odds ratio = 1.25 95% CI 1.07-1.47 was related to higher levels of obesity. Conclusions: The prevalence of obesity among children is high in Nanchang. Family and environmental risk factors are significantly related to obesity.

  2. OBESITY-RELATED CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS AFTER LONG- TERM RESISTANCE TRAINING AND GINGER SUPPLEMENTATION

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    Sirvan Atashak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and its metabolic consequences are major risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, lifestyle interventions, including exercise training and dietary components may decrease cardiovascular risk. Hence, this study was conducted to assess the effects of ginger supplementation and progressive resistance training on some cardiovascular risk factors in obese men. In a randomized double-blind design, 32 obese Iranian men (BMI > 30 were assigned in to one of four groups: Placebo (PL, n = 8; ginger group (GI, n = 8 that consumed 1 gr ginger/d for 10 wk; resistance training plus placebo (RTPL, n = 8; and 1gr ginger plus resistance exercise (RTGI, n = 8. Progressive resistance training was performed three days per week for 10 weeks and included eight exercises. At baseline and after 10 weeks, body composition and anthropometric indices were measured. To identify other risk factors, venous blood samples were obtained before and 48-72 hours after the last training session for measurement of blood lipids (LDL-C, HDL-C, TG, systemic inflammation (CRP, and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. After 10 weeks both RTGI and RTPL groups showed significant decreases in waist circumference (WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, body fat percent, body fat mass, total cholesterol, and insulin resistance (p < 0.05 and a significant increase in fat free mass (FFM (p < 0.05, while it remained unchanged in PL and GI. Further, significant decreases in the mean values of CRP were observed in all groups except PL (p < 0.05. Our results reveal that resistance training is an effective therapeutic strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk in obese Iranian men. Further, ginger supplementation alone or in combination with resistance training, also reduces chronic inflammation. However more research on the efficacy of this supplement to reduce cardiovascular risk in humans is required.

  3. Osteosarcopenic Visceral Obesity and Osteosarcopenic Subcutaneous Obesity, Two New Phenotypes of Sarcopenia: Prevalence, Metabolic Profile, and Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadaccini, Daniele; Nichetti, Mara; Avanzato, Ilaria; Faliva, Milena Anna

    2018-01-01

    Background The main criticism of the definition of “osteosarcopenic obesity” (OSO) is the lack of division between subcutaneous and visceral fat. This study describes the prevalence, metabolic profile, and risk factors of two new phenotypes of sarcopenia: osteosarcopenic visceral obesity (OSVAT) and osteosarcopenic subcutaneous obesity (OSSAT). Methods A standardized geriatric assessment was performed by anthropometric and biochemical measures. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to assess body composition, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), osteoporosis, and sarcopenia. Results A sample of 801 subjects were assessed (247 men; 554 women). The prevalence of osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO) was 6.79%; OSSAT and OSOVAT were, respectively, 2.22% and 4.56%. OSVAT (versus the others) showed a higher level of inflammation (CRP and ESR, p < 0.05), bilirubin (p < 0.05), and risk of fractures (FRAX index over 15%, p < 0.001). Subjects with OSSAT did not show any significant risk factors associated to obesity. Conclusions The osteosarcopenic visceral obesity phenotype (OSVAT) seems to be associated with a higher risk of fractures, inflammation, and a worse metabolic profile. These conditions in OSVAT cohort are associated with an increase of visceral adipose tissue, while patients with OSSAT seem to benefit related to the “obesity paradox”. PMID:29862078

  4. Clustering of obesity and dental caries with lifestyle factors among Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cinar, Ayse Basak; Christensen, Lisa Boge; Hede, Borge

    2011-01-01

    To assess any clustering between obesity, dental health, and lifestyle factors (dietary patterns, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption) among adolescents.......To assess any clustering between obesity, dental health, and lifestyle factors (dietary patterns, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption) among adolescents....

  5. Influence of obesity-related risk factors in the aetiology of glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Disney-Hogg, Linden; Sud, Amit; Law, Philip J

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity and related factors have been implicated as possible aetiological factors for the development of glioma in epidemiological observation studies. We used genetic markers in a Mendelian randomisation framework to examine whether obesity-related traits influence glioma risk. This ...

  6. Early diet, insulin-like growth factor-1, growth and later obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Kim F; Larnkjær, Anni; Mølgaard, Christian

    2013-01-01

    to protect against obesity. A few studies have also suggested that early introduction of complementary foods (before age 4 months) is associated with an increased risk of later obesity. A high weight gain during early life, especially the first 6 months, is associated with a higher risk of developing obesity....... Breastfeeding has been shown to reduce the risk of later obesity, although the effect is not substantial. Complementary feeding also seems to play a role. There is some evidence that a high protein intake is associated with a higher risk of obesity later in childhood, whereas a high fat intake during...... the complementary feeding period does not seem to be a risk factor for later obesity. Thus, the dietary pattern during this period is different from the pattern seen in older children and adults where a high fat intake is associated with a higher risk of obesity and a high protein intake in some studies seems...

  7. The Impact of Obesity in the Workplace: a Review of Contributing Factors, Consequences and Potential Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Nipun; Pedisic, Zeljko; Neil-Sztramko, Sarah; Kukkonen-Harjula, Katriina T; Hermans, Veerle

    2016-09-01

    This narrative review summarized findings from previous reviews and the most recently published studies, regarding the following: (1) the association between two occupational risk factors-shift work and sedentary work-and obesity, (2) the effects of obesity on workplace productivity and (3) the effectiveness of workplace interventions aimed at preventing or reducing obesity. Despite some inconsistencies in findings, there is convincing evidence that shift work increases the risk of obesity, while most studies did not show a significant association between sedentary work and obesity. Overweight and obesity were found to be associated with absenteeism, disability pension and overall work impairment, whilst evidence of their relationship with presenteeism, unemployment and early retirement was not consistent. Due to the vast heterogeneity in the types of workplace-based interventions to prevent or treat obesity, no sound conclusions can as yet be drawn about their overall effectiveness and best practice recommendations for their implementation.

  8. Obesity and associated risk factors among students of health colleges of King Saud University, Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Elshazaly; Assiri, Asaad Mohammed; AwadEljack, Ibrahim; Aljasser, Abdullah S; Alhuzimi, Abdulrahman Mohammed; Assiri, Ahmed Assad; Alqahtani, Nasser Ali; Alshahrani, Saud Amer; Al-Ammar, Yousif A

    2017-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of obesity and associated risk factors among medical students in Saudi Arabia. The cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2012 to March 2013 at King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Using stratified sampling technique, undergraduate students of either gender from the health colleges were included. Information was collected through a pretested questionnaire. Measurements of the height and weight were noted and body mass index for all the subjects was calculated. Of the 292 students, 146(50%) were males and 146(50%) were females. Obesity was found in 40(13.7%)students. It was more prevalent among males than females (pobesity was significantly associated with obesity (p=0.016). No significant association was found between physical activity and obesity (p=0.863). There was considerable prevalence of obesity among the medical students. Being male, having family history of obesity, and having chronic diseases were important risk factors.

  9. Pre and post-natal risk and determination of factors for child obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trandafir, L M; Temneanu, O R

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is considered a condition presenting a complex, multi-factorial etiology that implies genetic and non-genetic factors. The way the available information should be efficiently and strategically used in the obesity and overweight prohylaxisprogrammes for children all over the world is still unclear for most of the risk factors. Mothers' pre-conception weight and weight gain during pregnancy are two of the most important prenatal determinants of childhood obesity. Maternal obesity and gestational weight gain are associated with foetal macrosomia and childhood obesity, and this effect extends into adulthood. Obesity and the metabolic syndrome in children originate in intrauterine life. The current obesity epidemic is probably the result of our evolutive inheritance associated with the consumption of highly processed food with an increased calorific value. The determination of risk factors involved in child obesity are: genetic predisposition, diet, sedentary behaviors, socioeconomic position, ethnic origin, microbiota, iatrogenic, endocrine diseases, congenital and acquired hypothalamic defects, usage of medications affecting appetite. However, the vast majority of patients will not have any of these identifiable conditions. Regardless of the aetiology, all the patients should be considered for modifiable lifestyle risk factors and screened for the complications of obesity.

  10. Obesity during childhood and adolescence increases susceptibility to multiple sclerosis after accounting for established genetic and environmental risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianfrancesco, Milena A; Acuna, Brigid; Shen, Ling; Briggs, Farren B S; Quach, Hong; Bellesis, Kalliope H; Bernstein, Allan; Hedstrom, Anna K; Kockum, Ingrid; Alfredsson, Lars; Olsson, Tomas; Schaefer, Catherine; Barcellos, Lisa F

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association between obesity and multiple sclerosis (MS) while accounting for established genetic and environmental risk factors. Participants included members of Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Plan, Northern California Region (KPNC) (1235 MS cases and 697 controls). Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Body mass index (BMI) or body size was the primary predictor of each model. Both incident and prevalent MS cases were studied. In analyses stratified by gender, being overweight at ages 10 and 20 were associated with MS in females (pchildhood and adolescence obesity confer increased risk of MS in females beyond established heritable and environmental risk factors. Strong evidence for a dose-effect of BMI in 20s and MS was observed. The magnitude of BMI association with MS is as large as other known MS risk factors. Copyright © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Simple obesity in children. A study on the role of nutritional factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weker, Halina

    2006-01-01

    carbohydrates and fats, before and after the beginning of dietary treatment. The assessments of the method of nutrition, including eating habits, proportions of food products in the food ration and nutritional value of daily food rations was conducted on the basis of 10-14-day records of the child's diet before the implementation of dietary treatment and on the basis of randomly selected 3-day records of the child's diet from the diet book after the dietary treatment was introduced. The environmental data were collected on the basis of a questionnaire, constructed for this study. The main risk factors for simple obesity in examined children (n=236) aged 3-15 yrs were familial and environmental conditions. A significant correlation was found between the children's obesity expressed by a normalized body mass index BMI z-score, unrelated to age and sex, and mother's level of education and father's obesity (Chi(2) test, pobesity the tendency to central obesity was observed since early childhood. In the examined group of children no distortions of metabolism of carbohydrates were observed (correct fasting levels of glucose), while in children with obesity the irregularities of metabolism of fats were noted. The implemented dietary treatment (low energy diet with elements of low glycemic index) had a significant impact on improvement of lipid metabolism in all children in whom the irregularities of metabolism of fats were noted. Modification of the diet of children aged 3-6 by implementing dietary recommendations, including the increased frequency of meals and the choice of products with low glycemic index, did not have a significant impact on the decrease of the body mass index in 95% of examined children. A considerable number of children aged 3-6 (n=12) continued to eat only three meals a day and their model of nutrition, including the selection of products, was not significantly modified. The introduced low energy diet with elements of low glycemic index in children of school age

  12. The prevalence, risk factors and clinical correlates of obesity in Chinese patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiongzhen; Du, Xiangdong; Zhang, Yingyang; Yin, Guangzhong; Zhang, Guangya; Walss-Bass, Consuelo; Quevedo, João; Soares, Jair C; Xia, Haishen; Li, Xiaosi; Zheng, Yingjun; Ning, Yuping; Zhang, Xiang Yang

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is a common comorbidity in schizophrenia. Few studies have addressed obesity in Chinese schizophrenia patients. The aims of this current study were to evaluate the prevalence, risk factors and clinical correlates of obesity in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. A total of 206 patients were recruited from a hospital in Beijing. Their clinical and anthropometric data together with plasma glucose and lipid parameters were collected. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was rated for all patients. Overall, 43 (20.9%) patients were obese and 67 (32.5%) were overweight. The obese patients had significantly higher glucose levels, triglyceride levels than non-obese patients. Females and patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus had increased risk for obesity. Correlation analysis showed that BMI was associated with sex, education levels, negative symptoms, total PANSS score, triglyceride levels and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Further stepwise regression analysis showed that sex, type 2 diabetes, education level, triglyceride and amount of smoking/day were significant predictors for obesity. Our study showed that the prevalence of obesity in Chinese patients with schizophrenia is higher than that in the general population. Some demographic and clinical variables are risk factors for obesity in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Risk Factors for Overweight and Obesity among Thai Adults: Results of the National Thai Food Consumption Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker S.C. Poston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the associations between overweight and obesity and socio-economic status (SES, behavioral factors, and dietary intake in Thai adults. A nationally representative sample of 6,445 Thais adults (18–70 years was surveyed during 2004–2005. Information including demographics, SES characteristics, dietary intake, and anthropometrics were obtained. Overall, 35.0% of men, and 44.9% of women were overweight or obese (BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2 using the Asian cut-points. Regression models demonstrated that age was positively associated with being overweight in both genders. In gender-stratified analyses, male respondents who were older, lived in urban areas, had higher annual household income, and did not smoke were more likely to be classified as overweight and obese. Women who were older, had higher education, were not in a marriage-like relationship and were in semi-professional occupation were at greater risk for being overweight and obese. High carbohydrate and protein intake were found to be positively associated with BMI whereas the frequent use of dairy foods was found to be negatively associated with BMI among men. The present study found that SES factors are associated with being classified as overweight and obese in Thai adults, but associations were different between genders. Health promotion strategies regarding obesity and its related co-morbidity are necessary.

  14. Factors predisposing to obesity: a review of the literature

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obesity is not only a problem found in the adult population but ... The rising prevalence of obesity is a worldwide problem affecting not only the developed world but also .... undergo catch-up growth.35 It is known that BMI falls in neonatal life.

  15. Obesity as an Emerging Risk Factor for Iron Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmar Aigner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron homeostasis is affected by obesity and obesity-related insulin resistance in a many-facetted fashion. On one hand, iron deficiency and anemia are frequent findings in subjects with progressed stages of obesity. This phenomenon has been well studied in obese adolescents, women and subjects undergoing bariatric surgery. On the other hand, hyperferritinemia with normal or mildly elevated transferrin saturation is observed in approximately one-third of patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. This constellation has been named the “dysmetabolic iron overload syndrome (DIOS”. Both elevated body iron stores and iron deficiency are detrimental to health and to the course of obesity-related conditions. Iron deficiency and anemia may impair mitochondrial and cellular energy homeostasis and further increase inactivity and fatigue of obese subjects. Obesity-associated inflammation is tightly linked to iron deficiency and involves impaired duodenal iron absorption associated with low expression of duodenal ferroportin (FPN along with elevated hepcidin concentrations. This review summarizes the current understanding of the dysregulation of iron homeostasis in obesity.

  16. Gut microbiota changes as a risk factor for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvit, Krystyna B; Kharchenko, Natalia V

    The number of obese people in recent decades is increasing significantly. Among the many aspects of obesity in the last decade, the role and importance of changes in the gut microbiota (GM) attracts special attention. The aim of the review was to analyze the results of studies, focused on the role of gut microbiota in the obesity development. Screening was conducted on 33 researches, which examined the role of the gut microbiota balance in the development of obesity. Among them, 13 studies were selected for more detailed analysis. Obesity revealed typical changes in GM: an increase in the number of microbes of the genus Firmicutes and a decrease in the number of microbes of the genus Bacteroeidetes, which is particularly vividly demonstrated by studies of rodents. In obese mice, the microfamilies of the genus Firmicutes account for 80% of all GM (in control animals 60%), and the number of microorganisms of the genus Bacteroeidetes decreases by half (from 40 to 20%), compared to mice with normal weight. Despite the complexity of the question of the relationship between GM and obesity, the totality of the data received, especially the results of experimental studies, affirm the thesis that changes in GM may contribute to the development of obesity.

  17. ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION AS A RISK FACTOR TO ACQUIRE OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Higuera-Sainz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This chapter describes the epidemiological panorama of overweight, obesity and presents alcohol consumption as a major risk factor for acquiring these health conditions. It also describes the definition of alcohol, its pharmacology, the role of alcohol consumption in overweight and obesity, the combination of alcoholic beverages with sugary drinks and concludes with a series of recommendations to limit alcohol consumption and in consequence to avoid or reduce the overweight and obesity caused in part by the abuse of this substance.

  18. Gender differences in the relationships between obesity and lifestyle risk factors in a small farming town in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kanae; Tamashiro, Hiko

    2008-10-01

    The prevalence of obesity and its relationship to lifestyle habits was studied in Minami Furano Town, a small farming town in Hokkaido, Japan. All residents of Minami Furano Town over 18 years of age were given an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire in March, 2002. Logistic-regression analysis was performed separately for each gender with obesity as the dependent valuable, and lifestyle risk factors as explanatory variables. The prevalence of obesity (BMI > or = 25) was 30.2% in men and 29.2% in women. The risk factors for obesity included "smoking", "having no hobby", "low intake frequency of green vegetables", "high intake frequency of cooking oil" and eating "a large quantity at dinnertime" in men. For women the risk factors included "age", "stress", "drinking alcohol", "eating quickly", "low tooth brushing frequency" and "irregular health checks". Nearly one third of the adults in this town were obese when assessed using the Japanese criteria of BMI > or = 25. Few women were employed full-time and they had limited opportunity for periodic health checks. Improved community-based nutrition activities are needed for women.

  19. Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity - Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes data on adult's diet, physical activity, and weight status from Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. This data is used for DNPAO's Data,...

  20. [The frequency of risk factors associated with obesity and being overweight in university students from Colima, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Hernández, Benjamín; Vásquez, Clemente; Almanza-Silva, José R; Jaramillo-Virgen, María E; Mellin-Landa, Tadeana E; Valle-Figueroa, Ofelia B; Pérez-Ayala, Roberto; Millán-Guerrero, Rebeca O; Prieto-Díaz-Chávez, Emilio; Newton-Sánchez, Oscar

    2010-04-01

    Determining risk factor frequency regarding obesity and being overweight in university students. A cross-sectional analytic study was carried out on 821 students from the University of Colima. Some variables analysed were age, gender, alcoholism, smoking and weight-control drug use. 821 students were included (380 male, 441 female), 20.9±2.5 average age. 27.8 % of males were overweight and 14.7 % suffered from obesity; this was 17 % and 5.2 % in females, respectively. Smoking (2.1 OR; 1.4-3.8 95 % CI; p=0.01) and alcoholism (2.1 OR; 1.2-3.6 95 % CI; p=0.003) were associated with being overweight and being obese. Weight-control drug use was a protective factor in both genders (0.4 OR; 0.2-0.8 95 % CI; p=0.01); diet control was only a protective factor in women (2.2. OR; 1.1-3.4 95 % CI; p=0.01). 31.6 % of university students were overweight and suffered from obesity. Smoking and alcoholism in males were associated with being overweight and suffering from obesity. Weight-control and diet-control drug use were protective factors.

  1. Prevalence of obesity, sarcopenic obesity and associated factors: A FIBRA Network study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Moura Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Sarcopenic obesity in older adults may lead to an inability to use muscles efficiently and has been associated with functional deficits and disabilities. Objective: To identify the prevalence of obesity and sarcopenic obesity (SO among community-dwelling older adults, and to characterize associated sociodemographics, health conditions and functional performance. Methods: Study data are from the FIBRA Network database of the Federal University of Minas Gerais. There were 1,373 older adult participants, subdivided into three groups: 1 non-obese; 2 non-sarcopenic obese; and 3 sarcopenic obese (SO. The latter is defined as a BMI ≥30 kg/m2 and weak palmar grip strength (PGS. Results: The overall prevalence of obesity and SO among older adults was 25.85% and 4.44%, respectively, with levels of frailty and pre-frailty among at 36.1% and 59%, respectively. Gait speed (GS was lower in the SO group as well, compared to the other groups. An average increase in GS of 0.1 m/sec reduced the likelihood of SO by 85.1%, in average. Sarcopenic obese older adults were 14.2 times more likely to be pre-fragile and 112.9 times more likely to be fragile than the other groups. Conclusion: The prevalence of obesity found in this study was higher than that in the general population, but similar to national statistics for the sample’s mean age and gender. SO was directly associated with frailty in advanced and instrumental activities of daily living as well as gait speed and significantly increased the likelihood of being pre-frail and frail. GS may be an extremely useful tool for monitoring the progress of SO in older adults.

  2. Childhood obesity, other cardiovascular risk factors, and premature death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Paul W; Hanson, Robert L; Knowler, William C; Sievers, Maurice L; Bennett, Peter H; Looker, Helen C

    2010-02-11

    The effect of childhood risk factors for cardiovascular disease on adult mortality is poorly understood. In a cohort of 4857 American Indian children without diabetes (mean age, 11.3 years; 12,659 examinations) who were born between 1945 and 1984, we assessed whether body-mass index (BMI), glucose tolerance, and blood pressure and cholesterol levels predicted premature death. Risk factors were standardized according to sex and age. Proportional-hazards models were used to assess whether each risk factor was associated with time to death occurring before 55 years of age. Models were adjusted for baseline age, sex, birth cohort, and Pima or Tohono O'odham Indian heritage. There were 166 deaths from endogenous causes (3.4% of the cohort) during a median follow-up period of 23.9 years. Rates of death from endogenous causes among children in the highest quartile of BMI were more than double those among children in the lowest BMI quartile (incidence-rate ratio, 2.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46 to 3.62). Rates of death from endogenous causes among children in the highest quartile of glucose intolerance were 73% higher than those among children in the lowest quartile (incidence-rate ratio, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.09 to 2.74). No significant associations were seen between rates of death from endogenous or external causes and childhood cholesterol levels or systolic or diastolic blood-pressure levels on a continuous scale, although childhood hypertension was significantly associated with premature death from endogenous causes (incidence-rate ratio, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.10 to 2.24). Obesity, glucose intolerance, and hypertension in childhood were strongly associated with increased rates of premature death from endogenous causes in this population. In contrast, childhood hypercholesterolemia was not a major predictor of premature death from endogenous causes. 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society

  3. PREVALENCE OF OBESITY AND ITS INFLUENCING FACTORS AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN OF BAGALKOT CITY, KARNATAKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannapur

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are the fifth leading risk of global deaths. Once considered a high income country problem, overweight and obesity are now raising in low income and middle income countries especially in urban settings . OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of obesity in school children and to identify the factors influencing childhood obesity. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: The present study has been undertaken at one of the school of Vidyagiri, Bagalkot. The duration of study was during March to August 2014 for a period of two months. A total of 750 students from standard V to X, aged between 10 - 15 year s had been enrolled in the study. It is a Cross - sectional descriptive study Obesity was assessed by BMI for age. Body mass index (BMI was calculated as body weight in kilograms/height in meter square. The children were categorized into obese and non - obese by using K.N. Agarwal percentiles, children with 95th Percentile of BMI is taken as cut - off point. Children with BMI more than this cut - off point with respect to age and sex is considered as obese. The association of each of the variables with obesity was assessed with the Chi - square test. RESULTS: 22.53% of the children had family history of obesity. The total prevalence of obesity was 2.80%. The Prevalence of obesity among male was 2.01% and in female it was 0.79%. The association between obesity in chil dren and family H/O obesity, Diabetes, frequency of outdoor games, number of high energy food intake and education of mother is found to be statistically significant

  4. A putative model of overeating and obesity based on brain-derived neurotrophic factor: direct and indirect effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Cara L; Kennedy, James L; Levitan, Robert D

    2012-08-01

    Increased food intake is a major contributor to the obesity epidemic in all age groups. Elucidating brain systems that drive overeating and that might serve as targets for novel prevention and treatment interventions is thus a high priority for obesity research. The authors consider 2 major pathways by which decreased activity of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may confer vulnerability to overeating and weight gain in an obesogenic environment. The first "direct" pathway focuses on the specific role of BDNF as a mediator of food intake control at brain areas rich in BDNF receptors, including the hypothalamus and hindbrain. It is proposed that low BDNF activity limited to this direct pathway may best explain overeating and obesity outside the context of major neuropsychiatric disturbance. A second "indirect" pathway considers the broad neurotrophic effects of BDNF on key monoamine systems that mediate mood dysregulation, impulsivity, and executive dysfunction as well as feeding behavior per se. Disruption in this pathway may best explain overeating and obesity in the context of various neuropsychiatric disturbances including mood disorders, attention-deficit disorder, and/or binge eating disorders. An integrative model that considers these potential roles of BDNF in promoting obesity is presented. The implications of this model for the early prevention and treatment of obesity are also considered.

  5. Obesity of women in Jordan - Prevalence and associated factors : making a case for a comprehensive obesity policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göllner, S.; Nimeh, Z.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the current burden of obesity in the female population of Jordan on a national scale and examines the factors associated with it. Demographics and Health Surveys (DHS) were used for the years 2002, 2007 and 2009 covering a total of 23,197 women, 15-49 years of age, and variables

  6. Dietary and Physical Activity/Inactivity Factors Associated with Obesity in School-Aged Children123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Rodriguez, Marcela; Melendez, Guillermo; Nieto, Claudia; Aranda, Marisol; Pfeffer, Frania

    2012-01-01

    Diet and physical activity (PA) are essential components of nutritional status. Adequate nutrition and an active lifestyle are key factors during childhood, because food habits track into adulthood. Children spend more time in school than in any other environment away from home. Studying the diet factors and patterns of PA that affect obesity risk in children during school hours and the complete school day can help identify opportunities to lower this risk. We directly measured the time children spent performing moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) at school, compared the amount and intensity of PA during school hours with after-school hours, and tried to determine if diet behaviors and PA or inactivity were associated with excess weight and body fat. This cross-sectional study included 143 normal-weight (NLW) and 48 obese children aged 8–10 y. Diet data were obtained from two 24-h recalls. Body composition was measured by bioimpedance. Screen time and sports participation data were self-reported. NLW children drank/ate more dairy servings than the obese children, who consumed more fruit-flavored water than the NLW group. Consumption of soft drinks, sugar-added juices, and fresh juices was low in both groups. Children were less active during school hours than after school. MVPA was lower during school hours in the obese group than in the NLW group. Schools, parents, and authorities should be more involved in promoting strategies to improve the dietary habits and PA levels of school-aged children, because this group is not achieving the recommended level of daily MVPA. PMID:22798003

  7. [Childhood obesity: a risk factor for development of flatfoot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldívar-Cerón, Héctor Iván; Garmendia Ramírez, Alberto; Rocha Acevedo, Marco Antonio; Pérez-Rodríguez, Pedro

    In Mexico, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is 34.4% in school-age children (ENSANUT 2012), which may induce a vicious cycle of flatfoot-plantalgia-sedentarism-obesity, although the presence and degree of flatfoot in school-age children with obesity has not yet been described in a Mexican population. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of flatfoot and its association with obesity in school-age children living in Tampico. An analytical and cross-sectional study with 1128 students, 48.8% male and 51.2% female, 9- to 11-years of age. Anthropometric measurements (weight and height) were performed. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and obesity was considered a BMI percentile >95. Plantar footprint was photographed via a podoscope using Denis classification to diagnose flatfoot grades. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was 49.1% and of flatfoot was 12.1% (male: 8.1%, female: 4%, p = 0.28). The association between obesity and flatfoot was significant (p Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  8. Adipose Expression of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α: Direct Role in Obesity-Linked Insulin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotamisligil, Gokhan S.; Shargill, Narinder S.; Spiegelman, Bruce M.

    1993-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) has been shown to have certain catabolic effects on fat cells and whole animals. An induction of TNF-α messenger RNA expression was observed in adipose tissue from four different rodent models of obesity and diabetes. TNF-α protein was also elevated locally and systemically. Neutralization of TNF-α in obese fa/fa rats caused a significant increase in the peripheral uptake of glucose in response to insulin. These results indicate a role for TNF-α in obesity and particularly in the insulin resistance and diabetes that often accompany obesity.

  9. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor: Critical Role in Obesity, Insulin Resistance, and Associated Comorbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kleemann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with insulin resistance, disturbed glucose homeostasis, low grade inflammation, and comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF is an ubiquitously expressed protein that plays a crucial role in many inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Increasing evidence suggests that MIF also controls metabolic and inflammatory processes underlying the development of metabolic pathologies associated with obesity. This is a comprehensive summary of our current knowledge on the role of MIF in obesity and obesity-associated comorbidities, based on human clinical data as well as animal models of disease.

  10. Comparative Aspects of Human, Canine, and Feline Obesity and Factors Predicting Progression to Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Margarethe Hoenig

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and diabetes mellitus are common diseases in humans, dogs and cats and their prevalence is increasing. Obesity has been clearly identified as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes in humans and cats but recent data are missing in dogs, although there is evidence that the unprecedented rise in canine obesity in the last decade has led to a rise in canine diabetes of similar magnitude. The insulin resistance of obesity has often been portrayed as major culprit in the loss of glucose control...

  11. Is obesity a risk factor for impaired cognition in young adults with low birth weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, M; Morgården, E; Gustafsson, J

    2014-10-01

    Overweight and obesity are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. There is also an association between body mass index (BMI) and cognitive ability. Since low birth weight is associated with adult metabolic disease, particularly in obese subjects, the question emerges whether obesity has an additional negative effect on cognitive function in subjects with low birth weight. The aim was to analyse whether overweight or obesity influence intellectual performance in young adults with particular focus on those with a low birth weight. Data were collected from the Swedish Medical Birth Register on 620,834 males born between 1973 and 1988 and matched to results on intellectual performance and BMI at conscription. The risk for low intellectual performance was higher for those with high BMI compared to those with normal. The highest risk was found among subjects with low birth weight and overweight or obesity in young adulthood (odds ratios, 1.98 [1.73-2.22] and 2.59 [2.00-3.34], respectively). However, subjects with further high birth weight and a high BMI at conscription had no further increased risk. Overweight and obesity are associated with an increased risk of subnormal intellectual performance in young adult males. Subjects with low birth weight and adolescent overweight/obesity are at particular risk of subnormal performance. A high birth weight increases the risk for obesity, but a high adult BMI does not further increase the risk for subnormal performance. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  12. The effect of aerobic exercise on some diabetic risk factors in obese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Exercise has been shown to prevent and delay onset of diabetes. The purpose of the present study is to examine the effect of walking exercise in reducing some diabetic risk factors in sedentary obese women. Methods: Eighteen untrained obese (BMI>30) women aged 19-25 years volunteer took part in the ...

  13. Prevalence and Potential Factors Associated with Overweight and Obesity Status in Adults with Intellectual Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Sobhana; Nasser, Jennifer A.; Fisher, Kathleen

    2018-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of being overweight and obese is increasing not just in the general population but also in individuals with intellectual disability (ID). Therefore, a need to identify factors contributing to overweight/obesity arises as this population is escalating. Materials and Methods: This narrative review article summarizes…

  14. Psychological and Behavioral Risk Factors for Obesity Onset in Adolescent Girls: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Shaw, Heather; Rohde, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Because little is known about risk factors for obesity, the authors tested whether certain psychological and behavioral variables predicted future onset of obesity. The authors used data from a prospective study of 496 adolescent girls who completed a baseline assessment at age 11-15 years and 4 annual follow-ups. Self-reported dietary restraint,…

  15. Cardiometabolic risk factors and quality of life in severely obese children and adolescents in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makkes, Sabine; Renders, Carry M; Bosmans, Judith E; van der Baan-Slootweg, Olga H; Seidell, Jacob C

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of severe obesity in children and adolescents is increasing. However, little is known about cardiometabolic risk factors and quality of life of children with severe obesity.Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the demographic characteristics and the prevalence of

  16. Factors Associated with Mothers' Obesity Stigma and Young Children's Weight Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holub, Shayla C.; Tan, Cin Cin; Patel, Sanobar L.

    2011-01-01

    Parents and children hold negative attitudes about obesity, but little is known about individual differences in obesity stigma. The current study examined authoritarian parenting style, beliefs about the controllability of weight and fear of fat in relation to mothers' dislike of overweight individuals. Factors related to children's weight…

  17. Ethnic Differences in Risk Factors for Obesity among Adults in California, the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Little attention has been given to differences in obesity risk factors by racial/ethnic groups. Using data from the 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey, we examined differences in risk factors for obesity among Whites, Latinos, Asians, and African Americans among 42,935 adults (24.8% obese. Estimates were weighted to ensure an unbiased representation of the Californian population. Multiple logistic and linear regression analyses were used to examine the differences in risk factors for obesity. Large ethnic disparities were found in obesity prevalence: Whites (22.0%, Latinos (33.6%, African Americans (36.1%, and Asians (9.8%. Differences in risk factors for obesity were also observed: Whites (gender, age, physical activity, smoking, arthritis, and diabetes medicine intake, Latinos (age, arthritis, and diabetes medicine intake, Asians (age, binge drinking, arthritis, and diabetes medicine intake, and African Americans (gender, physical activity, smoking, binge drinking, and diabetes medicine intake. Females were more likely to be obese among African Americans (odds ratio (OR = 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.05–1.94, but less likely among Whites (OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.74–0.87. Race/ethnicity should be considered in developing obesity prevention strategies.

  18. Preadipocyte factor-1 is associated with metabolic profile in severe obesity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, J

    2011-04-01

    Dysfunctional adipose tissue has been proposed as a key pathological process linking obesity and metabolic disease. Preadipocyte factor-1 (Pref-1) has been shown to inhibit differentiation in adipocyte precursor cells and could thereby play a role in determining adipocyte size, adipose tissue functioning, and metabolic profile in obese individuals.

  19. Factors Associated with Overweight and Obesity among Children of Mexican Descent: Results of a Binational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Lisa G.; Guendelman, Sylvia; Harley, Kim; Fernald, Lia C. H.; Neufeld, Lynnette; Mejia, Fabiola

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity is high among young children of Mexican origin in the United States, however, the determinants are poorly understood. We conducted a binational study with a sample from California (CA) and Mexico (MX), to identify and compare the most important factors associated with overweight and obesity among children of Mexican descent. Significantly more children were classified as overweight or obese in CA compared to MX (53.3 vs. 14.9%, P obese mother was significantly associated with being overweight or obese. In MX, male gender, high socioeconomic status and very low food insecurity were associated with being overweight or obese. These data offer hypotheses for how migration may influence the high prevalence of overweight among the Mexican children in California. PMID:20217234

  20. Psychosocial factors at work and obesity among young finnish adults: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Anne; Kaila-Kangas, Leena; Leino-Arjas, Päivi; Lindbohm, Marja-Liisa; Nevanperä, Nina; Remes, Jouko; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Laitinen, Jaana

    2015-05-01

    To examine the associations between occupational psychosocial factors and obesity among 31-year-olds, adjusting for adolescent body mass index, physical strenuousness of work, and adverse health behaviors (ie, stress-related eating/drinking, leisure-time physical inactivity, smoking, and high alcohol consumption). The study population comprised 2083 men and 1770 women from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. Obesity was defined as a body mass index of 30.0 kg/m or more. Psychosocial exposures were defined in terms of demands, control, and social support at work. Among men, high job demands and low worksite social support were independently associated with obesity. Among women, stress-related eating/drinking and physical inactivity seemed to promote obesity. Body mass index at age 14 was an important predictor of obesity for both sexes. In workplace obesity prevention programs, it might be beneficial to improve the psychosocial work environment and promote healthy behaviors simultaneously.

  1. Investigation of a Patient With a Partial Trisomy 16q Including the Fat Mass and Obesity Associated Gene (FTO): Fine Mapping and FTO Gene Expression Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, L.; Delemarre-van d Waal, H.A.; Han, J.C.; Ylstra, B.; Eijk, P.; Nesterova, M.; Heutink, P.; Stratakis, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    A female patient with a partial trisomy 16q was described previously. Her clinical characteristics included obesity, severe anisomastia, moderate to severe mental retardation, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, dysmorphic facies, and contractions of the small joints. In this article, we

  2. Obesity-related colon cancer: dietary factors and their mechanisms of anticancer action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Lazarova, Darina L

    2012-02-01

    Overweight/obesity is an epidemic in the US as well as in other developed countries, affecting two-thirds of Americans and an estimated 2.3 billion people worldwide. Obesity increases the risk for Type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. For example, epidemiological studies have established a strong association between obesity and colon cancer. It is generally accepted that metabolic changes associated with overweight/obesity, particularly abdominal obesity and changes in adipocyte function, contribute to the increased risk of colon cancer. Understanding the mechanisms underlying this association is important for the development of preventive strategies for colon cancer. Part of these preventive strategies may be based on dietary factors, such as vitamins, minerals (e.g. selenium), fibre, phytochemicals and phenolic compounds. These anticancer nutrients may counteract the molecular changes associated with obesity. The present article reviews the evidence that inflammation and insulin resistance induced by obesity are the molecular mediators of the association between obesity and colon cancer. We also evaluate the evidence for the ability of dietary factors to target the obesity-induced changes and, thus, protect against colon cancer. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Analysis of Obesity-Related Factors and their Association with Aromatase Expression in Canine Malignant Mammary Tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, J-I; Lim, H-Y; Kim, H-W; Seung, B-J; Ju, J-H; Sur, J-H

    2016-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of obesity in canine malignant mammary tumours (CMMTs), by assessing aromatase expression and the regulatory roles of immune mediators such as cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB), hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and adipokines (i.e. leptin) in lean, optimal body weight, overweight and obese animals. Clinicopathological data, including the breed, body weight, body condition score and age and neutering status, were collected, together with histopathological characteristics (i.e. histological types, grading and lymphatic invasion). To determine the expression of each factor, immunohistochemistry was conducted with 60 samples of malignant CMMTs. CMMTs from overweight and obese animals had significantly elevated levels of PGE2, and aromatase expression correlated significantly with PGE2, NF-κB and leptin expression. However, no significant difference was observed in terms of histopathological characteristics. The results suggest that PGE2, a known obesity-related immune mediator, could be upregulated in CMMTs from overweight and obese animals. In addition, PGE2, NF-κB and leptin influenced the expression of aromatase, as observed in women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Low Sleeping Time, High TV Viewing Time, and Physical Inactivity in School Are Risk Factors for Obesity in Pre-Adolescent Thai Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thasanasuwan, Wiyada; Srichan, Weerachat; Kijboonchoo, Kallaya; Yamborisut, Uruwan; Wimonpeerapattana, Wanphen; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Khouw, Ilse Tan; Deurenberg, Pual

    2016-03-01

    Explore the association between physically active behavior and obesity in 7- to 12-years-old Thai children. As part of SEANUTS Thailand, information on anthropometry, physical activity, and sociodemographic variables were collected in 7- to 12-years-old urban and rural Thai children. Multi-stage sampling technique was used and 1,345 children (32% urban, and 50.3% boys) participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, and BMI-for-age Z-scores (BAZ) using World Health Organization Growth Reference. Obesity was defined as BAZ > 2SD. Physical activity was assessed using a validated physical activity questionnaire (PAQ). The PAQ provided an activity score, activity time in school, sleeping hours, and TV watching time as categorical variable, low, moderate, and high. Chi-square by likelihood ratio test and logistic regression were used to compare obese and non-obese groups. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 10.2 and 10.8% respectively, whereas 8.2% was classified as thin. Maternal education and religion did not differ between obese and non-obese children. However, obese children's family income was higher. After controlling for family income, maternal education, and religion, obese children were significantly less active during break times in school, slept less, and watched more TV than non-obese. However, there was no difference in the activity score of obese and non-obese children. The study showed that physical activity during break time in school, sleep duration, and hours of TV viewing were associated with obesity in pre-adolescent Thai children. It is important to note that activity score was not associated with obesity. One of the most important benefits to be physically active in childhood is the potential to maintain this behavior into adulthood. Therefore, programs that encourage healthy behaviors and address these modifiable risk factors should be incorporated in the school curriculum.

  5. Obesity and associated factors in young adults attending tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aDepartment of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria. bDepartment of ... and 20–30% in Malaysia.12,13 ... presumed healthy and are therefore rarely the subjects of obesity.

  6. [EARLY MOTHER-CHILD BONDING FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CHILDREN OBESITY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Martínez, Gabriela; Cruzat Mandich, Claudia; Díaz Castrillón, Fernanda; Moore Infante, Catalina; Ulloa Jiménez, Valentina

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the experience of a group of mothers with obese children, regarding how early bond affects the relationship that both have with food and this, in turn, impacts on childhood obesity. The present study has a qualitative, exploratory and descriptive design. The sample consists of five chilean women between 22 and 39 years old, with obese children between 2 and 4 years old. In-depth interviews were carried out and open coding strategy was used as method of analysis. Results show a tendency of mothers to establish insecure attachment relations, difficulties of tuning and expression of affection, and a predominance of a permissive parenting style around food. This has important implications for prevention and treatment of obesity, focusing on the attachment bond between mother and child. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. Perception on obesity among university students: A case study using factor analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Suriani; Rahman, Nur Amira Abdol; Ghazali, Khadizah; Ismail, Norlita; Budin, Kamsia

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the university students' perceptions on obesity and to compare the difference in mean scores factor based on demographic factors. Data was collected randomly using questionnaires. There were 321 university students participated in this study. Descriptive statistics, factor analysis, normality test, independent t test, one-way ANOVA and non-parametric tests were used in this study. Factor analysis results managed to retrieve three new factors namely impact of the health, impact of the physical appearance and personal factors. The study found that Science students have higher awareness and perceptions than Art students on Factor 1, impact of the health towards overweight problems and obesity. The findings of the study showed students, whose family background has obesity problem have higher awareness and perceptions than students' whose family background has no obesity problem on Factor 1, impact of the health towards overweight problems and obesity. The study also found that students' whose father with primary school level had the lowest awareness and perceptions on Factor 2, impact of the physical appearance towards overweight problems and obesity than other students whose father with higher academic level.

