WorldWideScience

Sample records for factors future studies

  1. A social work study on different factors influencing youth on hope for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Fakhri Fakhramini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an empirical study to study the effects of religious duties, communicating with parents; leisure, media planning, city planning, socio-economic and education on different factors influencing the future of youth. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 400 people aged 18 to 29 and the results are investigated using Pearson correlation ratios. The results of our investigation indicate that there are some positive and meaningful relationship between religious duties and their hope for future (r=44%, a positive and meaningful relationship between leisure and hope for future (31%. In addition, there is a relatively positive and somewhat meaningful relationship between city planning and hope for future (15% and finally, a small but positive relationship between media planning and hope for the future (6%. However, there is no evidence belief that there is any meaningful relationship between education and hope for the future.

  2. A study on important factors influencing on the effectiveness of futures research, training and employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Moghimi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to find out important factors influencing future research, training and employment in Iranian scientific environment. The proposed model of this paper prepares a questionnaire consists of various questions and distributes it among some experts and analyze them using DEMATEL model. The model divides the 7 factors into two groups of cause and effect. On the cause side, there are four factors including preventing future unemployment crises, detecting future skills, finding future profitable/unprofitable job opportunities and prevention on having open position with no volunteer to work. On the effect factors, there are three factors influencing the future research including detecting the present risk associated with jobs, detecting necessary standards for future works and creating a balance between demand and supply.

  3. A Study of Hope in the Future among Students and its Affecting Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bagher Alizadeh Aghdam

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction   Hopefulness and hopelessness towards future is one of the important and considerable issues in social science which has been studied scientifically since 1960s. This issue was studied in different forms in relation with negative feelings, compatibility. Being hopeful is considered as the most important motivation in one’s life, because hope is root of creativity and development in human life. It prepares bed for goal achievement and also helps people to get it. Snyder and his coworkers (1994 believe that hope is a positive motivation state and acts as activity factor (energy and goal achievement and planning to achieve the goal. Studies show that hopefulness is hopefulness is a considerable variance for optimism and can predict the different variables in the best way. Hopefulness is a request for future. Hopefulness shows people’s perception in relation with capability of expanding the solutions for achieving the goals and protecting motivation till getting the goals. Hope includes person’s perceptions and attention towards the future. Assuming that it will lead to positive results, it leafs to much more activities. Any conceptualization from hope reflects its multidimensional, dynamic, prospectiveness and process- based view of person. Based on findings in some studies, hopeful and happy people have strong relationships with their friends, wives, neighbors and relations. Hope has a considerable place in Islamic Texts. In the way that in Quran, God says that when you lose your hope, be hopeful and never lose yourself”. Prophet Mohammad says that hope and desire are mercy to my nation, if there was no hope, no mother give milk to baby and no gardener planed a tree”. One effect of hope in people (especially the youth is that it motivates people to be active and try to achieve their goals. In a Hadith by Prophet Mohammad, he says: Person who is hopeful, he/she goes to paradise. Person who fears from the hell, he/she will

  4. Survey Probability and Factors affecting Farmers Participation in Future and Option Markets Case Study: Cotton product in Gonbad kavos city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. sakhi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Farmers are facing with a variety of natural and unnatural risks in agricultural activities, and thus their income is unstable. A wide range of risks such as risks of production, price risk, financial and human risks, influence the income of agricultural products. One of the major risks that farmers faced is the risk of price volatility of agricultural products. Cotton is one of the agricultural products with high real price volatility. Numerous tools for marketing and risk management for agricultural products in the face of price risks are available. Futures and options contracts may be the most important available tools (to reduce price volatility in agricultural products. The purpose of the current study was to look at the possibility of farmers participations in the future and option markets that presented as a means to reduce the cotton prices volatility. The dependent variable for this purpose had four categories and these included: participate in both the market, participation in the future market, participation in the option market and participation in both future and option markets. Materials and Methods: data gathered with interview and completing 200 questionnaires of cotton growers using simple random sampling. Multinomial Logit Regression Model was used for data analysis. Results and Discussion: To measure content validity of the preliminary study the validity of confirmatory factor analysis were used. For calculating reliability, the pre-test done with 30 questionnaires and reliability, coefficient Cronbach alpha was 0.79. The independence of dependent variables categories was confirmed by Hausman test results. The Likelihood ratio and Wald showed these categories are not combinable. Results indicated into period 2014 -2015 and the sample under study, 35% of cotton growers unwilling to participate in future and option markets. Farmers willingness to participate in future and option market was 19% and %21

  5. Diabetes Risk Factors, Diabetes Risk Algorithms, and the Prediction of Future Frailty: The Whitehall II Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouillon, Kim; Kivimäki, Mika; Hamer, Mark; Shipley, Martin J.; Akbaraly, Tasnime N.; Tabak, Adam; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Batty, G. David

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine whether established diabetes risk factors and diabetes risk algorithms are associated with future frailty. Design Prospective cohort study. Risk algorithms at baseline (1997–1999) were the Framingham Offspring, Cambridge, and Finnish diabetes risk scores. Setting Civil service departments in London, United Kingdom. Participants There were 2707 participants (72% men) aged 45 to 69 years at baseline assessment and free of diabetes. Measurements Risk factors (age, sex, family history of diabetes, body mass index, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, antihypertensive and corticosteroid treatments, history of high blood glucose, smoking status, physical activity, consumption of fruits and vegetables, fasting glucose, HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides) were used to construct the risk algorithms. Frailty, assessed during a resurvey in 2007–2009, was denoted by the presence of 3 or more of the following indicators: self-reported exhaustion, low physical activity, slow walking speed, low grip strength, and weight loss; “prefrailty” was defined as having 2 or fewer of these indicators. Results After a mean follow-up of 10.5 years, 2.8% of the sample was classified as frail and 37.5% as prefrail. Increased age, being female, stopping smoking, low physical activity, and not having a daily consumption of fruits and vegetables were each associated with frailty or prefrailty. The Cambridge and Finnish diabetes risk scores were associated with frailty/prefrailty with odds ratios per 1 SD increase (disadvantage) in score of 1.18 (95% confidence interval: 1.09–1.27) and 1.27 (1.17–1.37), respectively. Conclusion Selected diabetes risk factors and risk scores are associated with subsequent frailty. Risk scores may have utility for frailty prediction in clinical practice. PMID:24103860

  6. Waist circumference and metabolic risk factors have seperate and additive effects on the risk of future type 2 diabetes in patients with vascular diseases. A cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, A.M.; Graaf, van der Y.; Haeften, van T.W.; Spiering, W.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Visseren, F.L.

    2011-01-01

    Aims To assess the effect of various measures of adiposity and of metabolic risk factors, both separately and in combination, on the risk of future Type 2 diabetes in patients with manifest vascular diseases. Methods This was a prospective cohort study in 2924 patients (mean age 59 ± 12 years) with

  7. Waist circumference and metabolic risk factors have seperate and additive effects on the risk of future type 2 diabetes in patients with vascular diseases. A cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, A.M.; Graaf, van der Y.; Haeften, van T.W.; Spiering, W.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Visseren, F.L.

    2011-01-01

    Aims To assess the effect of various measures of adiposity and of metabolic risk factors, both separately and in combination, on the risk of future Type 2 diabetes in patients with manifest vascular diseases. Methods This was a prospective cohort study in 2924 patients (mean age 59 ± 12 years) with

  8. Factors Affecting Current and Future CSA Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Vassalos

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Community Supported Agriculture (CSA is one of the widely used direct marketing strategies for small- and midsized farmers. CSA programs are an important option for sustainable production and consumption. It helps growers generate income (improve financial security and consumers obtain fresh local foods. Sustaining and growing CSA participation is critical in order to continue enjoying these benefits. We used a national online survey in conjunction with discrete choice models to investigate the impact of demographic characteristics, lifestyle preferences, and different information outlets on the probability that a consumer is or will become a CSA member. The results indicate that the factors affecting current and future CSA participation differ substantially. While none of the demographic characteristics has a significant impact on current CSA participation, some of them significantly affect the probability that a consumer will become a CSA member in the future. Lifestyle preferences have a significant impact on current and future CSA participation. Although none of the information outlets examined affect current CSA participation, word-of-mouth and online sources significantly influence the probability that a consumer will join a CSA program in the future. These findings may have important implications for policy makers’ and CSA farm managers’ efforts to sustain future CSA development.

  9. Future Circular Collider Study

    CERN Document Server

    Benedikt, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This presentation has been given during the 1st EuCARD-2 annual meeting. It contains: • Motivation & scope • Parameters & design challenges • Study organization, study time line • Preparing global FCC collaboration • Summary

  10. Future ATLAS Higgs Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Smart, Ben; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The High-Luminosity LHC will prove a challenging environment to work in, with for example $=200$ expected. It will however also provide great opportunities for advancing studies of the Higgs boson. The ATLAS detector will be upgraded, and Higgs prospects analyses have been performed to assess the reach of ATLAS Higgs studies in the HL-LHC era. These analyses are presented, as are Run-2 ATLAS di-Higgs analyses for comparison.

  11. Future Expectations of High School Students In Southeastern Turkey: Factors behind Future Expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Şimşek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to identify various future expectations of high school students in southeastern Turkey and factors behind their expectations. The sample of the study, which had a descriptive and associational survey design consisted of 1106 students randomly selected from 54 different high schools located in nine cities in southeastern Turkey. Data were collected through the “Future Expectation Scale (FES” developed by the researcher. Results indicated that personal and professional future, educational future, economic future and social future expectations of high school students in southeastern Turkey were generally above the average level. According to the study, being a teacher and a doctor took the first place among several professions to be further preferred by high school students. It was also concluded that future expectations of high school students did not differ on gender, high school type, CGPA, level of mother education, father’s occupation, family income level, the number of siblings, receiving pre-school education, and language spoken at home. On the other hand, future expectations of high school students were found to differ on the city where students being taught, grade level, corporal punishment, and tendency toward being a dropout.

  12. Future directions with platelet growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuter, D J

    2000-04-01

    Since the purification of thrombopoietin 6 years ago, c-Mpl ligands such as recombinant human thrombopoietin (rhTPO) and pegylated recombinant human megakaryocyte growth and development factor (PEG-rHuMGDF) have undergone extensive clinical investigation. Both recombinant forms have been shown to reduce the thrombocytopenia associated with nonmyeloablative chemotherapy. Several areas of research have been identified for further clinical development of c-Mpl ligands. One future direction is to continue to explore the intravenous route of administration of rhTPO and PEG-rHuMGDF, as well as fusion proteins of interleukin-3-thrombopoietin and thrombopoietin peptide mimetics, which may be as potent as thrombopoietin, but may lack antigenicity. Another focus would be on the use of these molecules in treating non-chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia associated with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related ITP, and liver disease. Additionally, c-Mpl ligands may have a role in improving apheresis yields when administered to normal platelet donors. Considerable data demonstrate the effectiveness of PEG-rHuMGDF in raising the platelet yields in apheresis donors. In the past few years, investigation into the use of thrombopoietin for ex vivo expansion of pluripotent stem cells has been extensive. Last, thrombopoietin may serve as a radioprotectant by preventing radiation-induced apoptosis of pluripotent stem cells. In the coming years, the clinical role of rhTPO, PEG-rHuMGDF, and related molecules such as the thrombopoietin peptide mimetics will probably be established for both chemotherapeutic and nonchemotherapeutic indications.

  13. The predictive performance of commodity futures risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Shamim; Tsvetanov, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the time-series predictability of commodity futures excess returns from factor models that exploit two risk factors – the equally weighted average excess return on long positions in a universe of futures contracts and the return difference between the high- and low-basis portfolios. Adopting a standard set of statistical evaluation metrics, we find weak evidence that the factor models provide out-of-sample forecasts of monthly excess returns significantly better than t...

  14. Human factors for a sustainable future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Andrew; Yeow, Paul H P

    2016-11-01

    Current human activities are seriously eroding the ability of natural and social systems to cope. Clearly we cannot continue along our current path without seriously damaging our own ability to survive as a species. This problem is usually framed as one of sustainability. As concerned professionals, citizens, and humans there is a strong collective will to address what we see as a failure to protect the natural and social environments that supports us. While acknowledging that we cannot do this alone, human factors and ergonomics needs to apply its relevant skills and knowledge to assist where it can in addressing the commonly identified problem areas. These problems include pollution, climate change, renewable energy, land transformation, and social unrest amongst numerous other emerging global problems. The issue of sustainability raises two fundamental questions for human factors and ergonomics: which system requires sustaining and what length of time is considered sustainable? In this paper we apply Wilson (2014) parent-sibling-child model to understanding what is required of an HFE sustainability response. This model is used to frame the papers that appear in this Special Issue.

  15. Future Perspectives on Baryon Form Factor Measurements with BES III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönning, Karin; Li, Cui

    2017-03-01

    The electromagnetic structure of hadrons, parameterised in terms of electromagnetic form factors, EMFF's, provide a key to the strong interaction. Nucleon EMFF's have been studied rigorously for more than 60 years but the new techniques and larger data samples available at modern facilities have given rise to a renewed interest for the field. Recently, the access to hyperon structure by hyperon time-like EMFF provides an additional dimension. The BEijing Spectrometer (BES III) at the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC-II) in China is the only running experiment where time-like baryon EMFF's can be studied in the e+e- → BB̅ reaction. The BES III detector is an excellent tool for baryon form factor measurements thanks to its near 4π coverage, precise tracking, PID and calorimetry. All hyperons in the SU(3) spin 1/2 octet and spin 3/2 decuplet are energetically accessible within the BEPC-II energy range. Recent data on proton and Λ hyperon form factors will be presented. Furthermore, a world-leading data sample was collected in 2014-2015 for precision measurements of baryon form factors. In particular, the data will enable a measurement of the relative phase between the electric and the magnetic form factors for Λ and Λc+ and hyperons. The modulus of the phase can be extracted from the hyperon polarisation, which in turn is experimentally accessible via the weak, parity violating decay. Furthermore, from the spin correlation between the outgoing hyperon and antihyperon, the sign of the phase can be extracted. This means that the time-like form factors can be completely determined for the first time. The methods will be outlined and the prospects of the BES III form factor measurements will be given. We will also present a planned upgrade of the BES III detector which is expected to improve future form factor measurements.