  8. [Breastfeeding as a protective factor against overweight and obesity among pre-school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarpa, M Catalina; Cerda, L Jaime; Terrazas, M Claudia; Cano, C Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The rates of overweight and obesity among children have significantly increased in Chile. To assess the benefits of breastfeeding in preventing malnutrition by excessive intake of foods in Chilean pre-school children. A case-control study was conducted in 2011 on pediatric patients treated in a private Chilean healthcare center (San Joaquin Medical Center, Catholic University). Gender, age, weight, height, nutritional diagnosis, type of feeding during the first 6 months of life, socioeconomic status, parental education and obesity, television viewing, and kindergarten attendance were analyzed. A total of 209 patients were included in the study, 53.1% of whom were male, and 60.3% were predominantly breastfed for the first 6 months of life. More than half (51.7%) were eutrophic, 29.7% were overweight, and 18.6% obese. The patients were between the ages of 2 and 3 years 11 months. The crude Odds Ratio of breast-feeding versus formula during the first 6 months of life in patients with normal weight versus overweight children was 0.442 (95% CI 0.204-0.961). It was found that predominantly breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life acted as a protective factor against malnutrition by excessive intake of foods in Chilean pre-school children treated in this private medical center. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  9. Effects of lifestyle interventions that include a physical activity component in class II and III obese individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Baillot

    Full Text Available In class II and III obese individuals, lifestyle intervention is the first step to achieve weight loss and treat obesity-related comorbidities before considering bariatric surgery. A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression were performed to assess the impact of lifestyle interventions incorporating a physical activity (PA component on health outcomes of class II and III obese individuals.An electronic search was conducted in 4 databases (Medline, Scopus, CINAHL and Sportdiscus. Two independent investigators selected original studies assessing the impact of lifestyle interventions with PA components on anthropometric parameters, cardiometabolic risk factors (fat mass, blood pressure, lipid and glucose metabolism, behaviour modification (PA and nutritional changes, and quality of life in adults with body mass index (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2. Estimates were pooled using a random-effect model (DerSimonian and Laird method. Heterogeneity between studies was assessed by the Cochran's chi-square test and quantified through an estimation of the I².Of the 3,170 identified articles, 56 met our eligibility criteria, with a large majority of uncontrolled studies (80%. The meta-analysis based on uncontrolled studies showed significant heterogeneity among all included studies. The pooled mean difference in weight loss was 8.9 kg (95% CI, 10.2-7.7; p < 0.01 and 2.8 kg/m² in BMI loss (95% CI, 3.4-2.2; p < 0.01. Long-term interventions produced superior weight loss (11.3 kg compared to short-term (7.2 kg and intermediate-term (8.0 kg interventions. A significant global effect of lifestyle intervention on fat mass, waist circumference, blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and fasting insulin was found (p<0.01, without significant effect on HDL-C and fasting blood glucose.Lifestyle interventions incorporating a PA component can improve weight and various cardiometabolic risk factors in class II and III obese individuals. However, further

  10. Social, dietary and lifestyle factors associated with obesity among Bahraini adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Roomi, Khaldoon; Bader, Zahra

    2014-02-01

    The main purpose of this study was to explore some of the social, dietary and lifestyle factors that could be related to the risk of obesity among adolescents in Bahrain. A multistage stratified method was used to select secondary school students (15-18years old) from governmental schools in Bahrain. The total sample selected was 735 (339 males and 396 females). A pre-validated self-report questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demographics, food and the lifestyle habits of adolescents. Weight and height were taken and percentiles of Body Mass Index for age and gender were used to classify the adolescents as non-obese and obese (overweight and obese), using NHANES-1 growth standard. In general, the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 29.5% and 36.8% among males and females, respectively. The risk of obesity was not consistent among male and female adolescents. Mothers' education was found to be a risk factor for obesity among both males and females (p=0.0167 and p=0.007, respectively). Bringing food from home to school (odds ratio (OR)=0.54, confidence interval (CI) 0.35-0.81) was protective factor for obesity among females but not among males. Fathers' education (p=0.0167), rank among siblings (p=0.009), place where breakfast is eaten (p=0.0398), eating between lunch and dinner (p=0.0152), fruit intake (p=0.042), sweet intake (p=0.0192), size of burger (p=0.002) and hours of watching television per day (p=0.004) were significantly associated with the risk of obesity among males, but not among females. Various social, dietary and lifestyle factors were found to contribute to obesity among adolescents in Bahrain. These factors should be considered in school health policy in the country. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peer Support Resources Diseases and Conditions Adrenal Disorders Osteoporosis and Bone Health Children and Teen Health Diabetes Heart Health Men's Health Rare Diseases Pituitary Disorders Thyroid Disorders Transgender Health Obesity and Weight Management Women's Health You and Your ...

  12. Childhood obesity and adult cardiovascular disease risk factors: a systematic review with meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amna Umer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity is a major public health concern that includes associations with the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors during childhood and adolescence as well as premature mortality in adults. Despite the high prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity as well as adult CVD, individual studies as well as previous systematic reviews examining the relationship between childhood obesity and adult CVD have yielded conflicting results. The purpose of this study was to use the aggregate data meta-analytic approach to address this gap. Methods Studies were included if they met the following criteria: (1 longitudinal and cohort studies (including case-cohort, (2 childhood exposure and adult outcomes collected on the same individual over time, (3 childhood obesity, as defined by the original study authors, (4 English-language articles, (5 studies published up to June, 2015, (6 one or more of the following CVD risk factors [systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL, and triglycerides (TG], (7 outcome(s not self-reported, and (8 exposure measurements (child’s adiposity assessed by health professionals, trained investigators, or self-reported. Studies were retrieved by searching three electronic databases as well as citation tracking. Fisher’s r to z score was calculated for each study for each outcome. Pooled effect sizes were calculated using random-effects models while risk of bias was assessed using the STROBE instrument. In order to try and identify sources of heterogeneity, random-effects meta-regression was also performed. Results Of the 4840 citations reviewed, a total of 23 studies were included in the systematic review and 21 in the meta-analysis. The findings suggested that childhood obesity is significantly and

  13. Childhood obesity and adult cardiovascular disease risk factors: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umer, Amna; Kelley, George A; Cottrell, Lesley E; Giacobbi, Peter; Innes, Kim E; Lilly, Christa L

    2017-08-29

    Overweight and obesity is a major public health concern that includes associations with the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors during childhood and adolescence as well as premature mortality in adults. Despite the high prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity as well as adult CVD, individual studies as well as previous systematic reviews examining the relationship between childhood obesity and adult CVD have yielded conflicting results. The purpose of this study was to use the aggregate data meta-analytic approach to address this gap. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: (1) longitudinal and cohort studies (including case-cohort), (2) childhood exposure and adult outcomes collected on the same individual over time, (3) childhood obesity, as defined by the original study authors, (4) English-language articles, (5) studies published up to June, 2015, (6) one or more of the following CVD risk factors [systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL), and triglycerides (TG)], (7) outcome(s) not self-reported, and (8) exposure measurements (child's adiposity) assessed by health professionals, trained investigators, or self-reported. Studies were retrieved by searching three electronic databases as well as citation tracking. Fisher's r to z score was calculated for each study for each outcome. Pooled effect sizes were calculated using random-effects models while risk of bias was assessed using the STROBE instrument. In order to try and identify sources of heterogeneity, random-effects meta-regression was also performed. Of the 4840 citations reviewed, a total of 23 studies were included in the systematic review and 21 in the meta-analysis. The findings suggested that childhood obesity is significantly and positively associated with adult SBP (Zr

  14. Obesity in adolescence is associated with perinatal risk factors, parental BMI and sociodemographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birbilis, M; Moschonis, G; Mougios, V; Manios, Y

    2013-01-01

    To record the prevalence of overweight and obesity in primary-school children in relation to perinatal risk factors, parental body mass index and sociodemographics. A sample of 2294 schoolchildren aged 9-13 years was examined in municipalities from four Greek counties. Weight and height were measured using standard procedures, whereas international thresholds were used for the definition of overweight and obesity. Perinatal and parental data were also recorded via standardized questionnaires. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 30.5% and 11.6%, respectively, with a higher prevalence of obesity in boys compared with girls (13.7% vs 9.5%, Pcharacteristics (that is, younger fathers, Greek nationality, less educated and overweight parents) as important risk factors for children's overweight and obesity, indicating the multifactorial nature of their etiology and the need to extend our understanding beyond positive energy equilibrium.

  15. Obesity as risk factor and study of obesity related proteins in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High lipid profile of the serum is one of the factors that may result in the ... level, and lipid profile parameters such as cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL and VLDL ... including increased body-mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, serum triglyceride levels, ... serum proteins and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in ...

  16. Factors influencing quality of life of obese students in Hangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Ping; Wang, Hong-Mei; Edwards, Todd C; Wang, Ting; Jiang, Xiao-Ying; Lv, Yi-Ran; Patrick, Donald L

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the quality of life (QOL) of overweight and obese middle or high school students and identify relevant factors influencing their QOL scores. 716 students were recruited from 6 middle or high schools in Hangzhou, China. The Chinese version of the Youth Quality of Life Instrument-Weight Module (YQOL-W) was self administered. The YQOL-W scores were compared among different BMI groups, gender, educational status, annual household income, parental education and recruitment community using t test or one-way analysis of variance. The independent association of these variables with QOL among overweight and obese students was examined using multivariable linear regression modeling. Overweight and obese students reported lower total scores, self, social and environment scores than their normal weight peers (all Pstudents was associated with BMI value, gender, educational status, parental education, and recruitment community. Girls had lower total scores, self, social and environment domain scores than boys (all Pstudents had lower total and three domain scores than middle school students (all PStudents whose fathers had higher education reported higher total scores, self and social scores than students with less educated fathers (all PStudents whose mothers had higher education reported higher environment scores than students with less educated mothers (P = 0.01). Students from migrant communities reported significantly lower total scores, self and social scores than those from rural communities (all P0.05). Students from migrant communities reported comparable environment scores with those from rural and urban communities (P>0.05). Overweight and obesity have negative effects on students' quality of life. Therefore weight specific QOL could be included in weight reduction interventions as a relevant outcome.

  17. A three-year follow-up study on risk factors for obesity and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in aging populations in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Guansheng

    1999-01-01

    Obesity is being recognized as a major public health problem of global significance. The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide and also in China. Studies indicated that obesity is the major risk factor for several chronic degenerative diseases including cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. However, the underlying mechanism of obesity development and its relation to non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is not well understood. The major aim of the proposed research study is to investigate the effect of energy intake and expenditure on body composition and obesity development, and to identify obesity and NIDDM risk factors. This study will be conducted in 100 men and women aged 65 living in urban Beijing, China. 2-H and 18-O will be used for body composition and energy expenditure measurements, energy intake by a 3-day food weighted method, physical activity level by questionnaire, insulin determinations by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Demographic data of the subjects will also be collected. We anticipate that the results of this study would help us understand the underlying mechanism of obesity and the relation of obesity to NIDDM in Chinese aging population, so that effective strategies can be identified for prevention and management of obesity and NIDDM. (author)

  18. Intensive lifestyle intervention including high-intensity interval training program improves insulin resistance and fasting plasma glucose in obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Marquis-Gravel

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Following a 9-month intensive lifestyle intervention combining HIIT and MedD counseling, obese subjects experienced significant improvements of FPG and insulin resistance. This is the first study to expose the effects of a long-term program combining HIIT and MedD on glycemic control parameters among obese subjects.

  19. Prevalence of obesity and factors associated with it in a worksite setting in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Siew Man; Kandiah, Mirnalini; Chinna, Karuthan; Chan, Yoke Mun; Saad, Hazizi Abu

    2010-12-01

    Socio-economic status, lifestyle behaviors, and psychosocial factors have been implicated in the development of overweight and obesity. This study aims to observe the prevalence of overweight and obesity in an academic worksite and to examine the possible association between variables such as socio-economic characteristics, work factors, psychosocial factors, and weight control behaviors and obesity. In this study, the target population were full-time academic and non-academic staff. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were computed to determine obesity. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demographic factors, work related factors, psychosocial factors, and weight control behaviors. Data were obtained on 367 adults of whom 39.2% were males and 60.8% females. Overweight was seen in 31.9% of males and 26.5% of females while 16.1% of them were obese, irrespective of gender. Central obesity was noted in about 37% of males and 39% of females. The results showed that socio-demographic factors (age, gender, and education) and psychosocial factors (perceived health status, body weight perception, and weight-control goals) were significantly associated with BMI. Working hours were also significantly associated with BMI. However, weight control practices (diet-control practices and physical activity practices) were not significantly associated with BMI. In conclusion, this study found a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity among employees of a selected public university in comparison to the general population. Socio-demographic, psychosocial factors, and working hours were found to contribute to obesity in this sample of adults.

  20. A cross-sectional study on obesity and related risk factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    communiable diseases (NCDs). The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of obesity and identify its risk factors among women of the central market of Lusonga in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo. Methods: in October 2014, ...

  1. Risk factors of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence in South Asian countries: a systematic review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, S K; Puthussery, S

    2015-03-01

    To assess and synthesize the published evidence on risk factors of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence in South Asia. A systematically conducted narrative review. A systematic review was conducted of all primary studies published between January 1990 and June 2013 from India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, and Maldives located through the following data bases: PubMed, PubMed central, EMBASE, MEDLINE, BioMed central, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) and electronic libraries of the authors' institutions. Data extraction and quality appraisal of included studies was done independently by two authors and findings were synthesized in a narrative manner as meta-analysis was found to be inappropriate due to heterogeneity of the included studies. Eleven primary studies were included in the final review, all of which were conducted in school settings in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Prevalence of overweight and obesity showed wide variations in the included studies. The key individual risk factors with statistically significant associations to overweight and obesity included: lack of physical activities reported in six studies; prolonged TV watching/playing computer games reported in four studies; frequent consumption of fast food/junk food reported in four studies; and frequent consumption of calorie dense food items reported in two studies. Family level risk factors included higher socioeconomic status reported in four studies and family history of obesity reported in three studies. This review provides evidence of key contributors to the increasing burden of obesity and overweight among children and adolescents in South Asia, and demonstrates the nutritional transition that characterizes other developing countries and regions around the world. The findings have implications for policy, practice and the development of interventions at various levels to promote healthy eating and physical activity among children and adolescents in

  2. Obesity and Inflammation: Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Markers of Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heriberto Rodríguez-Hernández

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a public health problem that has reached epidemic proportions with an increasing worldwide prevalence. The global emergence of obesity increases the risk of developing chronic metabolic disorders. Thus, it is an economic issue that increased the costs of the comorbidities associated. Moreover, in recent years, it has been demonstrated that obesity is associated with chronic systemic inflammation, this status is conditioned by the innate immune system activation in adipose tissue that promotes an increase in the production and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines that contribute to the triggering of the systemic acute-phase response which is characterized by elevation of acute-phase protein levels. On this regard, low-grade chronic inflammation is a characteristic of various chronic diseases such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and some cancers, among others, which are also characterized by obesity condition. Thus, a growing body of evidence supports the important role that is played by the inflammatory response in obesity condition and the pathogenesis of chronic diseases related.

  3. Genetic predisposition to obesity affects behavioural traits including food reward and anxiety-like behaviour in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Heike; Kraemer, Maria; Rabasa, Cristina; Askevik, Kaisa; Adan, Roger A H; Dickson, Suzanne L

    2017-06-15

    Here we sought to define behavioural traits linked to anxiety, reward, and exploration in different strains of rats commonly used in obesity research. We hypothesized that genetic variance may contribute not only to their metabolic phenotype (that is well documented) but also to the expression of these behavioural traits. Rat strains that differ in their susceptibility to develop an obese phenotype (Sprague-Dawley, Obese Prone, Obese Resistant, and Zucker rats) were exposed to a number of behavioural tests starting at the age of 8 weeks. We found a similar phenotype in the obesity susceptible models, Obese Prone and Zucker rats, with a lower locomotor activity, exploratory activity, and higher level of anxiety-like behaviour in comparison to the leaner Obese Resistant strain. We did not find evidence that rat strains with a genetic predisposition to obesity differed in their ability to experience reward from chocolate (in a condition place preference task). However, Zucker rats show higher motivated behaviour for sucrose compared to Obese Resistant rats when the effort required to obtain palatable food is relatively low. Together our data demonstrate that rat strains that differ in their genetic predisposition to develop obesity also differ in their performance in behavioural tests linked to anxiety, exploration, and reward and that these differences are independent of body weight. We conclude that genetic variations which determine body weight and the aforementioned behaviours co-exist but that future studies are required to identify whether (and which) common genes are involved. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Obesity and kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Bezerra da Silva Junior

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity has been pointed out as an important cause of kidney diseases. Due to its close association with diabetes and hypertension, excess weight and obesity are important risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD. Obesity influences CKD development, among other factors, because it predisposes to diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephrosclerosis and focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis. Excess weight and obesity are associated with hemodynamic, structural and histological renal changes, in addition to metabolic and biochemical alterations that lead to kidney disease. Adipose tissue is dynamic and it is involved in the production of "adipokines", such as leptin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, transforming growth factor-β and angiotensin-II. A series of events is triggered by obesity, including insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis and hypertension. There is evidence that obesity itself can lead to kidney disease development. Further studies are required to better understand the association between obesity and kidney disease.

  5. Prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity and associated factors in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Emma C; Ariana, Proochista; Penny, Mary E; Frost, Melanie; Plugge, Emma

    2015-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with childhood overweight and obesity among a cohort of children 7-8 years of age in Peru. This was a cross-sectional secondary analysis of data from the Young Lives longitudinal study of childhood poverty. The sample was a cohort of 1 737 children 7-8 years of age in 2009. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was assessed using body mass index-forage Z-scores. Logistic regression was used to determine associations with a number of individual, household, and community factors. Prevalences of overweight and obesity were 19.2% and 8.6%, respectively. A prevalence of 32.0% and 23.5% overweight and obesity was found among males and females, respectively. High socioeconomic status, living in Lima, having a mother who was overweight or obese, being male, and being an only child or having only one sibling were associated with being overweight and obese at this age. This study shows a high prevalence of childhood and maternal overweight and obesity in Peru. In contrast to findings in many high-income countries, the findings in Peru indicate that children from wealthier households were more likely to be overweight or obese than those from poorer households. In addition, there is something particularly obesogenic about the Lima environment that merits further investigation, and several key issues to consider when targeting future interventions and research.

  6. Prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity and associated factors in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma C. Preston

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with childhood overweight and obesity among a cohort of children 7-8 years of age in Peru. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional secondary analysis of data from the Young Lives longitudinal study of childhood poverty. The sample was a cohort of 1 737 children 7-8 years of age in 2009. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was assessed using body mass index-forage Z-scores. Logistic regression was used to determine associations with a number of individual, household, and community factors. RESULTS: Prevalences of overweight and obesity were 19.2% and 8.6%, respectively. A prevalence of 32.0% and 23.5% overweight and obesity was found among males and females, respectively. High socioeconomic status, living in Lima, having a mother who was overweight or obese, being male, and being an only child or having only one sibling were associated with being overweight and obese at this age. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows a high prevalence of childhood and maternal overweight and obesity in Peru. In contrast to findings in many high-income countries, the findings in Peru indicate that children from wealthier households were more likely to be overweight or obese than those from poorer households. In addition, there is something particularly obesogenic about the Lima environment that merits further investigation, and several key issues to consider when targeting future interventions and research.

  7. Effects of aerobic training on leptin, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 levels in obese and lean men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahdat Boghrabadi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity results in some diseases such as of atherosclerosis diabetic and thereforeinfluence on the immune system, greatly. Given the undeniable role of sport in general health, the aim ofthis present study was to assay the effects of regular exercise on serum levels of immunoregulators factors(leptin, tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α and interleukin-6 in obese and lean men.Material and methods: 37 male subjects divided two groups of obese and lean with body compositionanalyzer. Blood samples were taken 48 h before starting the aerobic training program. Then, both groupsperformed the aerobic training program included running with 65-85% of individual maximum heart rateon treadmill for 3 sessions per week, 30 minutes per session and 2 consecutive months. Then anotherblood sample was taken following the training period. Serum levels of leptin, TNF- α and interleukin-6of all subjects before and after the training period were measured using standard biochemical methodsfrom all the subjects and all the parameters were measured in both groups again.Results: Our results showed that the aerobic training resulted in a significant decrease in leptin levelsin obese (p=0.000 and non obese (p=0.004 peoples and also a significant decrease in TNF- α (p=0.042in lean people. However, the aerobic training had no significant influence in the levels of interleukin-6 inboth groups.Conclusion: The results showed that regular and light aerobic exercises could decrase leptin levels inboth obese and lean men, but have differential effects on levels of TNF- α in both groups. These effectsmay influence functions of immune system and metabolism in obese and lean men in a different way.

  8. [Obesity and adolescence: psychological factors and family relationships].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombini, Elena

    2007-02-01

    The importance of psychological problems for children obesity and the role of the family context in favouring both pathology appearance and maintenance and eventually the failure of a correct dietetic therapy are presented. Particularly, maternal attitudes are underlined: obese children's mothers tend to make the family their exclusive centre of interest. They also tend to dedicate themselves to their children with possessiveness and hyper-protection. They seem to have an insistent requirement of idealisation of their own role as parents and reward expectations that confirm the efficiency of the care they provide their children. Moreover the psychological features of obese adolescents with anxious and depressive personality traits related to impulsivity and emotional immaturity are analysed.

  9. Determining the Relationship between U.S. County-Level Adult Obesity Rate and Multiple Risk Factors by PLS Regression and SVM Modeling Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau-Kuang Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Data from the Center for Disease Control (CDC has shown that the obesity rate doubled among adults within the past two decades. This upsurge was the result of changes in human behavior and environment. Partial least squares (PLS regression and support vector machine (SVM models were conducted to determine the relationship between U.S. county-level adult obesity rate and multiple risk factors. The outcome variable was the adult obesity rate. The 23 risk factors were categorized into four domains of the social ecological model including biological/behavioral factor, socioeconomic status, food environment, and physical environment. Of the 23 risk factors related to adult obesity, the top eight significant risk factors with high normalized importance were identified including physical inactivity, natural amenity, percent of households receiving SNAP benefits, and percent of all restaurants being fast food. The study results were consistent with those in the literature. The study showed that adult obesity rate was influenced by biological/behavioral factor, socioeconomic status, food environment, and physical environment embedded in the social ecological theory. By analyzing multiple risk factors of obesity in the communities, may lead to the proposal of more comprehensive and integrated policies and intervention programs to solve the population-based problem.

  10. Abdominal obesity and type 2 diabetes in Asian Indians: dietary strategies including edible oils, cooking practices and sugar intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, S; Misra, A

    2017-07-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are increasing in rural and urban regions of South Asia including India. Pattern of fat deposition in abdomen, ectopic fat deposition (liver, pancreas) and also low lean mass are contributory to early-onset insulin resistance, dysmetabolic state and diabetes in Asian Indians. These metabolic perturbations are further exacerbated by changing lifestyle, diet urbanization, and mechanization. Important dietary imbalances include increasing use of oils containing high amount of trans fatty acids and saturated fats (partially hydrogenated vegetable oil, palmolein oil) use of deep frying method and reheating of oils for cooking, high intake of saturated fats, sugar and refined carbohydrates, low intake of protein, fiber and increasing intake of processed foods. Although dietary intervention trials are few; the data show that improving quality of carbohydrates (more complex carbohydrates), improving fat quality (more monounsaturated fatty acids and omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) and increasing protein intake could improve blood glucose, serum insulin, lipids, inflammatory markers and hepatic fat, but more studies are needed. Finally, regulatory framework must be tightened to impose taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages, oils such as palmolein, and dietary fats and limit trans fats.

  11. Missing the target: including perspectives of women with overweight and obesity to inform stigma-reduction strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, R M; Himmelstein, M S; Gorin, A A; Suh, Y J

    2017-03-01

    Pervasive weight stigma and discrimination have led to ongoing calls for efforts to reduce this bias. Despite increasing research on stigma-reduction strategies, perspectives of individuals who have experienced weight stigma have rarely been included to inform this research. The present study conducted a systematic examination of women with high body weight to assess their perspectives about a broad range of strategies to reduce weight-based stigma. Women with overweight or obesity ( N  = 461) completed an online survey in which they evaluated the importance, feasibility and potential impact of 35 stigma-reduction strategies in diverse settings. Participants (91.5% who reported experiencing weight stigma) also completed self-report measures assessing experienced and internalized weight stigma. Most participants assigned high importance to all stigma-reduction strategies, with school-based and healthcare approaches accruing the highest ratings. Adding weight stigma to existing anti-harassment workplace training was rated as the most impactful and feasible strategy. The family environment was viewed as an important intervention target, regardless of participants' experienced or internalized stigma. These findings underscore the importance of including people with stigmatized identities in stigma-reduction research; their insights provide a necessary and valuable contribution that can inform ways to reduce weight-based inequities and prioritize such efforts.

  12. Obesity, knee osteoarthritis, and polypathology: factors favoring weight loss in older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isla Pera P

    2016-05-01

    rooted in their culture and preferences. Dietary education programs should focus on health-related quality of life and include scientific knowledge but should also consider affective factors and the problems perceived as priorities by patients. Keywords: obesity, elderly, polypathology, therapeutic education, diet, nursing, knee osteoarthritis

  13. [Socioeconomic factors conditioning obesity in adults. Evidence based on quantile regression and panel data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temporelli, Karina L; Viego, Valentina N

    2016-08-01

    Objective To measure the effect of socioeconomic variables on the prevalence of obesity. Factors such as income level, urbanization, incorporation of women into the labor market and access to unhealthy foods are considered in this paper. Method Econometric estimates of the proportion of obese men and women by country were calculated using models based on panel data and quantile regressions, with data from 192 countries for the period 2002-2005.Levels of per capita income, urbanization, income/big mac ratio price and labor indicators for female population were considered as explanatory variables. Results Factors that have influence over obesity in adults differ between men and women; accessibility to fast food is related to male obesity, while the employment mode causes higher rates in women. The underlying socioeconomic factors for obesity are also different depending on the magnitude of this problem in each country; in countries with low prevalence, a greater level of income favor the transition to obesogenic habits, while a higher income level mitigates the problem in those countries with high rates of obesity. Discussion Identifying the socio-economic causes of the significant increase in the prevalence of obesity is essential for the implementation of effective strategies for prevention, since this condition not only affects the quality of life of those who suffer from it but also puts pressure on health systems due to the treatment costs of associated diseases.

  14. PREVALENCE OF MALNUTRITION AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN WITH REFERENCE TO OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY AND ITS ASSOCIATED FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranu Rawat

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What influence does diet and physical activity have on the occurence of overweight and obesity in school aged children? Objectives: To study the diet and physical activity factors influencing overweight and obesity in school aged children. Study Design: Cross sectional Study. Settings: Field Practice area of Department of Community Medicine, LLRM Medical College, Meerut. Participants: 400 children between 5-14 years age group Statistical Analysis: Chi Square Test Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children was 9.8% and 3.7% respectively. Among dietary factors, a significant association was seen in the prevalence of overweight and obesity with consumption of >3 meals per day(P<0.001, habit of eating in between meals(P<0.05 and in having dinner as the heaviest meal of the day (P<0.02. Among physical activity factors, a significant association was seen in the prevalence of overweight and obesity with the habit of not playing outdoor games (P<0.001, not participating in household activities(P<0.001, using some vehicular transport to go to school (P<0.001 and watching T.V. for more than 3hrs/day(P<0.001.Conclusion:Diet and Physical activity have an influence on occurrence of overweight and obesity in school aged children. Dietary and lifestyle modification must be advised to children to prevent occurrence of overweight and obesity in them.

  15. Impact of obesity and body fat distribution on cardiovascular risk factors in Hong Kong Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, G Neil; Ho, Sai-Yin; Lam, Karen S L; Janus, Edward D; Hedley, Anthony J; Lam, Tai Hing

    2004-11-01

    Body fat distribution has been reported to differentially contribute to the development of cardiovascular risk. We report the relative associations between general and central obesity and risk factors in 2893 Chinese subjects recruited from the Hong Kong population. Anthropometric parameters [waist circumference (WC) and BMI], surrogate measures of insulin resistance (fasting plasma glucose and insulin, oral glucose tolerance test, 2 hours glucose and insulin), fasting lipids (total, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides) and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured. General obesity was classified as BMI > or =25.0 kg/m(2) and central obesity as a WC > or =80 or > or =90 cm in women and men, respectively. A total of 39.2% of the population was found to be obese. Obesity per se increased the levels of the risk factors, but central adiposity contributed to a greater extent to adverse high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglyceride, and insulin resistance levels. There was a continuous relationship between increasing obesity, both general and central, and cardiovascular risk, with lowest risk associated with the lowest indices of obesity. In the 1759 nonobese subjects divided into quartiles of BMI or WC, the levels of the cardiovascular risk factors still significantly increased with increasing quartiles of adiposity. Central adiposity appears to contribute to a greater extent than general adiposity to the development of cardiovascular risk in this population. The relationship between obesity parameters and risk is a continuum, with risk factors significantly increasing even at levels usually considered nonobese. These observations support the proposed redefinition of overweight and obesity in Asian populations using lower cut-off points.

  16. Risk factors for obesity among school aged children in western Algeria: results of a study conducted on 293 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbes, Mohamed Abdelhaq; Bereksi-Reguig, Karima

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious public health problem and its prevalence is increasing worldwide. Before a prevention approach, it is essential to make a diagnosis on the problem and its risk factors. We opted for a cross-sectional survey of 293 primary students of Sougueur. The prevalence of overweight including obesity according to IOTF cutoffs was 8.18%. A significant relationship existed between obesity and educational level of parents, level of physical activity; taking a snack and skipping the dinner. Our results seem much lower than published values. We find that excess food intake and light exercise can trigger overweight. In Algeria, it is time to launch programs for good nutritional information and a sufficient physical activity in children.

  17. Factors behind nonadherence to diet regimens among obese adults in Tanta, Egypt: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo Ali, Ehab A; Atlam, Salwa A; Ghareeb, Wessam A

    2016-03-01

    Nonadherence to diet regimens is a major cause of treatment failure in the field of obesity management. It varies according to the study design and the type of intervention. In weight loss clinical trials, nonadherence rates range from 10 to 80%. Strategies to reduce dropout rates rely on precise identification of factors leading to premature program termination. The aim of this research was to study factors behind nonadherence to diet regimens among obese adults in Tanta, Egypt. A retrospective, case-control study was carried out during the year 2014 in an obesity management private clinic in Tanta, Gharbia Governorate, Egypt. The study included two groups of 150 participants each (adherents and nonadherents) matched for sex and BMI. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data concerning sociodemographic characteristics, weight changes, dieting, and behavioral, psychological, and medical factors. Personal perspectives on potential factors contributing to nonadherence to diet regimens were also investigated. Factors significantly associated with probabilities high probability of to loss of adherence to diet regimens were as follows: younger age, urban residence, higher educational levels, obesity of grades I and III, a higher frequency of previous weight loss trials, consumption of fruits and vegetables less than that recommended (diet regimens were as follows: unsatisfactory results (37.3%), difficulties in dieting practices (33.3%), logistics (30.0%), and fading of motives (27.3%). Obese individuals seeking weight reduction with young age, urban residence, higher educational levels, a higher frequency of previous weight loss trials, higher weight loss expectations, and those with perceived unsatisfactory results are more prone to lose their adherence to diet regimens. Individuals with factors of nonadherence should receive extra care to avoid their withdrawal from diet programs and to improve clinical outcomes.

  18. Obesity as a risk factor for temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordani, P C; Campi, L B; Circeli, G Z; Visscher, C M; Bigal, M E; Gonçalves, D A G

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a clinical cross-sectional study to evaluate the association between obesity and the presence of painful temporomandibular disorders (TMD), controlling for age, gender, presence of migraine, depression, non-specific somatic symptoms and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) in an adult population. A total of 299 individuals (76·6% women) with a mean age of 36·8 ± 12·8 years were evaluated. TMD were classified using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD). Depression and non-specific somatic symptoms were scored by the Symptom Checklist-90, while pain and disability was rated by the Graded Chronic Pain Scale. Bioimpedanciometry (BIA) was used to assess obesity through total body fat percentage. Migraine was diagnosed according to the criteria of the International Classification of Headache Disorders-2 (ICHD-2). OSAS was classified according to the Berlin Questionnaire. We performed univariate and multivariate models, chi-square tests and odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). In the single regression analysis, TMD-pain was significantly associated with total body fat percentage (P = 0·01). In the multivariate analysis, migraine, age, non-specific somatic symptoms and OSAS showed to be stronger predictors of TMD-pain, and obesity did not retain in the regression model. The initial association found between obesity and TMD-pain is lost when it was corrected for gender, migraine, non-specific somatic symptoms and OSAS. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Overweight and Obesity among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing in various populations, and is becoming a huge problem among occupational/professional groups that are perceived as preponderantly sedentary. An attendant acquisition or imposition of a lowered physical activity level and other lifestyle with such occupations may ...

  20. Overweight or obesity prevalence, trends and risk factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using multivariable logistic regression analysis in the full model, the area of residence, wealth, religion and the number of household members were found to be significantly associated with being overweight/obese. In the adjusted model only the first three of these were still associated with a significantly increased risk.

  1. Association between cardiorespiratory fitness and metabolic risk factors in a population with mild to severe obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Kathy; Brown, Ruth E; Wharton, Sean; Ardern, Chris I; Kuk, Jennifer L

    2018-01-01

    Previous literature suggests the beneficial effects of fitness on abdominal obesity may be attenuated in obesity and abolished in severe obesity. It is unclear whether the beneficial association between fitness and health is similarly present in those with mild and severe obesity. Patients from the Wharton Medical Clinic ( n  = 853) completed a clinical examination and maximal treadmill test. Patients were categorized into fit and unfit based on age- and sex-categories and body mass index (BMI) class (mild: ≤ 34.9 kg/m 2 , moderate: 35-39.9 kg/m 2 or severe obesity: ≥ 40 kg/m 2 ). Within the sample, 41% of participants with mild obesity had high fitness whereas only 25% and 11% of the participants with moderate and severe obesity, respectively, had high fitness. BMI category was independently associated with most of the metabolic risk factors, while fitness was only independently associated with systolic blood pressure and triglycerides ( P  fitness groups were only significantly different in their relative risk for prevalent pre-clinical hypertension within the severe obesity group ( p  = 0.03). High fitness was associated with smaller waist circumferences, with differences between high and low fitness being larger in those with severe obesity than mild obesity (Men: P  = 0.06, Women: P  = 0.0005). Thus, in contrast to previous observations, the favourable associations of having high fitness and health may be similar if not augmented in individuals with severe compared to mild obesity.

  2. Risk factors identified for owner-reported feline obesity at around one year of age: Dry diet and indoor lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Elizabeth; Browne, William; Casey, Rachel; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Murray, Jane

    2015-10-01

    Obesity is considered the second most common health problem in pet cats in developed countries. Previous studies investigating risk factors for feline obesity have been cross-sectional, where reverse causality cannot be ruled out. This study is the first to use prospective data from a large scale longitudinal study of pet cats ('Bristol Cats') to identify early-life risk factors for feline overweight/obesity at around one year of age. Data analysed were collected via three owner-completed questionnaires (for cats aged 2-4 months, 6.5-7 months and 12.5-13 months) completed between May 2010 and August 2013. Owner-reported body condition scores (BCS) of cats at age 12.5-13 months, using the 5-point system, were categorised into a dichotomous variable: overweight/obese (BCS 4-5) and not overweight (BCS 1-3) and used as the dependent variable. Cat breed, neuter status, outdoor access, type of diet, frequency of wet and dry food fed and frequency of treats fed were analysed as potential risk factors. Of the 966 cats for which data were available, 7.0% were reported by their owners to be overweight/obese at 12.5-13 months of age. Descriptive data on type of diet fed at different cat ages suggest that a dry diet is the most popular choice for UK domestic cats. Significant potential explanatory variables from univariable logistic regression models were included in multivariable logistic regression models built using stepwise forward-selection. To account for potential hierarchical clustering of data due to multi-cat households these were extended to two-level random intercept models. Models were compared using Wald test p- values. Clustering had no impact on the analysis. The final multivariable logistic regression model identified two risk factors that were independently associated with an increased risk of feline obesity developing at 12.5-13 months of age: restricted or no outdoor access and feeding dry food as the only or major (>50%) type of food in the diet at age 12

  3. Associations Among Cardiometabolic Abnormalities, Obesity, and Sociobehavioral Factors in a Southern Nevada Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jing; Johnson, Michael D; Iser, Joseph P

    Cardiometabolic abnormalities underlie many health risks associated with obesity. We determined the relationship between cardiometabolic abnormalities, sociodemographic characteristics, and modifiable risk factors among adults in Southern Nevada. We included 2415 participants older than 20 years from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys conducted in 2011, 2013, and 2015 in Southern Nevada. Cardiometabolic abnormalities were assessed on the combined basis of blood pressure, cholesterol, and diabetes status. Logistic regression stratified by body mass index status was used to examine cardiometabolic abnormalities in different body mass index classes. Odds ratio estimates for cardiometabolic abnormalities after accounting for sociodemographic and health behavior characteristics. Cardiometabolic abnormalities followed a socioeconomic gradient, although adjustment for lifestyle variables attenuated the associative link. Non-Hispanic black (vs white) race did not elevate cardiometabolic abnormalities risk among nonobese adults, yet conferred a multivariable-adjusted odds ratio of 2.18 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-4.61) among obese adults. By comparison, odds of cardiometabolic abnormalities among nonobese adults were 2.42 (95% CI, 0.99-5.92) times higher for Hispanics and 2.83 (95% CI, 1.23-6.55) times higher for other or multiracial minorities. Among obese adults, male gender (odds ratio: 1.84; 95% CI, 1.03-3.27) and former (odds ratio: 2.09; 95% CI, 1.14-3.85) smoker status were associated with cardiometabolic abnormalities independent of other covariates. The present data support intervention strategies tailored to reinforce and promote positive health behaviors among disadvantaged groups. There were variable patterns of ethnic group disparities in clustered cardiometabolic abnormalities across body mass index classes. Targeted prevention approaches incorporating an explicit health equity perspective may help mitigate observed differences.

  4. Contextual factors influencing readiness for dissemination of obesity prevention programs and policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreisinger, Mariah L; Boland, Elizabeth M; Filler, Carl D; Baker, Elizabeth A; Hessel, Amy S; Brownson, Ross C

    2012-04-01

    Within the realm of obesity prevention research, there have been many promising interventions to improve physical activity and nutrition among diverse target populations. However, very little information is known about the dissemination and replication of these interventions. In 2007 and 2008 as part of a larger obesity prevention initiative, Missouri Foundation for Health funded 19 community-based programs throughout the state that showed promise of being model practices and committed to promoting their dissemination. Semi-structured key informant interviews were conducted with 64 individuals across the grant sites to help stage their readiness for dissemination. Through these interviews, the project team was able to identify the variables that impact a program's readiness for widespread distribution. Some factors contributing to readiness include: strong intervention planning and an existing sustainability plan; physical space available for the intervention; staff and monetary resources; administrative buy-in; community buy-in and engagement; a strong partner base and an agency with a healthy and active mission. These findings add to the literature by systematically identifying a set of key contextual variables. The qualitative data collected support a proposed framework and helps to establish a process for maintaining successful interventions based on several important factors that impact dissemination.

  5. Poverty is the main environmental factor for obesity in a Mexican-border city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; Castañeda-Gonzalez, Lidia M; Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat

    2013-05-01

    Obesity is a pandemic in Mexico. The purpose of this study was to assess the environmental factors that have the strongest association with obesity and abdominal obesity among adults in Tijuana. Four neighborhoods differing in socioeconomic status were chosen. A questionnaire for weekly walking, social cohesion, satisfaction with their community, weekly income, and convenience store, education, family income, crime safety, pedestrian safety, street connectivity, walking/cycling facilities, and sociodemographic characteristics was administered. Weight, height, and waist circumference were measured. Univariate and multivariate binomial logistic regressions were conducted. Three hundred and twenty-two (322) individuals, 70% females with a mean age of 39 years, were assessed. The prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity was 27% and 43.5% respectively. The odds ratio for obesity and abdominal obesity among those living in the lowest-income neighborhood was 2.4 and 7.8 respectively, compared with those living in a middle-class neighborhood. Residence in a low-income neighborhood was a predictor for obesity.

  6. Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2014-01-01

    A new report provides compelling evidence of the high prevalence of overweight and obesity throughout the world. The prevalence has increased since 1980, but at different rates across ages, times and locations. Studies exploring the causes of these differences could aid development of effective...

  7. Uric acid as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality in overweight/obese individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Skak-Nielsen

    Full Text Available The predictive value of serum uric acid (SUA for adverse cardiovascular events among obese and overweight patients is not known, but potentially important because of the relation between hyperuricaemia and obesity.The relationship between SUA and risk of cardiovascular adverse outcomes (nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, resuscitated cardiac arrest or cardiovascular death and all-cause mortality, respectively, was evaluated in a post-hoc analysis of the Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes (SCOUT trial. Participants enrolled in SCOUT were obese or overweight with pre-existing diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease (CVD. Cox models were used to assess the role of SUA as an independent risk factor.9742 subjects were included in the study; 83.6% had diabetes, and 75.1% had CVD. During an average follow-up time of 4.2 years, 1043 subjects had a primary outcome (myocardial infarction, resuscitated cardiac arrest, stroke, or cardiovascular death, and 816 died. In a univariate Cox model, the highest SUA quartile was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular adverse outcomes compared with the lowest SUA quartile in women (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20-2.10. In multivariate analyses, adjusting for known cardiovascular risk factors the increased risk for the highest SUA quartile was no longer statistically significant among women (HR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.72-1.36 nor was it among men. Analyses of all-cause mortality found an interaction between sex and SUA. In a multivariate Cox model including women only, the highest SUA quartile was associated with an increased risk in all-cause mortality compared to the lowest SUA quartile (HR: 1.51; 95% CI: 1.08-2.12. No relationship was observed in men (HR: 1.06; 95% CI: 0.82-1.36.SUA was not an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease and death in these high-risk overweight/obese people. However, our results suggested that SUA was an independent predictor of all

  8. Obesity and cardiometabolic disease risk factors among US adolescents with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiah, Sarah E; Vidot, Denise C; Somarriba, Gabriel; Haney, Kanathy; Aytur, Semra; Natale, Ruby A; Brosco, Jeffrey P; Arheart, Kristopher L

    2015-02-15

    To generate prevalence estimates of weight status and cardiometabolic disease risk factors among adolescents with and without disabilities. Analysis of the 1999-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data was conducted among 12-18 years old with (n = 256) and without disabilities (n = 5020). Mean values of waist circumference, fasting glucose, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and metabolic syndrome (MetS, ≥ 3 risk factors present) were examined by the following standardized body mass index (BMI) categories for those with and without disabilities; overweight (BMI ≥ 85(th) - obesity (BMI ≥ 95(th) percentile) and severe obesity (BMI ≥35 kg/m(2)). Linear regression models were fit with each cardiometabolic disease risk factor independently as continuous outcomes to show relationships with disability status. Adolescents with disabilities were significantly more likely to be overweight (49.3%), obese (27.6%) and severely obese (12%) vs their peers without disabilities (33.1%, 17.5% and 3.6%, respectively, P ≤ 0.01 for all). A higher proportion of overweight, obese and severely obese children with disabilities had abnormal SBP, fasting lipids and glucose as well as MetS (18.9% of overweight, 32.3% of obese, 55% of severely obese) vs their peers without disabilities (9.7%, 16.8%, 36.3%, respectively). US adolescents with disabilities are over three times as likely to have MetS (OR = 3.45, 95%CI: 1.08-10.99, P = 0.03) vs their peers with no disabilities. Results show that adolescents with disabilities are disproportionately affected by obesity and poor cardiometabolic health vs their peers with no disabilities. Health care professionals should monitor the cardiometabolic health of adolescents with disabilities.