  16. Six Sigma: Problems, Limitations, Critical Success Factors and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Mazieiro Pohlmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Six Sigma is a business strategy based on objective decision making and problem solving in order to achieve, maintain and maximize business success through understanding and meeting the needs of customers. The visualization of this methodology as a powerful tool in reducing variability and improving quality led to the interest in performing this bibliographical study, whose purpose was to assess the critical success factors and future prospects of this managerial system. A survey was conducted in order to discover the main critical success factors of the implementation of the methodology in organizations, among which stood out the proper selection of projects, connecting the project with the business strategy, customer focus, financial, human and infrastructure resources, the involvement of senior management, professional training, and cultural change.

  17. Factor Structure in Commodity Futures Return and Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Lunde, Asger; Olesen, Kasper Vinther

    Using data on more than 750 million futures trades during 2004-2013, we analyze eight stylized facts of commodity price and volatility dynamics in the post financialization period. We pay particular attention to the factor structure in returns and volatility and to commodity market integration...... with the equity market. We find evidence of a factor structure in daily commodity futures returns. However, the factor structure in daily commodity futures volatility is even stronger than in returns. When computing model-free realized commodity betas with the stock market we find that they were high during 2008......-2010 but have since returned to the pre-crisis level close to zero. The common factor in commodity volatility is nevertheless clearly related to stock market volatility. We conclude that, while commodity markets appear to again be segmented from the equity market when only returns are considered, commodity...

  18. Self-rated health status as a risk factor for future vascular events and mortality in patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic atherosclerotic disease: the SMART study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grool, A M; van der Graaf, Y; Visseren, F L J; de Borst, G J; Algra, A; Geerlings, M I

    2012-09-01

    Lower self-rated health status has been associated with worse prognosis in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). We investigated the influence of self-rated physical and mental health status on the risk of future vascular events and mortality for various locations of symptomatic atherosclerotic disease and asymptomatic disease. Patients with CAD (n = 2547), cerebrovascular disease (n = 1061), peripheral arterial disease (PAD; n = 648), abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA; n = 272) and asymptomatic atherosclerotic disease (n = 1933) were followed for a median of 4 years for the occurrence of a new vascular event or death. Self-rated health status was assessed with the Short Form-36 physical and mental component summary scales. Cox regression models were used to estimate associations between health status and vascular events and death, adjusted for age, sex, vascular risk factors and intima-media thickness. In the total population, lower self-rated physical health status (per 10-point decrease) increased the risk of vascular events [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24-1.52], and all-cause (HR = 1.45, 95% CI 1.29-1.63) and vascular mortality (HR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.20-1.64). A 10-point decrease in mental health status was associated with a modest increase in the risk of vascular events (HR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.08-1.32), and all-cause (HR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.05-1.34) and vascular mortality (HR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.09-1.49). Risk estimates of physical and mental health status were highest in patients with asymptomatic atherosclerotic disease and lowest in those with PAD. Poorer self-rated physical and mental health status increases the risk of vascular events and mortality in a broad population of patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic atherosclerotic disease. © 2012 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  19. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, T.; Sandor, D.; Wiser, R.; Schneider, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  20. Factor Structure in Commodity Futures Return and Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Lunde, Asger; Olesen, Kasper Vinther

    Using data on more than 750 million futures trades during 2004-2013, we analyze eight stylized facts of commodity price and volatility dynamics in the post financialization period. We pay particular attention to the factor structure in returns and volatility and to commodity market integration...... volatility indicates a nontrivial degree of market integration....

  1. Macroeconomic factors and oil futures prices. A data-rich model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagaglia, Paolo [Modelling Division, Sveriges Riksbank (Sweden)

    2010-03-15

    I study the dynamics of oil futures prices in the NYMEX using a large panel dataset that includes global macroeconomic indicators, financial market indices, quantities and prices of energy products. I extract common factors from the panel data series and estimate a Factor-Augmented Vector Autoregression for the maturity structure of oil futures prices. I find that latent factors generate information that, once combined with that of the yields, improves the forecasting performance for oil prices. Furthermore, I show that a factor correlated to purely financial developments contributes to the model performance, in addition to factors related to energy quantities and prices. (author)

  2. Renewable Electricity Futures Study Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schneider, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures Study (RE Futures) provides an analysis of the grid integration opportunities, challenges, and implications of high levels of renewable electricity generation for the U.S. electric system. The study is not a market or policy assessment. Rather, RE Futures examines renewable energy resources and many technical issues related to the operability of the U.S. electricity grid, and provides initial answers to important questions about the integration of high penetrations of renewable electricity technologies from a national perspective. RE Futures results indicate that a future U.S. electricity system that is largely powered by renewable sources is possible and that further work is warranted to investigate this clean generation pathway.

  3. Future Studies and Forecasting in Logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Heikkinen, Susanna

    2012-01-01

    This research study analyses the relation between strategy and forecasting. In more concrete terms, it analyses if current logistics research provides sufficient and valid data to be meaningfully implemented on strategy development. The relationship of strategy and forecasting is evaluated in case study of Nurminen Logistics Oyj. The main research question is, what is the competitive advantage in the future for logistics companies in Finland and what kind of future research would be usef...

  4. Human Factor Studies on a Mars Analogue During Crew 100b International Lunar Exploration Working Group EuroMoonMars Crew: Proposed New Approaches for Future Human Space and Interplanetary Missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Balwant; Kaur, Jasdeep

    2012-11-01

    Knowing the risks, costs, and complexities associated with human missions to Mars, analogue research can be a great (low-risk) tool for exploring the challenges associated with the preparation for living, operating, and undertaking research in interplanetary missions. Short-duration analogue studies, such as those being accomplished at the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS), offer the chance to study mission operations and human factors in a simulated environment, and therefore contribute to exploration of the Moon and Mars in planned future missions. This article is based upon previously published articles, abstracts, and presentations by a series of independent authors, human factor studies performed on mars analogue station by Crew 100B. The MDRS Crew 100B performed studies over 15 days providing a unique insight into human factor issues in simulated short-duration Mars mission. In this study, 15 human factors were evaluated and analyzed by subjective and objective means, and from the summary of results it was concluded that optimum health of an individual and the crew as a whole is a necessity in order to encourage and maintain high performance and the satisfaction of project goals.

  5. Factors Required for Successful Future Research in Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    Verne Wheelwright. Uruvcrsit)’ of Houston, Clear-Lake 16 AC/UNU Mllk�.1Wll ProJect - Implementation of Futures Research in Decision Making...parts of the city separated by a 14 Submitted by Verne Wheelwright, Department of Studies of the Futw"e, University of Houston, Clear-Lake, Texas 1...Russian Fed. Abidjan, Ivory Coast Stanislaw Orzeszyna Julio A. Millan B. World Health Organization Jaya Kothai Pillai M. Salihu, Vice Chancellor

  6. Metal matrix composites: History, status, factors and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyriac, Ajith James

    The history, status, and future of metal matrix composites are presented by evaluating the progression of available literature through time. The trends that existed and issues that still prevail are discussed and a prediction of the future for MMCs is presented. The factors that govern the performance of metal matrix composites are also discussed. In many developed countries and in several developing countries there exists continued interest in MMCs. Researchers tried numerous combinations of matrices and reinforcements since work strictly on MMCs began in the 1950s. This led to developments for aerospace and defense applications, but resultant commercial applications were limited. The introduction of ceramic whiskers as reinforcement and the development of 'in-situ' eutectics in the 1960s aided high temperature applications in aircraft engines. In the late 1970s the automobile industries started to take MMCs seriously. In the last 20 years, MMCs evolved from laboratories to a class of materials with numerous applications and commercial markets. After the collapse of the Berlin Wall, prevailing order in the world changed drastically. This effect was evident in the progression of metal matrix composites. The internet connected the world like never before and tremendous information was available for researchers around the world. Globalization and the internet resulted in the transformation of the world to a more level playing field, and this effect is evident in the nature and source of research on metal matrix composites happening around the world.

  7. Future directions in Alzheimer's disease from risk factors to prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imtiaz, Bushra; Tolppanen, Anna-Maija; Kivipelto, Miia; Soininen, Hilkka

    2014-04-15

    The increase in life expectancy has resulted in a high occurrence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Research on AD has undergone a paradigm shift from viewing it as a disease of old age to taking a life course perspective. Several vascular, lifestyle, psychological and genetic risk factors influencing this latent period have been recognized and they may act both independently and by potentiating each other. These risk factors have consequently been used to derive risk scores for predicting the likelihood of dementia. Despite population differences, age, low education and vascular risk factors were identified as key factors in all scoring systems. Risk scores can help to identify high-risk individuals who might benefit from different interventions. The European Dementia Prevention Initiative (EDPI), an international collaboration, encourages data sharing between different randomized controlled trials. At the moment, it includes three large ongoing European trials: Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER), Prevention of Dementia by Intensive Vascular Care (preDIVA), and Multidomain Alzheimer Prevention study (MAPT). Recently EDPI has developed a "Healthy Aging through Internet Counseling in Elderly" (HATICE) program, which intends to manage modifiable risk factors in an aged population through an easily accessible Internet platform. Thus, the focus of dementia research has shifted from identification of potential risk factors to using this information for developing interventions to prevent or delay the onset of dementia as well as identifying special high-risk populations who could be targeted in intervention trials.

  8. Future Circular Colliders Study, Kickoff Meeting

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This meeting is the starting point of a five-year international design study called “Future Circular Colliders” (FCC) with emphasis on a hadron collider with a centre-of-mass energy of the order of 100 TeV in a new 80-100 km tunnel as a long-term goal. The design study includes a 90-400 GeV lepton collider, seen as a potential intermediate step. It also examines a lepton-hadron collider option. The international kick-off meeting for the FCC design study will be held at the University of Geneva, Unimail site, on 12–15 February 2014. The scope of this meeting will be to discuss the main study topics and to prepare the groundwork for the establishment of international collaborations and future studies. The formal part of the meeting will start at noon on Wednesday 12 February and last until noon on Friday 14 February. It will be followed by break-out sessions on the various parts of the project on the Friday afternoon, with summary sessions until noon on Saturday 15 February.

  9. Factors influencing the future of paediatric private practice in Malta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Grech

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In Malta, the health system is hybrid, with similarities to both UK system and the US system, where the National Health Service is supplemented by private practice. This is widely performed either as a primary job or as a supplement to a government salary. This article reviews unfavourable secular trends in Maltese fertility, births, marriages, separations, single parenthood and loans incurred after marriage, and relates them to (equally unfavourable in terms of private practice escalating numbers of paediatricians working in private practice. Overall, future prospects appear bleak for private practice in this branch of medicine, with a dwindling patient pool being shared by an ever-increasing number of paediatricians. The only identifiable factor that may mitigate is the potential for more private health insurance uptake. This must be coupled with a movement to improve the perception of a substantial proportion of the public that facilities are poorer in the private health sector than in the NHS service. Since Malta is a developed, EU country, these results may (cautiously be extrapolated to other, larger developed countries.

  10. Future Circular Collider study week 2017

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The annual meetings of the worldwide Future Circular Collider study (FCC) are major international events that review the progress in every domain which is relevant to develop feasible concepts for a next generation frontier particle accelerate based high-energy physics research infrastructure. This 3rd meeting is jointly organised by CERN and DESY. It is also the annual meeting of the EuroCirCol EC Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Action project. Previous events took place in Washington and Rome. In 2017 the FCC Week will take place in Berlin, Germany between May 29 and June 2.

  11. Future radioactive liquid waste streams study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, A.S.

    1993-11-01

    This study provides design planning information for the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF). Predictions of estimated quantities of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) and radioactivity levels of RLW to be generated are provided. This information will help assure that the new treatment facility is designed with the capacity to treat generated RLW during the years of operation. The proposed startup date for the RLWTF is estimated to be between 2002 and 2005, and the life span of the facility is estimated to be 40 years. The policies and requirements driving the replacement of the current RLW treatment facility are reviewed. Historical and current status of RLW generation at Los Alamos National Laboratory are provided. Laboratory Managers were interviewed to obtain their insights into future RLW activities at Los Alamos that might affect the amount of RLW generated at the Lab. Interviews, trends, and investigation data are analyzed and used to create scenarios. These scenarios form the basis for the predictions of future RLW generation and the level of RLW treatment capacity which will be needed at LANL.

  12. Legacy and future of Kilauea's geodetic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery-Brown, E. D.; Miklius, A.

    2011-12-01

    Because of its extensive and detailed history of geodetic measurements, Kilauea is one of the best-studied if not also best-understood volcanic systems in the world. Hawaiian volcanoes have a long history of deformation observations. These observations range from native legends of Pele's underground travels, through initial measurements made by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, and finally to current ground-based and satellite observations. Many questions still remain, relating to Kilauea's dynamics, where geodetic measurements could offer fundamental insights. For example, new geodetic experiments could lead to a better understanding of the degree of magmatic and tectonic interaction, the geometries of faults at depth, the extent of offshore deformation, and the magmatic plumbing system. While it is possible to design many experiments to address these issues, we focus on three deformation targets where geodetic improvements, including finer sampling in space and time, could yield significant advancements toward understanding Kilauea's dynamics. First, by scrutinizing spatially-dense space-borne geodetic data for signs of upper east rift zone deformation and incorporating gravity and seismic data in a high resolution tomographic model, the hydraulic connection between Kilauea's summit and the rift zone could be imaged, which would provide insight into the pathways that transport magma out to the rift zones. Second, a combination of geodetic and seismic data could be used to determine the nature of possible relationships and interactions between the Hilina fault system and Kilauea's basal decollement. Such a study would have important implications for assessments of future earthquake and sector collapse hazards. Lastly, by adding seafloor geodetic measurements and seismic data to the current geodetic network on Kilauea, we could delimit the offshore extent of transient and episodic decollement deformation. In addition to multidisciplinary approaches, future geodetic

  13. Status of the Future Circular Collider Study

    CERN Document Server

    Benedikt, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Following the 2013 update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics, the international Future Circular Collider (FCC) Study has been launched by CERN as host institute. Its main purpose and long-term goal is to design an energyfrontier hadron collider (FCC-hh) with a centre-of-mass energy of about 100 TeV in a new 80–100 km tunnel. The FCC study also includes the design of a 90–350 GeV highluminosity lepton collider (FCC-ee) installed in the same tunnel, serving as Higgs, top and Z factory, as a potential intermediate step, as well as an electron-proton collider option (FCC-he). The physics cases for such machines are being assessed and concepts for experiments will be developed by the end of 2018, in time for the next update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics. This overview summarizes the status of machine designs and parameters, and it discusses the essential technical components being developed in the frame of the FCC study. Key elements are superconducting accelerator-dipole magnets wit...

  14. A Critical Analysis of Climate Change Factors and its Projected Future Values in Delta State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emaziye, P. O., R. N. Okoh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on the critical analysis of climate change factors (temperature and rainfall and its projected future values in the state. The main objective was to determine the trends of climate change factors (temperature and rainfall. And the specific objective was to determine the projected future trends of climate change factors in the state. Multistage sampling procedure was used in the random selection of states, local government, communities and rural households for the research study. Annual mean time series data of temperature and rainfall were collected from Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET. Data were also obtained from structure questionnaire survey. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, trend analysis and growth model. The study reveals that there were increasing trends of temperature values and decreasing rainfall values in the state. But their projected future values witnessed an increasing trend. The increasing trends in temperature values may lead to a situation were crops will be smothered by excessive heat thereby reducing food production in the state. The study therefore recommends that meteorological station units should be established in the rural farming households in the state where accessibility is extremely difficult. This will make available meteorological data (information to the reach of the poor rural farming household for the attainment of food production.

  15. The Influence of Future Certainty and Contextual Factors on Delinquent Behavior and School Adjustment among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Roslyn M.; Wiebe, Richard P.; Cleveland, H. Harrington

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the ability of future certainty--an individual's perception of future stability, operationalized as the likelihood of certain life outcomes--to explain variance in delinquency and school adjustment, while controlling for economic, neighborhood, and family factors, among a cross-sectional sample of 1422 male and 1562 female…

  16. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 1. Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, M. M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baldwin, S. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); DeMeo, E. [Renewable Energy Consulting, Chicago, IL (United States); Reilly, J. M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Mai, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, D. [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Boulder, CO (United States); Porro, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Meshek, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  17. Future studies on electron scattering; a renaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Nigel J.

    2014-12-01

    2014 is the centenary of the first announcement of the Franck-Hertz experiment [1], now regarded as one of the pivotal experiments of modern physics. The Franck-Hertz experiment is widely regarded as an experiment that provided validation of the Bohr theory of atomic structure, itself only published in 2013, however it should also be viewed as the first quantitative experiment in electron scattering and the birth of scientific study of atomic and molecular phenomena by collisions. Today we recognize that electron-atom and electron- molecule collisions are prevalent across nature, describing disparate phenomena whilst the exploitation of such collisions underpins many of the technologies upon which modern society relies. The centenary of the Franck-Hertz experiment is thus a suitable opportunity to review both our current knowledge of electron interactions and to consider the directions of future research. In this article I therefore aim to both review our current state of knowledge and look forward, proposing that recent advances are providing something of a renaissance to the field and are vital for emerging technologies as well as answering some of the greatest scientific challenges of the 21st century.

  18. Hypothyroidism and cardiovascular disease: factors, mechanism and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anil K; Arya, R; Mehta, R; Sharma, R; Sharma, A K

    2013-01-01

    Reduced function of the thyroid gland causes Hypothyroidism which is further attributed to defects in the secretion of thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and tetra-iodothyronine or thyroxine (T4). T3 and T4 hormones are not only known to regulate the rate of metabolism but also affect the growth and rate of function of many other systems in the body such as neuromuscular, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular system. Hypothyroidism patient usually show higher levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins (LDL), triglycerides, and other lipid molecules associated with heart disease. The question still remained to be addressed though is whether hypothyroidism affects heart and result in cardiovascular disease. The current review updates us with the recent progress in the hypothyroidism area especially in relation to its connecting link with the heart disease. The present study will further enhance our understanding of the intricacies involved in the secretion of thyroid hormones (T3 & T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) subsequently affecting serum lipid levels. The study may help to dice-out cardiovascular risk factors associated with hypothyroidism so that effective measures could be taken prior to occurrence of coronary heart disease.

  19. Human Factors and Robotics: Current Status and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, H. McIlvaine; Kearsley, Greg P.

    The principal human factors engineering issue in robotics is the division of labor between automation (robots) and human beings. This issue reflects a prime human factors engineering consideration in systems design--what equipment should do and what operators and maintainers should do. Understanding of capabilities and limitations of robots and…

  20. A Factor Analysis of the Future Use of English Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Pierre, Joseph Richard; 上原, 寿和子; Uehara, Suwako

    2013-01-01

    Since 2003 when Irie summarized the research into the motivationsof Japanese university learners into two principal orientations,career and contact, two important trends have been identified inJapanese society, (a) the increasingly important role that English isperceived to play in Japanese business and (b) the struggles ofgraduates to find successful employment. This paper reports onthe development of a 50-item psychometric scale, FUES 2.0, tomeasure future use of English. The participants i...

  1. Metastatic Bone Disease: Role of Transcription Factors and Future Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Pratap, Jitesh; Lian, Jane B; Stein, Gary S.

    2010-01-01

    Progression of cancer from the earliest event of cell transformation through stages of tumor growth and metastasis at a distal site involves many complex biological processes. Underlying the numerous responses of cancer cells to the tumor microenvironment which support their survival, migration and metastasis are transcription factors that regulate the expression of genes reflecting properties of the tumor cell. A number of transcription factors have been identified that play key roles in pro...

  2. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 1: Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, T.; Wiser, R.; Sandor, D.; Brinkman, G.; Heath, G.; Denholm, P.; Hostick, D.J.; Darghouth, N.; Schlosser, A.; Strzepek, K.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  3. A scenarios study on future demands on container and truck sizes of the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Jan; Kraaijenhagen, B.; Graser, H.; Szylar, I.; Weijers, Stef

    2012-01-01

    To what extent will future demands of worldwide operating parties, regarding the (tertiary) packaging of their freight flows, determine or influence the future dimensions of freight trucks? That is the question we address to in this paper. In this study we have studied what container sizes may fit i

  4. Automotive Technology and Human Factors Research: Past, Present, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoyuki Akamatsu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the history of automotive technology development and human factors research, largely by decade, since the inception of the automobile. The human factors aspects were classified into primary driving task aspects (controls, displays, and visibility, driver workspace (seating and packaging, vibration, comfort, and climate, driver’s condition (fatigue and impairment, crash injury, advanced driver-assistance systems, external communication access, and driving behavior. For each era, the paper describes the SAE and ISO standards developed, the major organizations and conferences established, the major news stories affecting vehicle safety, and the general social context. The paper ends with a discussion of what can be learned from this historical review and the major issues to be addressed. A major contribution of this paper is more than 180 references that represent the foundation of automotive human factors, which should be considered core knowledge and should be familiar to those in the profession.

  5. Futurism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Jane Loring

    The objectives of this research report are to gain insight into the main problems of the future and to ascertain the attitudes that the general population has toward the treatment of these problems. In the first section of this report the future is explored socially, psychologically, and environmentally. The second section describes the techniques…

  6. Nutritional factors for longevity in Okinawa--present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, G; Murakami, K; Gushiken, M

    1992-01-01

    Several factors, such as environment and heredity, are presumed to be related to longevity. Of these nutrition is believed to function as a regulatory factor. Okinawa prefecture is well known as the leading area for longevity in the world. We therefore examined present and past nutrition records together with the background of all the 88 centenarians (18 male, 70 female) who are living in Okinawa in 1991. Their leading occupation was agriculture, and they were in work until the 8th decade. They took rice or potato as carbohydrate with abundant vegetables and vegetable protein or fish protein. Although they did not take a rich diet it was well balanced, and was assumed to be related to longevity because of the decreased incidence of atherosclerosis; together with a good genetic background, suggested by the accumulation of longevity in their siblings.

  7. Factor VIII therapy for hemophilia A: current and future issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aledort, Louis; Ljung, Rolf; Mann, Kenneth; Pipe, Steven

    2014-06-01

    Hemophilia A is a congenital, recessive, X-linked bleeding disorder that is managed with infusions of plasma-derived or recombinant factor (F) VIII. The primary considerations in FVIII replacement therapy today are the: 1) immunogenicity of FVIII concentrates, 2) role of longer-acting FVIII products, 3) prophylactic use of FVIII in children and adults with severe hemophilia A, and 4) affordability and availability of FVIII products. Improving patient outcomes by increasing the use of FVIII prophylaxis, preventing or eliminating FVIII inhibitors, and expanding access to FVIII concentrates in developing countries are the major challenges confronting clinicians who care for patients with hemophilia A.

  8. Proton electromagnetic form factors: present status and future perspectives at PANDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasi-Gustafsson E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Data and models on electromagnetic proton form factors are reviewed, highlighting the contribution foreseen by the PANDA collaboration. Electromagnetic hadron form factors contain essential information on the internal structure of hadrons. Precise and surprising data have been obtained at electron accelerators, applying the polarization method in electron-proton elastic scattering. At electron-positron colliders, using initial state radiation, BABAR measured proton time-like form factors in a wide time-like kinematical region and the BESIII collaboration will measure very precisely proton and neutron form factors in the threshold region. In the next future an antiproton beam with momentum up to 15 GeV/c will be available at FAIR (Darmstadt. Measurements of the reaction p̅ + p → e+ + e− by the PANDA collaboration will contribute to the individual determination of electric and magnetic form factors in the time-like region of momentum transfer squared, as well as to their first determination in the unphysical region (below the kinematical threshold, through the reaction p̅ + p → e+ + e− + π0. From the discussion on feasibility studies at PANDA, we focus on the consequences of such measurements in view of an unified description of form factors in the full kinematical region. We present models which have the necessary analytical requirements and apply to the data in the whole kinematical region.

  9. Proton electromagnetic form factors: present status and future perspectives at PANDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.

    2015-05-01

    Data and models on electromagnetic proton form factors are reviewed, highlighting the contribution foreseen by the PANDA collaboration. Electromagnetic hadron form factors contain essential information on the internal structure of hadrons. Precise and surprising data have been obtained at electron accelerators, applying the polarization method in electron-proton elastic scattering. At electron-positron colliders, using initial state radiation, BABAR measured proton time-like form factors in a wide time-like kinematical region and the BESIII collaboration will measure very precisely proton and neutron form factors in the threshold region. In the next future an antiproton beam with momentum up to 15 GeV/c will be available at FAIR (Darmstadt). Measurements of the reaction p̅ + p → e+ + e- by the PANDA collaboration will contribute to the individual determination of electric and magnetic form factors in the time-like region of momentum transfer squared, as well as to their first determination in the unphysical region (below the kinematical threshold), through the reaction p̅ + p → e+ + e- + π0. From the discussion on feasibility studies at PANDA, we focus on the consequences of such measurements in view of an unified description of form factors in the full kinematical region. We present models which have the necessary analytical requirements and apply to the data in the whole kinematical region.

  10. Qualitative ergonomics/human factors research in health care: Current state and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Rupa Sheth; McGuire, Kerry Margaret; Rivera, A Joy

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to understand the current state of Ergonomics/Human Factors (E/HF) qualitative research in health care and to draw implications for future efforts. This systematic review identified 98 qualitative research papers published between January 2005 and August 2015 in the seven journals endorsed by the International Ergonomics Association with an impact factor over 1.0. The majority of the studies were conducted in hospitals and outpatient clinics, were focused on the work of formal health care professionals, and were classified as cognitive or organizational ergonomics. Interviews, focus groups, and observations were the most prevalent forms of data collection. Triangulation and data archiving were the dominant approaches to ensuring rigor. Few studies employed a formal approach to qualitative inquiry. Significant opportunities remain to enhance the use of qualitative research to advance systems thinking within health care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Validation of a multifactorial risk factor model used for predicting future caries risk with nevada adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobley Connie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to measure the validity and reliability of a multifactorial Risk Factor Model developed for use in predicting future caries risk in Nevada adolescents in a public health setting. Methods This study examined retrospective data from an oral health surveillance initiative that screened over 51,000 students 13-18 years of age, attending public/private schools in Nevada across six academic years (2002/2003-2007/2008. The Risk Factor Model included ten demographic variables: exposure to fluoridation in the municipal water supply, environmental smoke exposure, race, age, locale (metropolitan vs. rural, tobacco use, Body Mass Index, insurance status, sex, and sealant application. Multiple regression was used in a previous study to establish which significantly contributed to caries risk. Follow-up logistic regression ascertained the weight of contribution and odds ratios of the ten variables. Researchers in this study computed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PVP, negative predictive value (PVN, and prevalence across all six years of screening to assess the validity of the Risk Factor Model. Results Subjects' overall mean caries prevalence across all six years was 66%. Average sensitivity across all six years was 79%; average specificity was 81%; average PVP was 89% and average PVN was 67%. Conclusions Overall, the Risk Factor Model provided a relatively constant, valid measure of caries that could be used in conjunction with a comprehensive risk assessment in population-based screenings by school nurses/nurse practitioners, health educators, and physicians to guide them in assessing potential future caries risk for use in prevention and referral practices.