  9. Cardiometabolic Risk Factors Related to Vitamin D and Adiponectin in Obese Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Kardas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity-related diseases are becoming the most important causes of mortality worldwide. Several studies have suggested an association between low levels of vitamin D and obesity. In addition, plasma adiponectin levels have been found to be lower in obese subjects. We evaluated the association of metabolic risk factors with both adiponectin and vitamin D levels and that between adiponectin and vitamin D levels. The study consisted of 114 obese and healthy subjects. 25-Hydroxy vitamin D [25(OHD] levels were positively correlated with adiponectin and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C and inversely correlated with body mass index (BMI, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C, total cholesterol (T-C, triglyceride (TG, fasting glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA index, systolic blood pressure (SBP, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP. The mean 25(OHD levels in the obese and nonobese groups were and  ng/mL, respectively (. The mean adiponectin level in the obese group was lower than that in the nonobese group (. Lower vitamin D and adiponectin levels were strongly associated with metabolic risk factors and obesity in Turkish children and adolescents.

  10. Social class, family, and life-style factors associated with overweight and obesity among adults in Peruvian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Enrique; Goldstein, Juli; López, Augusto; Núñez, Eloisa; López, Teresa

    2003-11-01

    Overweight and obesity have reached epidemic proportions in Latin America. The purpose of this study was to explore social and behavioral factors associated with obesity in Peruvian cities. Between 1998 and 2000 health examination surveys were conducted among adults in 1176 families identified in six cities. Stratified by social class, multistaged random sampling was used. Using body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)), men and women were classified into normal weight (BMI or =30); abdominal circumference (> or =94 cm in men and > or =84 cm in women) further identified morbidity risk. Several demographic, social, and behavioral variables were collected following standardized procedures. Adjusting for age, 37% of women were categorized as normal weight, 40% overweight, and 23% obese; corresponding figures for men were 40, 44, and 16%. More developed cities, e.g., Lima, Arequipa, and Ica, had the largest prevalence of overweight and obesity for both men and women. Adjusted logistic models showed that BMI > or =25 was positively correlated with age; whereas, education was negatively associated, only among women. Other significant associated factors of overweight included city of residence, television viewing > or =4 h daily in women, and underestimation of body weight status. The study showed elevated rates of overweight across the income level spectrum. Factors such as urban development stage, income, education, and gender posed differential relationships with the risk of overweight and must be considered in designing future public health interventions. Underestimation of body weight status and sedentary behavior may also constitute specific areas of intervention.

  11. Analysis of risk factors in obese patients with coronary artery disease, with and without diabetes mellitus type two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Danjela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus type 2 is one of the leading chronic diseases in the world and in our country, which is an important risk factor for development of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Objective. The aim of this research was making the estimation of risk factors in the etiology of coronary heart disease in obese patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. The study included 82 obese patients, of which 52 with diabetes mellitus and 30 without diabetes mellitus, in all of them coronary artery disease proven by coronary angiography. All were examined by clinical examination, laboratory tests and echocardiography. Based on the test results we found that the distribution of risk factors such as hypertension, family burden coronary artery disease, smoking, alcohol intake was the same in the obese patients with diabetes mellitus, and of those without diabetes mellitus. Echocardiography showed significantly larger left ventricle, lower ejection fraction, larger left atrium and significant mitral regurgitation. Also, in a group of patients with diabetes mellitus, there was significantly higher number of patients with multiple vessel coronary disease. Despite the small sample, we can conclude that the present of diabetes mellitus in obese patients is crucial for severe forms of coronary artery disease. Severity is expressed through significant structural and functional changes in the left ventricle and the number of diseased coronary arteries.

  12. The rs4285184 polymorphism of the MGAT1 gene as a risk factor for obesity in the Mexican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Rivera, José C; Baltazar-Rodríguez, Luz M; Cárdenas-Rojas, Martha I; Álvarez, Alan; Bustos-Saldaña, Rafael; Delgado-Enciso, Iván; Valdez-Velázquez, Laura L; Guzmán-Esquivel, José; Ramírez-Flores, Mario

    2017-02-23

    Obesity is a factor that contributes to the morbidity of certain diseases and to worldwide mortality. MGAT1 is a glycosyltransferase involved in the synthesis of protein-bound and lipid-bound oligosaccharides and its polymorphisms are possibly involved in the etiology of obesity. We investigated the association of the rs4285184 polymorphism of the MGAT1 gene with obesity in adults in the State of Colima, Mexico. A case-control study was conducted that included 244 subjects. All of them were grouped according to their percentage of body fat, determined through bioelectrical impedance, and they were genotyped for the rs4285184 polymorphism of the MGAT1 gene through PCR-RFLP. The results were analyzed for their association with the percentage of body fat. The G allele had a frequency of 49.19 and 38.75% for the cases and controls, respectively (P=.020) (OR 1.53; 95% CI 1.068-2.193). The frequency of the A/G+G/G genotype was 75% in the obese patients, which was significantly higher compared with the 57.5% of the control group (P=.004) (OR 2.217; 95% CI 1.287-3.821). The presence of the rs4285184 polymorphism of the MGAT1 gene increased the risk for developing body fat associated with obesity in the Mexican population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Edmonton obesity staging system among pediatric patients: a validation and obesogenic risk factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammatikopoulou, M G; Chourdakis, M; Gkiouras, K; Roumeli, P; Poulimeneas, D; Apostolidou, E; Chountalas, I; Tirodimos, I; Filippou, O; Papadakou-Lagogianni, S; Dardavessis, T

    2018-01-08

    The Edmonton Obesity Staging System for Pediatrics (EOSS-P) is a useful tool, delineating different obesity severity tiers associated with distinct treatment barriers. The aim of the study was to apply the EOSS-P on a Greek pediatric cohort and assess risk factors associated with each stage, compared to normal weight controls. A total of 361 children (2-14 years old), outpatients of an Athenian hospital, participated in this case-control study by forming two groups: the obese (n = 203) and the normoweight controls (n = 158). Anthropometry, blood pressure, blood and biochemical markers, comorbidities and obesogenic lifestyle parameters were recorded and the EOSS-P was applied. Validation of EOSS-P stages was conducted by juxtaposing them with IOTF-defined weight status. Obesogenic risk factors' analysis was conducted by constructing gender-and-age-adjusted (GA) and multivariate logistic models. The majority of obese children were stratified at stage 1 (46.0%), 17.0% were on stage 0, and 37.0% on stage 2. The validation analysis revealed that EOSS-P stages greater than 0 were associated with diastolic blood pressure and levels of glucose, cholesterol, LDL and ALT. Reduced obesity odds were observed among children playing outdoors and increased odds for every screen time hour, both in the GA and in the multivariate analyses (all P  2 times/week was associated with reduced obesity odds in the GA analysis (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.33-0.98, P linear = 0.047), it lost its significance in the multivariate analysis (P linear = 0.145). Analogous results were recorded in the analyses of the abovementioned physical activity risk factors for the EOSS-P stages. Linear relationships were observed for fast-food consumption and IOTF-defined obesity and higher than 0 EOSS-P stages. Parental obesity status was associated with all EOSS-P stages and IOTF-defined obesity status. Few outpatients were healthy obese (stage 0), while the majority exhibited several comorbidities

  14. Psychosocial risk factors, weight changes and risk of obesity: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Louise Bagger; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Prescott, Eva

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish the effects of a range of psychosocial factors on weight changes and risk of obesity. The study population consisted of the 4,753 participants in the third (1991-1994) and fourth wave (2001-2003) of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark. At baseline...... the participants were asked comprehensive questions on major life events, work stress, vital exhaustion, social network, economic hardship, and intake of sleep medication. Weight and height were measured by health professionals. Weight changes and incident obesity was used as outcome measures. The participants...... in the associations between social network, economic hardship and weight gain or obesity. The number of psychosocial risk factors, as an indicator for clustering, was not associated with weight gain or obesity. In conclusion, major life events and vital exhaustion seem to play a role for weight gain and risk...

  15. Excess vitamin intake: An unrecognized risk factor for obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Shi-Sheng; Zhou, Yiming

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, food fortification and infant formula supplementation with high levels of vitamins have led to a sharp increase in vitamin intake among infants, children and adults. This is followed by a sharp increase in the prevalence of obesity and related diseases, with significant disparities among countries and different groups within a country. It has long been known that B vitamins at doses below their toxicity threshold strongly promote body fat gain. Studies have demonstr...

  16. Are fast food restaurants an environmental risk factor for obesity?

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffery, Robert W; Baxter, Judy; McGuire, Maureen; Linde, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Objective Eating at "fast food" restaurants has increased and is linked to obesity. This study examined whether living or working near "fast food" restaurants is associated with body weight. Methods A telephone survey of 1033 Minnesota residents assessed body height and weight, frequency of eating at restaurants, and work and home addresses. Proximity of home and work to restaurants was assessed by Global Index System (GIS) methodology. Results Eating at "fast food" restaurants was p...

  17. Association of lipid profile and waist circumference as cardiovascular risk factors for overweight and obesity among school children in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizk NM

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nasser M Rizk, Mervat YousefHealth Sciences Department, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University, Doha, QatarBackground: Childhood obesity is a national as well as worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of overweight and obesity among Qatari children with lipid profile and waist circumference as adverse cardiovascular risk factors in children aged 6–11 years. International Obesity Task Force reference values were used to screen for overweight and obesity.Methods: A cross-sectional study in a randomly selected sample was conducted in 315 Qatari primary school students aged 6–11 years. Anthropometric measurements, including body weight, height, waist circumference, and body mass index were calculated for 151 girls and 164 boys. Weight categories were based on International Obesity Task Force reference values. Fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and triglycerides were measured, and atherogenic index was calculated.Results: In total, 31.71% of boys and 32.78% of girls were overweight or obese. Overweight and obese children screened against International Obesity Task Force reference values had a significantly increased risk of high waist circumference (P < 0.0001, hypertriglyceridemia (P = 0.002, low HDL-C (P = 0.017, and atherogenic index (P = 0.021 compared with children who were not overweight or obese. The partial correlation coefficient for the cardiovascular risk marker of waist circumference indicated a positive significant association with total cholesterol (r = 0.465, P = 0.003, triglycerides (r = 0.563, P < 0.001, and LDL-C (r = 0.267, P = 0.003, and a significant negative association with HDL-C (r = −0.361, P = 0.004. Overweight and obesity significantly increase the odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence interval (CIs of cardiovascular risk factors as follows: hypertriglyceridemia (OR 6.34, CI 2.49–13

  18. Are fast food restaurants an environmental risk factor for obesity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linde Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Eating at "fast food" restaurants has increased and is linked to obesity. This study examined whether living or working near "fast food" restaurants is associated with body weight. Methods A telephone survey of 1033 Minnesota residents assessed body height and weight, frequency of eating at restaurants, and work and home addresses. Proximity of home and work to restaurants was assessed by Global Index System (GIS methodology. Results Eating at "fast food" restaurants was positively associated with having children, a high fat diet and Body Mass Index (BMI. It was negatively associated with vegetable consumption and physical activity. Proximity of "fast food" restaurants to home or work was not associated with eating at "fast food" restaurants or with BMI. Proximity of "non-fast food" restaurants was not associated with BMI, but was associated with frequency of eating at those restaurants. Conclusion Failure to find relationships between proximity to "fast food" restaurants and obesity may be due to methodological weaknesses, e.g. the operational definition of "fast food" or "proximity", or homogeneity of restaurant proximity. Alternatively, the proliferation of "fast food" restaurants may not be a strong unique cause of obesity.

  19. Dietary factors, obesity and serum lipoprotein profile: A nutritional epidemiological study in young adult twins

    OpenAIRE

    Bogl, Leonie-Helen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Energy-dense food and low physical activity have been blamed for the dramatic rise in the prevalence of obesity and related metabolic disorders. However, few dietary and physical activity factors have been consistently associated with obesity in observational studies. Self-reported behaviors are prone to misreporting, which may partly explain the inconsistency of previous results. Nutritional biomarkers provide an objective approach to measure habitual intake, but valid biomarkers...

  20. Obesity and its association with sociodemographic factors, health behaviours and health status among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal adults in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Katherine Ann; Joshy, Grace; Korda, Rosemary; Eades, Sandra J; Wade, Vicki; Bambrick, Hilary; Liu, Bette; Banks, Emily

    2018-06-01

    High body mass index (BMI) is the second leading contributor to Australia's burden of disease and is particularly prevalent among Aboriginal peoples. This paper aims to provide insight into factors relating to obesity among Aboriginal adults and Aboriginal-non-Aboriginal differences. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the 45 and Up Study, comparing obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m 2 ) prevalence and risk factors among 1515 Aboriginal and 213 301 non-Aboriginal adults in New South Wales. Age-sex-adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) for obesity by sociodemographic factors, health behaviours and health status were estimated (multivariable log-binomial regression) for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal participants separately. We quantified the extent to which key factors (physical activity, screen time, education, remoteness, area-level disadvantage) accounted for any excess Aboriginal obesity prevalence. Obesity prevalence was 39% among Aboriginal and 22% among non-Aboriginal participants (PR=1.65, 95% CI 1.55 to 1.76). Risk factors for obesity were generally similar for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal participants and included individual-level and area-level disadvantage, physical inactivity, and poor physical and mental health, with steeper gradients observed among non-Aboriginal participants for some factors (P interaction 40% of the excess Aboriginal obesity prevalence. A substantial proportion of the excess obesity prevalence among Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal participants was explained by physical activity, screen time, education, remoteness and area-level disadvantage. Socioeconomic and health behaviour factors are potential targets for promoting healthy BMI, but these must be considered within the context of upstream social and cultural factors. Adults with health needs and disability require particular attention. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted

  1. Obesity and vehicle type as risk factors for injury caused by motor vehicle collision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, John P; Griffin, Russell Lee; Sathiakumar, Nalini; McGwin, Gerald

    2014-04-01

    This study sought to describe variations in the risk of motor vehicle collision (MVC) injury and death by occupant body mass index (BMI) class and vehicle type. We hypothesized that the relationship between BMI and the risk of MVC injury or mortality would be modified by vehicle type. This is a retrospective cohort study of occupants involved in MVCs using data from the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network and the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System. Occupants were grouped based on vehicle body style (passenger car, sport utility vehicle, or light truck) and vehicle size (compact or normal, corresponding to below- or above-average curb weight). The relationship between occupant BMI class (underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese) and risk of injury or mortality was examined for each vehicle type. Odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for various occupant and collision characteristics were estimated. Of an estimated 44 million occupants of MVCs sampled from 2000 to 2009, 37.1% sustained an injury. We limited our analysis to injuries achieving an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score of 2 or more severe, totaling 17 million injuries. Occupants differed substantially in terms of demographic and collision characteristics. After adjustment for confounding factors, we found that obesity was a risk factor for mortality caused by MVC (OR, 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.0). When stratified by vehicle type, we found that obesity was a risk factor for mortality in larger vehicles, including any-sized light trucks (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.3-3.5), normal-sized passenger cars (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.3), and normal-sized sports utility vehicles or vans (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.0-3.8). Being overweight was a risk factor in any-sized light trucks (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.1). We identified a significant interaction between occupant BMI class and vehicle type in terms of MVC-related mortality risk. Both factors should be taken into account when

  2. Prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and associated factors in obese Spanish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durá-Travé, T; Gallinas-Victoriano, F; Chueca-Guindulain, M J; Berrade-Zubiri, S

    2017-03-13

    Vitamin D deficiency may contribute to endocrine health and disease (diabetes, autoimmune thyroid diseases, polycystic ovarian syndrome, etc.). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and specific factors for hypovitaminosis D among children stratified by body mass index (BMI) in Northern Spain. A cross-sectional clinical (sex, age, season of study visit, place of residence and BMI) and blood testing (calcium, phosphorous, calcidiol and parathyroid hormone (PTH)) were accomplished in 546 Caucasian individuals (aged 3.2-15.8 years). The BMI (Z-score) allowed establishing four groups: normal, overweight, obesity and severe obesity. The criteria of the US Endocrine Society were used for the definition of hypovitaminosis D. Calcidiol levels were significantly higher in normal and overweight groups (P=0.001), whereas PTH levels were significantly higher in obesity and severe obesity groups (P=0.001). Hypovitaminosis D prevalence was significantly higher in severe obesity (81.1%) and obesity (68.2%) groups, whereas was lowest in overweight (55%) and normal (58.1%) groups (P=0.001). There was a negative correlation between calcidiol and PTH levels (P<0.01). Female (90.9%), adolescent group (88,2%), winter (100%) and autumn (82.4%) time and urban residence (94.1%) imply a higher prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in subjects with severe obesity (P<0.001). Female, puberal age, autumn, winter and spring time, urban residence and severe obesity were found to be independent predictors for hypovitaminosis D. Severe obesity could be considered as an associated factor for vitamin D deficiency, and, owing to its high prevalence, the implementation of systematic screening and hypovitaminosis treatment programs would be particularly useful.

  3. Life-style factors associated with overweight and obesity among Spanish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martín, A; Novalbos Ruiz, J P; Martínez Nieto, J M; Escobar Jiménez, L

    2009-01-01

    To assess the relationship between life styles and eating habits with the overweight and obesity prevalence in a Spanish adult population. A population-based, cross-sectional study conducted on 2640 subjects older than 15 years, in Cádiz (Spain). Surveys were conducted in subjects' homes to obtain life styles, eating habits, and anthropometric data. Logistic regression has been used to study the association between the life style variables and overweight and obesity. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Cadiz is 37% and 17%, respectively; higher in males and increases with age. BMI has an inverse relationship with educational level (PR = 2.3, 1.57-2.38). The highest levels of obesity are associated with daily alcohol consumption (PR = 1.39, 1.29-1.50), greater consumption of television,and sedentary pursuit (PR 1.5, 1.07-1.24). A lower prevalence of obesity is observed among those with active physical activity (10.9% vs 21.6%), with differences between sex. Following a slimming diet is more frequent in the obese and in women but dedicate more hours than men to passive activities. In men is greater the consumption of alcohol, high energy foods and snacks. Overweight and obesity is associated with the male sex (OR = 3.35 2.75-4.07), high consumption of alcohol (OR = 1.38 1.03-1.86) and watching television (OR = 1.52 1.11-2.07), and foods likes bread and cereals (OR = 1.47 1.13-1.91). Exercise activities is a protective factor (OR = 0.76 0.63-0.98). Life styles factors associated with overweight and obesity present different patterns in men and women and is necessary to understand them to identify areas for behavioural intervention in overweight and obesity patients.

  4. Origins of balance disorders during a daily living movement in obese: can biomechanical factors explain everything?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Mignardot

    Full Text Available Obese people suffer from postural deficits and are more subject to falls than their lean counterpart. To improve prevention and post-fall rehabilitation programs, it seems important to better understand the posturo-kinetic disorders in daily life situations by determining the contribution of some key factors, mainly morphological characteristics and physical activity level, in the apparition of these disorders. Twelve severe android obese and eight healthy non obese adults performed a reaching task mobilizing the whole body. To further determine the origin of the postural and motor behavior differences, non obese individuals also performed an experimental session with additional constraints which simulated some of the obese morphological characteristics. Impact of the sedentary lifestyle was also studied by dissociation of the obese in two subgroups: physically « active » and physically « inactive ». Movement kinetics and kinematics were characterized with an optoelectronic system synchronized to a force platform. The mechanical equilibrium pattern was evaluated through the displacements of the Centre of Mass (CoM and the centre of foot pressure within the Base of Support (BoS. Results showed that obesity decreased movement speed (≈-23%, p<0.01, strongly increased CoM displacement (≈+30%, p<0.05 and induced an important spatio-temporal desynchronization (≈+40%, p<0.05 of the focal and postural components of the movement during the transition between the descending and ascending movements. The role of some morphological characteristics and of physical activity on obese patients' postural control disorder is discussed and set back in the more general context of overall factors contributing to postural deficits with obesity.

  5. Origins of balance disorders during a daily living movement in obese: can biomechanical factors explain everything?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignardot, Jean-Baptiste; Olivier, Isabelle; Promayon, Emmanuel; Nougier, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Obese people suffer from postural deficits and are more subject to falls than their lean counterpart. To improve prevention and post-fall rehabilitation programs, it seems important to better understand the posturo-kinetic disorders in daily life situations by determining the contribution of some key factors, mainly morphological characteristics and physical activity level, in the apparition of these disorders. Twelve severe android obese and eight healthy non obese adults performed a reaching task mobilizing the whole body. To further determine the origin of the postural and motor behavior differences, non obese individuals also performed an experimental session with additional constraints which simulated some of the obese morphological characteristics. Impact of the sedentary lifestyle was also studied by dissociation of the obese in two subgroups: physically « active » and physically « inactive ». Movement kinetics and kinematics were characterized with an optoelectronic system synchronized to a force platform. The mechanical equilibrium pattern was evaluated through the displacements of the Centre of Mass (CoM) and the centre of foot pressure within the Base of Support (BoS). Results showed that obesity decreased movement speed (≈-23%, p<0.01), strongly increased CoM displacement (≈+30%, p<0.05) and induced an important spatio-temporal desynchronization (≈+40%, p<0.05) of the focal and postural components of the movement during the transition between the descending and ascending movements. The role of some morphological characteristics and of physical activity on obese patients' postural control disorder is discussed and set back in the more general context of overall factors contributing to postural deficits with obesity.

  6. The development of hypothalamic obesity in craniopharyngioma patients: A risk factor analysis in a well-defined cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Iersel, Laura; Meijneke, Ruud W H; Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette Y N; Reneman, Liesbeth; de Win, Maartje M; van Trotsenburg, A S Paul; Bisschop, Peter H; Finken, Martijn J J; Vandertop, W Peter; van Furth, Wouter R; van Santen, Hanneke M

    2018-05-01

    Hypothalamic obesity (HO) is a major concern in patients treated for craniopharyngioma (CP). The influence of degree of resection on development of HO, event-free survival (EFS), and neuroendocrine sequelae is an issue of debate. A retrospective cohort consisting of all CP patients treated between 2002 and 2012 in two university hospitals was identified. Multivariable logistic regression was used to study the associations between preoperative BMI, age at diagnosis, tumor volume, performed surgical resection, and presence of HO at follow-up. Thirty-five patients (21 children and 14 adults) were included. Median follow-up time was 35.6 months (4.1-114.7). Four patients were obese at diagnosis. HO was present in 19 (54.3%) patients at last follow-up of whom eight were morbidly obese. Thirteen (37.1%) patients underwent partial resection (PR) and 22 (62.9%) gross total resection (GTR). GTR was related to HO (OR 9.19, 95% CI 1.43-59.01), but for morbid HO, obesity at diagnosis was the only risk factor (OR 12.92, 95% CI 1.05-158.73). EFS in patients after GTR was 86%, compared to 42% after PR (log-rank 9.2, P = 0.003). Adjuvant radiotherapy after PR improved EFS (log-rank 8.2, P = 0.004). Panhypopituitarism, present in 15 patients, was mainly seen after GTR. HO is less frequent after PR than after GTR, but PR cannot always prevent the development of morbid obesity in patients with obesity at diagnosis. PR reduces the occurrence of panhypopituitarism. When developing a treatment algorithm, all these factors should be considered. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Cloning Changes the Response to Obesity of Innate Immune Factors in Blood, Liver, and Adipose Tissues in Domestic Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbøge, Tina Rødgaard; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Stagsted, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of cloned pigs as porcine obesity models reflecting obesity-associated changes in innate immune factor gene expression profiles. Liver and adipose tissue expression of 43 innate immune genes as well as serum concentrations of six immune...... factors were analyzed in lean and diet-induced obese cloned domestic pigs and compared to normal domestic pigs (obese and lean). The number of genes affected by obesity was lower in cloned animals than in control animals. All genes affected by obesity in adipose tissues of clones were downregulated; both...... upregulation and downregulation were observed in the controls. Cloning resulted in a less differentiated adipose tissue expression pattern. Finally, the serum concentrations of two acute-phase proteins (APPs), haptoglobin (HP) and orosomucoid (ORM), were increased in obese clones as compared to obese controls...

  8. Obesity.

    OpenAIRE

    Callaway, C W

    1987-01-01

    Obesity is not a single disease, but a variety of conditions resulting from different mechanisms and associated with various types and degrees of risks. To determine who should lose weight, how much weight should be lost, and how to undertake weight loss, the following types of information are needed: personal-demographic data, developmental patterns, family history, energy balance, body composition/fat distribution, psychological/behavioral measures, endocrine/metabolic measures, complicatio...

  9. Obesity is associated with fatal coronary heart disease independently of traditional risk factors and deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logue, Jennifer; Murray, Heather M; Welsh, Paul; Shepherd, James; Packard, Chris; Macfarlane, Peter; Cobbe, Stuart; Ford, Ian; Sattar, Naveed

    2011-04-01

    The effect of body mass index (BMI) on coronary heart disease (CHD) risk is attenuated when mediators of this risk (such as diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia) are accounted for. However, there is now evidence of a differential effect of risk factors on fatal and non-fatal CHD events, with markers of inflammation more strongly associated with fatal than non-fatal events. To describe the association with BMI separately for both fatal and non-fatal CHD risk after accounting for classical risk factors and to assess any independent effects of obesity on CHD risk. In the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study BMI in 6082 men (mean age 55 years) with hypercholesterolaemia, but no history of diabetes or CVD, was related to the risk of fatal and non-fatal CHD events. After excluding participants with any event in the first 2 years, 1027 non-fatal and 214 fatal CHD events occurred during 14.7 years of follow-up. A minimally adjusted model (age, sex, statin treatment) and a maximally adjusted model (including known CVD risk factors and deprivation) were compared, with BMI 25-27.4 kg/m² as referent. The risk of non-fatal events was similar across all BMI categories in both models. The risk of fatal CHD events was increased in men with BMI 30.0-39.9 kg/m² in both the minimally adjusted model (HR = 1.75 (95% CI 1.12 to 2.74)) and the maximally adjusted model (HR = 1.60 (95% CI 1.02 to 2.53)). These hypothesis generating data suggest that obesity is associated with fatal, but not non-fatal, CHD after accounting for known cardiovascular risk factors and deprivation. Clinical trial registration WOSCOPS was carried out and completed before the requirement for clinical trial registration.

  10. Prevalence of obesity and its associated risk factors among Chinese adults in a Malaysian suburban village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Wai Fong; Masyita, Mamot; Leong, Pooi Pooi; Boo, Nem Yun; Zin, Thaw; Choo, Kong Bung; Yap, Sook Fan

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is a major modifiable risk factor associated with most chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity, and its associated risk factors, among apparently healthy Chinese adults in a Malaysian suburban village. This was a cross-sectional study conducted among the Chinese residents in Seri Kembangan New Village, Klang Valley, Selangor, Malaysia. Convenience sampling was used for the selection of participants. Body weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, and blood pressure were measured. Fasting venous plasma was drawn for the measurement of fasting glucose level and lipid profile. Data on sociodemographic factors, dietary habits, physical activity, perceived stress level and sleep duration were collected using interviewer-administered, pretested and validated questionnaires. Among the 258 Chinese residents (mean age 41.4 ± 10.0 years) recruited, the prevalence of obesity was 40%. The obese participants had significantly higher mean blood pressure, and triglyceride and fasting plasma glucose levels than the non-obese participants (p diet consists mainly of vegetables (adjusted OR 0.440; 95% CI 0.215-0.900; p healthy suburban Chinese. Our findings suggest that soy milk consumption and the perception that a balanced diet consists mainly of vegetables are associated with a lower risk of developing obesity in this population.

  11. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Obesity among South African Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owolabi EO

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity contributes to the burden of chronic diseases and it is a public health challenge. The rate of overweight and obesity in South Africa is dramatically on the increase and disturbingly high. This study aimed at determining the prevalence and predictors of overweight and obesity among adults in Eastern Cape Province of South Africa; which information is lacking. METHODOLOGY: This cross-sectional survey utilised the WHO STEPwise approach in collecting data on demographic and behavioural factors from 1077 adults attending the three largest out-patient clinics in the Buffalo City Metropolitan municipality, Eastern Cape. Height and weight were measured in accordance with standard procedure. Obesity and overweight were defined according to WHO criteria. We performed bivariate and multivariate (logistic regression analyses to determine the significant predictors of obesity. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight and obesity were 24% and 46%, respectively. The prevalence of obesity was higher among female (53.4% compared to males (27.4%. Obesity was strongly associated with pre-diabetes (250/54.7%, RR=2, 95% CI 1.6-2.6, p=0.001, diabetes (145/59.4%, RR=2.1, 95%CI 1.6-2.9, p=0.001 and hypertension (276/56.2%, RR=2.4, 95%CI 1.9-3.1, p=0.0001. In the multivariate analysis, after adjusting for confounding factors, only age (AOR= 2.0, 95%CI= 1.3-3.0, sex (AOR= 3.8, 95%CI= 2.7-5.3, being married (AOR=2.3, 95%CI= 1.7-3.2, hypertension (AOR=2.0, 95%CI= 1.5-2.8, diabetes (AOR=1.4, 95%CI=1.0-2.0 and no cigarette smoking (AOR= 2.8, 95%CI= 1.7-4.5 were the independent and significant predictors of obesity among the participants. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of obesity was high and strongly associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Health policies targeting obesity and cardiovascular risk factors should be prioritised by the Eastern Cape and South African government in order to mitigate the burden of non-communicable diseases.

  12. Cloning changes the response to obesity of innate immune factors in blood, liver, and adipose tissues in domestic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rødgaard, Tina; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Stagsted, Jan; Heegaard, Peter M H

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of cloned pigs as porcine obesity models reflecting obesity-associated changes in innate immune factor gene expression profiles. Liver and adipose tissue expression of 43 innate immune genes as well as serum concentrations of six immune factors were analyzed in lean and diet-induced obese cloned domestic pigs and compared to normal domestic pigs (obese and lean). The number of genes affected by obesity was lower in cloned animals than in control animals. All genes affected by obesity in adipose tissues of clones were downregulated; both upregulation and downregulation were observed in the controls. Cloning resulted in a less differentiated adipose tissue expression pattern. Finally, the serum concentrations of two acute-phase proteins (APPs), haptoglobin (HP) and orosomucoid (ORM), were increased in obese clones as compared to obese controls as well as lean clones and controls. Generally, the variation in phenotype between individual pigs was not reduced in cloned siblings as compared to normal siblings. Therefore, we conclude that cloning limits both the number of genes responding to obesity as well as the degree of tissue-differentiated gene expression, concomitantly with an increase in APP serum concentrations only seen in cloned, obese pigs. This may suggest that the APP response seen in obese, cloned pigs is a consequence of the characteristic skewed gene response to obesity in cloned pigs, as described in this work. This should be taken into consideration when using cloned animals as models for innate responses to obesity.

  13. [Morbidity rate of obesity in children in ukraine. Overweight as noncontagious disease risk factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Заболотна, Ірина Е

    The upsurge of prevalence rate of obesity and overweight that in the majority of cases traces back to childhood is a risk factor of the most common noncontagious diseases in adults. The aim was to analyze prevalence of obesity in children in Ukraine and to conduct the pilot study of medical condition of overweight children. Official state statistics of prevalence rate of obesity in kids and screening data of anthropometric characteristics, arterial tension levels, physical performance decrement and medical condition of children (boys - 50, girls - 90, average age - 15,1±0,1 years) was used in research. Data calculation performed by Statistica v. 6.0 software. Over the past few decades, the morbidity rate of obesity in children in Ukraine has greatly increased, especially in year class 15-17. Insufficient diagnosis of obesity in children is the consequence of the inadequacy of the existing system of preventive care and monitoring survey of decease risk factors. Children with body mass index (BMI) above normal have a risk of work decrement in 5,2 times (odds ratio, OR=5,2, CI95%: 1,7-10,6). Such children have higher risk of development of the diseases of the respiratory system (OR=8,1; CI95%: 3,9-13,6) and allergic dermatitis (OR=7,7; CI95%: 3,7-12,9). The odds ratio of arterial hypertension in such children is equal to 3,46±0,3 (95%CI: 2,0-5,9). According to prediction calculations, the situation with the increase of prevalence rate of obesity in children in Ukraine is unfavorable. The introduction of measures aimed at finding children with obesity, their registration and monitoring of patients' health with due regard to decease risk factors at the primary care level would conduce to improving prevention of obesity and prevention of alimentary diseases progression.

  14. Overweight and Obesity among Preschool Children from Fars Province of Iran: Prevalence and Associated Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh-Rostami, Zahra; Kavosi, Elham; Nasihatkon, Aliasghar

    2016-01-01

    The global prevalence of overweight and obesity had risen in recent decades, and obesity is taken into consideration as a public health concern and a major risk factor of common chronic disease. The objective of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity and to identify its underlying factors among children 2-6 yr of age in Fars Province, southern Iran. A total of 8911 children, aged 2-6 yr age, were selected thorough multi-stage sampling in 30 cities of Fars Province in 2012-13. Overweight and obesity status was assessed through comparison by standard BMI for age and for sex percentiles (NCHS/CDC). In addition, socio-demographic measures obtained from structured questionnaire were compared between normal and overweight plus obese (ow/ob) groups. We used backward stepwise Logistic Regression, Chi-square and Independent sample t-test to relate the underlying factors to the nutritional indices. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 5.7% (95% CI: 5.2%, 6.1%) and 5.2% (95% CI: 4.7%, 5.6%), respectively. The ow/ob was significantly correlated with male sex, urbanization, type of father's occupation, universal education of mothers, the higher birth weight, low access to household facilities, and not using health-care services (P<0.05). Besides, the logistic regression analysis showed urbanization (OR=1.46, CI: 1.26, 1.70), second sibling (OR=1.183, CI: 1.00, 1.39), and less access to a variety of food groups (OR=1.32, CI: 1.05, 1.65) as ow/ob risk factors. The rate of overweight and obesity in the study population is at an alarming level. Therefore, a preventive program is needed to control ow/ob since early childhood considering the underlying factors for each region and individual groups.

  15. Socio-demographic and dietary factors associated with obesity among female university students in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Hammad, Shatha S; Tayyem, Reema F; Qatatsheh, Ala A

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to explore the socio-demographic and dietary factors that may be associated with obesity among female university students in Jordan. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 406 female students recruited from two universities in Jordan. Data were collected through self-reporting, using a previously validated questionnaire. Weight and height were measured and body mass index was calculated to determine the weight status of the participants. High educational level of mothers [odds ratio (OR)=1.25] and monthly pocket money of more than 200 Jordanian Dinars (OR=1.67) were found to be risk factors for obesity, whereas a sibling ranking of more than six was a protective factor (OR=0.31). Those who were eating from the university cafeteria had double the risk for obesity (OR=2.41) than those who did not. Regular eating of meals and snacking between meals were found to be protective factors (OR ranged from 0.42 to 0.79). Regular consumption of milk products, fruit, canned fruit juices, bakery products and legumes were found to be protective factors. In contrast, the regular consumption of potato chips (OR=1.35), chicken (OR=1.51), and fish (OR=1.45) were found to be risk factors for obesity. Using a chi-square test, none of the factors studied showed significant association with obesity. A program to promote healthy eating among university students in Jordan should consider the local socio-demographic and food behavior factors that could be related to obesity to ensure the effectiveness of such a program.

  16. A Comparison of Biological and Physical Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in Overweight/Obese Individuals With and Without Prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingting

    2017-12-01

    Compared with type 2 diabetes, evaluating the direct biological and physical risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in overweight/obese adults with and without prediabetes is less understood. Therefore, the aim of the study was to compare baseline biological and physical risk factors for CVD among overweight/obese adults with and without prediabetes. A secondary data analysis was performed. Three hundred forty-one overweight/obese participants were included in the analysis. Compared with non-prediabetics, prediabetics had higher fasting blood glucose, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and triglycerides. Prediabetics were also more likely to be insulin resistant than non-prediabetics. Participants with prediabetes had much lower cardiorespiratory fitness than those without prediabetes. Findings from this study suggest that healthy overweight/obese adults with prediabetes were likely at higher biological and physical risk of CVD at baseline compared with those without prediabetes. Early intervention to improve CVD risk progression among persons with prediabetes is essential.

  17. Comparisons in childhood obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors among urban Saudi Arab adolescents in 2008 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Daghri, N M; Aljohani, N J; Al-Attas, O S; Al-Saleh, Y; Alnaami, A M; Sabico, S; Amer, O E; Alharbi, M; Kumar, S; Alokail, M S

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to compare the prevalence of childhood obesity and other cardiometabolic risk factors from two independent cohorts (2008 and 2013) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 4549 adolescents aged 12-18 years [2454 boys, 2095 girls], taken from two independent cohorts, 5 years apart (2008 and 2013), were included. Anthropometrics were measured, and fasting blood samples were taken to ascertain glucose and lipid profile. The overall prevalence of obesity was significantly higher in 2013 [15.3 (95% confidence interval 13.7-16.9)] than 2008 [12.6 (11.3-13.9)] (P = 0.012). Stratified by sex, the prevalence of obesity among boys was significantly higher in 2013 than 2008 [2008 = 12.0 (10.3-13.7) versus 2013 = 17.4 (15.1-19.7); P childhood obesity in Saudi Arabia has increased in particular age groups (13-15 years) during a 5-year span. Special attention is warranted in these vulnerable age groups, particularly in boys, as cardiometabolic risk factors appear to worsen. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Overweight Status, Obesity, and Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, C. Michael; Robinson, Laura M.; Davidson, Philip W.; Haveman, Meindert; Janicki, Matthew P.; Albertini, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    Research indicates that adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) have high rates of overweight status/obesity (OSO). OSO is associated with several important risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). This study focused on assessing whether such risk factors are being identified in adults with ID who are receiving their healthcare in…

  19. Normal weight obesity among young adults in Trinidad and Tobago: prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsaran, Cherrita; Maharaj, Rohan G

    2017-04-01

    Patients with normal weight obesity (NWO) have a normal body mass index (BMI) but elevated body fat percentage (BF%), thereby increasing their risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of NWO and its associated factors in a sample of young adults in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T). A cross sectional study involving a convenience non-voluntary sample of participants with a normal BMI of 18.5-24.9 kg/m2 was conducted. The following information was collected: history, basic anthropometric measurements, including BF% via the Tanita Ironman Body Composition Analyzer (BC554), physical examination and basic blood investigations. Participants were divided into two groups; normal BF% (young adult population was found to have NWO. Long-term studies are recommended to study the full implications of these findings.

  20. Prevalence of Overweight/Obesity and Its Associated Factors among University Students from 22 Countries

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    Karl Peltzer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity among young people increases lifetime cardiovascular risk. This study assesses the prevalence of overweight/obesity and its associated factors among a random sample of university students from 22 universities in 22 low, middle income and emerging economy countries. This cross-sectional survey comprised of a self-administered questionnaire and collected anthropometric measurements. The study population was 6773 (43.2% males and 8913 (56.8% females, aged 16 to 30 years (mean 20.8 years, SD = 2.6. Body mass index (BMI was used for weight status. Among men, the prevalence of underweight was 10.8%, normal weight 64.4%, overweight 18.9% and obesity 5.8%, while among women, the prevalence of underweight was 17.6%, normal weight 62.1%, overweight 14.1% and obesity 5.2%. Overall, 22% were overweight or obese (24.7% men and 19.3% women. In multivariate regression among men, younger age, coming from a higher income country, consciously avoiding fat and cholesterol, physically inactivity, current tobacco use and childhood physical abuse, and among women older age, coming from a higher income country, frequent organized religious activity, avoiding fat and cholesterol, posttraumatic stress symptoms and physical childhood abuse were associated overweight or obesity. Several gender specific risk factors identified can be utilized in health promotion programmes.

  1. Insatiable insecurity: maternal obesity as a risk factor for mother-child attachment and child weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitel-Korndörfer, Anja; Sierau, Susan; Klein, Annette M; Bergmann, Sarah; Grube, Matthias; von Klitzing, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become a rising health problem, and because parental obesity is a basic risk factor for childhood obesity, biological factors have been especially considered in the complex etiology. Aspects of the family interaction, e.g., mother-child attachment, have not been the main focus. Our study tried to fill this gap by investigating whether there is a difference between children of obese and normal weight mothers in terms of mother-child attachment, and whether mother-child attachment predicts child's weight, in a sample of 31 obese and 31 normal weight mothers with children aged 19 to 58 months. Mother-child attachment was measured with the Attachment Q-Set. We found that (1) children of obese mothers showed a lower quality of mother-child attachment than children of normal weight mothers, which indicates that they are less likely to use their mothers as a secure base; (2) the attachment quality predicted child`s BMI percentile; and (3) the mother-child attachment adds incremental validity to the prediction of child's BMI beyond biological parameters (child's BMI birth percentile, BMI of the parents) and mother's relationship status. Implications of our findings are discussed.

  2. Prevalence of overweight/obesity and its associated factors among university students from 22 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Samuels, T Alafia; Özcan, Neslihan Keser; Mantilla, Carolina; Rahamefy, Onja H; Wong, Mee Lian; Gasparishvili, Alexander

    2014-07-21

    Obesity among young people increases lifetime cardiovascular risk. This study assesses the prevalence of overweight/obesity and its associated factors among a random sample of university students from 22 universities in 22 low, middle income and emerging economy countries. This cross-sectional survey comprised of a self-administered questionnaire and collected anthropometric measurements. The study population was 6773 (43.2%) males and 8913 (56.8%) females, aged 16 to 30 years (mean 20.8 years, SD = 2.6). Body mass index (BMI) was used for weight status. Among men, the prevalence of underweight was 10.8%, normal weight 64.4%, overweight 18.9% and obesity 5.8%, while among women, the prevalence of underweight was 17.6%, normal weight 62.1%, overweight 14.1% and obesity 5.2%. Overall, 22% were overweight or obese (24.7% men and 19.3% women). In multivariate regression among men, younger age, coming from a higher income country, consciously avoiding fat and cholesterol, physically inactivity, current tobacco use and childhood physical abuse, and among women older age, coming from a higher income country, frequent organized religious activity, avoiding fat and cholesterol, posttraumatic stress symptoms and physical childhood abuse were associated overweight or obesity. Several gender specific risk factors identified can be utilized in health promotion programmes.