  12. X-factor for innovation: identifying future excellent professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banis-den Hertog, Jaantje Hazina

    2016-01-01

    In this study we wanted to identify which type of individual is capable of achieving professional excellence. Our main question therefore read: which individual antecedents predict professional excellence? We chose to focus on personality traits and specifically on proactive personality - the entrep

  13. Future lines of research in the field of toxic and psychological factors in road accidents : a study made on request of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Toxic and Psychological Factors in Road Traffic Accidents of the Committee of Medical Research and Public Health of the Commission of European Communities, Directorate General for Research Science and Education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1976-01-01

    The scope of this report is to state, discuss and forecast the various aspects related to toxic and psychological factors in road traffic accidents. The more specific aim is to prepare a basis on which future action (and more particularly the different priorities for these actions), can be defined.

  14. Earth Matters: Studies for Our Global Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Pamela; Doyle, Andrea

    Through 12 readings and 32 activities this curriculum material introduces high school students to issues of the global environment and society, while both challenging them to critically evaluate the issues and motivating them to develop solutions. The materials are cited as being applicable to social studies, science, math, language arts, and…

  15. Alternative Future Fleet Platform Architecture Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-27

    1067 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2016 (Appendix 1) directed the Secretary of Defense to conduct three independent studies... Secretary of Defense, the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Division, the Naval Postgraduate School, the U.S. Naval War College, the Center for...this leadership role , the Navy Project Team identified the key missions for the U.S. Navy: - protecting the homeland - building security globally

  16. Genetic studies of Crohn's disease: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jimmy Z; Anderson, Carl A

    2014-06-01

    The exact aetiology of Crohn's disease is unknown, though it is clear from early epidemiological studies that a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors contributes to an individual's disease susceptibility. Here, we review the history of gene-mapping studies of Crohn's disease, from the linkage-based studies that first implicated the NOD2 locus, through to modern-day genome-wide association studies that have discovered over 140 loci associated with Crohn's disease and yielded novel insights into the biological pathways underlying pathogenesis. We describe on-going and future gene-mapping studies that utilise next generation sequencing technology to pinpoint causal variants and identify rare genetic variation underlying Crohn's disease risk. We comment on the utility of genetic markers for predicting an individual's disease risk and discuss their potential for identifying novel drug targets and influencing disease management. Finally, we describe how these studies have shaped and continue to shape our understanding of the genetic architecture of Crohn's disease.

  17. Ethanol and corticotropin releasing factor receptor modulation of central amygdala neurocircuitry: An update and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Yuval; Winder, Danny G

    2015-05-01

    The central amygdala is a critical brain region for many aspects of alcohol dependence. Much of the work examining the mechanisms by which the central amygdala mediates the development of alcohol dependence has focused on the interaction of acute and chronic ethanol with central amygdala corticotropin releasing factor signaling. This work has led to a great deal of success in furthering the general understanding of central amygdala neurocircuitry and its role in alcohol dependence. Much of this work has primarily focused on the hypothesis that ethanol utilizes endogenous corticotropin releasing factor signaling to upregulate inhibitory GABAergic transmission in the central amygdala. Work that is more recent suggests that corticotropin releasing factor also plays an important role in mediating anxiety-like behaviors via the enhancement of central amygdala glutamatergic transmission, implying that ethanol/corticotropin releasing factor interactions may modulate excitatory neurotransmission in this brain region. In addition, a number of studies utilizing optogenetic strategies or transgenic mouse lines have begun to examine specific central amygdala neurocircuit dynamics and neuronal subpopulations to better understand overall central amygdala neurocircuitry and the role of neuronal subtypes in mediating anxiety-like behaviors. This review will provide a brief update on this literature and describe some potential future directions that may be important for the development of better treatments for alcohol addiction.

  18. Studies of the Future Aged. An International Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Henning; Sheppard, Harold L., Ed.

    These six papers report on future-oriented studies of the situation of the elderly. "Changing Elderly in a Changing Society: Danish Elderly in the Next Century" (Henning Friis) reports on research dealing with preferences of the future elderly for their life when they grow older. "Aging Effectively: Meeting the Challenge of an Aging World" (J.…

  19. LHC Report: studies for the future

    CERN Multimedia

    Jan Uythoven & Rogelio Tomás García for the LHC team

    2015-01-01

    The proton run finished in the morning of Wednesday, 4 November and was followed by five days of Machine Development period, just before the start of the Technical Stop on Monday, 9 November. A lot of lessons have been learned and this opens the way to providing higher luminosity to the experiments.    During this year’s third and final Machine Development period, the different teams working on the machine were able to deepen their understanding of beam control and beam dynamics. The careful study of beam instabilities revealed a major improvement during the year. This time, stabilising the beams in the LHC required much weaker octupole magnet stabilisation than during the previous Machine Development period. This was due to the very effective electron cloud scrubbing that took place during physics fills after the summer holidays. This opens the road towards having more bunches in the machine, higher bunch charge and thus higher luminosity. To obtain hig...

  20. Psychological Factors in English Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴西

    2015-01-01

    <正>1.Introduction The psychological factor that influences English study is dynamic,complex,and flexible.Its influence is not immediately known,but it rather accumulates over a period of time.It is inevitable that students have some psychological factors in learning English.Therefore,in the process of teaching,teachers

  1. Factors that influence consumers' acceptance of future energy systems : the effects of adjustment type, production level, and price

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, Fenna R. M.; Bolderdijk, Jan Willem; Keizer, Kees; Gorsira, Madelijne; van der Werff, Ellen; Steg, Linda

    2014-01-01

    To promote the successful introduction of sustainable energy systems, more insight is needed into factors influencing consumer's acceptance of future energy systems. A questionnaire study among 139 Dutch citizens (aged 18-85) was conducted. Participants rated the acceptability of energy systems made

  2. Factors that influence consumers' acceptance of future energy systems : the effects of adjustment type, production level, and price

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, Fenna R. M.; Bolderdijk, Jan Willem; Keizer, Kees; Gorsira, Madelijne; van der Werff, Ellen; Steg, Linda

    2014-01-01

    To promote the successful introduction of sustainable energy systems, more insight is needed into factors influencing consumer's acceptance of future energy systems. A questionnaire study among 139 Dutch citizens (aged 18-85) was conducted. Participants rated the acceptability of energy systems made

  3. TOURISM FUTURE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT BASED ON SOCIO-STATISTICAL STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Valentin HAPENCIUC

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The restructuring the global economy is the main factor of which depends the future of sustainable development, major changes being needed in the human behavior, in the system of values and life style. In order to raise people’s sensitivity regarding the importance of constructing ties between natures and cultures, between different world cultures, cultural and natural heritage must be used as efficiently as possible. The second part of this paper refers to a study made on tourism in Bucovina region. This case study may be considered a useful instrument for identifying malfunction in the touristic sector in the south of Bucovina region, in order to supply all necessary information for further development strategies and policies in the field. The statistics in tourism is used in the study of the most stable features of touristic activity behaviour. This study will allow the configuration of a general outlook, which is necessary in order to take the best decisions when it comes to elaborating forecasts in the field.

  4. CAN FUTURE STUDIES TRULY PREDICT THE FUTURE? A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF TWO APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Fernandes Galhanone

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Futures Studies are one valuable tool to help businesses develop their Strategic Planning, in their ability to point out environment-induced changes in company policies, goals and actions. Companies and their leaders may discover energies and resources when they achieve a holistic, long range worldview, which helps them foresee, plan for and deal with the changes that will affect their future. The aim of this article is to examine the currentness of two exemplars of Futures Studies with distinct methods: a quantitative study analyzed by Mario Henrique Simonsen, and a qualitative futurology essay by Alvin Toffler based on the analysis of social, economic, technological and political trends and phenomena. A bibliographical research on secondary macroeconomic and sociocultural data supplied evidences for the projected trends. Based on this, the limitations of projection-based methods are discussed, as well as the advantages of using a qualitative or mixed approach when forecasts are made for the long term. It is worth reinforcing that the purpose of Futures Studies is not to predict with absolute precision how tomorrow will be like, but to produce indications so that adequate strategic decisions can be made today in an uncertain and turbulent environment.

  5. Mapping Future Education and Training: Group Concept Mapping Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoyanov, Slavi; Hoogveld, Bert; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Stoyanov, S., Hoogveld, A. W. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010). Mapping Future Education and Training: Group Concept Mapping Study. Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands; EU Forlic project.

  6. Mapping Future Education and Training: Group Concept Mapping Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoyanov, Slavi; Hoogveld, Bert; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Stoyanov, S., Hoogveld, A. W. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010). Mapping Future Education and Training: Group Concept Mapping Study. Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands; EU Forlic project.

  7. [Future time perspectives of the elderly; an empirical study rooted in theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steverink, N; Kempen, G I

    1998-08-01

    Which factors other than age play a role in the future time perspective of elderly people? In the literature no consensus exists on these factors. Besides, the usual approach of future time perspective as 'extension' seems limited and less suited for elderly people. Therefore, in this study the future time perspective is defined and measured as the expectation of the future with respect to new or enduring possibilities (a positive perspective) or increasing restrictions (a negative perspective). The role of 'a sense of control'--by some authors emphasized as an important factor in the future time perspective--is elaborated under the concept of 'competence belief'. Based on a theoretical framework, an elaboration of the antecedents of the future time perspective of elderly people is suggested. This led to specific expectations, which are empirically tested in a group of 4792 elderly of age 57 years and over. The results show that age indeed has an in-fluence on the future time perspective of elderly, but resources play a relatively larger role than age. This holds especially for vitality, social contact and affection, and to a lesser degree for income and activity. Also the expected positive relationship between competence belief was controlled for. The main conclusion is that elderly people show a more positive view towards the future, the more vitality, social contacts and affection they have, and the more they believe themselves associated to be competent.

  8. Risk and protective factors for sexual aggression and dating violence: common themes and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Martie P

    2014-10-01

    The primary aims of this article are to expand on three themes from the conference articles on risk and protective factors for dating and sexual violence and to offer suggestions that can guide future research. The first theme is the co-occurrence of sexual and dating violence with other forms of violence and other campus health issues. A second topic is the value of prospective studies in revealing temporal patterns of victimization and perpetration. A third theme is the role of peer norms in violence among college students. Suggestions for translating these ideas into research and action are discussed and include the need for comprehensive prevention approaches, more longitudinal research spanning the years before, during, and after college, and the application of social media technology in our interventions strategies. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Multi-path transportation futures study : vehicle characterization and scenario analyses.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S. E.; Singh, M. K.; Energy Systems; TA Engineering; ORNL

    2009-12-03

    Projecting the future role of advanced drivetrains and fuels in the light vehicle market is inherently difficult, given the uncertainty (and likely volatility) of future oil prices, inadequate understanding of likely consumer response to new technologies, the relative infancy of several important new technologies with inevitable future changes in their performance and costs, and the importance - and uncertainty - of future government marketplace interventions (e.g., new regulatory standards or vehicle purchase incentives). This Multi-Path Transportation Futures (MP) Study has attempted to improve our understanding of this future role by examining several scenarios of vehicle costs, fuel prices, government subsidies, and other key factors. These are projections, not forecasts, in that they try to answer a series of 'what if' questions without assigning probabilities to most of the basic assumptions.

  10. Beyond Capitalist Realism - Why We Need Critical Future Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Goode

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the interdisciplinary field of Critical Future Studies (CFS. CFS investigates the scope and constraints within public culture for imagining and debating different potential futures. It interrogates imagined futures founded - often surreptitiously - upon values and assumptions from the past and present, as well as those representing a departure from current social trajectories. CFS draws on perspectives from various disciplines including sociology, political studies, intellectual history, cultural history, media and cultural studies, utopian studies, science and technology studies, and philosophy. CFS also engages with discourses and ideas from the natural sciences (including popular science, computing and economics. And, given our concern with public culture, CFS aims to contribute constructively to vigorous and imaginative public debate about the future - a futural public sphere - and to challenge a prevalent contemporary cynicism about our capacity to imagine alternative futures while trapped in a parlous present. To that extent, we propose CFS as a programme of engaged and open-ended social critique, not as a solely academic endeavour. Our paper begins by describing the relationship between CFS and mainstream Future Studies. Subsequently, we discuss the contemporary context for Critical Future Studies. Here we make the case that CFS is a timely and even urgent project at our current historical juncture, arguing also for the significance of both utopian and dystopian imaginings. We then go on to discuss methodologies within CFS scholarship. Finally, we conclude by reflecting on the values underpinning CFS. Overall, this paper not only describes CFS as a field of research but also serves as an invitation to cultural scholars to consider how their own work might intersect with and contribute to CFS.

  11. Future studies and research in Egypt. Overview, examples, perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goell, Edgar

    2012-02-15

    During the last decade there have been several distinct activities and efforts with regards to future research in Egypt. Several institutions and capacities have been created. Although these capacities do not always meet high scientific standards, their results and studies offer important and well-grounded elements for future-oriented discussions and political decisions. Not least because of the Egypt revolt which started in January 2011 and the ongoing complex and conflicting societal struggles in Egypt the objective needs as well as the demand for systematic future thinking and future studies will very likely increase further. For that reason this report presents an overview about the context conditions, experiences and forms of future research in Egypt. The major challenges as well as the major issues are described. The main part is the description of the most important institutions, which are conducting future research, their projects and in addition two concrete projects, which try to practice Sustainable Development in different ways. Finally, several (self-)critical assessments and perspectives from selected experts of the future research community in Egypt will be presented.

  12. 1st Annual Meeting of the Future Circular Collider study

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This first Annual Meeting of the Future Circular Collider study is an important milestone to conclude the first, exploratory phase, leading to the identification of the baseline for the further study. Organized as an IEEE conference, it will provide the opportunity for re-enforcing the cohesion of the community and to catalyse cross-fertilization within the FCC study.

  13. Factors of determination values personal‟s self-perfection of future teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Uisimbaieva, Nataliia

    2017-01-01

    The article identifies and justified the major factors of determination values personal’sself-perfection of future teachers; the phenomenon of personal self-perfection of futureteachers is regarded as a socially deterministic process.Key words: values, value system, value orientation, self-perfection, personalimprovement, value determination.

  14. Strategic Planning with Critical Success Factors and Future Scenarios: An Integrated Strategic Planning Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    This report explores the value of enhancing typical strategic planning techniques with the critical success factor (CSF) method and scenario planning...It synthesizes documented theory and research in strategic planning , CSFs, and future scenarios. It proposes an enhanced, integrated information...framework for strategic planning that can help organizations understand the broad range of interrelated elements that influence strategy development

  15. CO2 studies remain key to understanding a future world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becklin, Katie M; Walker, S Michael; Way, Danielle A; Ward, Joy K

    2017-04-01

    Contents 34 I. 34 II. 36 III. 37 IV. 37 V. 38 38 References 38 SUMMARY: Characterizing plant responses to past, present and future changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2 ]) is critical for understanding and predicting the consequences of global change over evolutionary and ecological timescales. Previous CO2 studies have provided great insights into the effects of rising [CO2 ] on leaf-level gas exchange, carbohydrate dynamics and plant growth. However, scaling CO2 effects across biological levels, especially in field settings, has proved challenging. Moreover, many questions remain about the fundamental molecular mechanisms driving plant responses to [CO2 ] and other global change factors. Here we discuss three examples of topics in which significant questions in CO2 research remain unresolved: (1) mechanisms of CO2 effects on plant developmental transitions; (2) implications of rising [CO2 ] for integrated plant-water dynamics and drought tolerance; and (3) CO2 effects on symbiotic interactions and eco-evolutionary feedbacks. Addressing these and other key questions in CO2 research will require collaborations across scientific disciplines and new approaches that link molecular mechanisms to complex physiological and ecological interactions across spatiotemporal scales.

  16. Psychosocial factors and sport injuries: prediction, prevention and future research directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Urban; Ivarsson, Andreas

    2017-08-01

    This review provides an overview of recent theoretical and empirical developments regarding psychosocial factors related to the prediction and prevention of sport injuries, and highlights some of the most interesting areas of investigation that have been carried out in the past few years. For instance, a systematic review of the most cited and used theoretical framework in the field has recently been performed, which supports the model's suggestion that psychosocial variables, as well as psychologically based interventions, can influence injury risk among athletes. Based on substantial empirical evidence it is also shown that changes in stress and perceived recovery appear to predict injury occurrence in sport. Current studies, focusing on overuse injuries, also suggest that cultural norms and rules can be seen as factors that can indirectly influence the risk of becoming injured. Future research directions are presented such as the need for interdisciplinary injury prevention programs based on a combination of physiological and psychological interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. THEORETICAL ANALYSIS STUDY OF FORMATION OF FUTURE LEGAL LAWYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Stepanovich Shevlakov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with topical issues of formation of legal consciousness of future lawyers in high school. Obtained kinds of legal consciousness of future lawyers, determined its structure. Dedicated components of justice are mutually reinforcing, and provide an opportunity for further development of the personality of the future specialist, their personal growth.The purpose: to carry out theoretical analysis of the problem of formation of legal consciousness of future lawyers.The novelty is based. On the analysis of theoretical appro-aches of pedagogy, psychology, law, the notion of «lawfulness of the future of the law student», which is regarded as a form of social consciousness, which is a set of legal views and feelings, expressing the attitude to the law and legal phenomena that have regulatory in character and which includes know-ledge of legal phenomena and their evaluation from the point of view of fairness and justice, formed in the process of studying in the University.Results: this article analyzes different approaches to understanding the content and essence of the concept of legal consciousness of the legal profession. Define the types and structure of legal consciousness of future lawyers.

  18. Citizenship Education and the Preparation of Future Teachers: A Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten, Sjoerd; Cogan, John J.; Grossman, David L.; Liu, Mei-hui; Pitiyanuwat, Somwung

    2002-01-01

    Report of a study that examines the views of 250 future teachers of social studies regarding significant global trends, required citizenship characteristics, and educational strategies to develop such characteristics. Subjects were from China, Hong Kong, Japan, The Netherlands, Taiwan, Thailand, and the United States. (Contains 4 tables and 41…

  19. Factors associated with future intentions to use personal vaporisers among those with some experience of vaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Bernice Hua; Yong, Hua-Hie; Borland, Ron; McNeill, Ann; Hitchman, Sara C

    2017-05-31

    Personal vaporisers (PV), including e-cigarettes, may be a harm reduction strategy for tobacco control. This study aims to identify factors associated with future intentions to vape among smokers and ex-smokers in Australia and the UK. Cross-sectional data of smokers and ex-smokers (n = 1199, mean age = 45.3 years, 44.8% male), collected in 2014/2015 and divided into four subgroups: smoking past vapers (SPV), smoking vapers (SV), ex-smoking past vapers (ESPV) and ex-smoking vapers (ESV), from the International Tobacco Control Australia and UK surveys were analysed by using regression models. Higher vaping satisfaction increased vaping intentions for all groups except ESPV. Perceiving PVs as less harmful predicted intentions to vape for all groups except ESV. The importance of PVs for stopping smoking predicted lower intentions to continue vaping for SV, but higher intentions to initiate vaping for SPV. The importance of PVs for cutting down smoking was a positive predictor only for SPV. Among ex-smokers, importance for maintaining not smoking was a positive predictor for ESPV, but not for ESV. The importance of perceiving vapour being less harmful also depended on vaping status for ex-smokers. The only country interaction was that only in the UK was perceiving PVs as less harmful associated with intention among SPV. Factors influencing intentions vary by smoking and/or vaping status, with greater differences between the ex-smoker subgroups. This is consistent with PVs being seen as a way of managing smoking, rather than something that has intrinsic value, for all except the ex-smoking vapers. [Ma BH, Yong H-H, Borland R, McNeill A, Hitchman SC. Factors associated with future intentions to use personal vaporisers among those with some experience of vaping. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000-000]. © 2017 The Authors Drug and Alcohol Review published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  20. FACTORS AND CONDITIONS OF FORMATION OF PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE OF FUTURE ECONOMISTS BY MEANS OF NETWORK TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiia М. Boliubash

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article factors and conditions of formation of professional competence of future economists revealed by the author are considered in case of introduction of network technologies on the basis of information Moodle environment into the system of traditional vocational training. The author has given the characteristic of the designated conditions, made their theoretical substantiation, has opened the importance of their use in vocational training of the future experts and has carried out the scientific substantiation of diagnostics of levels of formation of professional competence. The relevance of the research is caused by needs of society in introduction of the newest information technology into the vocational education.

  1. Stem cell therapeutic possibilities: future therapeutic options for male-factor and female-factor infertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, Charles A.; Simerly, Calvin R.; Schatten, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in assisted reproduction treatment have enabled some couples with severe infertility issues to conceive, but the methods are not successful in all cases. Notwithstanding the significant financial burden of assisted reproduction treatment, the emotional scars from an inability to conceive a child enacts a greater toll on affected couples. While methods have circumvented some root causes for male and female infertility, often the underlying causes cannot be treated, thus true cures for restoring a patient’s fertility are limited. Furthermore, the procedures are only available if the affected patients are able to produce gametes. Patients rendered sterile by medical interventions, exposure to toxicants or genetic causes are unable to utilize assisted reproduction to conceive a child – and often resort to donors, where permitted. Stem cells represent a future potential avenue for allowing these sterile patients to produce offspring. Advances in stem cell biology indicate that stem cell replacement therapies or in-vitro differentiation may be on the horizon to treat and could cure male and female infertility, although significant challenges need to be met before this technology can reach clinical practice. This article discusses these advances and describes the impact that these advances may have on treating infertility. PMID:23664220

  2. Desordens alimentares no desporto: situação atual e perspectivas futuras no estudo dos fatores psicológicos Eating disorders in sport: current status and future directions in the study of the psychological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho procura atingir dois objetivos. Em primeiro lugar, apresenta-se a situação atual da investigação sobre desordens alimentares no desporto. Neste caso, salientam-se as linhas de investigação dedicadas ao estudo da prevalência destes problemas no desporto e analisam-se as diferenças entre atletas e modalidades desportivas. Dadas as dificuldades destas linhas de investigação na compreensão dos comportamentos alimentares de risco nos atletas, são avançadas outras possibilidades de desenvolvimento da investigação. Assim, e enquanto segundo objetivo deste artigo, salientamos a necessidade de os estudos se dirigirem para a compreensão dos fatores psicológicos associados aos comportamentos alimentares de risco e implicados no desenvolvimento das desordens alimentares. Esta abordagem tem como vantagem adicional ajudar a prevenir estes problemas através da promoção das competências mentais dos atletas no sentido de resistirem melhor aos possíveis efeitos nocivos da prática desportiva, onde se inserem os problemas com a alimentação.This paper focuses on two main goals. In first place, we present the current status on the research about eating disorders in sport contexts. In this case, we point out studies dedicated to the analysis of the incidence of eating disorders in sport and studies that observe the differences between athletes and different sports in the tendency for these problems. Second, we proposed new research directions on this subject, namely the need of analysing the psychological factors that are related with the development of eating disorders on athletes. This research approach has the advantage of helping the prevention of eating disorders on athletes through the promotion of psychological skills that protect athletes from the negative effects of sport practicing, where are included maladaptive eating behaviors.

  3. Future Orientation, School Contexts, and Problem Behaviors: A Multilevel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pan; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.

    2013-01-01

    The association between future orientation and problem behaviors has received extensive empirical attention; however, previous work has not considered school contextual influences on this link. Using a sample of N = 9,163 9th to 12th graders (51.0% females) from N = 85 high schools of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the…

  4. Future Orientation, School Contexts, and Problem Behaviors: A Multilevel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pan; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.

    2013-01-01

    The association between future orientation and problem behaviors has received extensive empirical attention; however, previous work has not considered school contextual influences on this link. Using a sample of N = 9,163 9th to 12th graders (51.0% females) from N = 85 high schools of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the…

  5. A Comparative Study of Science, Systems Analysis and Futurism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Hector

    1975-01-01

    The proper framework for studying different methods of problem-solving is to recognize that there are different approaches to the analysis of reality. Three approaches--science, systems analysis, and futurism--are considered within the framework of the "theory of knowledge." (Author/IRT)

  6. Key Success Factors in the Brazilian Coffee Agrichain: Present and Future Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Florêncio de Almeida

    2017-01-01

    first outcome was a comparative analysis of the three regions using the lens of the key success factors and, second, the main future challenges faced by each region. The study consolidated new drivers of change that directly impact corporate strategies and public policies, namely: (a increasing complexity in coffee farming, (b farm succession, (c mechanization, (d increased use of pesticides, (e climate change, (f consumer behavior, and (g risk management in the coffee agrichain. Given these drivers of change, companies in the Brazilian coffee agrichain may move forward with relevant strategic focus on important issues, leading to: (i loyalty from the farmer to guarantee high-quality coffee supply, (ii increase in entry barriers to ensure the maintenance of leadership in world coffee production and exportation, (iii operational risk minimization for companies as well as coffee farmers, (iv encourage and participate in the farmers´ actions to make coffee activity more environmentally friendly, and finally, (v designing marketing plans connected with the coffee consumers’ habits and desires, current and future.

  7. A Meta-Analysis of Factors Influencing the Development of Trust in Automation: Implications for Understanding Autonomy in Future Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Kristin E; Chen, Jessie Y C; Szalma, James L; Hancock, P A

    2016-05-01

    We used meta-analysis to assess research concerning human trust in automation to understand the foundation upon which future autonomous systems can be built. Trust is increasingly important in the growing need for synergistic human-machine teaming. Thus, we expand on our previous meta-analytic foundation in the field of human-robot interaction to include all of automation interaction. We used meta-analysis to assess trust in automation. Thirty studies provided 164 pairwise effect sizes, and 16 studies provided 63 correlational effect sizes. The overall effect size of all factors on trust development was ḡ = +0.48, and the correlational effect was [Formula: see text]  = +0.34, each of which represented medium effects. Moderator effects were observed for the human-related (ḡ  = +0.49; [Formula: see text] = +0.16) and automation-related (ḡ = +0.53; [Formula: see text] = +0.41) factors. Moderator effects specific to environmental factors proved insufficient in number to calculate at this time. Findings provide a quantitative representation of factors influencing the development of trust in automation as well as identify additional areas of needed empirical research. This work has important implications to the enhancement of current and future human-automation interaction, especially in high-risk or extreme performance environments. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  8. The Evolutions of the Transdisciplinary of Futures Studies: Case Study of America

    OpenAIRE

    Gh. Behroozi Lak; M. R. Jalilvand

    2015-01-01

    Futures Studies are transdiciplinary research field that explain social phenomena and change processes, and provide a broader perspective on them. Further, it develops various fields of human activity. Futures studies thematic territory is all sectors of culture, economics, politics, technology and the arts, and in the view of the changes ahead, its topics are rising. It is believed that human societies are able not to control the future, but the future is able to influence the path of histor...