  3. Prevalence of Overweight/Obesity and Its Associated Factors among University Students from 22 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Samuels, T. Alafia; Özcan, Neslihan Keser; Mantilla, Carolina; Rahamefy, Onja H.; Wong, Mee Lian; Gasparishvili, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Obesity among young people increases lifetime cardiovascular risk. This study assesses the prevalence of overweight/obesity and its associated factors among a random sample of university students from 22 universities in 22 low, middle income and emerging economy countries. This cross-sectional survey comprised of a self-administered questionnaire and collected anthropometric measurements. The study population was 6773 (43.2%) males and 8913 (56.8%) females, aged 16 to 30 years (mean 20.8 years, SD = 2.6). Body mass index (BMI) was used for weight status. Among men, the prevalence of underweight was 10.8%, normal weight 64.4%, overweight 18.9% and obesity 5.8%, while among women, the prevalence of underweight was 17.6%, normal weight 62.1%, overweight 14.1% and obesity 5.2%. Overall, 22% were overweight or obese (24.7% men and 19.3% women). In multivariate regression among men, younger age, coming from a higher income country, consciously avoiding fat and cholesterol, physically inactivity, current tobacco use and childhood physical abuse, and among women older age, coming from a higher income country, frequent organized religious activity, avoiding fat and cholesterol, posttraumatic stress symptoms and physical childhood abuse were associated overweight or obesity. Several gender specific risk factors identified can be utilized in health promotion programmes. PMID:25050651

  4. Factors associated with body image dissatisfaction in Portuguese adolescents: obesity, sports activity and TV watching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduarda Maria Rocha Teles de Castro Coelho

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study intended to determine the prevalence of body image dissatisfaction and associated factors in Portuguese adolescents (N=529, 10-18 years, 53.7% male and 46.3% female. The prevalence of body dissatisfaction (estimated through Collins's silhouettes was 58%. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that the variables associated were: obesity, watch TV over 2 hours/day and practice sport activities 4 or more days/week. In male, obesity and watch TV over 2 hours/day were related to body dissatisfaction and among female only obesity had statistical significance. It is necessary to considered different public health interventions for men and women in order to reduce this high body image dissatisfaction.   Keywords: Body image, adolescence, gender, obesity, sports activity

  5. Psychosocial factors at work, long work hours, and obesity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovieva, Svetlana; Lallukka, Tea; Virtanen, Marianna; Viikari-Juntura, Eira

    2013-05-01

    Associations between psychosocial work environment and excess weight have not been systematically addressed. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the published evidence for the associations of psychosocial factors at work and long work hours with weight-related outcomes . Methods We conducted a search of Medline and Embase for all original articles published up to September 2012 using predefined keywords. After excluding studies with a definite selection bias, we included 39 articles. About 60% of the studies reported at least one positive association between psychosocial factors at work and a weight-related outcome. However, 76% of the tested associations were found to be non-significant. Furthermore, the associations were rather weak. Studies of higher quality tended to observe associations more often than those of lower quality. Positive associations were found more frequently (i) among women versus men, (ii) in cross-sectional versus longitudinal studies, and (iii) for overweight or obesity versus other outcomes. About 70% of the studies reported positive associations between long work hours and weight-related outcomes. All four studies that evaluated the association between working overtime and weight gain (three longitudinal and one cross-sectional), showed a positive association among men and two of them also observed associations among women. We found evidence for weak associations between psychosocial factors at work and excess weight. Associations were observed between long work hours, working overtime, and weight gain, especially among men. More cohort studies among non-obese baseline participants using appropriate analytical methods based on an elaborated hypothetical model are needed.

  6. Obesity: modern man's fertility nemesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabler, Stephanie; Agarwal, Ashok; Flint, Margot; du Plessis, Stefan S

    2010-07-01

    The obesity pandemic has grown to concerning proportions in recent years, not only in the Western World, but in developing countries as well. The corresponding decrease in male fertility and fecundity may be explained in parallel to obesity, and obesity should be considered as an etiology of male fertility. Studies show that obesity contributes to infertility by reducing semen quality, changing sperm proteomes, contributing to erectile dysfunction, and inducing other physical problems related to obesity. Mechanisms for explaining the effect of obesity on male infertility include abnormal reproductive hormone levels, an increased release of adipose-derived hormones and adipokines associated with obesity, and other physical problems including sleep apnea and increased scrotal temperatures. Recently, genetic factors and markers for an obesity-related infertility have been discovered and may explain the difference between fertile obese and infertile obese men. Treatments are available for not only infertility related to obesity, but also as a treatment for the other comorbidities arising from obesity. Natural weight loss, as well as bariatric surgery are options for obese patients and have shown promising results in restoring fertility and normal hormonal profiles. Therapeutic interventions including aromatase inhibitors, exogenous testosterone replacement therapy and maintenance and regulation of adipose-derived hormones, particularly leptin, may also be able to restore fertility in obese males. Because of the relative unawareness and lack of research in this area, controlled studies should be undertaken and more focus should be given to obesity as an etiolgy of male infertility.

  7. Effect of obesity on cardiovascular disease risk factors in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry-Okafor, Queen; Cowan, Patricia A; Wicks, Mona N; Rice, Muriel; Husch, Donna S; Khoo, Michelle S C

    2012-04-01

    Obesity is a growing health care concern with implications for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Obesity and CVD morbidity and mortality are highly prevalent among African American women. This pilot study examined the association between obesity and the traditional and emerging CVD risk factors in a sample of African American women. Participants comprised 48 women (27 obese, 21 normal weight) aged 18-45. with no known history of CVD. The women completed demographic and 7-day physical activity recall questionnaires. Height and weight were used to determine body mass index (BMI). Hypertension risk was assessed using the average of two resting blood pressure (BP) measurements. Lipid profile, blood glucose, fibrinogen, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and E-selectin (eSel) levels were assessed using fasting blood samples. Laboratory findings were interpreted using the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III reference guidelines as well as manufacturers' reference ranges for the novel CVD risk factors. The most common traditional risk factors were physical inactivity (72.9%), positive family history of CVD (58.3%), and obesity (56.3%). Obese individuals had elevated systolic BP (p = .0002), diastolic BP (p = .0007) and HDL-cholesterol (p = .01), triglyceride (p = .02), hs-CRP (p = .002), and fibrinogen (p = .01), when compared with normal-weight women. The findings suggest an association between obesity and higher prevalence of both traditional and emerging CVD risk factors in young African American women.

  8. Nutritional status and risk factors of overweight and obesity for children aged 9–15 years in Chengdu, Southwest China

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    Li Ping

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is widespread in the world including developing countries. However malnutrition in poor areas is still a serious problem. Few investigations, especially in a large sample, have been performed in Western area of China. This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional status of school children aged 9–15 years in large Southwest city of China, and identify the differential impact of aberrant birth categories and family history of obesity related disease on childhood overweight and obesity development. Methods A multistage random cluster sampling was performed to evaluate the prevalence of thinness, overweight and obesity, which were defined by the new age-, sex-, specific BMI reference developed by World Health Organization (WHO (2007. And then a frequency matched case–control study was performed to identify the risk factors of overweight and obesity. Results 7,194 children (3,494 boys, 3,700 girls were recruited, and 1,282 (17.8% had excess bodyweight (14.5% overweight, 3.3% obesity. The combined prevalence gradually decreased with age, and were more prevalent among boys than girls (P P >0.05. Preterm large for gestational age (OR = 2.746, maternal history of obesity related disease (OR = 1.713, paternal history of obesity related disease (OR = 1.583, preterm appropriate for gestational age (OR = 1.564, full term small for gestational age (OR = 1.454 and full term large for gestational age (OR = 1.418 were recognized as significant risk factors in the multivariate regression analysis (P Conclusions While overweight and obesity was dramatically spreading, malnutrition still remained a serious problem. This unmatched nutritional status should be emphasized in backward cities of China. Children born of both preterm and LGA, whose parents particularly mothers had a history of obesity related disease, should be emphatically intervened as early as possible.

  9. Development, factor structure and application of the Dog Obesity Risk and Appetite (DORA questionnaire

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    Eleanor Raffan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dogs are compelling models in which to study obesity since the condition shares many characteristics between humans and dogs. Differences in eating behaviour are recognised to contribute to obesity susceptibility in other species but this has not been systematically studied in dogs.Aim. To develop and validate an owner-reported measure of canine eating behaviour and owner or dog related factors which can alter the development of obesity. Further, to then test variation in food-motivation in dogs and its association with obesity and owner management.Methods. Owner interviews, a literature review and existing human appetite scales were used to identify relevant topics and generate items for the questionnaire. Following a pilot phase, a 75 item online questionnaire was distributed via social media. Responses from 302 dog/owner dyads were analysed and factor structure and descriptive statistics calculated. Results were compared with descriptions of dog behaviour and management from a subset of respondents during semi-structured interviews. The optimum questions were disseminated as a 34 item final questionnaire completed by 213 owners, with a subset of respondents repeating the questionnaire 3 weeks later to assess test–retest reliability.Results. Analysis of responses to the final questionnaire relating to 213 dog/owner dyads showed a coherent factor structure and good test–retest reliability. There were three dog factors (food responsiveness and satiety, lack of selectivity, Interest in food, four owner factors (owner motivation to control dog weight, owner intervention to control dog weight, restriction of human food, exercise taken and two dog health factors (signs of gastrointestinal disease, current poor health. Eating behaviour differed between individuals and between breed groups. High scores on dog factors (high food-motivation and low scores on owner factors (less rigorous control of diet/exercise were associated with

  10. The association between inflammatory markers and obesity-related factors in Tehranian adults: Tehran lipid and glucose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faam, Bita; Zarkesh, Maryam; Daneshpour, Maryam Sadat; Azizi, Fereidoun; Hedayati, Mehdi

    2014-08-01

    Obesity considered being a low-grade inflammatory disease. The objective of this study was to examine the association between inflammatory markers (IM) including C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), and homocystein (Hcy) and obesity-related factors (e.g. BMI, waist, hip) in adult participants of Tehran lipid and glucose study (TLGS). In this cross-sectional study, 352 individuals (132 men and 220 women), age ≥19 years, were randomly recruited from participants of TLGS population. The serum levels of hs-CRP, IL-6, Hcy were determined using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Variables were compared by sample t-test. Bivariate linear correlation was estimated using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Linear regression analysis was applied to investigate the association between IMs and anthropometric and biochemical variables. The mean age of participants was 46.1±16.1 years. abdominal obesity was present in 199(56.5%) individuals. levels of hs-CRP and IL-6 increased in the abdominally obese group (1507±3.3 vs. 577.8±4.3 ng/ml P<0.001) (3.6±3.3 vs. 1.9±3.8 pg/ml P< 0.001), and in the same group, the best predictors for hs-CRP, IL-6 and Hcy were waist (WC), waist to height ratio (WHtR) and wrist respectively; hip and WHtR were the best predictors for Hcy and hs-CRP in the normal group. A linear augmentation in hs-CRP and IL-6 levels was observed in association with obesity categorizes. This study provides evidence that abdominally obese individuals had higher levels of IMs. Wrist, waist and WHtR were the best predictors for Hcy, hs-CRP and IL-6 respectively in this group.

  11. Fatores associados à obesidade em adolescentes Factors associated with obesity among adolescents

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    Vania de Matos Fonseca

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A obesidade na adolescência é um fator preditivo da obesidade no adulto. Assim, foram avaliados os fatores associados à obesidade e o uso do índice de massa morporal (IMC. MÉTODO: Foram avaliados 391 estudantes aferindo-se: consumo de alimentos, hábitos alimentares, características antropométricas dos pais e atividade física. O IMC foi a variável dependente utilizada na regressão linear multivariada. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de sobrepeso foi 23,9% para meninos e 7,2% para meninas. Fazer dieta para emagrecer foi 7 vezes mais freqüente entre meninas do que entre meninos com sobrepeso. Nos meninos, idade, uso de dieta, omissão de desjejum, horas de televisão/"vídeo-game" e obesidade familiar apresentaram associação positiva e significante com IMC. Nas meninas, associaram-se positivamente: uso de dieta, omissão de desjejum e obesidade familiar e negativamente idade da menarca. A correlação do IMC com medidas antropométricas foi maior que 0,7. CONCLUSÕES: Um padrão estético de magreza parece predominar entre meninas e elas o atingem com hábitos e consumo alimentar inadequados.INTRODUCTION: Obesity during adolescence is considered a strong predictor of adult obesity. The present study assessed the overweight/obesity prevalence and associated factors in middle class adolescents of a school in the city of Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and evaluated the correlation between body mass index with anthropometric measures of fatness. METHOD: The analysis covered 391 students aged from 15 to 17 years. Adolescents had their weight, height, skinfold thickness and upper arm circumference measured at school. A food frequency questionnaire (list of 79 items and a questionnaire including food habits, parents anthropometric characteristics, physical activity and other factors associated with obesity were filled out by the adolescents at school. RESULTS: The proportion of overweight individuals among boys (Body Mass Index

  12. Trends in the prevalence of underweight, obesity, abdominal obesity and their related lifestyle factors in Korean young adults, 1998-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jisun; Park, Hye Soon

    2017-05-05

    This study aimed to assess trends of underweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity and related lifestyle factors in young Korean adults. The analysis focused on adults aged 19-39 years using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) I-V (1998-2012). Underweight was defined as body mass index (BMI) obesity as BMI≥30kg/m 2 ; and abdominal obesity as waist circumference ≥90cm in men and ≥85cm in women. We evaluated trends by analyzing the prevalence and odds ratios (ORs) of underweight, obesity, abdominal obesity, and the proportions and ORs of lifestyles. As compared with KNHANES I, the ORs for obesity were higher in III, IV, and V and the ORs for abdominal obesity were higher in IV and V in men, which showed an increasing trend (P for trendobesity showed a significant increasing tendency (P for trendobesity in young men and women, and abdominal obesity in young men is needed. Meanwhile, management of underweight in young women is simultaneously required. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Clustering of obesity and dental health with lifestyle factors among Turkish and Finnish pre-adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cinar, Basak; Murtomaa, Heikki

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to assess any clustering between obesity, number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT), television (TV) viewing, and lifestyle factors among pre-adolescents living in 2 countries with different developmental status and oral health care systems - Turkey and Finland.......This study aims to assess any clustering between obesity, number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT), television (TV) viewing, and lifestyle factors among pre-adolescents living in 2 countries with different developmental status and oral health care systems - Turkey and Finland....

  14. Obesity and associated risk factors among students of health colleges of King Saud University, Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, E.; Assiri, A.M.; Awadeljack, I.; Aljasser, A.S.; Alhuzimi, A.M.; Assiri, A.A.; Alqahtani, N.A.; Alshahrani, S.A.; Ammar, Y.A.A

    2017-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of obesity and associated risk factors among medical students in Saudi Arabia. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2012 to March 2013 at King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Using stratified sampling technique, undergraduate students of either gender from the health colleges were included. Information was collected through a pretested questionnaire. Measurements of the height and weight were noted and body mass index for all the subjects was calculated. Results: Of the 292 students, 146(50%) were males and 146(50%) were females. Obesity was found in 40(13.7%)students. It was more prevalent among males than females (p<0.05) and among those who had chronic diseases (p<0.001). Family history of obesity was significantly associated with obesity (p=0.016). No significant association was found between physical activity and obesity (p=0.863). Conclusions: There was considerable prevalence of obesity among the medical students. Being male, having family history of obesity, and having chronic diseases were important risk factors. (author)

  15. Early menarche and teenager pregnancy as risk factors for morbid obesity among reproductive-age women: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Amanda Gonçalves; Kasawara, Karina Tamy; Godoy-Miranda, Ana Carolina; Oshika, Flávio Hideki; Chaim, Elinton Adami; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate potential risk factors, including non-communicable diseases, for morbid obesity in women between 20 and 49 years of age. We performed a case-control study with 110 morbidly obese women and 110 women with adequate weight who were matched by age and with a 1:1 case to control ratio. All women were between 20 to 49 years old and non-menopausal. Possible risk factors were evaluated through a self-report questionnaire assessing socio-demographic, obstetric and gynecological characteristics, presence of non-communicable diseases and habits. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio with respective confidence intervals. Menarche under 12 years old, teenage pregnancy and lower educational level were shown to be risk factors for morbid obesity among women of reproductive age. Incidences of non-communicable diseases (diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, liver disease, lung disease, thyroid dysfunction, and joint pain) were increased in women with morbid obesity. Early menarche, teenage pregnancy and low education level are risk factors for the occurrence of morbid obesity in women of reproductive age. Some non-communicable diseases were already more prevalent in women with morbid obesity even before 50 years of age.

  16. Analysis of Related Factors of Overweight and Obesity among Secondary School Students in Chongqing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-fang; Liu, Da-mei; Shi, Lin; Zhang, Bei; Han, Ling-li; Zhang, Yong; Yu, Li; Zhao, Yong

    To analyze the prevalence of overweight and obesity, as well as the risky factors among secondary school students, and to put forward policy suggestions for health management department. A stratified and cluster sampling trial was conducted in Chongqing, China. A total of 524 students who met the criteria from 5 secondary schools were recruited in the study. The study carried out by questionnaire. The overweight and obesity among the students were overall prevalent, and the rates were 7.82% and 1.72%, respectively. The body mass index (BMI) of parents and birth weightof the students were significantly correlated (P control group (P birth weight, and bad eating habits were the risky factors of the secondary school students in overweight and obesity, while doing exercise was the protective factor. The BMI of parents and the birth weight of students were significantly correlated with the BMI of the students. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity of the students in the study was significantly lower than the average of the nation, but overweight and obesity among the adolescents are nutritional problems, which should be emphasized by all sectors of society instead of neglected.

  17. Can a trial of motivational lifestyle counseling be effective for controlling childhood obesity and the associated cardiometabolic risk factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelishadi, Roya; Malekahmadi, Mohammad; Hashemipour, Mahin; Soghrati, Mehrnaz; Soghrati, Mojgan; Mirmoghtadaee, Parisa; Ghatrehsamani, Shohreh; Poursafa, Parinaz; Khavarian, Noushin

    2012-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of a simple office-based program for encouraging healthy lifestyle on controlling childhood obesity and associated cardiometabolic risk factors. This non-randomized 24-week lifestyle modification trial was conducted among 457 obese children and adolescents, aged 2-18 years, who had at least one cardiometabolic risk factor in addition to obesity. This trial included three components of exercise, diet education and behavior modification, with all recommendations provided by a pediatrician, two general physicians and a nurse. Instead of strict inhibitory recommendations, healthier lifestyle was encouraged. Overall 448 (98.04%) of enrolled children completed the trial with a mean age of 9.6 ± 2.9 years. After the trial, the mean of anthropometric measures and cardiometabolic risk factors decreased significantly, the mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increased significantly, and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome decreased from 20.8% to 1.8%. Triglycerides, LDL-C, diastolic blood pressure and WC had the highest decrease in all age groups, with the most prominent changes in the 14-18-year age group. By each -1SD decline in BMI and WC, risk factors had significant improvement. Motivational office-based counseling can be effective in treatment of childhood obesity and its associated cardio-metabolic risk factors. Such approach can be implemented in the primary health care system; and can be of special concern in low- and middle-income countries with limited human and financial resources. We suggest that expanding the roles of non-physician clinicians such as nurse practitioners can help to increase the amount of time available for such services. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Factors Associated with Overweight and Obesity among Kuwaiti Elementary Male School Children Aged 6–10 Years

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    Abdulwahab Naser Al-Isa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Childhood obesity is becoming a global epidemic which may result in increased morbidity and mortality during young adulthood. Objectives. To identify factors associated with overweight and that of obesity among Kuwaiti elementary male school children aged 6–10 years. Methods. Weights and heights of 662 students at a randomly selected school were collected to obtain body mass index (BMI. Results. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among the students were 20.2% and 16.8%, respectively. There were a variety of factors associated with overweight and obesity; however, having one or more obese brother, an unemployed father, or a high (>11 number of persons living at home was significantly associated with higher risk of overweight and obesity. Increased age and school level as well as having a chronic disease were associated with the risk of overweight. Conclusion. Health education programs for families should be implemented to help control overweight and obesity in Kuwaiti children.

  19. Support for food policy initiatives is associated with knowledge of obesity-related cancer risk factors

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    Wendy Watson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate community support for government-led policy initiatives to positively influence the food environment, and to identify whether there is a relationship between support for food policy initiatives and awareness of the link between obesity-related lifestyle risk factors and cancer. Methods: An online survey of knowledge of cancer risk factors and attitudes to policy initiatives that influence the food environment was completed by 2474 adults from New South Wales, Australia. The proportion of participants in support of seven food policy initiatives was quantified in relation to awareness of the link between obesity, poor diet, insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical inactivity with cancer and other health conditions. Results: Overall, policies that involved taxing unhealthy foods received the least support (41.5%. Support was highest for introducing a colour-coded food labelling system (85.9%, restricting claims being made about the health benefits of foods which are, overall, unhealthy (82.6%, displaying health warning labels on unhealthy foods (78.7% and banning unhealthy food advertising that targets children (72.6%. Participants who were aware that obesity-related lifestyle factors are related to cancer were significantly more likely to support food policy initiatives than those who were unaware. Only 17.5% of participants were aware that obesity, poor diet, insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical inactivity are linked to cancer. Conclusions: There is strong support for all policies related to food labelling and a policy banning unhealthy food advertising to children. Support for food policy initiatives that positively influence the food environment was higher among those who were aware of the link between cancer and obesity-related lifestyle factors than among those who were unaware of this link. Increasing awareness of the link between obesity-related lifestyle factors and cancer

  20. Association between obesity indices and cardiovascular risk factors in late adolescence in the Seychelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovet, Pascal; Arlabosse, Tiphaine; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Myers, Gary

    2012-11-07

    The ability of different obesity indices to predict cardiovascular risk is still debated in youth and few data are available in sub Saharan Africa. We compared the associations between several indices of obesity and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) in late adolescence in the Seychelles. We measured body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist/hip ratio (WHiR), waist/height ratio (WHtR) and percent fat mass (by bioimpedance) and 6 CVRFs (blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting blood glucose and uric acid) in 423 youths aged 19-20 years from the general population. The prevalence of overweight/obesity and several CVRFs was high, with substantial sex differences. Except for glucose in males and LDL-cholesterol in females, all obesity indices were associated with CVRFs. BMI consistently predicted CVRFs at least as well as the other indices. Linear regression on BMI had standardized regression coefficients of 0.25-0.36 for most CVRFs (pP90). There was an elevated prevalence of obesity and of several CVRFs in youths in Seychelles. BMI predicted single or combined CVRFs at least as well as other simple obesity indices.

  1. Determination of the obesity prevalence and affecting risk factors, of eating habits among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Aktas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and the affecting risk factors of obesity and the eating habits among adolescents. Methods: The study is a descriptive in design. The research was carried out between December 2013 and February 2014 at a private university in Ankara. This study was conducted with 260 students. The data were presented as frequencies, mean, standard deviations and were analyzed by test of chi-square, Pearson correlation analysis and logistic regression analysis. Data were collected using an Interview Questionnaire, the Eating Habits Index and anthropometric measurements were performed. Results: The mean age of students was 20.87+/-2.29. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among students were 23.1% and 6.5% respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was related with male gender (p<0.05, family history of obesity (95% CI: 2.22-2.43, fast eating habit (p<0.05, and healthy dietary habits (95% CI: 1.02-2.85. The percents of moderate grade and high grade risk groups of students according to Eating Habits Index were 56.5 and 30.8 respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents in this study was determined to be high. The prevention and control of obesity is urgently needed. In this content, comprehensive strategies of intervention propose periodical monitoring, education on pattern of nutrition, and healthy dietary behaviors. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(5.000: 406-412

  2. Prevalence and risk factors for canine obesity surveyed in veterinary practices in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Junfu; Xia, Zhaofei; Chen, Jiangnan; Yu, Jinhai

    2013-11-01

    An epidemiological survey of canine obesity was carried out in Beijing, China. Cases (n=2391, 7 districts) were collected at 14 animal hospitals between April 2008 and April 2011. The body condition score (scales of 1-5) was used to assess obesity of the dogs (Burkholder and Toll, 2000; Laflamme, 1997). Obesity rates were analyzed with respect to breed, age, sex, neutering, food control, feeding frequency, reproduction status, food type, nutritional supplements, living environment, feeding time, number of pets per household, feeding purpose, activity control, exercise duration, exercise status and exercise type. The overall canine obesity rate was 44.4% in this survey. The risk factors for dog obesity were food type (non-commercial food, OR=1.377, pobesity was high in pugs (70.7%), Cocker Spaniel (69.4%), Pekingese (51.9%), Pomeranian (54.6%) and Golden Retriever (51.9%). This is the first report of the epidemiology of canine obesity in China. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Factors Affecting Obesity in High School Students

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    Aysun Yüksel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence overweight and obese among children and adolescents increases gradually in the world and became an epidemic in both developing and developed countries. Overweight and obesity in the adolescent period are the main risk factors contributing to the development of cardiovascular diseases in the adulthood period. This study was planned to reveal the prevalence of obesity and association of healthy lifestyle behaviors with obesity in adolescents. Methods: This research was carried out 859 students studying at Istanbul Hezarfen High School between the dates 1 February to 31 March 2017. The general dietary habits and night eating statuses were determined using the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (KIDMED and Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ and anthropometric parameters such as height and body weight were measured. Results: The mean age of the students was 15.9 ± 1.3 years. Of the students, 19.2% had overweight, 13.7% had obese BMI values. In this study, 32.4% of all students had low and 13% of them had optimal nutritional quality. The difference between two genders was statistically significant (p<0.05. The Night Eating Syndrome was not present in 78.9% of all students whereas it was detected in 21.1% of them. Conclusions: In our study, there was no statistically significant relationship between obesity, adherence to Mediterranean Diet and Night Eating Syndrome.

  4. Factors affecting the prevalence of obesity among primary school students in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyildiz, Tulay Kuzlu; Kurtuncu, Meltem; Kulakci, Hulya; Celik, Sevim

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an energy metabolism disorder which results in the excessive storage of fat and may also lead to physical and psychological problems. Since the 1980s, obesity has drastically increased across all age and socio-economic groups around the world. The purpose of the study was to investigate the risk factors affecting obesity in students in the age group of 6-15 years. This was a population-based cross-sectional study on 868 students in Bahçelievler elementary school in Zonguldak, Turkey from March to April in 2010. Data was collected using demographic questionary forms and weight-length measurements. The median age was 10.3 ± 2.1; 47.6% of the children were female and 52.4% of them were male. About 70.2% of the students consumed fast food. It was identified that 67.1% of the students in the 6-10-year age group and 32.9% in 11-15-year age group were obese (P = 0.000). The obesity prevalence of children with one or two siblings was higher than the ones with more than two siblings (P = 0.001). The study concluded that there were certain criteria related to development of obesity during a specific period of childhood and taking certain precautions could be effective in preventing it.

  5. Comparative Aspects of Human, Canine, and Feline Obesity and Factors Predicting Progression to Diabetes

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    Margarethe Hoenig

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and diabetes mellitus are common diseases in humans, dogs and cats and their prevalence is increasing. Obesity has been clearly identified as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes in humans and cats but recent data are missing in dogs, although there is evidence that the unprecedented rise in canine obesity in the last decade has led to a rise in canine diabetes of similar magnitude. The insulin resistance of obesity has often been portrayed as major culprit in the loss of glucose control; however, insulin resistance alone is not a good indicator of progression to diabetes in people or pets. A loss of beta cell function is necessary to provide the link to impaired fasting and post-prandial plasma glucose. Increased endogenous glucose output by the liver is also a prerequisite for the increase in fasting blood glucose when non-diabetic obese humans and pets develop diabetes. This may be due to decreased hepatic insulin sensitivity, decreased insulin concentrations, or a combination of both. While inflammation is a major link between obesity and diabetes in humans, there is little evidence that a similar phenomenon exists in cats. In dogs, more studies are needed to examine this important issue.

  6. Factors affecting subspecialty referrals by pediatric primary care providers for children with obesity-related comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Carolyn O; Milliren, Carly E; Feldman, Henry A; Taveras, Elsie M

    2013-08-01

    To determine referral patterns from pediatric primary care to subspecialists for overweight/obesity and related comorbidities. We used the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey to identify overweight/obesity and 5 related comorbidities in primary care visits between 2005 and 2009 by children 6 to 18 years. The primary outcome was whether the visit ended in referral. We used multivariable analysis to examine factors associated with referral. We identified 34,225 database visits. A total of 17.1% were with overweight (body mass index=85th to 94th percentile) or obese (body mass index≥95th percentile) patients. A total of 7.1% of primary care visits with overweight/obese children ended in referral. Referral was more likely when obesity was the reason for visit (odds ratio=2.83; 95% confidence interval=1.61-4.97) but was not associated with presence of a comorbidity (odds ratio=1.35; 95% confidence interval=0.75-2.44). Most overweight or obese children are not referred, regardless of comorbidity status. One reason may be low levels of appropriate diagnosis.

  7. Factors associated with local public health agency participation in obesity prevention in southern States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatala, Jeffrey J; Fields, Tina T

    2015-05-01

    Obesity rates in the southern US states are higher than in other states. Historically, large-scale community-based interventions in the United States have not proven successful. With local public health agencies (LPHAs) tasked with prevention, their role in obesity prevention is important, yet little research exists regarding what predicts the participation of LPHAs. Cross-sectional data from the 2008 National Association of City and County Health Officials profile study and two public health conceptual frameworks were used to assess structural and environmental predictors of LPHA participation in obesity prevention. The predictors were compared between southern and nonsouthern states. Univariate and weighted logistic regressions were performed. Analysis revealed that more LPHAs in southern states were engaged in nearly all of the 10 essential public health functions related to obesity prevention compared with nonsouthern states. Presence of community-based organizations and staffing levels were the only significant variables in two of the six logistic regression models. This study provides insights into the success rates of the obesity prevention efforts of LPHAs in southern and nonsouthern states. Future research is needed to understand why and how certain structural elements and any additional factors influence LPHA participation in obesity prevention.

  8. Exploring Occupational and Behavioral Risk Factors for Obesity in Firefighters: A Theoretical Framework and Study Design

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    BongKyoo Choi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Firefighters and police officers have the third highest prevalence of obesity among 41 male occupational groups in the United States (US. However, few studies have examined the relationship of firefighter working conditions and health behaviors with obesity. This paper presents a theoretical framework describing the relationship between working conditions, health behaviors, and obesity in firefighters. In addition, the paper describes a detailed study plan for exploring the role of occupational and behavioral risk factors in the development of obesity in firefighters enrolled in the Orange County Fire Authority Wellness Fitness Program. The study plan will be described with emphasis on its methodological merits: adopting a participatory action research approach, developing a firefighter-specific work and health questionnaire, conducting both a cross-sectional epidemiological study using the questionnaire and a sub-study to assess the validity of the questionnaire with dietary intake and physical activity measures, and evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of the body mass index as an obesity measure in comparison to skinfold-based percent body fat. The study plan based on a theoretical framework can be an essential first step for establishing effective intervention programs for obesity among professional and voluntary firefighters.

  9. Association between obesity indices and cardiovascular risk factors in late adolescence in the Seychelles

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    Bovet Pascal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability of different obesity indices to predict cardiovascular risk is still debated in youth and few data are available in sub Saharan Africa. We compared the associations between several indices of obesity and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs in late adolescence in the Seychelles. Methods We measured body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio (WHiR, waist/height ratio (WHtR and percent fat mass (by bioimpedance and 6 CVRFs (blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting blood glucose and uric acid in 423 youths aged 19–20 years from the general population. Results The prevalence of overweight/obesity and several CVRFs was high, with substantial sex differences. Except for glucose in males and LDL-cholesterol in females, all obesity indices were associated with CVRFs. BMI consistently predicted CVRFs at least as well as the other indices. Linear regression on BMI had standardized regression coefficients of 0.25-0.36 for most CVRFs (pP90. Conclusion There was an elevated prevalence of obesity and of several CVRFs in youths in Seychelles. BMI predicted single or combined CVRFs at least as well as other simple obesity indices.

  10. Factors associated with overweight and obesity in schizophrenia, schizoaffective and bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard, Virginie-Anne; Pingali, Samira M; Chouinard, Guy; Henderson, David C; Mallya, Sonal G; Cypess, Aaron M; Cohen, Bruce M; Öngür, Dost

    2016-03-30

    Evidence suggests abnormal bioenergetic status throughout the body in psychotic disorders. The present study examined predictors of elevated body mass index (BMI) across diagnostic categories of schizophrenia, schizoaffective and bipolar disorders. In a cross-sectional study, we studied demographic and clinical risk factors for overweight and obesity in a well-characterized sample of 262 inpatients and outpatients with schizophrenia (n=59), schizoaffective disorder (n=81) and bipolar I disorder (n=122). Across the three diagnostic categories, the prevalence of overweight (29.4%) and obesity (33.2%) combined was 62.6% (164/262). Logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age, sex and ethnicity, showed that schizoaffective disorder, lifetime major depressive episode, presence of prior suicide attempt, and more than 5 lifetime hospitalizations were significantly associated with BMI≥25. Patients with schizophrenia had significantly lower risk for overweight and obesity. Overall, we found that affective components of illness were associated with elevated BMI in our cross-diagnostic sample. Our results show that patients with schizoaffective disorder have a greater risk for obesity. Identifying predictors of elevated BMI in patients with psychotic and mood disorders will help prevent obesity and related cardiovascular and cerebral complications. Future studies are needed to elucidate the mechanistic nature of the relationship between obesity and psychiatric illness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Stress as a factor contributing to obesity in patients qualified for bariatric surgery - studies in a selected group of patients (a pilot study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boniecka, Iwona; Wileńska, Helena; Jeznach-Steinhagen, Anna; Czerwonogrodzka-Senczyna, Aneta; Sekuła, Marzena; Paśnik, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the incidence of obesity, especially extreme obesity, has significantly increased. It is connected with inappropriate lifestyle, including a high calorie diet, psychological and genetic factors, some medications, diseases or infectious factors. Nowadays, the consumption of food is not only to satisfy a physiological need, but also fulfils psychological needs. The most effective method of morbid obesity treatment is metabolic surgery. Moreover, food is considered to be a reward and method of coping with stress. In order to improve the efficiency of the surgical treatment, it seems significant to assess the effects of psychological factors on eating behaviours. To evaluate the effects of stress on eating habits that increase the risk of extreme obesity. The study included 50 subjects qualified for bariatric surgery. The authors' own questionnaire and standardised PSS-10 questionnaire by Cohen, Kamarcki and Mermelstein adapted by Juczyński and Ogińska-Bulik were used. These questionnaires indicated that patients felt a moderate levels of stress but with a tendency for high levels. The majority of respondents declared an increased appetite due to stress-causing factors. Reasons for snacking most frequently included negative emotions and feeling like eating something. Consumption of additional snacks was a way of coping with stress. Most frequently the subjects ate sweets and salty snacks, but also sandwiches, nuts, fruit and alcohol beverages. Psychological support may help morbidly obese people both to change nutritional habits and to cope with stress.

  12. Sociodemographic, ethnic and dietary factors associated with childhood obesity in Thessaloniki, Northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassapidou, Maria; Papadopoulou, Sousana K; Frossinis, Athanasios; Kaklamanos, Ioannis; Tzotzas, Themistoklis

    2009-01-01

    To investigate sociodemographic, ethnic and dietary factors associated with the development of childhood obesity. 276 children, aged 8-12 years, randomly selected from seven schools in Thessaloniki, Northern Greece, participated in the study. 13% of the children were immigrants from neighboring Balkan countries and ex-Soviet Union countries. Data was collected using specific validated questionnaires. Anthropometric measurements, dietary intake and physical activity assessment were carried out for all children. 26.1% of the boys and 22.4% of the girls were overweight and a further 11.6% of boys and 10.9% of girls were obese. The overweight and obesity rate was significantly lower in immigrants (10% and 3.3%) compared to Greeks (25.8% and 12.7%), p=0.024. Obese children compared to their non-obese counterparts a) had parents who were obese at a higher percentage (p=0.001), b) reported that food preparation was carried out by their grandmother (p=0.006) and c) had less pocket money (p=0.004). Daily energy and carbohydrate intakes were significantly higher in immigrants compared to Greeks (1611+/-599Kcal vs 1363+/-471Kcal, p=0.036 and 188.31+/-70.63g vs 149.87+/-56.41g, p=0.001) and the same was true for exercise (6.38+/-7.22 h/w vs 4.14+/-4.18 h/w, p=0.049). In planning interventions for childhood obesity, sociodemographic factors in addition to food intake and physical activity patterns have to be considered.

  13. Assessment of risk factors for overweight and obesity among school going children in Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh

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    Atul Watharkar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescent obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century. The problem is global and is steadily affecting many low and middle-income countries, particularly in urban settings. Objective: To determine risk factors for overweight and obesity among school going children of age group 12-15 years in Kanpur. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2013 to August 2014 among students of age group 12-15 years in four schools of Kanpur that were selected by using multistage random sampling. Sample size was 806. The information about dietary habits and physical activity pattern was obtained by direct interview method. Height and weight were measured using standard techniques for the same and BMI was calculated. Student who had BMI >85th and 95th percentile of reference population were classified as obese. Results: The prevalence of obesity and overweight was 3.97% and 9.80%  respectively and consuming fast foods and carbonated drinks regularly, low levels of physical activity, watching television for more than 2 hours per day or playing computer games for more than 2 hours per day were significantly associated with overweight and obesity. Conclusion: Unhealthy dietary habits and sedentary lifestyle are the major risk factors for overweight/ obesity in adolescents. Intervention measures focusing mainly on increasing the physical activity, decreasing consumption of energy dense foods and providing psychological support is essential to fight this new emerging problem of obesity in adolescents.

  14. Assessment of risk factors for overweight and obesity among school going children in Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Watharkar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescent obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century. The problem is global and is steadily affecting many low and middle-income countries, particularly in urban settings. Objective: To determine risk factors for overweight and obesity among school going children of age group 12-15 years in Kanpur. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2013 to August 2014 among students of age group 12-15 years in four schools of Kanpur that were selected by using multistage random sampling. Sample size was 806. The information about dietary habits and physical activity pattern was obtained by direct interview method. Height and weight were measured using standard techniques for the same and BMI was calculated. Student who had BMI >85th and <95th percentile of reference population were classified as overweight and BMI for age >95th percentile of reference population were classified as obese. Results: The prevalence of obesity and overweight was 3.97% and 9.80%  respectively and consuming fast foods and carbonated drinks regularly, low levels of physical activity, watching television for more than 2 hours per day or playing computer games for more than 2 hours per day were significantly associated with overweight and obesity. Conclusion: Unhealthy dietary habits and sedentary lifestyle are the major risk factors for overweight/ obesity in adolescents. Intervention measures focusing mainly on increasing the physical activity, decreasing consumption of energy dense foods and providing psychological support is essential to fight this new emerging problem of obesity in adolescents.

  15. Risk factors for mortality caused by hypothalamic obesity in children with hypothalamic tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haliloglu, B; Atay, Z; Guran, T; Abalı, S; Bas, S; Turan, S; Bereket, A

    2016-10-01

    Hypothalamic obesity (HyOb) is a common complication of childhood hypothalamic tumours. Patients with HyOb probably have a higher mortality rate than those with other types of obesity due in many cases to obstructive sleep apnoea/hypoventilation. To identify predictive factors for mortality caused by HyOb in children. Twenty children with HyOb secondary to hypothalamic tumours that were followed-up for ≥3 years and aged 6 years at diagnosis (3.71 ± 1.96 vs. 0.83 ± 0.73, P  1 SDS after 6 months of therapy (RR: 8.4, P obesity-related mortality rates were higher in the patients aged  0.05). The mortality rate was also 3.7-fold higher in the patients with a maximum BMI SDS ≥ 3 at any time during the first 3 years after therapy(P > 0.05). An increase in BMI SDS after 6 months of therapy was observed to be a risk factor for mortality caused by HyOb. In addition, age obesity is required. © 2015 World Obesity.

  16. Monte Carlo study of thermal flux profiles and body correction factors for body protein measurements of obese subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, B.J.; Allen, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    In previous calculations for total body nitrogen measurements of children, the anterior/posterior thermal neutron flux profile with depth was found to be fairly flat after an initial rise. However, for obese adults significant variations are found in the flux profile with the central flux value being as low as 20% of the peak value. The significance of these flux variations is examined. Correction factors are calculated for the varying attenuation of the nitrogen and hydrogen photons by a range of obese bodies. The calculations included the effect of the thermal flux profile as well as that of an outer layer of low nitrogen content adipose tissue. The bodies are assumed to have a homogeneous hydrogen content. A study of four obese body models with varying sex and fat content shows that the correction factors do not vary much between males and females. This is surprising since the female models are assumed to have a surface fat layer twice as thick as for the male models. The correction factors are found to be only slightly sensitive to the thermal flux variations with depth. 5 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  17. Gelidium amansii extract ameliorates obesity by down-regulating adipogenic transcription factors in diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ji-Hye; Lee, Hyun-Ah; Kim, Hak-Ju; Han, Ji-Sook

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we investigated whether Gelidium amansii extract (GAE) ameliorates obesity in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. The mice were maintained on a high-fat diet (HD) for 5 weeks to generate the DIO mouse model. And then mice fed HD plus 0.5% (GAE1), 1% (GAE2) or 2% (GAE3) for 8 weeks. After the experimental period, GAE-supplemented groups were significantly lower than the HD group in body weight gain and liver weight. GAE supplemented groups were significantly lower than the HD group in both epididymal and mesenteric adipose tissue mass. The plasma leptin level was significantly higher in the HD group than in GAE-supplemented groups. The leptin level of HD+GAE3 group was significantly lower than that of the HD+conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) group. In contrast, plasma adiponectin level of the HD group was significantly lower than those of HD+GAE2 and HD+GAE3 groups. The expression levels of adipogenic proteins such as fatty acid synthase, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α in the GAE supplemented groups were significantly decreased than those in HD group, respectively. In addition, the expression levels of HD+GAE2 and HD+GAE3 groups are significantly decreased compared to those of HD+CLA group. On the contrary, the expression levels of hormone-sensitive lipase and phospho-AMP-activated protein kinase, proteins associated with lipolysis, were significantly increased in the GAE supplemented groups compared to those in the HD group. HD+GAE3 group showed the highest level among the GAE supplemented groups. These results suggested that GAE supplementation stimulated the expressions of lipid metabolic factors and reduced weight gain in HD-fed C57BL/6J obese mice.