  9. On exploratory factor analysis: a review of recent evidence, an assessment of current practice, and recommendations for future use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Cadeyrn J; Happell, Brenda

    2014-03-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (hereafter, factor analysis) is a complex statistical method that is integral to many fields of research. Using factor analysis requires researchers to make several decisions, each of which affects the solutions generated. In this paper, we focus on five major decisions that are made in conducting factor analysis: (i) establishing how large the sample needs to be, (ii) choosing between factor analysis and principal components analysis, (iii) determining the number of factors to retain, (iv) selecting a method of data extraction, and (v) deciding upon the methods of factor rotation. The purpose of this paper is threefold: (i) to review the literature with respect to these five decisions, (ii) to assess current practices in nursing research, and (iii) to offer recommendations for future use. The literature reviews illustrate that factor analysis remains a dynamic field of study, with recent research having practical implications for those who use this statistical method. The assessment was conducted on 54 factor analysis (and principal components analysis) solutions presented in the results sections of 28 papers published in the 2012 volumes of the 10 highest ranked nursing journals, based on their 5-year impact factors. The main findings from the assessment were that researchers commonly used (a) participants-to-items ratios for determining sample sizes (used for 43% of solutions), (b) principal components analysis (61%) rather than factor analysis (39%), (c) the eigenvalues greater than one rule and screen tests to decide upon the numbers of factors/components to retain (61% and 46%, respectively), (d) principal components analysis and unweighted least squares as methods of data extraction (61% and 19%, respectively), and (e) the Varimax method of rotation (44%). In general, well-established, but out-dated, heuristics and practices informed decision making with respect to the performance of factor analysis in nursing studies. Based on

  10. Predictors of Functional Improvement and Future Work Status After the Disability Benefit Claim : A Prospective Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelius, L. R.; van der Klink, J. J. L.; de Boer, M. R.; Groothoff, J. W.; Brouwer, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective In most industrialized countries, disability benefit rates have increased substantially in the past decade. Few beneficiaries return into employment once disability benefit is awarded. The present study aims to investigate which factors predict functional improvement and future work status

  11. A Societal Factors Issue: The Role of the Future in Educational Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Gloria S.

    This study is a survey and analysis of literature related to the current future movement and its implications for educational practice. The results of this study indicate that even though futurists are varied in their ideas and approaches, there is general agreement among those surveyed on the following: (1) there is a noticeable stance among…

  12. Past, Present, and Future in the Scientific Study of Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mccorkle, William W.; Xygalatas, Dimitris

    2012-01-01

    The study of religion is by its nature and by its history multi-disciplinary, incorporating diverse research paradigms ranging from historiography to experimental approaches and from scientific positivism to postmodern reflection. At a conference on the Past, Present, and Future in the Scientific...... Study of Religion (March 1-3, 2012), the keynote speakers pro- vided an assessment of the field of religious studies. While they agreed on the relevance of traditional methods (in particular those coming from history and anthropology) for the study of religion, the speakers also stressed...

  13. Eating habits and other risk factors: are the future health care service providers really at risk for life style disorders!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreyash Jayantilal Gandhi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence period is crucial position in the life, characterized by rapid rate of growth. It is a need to study risk factors among this group so applicability of primary prevention can be planned. It is essential to know that whether future care providers are having any risk of acquiring life style disorders as they will be the future role models of society. Objectives: To study the dietary and other risk factors for acquiring life style related disorders and to correlate various anthropometry measurements with these risk factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study. All medical, physiotherapy and nursing students from Government Medical College, Surat having met with age criteria of adolescent (17-19 as per WHO were included in the study. Pre tested structured self-administered questionnaire was used. It was having questions on various risk factors of acquiring life style related disorders and having anthropometry measurements to correlate. Data were entered and analyzed in MS excel. Results: Total 290 participants were enrolled, out of them 240 (82.76% were females and 50 (17.24% were males. Out of those, 153 (52.75% were having a habit of eating outside the home at least once in a week. 80 (27.5% participants reported that they never play outdoor games, 18 (6.21% reported that they never do exercise. 21 (7.24% were having BMI and #8805;25, From this total 21 participants, 17 (5.86% were females and 4 (1.38% were males. Out of total 240 females, 20 were having Waist Hip Ratio (WHR >0.85, while no male is having WHR >1. Conclusion: Primary preventive measures for dietary change should be applied among future care providers. Life style change should also be advised to reduce the risk for life style disorders. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 645-649

  14. The clinical academic workforce of the future: a cross-sectional study of factors influencing career decision-making among clinical PhD students at two research-intensive UK universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Joana; Ranieri, Veronica; Lambert, Trevor; Pugh, Chris; Barratt, Helen; Fulop, Naomi J; Rees, Geraint; Best, Denise

    2017-08-28

    To examine clinical doctoral students' demographic and training characteristics, career intentions, career preparedness and what influences them as they plan their future careers. Online cross-sectional census surveys at two research-intensive medical schools in England in 2015-2016. All medically qualified PhD students (N=523) enrolled at the University of Oxford and University College London were invited to participate. We report on data from 320 participants (54% male and 44% female), who were representative by gender of the invited population. Career intentions. Respondents were mainly in specialty training, including close to training completion (25%, n=80), and 18% (n=57) had completed training. Half (50%, n=159) intended to pursue a clinical academic career (CAC) and 62% (n=198) were at least moderately likely to seek a clinical lectureship (CL). However, 51% (n=163) had little or no knowledge about CL posts. Those wanting a CAC tended to have the most predoctoral medical research experience (χ(2) (2, N=305)=22.19, p=0.0005). Key reasons cited for not pursuing a CAC were the small number of senior academic appointments available, the difficulty of obtaining research grants and work-life balance. Findings suggest that urging predoctoral clinicians to gain varied research experience while ensuring availability of opportunities, and introducing more flexible recruitment criteria for CL appointments, would foster CACs. As CL posts are often only open to those still in training, the many postdoctoral clinicians who have completed training, or nearly done so, do not currently gain the opportunity the post offers to develop as independent researchers. Better opportunities should be accompanied by enhanced career support for clinical doctoral students (eg, to increase knowledge of CLs). Finally, ways to increase the number of senior clinical academic appointments should be explored since their lack seems to significantly influence career decisions. © Article

  15. Study of future world markets for agricultural aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobetz, F. W.; Assarabowski, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    The future world market for US-manufactured agricultural aircraft was studied and the technology needs for foreign markets were identified. Special emphasis was placed on the developing country market, but the developed countries and the communist group were also included in the forecasts. Aircraft needs were projected to the year 2000 by a method which accounted for field size, crop production, treated area, productivity, and attrition of the fleet. A special scenario involving a significant shift toward aerial fertilization was also considered. An operations analysis was conducted to compare the relative application costs of various existing and hypothetical future aircraft. A case study was made of Colombia as an example of a developing country in which aviation is emerging as an important industry.

  16. Opportunities for nuclear reaction studies at future facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Veselsky, Martin; Vujisicova, Nikoleta; Souliotis, Georgios A

    2016-01-01

    Opportunities for investigations of nuclear reactions at the future nuclear physics facilities such as radioactive ion beam facilities and high-power laser facilities are considered. Post-accelerated radioactive ion beams offer possibilities for study of the role of isospin asymmetry in the reaction mechanisms at various beam energies. Fission barrier heights of neutron-deficient nuclei can be directly determined at low energies. Post-accelerated radioactive ion beams, specifically at the future facilities such as HIE-ISOLDE, SPIRAL-2 or RAON-RISP can be also considered as a candidate for production of very neutron-rich nuclei via mechanism of multi-nucleon transfer. High-power laser facilities such as ELI-NP offer possibilities for nuclear reaction studies with beams of unprecedented properties. Specific cases such as ternary reactions or even production of super-heavy elements are considered.

  17. Essay on Methods in Futures Studies and a Selective Bibliography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    in futures studies must be open to critique to be accepted as a research activity. Premises, assumptions, methods and data have to be explicit as a critical discourse, cooperation, and eventual revision is to be carried out by egalitarian means, potentially accessible to all. Problems in this idealistic...... programme are (only) partly reduced by applying Causal Layered Analysis as an internal quality control. The following selective bibliography is focussed on these methodological issues...

  18. Poor Long-Term Functional Outcome After Stroke Among Adults Aged 18 to 50 Years: Follow-Up of Transient Ischemic Attack and Stroke Patients and Unelucidated Risk Factor Evaluation (FUTURE) Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Synhaeve, N.E.; Arntz, R.M.; Maaijwee, N.A.M.M.; Rutten-Jacobs, L.C.A.; Schoonderwaldt, H.C.; Dorresteijn, L.D.A.; Kort, P.L.M. de; Dijk, E.J. van; Leeuw, F.E. de

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke in young adults has a dramatic effect on life; therefore, we investigated the long-term functional outcome after transient ischemic attack, ischemic stroke, or intracerebral hemorrhage in adults aged 18 to 50 years. METHODS: We studied 722 young patients with first-eve

  19. Molecular Genetic Studies of Eating Disorders: Current Status and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Klump, Kelly L.; Culbert, Kristen M.

    2007-01-01

    We review association studies that have examined the genetic basis of eating disorders. Overall, findings suggest that serotonin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and estrogen genes may be important for the development of the disorders. These neuronal systems influence behavioral and personality characteristics (e.g., anxiety, food intake) that are disrupted in eating disorders. Future studies would benefit from larger sample sizes and inclusion of behavioral and personality covariates in a...

  20. Uterine transplantation: a future possibility to treat women with uterus factor infertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brännström, M

    2007-06-01

    Uterine transplantation is developed as a possible future treatment for patients with absolute uterus factor infertility. Patients with the Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome, patients having had hysterectomy for benign or malignant uterine/cervical diseases and patients with intrauterine adhesions are the major groups of patients, who could benefit from this procedure. There has been one attempt to transplant a human uterus, which however failed. Since then, several uterine transplantation animal models have been developed to examine various aspects of the uterus transplantation procedure and to optimize it for human use. In a mouse model, normal pregnancy rate and offspring were seen after syngeneic uterus transplantation. The tolerance for cold ischemia from the time the uterus is taken out from the donor until placed in the recipient is around 24 h, as shown in a mouse uterine transplantation model and on human uterine tissue. The rejection pattern of the transplanted uterus was tested in an allogeneic mouse model with signs of rejection after 5 to 10 days. High doses of cyclosporin A (CyA) could partly suppress rejection but pregnancies have not yet been achieved in allogeneic uterus transplants in any species. In the sheep and pig models, the vascular anastomosis technique and the tolerability to cold ischemia have been evaluated. Normal offspring have been delivered in the sheep model after autotransplantation and presently allogeneic uterine transplants in sheep treated with corticosteroids and CyA are tested. Initial studies on uterus transplantation is also now conducted in primates. It is predicted that uterus transplantation may reach a clinical stage within 2-3 years, in the event of a continuous high research activity within this field.

  1. The Evolutions of the Transdisciplinary of Futures Studies: Case Study of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Behroozi Lak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Futures Studies are transdiciplinary research field that explain social phenomena and change processes, and provide a broader perspective on them. Further, it develops various fields of human activity. Futures studies thematic territory is all sectors of culture, economics, politics, technology and the arts, and in the view of the changes ahead, its topics are rising. It is believed that human societies are able not to control the future, but the future is able to influence the path of history. I this study, we reviewed books and papers published in futures studies to illustrate American sutures studies movement in 1960s and 1970s. We start with World War II and Cold War. Then, organizations and future thinkers affecting futures studies would be discussed. Finally, the paradigms that have formed after World War II and the Cold War in the field of futures studies would be defined. Generally, futurists believe that so far there have been two paradigms in the evolution of futures studies and there are signs of the emergence of a new paradigm.

  2. Khat Use and Neurobehavioral Functions: Suggestions for Future Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Richard; al’Absi, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Although there is a rich body of research available regarding the effect of acute and chronic khat dosing in animal models, research on the behavioral and cognitive effects of khat in human subjects is not extensive and several of the available studies have been done only in the context of observational and single-case studies. In light of the absence of a substantial literature on the neurobehavioral deficits associated with khat use and to provide a context that could be used to identify themes for future research we review previous research that has focused on other stimulant drugs. This review highlights multiple areas of neurocognitive deficit that have been identified in previous studies of individuals who have been chronic users of stimulants, such as amphetamines and methamphetamines. The review highlights a substantial body of evidence demonstrating a wide range of learning and memory impairments including deficits that persist during abstinence from active drug use. This review does not imply a similar khat effect, but due to some similarities pharmacologically between the active components of khat (cathinone and cathine) and amphetamines, future studies examining these same domains of cognitive functioning in chronic khat users and abstinent khat users appears to be warranted, if possible using some of the same or similar laboratory measures. PMID:20553832

  3. Projecting Future Land Use Changes in West Africa Driven by Climate and Socioeconomic Factors: Uncertainties and Implications for Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G.; Ahmed, K. F.; You, L.

    2015-12-01

    Land use changes constitute an important regional climate change forcing in West Africa, a region of strong land-atmosphere coupling. At the same time, climate change can be an important driver for land use, although its importance relative to the impact of socio-economic factors may vary significant from region to region. This study compares the contributions of climate change and socioeconomic development to potential future changes of agricultural land use in West Africa and examines various sources of uncertainty using a land use projection model (LandPro) that accounts for the impact of socioeconomic drivers on the demand side and the impact of climate-induced crop yield changes on the supply side. Future crop yield changes were simulated by a process-based crop model driven with future climate projections from a regional climate model, and future changes of food demand is projected using a model for policy analysis of agricultural commodities and trade. The impact of human decision-making on land use was explicitly considered through multiple "what-if" scenarios to examine the range of uncertainties in projecting future land use. Without agricultural intensification, the climate-induced decrease of crop yield together with increase of food demand are found to cause a significant increase in agricultural land use at the expense of forest and grassland by the mid-century, and the resulting land use land cover changes are found to feed back to the regional climate in a way that exacerbates the negative impact of climate on crop yield. Analysis of results from multiple decision-making scenarios suggests that human adaptation characterized by science-informed decision making to minimize land use could be very effective in many parts of the region.

  4. Real cases study through computer applications for futures Agricultural Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moratiel, R.; Durán, J. M.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2010-05-01

    One of the huge concerns on the higher engineer education is the lag of real cases study that the future professionals need in the work and corporation market. This concern was reflected in Bologna higher education system including recommendations in this respect. The knowhow as why this or other methodology is one of the keys to resolve this problem. In the last courses given in Department of Crop Production, at the Agronomy Engineer School of Madrid (Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Agrónomos, UPM) we have developed more than one hundred applications in Microsoft Excel®. Our aim was to show different real scenarios which the future Agronomic Engineers can be found in their professional life and with items related to crop production field. In order to achieve our target, each application in Excel presents a file text in which is explained the theoretical concepts and the objectives, as well as some resources used from Excel syntax. In this way, the student can understand and use of such application, even they can modify and customize it for a real case presented in their context and/or master project. This electronic monograph gives an answer to the need to manage data in several real scenarios showed in lectures, calculus resolution, information analysis and manage worksheets in a professional and student level.