  18. Postnatal BMI changes in children with different birthweights: A trial study for detecting early predictive factors for pediatric obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Yuichi; Nakanishi, Toshiki; Satake, Eiichiro; Matsushita, Rie; Saegusa, Hirokazu; Kubota, Akira; Natsume, Hiromune; Shibata, Yukinobu; Fujisawa, Yasuko

    2018-01-01

    Abstract. The purpose of this study was to clarify the degree of early postnatal growth by birthweight and detect early predictive factors for pediatric obesity. Body mass index (BMI) and degree of obesity were examined in children in the fourth year of elementary school and second year of junior high school. Their BMI at birth and three years of age were also examined. Based on birthweight, participants were divided into three groups: low ( 3500 g). Furthermore, according to the degree of obesity, they were divided into two groups: obese (20% ≤) and non-obese (20% >). The change of BMI from birth to three years of age (ΔBMI) showed a strong inverse relationship with birthweight and was significantly different among the three birthweight groups (low > middle > high). The ΔBMI and BMI at three years of age were higher in obese than in non-obese children and showed significant positive correlations with the degree of obesity. Early postnatal growth might be determined by birthweight and was higher in obese than in non-obese children. The ΔBMI from birth to three years of age and BMI at age of three years could be predictive factors for pediatric obesity. PMID:29403153

  19. Experimental evidence of obesity as a risk factor for severe acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frossard, Jean-Louis; Lescuyer, Pierre; Pastor, Catherine M

    2009-11-14

    The incidence of acute pancreatitis, an inflammation of the pancreas, is increasing worldwide. Pancreatic injury is mild in 80%-90% of patients who recover without complications. The remaining patients may develop a severe disease with local complications such as acinar cell necrosis, abscess and remote organ injury including lung injury. The early prediction of the severity of the disease is an important goal for physicians in management of patients with acute pancreatitis in order to optimize the therapy and to prevent organ dysfunction and local complications. For that purpose, multiple clinical scale scores have been applied to patients with acute pancreatitis. Recently, a new problem has emerged: the increased severity of the disease in obese patients. However, the mechanisms by which obesity increases the severity of acute pancreatitis are unclear. Several hypotheses have been suggested: (1) obese patients have an increased inflammation within the pancreas; (2) obese patients have an increased accumulation of fat within and around the pancreas where necrosis is often located; (3) increase in both peri- and intra-pancreatic fat and inflammatory cells explain the high incidence of pancreatic inflammation and necrosis in obese patients; (4) hepatic dysfunction associated with obesity might enhance the systemic inflammatory response by altering the detoxification of inflammatory mediators; and (5) ventilation/perfusion mismatch leading to hypoxia associated with a low pancreatic flow might reduce the pancreatic oxygenation and further enhance pancreatic injury. Recent experimental investigations also show an increased mortality and morbidity in obese rodents with acute pancreatitis and the implication of the adipokines leptin and adiponectin. Such models are important to investigate whether the inflammatory response of the disease is enhanced by obesity. It is exciting to speculate that manipulation of the adipokine milieu has the potential to influence the

  20. PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF OBESITY IN PRIMARY SCHOOL IN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS

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    Made Ratna Dewi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Obesity has become a continous increasing global health problem. Obesity can happen in adult population and also on children as well as teenagers. There are several factors that influence the occurrence of obesity. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and risk factors for obesity in primary school children in urban and rural areas. A cross sectional study was conducted with a total sample of 241 pupils in several elementary schools. Anthropometric status determine using body mass index for age and obesity stated if measurement exceed ?95th percentile based on CDC 2000. Analysis data perform with the Pearson Chi-square, Fisher's Exact Test, and logistic regression. A P value of <0.05 was considered significant. This study showed the prevalence of obesity was 15%. The prevalence of obesity in urban areas was 21% and rural areas was 5%. The result showed risk of obesity multiplied by 3.8 times in urban children as they had a habit of "snacking" had risk of suffering obesity by 3.4 times (95% CI 1.2 to 9.0. Children who had habit of having fast food more than 2 times per week had the more risk of obesity by 5 times (95% CI 1.9 to 13.5. Mothers education in urban areas as a protective factor. Conclusion of this study show that the prevalence of obesity in urban areas is 21% and 5% in rural areas. “Snacking” habit and eating fast food more than 2 times per week increase the risk of obesity in urban areas, while in rural areas no risk factors consider significant for obesity. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso

  1. Role of dietary factors and food habits in the development of childhood obesity: a commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostoni, Carlo; Braegger, Christian; Decsi, Tamas; Kolacek, Sanja; Koletzko, Berthold; Mihatsch, Walter; Moreno, Luis A; Puntis, John; Shamir, Raanan; Szajewska, Hania; Turck, Dominique; van Goudoever, Johannes

    2011-06-01

    This Comment by the Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition aims to provide a summary of the role of nutrition-related factors on obesity prevention in children ages 2 to 18 years. This Comment emphasizes that dietary interventions should be incorporated into a multidisciplinary strategy for obesity prevention. No single nutrient has been unequivocally associated with the development of obesity. Methodological limitations in study design and the complex nature of obesity must be taken into account when interpreting the association with reported dietary factors. Energy intake should be individually determined, taking into account energy expenditure and growth. Preferential intake of slowly absorbed carbohydrates and limiting the ingestion of rapidly absorbed carbohydrates and simple sugars should be promoted. No specific recommendations for macronutrient intakes to prevent obesity can be made. Plant foods can be used as the main food contributors to a well-balanced diet with adequate monitoring of nutrient intake. Plain water should be promoted as the main source of fluids for children instead of sugar-sweetened beverages. Children should eat at least 4 meals, including breakfast, every day. Regular family meals should be encouraged. Regular consumption of fast food with large portion sizes and high energy density should be avoided. Healthy food options should be promoted for snacking. Food portion sizes should be appropriate for age and body size. Nutrition and lifestyle education aimed at the prevention of obesity should be included in the routine care of children by health care professionals.

  2. Gender-related differences in cardiometabolic risk factors and lifestyle behaviors in treatment-seeking adolescents with severe obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barstad, Lisa Ha; Júlíusson, Pétur B; Johnson, Line Kristin; Hertel, Jens Kristoffer; Lekhal, Samira; Hjelmesæth, Jøran

    2018-02-14

    Obesity during adolescence is associated with cardiovascular mortality in adulthood. The adverse obesity-related cardiometabolic risk profile is already observed in adolescence. We aimed to examine possible gender differences in cardiometabolic risk factors and lifestyle behaviors among adolescents with severe obesity, hypothesizing that boys would have both a higher prevalence of the metabolic syndrome as well as less healthy lifestyle behaviors than girls. Cross-sectional study of treatment-seeking adolescents with severe obesity who attended the Morbid Obesity Centre at Vestfold Hospital Trust and who were consecutively enrolled in the Vestfold Register of Obese Children between September 2009 and September 2015. A total of 313 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years were recruited, whereof 268 subjects (49% boys) completed a food and activity frequency questionnaire and were included in the analysis. Mean (SD) age, BMI and BMI SDS were 15 (1.6) years, 38.6 (5.9) kg/m 2 and 3.5 (0.6). Levels of LDL cholesterol, fasting insulin and glucose and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) did not differ between genders. Compared to girls, boys had significantly higher triglycerides (p = 0.037) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (p = 0.003), as well as lower HDL cholesterol (p = 0.002). The metabolic syndrome was present in 27% of the boys and 19% of the girls (p = 0.140), and the prevalence of high DBP, dyslipidemia and dysglycemia also did not differ significantly between genders. The prevalence of high SBP was higher in boys than in girls (19% vs. 9%, p = 0.021). Gender was associated with a number of lifestyle habits, as a larger proportions of boys had higher screen time (p = 0.032), more regular breakfast eating (p = 0.023), higher intake of sugar sweetened soda (p = 0.036), and lower intake of vegetables than girls (p = 0.011). By contrast, physical activity level and intake of fruit and berries did not differ between genders. Male treatment

  3. Risk Factors Associated with Obesity in Children of Different Racial Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia-Rojas, Ximena; Ahmad, Naveed; Bayona, Manuel; Bae, Sejong; Rivers, Patrick A; Singh, Karan P

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine specific risk factors associated with obesity among African American, Hispanic and Caucasian children. Design: This is a cross-sectional study conducted on 1076 fifth grade children from 17 elementary schools at Fort Worth, Texas. Data were collected through questionnaires and physical…

  4. Human obesity associated with an intronic SNP in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor locus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in energy balance. In population studies, SNPs of the BDNF locus have been linked to obesity, but the mechanism by which these variants cause weight gain is unknown. Here, we examined human hypothalamic BDNF expression in association with 44 ...

  5. Gallstone disease in severely obese children participating in a lifestyle intervention program: incidence and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heida, A.; Koot, B. G. P.; Vd Baan-Slootweg, O. H.; Pels Rijcken, T. H.; Seidell, J. C.; Makkes, S.; Jansen, P. L. M.; Benninga, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Cholelithiasis is increasingly encountered in childhood and adolescence due to the rise in obesity. As in adults, weight loss is presumed to be an important risk factor for cholelithiasis in children, but this has not been studied. In a prospective observational cohort study we evaluated the

  6. Obesity and Associated Factors in Youth with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granich, Joanna; Lin, Ashleigh; Hunt, Anna; Wray, John; Dass, Alena; Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.

    2016-01-01

    Weight status on children and youth with autism spectrum disorder is limited. We examined the prevalence of overweight/obesity in children and youth with autism spectrum disorder, and associations between weight status and range of factors. Children and youth with autism spectrum disorder aged 2-16 years (n = 208) and their parents participated in…

  7. Gallstone disease in severely obese children participating in a lifestyle intervention program : incidence and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heida, A.; Koot, B.G.P.; vd Baan-Slootweg, O H; Pels Rijcken, T H; Seidell, J C; Makkes, S; Jansen, P L M; Benninga, M.A.

    INTRODUCTION: Cholelithiasis is increasingly encountered in childhood and adolescence due to the rise in obesity. As in adults, weight loss is presumed to be an important risk factor for cholelithiasis in children, but this has not been studied. METHODS: In a prospective observational cohort study

  8. Challenges in obesity research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palou, Andreu; Bonet, M Luisa

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is the main nutritional problem and one of the most important health problems in developed societies. Central to the challenge of obesity prevention and management is a thoroughly understanding of its determinants. Multiple socio-cultural, socio-economic, behavioural and biological factors--often interrelated and many of them still unknown or poorly understood--can contribute to the establishment and perpetuation of obese phenotypes. Here, we address current research challenges regarding basic aspects of obesity and emerging science for its control, including brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and browning of white fat as possible therapeutic targets for obesity, the influence of the microbioma, and genetics, epigenetics, nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics of obesity. We also highlight hot topics in relation to food and lifestyle as determinants of obesity, including the brain mechanisms underlying environmental motivation to eat, the biological control of spontaneous physical activity, the possible role of concrete foods and food components, and the importance of early life nutrition and environment. Challenges regarding the connections of obesity with other alterations and pathologies are also briefly addressed, as well as social and economical challenges in relation to healthy food production and lifestyle for the prevention of obesity, and technological challenges in obesity research and management. The objective is to give a panoramic of advances accomplished and still ahead relevant to the different stakeholders engaged in understanding and combating obesity. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  9. Cardiometabolic Risks in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Non-Traditional Risk Factors and the Impact of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Wei-Ling; Boyle, Jacqueline; Vincent, Amanda; Teede, Helena; Moran, Lisa J

    2017-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common and complex endocrinopathy with reproductive, metabolic, and psychological features and significantly increased cardiometabolic risks. PCOS is underpinned by inherent insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism. Obesity, more common in PCOS, plays an important role in the pathophysiology, exacerbating hyperinsulinaemia and hyperandrogenism, leading to recommended first-line lifestyle intervention. Significant traditional and non-traditional risk factors are implicated in PCOS in addition to obesity-exacerbated cardiometabolic risks and are explored in this review to promote the understanding of this common metabolic and reproductive condition. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Obesity and related factors in 7-12 year-old elementary school students during 2009-2010 in Sari, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salar Behzadnia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim To define the prevalence of obesity and its related factors in 2-7 year-old elementary school students in Sari city (Mazandaran, Iran. Methods In this descriptive cross sectional study, which was conducted in the 2009-2010 period, the study population included7-12 year-old first to fifth grade elementary school students in Sari. Sampling was multi-stage and stratified randomization at level of the target students. Student’s height and weight were measured using stediometer and digital scales. Body Mass Index (BMI was calculated. A questionnaire about feeding habits and socio-economic status(SES of families was used. Data collection was performed using phone interview with parents also the questionnaire’s records. Analysis was done in SPSS16 using appropriate statistical tests, p85% and 78 (12% were obese (BMI> 95%. Higher prevalence of obesity in the children with good socio economic status was found (p=0.001. Significant relationship between usage of fast food and obesity, and between school grade and obesity (p= 0.001 was found. Conclusion The overall prevalence of obesity in studied children was high, which suggests the need for serious attention in the health system, extensive studies, also designing and implementation of interventions with regard to childhood obesity.

  11. Overweight and obesity among school children in Jordan: prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, Yousef; Irshaidat, Omama; Khasawneh, Mohammad; Amarin, Zouhair; Alomari, Mousa; Batieha, Anwar

    2009-05-01

    To estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity and determine their associated factors among school children aged 6-12 years in the north of Jordan. A cross-sectional study was conducted among school children in the north of Jordan in the period between March 2006 and May 2006. A total of 2,131 children (1,052 boys and 1,079 girls) were selected at random using multistage cluster sampling method. The first part of the questionnaire was completed by pupils in schools and the second part was completed by their parents at home. The researchers measured height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, and mid upper arm circumference of each student in the class. Overweight and obesity were defined according to the international cut-off points of body mass index for boys and girls between 2 and 18 years of age. Of the total 2,131 children, 19.4% were overweight (18.8% of boys and 19.9% of girls) and 5.6% were obese (5.6% of boys and 5.5% of girls). Watching television >2 h/day, daily pocket money >20 piasters (1 piaster = 1.42 cents), having overweight or obese mother/father were significantly associated with increased odds of both overweight and obesity. Age > or = 10 years, female gender, and family size of 300 Jordanian Dinars (JDs), (1 JD = $1.42) was associated with obesity. While the prevalence of overweight was high among Jordanian children compared with that in the neighboring countries, the prevalence of obesity was lower.

  12. Trimming the fat: identification of risk factors associated with obesity in a pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thundiyil, Josef G; Christiano-Smith, Danielle; Greenberger, Sarah; Cramm, Kelly; Latimer-Pierson, Janese; Modica, Renee F

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess which knowledge deficits and dietary habits in an urban pediatric emergency department (ED) population are risk factors for obesity. This cross-sectional study in an urban pediatric ED used a modified version of the Diet and Health Knowledge Survey, an in-person interview questionnaire, to collect data on demographics, dietary knowledge, and practices. All patients aged 2 to 17 years were enrolled in the study over a 4-month period. Subjects were excluded if they were in extremis, pregnant, incarcerated, institutionalized, considered an emancipated minor, or consumed only a modified consistency diet. One hundred seventy-nine subjects were enrolled in this study. Based on body mass index, the prevalence of obesity in our study population was 24%. Parents with obese children answered a mean of 62.9% (95% confidence interval, 60.4%-65.5%) of knowledge questions correctly, whereas all others scored 60.3% (95% confidence interval, 58.3%-62.3%) correctly. Based on the univariate analysis, 10 predictors met inclusion criteria into logistic regression analysis: screen time (P = 0.03), race (P = 0.08), sex (P = 0.04), parental education (P = 0.08), parental estimation that child is overweight (P obesity were independently associated with obesity. Knowledge deficiencies regarding healthy nutrition among parents in an urban pediatric ED population were not significantly associated with having obese children; however, specific habits were. Emergency physicians may provide a valuable role in identification and brief behavioral intervention in high-risk populations during the current epidemic of childhood obesity.

  13. The Prevalence of Obesity and Associated Factors in a Kindergarten in Ankara

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    Nurcan Yabanci

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of obesity among preschool-age children and identify its associated factors. METHOD: This research has two steps, involving 375 preschool-age children ranging from 5 to 6 years-old, registered to a public kindergarten in Kecioren, Ankara. In the first step, measurements of weight, height, waist and hip circumferences were taken, body mass index (BMI and waist-hip ratio were calculated, BMI according to age and gender was classified considering the reference data of WHO-2007, the results were evaluated ≥85-<95. percentile as overweight, and ≥95.percentile as obese. In the second stage, forms prepared by the researchers were given to parents and the data obtained were assessed by statistical methods. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of overweight was 8.3%; the overall prevalence of obesity was 10.1%. The prevalence of overweight was higher in boys than in girls. The circumference of waist and hip of overweight/obese children were higher than other children (p<0.001. Negative and significant correlation was obtained (p<0.05 between the body weight and daily sportive activities of children and also between the period of exclusive breastfeeding. Moreover, positive correlation (p<0.01 was found between the body weight of children and the body weight of their parents. CONCLUSION: Obesity among preschool children is an important health problem. To evaluate obesity of children and encouraging them for having healthy eating behaviors and for doing sportive activities could contribute to prevent them to develop obesity in later ages. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(5.000: 397-404

  14. Preschool overweight and obesity in urban and rural Vietnam: differences in prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Loan Minh; Tran, Toan Khanh; Eriksson, Bo; Petzold, Max; Nguyen, Chuc T K; Ascher, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity may soon be an equally important health threat as undernutrition and infectious diseases. Accurate information about prevalence and risk factors of obesity in children is important for the design of prevention. The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of overweight and obesity for preschool children in two Vietnamese areas, one urban and one rural, and to identify risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted in urban Dong Da and rural Ba Vi districts, Hanoi, Vietnam. Totally, 2,677 children, 1,364 urban and 1,313 rural, were weighed and measured. Caregivers were interviewed. Background information about children and families was obtained from regular household surveys. The prevalence of overweight and obesity combined were 21.1% (95% CI 18.9-23.3) in the urban area and 7.6% (95% CI 6.2-9.2) in the rural. Multiple logistic regression revealed that at the individual level, in both sites, the risk increased with increased child age. The identified urban risk factors were being a boy, consuming large amounts of food, eating fast, and indoor activity less than 2 hours per day. The rural risk factors were frequent consumption of fatty food. At the family level, significant association was found in rural areas with frequent watching of food advertisements on television. Overweight and obesity are emerging problems in Vietnam, particularly in the urban context. Prevention programs should focus on education about healthy eating habits at early preschool age and need to be tailored separately for urban and rural areas since the risk factors differ. Non-healthy food advertisement needs to be restricted.

  15. Preschool overweight and obesity in urban and rural Vietnam: differences in prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loan Minh Do

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood obesity may soon be an equally important health threat as undernutrition and infectious diseases. Accurate information about prevalence and risk factors of obesity in children is important for the design of prevention. Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of overweight and obesity for preschool children in two Vietnamese areas, one urban and one rural, and to identify risk factors. Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in urban Dong Da and rural Ba Vi districts, Hanoi, Vietnam. Totally, 2,677 children, 1,364 urban and 1,313 rural, were weighed and measured. Caregivers were interviewed. Background information about children and families was obtained from regular household surveys. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity combined were 21.1% (95% CI 18.9–23.3 in the urban area and 7.6% (95% CI 6.2–9.2 in the rural. Multiple logistic regression revealed that at the individual level, in both sites, the risk increased with increased child age. The identified urban risk factors were being a boy, consuming large amounts of food, eating fast, and indoor activity less than 2 hours per day. The rural risk factors were frequent consumption of fatty food. At the family level, significant association was found in rural areas with frequent watching of food advertisements on television. Conclusions: Overweight and obesity are emerging problems in Vietnam, particularly in the urban context. Prevention programs should focus on education about healthy eating habits at early preschool age and need to be tailored separately for urban and rural areas since the risk factors differ. Non-healthy food advertisement needs to be restricted.

  16. Are obesity and anthropometry risk factors for diabetic retinopathy? The diabetes management project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirani, Mohamed; Xie, Jing; Fenwick, Eva; Benarous, Rehab; Rees, Gwyneth; Wong, Tien Yin; Lamoureux, Ecosse L

    2011-06-22

    To investigate the relationship between anthropometric parameters and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in adults with diabetes. Five hundred participants with diabetes were recruited prospectively from ophthalmology clinics in Melbourne, Australia. Each underwent an eye examination, anthropometric measurements, and standardized interview-administered questionnaires, and fasting blood glucose and serum lipids were analyzed. Two-field fundus photographs were taken and graded for DR. Height; weight; body mass index (BMI); waist, hip, neck, and head circumferences; and skinfold measurements were recorded. A total of 492 patients (325 men, 66.1%) aged between 26 and 90 years (median, 65) were included in the analysis: 171 (34.8%), 187 (38.0%), and 134 (27.2%) with no DR, nonproliferative DR (NPDR), and proliferative DR (PDR), respectively. After multiple adjustments, higher BMI (odds ratio [OR], 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI],1.01-1.11; P = 0.02) was significantly associated with any DR. Obese people were 6.5 times more likely to have PDR than were those with normal weight (OR, 6.52; 95% CI, 1.49-28.6; P = 0.013). Neck circumference (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.00-1.10; P = 0.03) and waist circumference (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.03-1.22; P = 0.01) were significantly associated with any DR. BMI (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.00-1.08; P = 0.04) and neck circumference (OR, 1.04 95% CI, 1.01-1.08; P = 0.04) were also positively associated with increasing severity levels of DR. Persons with diabetes with higher BMI and larger neck circumference are more likely to have DR and more severe stages of DR. These data suggest that obesity is an independent risk factor for DR.

  17. Nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis: association with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors in obese adolescents

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    Wener Barbosa Resende

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the association between nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis (NAHS, metabolic syndrome (MS and cardiovascular risk factors (CRF in obese adolescents. Methods: Cross-sectional observational study with a quantitative approach, carried out from June to August 2011. The volunteers were randomly selected and referred to clinical evaluation in the endocrinology and cardiology units at the clinics hospital of the Federal University of Uberlândia, being included 34 adolescents of 14-19 years above the 95th percentile of the growth curve. NAHS was assessed by ultrasonography. The MS and CRF were diagnosed by the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Results: The sample consisted of 14 male and 20 female patients aged 16.8 ± 1.6 and body mass index (BMI of 35.7 ± 3.9. The occurrence of NAHS and MS was 76.5% and 50%, respectively. Males had a higher incidence of NAHS (78.6%, SM (64.3% and association of NAHS with MS (50%. Regarding the CRF, 100% (n=34, 61.8% (n=21 and 52.9% (n=18 of the adolescents had elevated values of waist circumference (WC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and systolic blood pressure (SBP, respectively, and 52.9% (n=18 showed low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. There were correlations between MS and triglycerides; systolic and diastolic blood pressure and HDL-C; and between NAHS and BMI and WC. Conclusion: A high occurrence of NAHS, SM and CRF was observed in obese adolescents. A strong correlation was observed between MS and NAHS, and between FRC and NAHS and SM. doi:10.5020/18061230.2014.p131

  18. Ciliary dysfunction and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, C A; Héon, E; Zhen, M

    2010-01-01

    Obesity associates with increased health risks such as heart disease, stroke and diabetes. The steady rise in the obese population worldwide poses an increasing burden on health systems. Genetic factors contribute to the development of obesity, and the elucidation of their physiological functions helps to understand the cause, and improve the prevention, diagnosis and treatment for this disorder. Primary cilia are evolutionarily conserved organelles whose dysfunctions lead to human disorders now defined as ciliopathies. Human ciliopathies present pleiotropic and overlapping phenotypes that often include retinal degeneration, cystic renal anomalies and obesity. Increasing evidence implicates an intriguing involvement of cilia in lipid/energy homeostasis. Here we discuss recent studies in support of the key roles of ciliary genes in the development and pathology of obesity in various animal models. Genes affecting ciliary development and function may pose promising candidate underlying genetic factors that contribute to the development of common obesity.

  19. Gastrointestinal Complications of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Michael; Malhi, Harmeet; Acosta, Andres

    2017-01-01

    Obesity usually is associated with morbidity related to diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are many gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases for which obesity is the direct cause (eg, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease) or is a significant risk factor, such as reflux esophagitis and gallstones. When obesity is a risk factor, it may interact with other mechanisms and result in earlier presentation or complicated diseases. There are increased odds ratios or relative risks of several gastrointestinal complications of obesity: gastroesophageal reflux disease, erosive esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma, erosive gastritis, gastric cancer, diarrhea, colonic diverticular disease, polyps, cancer, liver disease including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, gallstones, acute pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer. Gastroenterologists are uniquely poised to participate in the multidisciplinary management of obesity as physicians caring for people with obesity-related diseases, in addition to their expertise in nutrition and endoscopic interventions. PMID:28192107

  20. History of preeclampsia is more predictive of cardiometabolic and cardiovascular risk factors than obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidema, Wieteke M; Scholten, Ralph R; Lotgering, Fred K; Spaanderman, Marc E A

    2015-11-01

    To determine to what extent a history of preeclampsia affects traditional cardiometabolic (insulin resistance and dyslipidemia) and cardiovascular (hypertension and micro-albuminuria) risk factors of the metabolic syndrome irrespective of BMI. In a retrospective case-control study we compared 90 formerly preeclamptic women, divided in 3 BMI-classes (BMI 19.5-24.9, 25.0-29.9, ≥30.0kg/m(2)) to 30 controls, matched for BMI, age and parity. Cardiometabolic and cardiovascular risk factors (WHO-criteria) were tested 6-18 months post partum. Statistical analysis included unpaired t-tests, Mann-Whitney U test, or Chi square test and two-way ANOVA. Constituents of the metabolic syndrome (glucose, insulin, HOMAIR, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure, micro-albuminuria) were higher in formerly preeclamptic women than in BMI-matched controls. Resultantly, traditional risk factors were more prevalent in formerly preeclamptic women than in controls (insulin resistance 80% vs 30%, dyslipidemia 52% vs 3%, hypertension 24% vs 0%, micro-albuminuria 30% vs 0%). Cardiometabolic risk factors increased with BMI, to the same extent in both groups. Formerly preeclamptic women had metabolic syndrome more often than their BMI-matched controls (38% vs 3%, p<0.001). Traditional risk factors of the metabolic syndrome are more prevalent in formerly preeclamptic women than in BMI-matched controls and increase with BMI to the same extent in both groups. A history of preeclampsia seems to be a stronger indicator of cardiovascular risk than obesity per se. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Porcine models for the study of local and systemic regulation of innate immune factors in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbøge, Tina Rødgaard

    state of low-grade inflammation in the adipose tissues, which involves several factors of the innate immune response having a range of systemic effects and which has been implicated in the development of the metabolic syndrome. To investigate the impact of obesity and obesity-related diseases good...... translational animal models are needed, and as such pigs have been proposed as relevant models for human obesity-induced inflammation as pigs share many genetic, anatomical and physiological features with humans. In this project the up- and downregulation of genes and proteins involved in the innate immune...... the number of animals to be used in a trial to obtain statistical power. For the gene regulation analysis, two platforms for quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) were employed: The Rotor-Gene Q instrument and the microfluidics-based high-throughput Bio-Mark. For the serum protein concentrations analysis several...

  2. [Binge Eating Disorder: Prevalence, Associated Factors and Obesity in University Students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Adaucio; Gómes, Angélica; Jiménez, Baudimar; Jiménez, Francismar; León, Greidys; Majano, Anny; Rivas, Daniuska; Rodríguez, Mairoly; Soto, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is a disorder of eating behavior that can affect people of all ages. To determine the prevalence of BED according to criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-V, associated factors and their relationship to obesity in university students at Barquisimeto (Venezuela), between September 2013 and February 2014. A study was conducted on a sample of 497 university students of both sexes (371 females), between 18 and 28 years old. A questionnaire was applied and anthropometric measurements were recorder: Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (CW) and waist-height ratio (WHR). The prevalence of BED was 3.20%. Factors associated with BED were body image dissatisfaction, family dysfunction, and depressive symptoms. BED was significantly associated with global obesity and central obesity. Changes in diagnostic criteria of BED, introduced in DSM-V, do not appear to increase the prevalence of BED. Important psychosocial factors associated with BED were identified. BED was strongly associated with global and central obesity. Further studies need to be carried out, withmore rigorous designs to elucidate the effects of the new definition by DSM-V, and to determine the causal nature of the associations found. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. [Major nutrition-related risk factors of ischemic heart disease: dyslipoproteinemia, obesity, hypertension, glucose intolerance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pados, G

    1999-07-11

    Of the major risk factors of coronary heart disease dyslipoproteinemia, obesity, hypertension, and diabetes are nutrition related and can be considered of metabolic origin. Dyslipoproteinemia affects 2/3 of the adult population. The risk of coronary heart disease can be decreased 2-5 fold by lowering hypercholesterinemia; atherosclerosis in the coronaries may regress and total mortality may decrease. Atherogenic dyslipidemia (i.e. hypertriglyceridaemia, low HDL cholesterol levels, elevated concentrations of small dense LDL) increases the risk as part of the metabolic syndrome. Obesity is already highly prevalent, and it is affecting ever growing proportions of the adult population. Abdominal obesity furthermore predisposes patients to complications. No effective therapy is available for obesity. 3/4 of hypertensive patients are obese and more than half of them have insulin resistance. By decreasing blood pressure, the risk of stroke decreases by about 40%, that of coronary heart disease by 14-30%. Slimming cures are the most important non-pharmacological way of treating hypertension. 5% of the population has diabetes mellitus, and a further 5% has impaired glucose tolerance. Type 2 diabetes predisposes patients to macrovascular complications. The risk of coronary heart disease can be decreased by controlling diabetes by e.g. metformin.

  4. [Obesity paradox or reverse epidemiology: is high body weight a protective factor for various chronic conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorner, T E; Rieder, A

    2010-03-01

    Overweight and obesity are independent risk factors for the development of disease and death in the general population. However, in people with various conditions (old age, wasting diseases, heart diseases or renal dialysis) overweight and obesity are associated with a higher survival rate. The terms "reverse epidemiology" or "obesity paradox" have been suggested to describe this finding. However, it still remains uncertain, whether this phenomenon is attributable to a real protective effect of high body fat mass. Methodological problems in studies suggesting an obesity paradox such as survivor bias, selection bias, lead time bias or, in meta analyses, publication bias and confounders have been discussed. These cannot, however, entirely explain the observed phenomenon. Biological models, examining possible explanations for the protective effect of high body mass, for instance, in wasting diseases and elderly patients, have also been produced. In particular high inflammation markers combined with malnutrition predict a high mortality rate among patients with various medical conditions: overweight and obesity could counter these effects. Possible implications for clinical and public health recommendations regarding weight management and nutrition are issues for future research. In elderly subjects and patients with a poor prognosis the impact of weight management on quality of life should also be taken into account.

  5. Obesity: Risk factors, complications, and strategies for sustainable long-term weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruh, Sharon M

    2017-10-01

    The aims of this article are to review the effects of obesity on health and well-being and the evidence indicating they can be ameliorated by weight loss, and consider weight-management strategies that may help patients achieve and maintain weight loss. Narrative review based on literature searches of PubMed up to May 2016 with no date limits imposed. Search included terms such as "obesity," "overweight," "weight loss," "comorbidity," "diabetes," cardiovascular," "cancer," "depression," "management," and "intervention." Over one third of U.S. adults have obesity. Obesity is associated with a range of comorbidities, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obstructive sleep apnea, and cancer; however, modest weight loss in the 5%-10% range, and above, can significantly improve health-related outcomes. Many individuals struggle to maintain weight loss, although strategies such as realistic goal-setting and increased consultation frequency can greatly improve the success of weight-management programs. Nurse practitioners have key roles in establishing weight-loss targets, providing motivation and support, and implementing weight-loss programs. With their in-depth understanding of the research in the field of obesity and weight management, nurse practitioners are well placed to effect meaningful changes in weight-management strategies deployed in clinical practice. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  6. DNA methylation in obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Pokrywka

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The number of overweight and obese people is increasing at an alarming rate, especially in the developed and developing countries. Obesity is a major risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer, and in consequence for premature death. The development of obesity results from the interplay of both genetic and environmental factors, which include sedentary life style and abnormal eating habits. In the past few years a number of events accompanying obesity, affecting expression of genes which are not directly connected with the DNA base sequence (e.g. epigenetic changes, have been described. Epigenetic processes include DNA methylation, histone modifications such as acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation, as well as non-coding micro-RNA (miRNA synthesis. In this review, the known changes in the profile of DNA methylation as a factor affecting obesity and its complications are described.

  7. Obesity-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress suppresses nuclear factor-Y expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yulan; Zhang, Yuwei; Zhang, Yanjie; Zhang, Jinlong; Liu, Yin; Feng, Peiqun; Su, Zhiguang

    2017-02-01

    Nuclear transcription factor Y (NF-Y) is an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor composed of three subunits, NF-YA, NF-YB, and NF-YC. NF-Y plays crucial roles in pre-adipocyte maintenance and/or commitment to adipogenesis. NF-YA dysfunction in adipocyte resulted in an age-dependent progressive loss of adipose tissue associated with metabolic complications. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has emerged as an important mediator in the pathogenesis of obesity. However, it is not known if NF-YA is involved in the ER stress-mediated pathogenesis of obesity. We first examined the effects of ER stress on the NF-YA expression in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes; then in ob/ob genetic obesity mice, we tested the effect of chemical chaperones alleviating ER stress on the expression levels of NF-YA. Subsequently, we inhibited the new mRNA synthesis using actinomycin D in 3T3-L1 cells to explore the mechanism modulating NF-YA expression. Finally, we evaluated the involvement of PPARg in the regulation of NF-YA expression by ER stress. We demonstrated that both obesity- and chemical chaperone -induced ER stress suppressed NF-YA expression and alleviation of ER stress by chemical chaperone could recover NF-YA expression in ob/ob mice. Moreover, we showed that ER stress suppressed NF-YA mRNA transcription through the involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARg). Activation of PPARg ameliorates the ER stress-induced NF-YA suppression. Our findings may point to a possible role of NF-YA in stress conditions that occur in chronic obesity, ER stress might be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity through NF-YA depletion.

  8. Effect of anti-obesity drug on cardiovascular risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hao Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anti-obesity drugs are widely used to prevent the complications of obesity, however, the effects of anti-obesity drugs on cardiovascular risk factors are unclear at the present time. We carried out a comprehensively systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effects of anti-obesity drugs on cardiovascular risk factors. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We systematically searched Medline, EmBase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, reference lists of articles and proceedings of major meetings for relevant literatures. We included randomized placebo-controlled trials that reported the effects of anti-obesity drugs on cardiovascular risk factors compared to placebo. Overall, orlistat produced a reduction of 2.39 kg (95%CI-3.34 to -1.45 for weight, a reduction of 0.27 mmol/L (95%CI: -0.36 to -0.17 for total cholesterol, a reduction of 0.21 mmol/L (95%CI: -0.30 to -0.12 for LDL, a reduction of 0.12 mmol/L (95%CI: -0.20 to -0.04 for fasting glucose, 1.85 mmHg reduction (95%CI: -3.30 to -0.40 for SBP, and a reduction of 1.49 mmHg (95%CI: -2.39 to -0.58 for DBP. Sibutramine only showed effects on weight loss and triglycerides reduction with statistical significances. Rimonabant was associated with statistically significant effects on weight loss, SBP reduction and DBP reduction. No other significantly different effects were identified between anti-obesity therapy and placebo. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We identified that anti-obesity therapy was associated with a decrease of weight regardless of the type of the drug. Orlistat and rimonabant could lead to an improvement on cardiovascular risk factors. However, Sibutramine may have a direct effect on cardiovascular risk factors.

  9. On the use of risk-informed regulation including organizational factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibelli, S.M.O.; Alvarenga, M.A.B.

    1998-01-01

    Risk-Informed Regulation (RIR) can be applied by using Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) as a basic tool. Traditionally, PSA methodology encompasses the calculation of failure probabilities of Structures, Systems and Components (SSCs) and direct associated human errors. However, there are indirect causes related to human failures, associated with Organizational Factors, which are normally not included in fault trees, that may influence plant risk evaluation. This paper discusses on possible applications of RIR and on Organizational Factors. It also presents a classification of Angra-1 NPP unresolved issues, aiming a future inclusion of these factors into a PSA calculation. (author)

  10. Sociodemographic factors and pregnancy outcomes associated with prepregnancy obesity: effect modification of parity in the nationwide Epifane birth-cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudet-Berquier, Julie; Salanave, Benoit; Desenclos, Jean-Claude; Castetbon, Katia

    2017-08-25

    In light of the adverse outcomes for mothers and offspring related to maternal obesity, identification of subgroups of women at risk of prepregnancy obesity and its related-adverse issues is crucial for optimizing antenatal care. We aimed to identify sociodemographic factors and maternal and neonatal outcomes associated with prepregnancy obesity, and we tested the effect modification of parity on these associations. In 2012, 3368 mothers who had delivered in 136 randomly selected maternity wards were included just after birth in the French birth cohort, Epifane. Maternal height and weight before and at the last month of pregnancy were self-reported. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were collected in medical records. Prepregnancy Body Mass Index (pBMI) was classified into underweight (pregnancy outcomes was stratified on parity (1335 primiparous and 1814 multiparous). Before pregnancy, 7.6% of women were underweight, 64.2% were of normal weight, 18.0% were overweight and 10.2% were obese. Among the primiparous, maternal age of 25-29 years (OR = 2.09 [1.13-3.87]; vs. 30-34 years), high school level (OR = 2.22 [1.33-3.73]; vs. university level), gestational diabetes (OR = 2.80 [1.56-5.01]) and hypertensive complications (OR = 3.80 [1.83-7.89]) were independently associated with prepregnancy obesity. Among the multiparous, primary (OR = 6.30 [2.40-16.57]), junior high (OR = 2.89 [1.81-4.64]) and high school (OR = 1.86 [1.18-2.93]) education levels (vs. university level), no attendance at antenatal classes (OR = 1.77 [1.16-2.72]), excess gestational weight gain (OR = 1.82 [1.20-2.76]), gestational diabetes (OR =5.16 [3.15-8.46]), hypertensive complications (OR = 8.13 [3.97-16.64]), caesarean delivery (OR = 1.80 [1.18-2.77]) and infant birth weight ≥ 4 kg (OR = 1.70 [1.03-2.80]; vs. birth weight between 2.5 kg and 4 kg) were independently associated with prepregnancy obesity. Obesity before pregnancy is associated with a set of

  11. Cancer and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Cancer and obesity Overweight and obesity are associated with cancer Language: ... a cancer associated with overweight and obesity. Problem Obesity is a leading cancer risk factor. What’s happening? ...

  12. Factors associated with sex hormones and erectile dysfunction in male Taiwanese participants with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ming-Der; Chao, Jian-Kang; Ma, Mi-Chia; Hao, Lyh-Jyh; Chao, I-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has been receiving an increasing amount of attention recently, but investigations regarding the potential impact of obesity, sexual behaviors, and sex hormones on erectile dysfunction (ED) in men have not completely clarified the association. To identify the relationship between ED, sexual behavior, sexual satisfaction, sex hormones, and obesity in older adult males in Taiwan. Data were obtained from a baseline survey of 476 older adult males (≧40 years old). Their demographic data, body mass index (BMI), sex hormones, sexual desire, sexual satisfaction, and ED status were assessed. The International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5), Sexual Desire Inventory (SDI), and Sexual Satisfaction Scale (SSS) were used to assess ED, sexual desire, and sexual satisfaction. In all, 476 men were available for analysis. The mean age of the sample was 51.34 ± 7.84 years (range 40 to 70 years). The IIEF total score had a mean of 19.44 ± 4.98; 264 (55.5%) subjects had ED, 250 (52.9%) were currently obese (BMI ≧27), and 297 (62.4%) had metabolic syndrome. The results showed an increased risk of ED among obese men and subjects with lower levels of sex hormones and lower sexual desire. Testosterone levels were lower in subjects with obesity (P < 0.001). Among the predictors of ED, obesity (odds ratio [OR] = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.07-2.44, P = 0.021), abnormal high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (OR = 10.59, 95% CI = 4.70-23.87, P < 0.001), and lower serum full testosterone (OR = 3.27, 95% CI = 2.16-4.93, P < 0.001) were significantly independent factors. This study supports the idea of a close relationship between low levels of sex hormones, sexual desire, sexual satisfaction, obesity, and ED, and also shows that low free testosterone and hs-CRP may predict ED, even in obese populations. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  13. Obesity during childhood and adolescence increases susceptibility to multiple sclerosis after accounting for established genetic and environmental risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianfrancesco, Milena A.; Acuna, Brigid; Shen, Ling; Briggs, Farren B.S.; Quach, Hong; Bellesis, Kalliope H.; Bernstein, Allan; Hedstrom, Anna K.; Kockum, Ingrid; Alfredsson, Lars; Olsson, Tomas; Schaefer, Catherine; Barcellos, Lisa F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between obesity and multiple sclerosis (MS) while accounting for established genetic and environmental risk factors. Methods Participants included members of Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Plan, Northern California Region (KPNC) (1,235 MS cases and 697 controls). Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Body mass index (BMI) or body size was the primary predictor of each model. Both incident and prevalent MS cases were studied. Results In analyses stratified by gender, being overweight at age 10 and 20 were associated with MS in females (prisk of MS for females with a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 was observed (OR = 2.15, 95% CI 1.18, 3.92). Significant associations between BMI in 20’s and MS in males were not observed. Multivariate modeling demonstrated that significant associations between BMI or body size with MS in females persisted after adjusting for history of infectious mononucleosis and genetic risk factors, including HLA-DRB1*15:01 and established non-HLA risk alleles. Interpretation Results show that childhood and adolescence obesity confer increased risk of MS in females beyond established heritable and environmental risk factors. Strong evidence for a dose-effect of BMI in 20’s and MS was observed. The magnitude of BMI association with MS is as large as other known MS risk factors. PMID:25263833

  14. Lifestyle factors associated with obesity in a cohort of males in the central province of Sri Lanka: a cross-sectional descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardana, N W I A; Jayalath, W A T A; Madhujith, W M T; Ralapanawa, U; Jayasekera, R S; Alagiyawanna, S A S B; Bandara, A M K R; Kalupahana, N S

    2017-01-05

    Obesity has become a global epidemic. The prevalence of obesity has also increased in the South Asian region in the last decade. However, dietary and lifestyle factors associated with obesity in Sri Lankan adults are unclear. The objective of the current study was to investigate the association of dietary and lifestyle patterns with overweight and obesity in a cohort of males from the Central Province of Sri Lanka. A total of 2469 males aged between 16 and 72 years ([Formula: see text]) were included in the study. The sample comprised individuals who presented for a routine medical examination at the National Transport Medical Institute, Kandy, Sri Lanka. The Body Mass Index (BMI) cutoff values for Asians were used to categorize the participants into four groups as underweight, normal weight, overweight or obese. The data on dietary and lifestyle patterns such as level of physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, sleeping hours and other socio demographic data were obtained using validated self-administered questionnaires. Multinomial logistic regression model was fitted to assess the associations of individual lifestyle patterns with overweight and obesity. The mean BMI of the study group was 22.7 kg m -2 and prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were 31.8 and 12.3%, respectively. Mean waist circumference of the participants was 78.6 cm with 17.1% of them being centrally obese. After adjusting for potential confounders, weight status was associated with older age (P hours, smoking, consumption of fish, meat, dairy, sweets or fried snacks were not significantly associated with the weight status. The high prevalence rates of overweight and obesity in working-age males is a threatening sign for Sri Lanka. Since the prevalence rate is higher in certain ethnic groups and higher-income groups, targeted interventions for these groups may be necessary.

  15. Prevalence of obesity and associated risk factors among adults in Kinondoni municipal district, Dar es Salaam Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugusi Ferdinand M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is on the rise worldwide, not sparing developing countries. Both demographic and socio-economic factors play parts in obesity causation. Few surveys have been conducted in Tanzania to determine the magnitude of obesity and its association with these risk factors. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of obesity and its associated risk factors among adults aged 18 - 65 years in Kinondoni municipality, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania from April 2007 to April 2008. Methods Random sampling of households was performed. Interviews and anthropometric measurement were carried out to eligible and consenting members of the selected households. Obesity was defined using Body Mass Index (BMI. Results Out of 1249 subjects recruited, 814 (65.2% were females. The overall prevalence of obesity was 19.2% (240/1249. However, obesity was significantly more prevalent in women (24.7% than men (9%, p Conclusion This study revealed a higher prevalence of obesity among Kinondoni residents than previously reported in other parts of the country. Independent predictors of obesity in the population studied were increasing age, marriage and cohabitation, high SES, female sex and less vigorous physical activities.

  16. C-reactive protein level and obesity as cardiovascular risk factors in polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eda Ülkü Uludağ

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the role of C-reactive protein(CRP level elevation and obesity for the increased cardiovasculardisease risk in polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS.Methods: A hundred and nine patients with PCOS and 30age matched healthy volunteers with regular menstrualcycle are involved in the study. PCOS group is furthersubdivided into three subgroups according to the bodymass index (BMI. Subgroups included 54 with BMI30. Blood samplesfor glucose, insulin, uric acid, and CRP were collected inthe morning after overnight fasting (12 hours. Homeostasismodel assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IRwas calculated. Results: Fasting blood glucose, insulin,and HOMA-IR was significantly higher in PCOS group(p=0.02, p=0.01 and p=0.02. CRP level was higher insubgroup with BMI>30. High CRP level in PCOS wasfound to be independent from BMI (p30.When compared with the control group high insulin levelwas the only to be statistically significant in obese PCOSpatients (p=0.005. HOMA-IR was higher in PCOS subgroupwith BMI>30 when compared with controls and thePCOS subgroup with BMI<25 (p<0.001, p= 0.003.Conclusion: Obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and high CRPlevels are seemed to be related and potentiating eachother in PCOS. Struggling with obesity is one of the mostimportant issues for preventive medicine.Key words: PCOS, CRP, obesity, cardiovascular risk

  17. Retinopathy in an obesity WHO III cohort: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern, Juri; Lammert, Alexander; Otto, Mirko; Hammes, Hans-Peter

    2017-11-01

    To assess retinopathy and its risk factors in an obesity WHO III cohort. In the Mannheim Obesity Study , 277 subjects with obesity WHO III aged 18-64 years were examined in a cross-sectional approach. Screening for retinopathy was performed using 3-field retinal photography. Endothelial function was assessed using arteriole-to-venule ratio and flicker light analysis. Subjects with and without retinopathy were analysed for anthropometry, metabolic, vascular and renal parameters. Retinopathy was found in 18 of the 277 subjects (6.5%). Prevalence of retinopathy was 16.7% in subjects with and 3.4% in subjects without diabetes mellitus. Between subjects with and without retinopathy there were significant differences in diabetes prevalence (61.1% vs 21.7%, pretinopathy (OR 8.3, p=0.049, 95% CI 1.01 to 67.49), whereas risk for retinopathy decreased by nearly 50% (OR 0.54, p=0.032, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.95) with each percentage increase in venous dilatation in response to flicker light. Retinopathy prevalence in our obesity WHO III cohort is low. Presence of diabetes mellitus is the most important risk factor for retinopathy. Preserved venular function indicates protection from retinopathy. NCT00770276, Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Underestimation of weight and its associated factors in overweight and obese university students from 21 low, middle and emerging economy countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2015-01-01

    Awareness of overweight status is an important factor of weight control and may have more impact on one's decision to lose weight than objective weight status. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of underestimation of overweight/obesity and its associated factors among university students from 21 low, middle and emerging economy countries. In a cross-sectional survey the total sample included 15,068 undergraduate university students (mean age 20.8, SD=2.8, age range of 16-30 years) from 21 countries. Anthropometric measurements and self-administrated questionnaire were applied to collected data. The prevalence of weight underestimation (being normal or underweight) for overweight or obese university students was 33.3% (41% in men and 25.1% in women), among overweight students, 39% felt they had normal weight or were under weight, and among obese students 67% did not rate themselves as obese or very overweight. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, being male, poor subjective health status, lack of overweight health risk awareness, lack of importance to lose weight, not trying and not dieting to lose weight, and regular breakfast was associated with underestimation of weight in overweight and obese university students. The study found a high prevalence of underestimation of overweight/obesity among university students. Several factors identified can be utilized in health promotion programmes including diet and weight management behaviours to focus on inaccurate weight perceptions on the design of weight control, in particular for men. Copyright © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Randomised controlled feasibility trial of an evidence-informed behavioural intervention for obese adults with additional risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falko F Sniehotta

    Full Text Available Interventions for dietary and physical activity changes in obese adults may be less effective for participants with additional obesity-related risk factors and co-morbidities than for otherwise healthy individuals. This study aimed to test the feasibility and acceptability of the recruitment, allocation, measurement, retention and intervention procedures of a randomised controlled trial of an intervention to improve physical activity and dietary practices amongst obese adults with additional obesity related risk factors.Pilot single centre open-labelled outcome assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial of obese (Body Mass Index (BMI≥30 kg/m2 adults (age≥18 y with obesity related co-morbidities such as type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance or hypertension. Participants were randomly allocated to a manual-based group intervention or a leaflet control condition in accordance to a 2∶1 allocation ratio. Primary outcome was acceptability and feasibility of trial procedures, secondary outcomes included measures of body composition, physical activity, food intake and psychological process measures.Out of 806 potentially eligible individuals identified through list searches in two primary care general medical practices N = 81 participants (63% female; mean-age = 56.56(11.44; mean-BMI = 36.73(6.06 with 2.35(1.47 co-morbidities were randomised. Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD was the only significant predictor of providing consent to take part in the study (higher chances of consent for invitees with lower levels of deprivation. Participant flowcharts, qualitative and quantitative feedback suggested good acceptance and feasibility of intervention procedures but 34.6% of randomised participants were lost to follow-up due to overly high measurement burden and sub-optimal retention procedures. Participants in the intervention group showed positive trends for most psychological, behavioural and body composition outcomes

  20. Dietary factors associated with obesity indicators and level of sports participation in Flemish adults: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delecluse Christophe

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity develops when energy intake continuously exceeds energy expenditure, causing a fundamental chronic energy imbalance. Societal and behavioural changes over the last decades are held responsible for the considerable increase in sedentary lifestyles and inappropriate dietary patterns. The role of dietary fat and other dietary factors in the aetiology and maintenance of excess weight is controversial. The purposes of the present study were to investigate the dietary factors associated with body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, and to analyse whether dietary intake varies between subjects with different levels of sports participation. Methods Data for this cross-sectional study, including anthropometric measurements, 3-day diet diary and physical activity questionnaire, were collected by the Flemish Policy Research Centre Sport, Physical Activity and Health (SPAH between October 2002 and April 2004. Results of 485 adult men and 362 women with plausible dietary records were analysed. Analyses of covariance were performed to determine the differences in dietary intake between normal weight, overweight and obese subjects, and between subjects with different levels of sports participation. Results Total energy intake, protein and fat intake (kcal/day were significantly higher in obese subjects compared to their lean counterparts in both genders. Percentage of energy intake from fat was significantly higher in obese men compared to men with normal weight or WC. Energy percentages from carbohydrates and fibres were negatively related to BMI and WC in men, whereas in women a higher carbohydrate and fibre intake was positively associated with obesity. Alcohol intake was positively associated with WC in men. Subjects participating in health related sports reported higher intake of carbohydrates, but lower intake of fat compared to subjects not participating in sports. Conclusion This study supports the evidence that

  1. Cross sectional study of childhood obesity and prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes in children aged 11–13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brophy Sinead

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity levels are rising with estimates suggesting that around one in three children in Western countries are overweight. People from lower socioeconomic status and ethnic minority backgrounds are at higher risk of obesity and subsequent CVD and diabetes. Within this study we examine the prevalence of risk factors for CVD and diabetes (obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension and examine factors associated with the presence of these risk factors in school children aged 11–13. Methods and design Participants will be recruited from schools across South Wales. Schools will be selected based on catchment area, recruiting those with high ethnic minority or deprived catchment areas. Data collection will take place during the PE lessons and on school premises. Data will include: anthropometrical variables (height, weight, waist, hip and neck circumferences, skinfold thickness at 4 sites, physiological variables (blood pressure and aerobic fitness (20 metre multi stage fitness test (20 MSFT, diet (self-reported seven-day food diary, physical activity (Physical Activity Questionnire for Adolescents (PAQ-A, accelerometery and blood tests (fasting glucose, insulin, lipids, fibrinogen (Fg, adiponectin (high molecular weight, C-reactive protein (CRP and interleukin-6 (IL-6. Deprivation at the school level will be measured via information on the number of children receiving free school meals. Townsend deprivation scores will be calculated based on the individual childs postcode and self assigned ethnicity for each participating child will be collected. It is anticipated 800 children will be recruited. Multilevel modeling will be used to examine shared and individual factors associated with obesity, stratified by ethnic background, deprivation level and school. Discussion This study is part of a larger project which includes interviews with older children regarding health behaviours and analysis of existing cohort studies

  2. Some factors including radiation affecting the productivity of proteinase enzymes by mucor lamprosporus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kabbany, H.M.I.

    1996-01-01

    In the present time, great attention has been focused on the production of milk clotting enzymes from microbial source for use as remain substitute due to the increasing demands on rennin for cheese making and the prohibition of the slaughter of small calves. The present investigation included the isolation and identification of remin-like enzyme fungal producers from different egyptian food and soil samples. Different factors including gamma radiation affecting the capability of selected isolate to produce the enzyme was also included. Special attention has also given to study the effect of different purification methods of the produced enzyme. The properties of the purified enzyme were also investigated

  3. Knowledge and Attitude on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Their Relationship with Obesity and Biochemical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Toupchian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to the high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs in developing countries as well as high treatment expenses for patients and health-care systems, CVDs prevention in such societies has a great importance. One of the most effective strategies is improvement of knowledge and attitude towards the CVDs risk factors. This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of females on CVDs risk factors and also the relationship between knowledge and attitude with obesity indices and biochemical parameters. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 89 women with the age range of 11 to 67 y old and body mass index (BMI of 24 to 51 kg/m2. Participants were interviewed face to face using a valid questionnaire in order to evaluate their knowledge and attitude on CVDs risk factors. Blood sampling was implemented after 12 h of overnight fasting. Fasting blood glucose (FBG and lipid profile were assessed by enzymatic methods. Anthropometric measurements were performed and obesity indices were calculated. Results: More than 70% of participants had moderate or good knowledge and attitude about CVDs risk factors. Participant's knowledge and attitude had a significant positive association with educational level and a significant reverse relationship with age, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and obesity indices. Conclusions: Results of this study indicated that knowledge and attitude levels on CVDs risk factors affect the obesity indices and metabolic profile. Hence, knowledge and attitude enhancement is the main target and initial step in improving life quality and preventing cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Several dominants risk factors related to obesity in urban childbearing age women in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kencana Sari

    2016-01-01

    analyze several dominant riskfactors related to obesity in childbearing age women living in urban areas in Indonesia.Methods: This analysis used a part of Basic Health Research (Riskesdas 2007 data. The samples werederived from 258366 households. Riskesdas data on socio-demographic and other factors was collectedby questionnaire. Nutritional status was measured using body mass index (BMI. Cox regression withconstant time analysis was used for the analysis.Results: This analysis noted that there are 14357 (18.8% of women were obese and 62052 (81.2%normal. Compared with the respective reference groups, women aged 25-49 had a 3.5-fold greater riskof becoming obese [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 3.49; P = 0.000, and divorced or married had 2.5-foldhigher risk to be obese (RRa = 2.58; P= 0.000 and RRa = 2.62; P = 0.000, respectively. Furthermore,unemployed women had higher risk to be obese (RRa = 1.06; P = 0.000, and consuming excess proteinas well as often consume fatty foods made women had a higher risk of obesity (RRa = 1.09; P = 0.000 andRRa = 1.17; P = 0.000, respectively.Conclusion: Women aged 25-49, divorced or married, unemployed, consumed excess protein, and often consumefatty foods have a higher risk for becoming obese. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2015;6:63-8Key words: obesity, urban, women

  5. Nutritional status and socio-ecological factors associated with overweight/obesity at a rural-serving US-Mexico border university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Susan L; Gallivan, Amanda; Kratzke, Cynthia; Amatya, Anup

    2012-10-01

    Globesity (the global epidemic of obesity), like undernutrition at the opposite end of the malnutrition spectrum, affects virtually all age and socioeconomic groups in developed and developing countries. Genetics, comorbid diseases and lifestyle factors have been associated with obesity and weight gain for college students. Little is known about obesity and lifestyle factors of campus students and employees located in rural areas. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of overweight/obesity and socioecological elements of the obesogenic environment at a rural-serving US-Mexico border university. Data were collected using a cross-sectional, convenience sample by anasynchronous electronic survey submitted to approximately 23 000 students, faculty and staff on the main campus of New Mexico State University. Self-reported anthropometric indicators were used as proxy measures of nutritional status. Factors analyzed include the prevalence overweight/obesity from calculated body mass index (BMI) and self-identified body image in the contexts of sex, age, ethnicity, role at the university (student or employee) and residence. Body mass index categories were analyzed for associations with reported prevalence of stress indicators such as clinically diagnosed anxiety or depression, and major diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, cancer and stroke. A total of 3962 completed surveys were analyzed. Self-reported respondent rates (n = 3962) of overweight and obese individuals (47.2%) were less than those reported for the state (60.7%) in a 2010 national survey. When BMI was analyzed by sex, there was a significant difference (p = 0.003) between males and females. More males were overweight and obese than females. When BMI and BMI categories were assessed by age, ethnicity, role at the university and residence, each variable was found to have statistically significant differences. No one demographic or socioecological factor appears to have a

  6. Meta-analysis of the INSIG2 association with obesity including 74,345 individuals: does heterogeneity of estimates relate to study design?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heid, Iris M; Huth, Cornelia; Loos, Ruth J F

    2009-01-01

    with subjects selected for conditions related to a better health status ('healthy population', HP), and obesity studies (OB). We tested five hypotheses to explore potential sources of heterogeneity. The meta-analysis of 27 studies on Caucasian adults (n = 66,213) combining the different study designs did......The INSIG2 rs7566605 polymorphism was identified for obesity (BMI> or =30 kg/m(2)) in one of the first genome-wide association studies, but replications were inconsistent. We collected statistics from 34 studies (n = 74,345), including general population (GP) studies, population-based studies...... not support overall association of the CC-genotype with obesity, yielding an odds ratio (OR) of 1.05 (p-value = 0.27). The I(2) measure of 41% (p-value = 0.015) indicated between-study heterogeneity. Restricting to GP studies resulted in a declined I(2) measure of 11% (p-value = 0.33) and an OR of 1.10 (p...

  7. Elevated serum milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 levels in type 2 diabetic patients are suppressed by overweight or obese status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Ran, Wenzhuo; Zhang, Jiaqiang; Chen, Shi; Li, Yihang; Luo, Deng; Wang, Chen; Jia, Weiping

    2017-02-01

    Inflammation is the most important link between obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Although milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a key mediator in anti-inflammatory responses, its role in obesity and diabetes is not yet completely understood. We aimed to measure MFG-E8 serum levels and to explore the role of MFG-E8 in obesity and T2D. Fasting serum MFG-E8 levels were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for 168 individuals, whose oral glucose tolerance test was conducted, and levels of inflammatory factors, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and C-reactive protein, were measured. The participants were subdivided into 66 newly diagnosed T2D individuals, 44 impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) subjects and 58 healthy controls. Their characteristics were further classified as lean or nonlean for investigation. MFG-E8 levels were significantly higher in T2D subjects than in healthy controls (P = 0.028). Decreased levels of MFG-E8 were found in overweight or obese individuals, compared to those in lean subjects, in both the T2D and IGT groups (P obesity and T2D in the clinical setting. © 2017 IUBMB Life, 69(2):63-71, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  8. Study of associated factors with obesity and overweight among students of Khorramabad city in 2011-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh Khorramabadi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : Obesity and overweight are related to biological factors, individual, social, economic factors, different cultural factors and feeding behavior.  Recognizing these factors can be a guidance of interventions relating to prevention and control of obesity in children and teenagers. The present study was aimed to study determinant factors of obesity and overweight in students of Khorramabad city. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 3387 students from age 6 to 14 were selected by combinative, multistage grouped and clustered sampling. Students' height and weight were measured and also body mass index (BIM was calculated. In order to determine  the  prevalence, body mass index was used  for age in NCHS table and evidence up 95 was regarded as obese and 85 to 95 was regarded as overweight.     Results: The relation of overweight and obesity in students with kind of school, family size, parental education and family income was very significant     (p<0.001. Obesity and overweight were more prevalent in students of non-profit schools and families with more income. Students whose parents had higher education, the prevalence of overweight and obesity was more. There wasn't  a significant relation between overweight and obesity and pubertal status (p=0.1. Conclusion: Overweight and obesity in case study students were related to individual and external factors. Of these factors, we can mention factors such as gender, birth rank, family size and parental education.

  9. Obese pregnant women and complications in relation to pregnancy and birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinter, Christina Anne; Tanvig, Mette Honnens; Damm, Peter

    2012-01-01

    One third of the pregnant Danish women are overweight or obese. Maternal obesity is an independent risk factor for adverse maternal and foetal outcomes including infertility, miscarriage, congenital malformations, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, complicated deliveries, caesarean section......, macrosomia and childhood obesity. This article reviews the effect of maternal obesity on obstetric and neonatal outcomes and provides recommendations for management of obesity in pregnancy....

  10. [Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and associated factors in children and adolescents with obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Velarde, Enrique; Aguirre-Salas, Liuba Marina; Álvarez-Román, Yussani Arelhi; Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar Manuel; Casillas-Toral, Erika; Fonseca-Reyes, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children in Mexico are high, as well as the complications associated with their presence. The objective of this work was to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in obese children and adolescents attending a Hospital Clinic and identify the associated factors. Cross sectional design with 120 children and adolescents; of either sex, with exogenous obesity and BMI > 2.0 standard deviations. Personal and family history was collected, blood pressure was measured and determination of serum glucose, insulin, lipoprotein HDL cholesterol and triglycerides were performed. The presence of metabolic syndrome with the ATPIII, WHO and International Diabetes Federation criteria was identified. The association of metabolic syndrome with different variables was identified with chi square test and calculation of odds ratio. Mean age was 10.6 ± 2.7 years. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 37.5% to 54.5% depending on the criteria used. The presence of metabolic syndrome was associated with a history of large birth weight (OR= 2.21 [1.01-4.82]), and insulin resistance (OR= 6.53 [2.40-18.2]). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is high in this group of children and adolescents with obesity. The history of large birth weight and the presence of insulin resistance should alert us to the presence of the disease.

  11. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Bulgarian Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and/or Obesity

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    Antoaneta Gateva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is one of the most common endocrine disturbances in women of reproductive age. Besides its well-known effects on reproductive health, it is also linked to increased cardiovascular risk in later life. The aim of this study is to investigate some classical cardiovascular risk factors in a crossectional study of Bulgarian women with PCOS and/or obesity. We performed a retrospective medical chart review of 375 women from an university endocrine clinic. We found significant differences in the indices of carbohydrate metabolism, blood pressure, lipid profile, rate of liver steatosis, and the levels liver enzymes and hematological results between the lean and obese PCOS women. Obese women without PCOS did not show significantly different results in their OGGT form obese PCOS women. Waist-to-stature-ratio (WSR correlated better with the baseline IRI levels and lipid profile than waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR that makes it a better marker for unfavorable metabolic profile.

  12. Risk factors of overweight and obesity among preschool children with different ethnic background.

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    Toselli, Stefania; Zaccagni, Luciana; Celenza, Francesca; Albertini, Augusta; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we evaluated the risk factors associated with overweight and obesity in 2,640 preschool children in Italy taking into account the ethnic background of the parents. Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. Personal and lifestyle data for the children (birth weight, type of breastfeeding, sleep duration, skipping breakfast, snacking, physical activity) and parents (ethnicity, educational level, occupation, weight, height) were collected by means of a questionnaire. Italian and Other European children generally showed the highest percentage of normal weight, while the other ethnic groups presented a greater imbalance. Overweight and obesity were high in African males, who also presented high birth weight. Breastfeeding was most common, although formula feeding was significantly higher in Italians than in immigrants. Immigrants, particularly males, tended to skip breakfast more than Italians. Physical activity was significantly higher in Italians than in immigrants. In the parents, underweight was particularly high in Italian and Other mothers. African parents had high rates of overweight and obesity and a low educational level. The most common profession was worker for the fathers and housewife for the mothers, with the exception of Italians in which clerical work prevailed. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the BMI of children was closely related to the BMI of the parents and the birth weight. Hence, these are the most informative parameters in preventing obesity.

  13. Pre-pregnancy obesity and maternal nutritional biomarker status during pregnancy: a factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomedi, Laura E; Chang, Chung-Chou H; Newby, P K; Evans, Rhobert W; Luther, James F; Wisner, Katherine L; Bodnar, Lisa M

    2013-08-01

    Pre-pregnancy obesity has been associated with adverse birth outcomes. Poor essential fatty acid (EFA) and micronutrient status during pregnancy may contribute to these associations. We assessed the associations between pre-pregnancy BMI and nutritional patterns of maternal micronutrient and EFA status during mid-pregnancy. A cross-sectional analysis from a prospective cohort study. Women provided non-fasting blood samples at ≥ 20 weeks’ gestation that were assayed for red cell EFA; plasma folate, homocysteine and ascorbic acid; and serum retinol, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, a-tocopherol, soluble transferrin receptors and carotenoids. These nutritional biomarkers were employed in a factor analysis and three patterns were derived: EFA, Micronutrients and Carotenoids. The Antidepressant Use During Pregnancy Study, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Pregnant women (n 129). After adjustment for parity, race/ethnicity and age, obese pregnant women were 3.0 (95% CI 1.1, 7.7) times more likely to be in the lowest tertile of the EFA pattern and 4.5 (95% CI 1.7, 12.3) times more likely to be in the lowest tertile of the Carotenoid pattern compared with their lean counterparts. We found no association between pre-pregnancy obesity and the Micronutrient pattern after confounder adjustment. Our results suggest that obese pregnant women have diminished EFA and carotenoid concentrations.

  14. Chronic exercise reduces hypothalamic transforming growth factor-β1 in middle-aged obese mice.

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    Silva, Vagner R R; Katashima, Carlos K; Lenhare, Luciene; Silva, Carla G B; Morari, Joseane; Camargo, Rafael L; Velloso, Licio A; Saad, Mario A; da Silva, Adelino S R; Pauli, Jose Rodrigo; Ropelle, Eduardo Rochete

    2017-08-28

    Obesity and aging are associated with hypothalamic inflammation, hyperphagia and abnormalities in the thermogenesis control. It has been demonstrated that the association between aging and obesity induces hypothalamic inflammation and metabolic disorders, at least in part, through the atypical hypothalamic transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β1). Physical exercise has been used to modulate several metabolic parameters. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of chronic exercise on TGF-β1 expression in the hypothalamus of Middle-Aged mice submitted to a one year of high-fat diet (HFD) treatment. We observed that long-term of HFD-feeding induced hypothalamic TGF-β1 accumulation, potentiated the hypothalamic inflammation, body weight gain and defective thermogenesis of Middle-Aged mice when compared to Middle-Aged animals fed on chow diet. As expected, chronic exercise induced negative energy balance, reduced food consumption and increasing the energy expenditure, which promotes body weight loss. Interestingly, exercise training reduced the TGF-β1 expression and IkB-α ser32 phosphorylation in the hypothalamus of Middle-Aged obese mice. Taken together our study demonstrated that chronic exercise suppressed the TGF-β1/IkB-α axis in the hypothalamus and improved the energy homeostasis in an animal model of obesity-associated to aging.

  15. Iron in Child Obesity. Relationships with Inflammation and Metabolic Risk Factors

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    Dominique Bouglé

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe sequestration is described in overweight and in its associated metabolic complications, i.e., metabolic syndrome (MetS and non-alcoholic liver fatty disease (NAFLD; however, the interactions between Fe, obesity and inflammation make it difficult to recognize the specific role of each of them in the risk of obesity-induced metabolic diseases. Even the usual surrogate marker of Fe stores, ferritin, is influenced by inflammation; therefore, in obese subjects inflammation parameters must be measured together with those of Fe metabolism. This cross-sectional study in obese youth (502 patients; 57% girls: 11.4 ± 3.0 years old (x ± SD; BMI z score 5.5 ± 2.3, multivariate regression analysis showed associations between Fe storage assessed by serum ferritin with risk factors for MetS and NAFLD, assessed by transaminase levels, which were independent of overweight and the acute phase protein fibrinogen. Further studies incorporating the measurement of complementary parameters of Fe metabolism could improve the comprehension of mechanisms involved.

  16. [Obesity in children: Risk factors and strategies for its prevention in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Carlos M Del Águila

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents represents an emerging public health problem in Peru, so it is necessary to be aware of the different risk factors in order to establish suitable and efficient prevention measures. These should contribute to health strategies such as promoting physical activity and a healthy diet to ensure that the infant population reaches adulthood without chronic diseases and with an adequate quality of life.

  17. Association of missing paternal demographics on infant birth certificates with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity

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    Erika R. Cheng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of fathers in the development of obesity in their offspring remains poorly understood. We evaluated associations of missing paternal demographic information on birth certificates with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity. Methods Data were from the Linked CENTURY Study, a database linking birth certificate and well-child visit data for 200,258 Massachusetts children from 1980–2008. We categorized participants based on the availability of paternal age, education, or race/ethnicity and maternal marital status on the birth certificate: (1 pregnancies missing paternal data; (2 pregnancies involving unmarried women with paternal data; and (3 pregnancies involving married women with paternal data. Using linear and logistic regression, we compared differences in smoking during pregnancy, gestational diabetes, birthweight, breastfeeding initiation, and ever recording a weight for length (WFL ≥ the 95th percentile or crossing upwards ≥2 WFL percentiles between 0–24 months among the study groups. Results 11,989 (6.0 % birth certificates were missing paternal data; 31,323 (15.6 % mothers were unmarried. In adjusted analyses, missing paternal data was associated with lower birthweight (β -0.07 kg; 95 % CI: −0.08, −0.05, smoking during pregnancy (AOR 4.40; 95 % CI: 3.97, 4.87, non-initiation of breastfeeding (AOR 0.39; 95 % CI: 0.36, 0.42, and with ever having a WFL ≥ 95th percentile (AOR 1.10; 95 % CI: 1.01, 1.20. Similar associations were noted for pregnancies involving unmarried women with paternal data, but differences were less pronounced. Conclusions Missing paternal data on the birth certificate is associated with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity. Efforts to understand and reduce obesity risk factors in early life may need to consider paternal factors.

  18. Non-communicable disease risk factors and treatment preference of obese patients in Cape Town

    OpenAIRE

    Manning, Kathryn; Senekal, Marjanne; Harbron, Janetta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insights into the characteristics of treatment seekers for lifestyle changes and treatment preferences are necessary for intervention planning. Aim: To compile a profile of treatment-seeking obese patients with non-communicable diseases (NCDs) or NCD risk factors and to compare patients who choose group-based (facility-based therapeutic group [FBTG]) versus usual care (individual consultations) treatment. Setting: A primary healthcare facility in Cape Town, South Africa. ...

  19. Obesity, metabolic factors and risk of different histological types of lung cancer: A Mendelian randomization study.

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    Robert Carreras-Torres

    Full Text Available Assessing the relationship between lung cancer and metabolic conditions is challenging because of the confounding effect of tobacco. Mendelian randomization (MR, or the use of genetic instrumental variables to assess causality, may help to identify the metabolic drivers of lung cancer.We identified genetic instruments for potential metabolic risk factors and evaluated these in relation to risk using 29,266 lung cancer cases (including 11,273 adenocarcinomas, 7,426 squamous cell and 2,664 small cell cases and 56,450 controls. The MR risk analysis suggested a causal effect of body mass index (BMI on lung cancer risk for two of the three major histological subtypes, with evidence of a risk increase for squamous cell carcinoma (odds ratio (OR [95% confidence interval (CI] = 1.20 [1.01-1.43] and for small cell lung cancer (OR [95%CI] = 1.52 [1.15-2.00] for each standard deviation (SD increase in BMI [4.6 kg/m2], but not for adenocarcinoma (OR [95%CI] = 0.93 [0.79-1.08] (Pheterogeneity = 4.3x10-3. Additional analysis using a genetic instrument for BMI showed that each SD increase in BMI increased cigarette consumption by 1.27 cigarettes per day (P = 2.1x10-3, providing novel evidence that a genetic susceptibility to obesity influences smoking patterns. There was also evidence that low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was inversely associated with lung cancer overall risk (OR [95%CI] = 0.90 [0.84-0.97] per SD of 38 mg/dl, while fasting insulin was positively associated (OR [95%CI] = 1.63 [1.25-2.13] per SD of 44.4 pmol/l. Sensitivity analyses including a weighted-median approach and MR-Egger test did not detect other pleiotropic effects biasing the main results.Our results are consistent with a causal role of fasting insulin and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in lung cancer etiology, as well as for BMI in squamous cell and small cell carcinoma. The latter relation may be mediated by a previously unrecognized effect of obesity on smoking behavior.

  20. Multi-Vitamin Intake During Pregnancy: Is it a Causative Factor for Childhood Obesity?

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    Naci Topaloglu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to investigate whether multivitamin intake can be one of the reasons of childhood obesity. Material and Method: : We carried out a prospective case-control study. The first group included 50 children, as case group who was diagnosed with obesity according to body mass index (BMI and the second group 50 healty children as control group. Premature babies, children with mental motor reterdation and chronic illness, syndromic children and mothers who couldn%u2019t answer the questions efficiently were excluded. The study was conducted with a questionnaire that was filled out by mothers. Anthropometric measurements including body weight and height were measured by the same researcher (NK. Results: The mean age of the case group was 10,34 ± 3,68 years and 8,88 ± 3,96 years in control group. There were no statistically significant difference between two groups in terms of multivitamin intake during pregnancy so multivitamin intake was not found related with childhood obesity, mode of delivery, gestational age at delivery and birth weight as well. Discussion: In our study; multivitamin supplements had no effect on childhood obesity. Further studies are needed with larger populations to asses it detailed.

  1. Factors associated with early atherosclerosis and arterial calcifications in young subjects with a benign phenotype of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilardini, Luisa; Pasqualinotto, Lucia; Di Matteo, Silvia; Caffetto, Katherine; Croci, Marina; Girola, Andrea; Invitti, Cecilia

    2011-08-01

    We assessed (i) the association between early arterial disease and factors linked to adiposity, dietary habits, and family in a young cohort of 151 obese children and adolescents with less than or equal to one cardiovascular (CV) risk factor, (ii) whether in subjects with carotid calcifications there was an imbalance of calcium-phosphorus homeostasis. Measurement included: carotid ultrasound, oral glucose tolerance test, anthropometry, body composition, dietary history, white blood cells count, lipids, uric acid, adiponectin, insulin, C-reactive protein, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium and phosphorus. Obese children with carotid artery intima media thickness (cIMT) values >75° percentile (0.55 mm), compared to those with lower cIMT, were more obese, more often pubertal and had higher prevalence of family history of CV disease (CVD) (P < 0.05), higher plasma PAI-1 and uric acid (P < 0.001) and lower adiponectin (P < 0.05) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels (P < 0.05). After adjustment for sex, age, puberty, obesity, and insulin levels, only PAI-I remained significantly different between the two groups (10.9 (7.2-29.8) vs. 6.2 (4.3-10.6) ng/ml, P < 0.001). Dietary intake did not affect cIMT values. Eight percent of subjects showed nonatherosclerotic carotid calcifications with patchy pattern. These children had a worse lipid profile (P < 0.05) and higher plasma PTH levels (48.6 ± 21.5 vs 38.5 ± 16.9 pg/ml, P < 0.05) that were inversely associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (r = 0.245, P < 0.01). Present results suggest that (i) several adiposity-related factors may play a role in promoting the development of early arterial diseases in young subjects with a benign phenotype of obesity, (ii) a PTH rise resulting from a subclinical imbalance in calcium-phosphorus homeostasis may affect the biological process of vascular calcifications.

  2. Overweight/obesity and underweight are both risk factors for osteoporotic fractures at different sites in Japanese postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, S; Kuroda, T; Saito, M; Shiraki, M

    2013-01-01

    This cohort study of 1,614 postmenopausal Japanese women followed for 6.7 years showed that overweight/obesity and underweight are both risk factors for fractures at different sites. Fracture risk assessment may be improved if fracture sites are taken into account and BMI is categorized. The effect of body mass index (BMI) on fracture at a given level of bone mineral density (BMD) is controversial, since varying associations between BMI and fracture sites have been reported. A total of 1,614 postmenopausal Japanese women were followed for 6.7 years in a hospital-based cohort study. Endpoints included incident vertebral, femoral neck, and long-bone fractures. Rate ratios were estimated by Poisson regression models adjusted for age, diabetes mellitus, BMD, prior fracture, back pain, and treatment by estrogen. Over a mean follow-up period of 6.7 years, a total of 254 clinical and 335 morphometric vertebral fractures, 48 femoral neck fractures, and 159 long-bone fractures were observed. Incidence rates of vertebral fracture in underweight and normal weight women were significantly lower than overweight or obese women by 0.45 (95 % confidence interval: 0.32 to 0.63) and 0.61 (0.50 to 0.74), respectively, if BMD and other risk factors were adjusted, and by 0.66 (0.48 to 0.90) and 0.70 (0.58 to 0.84) if only BMD was not adjusted. Incidence rates of femoral neck and long-bone fractures in the underweight group were higher than the overweight/obese group by 2.15 (0.73 to 6.34) and 1.51 (0.82 to 2.77) and were similar between normal weight and overweight/obesity. Overweight/obesity and underweight are both risk factors for fractures at different sites. Fracture risk assessment may be improved if fracture sites are taken into account and BMI is categorized.

  3. Pre- and post-natal nutritional factors in the metabolic regulation of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Villanueva-Ortega

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades there has been a very significant increase in obesity in most developing countries. In addition to environmental, genetic and hormonal factors, nutritional and maternal environment factors influencing critical periods of foetal development have acquired increasing significance since the thrifty phenotype theory was described by Harles and Barker and epidemiological studies demonstrated that perinatal conditions may modify individuals’ future metabolic responses via genomic reprogramming. Perinatal programming corresponds to a critical and accelerated period of developmental plasticity from preconception through early postnatal life. This characteristic may also have a long-term influence on metabolic health and obesity. Epigenetic modifications favour the survival of the individual in critical periods when nutritional restriction is established, but exerts long-term risks, as metabolic programming tracks into infancy and adulthood and induces fat mass accumulation, particularly if energy consumption is exceeded. Although the mechanisms are not yet fully understood, it is evident that hormonal factors such as insulin and leptin may influence the programming of hypothalamic circuits for energy balance regulation. Nutritional interventions in animal models at critical stages of development have demonstrated that microenvironmental modifications might induce a permanent modulation of the progeny genome expression via epigenetic mechanisms. A transgenerational transmission of obesity has been proposed.

  4. Personality, tobacco consumption, physical inactivity, obesity markers, and metabolic components as risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocnet, Cornelia; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Strippoli, Marie-Pierre F; Glaus, Jennifer; Rossier, Jérôme; Preisig, Martin

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between personality traits, tobacco consumption, physical inactivity, obesity markers and metabolic components as cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs). A total of 2543 participants from the general population (CoLaus|PsyCoLaus) had provided complete information on physical health and unhealthy behaviors and completed the Revised NEO Five-Factor Inventory. Our results show a strong cross-correlation between obesity markers and metabolic components suggesting that their combination could represent an important CVRF. Moreover, socio-demographic characteristics, tobacco consumption, and physical inactivity were associated with both obesity markers and metabolic components latent traits. The conscientiousness personality trait was significantly associated with obesity markers, but played a modest role. Indeed, higher conscientiousness was associated with lower level of obesity indicators. However, no link between personality and metabolic components were found. In sum, our data suggest that health related behaviours have more effect on the development of cardiovascular diseases than personality traits.

  5. Prevalence and risk factors of obesity and hypertension among students at a central university in the West Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayem, Yasin I; Yaseen, Nagham A; Khader, Wiam T; Abu Rajab, Lama O; Ramahi, Ahmad B; Saleh, Mohammad H

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to determine the prevalence and correlates of obesity and hypertension (HTN) among students at a central university in the West Bank. This cross-sectional study targeted a cohort of 553 students (59.5% males, 40.5% females) aged 17-26 years (median = 21) from Al-Quds University. Body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) were measured. Participants completed a questionnaire on physical activity, sedentary behavior, dietary factors, smoking and family history of obesity, HTN, and coronary artery disease. The magnitude of correlation was assessed by Spearman's rho (r(s)) and Chi-square tests. The prevalence of overweight was 25% (31.1% males, 15.6% females) and obesity 7.2% (9.4% males, 4% females). Obesity and overweight were associated with family history of obesity in both genders (pinterventional program is urgently needed to control these cardiovascular risk factors in this community.

  6. [Obesity and colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Soo-Young; Myung, Seung-Jae

    2012-01-01

    Obesity worldwide is constantly increasing. Obesity acts as an independent significant risk factor for malignant tumors of various organs including colorectal cancer. Visceral adipose tissue is physiologically more important than subcutaneous adipose tissue. The relative risk of colorectal cancer of obese patients is about 1.5 times higher than the normal-weight individuals, and obesity is also associated with premalignant colorectal adenoma. The colorectal cancer incidence of obese patients has gender-specific and site-specific characteristics that it is higher in men than women and in the colon than rectum. Obesity acts as a risk factor of colorectal carcinogenesis by several mechanisms. Isulin, insulin-like growth factor, leptin, adiponectin, microbiome, and cytokines of chronic inflammation etc. have been understood as its potential mechanisms. In addition, obesity in patients with colorectal cancer negatively affects the disease progression and response of chemotherapy. Although the evidence is not clear yet, there are some reports that weight loss as well as life-modification such as dietary change and physical activity can reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. It is very important knowledge in the point that obesity is a potentially modifiable risk factor that can alter the incidence and outcome of the colorectal cancer.

  7. Splash!: a prospective birth cohort study of the impact of environmental, social and family-level influences on child oral health and obesity related risk factors and outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    de Silva-Sanigorski, Andrea M; Waters, Elizabeth; Calache, Hanny; Smith, Michael; Gold, Lisa; Gussy, Mark; Scott, Anthony; Lacy, Kathleen; Virgo-Milton, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Dental caries (decay) is the most prevalent disease of childhood. It is often left untreated and can impact negatively on general health, and physical, developmental, social and learning outcomes. Similar to other health issues, the greatest burden of dental caries is seen in those of low socio-economic position. In addition, a number of diet-related risk factors for dental caries are shared risk factors for the development of childhood obesity. These include high and freq...

  8. Abdominal obesity is a common finding in normal and overweight subjects of Chile and is associated with increased frequency of cardiometabolic risk factors.

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    Beatriz Villanueva

    Full Text Available Abdominal obesity (AO is associated with elevated risk for cardiovascular diseases; however, this association is less clear for non-obese people. We estimated the association of AO and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF and disease in non-obese adult individuals from Chile.5248 adults (15 years of age or older of both sexes from the Chilean National Health Survey (October 2009 -September 2010, response rate 85%. were included. Information on myocardial infarction and stroke was self-reported. BMI, waist circumference (WC, arterial pressure, plasma glucose, and cholesterol levels were measured. Predictive accuracy of WC was evaluated by area under curve of receiver operating characteristic analysis and cut off points were established by Youden Index. Relationship between AO and CVRF was analyzed by Chi-squared tests.Normal weight/overweight/obesity were present in 34.4%/45.2%/18.1% of men and 33.4%/33.6%/27.5% of women. Predictive accuracy of WC to identify at least one CVRF was 0.70/0.67 and optimal cutoff points for WC in non-obese subjects were 91/83 cm in men/women, respectively. AO was present in 98.2%/99.1% of obese, 70.5%/77.4% of overweight and 12.4%/16.4% of normal weight men/women. AO was associated with increased frequency of CVRF in overweight men (6/8 and stroke and women (4/8 and higher frequency in normal weight men (8/8 and myocardial infarction/stroke and women (6/8 and myocardial infarction.WC cutoff points calculated for non-obese chilean population discriminate more differences in CVRF in normal weight woman. AO significantly increases the frequency of CVRF and diseases in overweight and especially normal weight individuals. WC can be used as a low cost, feasible and reproducible predictor for CVRF in non-obese individuals in most clinical settings.