  5. The Impact of Neighborhood Social and Built Environment Factors across the Cancer Continuum: Current Research, Methodologic Considerations, and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Shariff-Marco, Salma; De Rouen, Mindy; Keegan, Theresa H. M.; Yen, Irene H.; Mujahid, Mahasin; Satariano, William A.; Glaser, Sally L.

    2015-01-01

    Neighborhood social and built environments have been recognized as important contexts in which health is shaped. We review the extent to which these neighborhood factors have been addressed in population-level cancer research, with a scan of the literature for research that focuses on specific social and/or built environment characteristics and association with outcomes across the cancer continuum, including incidence, diagnosis, treatment, survivorship, and survival. We discuss commonalities and differences in methodologies across studies, current challenges in research methodology, and future directions in this research area. The assessment of social and built environment factors in relation to cancer is a relatively new field, with 82% of 34 reviewed papers published since 2010. Across the wide range of social and built environment exposures and cancer outcomes considered by the studies, numerous associations were reported. However, the directions and magnitudes of association varied, due in large part to the variation in cancer sites and outcomes being studied, but also likely due to differences in study populations, geographical region, and, importantly, choice of neighborhood measure and geographic scale. We recommend that future studies consider the life course implications of cancer incidence and survival, integrate secondary and self-report data, consider work neighborhood environments, and further develop analytical and statistical approaches appropriate to the geospatial and multilevel nature of the data. Incorporating social and built environment factors into research on cancer etiology and outcomes can provide insights into disease processes, identify vulnerable populations, and generate results with translational impact of relevance for interventionists and policy makers. PMID:25847484

  6. Electron cloud studies for the LHC and future proton colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Domínguez Sánchez de la Blanca, César Octavio; Zimmermann, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world’s largest and most powerful particle collider. Its main objectives are to explore the validity of the standard model of particle physics and to look for new physics beyond it, at unprecedented collision energies and rates. A good luminosity performance is imperative to attain these goals. In the last stage of the LHC commissioning (2011-2012), the limiting factor to achieving the design bunch spacing of 25 ns has been the electron cloud effects. The electron cloud is also expected to be the most important luminosity limitation after the first Long Shut-Down of the LHC (LS1), when the machine should be operated at higher energy and with 25-ns spacing, as well as for the planned luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC) and future high energy proton colliders (HE-LHC and VHE-LHC). This thesis contributes to the understanding of the electron cloud observations during the first run of the LHC (2010-2012), presents the first beam dynamics analysis for the next generation of high en...

  7. Proton electromagnetic form factors: Basic notions, present achievements and future perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacetti, Simone, E-mail: simone.pacetti@pg.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia dell’Universitá degli Studi di Perugia and INFN Sezione di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Baldini Ferroli, Rinaldo [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Tomasi-Gustafsson, Egle [CEA, IRFU, SPhN, Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucléaire, UMR 8608, 91406 Orsay (France)

    2015-01-20

    The aim of this report is to give basic notions on electromagnetic hadron form factors (FFs), as they are understood at the present time, to summarize and analyze the present experimental results and available theoretical models and to open a view on future perspectives. FFs are fundamental quantities, which describe the internal, dynamical structure of hadrons. Although the theoretical formalism was settled in the middle of last century, as well as the first experiments in electron–proton elastic scattering for which R. Hofstadter got the Nobel prize in 1961, a renewed activity is due to recent, surprising results and to the opening of new experimental possibilities. An elegant formalism was built on the assumption of a hadron electromagnetic interaction based on the exchange of a virtual photon of four-momentum q{sup 2}. In this case FFs are analytic functions of only one variable, q{sup 2}, and the electromagnetic vertex γ{sup ∗}hh (h is any hadron) is defined by two structure functions, which, in turn, are expressed in terms of (2S+1) FFs, S being the hadron spin, assuming parity and time-invariance. Our aim is to anticipate the potentiality contained in the future data, combined with the present knowledge, to point out the relevant observables and the most significative measurements, and to give predictions to be compared to the data when they will be available.

  8. Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF) system and gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST): present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannini, Margherita; Biasco, Guido; Astolfi, Annalisa; Urbini, Milena; Pantaleo, Maria A

    2014-02-01

    In the last decades, the concept that Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF) axis plays a key role in several steps of tumorigenesis, cancer growth and metastasis has been widely documented. The aberration of the IGF system has been described in many kinds of tumours, providing several lines of evidence in support of IGF receptor type 1 (IGF1R) as molecular target in cancer treatment. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal tumor of the gastrointestinal tract, commonly characterized in most cases by KIT and PDGFRA gain mutations. Beyond to the well recognized KIT and PDGFRA gain mutations, in the last years other molecular aberrations have been investigated. Recently, several lines of evidence about the involvement of the IGF system in GIST have been accumulated. The aim of this review is to report all current data about the IGF system involvement in GIST, focusing on the current clinical implication and future perspectives.

  9. The Rare Cancer Network: ongoing studies and future strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Ozsahin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Rare Cancer Network (RCN was formed in the early 1990’s to create a global network that could pool knowledge and resources in the studies of rare malignancies whose infrequency prevented both their study with prospective clinical trials. To date, the RCN has initiated 74 studies resulting in 46 peer reviewed publications. The First International Symposium of the Rare Cancer Network took place in Nice in March of 2014. Status updates and proposals for new studies were heard for fifteen topics. Ongoing studies continue for cardiac sarcomas, thyroid cancers, glomus tumors, and adult medulloblastomas. New proposals were presented at the symposium for primary hepatic lymphoma, solitary fibrous tumors, Rosai-Dorfman disease, tumors of the ampulla of Vater, salivary gland tumors, anorectal melanoma, midline nuclear protein in testes carcinoma, pulmonary lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma of the trachea, osteosarcomas of the mandible, and extra-cranial hemangiopericytoma. This manuscript presents the abstracts of those proposals and updates on ongoing studies, as well a brief summary of the vision and future of the RCN.

  10. Competences and knowledge: Key-factors in the smart city of the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saverio Salerno

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effective and modern management of competence development, which represents a distinguishing key-factor in future Smart Cities, cannot be limited to the Learning Management exclusively, but rather be inclusive of aspects pertaining to Human Capital and Performance Management in a holistic vision that encompasses not only the sphere of operations but also the tactical and strategic levels. In particular, organizations need solutions that especially integrate Learning Management, Performance Management, and Human Resource Management (HRM. We propose an approach considering the competences as key-factors in the management and valorization of Human Capital and making use of a socio-constructivist learning model, based on the explicit (ontological modeling of domain competences as well as a learner and didactic oriented approach. Unlike most of the current solutions, far from the proposed vision and concentrated on specific functionalities and not on the processes as a whole, the solution offered by MOMA, spin-off of the Research Group of the University of Salerno led by Prof. Salerno, is here presented as a demonstrative case of the proposed methodology and approach. A distinctive feature of our proposal, supported by the MOMA solution is the adoption of semantic technologies that for instance allows for the discovery of unpredictable paths linking them in the Knowledge Graph. Finally, we discuss how this framework can be applied in the context of the Smart Cities of the future, taking advantage of the features, enabled especially by semantics, of researching, creating, combining, delivering and using in a creative manner the resources of superior quality offered by Smart Cities.

  11. Heavy-ion physics studies for the Future Circular Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armesto, N.; Dainese, A.; d'Enterria, D.; Masciocchi, S.; Roland, C.; Salgado, C. A.; van Leeuwen, M.; Wiedemann, U. A.

    2014-11-01

    The Future Circular Collider (FCC) design study is aimed at assessing the physics potential and the technical feasibility of a new collider with centre-of-mass energies, in the hadron-hadron collision mode including proton and nucleus beams, more than seven times larger than the nominal LHC energies. An electron-positron collider in the same tunnel is also considered as an intermediate step, which in the long term would allow for electron-hadron collisions. First ideas on the physics opportunities with heavy ions at the FCC are presented, covering the physics of quark-gluon plasma, gluon saturation, photon-induced collisions, as well as connections with the physics of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays.

  12. Heavy-ion physics studies for the Future Circular Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armesto, N. [Departamento de Física de Partículas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Dainese, A., E-mail: andrea.dainese@pd.infn.it [INFN — Sezione di Padova, 35131 Padova (Italy); D' Enterria, D. [Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Genéve 23 (Switzerland); Masciocchi, S. [EMMI and GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Roland, C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States); Salgado, C.A. [Departamento de Física de Partículas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Leeuwen, M. van [Nikhef, National Institute for Subatomic Physics and Institute for Subatomic Physics of Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Wiedemann, U.A. [Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Genéve 23 (Switzerland)

    2014-11-15

    The Future Circular Collider (FCC) design study is aimed at assessing the physics potential and the technical feasibility of a new collider with centre-of-mass energies, in the hadron–hadron collision mode including proton and nucleus beams, more than seven times larger than the nominal LHC energies. An electron–positron collider in the same tunnel is also considered as an intermediate step, which in the long term would allow for electron–hadron collisions. First ideas on the physics opportunities with heavy ions at the FCC are presented, covering the physics of quark–gluon plasma, gluon saturation, photon-induced collisions, as well as connections with the physics of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays.

  13. Heavy-ion physics studies for the Future Circular Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Armesto, Nestor; d'Enterria, David; Masciocchi, Silvia; Roland, Christof; Salgado, Carlos; van Leeuwen, Marco; Wiedemann, Urs

    2014-01-01

    The Future Circular Collider (FCC) design study is aimed at assessing the physics potential and the technical feasibility of a new collider with centre-of-mass energies, in the hadron-hadron collision mode including proton and nucleus beams, more than seven-times larger than the nominal LHC energies. An electron-positron collider in the same tunnel is also considered as an intermediate step, which would provide the electron-hadron option in the long term. First ideas on the physics opportunities with heavy ions at the FCC are presented, covering the physics of Quark-Gluon Plasma, gluon saturation, photon-induced collisions, as well as connections with ultra-high-energy cosmic rays.

  14. Factors Affecting the Development and Evolution of the Teaching Beliefs of Future Geoscience Professors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, LeeAnna Tiffany Young

    The pedagogical beliefs of university instructors influence how they design their courses and whether they choose to use research-validated teaching methods that have been shown to improve student learning. The next generation of professors will be drawn from today's graduate students and post-doctoral fellows but we know relatively little about their preparation to use research-validated teaching practices. We followed a broad population of geoscience graduate students and post-docs over a three year period to evaluate changes in teaching beliefs. This study employed a longitudinal mixed-methods experimental design including surveys, short interviews, and longer case study interviews to: a) collect information on the teaching beliefs of geoscience graduate students and post-doctoral scholars; and b) identify experiences that contributed to the development of reformed teaching beliefs and their interest in an academic career. We collected initial surveys from more than 600 participants and re-surveyed more than 300 of these participants 12-18 months later. We conducted an initial round of interviews with 61 participants and repeat interviews with 31 of these individuals. The survey utilized was the Beliefs about Reformed Teaching and Learning (BARSTL); the interview tool was the Teacher Belief Interview (TBI). Finally, we conducted detailed case study interviews with a sample of ten participants who were either PhD students, post-doctoral scholars, or beginning professors at the time of the interviews. The data were examined to determine if there was a difference in beliefs about teaching on the basis of factors including number of years in graduate school, teaching assistant (TA) experiences, gender, and participation in professional development. Data from the large initial population were interpreted to show that participation in teaching-related professional development was the experience that was most likely to result in more reformed pedagogical beliefs among

  15. Nonproductive Factor Allowance. (Pilot Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-31

    a separate factor for each size of facility, i.e., MEDCEN, Large MEDDAC, and Small MEDDAC. f. In a GAO audit report, "Development and Use of Military...measurement in determining and Justifying staffing requirements. g. Another GAO audit report, "Uniform Accounting and Workload Measurement Systems Needed for...Effective Writing, AFIT, Survival, TDY, Technical Training, IDEA High School, CDC and Survey Taking. Also taking tests such as PFE , SKT, AF Sup Exam, CLEP

  16. POPULAR MARKETS: FROM FUTURE STUDIES TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Thiago Benedete da Silva

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Strategies for running companies in low-income markets have been in the spotlight in both the academic and the corporate environments.However, the first discussions about the relevance of such markets arose during the 1980s, when scenario-prospecting studies showed that popular markets would provide many opportunities around the year 2000.Indeed, at present, the base of the pyramid has many unaddressed needs that offer business possibilities for those companies that are willing to review their strategies. In this context, product development becomes increasingly important, since products targeting consumers of the C, D and E classes may need different features from those of goods manufactured for the A and B classes.The aim of this study is to revisit past popular market forecasts and to identify development trends for goods that target low- income consumers.Our results indicate that Wright and Johnson’s (1984 studies predicted that Brazil would maintain both qualitative and quantitative progress in its socioeconomic development over the next two decades and that the development of popular products is undergoing a buoyant phase.Several functional perspectives were used to develop an understanding of the phenomenon, especially marketing, engineering and manufacturing.Key words: Future studies. Popular markets. Product development.

  17. Impact of early psychosocial factors (childhood socioeconomic factors and adversities on future risk of type 2 diabetes, metabolic disturbances and obesity: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamayo Teresa

    2010-09-01

    psychological factors such as traumata and childhood adversities for the future risk of type 2 diabetes or obesity is too small to draw conclusions. Thus, more population-based longitudinal studies and international standards to assess psychosocial factors are needed to clarify the mechanisms leading to the observed health disparities.

  18. Teaching for the future : A minor field study on motivation among Gambian teachers who have participated in Future in our hands in-service training

    OpenAIRE

    Björk, Sofia; Brandt, Linnea

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at creating an understanding of how teachers in Gambian primary schools, who have participated in Future in our hands in-service training, experience their motivation to teach. Three research question were defined to help us examining our purpose further; “Is motivation to teach a problem among Gambian teachers?”, “which factors are most important in order to create a motivational workplace?” and “which factors do the Gambian teachers experience to demotivate them in their wor...