  9. The relationship of breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity, other cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in young adults. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES): 1999-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh-Taskar, Priya; Nicklas, Theresa A; Radcliffe, John D; O'Neil, Carol E; Liu, Yan

    2013-11-01

    To examine the association between breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity, other cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Cross-sectional. Three breakfast groups were identified, breakfast skippers (BS), ready-to-eat-cereal (RTEC) consumers and other breakfast (OB) consumers, using a 24 h dietary recall. Risk factors were compared between the breakfast groups using covariate-adjusted statistical procedures. The 1999–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, USA. Young adults (20–39 years of age). Among these young adults (n 5316), 23.8% were BS, 16.5% were RTEC consumers and 59.7% were OB consumers. Relative to the BS, the RTEC consumers were 31%, 39%, 37%, 28%, 23%, 40% and 42% less likely to be overweight/obese or have abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated serum total cholesterol, elevated serum LDL-cholesterol, reduced serum HDL-cholesterol or elevated serum insulin, respectively. Relative to the OB consumers, the BS were 1.24, 1.26 and 1.44 times more likely to have elevated serum total cholesterol, elevated serum LDL-cholesterol or reduced serum HDL-cholesterol, respectively. Relative to the OB consumers, the RTEC consumers were 22%, 31% and 24% less likely to be overweight/ obese or have abdominal obesity or elevated blood pressure, respectively. No difference was seen in the prevalence of the MetS by breakfast skipping or type of breakfast consumed. Results suggest that consumption of breakfast, especially that included an RTEC, was associated with an improved cardiometabolic risk profile in U.S. young adults. Additional studies are needed to determine the nature of these relationships.

  10. Modifiable environmental obesity risk factors among elementary school children in a Mexico-us border city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Barrón, Rita Gabriela; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat

    2015-05-01

    The increasing overweight (OW) and obesity (OB) prevalence in Mexican children warrant the assessment of the environmental risk factors. To assess whether there is an association between food availability in children's environments and their food consumption with BMI z-score and waist circumference (WC). Six hundred and eighty four children, 264 parents, 22 teachers and cafeteria staff in the schools and street vendors participated in the study. Weight, height, and WC of 5(th) grade children were assessed. Food frequency, physical activity (PA) and eating habits questionnaires were applied to parents, children and teachers. A food inventory questionnaire was applied to parents, cafeteria staff in the schools, street vendors and stores near the schools. The children's mean age was 10.5. Twenty eight per cent of the children were overweight, 26% obese and 25% had abdominal obesity. A positive correlation was found between energy-dense foods (EDF), fruit and vegetable availability at home and their weekly consumption. Also a correlation between consumption of soft drinks and other EDF was found. The largest contributors to food consumption were the availability at home and at school (R2 = 0.11, p = 0.0001). Children's TV viewing was positively correlated with parents TV viewing time. For each hour of increase (from cero to seven) in daily TV viewing children were more likely to be overweight or obese (OR=1.22 95% CI 1.02-1.45, p=0.026). EDF, fruit and vegetable availability in and near home and school along with hours of TV viewing were positively associated with obesity. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  11. Mother-daughter correlation of central obesity and other noncommunicable disease risk factors: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Zahra; Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Barzin, Maryam; Safarkhani, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the mother-daughter correlation for central obesity and other noncommunicable disease risk factors. The authors used metabolic and anthropometric data from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, enrolling 1041 mother-daughter pairs for the current study. Three age strata were defined: 3 to 9 years for childhood (146 mother-daughter pairs), 10 to 17 years for adolescence (395 mother-daughter pairs), and 18 to 25 years for early adulthood (500 mother-daughter pairs). Familial associations for central obesity and other noncommunicable disease risk factors were assessed. The prevalence of central obesity was 44.7% in mothers and 11.2% in daughters (6.2% in the 3-9, 19.2% in the 10-17, and 6.4% in the 18-25 years groups). Mothers with central obesity were more likely than nonobese mothers to have daughters with central obesity (10.5% and 1.7%, respectively; P = .0001). Central obesity indices among daughters were positively correlated with those of their mothers in all 3 age strata. Correlations for other noncommunicable disease risk factors were analyzed before and after adjusting the risk factor levels for mothers' and daughters' waist circumferences (WCs) within each group to determine whether risk factor correlations were, in part, a result of the central obesity correlations. After the non-communicable disease risk factor levels of participants were adjusted for their WCs, the mother-daughter correlations remained significant. The consistent association of central obesity between mothers and daughters may indicate the key role that could be played by the mother in the primary prevention of central obesity, particularly in high-risk families. © 2012 APJPH.

  12. Cardiometabolic risk factors and insulin resistance in obese children and adolescents: relation to puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobisch, B; Blatniczky, L; Barkai, L

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of obesity with concomitant increasing risk for having cardiometabolic diseases is rising in the childhood population. Insulin resistance has a key role in metabolic changes in these children. Insulin levels elevate as puberty commences in every individual. Children with increased risk for cardiometabolic diseases show significant differences in insulin levels even before the onset of puberty compared with those without risks. The pattern of appearance of dyslipidaemia also varies in children with risk factors even in the pre-pubertal group from those without risk. Children with metabolic syndrome display considerably pronounced changes in their metabolic parameters before the onset of puberty, which become more pronounced as puberty passes. Insulin resistance (IR) has a key role in the metabolic changes in obese children. In commencing puberty, the insulin levels elevate. It is not clear, however, how insulin levels develop if the metabolic syndrome appears. Metabolic changes were assessed in obese children before, during and after puberty to analyse the relationship between IR and puberty in subjects with and without metabolic syndrome. Three hundred thirty-four obese children (5-19 years) attended the study. The criteria of the International Diabetes Federation were used to assess the presence of cardiometabolic risks (CMRs). Subjects with increased CMR were compared with those without risk (nCMR). Pubertal staging, lipid levels, plasma glucose and insulin levels during oral glucose tolerance test were determined in each participant. IR was expressed by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) and the ratio of glucose and insulin areas under the curve (AUC-IR). Significantly higher AUC-IR were found in pre-pubertal CMR children compared with nCMR subjects (11.84 ± 1.03 vs. 8.00 ± 0.69; P puberty. HOMA-IR differs between CMR and nCMR only in post-puberty (6.03 ± 1.26 vs. 2.54 ± 0.23; P puberty. CMR is associated with increased

  13. Overweight, obesity, high blood pressure and lifestyle factors among Mexican children and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Castañeda, Arely; Castillo-Martínez, Lilia; Colín-Ramírez, Eloisa; Orea-Tejeda, Arturo

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to identify associations in the prevalence of overweight, obesity and high blood pressure between children and their parents, as well as their eating and physical patterns. In this cross-sectional study, we obtained data on 83 pairs of school-aged children and one of their parents relating to dietary habits and various physical parameters, including the body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure of the children, which were adjusted by age and gender. Both the children and the parents were asked to complete a questionnaire aimed at providing measures of eating behavior. The questions focused on the consumption of fruit and vegetables and soda drinks as well as on physical activity patterns. Parent BMI was calculated from self-reported height and weight values. Obesity was diagnosed in 10.8% of the children, and the prevalence of overweight was 28.9%. There was a relationship between a child's weight status and that of his/her parent according to the BMI; 45% of overweight/obese children had overweight/obese parents. In addition, a parent's fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with his/her child's fruit and vegetable consumption (r = 0.47, p parents and children (r = 0.30, p children and those of their parents.

  14. Risk factors associated with abdominal obesity in suburban adolescents from a Malaysian district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Wai Fong; Leong, Pooi Pooi; Yap, Sook Fan; Yasmin, A Malik; Choo, Kong Bung; Low, Gary Kim Kuan; Boo, Nem Yun

    2018-02-01

    We aimed to determine the risk factors associated with abdominal obesity (AO) in suburban adolescents. This cross-sectional study included adolescents aged 15-17 years from five randomly selected secondary schools in the Hulu Langat district of Selangor state, Malaysia. Waist circumference (WC) was measured at the midpoint between the lower margin of the last palpable rib and the top of the iliac crest. Information on sociodemographic data, dietary habits, physical activity levels and duration of sleep was obtained via interviewer-administered questionnaires. Participants' habitual food intake was determined using a 73-item Food Frequency Questionnaire. Among 832 participants, 56.0% were girls; 48.4% were Malay, 40.5% Chinese, 10.2% Indian and 0.8% of other ethnic groups. Median age and WC were 16 (interquartile range [IQR] 15-16) years and 67.9 (IQR 63.0-74.6) cm, respectively. Overall prevalence of AO (> 90th percentile on the WC chart) was 11.3%. A higher proportion (22.4%) of Indian adolescents were found to have AO compared with Malay and Chinese adolescents. Logistic regression analysis showed that female gender (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 7.064, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.087-23.913; p = 0.002), Indian ethnicity (adjusted OR 10.164, 95% CI 2.182-47.346; p = 0.003), irregular meals (adjusted OR 3.193, 95% CI 1.043-9.774; p = 0.042) and increasing body mass index (BMI) (adjusted OR 2.867, 95% CI 2.216-3.710; p < 0.001) were significantly associated with AO. AO was common among Malaysian adolescents. Female gender, Indian ethnicity, irregular meals and increasing BMI were significant risk factors. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  15. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Indian adolescent school going children: its relationship with socioeconomic status and associated lifestyle factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Ramesh K; Shah, Vitthaldas N; Saboo, Banshi D; Phatak, Sanjiv R; Shah, Navneet N; Gohel, Mukesh C; Raval, Prashad B; Patel, Snehal S

    2010-03-01

    Obesity and overweight have become a worldwide epidemic, and there is an urgent need to examine childhood obesity and overweight across countries using a standardized international standard. In the present study we have investigated the prevalence of obesity and overweight and their association with socioeconomic status (SES) and the risk factors like diet, physical activity like exercise, sports, sleeping habit in afternoon, eating habits like junk food, chocolate, eating outside at weekend, family history of diabetes and obesity. The study was carried out in 5664 school children of 12-18 years of age and having different SES. The obesity and overweight were considered using an updated body mass index reference. SES and life style factors were determined using pre-tested questionnaire. Age-adjusted prevalence of overweight was found to be 14.3% among boys and 9.2% among girls where as the prevalence of obesity was 2.9% in boys and 1.5% in girls. The prevalence of overweight among children was higher in middle SES as compared to high SES group in both boys and girls whereas the prevalence of obesity was higher in high SES group as compared to middle SES group. The prevalence of obesity as well as overweight in low SES group was the lowest as compared to other group. Eating habit like junk food, chocolate, eating outside at weekend and physical activity like exercise, sports, sleeping habit in afternoon having remarkable effect on prevalence on overweight and obesity among middle to high SES group. Family history of diabetes and obesity were also found to be positively associated. Our data suggest that the prevalence of overweight and obesity varies remarkably with different socioeconomic development levels.

  16. Study sponsorship and the nutrition research agenda: analysis of randomized controlled trials included in systematic reviews of nutrition interventions to address obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Alice; Chartres, Nicholas; Scrinis, Gyorgy; Bero, Lisa A

    2017-05-01

    To categorize the research topics covered by a sample of randomized controlled trials (RCT) included in systematic reviews of nutrition interventions to address obesity; to describe their funding sources; and to explore the association between funding sources and nutrition research topics. Cross-sectional study. RCT included in Cochrane Reviews of nutrition interventions to address obesity and/or overweight. Two hundred and thirteen RCT from seventeen Cochrane Reviews were included. Funding source and authors' conflicts of interest were disclosed in 82·6 and 29·6 % of the studies, respectively. RCT were more likely to test an intervention to manipulate nutrients in the context of reduced energy intake (44·2 % of studies) than food-level (11·3 %) and dietary pattern-level (0·9 %) interventions. Most of the food industry-sponsored studies focused on interventions involving manipulations of specific nutrients (66·7 %). Only 33·1 % of the industry-funded studies addressed dietary behaviours compared with 66·9 % of the non-industry-funded ones (P=0·002). The level of food processing was poorly considered across all funding sources. The predominance of RCT examining nutrient-specific questions could limit the public health relevance of rigorous evidence available for systematic reviews and dietary guidelines.

  17. Policies for including disabled people in education. obstacles and facilitating factors for their implementation: Bucaramanga, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia P. Serrano R

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to explore the factors enabling or hindering the implementation of inclusive education policies for the disabled population of Bucaramanga. Methodology: a descriptive study, involving representatives from governmental agencies (EG, members of the faculty boards of educational institutions (DIE and guardians of disabled individuals (APSD. Physical, social, and political obstacles and facilitating factors that could potentially determine the implementation of these policies were analyzed. Data was collected through interviews. Results: there was a total of 2, 32, and 34 participants from the EG, DIE, and APSD groups respectively. Identified obstacles included: lack of strategies to support educational institutions, poor or limited teacher training, high tuition fees, and negative attitude towards disability. The facilitating factors included: availability of places, inclusion of this issue in the political agenda, and desire of the disabled individuals’ families to provide them with education. Discussion: These findings provide useful information for further research on this issue and show how action has been taken, as well as how urgent it is to establish a direct relationship between academia and the public sector to propose strategies for assessing and modifying these policies.

  18. Prevalence and risk factors with overweight and obesity among Vietnamese adults: Caucasian and Asian cut-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Oanh T H; Nguyen, Nguyen D; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Dibley, Michael J; Bauman, Adrian E

    2009-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and factors associated with overweight/obesity among adults in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) using Caucasian and Asian cut-offs. A cross-sectional survey. In 2005, 1,971 adults aged 25-64 years in HCMC were randomly selected using a proportional to population size sampling method to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity, measured by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. Multivariable logistic models were used to examine associations between overweight/obesity and socioeconomic status, health-related behaviors, and biochemical indices of chronic disease risk. The prevalence of overweight and obesity using the Caucasian BMI cut-offs were 13.9% and 1.8% respectively, and those with the Asian BMI cut-offs were 27.5% and 5.7%, respectively. The abdominal adiposity rates were higher than the BMI overweight and obesity rates in women, but not in men. Increasing age, low education, high household wealth index, high levels of sitting and reclining time, cholesterol and high blood pressure were significantly associated with overweight and obesity. Current smoking and sedentary leisure time was significantly negatively associated with this status in men. Associations between overweight/obesity and metabolic disorders were evident using both cut-offs. Asian cut-offs identified more risk factors and therefore could be considered for defining at-risk groups. The results highlight the importance of intervention programs to prevent overweight/obesity in young adults.

  19. Behavioral factors to include in guidelines for lifelong oral healthiness: an observational study in Japanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimozato Miho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine which behavioral factors to include in guidelines for the Japanese public to achieve an acceptable level of oral healthiness. The objective was to determine the relationship between oral health related behaviors and symptoms related to oral disease and tooth loss in a Japanese adult community. Methods Oral health status and lifestyle were investigated in 777 people aged 20 years and older (390 men and 387 women. Subjects were asked to complete a postal questionnaire concerning past diet and lifestyle. The completed questionnaires were collected when they had health examinations. The 15 questions included their preference for sweets, how many between-meal snacks they usually had per day, smoking and drinking habits, presence of oral symptoms, and attitudes towards dental visits. Participants were asked about their behaviors at different stages of their life. The oral health examinations included examination of the oral cavity and teeth performed by dentists using WHO criteria. Odds ratios were calculated for all subjects, all 10 year age groups, and for subjects 30 years or older, 40 years or older, 50 years or older, and 60 years or older. Results Frequency of tooth brushing (OR = 3.98, having your own toothbrush (OR = 2.11, smoking (OR = 2.71 and bleeding gums (OR = 2.03 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in males. Frequency of between-meal snacks was strongly associated with number of retained teeth in females (OR = 4.67. Having some hobbies (OR = 2.97, having a family dentist (OR = 2.34 and consulting a dentist as soon as symptoms occurred (OR = 1.74 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in females. Factors that were significantly associated with tooth loss in both males and females included alcohol consumption (OR = 11.96, males, OR = 3.83, females, swollen gums (OR = 1.93, males, OR = 3.04, females and toothache (OR = 3.39, males, OR

  20. [Determining factors of overweight and obesity in children at school age in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mispireta, Monica L

    2012-01-01

    Obesity in children at school age is an increasing problem in Peru. It concentrates in urban areas, mainly in Lima where one out of three children is overweight. An initial study in 80 schools in Lima showed that the lack of physical activity would have a greater impact on overweight and obesity in school children than the amount of food intake. More detailed studies are required. In spite of the limited information available regarding its determining factors, it is necessary to implement culturally-sensitive measures to fight this problem as part of the current nutritional policies, and prevent the problem from spreading, making sure the sustainability of the health system is not affected.

  1. OBESITY AS A RISK FACTOR FOR NON-ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Pavlenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a highly prevalent disorder associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. The main pathophysiological factor of liver steatosis is insulin resistance that may lead to development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Overcoming of insulin resistance by means of body weight reduction and administration of insulin sensitizers is considered to be a promising approach to NAFLD treatment. In accordance with the Russian guidelines on diagnostics and treatment of NAFLD, sibutramine is the drug of choice for medical treatment of obesity. As for insulin sensitizers, metformin (biguanide class is widely used for treatment of NAFLD in everyday clinical practice. Treatment of NAFLD as a component of metabolic syndrome should be multifactorial and aimed at different aspects of the disease pathophysiology. 

  2. Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  3. Investigating obesity risk-reduction behaviours and psychosocial factors in Chinese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Doreen; Bauer, Kathleen; Bai, Yeon

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the attitudes, beliefs and behaviours related to obesity risk reduction in Chinese Americans. A questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of 300 US-born and foreign-born Chinese Americans residing in the New York metropolitan area, ranging from 18 to 40 years of age. Obesity risk reduction behaviours and psychosocial variables derived from the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Health Belief Model were measured. Acculturation was assessed using a modified Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale. Frequency distributions were delineated and stepwise regression analyses were analysed for different acculturation groups. 65% of the respondents were female and the mean age of the sample was 26 years. Respondents indicated the most commonly practised behaviour to be eating home-cooked meals instead of restaurant-prepared foods. Perceived barriers to adopting obesity risk-reduction behaviours included convenience of consuming fast foods, cost, lack of time to prepare home-cooked meals, and the physical environment of unhealthy foods. In predicting intention to perform obesity risk-reduction behaviours, attitude was significant for 'western-identified' individuals. In 'Asian-identified' individuals, perceived behavioural control, self-efficacy and perceived benefits were salient. Nutrition educators working with Chinese Americans need to address self-efficacy in preparing plant-based, home-cooked meals and making healthy choices at fast-food restaurants with portion control. Concrete and perceived barriers such as lack of time and convenience need to be addressed in nutrition education interventions. Educators need to identify new channels and media outlets to disseminate practical, easy-to-implement behaviours for obesity risk reduction that are socially acceptable. © Royal Society for Public Health 2013.

  4. Association Between Thyroid Hormones, Thyroid Antibodies, and Cardiometabolic Factors in Non-Obese Individuals With Normal Thyroid Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHypothyroidism is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT is the leading cause of hypothyroidism. Recent studies showed that even AIT patients with euthyroidism still had an increased number of early atherosclerotic lesions. However, the precise mechanism is not yet known. This study aimed to investigate the association of thyroid function, thyroid autoimmunity, and cardiometabolic risk factors in non-obese AIT patients with euthyroidism.MethodsA total of 5,608 non-obese individuals including 1,402 AIT patient and 4,206 sex-, age-, and body mass index (BMI-matched healthy controls were recruited.ResultsThe AIT patients had significantly lower free T3 and free T4 levels, and higher TSH, antithyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb and TgAb levels. The elevated levels of high sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR were observed in the AIT patients than the controls [hsCRP: 0.65 (0.27–1.33 vs. 0.20 (0.03–0.74 mg/L; HOMA-IR: 2.78 ± 1.60 vs. 2.33 ± 1.49; all P < 0.05]. Thyroid function was not associated with metabolic parameters and inflammatory makers, while the TPOAb titer was positively associated with the HOMA-IR and hsCRP levels after adjustment for confounding factors (all P < 0.05. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that the TPOAb level was an independent influencing factor for the HOMA-IR and hsCRP levels (HOMA-IR: β = 0.058, P < 0.05; hsCRP: β = 0.108, P < 0.05.ConclusionThe TPOAb level is associated with HOMA-IR and hsCRP levels independently of thyroid function in non-obese individuals. Mild deviation of thyroid function within the normal range, chronic inflammation, and insulin resistance may be the links between AIT and atherosclerosis in the non-obese population.

  5. Revised emission factors for gas engines including start/stop emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Malene; Boll Illerup, J.; Birr-Petersen, K.

    2008-06-15

    Liberalisation of the electricity market has led to Danish gas engine plants increasingly converting to the spot and regulating power markets. In order to offer regulating power, plants need to be able to start and stop the engines at the plants quickly. The liberalisation causes a considerable change of operation practice of the engines e.g. less full load operation hours /year. The project provides an inventory determining the scale of the emissions during the start and stop sequence as well as proposals for engine modifications aimed at reducing start/stop emissions. This report includes calculation of emission factors as well as an inventory of total emissions and reduction potentials. (au)

  6. The Clinical Obesity Maintenance Model: An Integration of Psychological Constructs including Mood, Emotional Regulation, Disordered Overeating, Habitual Cluster Behaviours, Health Literacy and Cognitive Function

    OpenAIRE

    Raman, Jayanthi; Smith, Evelyn; Hay, Phillipa

    2013-01-01

    Psychological distress and deficits in executive functioning are likely to be important barriers to effective weight loss maintenance. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, in the light of recent evidence in the fields of neuropsychology and obesity, particularly on the deficits in the executive function in overweight and obese individuals, a conceptual and theoretical framework of obesity maintenance is introduced by way of a clinical obesity maintenance model (COMM). It is argued tha...

  7. Psoriasis and Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Skov, Lone

    2017-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease with a complex pathogenesis consisting of a genetic component, immune dysfunction, and environmental factors. It is associated with numerous comorbidities including psoriatic arthritis, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and obesity....... Evidence suggests that obesity is a risk factor for incident psoriasis, aggravates existing psoriasis, and that weight reduction may improve the severity of psoriasis in overweight individuals. Excess body weight may interfere with the medical treatment used in psoriasis and adds to the cardiovascular risk...... profile in these patients, which underscores the importance of effective weight control regimens. In this review we examine the current literature with regard to the association between obesity and psoriasis....

  8. Children and adolescents' internal models of food-sharing behavior include complex evaluations of contextual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovits, Henry; Benenson, Joyce F; Kramer, Donald L

    2003-01-01

    This study examined internal representations of food sharing in 589 children and adolescents (8-19 years of age). Questionnaires, depicting a variety of contexts in which one person was asked to share a resource with another, were used to examine participants' expectations of food-sharing behavior. Factors that were varied included the value of the resource, the relation between the two depicted actors, the quality of this relation, and gender. Results indicate that internal models of food-sharing behavior showed systematic patterns of variation, demonstrating that individuals have complex contextually based internal models at all ages, including the youngest. Examination of developmental changes in use of individual patterns is consistent with the idea that internal models reflect age-specific patterns of interactions while undergoing a process of progressive consolidation.

  9. Impaired oxidative capacity due to decreased CPT1b levels as a contributing factor to fat accumulation in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Cecilia; Madsen, Andreas Nygaard; Kristensen, Line Vildbrad

    2015-01-01

    In order to characterize mechanisms responsible for fat accumulation we used a selectively bred obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) rat model, where the rats were fed a Western diet for 76 days. Body composition was assessed by MRI scans and as expected the OP rats developed a higher...... likewise had higher RER values indicating that this trait may be a primary and contributing factor to their obese phenotype. When the adult obese rats were exposed to the orexigenic and adipogenic hormone ghrelin, we observed increased RER values in both OP and OR rats, while OR rats were more sensitive...... to ghrelin's orexigenic effects as well as ghrelin-induced attenuation of activity and energy expenditure. Thus, increased fat accumulation characterizing obesity may be caused by impaired oxidative capacity due to decreased carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b levels in the white adipose tissue, while ghrelin...

  10. Epigenetic regulation in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Elaine M; Gibney, Eileen R

    2013-07-01

    Research suggests that 65% of variation in obesity is genetic. However, much of the known genetic associations have little known function and their effect size small, thus the gene-environment interaction, including epigenetic influences on gene expression, is suggested to be an important factor in the susceptibilty to obesity. This review will explore the potential of epigenetic markers to influence expression of genes associated with obesity. Epigenetic changes in utero are known to have direct implications on the phenotype of the offspring. More recently work has focused on how such epigenetic changes continue to regulate risk of obesity from infancy through to adulthood. Work has shown that, for example, hypomethylation of the MC4 gene causes an increase in expression, and has a direct impact on appetite and intake, and thus influences risk of obesity. Similar influences are also seen in other aspects of obesity including inflammation and adiposity. Maternal diet during foetal development has many epigenetic implications, which affect the offspring's risk factors for obesity during childhood and adulthood, and even in subsequent generations. Genes associated with risk of obesity, are susceptible to epigenetic mutations, which have subsequent effects on disease mechanisms, such as appetite and impaired glucose and insulin tolerance.

  11. Distortion of self-image: risk factor for obesity in children and teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Rizo-Baeza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Self-image is important in the behaviour and lifestyle of children and adolescents. Analysing the self-image they have and the factors that might influence their distortion, can be used to prevent problems of obesity and anorexia. The main objective of present publication was to analyse the risk factors that may contribute to self-image distortion.Material and Methods: A descriptive survey study was conducted among 659 children and adolescents in two social classes (low and medium-high, measuring height and weight, calculating BMI percentile for age and gender. Body image and self-perception were registered.Results: The percentage of overweight-obesity is higher in scholars (41.8% boys, 28.7% girls than in adolescents (30.1% and 22.2% respectively, with no difference between socioeconomic classes. The multinomial logistic regression analysis gives a risk of believing thinner higher (p=0.000 among boys OR=2.9(95%CI:1.43-3.37, school (p=0.000 OR=2.42(95%CI:1.56-3.76 and much lower (p=0.000 between normally nourished OR=0.08(95%CI:0.05-0.13, with no differences according to socioeconomic status. The risk of believing fatter is lower (p=0.000 between boys OR=0.28(95%CI:0.14-0.57, school(p=0.072 OR=0.54(95%CI:0.27-1.6, and much higher among underweight (p=0.000 OR=9x108 (95% CI:4x108-19x108.Conclusions: Are risk factors of believing thinner: males, being in a group of schoolchildren and overweight-obesity. Conversely, are risk factors of believing fatter: females, teen and above all, be thin.  

  12. Prediction of Adulthood Obesity Using Genetic and Childhood Clinical Risk Factors in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyednasrollah, Fatemeh; Mäkelä, Johanna; Pitkänen, Niina; Juonala, Markus; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Lehtimäki, Terho; Viikari, Jorma; Kelly, Tanika; Li, Changwei; Bazzano, Lydia; Elo, Laura L; Raitakari, Olli T

    2017-06-01

    Obesity is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Early prediction of obesity is essential for prevention. The aim of this study is to assess the use of childhood clinical factors and the genetic risk factors in predicting adulthood obesity using machine learning methods. A total of 2262 participants from the Cardiovascular Risk in YFS (Young Finns Study) were followed up from childhood (age 3-18 years) to adulthood for 31 years. The data were divided into training (n=1625) and validation (n=637) set. The effect of known genetic risk factors (97 single-nucleotide polymorphisms) was investigated as a weighted genetic risk score of all 97 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (WGRS97) or a subset of 19 most significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (WGRS19) using boosting machine learning technique. WGRS97 and WGRS19 were validated using external data (n=369) from BHS (Bogalusa Heart Study). WGRS19 improved the accuracy of predicting adulthood obesity in training (area under the curve [AUC=0.787 versus AUC=0.744, P obesity. Predictive accuracy is highest among young children (3-6 years), whereas among older children (9-18 years) the risk can be identified using childhood clinical factors. The model is helpful in screening children with high risk of developing obesity. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mellova Amir Masrizal

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is performed by genetic, environmental, and complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Fatness levels in obese children are indicative of increased risk for elevated blood pressure, cholesterol, and lipoprotein ratios children and adolescents. Serum cholesterol and blood pressure are related to raise atherosclerotic lesion. Certain cardiovascular disease risk factors in obese children are related to the earliest stages of atherosclerosis disease. Obese children have the high risk factors of certain cardiovascular disease. Genetic factors affecting metabolic rate can be successfully managed by the introduction of environmental factors such as decrease caloric intake and increase physical activity. The treatment of obesity and of atherosclerotic patients should include dietary restriction (protein sparing modified fast and hypocaloric balanced diet, nutrition education, increased physical activity, behavior modification, and familial support. Success fully management of obesity can improve the quality of life and reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality associated with obesity.

  14. Obesity is an independent risk factor for pre-transplant portal vein thrombosis in liver recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayala Rosa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Portal vein thrombosis is a frequent complication in end-stage cirrhosis with a considerable peri-operative risk for liver transplant candidates. We aimed to characterize the pre-transplant portal vein thrombosis in a cohort of liver transplant recipients, and to identify independent risk factors for this complication. Methods 380 consecutive primary orthotopic liver transplants were performed in the Digestive Surgery Department of “12 de Octubre” Hospital (Madrid, Spain, between January 2001 and December 2006. The main risk factors considered were smoking, obesity, metabolic disorders, previous immobility, surgery or trauma, nephrotic syndrome, associated tumor, inflammatory disease, neoplasm myeloprolipherative. Furthermore we have reported genetic thrombophilia results for 271 recipients. Results Sixty-two (16.3% patients developed pre-transplant portal vein thrombosis and its presence had no impact in the overall survival of liver recipients. Obesity was the only independent risk factor for pre-transplant portal vein thrombosis. Conclusion We recommend close control of cardiovascular factors in patients with liver cirrhosis in order to avoid associated thrombosis.

  15. The effect of a short-term hypocaloric diet on liver gene expression and metabolic risk factors in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietaniemi, M; Jokela, M; Rantala, M; Ukkola, O; Vuoristo, J T; Ilves, M; Rysä, J; Kesäniemi, Y

    2009-03-01

    Most gene expression studies examining the effect of obesity and weight loss have been performed using adipose tissue. However, the liver also plays a central role in maintaining energy balance. We wanted to study the effects of a hypocaloric diet on overall hepatic gene expression and metabolic risk factors. The study subjects were middle-aged, obese women. The diet intervention subjects (n=12) were on a hypocaloric, low-fat diet for 8 weeks with a daily energy intake of 5.0 MJ (1200 kcal), while the control subjects (n=19) maintained their weight. Liver biopsies were taken at the end of the diet period during a gallbladder operation. Hepatic gene expression was analyzed using microarrays by comparing the gene expression profiles from four subjects per group. A global decrease in gene expression was observed with 142 down-regulated genes and only one up-regulated gene in the diet intervention group. The diet resulted in a mean weight loss of 5% of body weight. Triglyceride and fasting insulin concentrations decreased significantly after the diet. The global decrease in hepatic gene expression was unexpected but the results are interesting, since they included several genes not previously linked to weight reduction. However, since the comparison was made only after the weight reduction, other factors in addition to weight loss may also have been involved in the differences in gene expression between the groups. The decrease in triglyceride and fasting plasma insulin concentrations is in accordance with results from previous weight-loss studies.

  16. Early Life Factors, Obesity Risk, and the Metabolome of Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschert, Sebastian; Mori, Trevor A; Beilin, Lawrence J; Jacoby, Peter; Uhl, Olaf; Koletzko, Berthold; Oddy, Wendy H; Hellmuth, Christian

    2017-09-01

    Noncommunicable diseases such as obesity have become a serious global public health epidemic. This study aimed to examine whether there was an association between early life factors (with a special focus on breastfeeding) BMI, waist circumference, and the metabolome in offspring at 20 years. Data from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study were analyzed using 1,024 plasma samples from the 20-year follow-up. A liquid chromatography, tandem mass spectrometry metabolomics approach was used to measure metabolites. Multiple linear regression models were performed and adjusted for relevant confounders. Inverse probability weighting was used to adjust the 20-year data for differences in socioeconomic variables between participants and nonparticipants since the commencement of the study. An inverse association between breastfeeding and BMI or waist circumference at 20 years was lost after adjusting for parental prepregnancy BMI and maternal smoking during pregnancy. There was no significant effect of breastfeeding on metabolite concentrations at 20 years. Although other studies have shown associations between breastfeeding, obesity, and metabolite concentrations at younger ages, this was not evident in our study in young adults. We found no association of metabolites previously associated with waist circumference at 20 years and breastfeeding in early life. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  17. Obesity, metabolic factors and risk of different histological types of lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carreras-Torres, Robert; Johansson, Mattias; Haycock, Philip C

    2017-01-01

    .1x10-3), providing novel evidence that a genetic susceptibility to obesity influences smoking patterns. There was also evidence that low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was inversely associated with lung cancer overall risk (OR [95%CI] = 0.90 [0.84-0.97] per SD of 38 mg/dl), while fasting insulin...... was positively associated (OR [95%CI] = 1.63 [1.25-2.13] per SD of 44.4 pmol/l). Sensitivity analyses including a weighted-median approach and MR-Egger test did not detect other pleiotropic effects biasing the main results. CONCLUSIONS: Our results are consistent with a causal role of fasting insulin and low......-density lipoprotein cholesterol in lung cancer etiology, as well as for BMI in squamous cell and small cell carcinoma. The latter relation may be mediated by a previously unrecognized effect of obesity on smoking behavior....

  18. Lifestyle-related factors, obesity, and incident microalbuminuria: the CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alex; Van Horn, Linda; Jacobs, David R; Liu, Kiang; Muntner, Paul; Newsome, Britt; Shoham, David A; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Reis, Jared; Kramer, Holly

    2013-08-01

    Modifiable lifestyle-related factors are associated with risk of coronary heart disease and may also influence kidney disease risk. Community-based prospective cohort study. 2,354 African American and white participants aged 28-40 years without baseline microalbuminuria or estimated glomerular filtration rate food habits, obesity, and diet quality, which was based on 8 fundamental components of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, including increased intake of fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy products, whole grains, and nuts and legumes and reduced intake of sodium, sugar-sweetened beverages, and red and processed meats. Spot urine albumin-creatinine ratios were obtained at baseline (1995-1996) and three 5-year follow-up examinations (5, 10, and 15 years' follow-up). Incident microalbuminuria was defined as the presence of age- and sex-adjusted albumin-creatinine ratio ≥25 mg/g at 2 or more of the successive follow-up examinations. During the 15-year follow-up, 77 (3.3%) individuals developed incident microalbuminuria. After multivariable adjustment, poor diet quality (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.4) and obesity (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.3) were associated significantly with microalbuminuria; current smoking (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 0.9-2.8) was associated with microalbuminuria, although the CI crossed 1.0. Neither low physical activity (OR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.5-1.8) nor fast food consumption (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.7-2.3) was associated with microalbuminuria. Compared with individuals with no unhealthy lifestyle-related factors (poor diet quality, current smoking, and obesity), adjusted odds of incident microalbuminuria were 131%, 273%, and 634% higher for the presence of 1 (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.3-4.3), 2 (OR, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.8-7.7), and 3 (OR, 7.3; 95% CI, 2.1-26.1) unhealthy lifestyle-related factors. Self-reported dietary history and physical activity, low number of outcomes. Consuming an unhealthy diet and obesity are associated with incident microalbuminuria

  19. Hierarchical analysis of dietary, lifestyle and family environment risk factors for childhood obesity: the GRECO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajian, P; Panagiotakos, D B; Risvas, G; Malisova, O; Zampelas, A

    2014-10-01

    To facilitate the development of practical public health advice targeted at childhood obesity (OB) prevention and make the intervention programs more effective, one has to promote the most protective habits and limit or modify the risk factors. The objective of the present study was to recognize the most important dietary and physical activity habits, sedentary behaviors, plus parental influences that are associated with childhood overweight (OW) and OB, in a nationwide, cross-sectional sample of Greek school children. Data from 4552 children (10-12 years old) and 2225 of their parents were included in the analysis. Direct anthropometric measurements and information on dietary and physical activity habits was obtained from the children, as was information on parental self-reported anthropometric values, perceptions and family environment information. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the most important predictors of childhood OW/OB were breakfast frequency (odds ratio (OR): 0.95; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.92-0.97), daily number of meals and snacks (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.87-0.97), the frequency of family meals (OR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.76-0.99), having both a TV and a PC/video game player in the bedroom (OR: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.18-1.69) and study hours on weekdays (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.02-1.13). In the case of parents, mothers' age (OR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.86-0.97), maternal (OR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.06-1.21) and paternal (OR: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.02-1.15) body mass index (BMI) and children's BMI misclassification (OR: 6.22; 95% CI: 3.62-10.71) were significant predictors of children's OW/OB. These findings could guide future investigations or public health initiatives to prevent and confront the childhood OB epidemic more efficiently.

  20. Relationships of physical fitness and obesity with metabolic risk factors in children and adolescents: Chungju city cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Jin Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available PurposeThe purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships of physical fitness and obesity with metabolic risk factors in children and adolescents.MethodsThis cohort study was conducted in Chungju city, South Korea. Total 843 subjects were enrolled, including 193 elementary school 4th grade male (E4M, 189 elementary school 4th grade female (E4F and 461 male-middle school students (M1M. The subjects were also classified into 2 groups by body mass index; normal weight (NW group and overweight included obesity (OW/OB group. Physical fitness was measured by shuttle run (cardiorespiratory fitness, CRF, sit and reach (flexibility, handgrip strength (muscular strength and stand long jump (agility.ResultsThe prevalence of OW/OB was respectively 33.7% (65 of 193 among E4M, 28.6% (54 of 189 among E4F, and 28.0% (129 of 461 among M1M. Hematocrit, white blood cell, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were higher, while high-density lipoprotein were lower in the OW/OB group than in the NW group. The OW/OB group presented significantly lower CRF (P<0.01 and lower agility, but higher muscular strength compared with NW group. CRF was negatively correlated with obesity indices and metabolic risk factors. After adjustments for potential confounders, odds ratios for 4th–5th grade CRF of OW/OB compared NW in the E4M, E4F, M1M, were 7.38 (95 % CI, 3.24–16.83, 4.10 (95% CI, 1.83–9.18, 16.06 (95% CI, 8.23–31.00 (P<0.01.ConclusionOur study has shown that CRF has negative correlation with OW/OB in children and adolescents of Chungju city. We suggest that improvement of CRF through regular physical activity would be an important method for reducing the metabolic risks of childhood obesity.

  1. The effect of dietary fiber and other factors on insulin response: role in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, I H; Albrink, M J

    1985-07-01

    Epidemiologic evidence favors the hypothesis that obesity may result from the fiber-depleted diet of industrialized societies. Since hyperinsulinemia is a universal characteristic and perhaps causal of obesity, the possibility is considered that dietary factors causing excess insulin secretion might lead to obesity. Dietary glucose causes a slightly greater insulin rise than cooked starch containing an equal amount of carbohydrate, and high fiber starchy foods cause a much lesser insulin response than does glucose in solution. Doubling the dose of carbohydrate in a meal causes only a small increase in glucose response but a large increase in insulin response. Dietary fiber could act by displacing some of the carbohydrate that would normally be absorbable in the small intestine, or could translocate the carbohydrate to a point lower in the intestinal tract where less effect on insulin secretion would be observed. Evidence is presented that a higher fiber diet is associated with a higher concentration of fasting circulating free fatty acids, a lesser post-cibal decrease in circulating free fatty acids and triglycerides and less chronic increase in fasting triglycerides than a low fiber diet. These differences are associated with a lesser insulin response to high fiber meals. The extreme fluctuations between the fed and fasted states seen with low fiber diets are thus dampened by high fiber diets. The less complete inhibition of lipolysis during the fed state, and more intense lipolysis during fasting, suggested by the above data, might tend to prevent obesity. The mechanisms of the lesser insulin response to high rather than low fiber meals are not known, but the possibility that dietary fiber decreases the GIP response is considered.

  2. Prevention of diabetes in overweight/obese children through a family based intervention program including supervised exercise (PREDIKID project): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenaza, Lide; Medrano, María; Amasene, María; Rodríguez-Vigil, Beatriz; Díez, Ignacio; Graña, Manuel; Tobalina, Ignacio; Maiz, Edurne; Arteche, Edurne; Larrarte, Eider; Huybrechts, Inge; Davis, Catherine L; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Margareto, Javier; Labayen, Idoia

    2017-08-10

    The global pandemic of obesity has led to an increased risk for prediabetes and type-2 diabetes (T2D). The aims of the current project are: (1) to evaluate the effect of a 22-week family based intervention program, including supervised exercise, on insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) risk in children with a high risk of developing T2D and (2) to identify the profile of microRNA in circulating exosomes and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in children with a high risk of developing T2D and its response to a multidisciplinary intervention program including exercise. A total of 84 children, aged 8-12 years, with a high risk of T2D will be included and randomly assigned to control (N = 42) or intervention (N = 42) groups. The control group will receive a family based lifestyle education and psycho-educational program (2 days/month), while the intervention group will attend the same lifestyle education and psycho-educational program plus the exercise program (3 days/week, 90 min per session including warm-up, moderate to vigorous aerobic activities, and strength exercises). The following measurements will be evaluated at baseline prior to randomization and after the intervention: fasting insulin, glucose and hemoglobin A1c; body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry); ectopic fat (magnetic resonance imaging); microRNA expression in circulating exosomes and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MiSeq; Illumina); cardiorespiratory fitness (cardiopulmonary exercise testing); dietary habits and physical activity (accelerometry). Prevention and identification of children with a high risk of developing T2D could help to improve their cardiovascular health and to reduce the comorbidities associated with obesity. ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT03027726 . Registered on 16 January 2017.

  3. Psychosocial factors and obesity in 17 high-, middle- and low-income countries: the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengren, A; Teo, K; Rangarajan, S; Kabali, C; Khumalo, I; Kutty, V R; Gupta, R; Yusuf, R; Iqbal, R; Ismail, N; Altuntas, Y; Kelishadi, R; Diaz, R; Avezum, A; Chifamba, J; Zatonska, K; Wei, L; Liao, X; Lopez-Jaramillo, P; Yusufali, A; Seron, P; Lear, S A; Yusuf, S

    2015-08-01

    Psychosocial stress has been proposed to contribute to obesity, particularly abdominal, or central obesity, through chronic activation of the neuroendocrine systems. However, these putative relationships are complex and dependent on country and cultural context. We investigated the association between psychosocial factors and general and abdominal obesity in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiologic study. This observational, cross-sectional study enrolled 151 966 individuals aged 35-70 years from 628 urban and rural communities in 17 high-, middle- and low-income countries. Data were collected for 125 290 individuals regarding education, anthropometrics, hypertension/diabetes, tobacco/alcohol use, diet and psychosocial factors (self-perceived stress and depression). After standardization for age, sex, country income and urban/rural location, the proportion with obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg m(-)(2)) increased from 15.7% in 40 831 individuals with no stress to 20.5% in 7720 individuals with permanent stress, with corresponding proportions for ethnicity- and sex-specific central obesity of 48.6% and 53.5%, respectively (P<0.0001 for both). Associations between stress and hypertension/diabetes tended to be inverse. Estimating the total effect of permanent stress with age, sex, physical activity, education and region as confounders, no relationship between stress and obesity persisted (adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) for obesity 1.04 (95% confidence interval: 0.99-1.10)). There was no relationship between ethnicity- and sex-specific central obesity (adjusted PR 1.00 (0.97-1.02)). Stratification by region yielded inconsistent associations. Depression was weakly but independently linked to obesity (PR 1.08 (1.04-1.12)), and very marginally to abdominal obesity (PR 1.01 (1.00-1.03)). Although individuals with permanent stress tended to be slightly more obese, there was no overall independent effect and no evidence that abdominal obesity or its consequences

  4. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Overweight and Obesity among Children Aged 6–59 Months in Cameroon: A Multistage, Stratified Cluster Sampling Nationwide Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchoubi, Sébastien; Sobngwi-Tambekou, Joëlle; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N.; Asangbeh, Serra Lem; Nkoum, Benjamin Alexandre; Sobngwi, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children (overweight and obesity among children aged 6 months to 5 years in Cameroon in 2011. Methods Four thousand five hundred and eighteen children (2205 boys and 2313 girls) aged between 6 to 59 months were sampled in the 2011 Demographic Health Survey (DHS) database. Body Mass Index (BMI) z-scores based on WHO 2006 reference population was chosen to estimate overweight (BMI z-score > 2) and obesity (BMI for age > 3). Regression analyses were performed to investigate risk factors of overweight/obesity. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 8% (1.7% for obesity alone). Boys were more affected by overweight than girls with a prevalence of 9.7% and 6.4% respectively. The highest prevalence of overweight was observed in the Grassfield area (including people living in West and North-West regions) (15.3%). Factors that were independently associated with overweight and obesity included: having overweight mother (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.51; 95% CI 1.15 to 1.97) and obese mother (aOR = 2.19; 95% CI = 155 to 3.07), compared to having normal weight mother; high birth weight (aOR = 1.69; 95% CI 1.24 to 2.28) compared to normal birth weight; male gender (aOR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.24 to 1.95); low birth rank (aOR = 1.35; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.72); being aged between 13–24 months (aOR = 1.81; 95% CI = 1.21 to 2.66) and 25–36 months (aOR = 2.79; 95% CI 1.93 to 4.13) compared to being aged 45 to 49 months; living in the grassfield area (aOR = 2.65; 95% CI = 1.87 to 3.79) compared to living in Forest area. Muslim appeared as a protective factor (aOR = 0.67; 95% CI 0.46 to 0.95).compared to Christian religion. Conclusion This study underlines a high prevalence of early childhood overweight with significant disparities between ecological areas of Cameroon. Risk factors of overweight included high maternal BMI, high

  5. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Overweight and Obesity among Children Aged 6-59 Months in Cameroon: A Multistage, Stratified Cluster Sampling Nationwide Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchoubi, Sébastien; Sobngwi-Tambekou, Joëlle; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Asangbeh, Serra Lem; Nkoum, Benjamin Alexandre; Sobngwi, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children (overweight and obesity among children aged 6 months to 5 years in Cameroon in 2011. Four thousand five hundred and eighteen children (2205 boys and 2313 girls) aged between 6 to 59 months were sampled in the 2011 Demographic Health Survey (DHS) database. Body Mass Index (BMI) z-scores based on WHO 2006 reference population was chosen to estimate overweight (BMI z-score > 2) and obesity (BMI for age > 3). Regression analyses were performed to investigate risk factors of overweight/obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 8% (1.7% for obesity alone). Boys were more affected by overweight than girls with a prevalence of 9.7% and 6.4% respectively. The highest prevalence of overweight was observed in the Grassfield area (including people living in West and North-West regions) (15.3%). Factors that were independently associated with overweight and obesity included: having overweight mother (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.51; 95% CI 1.15 to 1.97) and obese mother (aOR = 2.19; 95% CI = 155 to 3.07), compared to having normal weight mother; high birth weight (aOR = 1.69; 95% CI 1.24 to 2.28) compared to normal birth weight; male gender (aOR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.24 to 1.95); low birth rank (aOR = 1.35; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.72); being aged between 13-24 months (aOR = 1.81; 95% CI = 1.21 to 2.66) and 25-36 months (aOR = 2.79; 95% CI 1.93 to 4.13) compared to being aged 45 to 49 months; living in the grassfield area (aOR = 2.65; 95% CI = 1.87 to 3.79) compared to living in Forest area. Muslim appeared as a protective factor (aOR = 0.67; 95% CI 0.46 to 0.95).compared to Christian religion. This study underlines a high prevalence of early childhood overweight with significant disparities between ecological areas of Cameroon. Risk factors of overweight included high maternal BMI, high birth weight, male gender, low birth rank

  6. A multifactorial analysis of obesity as CVD risk factor: Use of neural network based methods in a nutrigenetics context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valavanis Ioannis K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a multifactorial trait, which comprises an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD. The aim of the current work is to study the complex etiology beneath obesity and identify genetic variations and/or factors related to nutrition that contribute to its variability. To this end, a set of more than 2300 white subjects who participated in a nutrigenetics study was used. For each subject a total of 63 factors describing genetic variants related to CVD (24 in total, gender, and nutrition (38 in total, e.g. average daily intake in calories and cholesterol, were measured. Each subject was categorized according to body mass index (BMI as normal (BMI ≤ 25 or overweight (BMI > 25. Two artificial neural network (ANN based methods were designed and used towards the analysis of the available data. These corresponded to i a multi-layer feed-forward ANN combined with a parameter decreasing method (PDM-ANN, and ii a multi-layer feed-forward ANN trained by a hybrid method (GA-ANN which combines genetic algorithms and the popular back-propagation training algorithm. Results PDM-ANN and GA-ANN were comparatively assessed in terms of their ability to identify the most important factors among the initial 63 variables describing genetic variations, nutrition and gender, able to classify a subject into one of the BMI related classes: normal and overweight. The methods were designed and evaluated using appropriate training and testing sets provided by 3-fold Cross Validation (3-CV resampling. Classification accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and area under receiver operating characteristics curve were utilized to evaluate the resulted predictive ANN models. The most parsimonious set of factors was obtained by the GA-ANN method and included gender, six genetic variations and 18 nutrition-related variables. The corresponding predictive model was characterized by a mean accuracy equal of 61.46% in the 3-CV testing sets

  7. A multifactorial analysis of obesity as CVD risk factor: use of neural network based methods in a nutrigenetics context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valavanis, Ioannis K; Mougiakakou, Stavroula G; Grimaldi, Keith A; Nikita, Konstantina S

    2010-09-08

    Obesity is a multifactorial trait, which comprises an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of the current work is to study the complex etiology beneath obesity and identify genetic variations and/or factors related to nutrition that contribute to its variability. To this end, a set of more than 2300 white subjects who participated in a nutrigenetics study was used. For each subject a total of 63 factors describing genetic variants related to CVD (24 in total), gender, and nutrition (38 in total), e.g. average daily intake in calories and cholesterol, were measured. Each subject was categorized according to body mass index (BMI) as normal (BMI ≤ 25) or overweight (BMI > 25). Two artificial neural network (ANN) based methods were designed and used towards the analysis of the available data. These corresponded to i) a multi-layer feed-forward ANN combined with a parameter decreasing method (PDM-ANN), and ii) a multi-layer feed-forward ANN trained by a hybrid method (GA-ANN) which combines genetic algorithms and the popular back-propagation training algorithm. PDM-ANN and GA-ANN were comparatively assessed in terms of their ability to identify the most important factors among the initial 63 variables describing genetic variations, nutrition and gender, able to classify a subject into one of the BMI related classes: normal and overweight. The methods were designed and evaluated using appropriate training and testing sets provided by 3-fold Cross Validation (3-CV) resampling. Classification accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and area under receiver operating characteristics curve were utilized to evaluate the resulted predictive ANN models. The most parsimonious set of factors was obtained by the GA-ANN method and included gender, six genetic variations and 18 nutrition-related variables. The corresponding predictive model was characterized by a mean accuracy equal of 61.46% in the 3-CV testing sets. The ANN based methods revealed factors

  8. The prevalence of underweight, overweight, obesity and associated risk factors among school-going adolescents in seven African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyanga, Taru; El-Sayed, Hesham; Doku, David Teye; Randall, Jason R

    2014-08-28

    The burden caused by the coexistence of obesity and underweight in Low and Middle Income Countries is a challenge to public health. While prevalence of underweight among youth has been well documented in these countries, overweight, obesity and their associated risk factors are not well understood unlike in high income countries. Cross-sectional data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) conducted in seven African countries were used for this study. The survey used a clustered design to obtain a representative sample (n = 23496) from randomly selected schools. 53.6% of the sample was male, and participants ranged in age from 11-17 years old. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated using age and sex adjusted self-reported heights and weights. Classification of weight status was based on the 2007 World Health Organization growth charts (BMI-for-age and sex). Multivariable Logistic Regression reporting Odds Ratios was used to assess potential risk factors on BMI, adjusting for age, sex, and country. Statistical analyses were performed with Stata with an alpha of 0.05 and reporting 95% confidence intervals. Unadjusted rates of being underweight varied from 12.6% (Egypt) to 31.9% (Djibouti), while being overweight ranged from 8.7% (Ghana) to 31.4% (Egypt). Obesity rates ranged from 0.6% (Benin) to 9.3% (Egypt). Females had a higher overweight prevalence for every age group in five of the countries, exceptions being Egypt and Malawi. Overall, being overweight was more prevalent among younger (≤12) adolescents and decreased with age. Males had a higher prevalence of being underweight than females for every country. There was a tendency for the prevalence of being underweight to increase starting in the early teens and decrease between ages 15 and 16. Most of the potential risk factors captured by the GSHS were not significantly associated with weight status. The prevalence of both overweight and underweight was relatively high, demonstrating the

  9. PPARs, Obesity, and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinke Stienstra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide prevalence of obesity and related metabolic disorders is rising rapidly, increasing the burden on our healthcare system. Obesity is often accompanied by excess fat storage in tissues other than adipose tissue, including liver and skeletal muscle, which may lead to local insulin resistance and may stimulate inflammation, as in steatohepatitis. In addition, obesity changes the morphology and composition of adipose tissue, leading to changes in protein production and secretion. Some of these secreted proteins, including several proinflammatory mediators, may be produced by macrophages resident in the adipose tissue. The changes in inflammatory status of adipose tissue and liver with obesity feed a growing recognition that obesity represents a state of chronic low-level inflammation. Various molecular mechanisms have been implicated in obesity-induced inflammation, some of which are modulated by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs. PPARs are ligand-activated transcription factors involved in the regulation of numerous biological processes, including lipid and glucose metabolism, and overall energy homeostasis. Importantly, PPARs also modulate the inflammatory response, which makes them an interesting therapeutic target to mitigate obesity-induced inflammation and its consequences. This review will address the role of PPARs in obesity-induced inflammation specifically in adipose tissue, liver, and the vascular wall.

  10. Determinant factors of pain intensity in overweight and obese adults with knee osteoarthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlota Leão Cunha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis is one of the most disabling diseases, the main symptom being pain, which is associated with a low level of physical activity. The incidence and progression of knee osteoarthritis are directly related with risk factors such as obesity, age and mechanical factors. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify which variables (physical activity, anthropometry and body composition of the lower limb best predict pain intensity in obese individuals with knee osteoarthritis. METHODS: The sample consisted of 44 individuals of both genders (mean age 56.6 ± 6.6 yrs. Anthropometric measures of body mass, stature, mid-thigh, patellar and calf circumferences, and foot breadth were obtained. The body composition of the most painful lower limb was obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in different regions: mid-thigh; patella; calf and foot. For each of these regions, fat mass percentage, the amount of fat and fat-free mass, bone mass and bone mineral density were evaluated. Physical activity was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (short version and pain intensity with the numeric rating scale. Data analysis was done using the multifactorial logistic regression (backward conditional method. RESULTS: The multifactorial analysis showed that gender (Odds Ratio of 7.448 for a 95% Confidence Interval of [1.032 – 53.747] and foot breadth (Odds Ratio of 3.730 for a 95% Confidence Interval of [1.006 – 13.827] are important factors to explain the risk of pain. CONCLUSIONS: These results seem to indicate that the assessment of foot morphology must be considered in knee osteoarthritis studies, since foot breadth is a predictor of knee pain. Further research is required to investigate the influence of foot morphology as well as of the use of insoles, splints or adapting shoes, on obese individuals with knee osteoarthritis.

  11. The obesity-associated transcription factor ETV5 modulates circulating glucocorticoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Aguilar, Ruth; Thompson, Abigail; Marchand, Nathalie; Dumont, Patrick; Woods, Stephen C.; de Launoit, Yvan; Seeley, Randy J.; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M.

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor E-twenty-six version 5 (ETV5) has been linked with obesity in genome-wide association studies. Moreover, ETV5-deficient mice (knockout; KO) have reduced body weight, lower fat mass, and are resistant to diet-induced obesity, directly linking ETV5 to the regulation of energy balance and metabolism. ETV5 is expressed in hypothalamic brain regions that regulate both metabolism and HPA axis activity, suggesting that ETV5 may also modulate HPA axis function. In order to test this possibility, plasma corticosterone levels were measured in ETV5 KO and wildtype (WT) mice before (pre-stress) and after (post-stress) a mild stressor (intraperitoneal injection). ETV5 deficiency increased both pre- and post-stress plasma corticosterone, suggesting that loss of ETV5 elevated glucocorticoid tone. Consistent with this idea, ETV5 KO mice have reduced thymus weight, suggestive of increased glucocorticoid-induced thymic involution. ETV5 deficiency also decreased the mRNA expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), and vasopressin receptor 1A in the hypothalamus, without altering vasopressin, corticotropin-releasing hormone, or oxytocin mRNA expression. In order to test whether reduced MR and GR expression affected glucocorticoid negative feedback, a dexamethasone suppression test was performed. Dexamethasone reduced plasma corticosterone in both ETV5 KO and WT mice, suggesting that glucocorticoid negative feedback was unaltered by ETV5 deficiency. In summary, these data suggest that the obesity-associated transcription factor ETV5 normally acts to diminish circulating glucocorticoids. This might occur directly via ETV5 actions on HPA-regulatory brain circuitry, and/or indirectly via ETV5-induced alterations in metabolic factors that then influence the HPA axis. PMID:25813907

  12. Dyslipidemia and its risk factors in overweight and obese children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Lucía Casavalle

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity and overweight are frequently associated with metabolic complications. Objective: to estimate the prevalence of dyslipidemia in overweight and obese children and adolescents and its risk factors (RF, and the concordance between different cut-off values (Cook et al. vs. American Academy of Cardiology of triglycerides (TG and HDL-C.Material and Methods: 139 patients (aged 8-14 years with overweight or obesity, attending the outpatient Pediatric Clinic, Division of Nutrition, San Martin University Hospital, Buenos Aires, Argentina, from February 2005 to January 2013, were studied. The design was descriptive, observational, prospective, crossover and comparison of independent samples. Dyslipidemia was considered when: Total cholesterol (TC≥200 mg/dl or HDL-C≤40 mg/dl or TG≥110 mg/dl or LDL-C≥130mg/dl. Increased waist circumference (WC≥90th percentile, according Freedman et al., low weight at birth (<2,5 kg., family history of dyslipidemia and acute myocardial infarction (AMI were considered as risk factors. The concordance between the cut-off values of TG (≥110 and ≥150 mg/dl and also of HDL-C (≤40 and <35 mg/dl were analyzed.Results: The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 50,4%; the most abnormal lipid fractions was the TG (31,7% and the most frequently RF was the increased WC (55,4%. The concordance between cut-off values was weak for TG (Kappa index=0.38, and moderate for HDL-C (Kappa index=0,52.Conclusions: The high prevalence of dyslipidemia was similar to other reports. The risk factors for dyslipidemia were the increased WC and family history of dyslipidemia. Due to the degree of concordance for TG and HDL-C it is relevant the cut-off values to be considered.

  13. [Cardiovascular exercise on obese women: effects on adiponectine, leptine, and tumour necrosis factor-alpha].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeros-Olvera, Erick; López-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Nava-González, Edna J; Gallegos-Cabriales, Esther; Lavalle-González, Fernando; Bastarrachea, Raúl A; Salazar González, Bertha Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    The relationship of hormones adiponectin, leptin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in adipose tissue on the atherogenic process is one of the most promising models in preventive medicine. The numerous tests performed to identify the effect of exercise on these hormones have not been clear on the type of exercise routine and physical effort calculated to contribute to changing plasma concentrations in obese women. Analyze controlledcardiovascular exercise effect on serum level of adiponectin, leptin, and tumournecrosis factor-alpha in obese young women. A simple blind clinical essay. The intervention covered a 10-week controlled, cardiovascular exercise program by 34 women (cases n=17, controls n=17) with a body mass index>27kg/m(2). Molecular analysis was performed by immune-fluorescence. Following the intervention, cases and controls means were as follows: adiponectin 19.0 vs. 12.2μ/ml (P=.008); leptin 20.0 vs. 28.0μ/L (P=.02); and tumour necrosis factor-alpha 4.7 vs. 5.1pg/ml (P=.05). The established exercise (5 sessions a week of exercise of 40min each for 10 weeks with a heart rate reserve of 40 to 80%) improved plasma concentrations of these hormones in the expected direction. This finding highlights an unpublished amount of exercise, controlled by the reserve cardiac frequency that might contribute the cardiovascular and metabolic protection to obese women. Copyright © 2013 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  14. Plasma interleukin-6 levels, glutathione peroxidase and isoprostane in obese women before and after weight loss. Association with cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougoulia, Maria; Triantos, Athanassios; Koliakos, George

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the levels of Interleukin-6 (IL-6), glutathione peroxidase and isoprostane in obese women and their association with markers of cardiovascular risk factors before and after weight loss. 36 healthy obese women of reproductive age (group A: age (mean+/-SD) 35.4+/-9.2 years, Body Mass Index (BMI) 38.5+/-7 kg/m2) and 30 healthy, normal weight women (group B: age mean+/-SD 34.9+/-7.4 y., BMI 24+/-1.1 kg/m2) were included in the study. Glucose tolerance was normal in all participating women. Il-6, glutathione peroxidase and isoprostane, C-Reactive Protein (CRP), insulin, fasting plasma glucose, HOMA-IR as well as the lipid profile were evaluated. Body weight, BMI, Waist to Hip ratio (W/H) ratio, Waist Circumference (WC), %free fat mass and the %fat mass were also measured. A hypo-caloric diet was prescribed for the obese women and all participants were re-examined after six months. In obese women after weight loss, anthropometric obesity markers (BMI, W/H ratio), %fat, lipid profile, insulin levels and inflammation indices such as IL-6 and CRP, the oxidative stress index isoprostane, as well as glutathione peroxidase were significantly ameliorated. The levels of serum glutathione peroxidase activity were negatively correlated with IL-6 levels and were significantly increased after weight reduction. In obese women there was an association between IL-6 levels and the values of %fat, %free fat mass, insulin and HOMA-IR before and after weight loss. Weight loss is related to reduction of oxidative stress and inflammation; this beneficial effect could possibly be translated into reduction of cardiovascular risk in obese individuals.

  15. A constriction factor based particle swarm optimisation algorithm to solve the economic dispatch problem including losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Steven; Montakhab, Mohammad; Nouri, Hassan

    2011-07-15

    Economic dispatch (ED) is one of the most important problems to be solved in power generation as fractional percentage fuel reductions represent significant cost savings. ED wishes to optimise the power generated by each generating unit in a system in order to find the minimum operating cost at a required load demand, whilst ensuring both equality and inequality constraints are met. For the process of optimisation, a model must be created for each generating unit. The particle swarm optimisation technique is an evolutionary computation technique with one of the most powerful methods for solving global optimisation problems. The aim of this paper is to add in a constriction factor to the particle swarm optimisation algorithm (CFBPSO). Results show that the algorithm is very good at solving the ED problem and that CFBPSO must be able to work in a practical environment and so a valve point effect with transmission losses should be included in future work.

  16. Macroenvironmental factors including GDP per capita and physical activity in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Adrian J; Van Stralen, Maartje M; Kunst, Anton E; Te Velde, Saskia J; Van Lenthe, Frank J; Salmon, Jo; Brug, Johannes

    2013-02-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in physical activity at the individual level are well reported. Whether inequalities in economic development and other macroenvironmental variables between countries are also related to physical activity at the country level is comparatively unstudied. We examined the relationship between country-level data on macroenvironmental factors (gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, public sector expenditure on health, percentage living in urban areas, and cars per 1000 population) with country-level physical activity prevalence obtained from previous pan-European studies. Studies that assessed leisuretime physical activity (n = 3 studies including 27 countries in adults, n = 2 studies including 28 countries in children) and total physical activity (n = 3 studies in adults including 16 countries) were analyzed separately as were studies among adults and children. Strong and consistent positive correlations were observed between country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity and country GDP per capita in adults (average r = 0.70; all studies, P G 0.05). In multivariate analysis, country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity among adults remained associated with country GDP per capita (two of three studies) but not urbanization or educational attainment. Among school-age populations, no association was found between country GDP per capita and country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity. In those studies that assessed total physical activity (which also includes occupational and transport physical activity), no association with country GDP per capita was observed. Clear differences in national leisure-time physical activity levels throughout Europe may be a consequence of economic development. Lack of economic development of some countries in Europe may make increasing leisure-time physical activity more difficult. Further examination of the link between country GDP per capita and national physical activity levels (across

  17. Pro-inflammatory wnt5a and anti-inflammatory sFRP5 are differentially regulated by nutritional factors in obese human subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik M Schulte

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with macrophage infiltration of adipose tissue. These inflammatory cells affect adipocytes not only by classical cytokines but also by the secreted glycopeptide wnt5a. Healthy adipocytes are able to release the wnt5a inhibitor sFRP5. This protective effect, however, was found to be diminished in obesity. The aim of the present study was to examine (1 whether obese human subjects exhibit increased serum concentrations of wnt5a and (2 whether wnt5a and/or sFRP5 serum concentrations in obese subjects can be influenced by caloric restriction.23 obese human subjects (BMI 44.1 ± 1.1 kg/m(2 and 12 age- and sex-matched lean controls (BMI 22.3 ± 0.4 kg/m(2 were included in the study. Obese subjects were treated with a very low-calorie diet (approximately 800 kcal/d for 12 weeks. Body composition was assessed by impedance analysis, insulin sensitivity was estimated by HOMA-IR and the leptin-to-adiponectin ratio and wnt5a and sFRP5 serum concentrations were measured by ELISA. sFRP5 expression in human adipose tissue biopsies was further determined on protein level by immunohistology.Pro-inflammatory wnt5a was not measurable in any serum sample of lean control subjects. In patients with obesity, however, wnt5a became significantly detectable consistent with low grade inflammation in such subjects. Caloric restriction resulted in a weight loss from 131.9 ± 4.0 to 112.3 ± 3.2 kg in the obese patients group. This was accompanied by a significant decrease of HOMA-IR and leptin-to-adiponectin ratio, indicating improved insulin sensitivity. Interestingly, these metabolic improvements were associated with a significant increase in serum concentrations of the anti-inflammatory factor and wnt5a-inhibitor sFRP5.Obesity is associated with elevated serum levels of pro-inflammatory wnt5a in humans. Furthermore, caloric restriction beneficially affects serum concentrations of anti-inflammatory sFRP5 in such subjects. These findings suggest a

  18. Lifestyle factors associated with obesity in a cohort of males in the central province of Sri Lanka: a cross-sectional descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. W. I. A. Jayawardana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has become a global epidemic. The prevalence of obesity has also increased in the South Asian region in the last decade. However, dietary and lifestyle factors associated with obesity in Sri Lankan adults are unclear. The objective of the current study was to investigate the association of dietary and lifestyle patterns with overweight and obesity in a cohort of males from the Central Province of Sri Lanka. Methods A total of 2469 males aged between 16 and 72 years ( x ¯ = 31 $$ \\overline{x}=31 $$ were included in the study. The sample comprised individuals who presented for a routine medical examination at the National Transport Medical Institute, Kandy, Sri Lanka. The Body Mass Index (BMI cutoff values for Asians were used to categorize the participants into four groups as underweight, normal weight, overweight or obese. The data on dietary and lifestyle patterns such as level of physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, sleeping hours and other socio demographic data were obtained using validated self-administered questionnaires. Multinomial logistic regression model was fitted to assess the associations of individual lifestyle patterns with overweight and obesity. Results The mean BMI of the study group was 22.7 kg m−2 and prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were 31.8 and 12.3%, respectively. Mean waist circumference of the participants was 78.6 cm with 17.1% of them being centrally obese. After adjusting for potential confounders, weight status was associated with older age (P < 0.0001, ethnicity (P = 0.0033 and higher income (P = 0.0006. While higher physical activity showed a trend for being associated with lower odds of being obese (odds ratio: 0.898 – confidence interval: 0.744–1.084, alcohol intake, consumption of fruits, level of education, sleeping hours, smoking, consumption of fish, meat, dairy, sweets or fried snacks were not significantly associated with the weight

  19. Obesity and smoking are factors associated with poor prognosis in patients with bacteraemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuento Risto

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteraemia is still a major cause of case fatality in all age groups. Our aim was to identify the major underlying conditions constituting risk factors for case fatality in bacteraemia patients. Methods The study involved 149 patients (79 male and 70 female with bacteraemia caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus (41 patients, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Str. pneumoniae (42 patients, β-hemolytic streptococcae (β-hml str. (23 patients and Eschericia coli (E. coli (43 patients. Underlying diseases, alcohol and tobacco consumption and body mass index (BMI were registered. Laboratory findings and clinical data were registered on admission and 6 consecutive days and on day 10–14. Case fatality was studied within 30 days after positive blood culture. Associations between underlying conditions and case fatality were studied in univariate analysis and in a multivariate model. Results Nineteen patients (12.8% died of bacteraemia. We found obesity (p = 0.002, RR 9.8; 95% CI 2.3 to 41.3, smoking (p Conclusion Our results indicate that obesity and smoking are prominent risk factors for case fatality in bacteraemic patients. Identification of risk factors underlying fatal outcome in bacteraemia may allow targeting of preventive efforts to individuals likely to derive greatest potential benefit.

  20. Neurological Consequences of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Brien, Phillipe D.; Hinder, Lucy M.; Callaghan, Brian C.; Feldman, Eva L.

    2017-01-01

    Obesity, primarily a consequence of poor dietary choices and an increased sedentary lifestyle, has become a global pandemic that brings with it enormous medical, social, and economic challenges. Not only does obesity increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and certain cancers, but it is also recognized as a key driver of other metabolic syndrome (MetS) components. These components include insulin resistance, hyperglycemia with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, and are underlying contributors to systemic metabolic dysfunction. More recently, obesity and diet-induced metabolic dysfunction have been identified as risk factors for the development of a wide variety of neurological disorders in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. An abundance of literature has shown that obesity is associated with mild cognitive impairment and altered hippocampal structure and function, and there is a robust correlation between obesity and Alzheimer’s type dementia. Similarly, many reports show that both the autonomic and somatic components of the peripheral nervous system are impacted by obesity. The autonomic nervous system, under control of the hypothalamus, displays altered catabolic and anabolic processes in obese individuals attributed to sympathetic-parasympathetic imbalances. A close association also exists between obesity and polyneuropathy, a complication most commonly found in prediabetic and diabetic patients, and is likely secondary to a combination of obesity-induced dyslipidemia with hyperglycemia. This review will outline the pathophysiological development of obesity and dyslipidemia, discuss the adverse impact of these conditions on the nervous system, and provide evidence for lipotoxicity and metabolic inflammation as the drivers underlying the neurological consequences of obesity. In addition, this review will examine the benefits of lifestyle and surgical interventions in obesity-induced neurological disorders. PMID

  1. Cardiovascular Consequences of Obesity and Targets for Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Mittendorfer, Bettina; Peterson, Linda R.

    2008-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including coronary artery disease and heart failure, but the mechanisms by which it may cause them are not completely clear. Currently, therapies aimed at obesity-related cardiovascular disease include weight loss strategies and reduction of the other risk factors that are associated with obesity and cardiovascular disease. Other pathways with for potential drug development for obesity-related CVD are also discussed.

  2. High prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults with Crohn's disease: associations with disease and lifestyle factors.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nic Suibhne, Treasa

    2013-08-01

    Obesity and overweight are major public health issues. Although traditionally associated with weight loss, there is now evidence that increasing Body Mass Index (BMI) and overweight are emerging features of Crohn\\'s disease (CD) and may be associated with more severe disease course. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in patients with CD compared with matched healthy controls and to identify disease-specific and generic factors associated with current BMI in this group.

  3. Differences in lifestyle behaviors, dietary habits, and familial factors among normal-weight, overweight, and obese Chinese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaofan; Zheng, Liqiang; Li, Yang; Yu, Shasha; Sun, Guozhe; Yang, Hongmei; Zhou, Xinghu; Zhang, Xingang; Sun, Zhaoqing; Sun, Yingxian

    2012-10-02

    Pediatric obesity has become a global public health problem. Data on the lifestyle behaviors, dietary habits, and familial factors of overweight and obese children and adolescents are limited. The present study aims to compare health-related factors among normal-weight, overweight, and obese Chinese children and adolescents. We conducted a cross-sectional study consisted of 4262 children and adolescents aged 5-18 years old from rural areas of the northeast China. Anthropometric measurements and self-reported information on health-related variables, such as physical activities, sleep duration, dietary habits, family income, and recognition of weight status from the views of both children and parents, were collected by trained personnel. The prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were 15.3 and 6.4%, respectively. Compared to girls, boys were more commonly overweight (17.5% vs. 12.9%) and obese (9.5% vs. 3.1%). Approximately half of the parents with an overweight or obese child reported that they failed to recognize their child's excess weight status, and 65% of patients with an overweight child reported that they would not take measures to decrease their child's body weight. Obese children and adolescents were more likely to be nonsnackers [odds ratio (OR): 1.348; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.039-1.748] and to have a family income of 2000 CNY or more per month (OR: 1.442; 95% CI: 1.045-1.99) and less likely to sleep longer (≥7.5 h) (OR: 0.475; 95% CI: 0.31-0.728) than the normal-weight participants. Our study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in a large Chinese pediatric population. Differences in sleep duration, snacking, family income, and parental recognition of children's weight status among participants in different weight categories were observed, which should be considered when planning prevention and treatment programs for pediatric obesity.

  4. Obesity as a Possible Risk Factor for Lost-time Injury in Registered Nurses: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Jordan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Time-loss injuries are still a major occurrence in Canada, injuring thousands of Canadian workers each year. With obesity rates on the rise across the country, as well as around the world, it is important that the possible effects of obesity in the workplace be fully understood, especially those effects linked to lost-time injuries. The aim of this paper was to evaluate predictors of workplace lost-time injuries and how they may be related to obesity or high body mass index by examining factors associated with lost-time injuries in the health care sector, a well-studied industry with the highest number of reported time loss injuries in Canada. A literature review focusing on lost-time injuries in Registered Nurses (RNs was conducted using the keywords and terms: lost time injury, workers' compensation, occupational injury, workplace injury, injury, injuries, work, workplace, occupational, nurse, registered nurse, RN, health care, predictors, risk factors, risk, risks, cause, causes, obese, obesity, and body mass index. Data on predictors or factors associated with lost-time injuries in RNs were gathered and organized using Loisel's Work Disability Prevention Management Model and extrapolated upon using existing literature surrounding obesity in the Canadian workplace.

  5. Fever in trauma patients: evaluation of risk factors, including traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengualid, Victoria; Talari, Goutham; Rubin, David; Albaeni, Aiham; Ciubotaru, Ronald L; Berger, Judith

    2015-03-01

    The role of fever in trauma patients remains unclear. Fever occurs as a response to release of cytokines and prostaglandins by white blood cells. Many factors, including trauma, can trigger release of these factors. To determine whether (1) fever in the first 48 hours is related to a favorable outcome in trauma patients and (2) fever is more common in patients with head trauma. Retrospective study of trauma patients admitted to the intensive care unit for at least 2 days. Data were analyzed by using multivariate analysis. Of 162 patients studied, 40% had fever during the first 48 hours. Febrile patients had higher mortality rates than did afebrile patients. When adjusted for severity of injuries, fever did not correlate with mortality. Neither the incidence of fever in the first 48 hours after admission to the intensive care unit nor the number of days febrile in the unit differed between patients with and patients without head trauma (traumatic brain injury). About 70% of febrile patients did not have a source found for their fever. Febrile patients without an identified source of infection had lower peak white blood cell counts, lower maximum body temperature, and higher minimum platelet counts than did febrile patients who had an infectious source identified. The most common infection was pneumonia. No relationship was found between the presence of fever during the first 48 hours and mortality. Patients with traumatic brain injury did not have a higher incidence of fever than did patients without traumatic brain injury. About 30% of febrile patients had an identifiable source of infection. Further studies are needed to understand the origin and role of fever in trauma patients. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  6. Factors associated with metabolically healthy status in obesity, overweight, and normal weight at baseline of ELSA-Brasil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Maria de Fátima Haueisen Sander; Beleigoli, Alline Maria Rezende; Ribeiro, Antônio Luiz P.; Vidigal, Pedro Guatimosim; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Duncan, Bruce B.; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The primary aim of this study was to evaluate metabolically healthy status (MHS) among participants in obesity, overweight, and normal weight groups and characteristics associated with this phenotype using baseline data of Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The secondary aim was to investigate agreement among 4 different MHS criteria. This cross-sectional study included 14,545 participants aged 35 to 74 years with a small majority (54.1%) being women. Of all participants, 22.7% (n = 3298) were obese, 40.8% (n = 5934) were overweight, and 37.5% (n = 5313) were of normal weight. Socio-demographic, behavioral, and anthropometric factors related to MHS were ascertained. Logistic regression models estimated the odds of associations. We used 4 different criteria separately and in combination to define MHS: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP-ATPIII), the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and comorbidities, and the agreement between them were evaluated by Cohen-kappa coefficient. MHS was present among 12.0% (n = 396) of obese, 25.5% (n = 1514) of overweight, and 48.6% (n = 2582) of normal weight participants according to the combination of the 4 criteria. The agreement between all the 4 MHS criteria was strong (kappa 0.73 P < 0.001). In final logistic models, MHS was associated with lower age, female sex, lower body mass index (BMI), and weight change from age 20 within all BMI categories. This study showed that, despite differences in prevalence among the 4 criteria, MHS was associated with common characteristics at every BMI category. PMID:27399079

  7. A decision support system prototype including human factors based on the TOGA meta-theory approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappelli, M.; Memmi, F.; Gadomski, A. M.; Sepielli, M.

    2012-01-01

    The human contribution to the risk of operation of complex technological systems is often not negligible and sometimes tends to become significant, as shown by many reports on incidents and accidents occurred in the past inside Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). An error of a human operator of a NPP can derive by both omission and commission. For instance, complex commission errors can also lead to significant catastrophic technological accidents, as for the case of the Three Mile Island accident. Typically, the problem is analyzed by focusing on the single event chain that has provoked the incident or accident. What is needed is a general framework able to include as many parameters as possible, i.e. both technological and human factors. Such a general model could allow to envisage an omission or commission error before it can happen or, alternatively, suggest preferred actions to do in order to take countermeasures to neutralize the effect of the error before it becomes critical. In this paper, a preliminary Decision Support System (DSS) based on the so-called (-) TOGA meta-theory approach is presented. The application of such a theory to the management of nuclear power plants has been presented in the previous ICAPP 2011. Here, a human factor simulator prototype is proposed in order to include the effect of human errors in the decision path. The DSS has been developed using a TRIGA research reactor as reference plant, and implemented using the LabVIEW programming environment and the Finite State Machine (FSM) model The proposed DSS shows how to apply the Universal Reasoning Paradigm (URP) and the Universal Management Paradigm (UMP) to a real plant context. The DSS receives inputs from instrumentation data and gives as output a suggested decision. It is obtained as the result of an internal elaborating process based on a performance function. The latter, describes the degree of satisfaction and efficiency, which are dependent on the level of responsibility related to

  8. Regulation of hippocampal neurogenesis by systemic factors including stress, glucocorticoids, sleep, and inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, P.J.; Oomen, C.; van Dam, A.-M.; Czéh, B.; Gage, F.H.; Kempermann, G.; Song, H.

    2008-01-01

    This review summarizes and discusses the regulation of adult neurogenesis and hippocampal cellular plasticity by systemic factors. We focus on the role of stress, glucocorticoids, and related factors such as sleep deprivation and inflammation.

  9. Health effects of an increased protein intake on kidney function and colorectal cancer risk factors, including the role of animal and plant protein sources – the PREVIEW project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Grith

    intake, including the role of animal and plant protein in pre-diabetic, overweight or obese individuals on health outcomes: markers of kidney function and putative risk factors for colorectal cancer as well as insulin sensitivity and kidney function in healthy individuals. The thesis is based on PREVIEW......, especially plant protein, on insulin sensitivity and kidney function. In paper II, the aim of the study was to assess the effect after one year of a higher protein intake on kidney function, measured by in creatinine clearance. This was investigated in pre-diabetic older adults based on a sub-group of 310...... pre-diabetic individuals included in the PREVIEW RCT. We found that a higher protein intake was associated with a significant increase in urea to creatinine ratio and serum urea after one year. There were no associations between increased protein intake and creatinine clearance, estimated glomerular...

  10. Is overweight/obesity a risk factor for periodontitis in young adults and adolescents?: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, S; Barrington, G; Bettiol, S; Barnett, T; Crocombe, L

    2018-01-19

    Obesity in young adults and adolescents is associated with chronic co-morbidities. This project investigated whether being overweight or obese is a risk factor for periodontitis in adolescents (13-17 years) and young adults (18-34 years). A search of 12 databases was conducted using Medical Subject Headings/Index and Emtree terms. Based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses, articles published between 2003 and 2016 were screened that reported periodontal and anthropometric measures. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to appraise the quality of studies. Of 25 eligible studies from 12 countries, 17 showed an association between obesity and periodontitis (odds ratios ranged from 1.1 to 4.5). The obesity indicators of body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio and body fat percentage were significantly associated with measures of periodontitis of bleeding on probing, plaque index, probing depths, clinical attachment loss, calculus, oral hygiene index and community periodontal index. Two prospective cohort studies in the review showed no significant association between obesity and periodontitis, but these studies had limitations of study design and used inappropriate epidemiological diagnostic measures of periodontitis. There was evidence to suggest that obesity is associated with periodontitis in adolescents and young adults. Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO Registration Number: CRD42016046507. © 2018 World Obesity Federation.

  11. Selected factors affecting bone mass in students with diagnosed obesity, aged 7–10 years, from Łódź

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Łupińska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity may be a risk factor for mineralisation and bone structure disorders, contrary to a common belief in its protective effects on bone tissue. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between selected risk factors and obesity indicators and bone mass in obese children. Material and methods: The study included 80 children aged between 7 and 10 years with excessive body weight (60 obese and 20 overweight; the reference group included 37 children with body weight appropriate for height. All patients underwent physical examination with anthropometric measurements. Parents were asked to complete a questionnaire. The average daily intake of selected nutrients was analysed using Dieta 2 software package. Densitometry (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, DXA was performed in all children to evaluate bone mass. Results: Obese and overweight children had statistically significantly higher total body BMD and total body BMD Z-score compared to control group. Most DXA parameters (except from volumetric bone mineral density were positively correlated with body weight, height and waist circumference. A significant positive correlation was found between physical activity and total body BMD. There was a negative correlation between the average daily intake of proteins, carbohydrates, magnesium and phosphorus in obese children and most DXA parameters (p < 0.05. Conclusions: Bone mass in obese children is positively affected by somatic features (body weight, height, waist circumference and body composition and physical activity, and negatively affected by increased intake of proteins, carbohydrates, phosphorus and magnesium. The calculated volumetric mineral bone density may reflect the actual bone mineral density and prevent DXA overestimation in obese children.

  12. Health Promotion Behavior of Chinese International Students in Korea Including Acculturation Factors: A Structural Equation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Jung; Yoo, Il Young

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explain the health promotion behavior of Chinese international students in Korea using a structural equation model including acculturation factors. A survey using self-administered questionnaires was employed. Data were collected from 272 Chinese students who have resided in Korea for longer than 6 months. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The p value of final model is .31. The fitness parameters of the final model such as goodness of fit index, adjusted goodness of fit index, normed fit index, non-normed fit index, and comparative fit index were more than .95. Root mean square of residual and root mean square error of approximation also met the criteria. Self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturative stress and acculturation level had direct effects on health promotion behavior of the participants and the model explained 30.0% of variance. The Chinese students in Korea with higher self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturation level, and lower acculturative stress reported higher health promotion behavior. The findings can be applied to develop health promotion strategies for this population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Pipe elbow stiffness coefficients including shear and bend flexibility factors for use in direct stiffness codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, R.F.

    1977-01-01

    Historically, developments of computer codes used for piping analysis were based upon the flexibility method of structural analysis. Because of the specialized techniques employed in this method, the codes handled systems composed of only piping elements. Over the past ten years, the direct stiffness method has gained great popularity because of its systematic solution procedure regardless of the type of structural elements composing the system. A great advantage is realized with a direct stiffness code that combines piping elements along with other structural elements such as beams, plates, and shells, in a single model. One common problem, however, has been the lack of an accurate pipe elbow element that would adequately represent the effects of transverse shear and bend flexibility factors. The purpose of the present paper is to present a systematic derivation of the required 12x12 stiffness matrix and load vectors f