  19. Feasibility study of an image slicer for future space application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcines, A.; Ichimoto, K.

    2014-08-01

    This communication presents the feasibility study of an image slicer for future space missions, especially for the integral field unit (IFU) of the SUVIT (Solar UV-Visible-IR telescope) spectro-polarimeter on board the Japanese-led solar space mission Solar-C as a backup option. The MuSICa (Multi-Slit Image slicer based on collimator-Camera) image slicer concept, originally developed for the European Solar Telescope, has been adapted to the SUVIT requirements. The IFU will reorganizes a 2-D field of view of 10 x 10 arcsec2 into three slits of 0.18 arcsec width by 185.12 arcsec length using flat slicer mirrors of 100 μm width. The layout of MuSICa for Solar-C is telecentric and offers an optical quality limited by diffraction. The entrance for the SUVIT spectro-polarimeter is composed by the three IFU slits and one ordinal long slit to study, using high resolution spectro-polarimetry, the solar atmosphere (Photosphere and Chromosphere) within a spectral range between 520 nm (optionally 280 nm) and 1,100 nm.

  20. Status and Challenges of the Future Circular Collider Study

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2108454; Zimmermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Following the 2013 update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics, the international Future Circular Collider (FCC) study has been launched by CERN as host institute, to design an energy frontier hadron collider (FCC-hh) in a new 80-100 km tunnel with a centre-of-mass energy of about 100 TeV, an order of magnitude above the LHC's, as a long-term goal. The FCC study also includes the design of a 90-350 GeV high-luminosity lepton collider (FCC-ee) fitting the same tunnel, serving as Higgs, top and Z factory, as a potential intermediate step, as well as an electron-proton collider option (FCC-he). The physics cases for such machines will be assessed, concepts for experiments be worked out, and complete accelerator designs be developed in time for the next update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics by the end of 2018. Beside superconductor improvements and high-field magnet prototyping, the FCC R&D program includes the advancement of SRF cavities based on thin film coating, the development of ...

  1. Is athletic background associated with a future lower prevalence of risk factors for chronic disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano H.X. Batista

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study examined whether the prevalence of behavioral and biological risk factors of former elite athletes (both men and women, differed from nonelite athletes and nonathletes. A total of 491 individuals (225 former elite athletes, 168 former nonelite athletes, and 98 nonathletes participated in this study. Major behavioral and biological risk factors identified in the 2002 World Health Report were assessed. Apart from alcohol consumption, former elite athletes had at least 70% lower likelihood than nonathletes for the other behavioral risk factors. Regarding biological factors, being overweight/obesity seems to be the one where minor differences exist, with a significant odds ratio only among female former elite athletes (0.09, p < 0.001 when compared to nonathletes. In general, the results showed healthy outcomes among former elite athletes. Albeit the results extend to both sexes, women appear to have slightly healthier outcomes. Being a former athlete, especially at an elite level, seems to be associated with decreased risk factors for major chronic diseases.

  2. Stereotactic radiotherapy in the liver hilum. Basis for future studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamboglou, C.; Messmer, M.B.; Momm, F. [Univ. Hospital Freiburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Becker, G. [Univ. Hospital Freiburg (Germany). Dept. of Gastroenterology and Hepatology

    2012-01-15

    A basis for future trials with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for tumors of the liver hilum should be established. Thus, dosage concepts, planning processes, and dose constraints as well as technical innovations are summarized in this contribution. Methods On the background of our own data, the current literature was reviewed. The use of SBRT in the most common tumors of the liver hilum (pancreatic cancer and Klatskin tumors) was investigated. Dose constraints were calculated in 2 Gy standard fractionation doses. Results A total of 8 pilot or phase I/II studies about SBRT in the liver hilum were identified. In recent years, the SBRT technique has developed very quickly from classical stereotactic body frame radiotherapy to IGRT techniques including gating and tracking systems. In the studies using classical body frame technique, patients experienced considerable toxicities (duodenal ulcer/perforation) as compared to tolerable side effects in IGRT studies (<10% grade 3 and 4 toxicities). Dose constraints for duodenum, liver, kidneys, colon, and spinal cord were derived from the investigated studies. Survival and local tumor control data are very heterogeneous: median survival in these patients with locally advanced pancreatic or Klatskin tumors ranges between 5 and 32 months. Excellent local tumor control rates of about 80% over 24 months were achieved using SBRT. Conclusion Despite a few negative results, SBRT seems to be a promising technique in the treatment of tumors of the liver hilum. Highest precision in diagnostics, positioning, and irradiation as well as strict dose constraints should be applied to keep target volumes as small as possible and side effects tolerable. (orig.)

  3. SLUDGE MASS REDUCTION: PRIMARY COMPOSITIONAL FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE MELT RATE FOR FUTURE SLUDGE BATCH PROJECTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, J; Miller, D; Stone, M; Pickenheim, B

    2008-08-28

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked to provide an assessment of the downstream impacts to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) of decisions regarding the implementation of Al-dissolution to support sludge mass reduction and processing. Based on future sludge batch compositional projections from the Liquid Waste Organization's (LWO) sludge batch plan, assessments have been made with respect to the ability to maintain comparable projected operating windows for sludges with and without Al-dissolution. As part of that previous assessment, candidate frits were identified to provide insight into melt rate for average sludge batches representing with and without Al-dissolution flowsheets. Initial melt rate studies using the melt rate furnace (MRF) were performed using five frits each for Cluster 2 and Cluster 4 compositions representing average without and with Al-dissolution. It was determined, however, that the REDOX endpoint (Fe{sup 2+}/{Sigma}Fe for the glass) for Clusters 2 and 4 resulted in an overly oxidized feed which negatively affected the initial melt rate tests. After the sludge was adjusted to a more reduced state, additional testing was performed with frits that contained both high and low concentrations of sodium and boron oxides. These frits were selected strictly based on the ability to ascertain compositional trends in melt rate and did not necessarily apply to any acceptability criteria for DWPF processing. The melt rate data are in general agreement with historical trends observed at SRNL and during processing of SB3 (Sludge Batch 3)and SB4 in DWPF. When MAR acceptability criteria were applied, Frit 510 was seen to have the highest melt rate at 0.67 in/hr for Cluster 2 (without Al-dissolution), which is compositionally similar to SB4. For Cluster 4 (with Al-dissolution), which is compositionally similar to SB3, Frit 418 had the highest melt rate at 0.63 in/hr. Based on this data, there appears to be a slight advantage

  4. Environmental Risk Factors and Type 1 Diabetes: Past, Present, and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butalia, Sonia; Kaplan, Gilaad G; Khokhar, Bushra; Rabi, Doreen M

    2016-12-01

    Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition that results from the destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. The excess morbidity and mortality resulting from its complications, coupled with its increasing incidence, emphasize the importance of better understanding the causes of this condition. Over the past several decades, a substantive amount of work has been done and, although many advances have occurred in identifying disease-susceptibility genes, there has been a lag in understanding the environmental triggers. Several putative environmental risk factors have been proposed, including infections, dietary factors, air pollution, vaccines, location of residence, family environment and stress. However, most of these factors have been inconclusive, thus supporting the need for further study into the causes of type 1 diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Grain protein concentration and harvestable protein under future climate conditions. A study of 108 spring barley accessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz; Gislum, René; Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn

    2016-01-01

    In the present study a set of 108 spring barley (H. vulgare L.) accessions were cultivated under predicted future levels of temperature and [CO2] as single factors and in combination (IPCC, AR5, RCP8.5). Across all genotypes, elevated [CO2] (700 ppm day/night) slightly decreased protein concentra......In the present study a set of 108 spring barley (H. vulgare L.) accessions were cultivated under predicted future levels of temperature and [CO2] as single factors and in combination (IPCC, AR5, RCP8.5). Across all genotypes, elevated [CO2] (700 ppm day/night) slightly decreased protein...

  6. Study of Influencing Factors on ConsumerOnline Impulse Buying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The convenience and anonymity of online shopping have stimulated people's impulse buying tendency. Impulse buying is notonly a competitive method for businesses, but also a crucial factor influencing sales of e-commerce. Based on a systematic reviewof literatures, this paper explores factors affecting the online impulse buying. Moreover, by using the S-O-R model, this paperdescribes the formation mechanism of the online impulse buying behavior. At Last, it points out issues worthy of future studies.For example, this paper suggests to take into consideration of sociocultural impact and to put more emphasis on empirical studies.

  7. Future Protein Supply and Demand: Strategies and Factors Influencing a Sustainable Equilibrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maeve Henchion

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A growing global population, combined with factors such as changing socio-demographics, will place increased pressure on the world’s resources to provide not only more but also different types of food. Increased demand for animal-based protein in particular is expected to have a negative environmental impact, generating greenhouse gas emissions, requiring more water and more land. Addressing this “perfect storm” will necessitate more sustainable production of existing sources of protein as well as alternative sources for direct human consumption. This paper outlines some potential demand scenarios and provides an overview of selected existing and novel protein sources in terms of their potential to sustainably deliver protein for the future, considering drivers and challenges relating to nutritional, environmental, and technological and market/consumer domains. It concludes that different factors influence the potential of existing and novel sources. Existing protein sources are primarily hindered by their negative environmental impacts with some concerns around health. However, they offer social and economic benefits, and have a high level of consumer acceptance. Furthermore, recent research emphasizes the role of livestock as part of the solution to greenhouse gas emissions, and indicates that animal-based protein has an important role as part of a sustainable diet and as a contributor to food security. Novel proteins require the development of new value chains, and attention to issues such as production costs, food safety, scalability and consumer acceptance. Furthermore, positive environmental impacts cannot be assumed with novel protein sources and care must be taken to ensure that comparisons between novel and existing protein sources are valid. Greater alignment of political forces, and the involvement of wider stakeholders in a governance role, as well as development/commercialization role, is required to address both sources of

  8. Marketing Study on Secondary Metal Futures Might be Finished Within This Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Commissioned by Shanghai Futures Exchange,China Nonferrous Metals Industry Association Secondary Metal Branch is carrying out"Study on development and marketing of secondary nonferrous metal product futures variety"(ADC12 marketing feasibility study),according

  9. Adjuvants are Key Factors for the Development of Future Vaccines: Lessons from the Finlay Adjuvant Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Oliver; Romeu, Belkis; Cabrera, Osmir; González, Elizabeth; Batista-Duharte, Alexander; Labrada, Alexis; Pérez, Rocmira; Reyes, Laura M.; Ramírez, Wendy; Sifontes, Sergio; Fernández, Nelson; Lastre, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    The development of effective vaccines against neglected diseases, especially those associated with poverty and social deprivation, is urgently needed. Modern vaccine technologies and a better understanding of the immune response have provided scientists with the tools for rational and safer design of subunit vaccines. Often, however, subunit vaccines do not elicit strong immune responses, highlighting the need to incorporate better adjuvants; this step therefore becomes a key factor for vaccine development. In this review we outline some key features of modern vaccinology that are linked with the development of better adjuvants. In line with the increased desire to obtain novel adjuvants for future vaccines, the Finlay Adjuvant Platform offers a novel approach for the development of new and effective adjuvants. The Finlay Adjuvants (AFs), AFPL (proteoliposome), and AFCo (cochleate), were initially designed for parenteral and mucosal applications, and constitute potent adjuvants for the induction of Th1 responses against several antigens. This review summarizes the status of the Finlay technology in producing promising adjuvants for unsolved-vaccine diseases including mucosal approaches and therapeutic vaccines. Ideas related to adjuvant classification, adjuvant selection, and their possible influence on innate recognition via multiple toll-like receptors are also discussed. PMID:24348475

  10. The readiness of employees for the future society. Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena BĂTĂGAN

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The main components of sustainable development – economy, ecology and equity – have a special significance to contemporary cities, given their huge consumption and distribution of goods and services, with an ecological impact exceeding their own location. The sustainability challenge to cities, going hand in hand with the quality of life, makes it necessary to consider a series of social, economic, ecological, cultural, political and institutional measures adapted to both global trends and local characteristics.Based on these overall considerations this paper aims to investigate the implications of smart solutions for sustainable city development and to gauge the readiness of employees for smart solutions. These solutions concentrate on the core area of the city administration, education, health, transportation, etc. With this purpose in view, the framework for a case study is built up employing a quantitative and qualitative research for a mid-sized Romanian city. Exploratory research techniques combined with applying a survey methodology have been used for studying the preparation of employees for the smart solutions. A set of derived procedures have been employed for collecting and analyzing more than 400 observations from a heterogeneous population. They have been correlated with indicators able to characterize the sustainable city development, so as to point out the impact of the smart solutions and the possibilities to use their facilities in this respect. The results show that smart solutions are highly recommended for the future sustainable development and they are almost ready to penetrate the city from a technological perspective but information and understanding of citizens with regard to this new way of evolution are still lacking.

  11. Air Quality Study Using Satellites - Current Capability and Future Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhartia, Pawan K.; Joiner, Joanna; Gleason, James; Liu, Xiong; Torres, Omar; Krotkov, Nickolay; Ziemke, Jerry; Chandra, Sushil

    2008-01-01

    how CAS affect the radiation at wavelengths that are used to derive the atmospheric constituents that affect air quality as well as the radiation that controls the photolysis of chemically active trace gases. We will discuss how we are using these new insights to design future satellite missions to study air quality.

  12. Russia in G20: Factors of Success and Objectives for the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vladimirovna Larionova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization and technological changes of the recent decade led to powerful transformations in the society, creating huge opportunities for economic and social development. Simultaneously these political, economic, social and technological shifts bring new challenges: enhanced mutual vulnerability of states; growing inequality; macroeconomic and financial instability; rise of terrorism; unbalanced growth of population and employment; waves of migration; increased rate of pandemic diseases diffusion; climate change and growing competition for resources. To prevent and manage the threats it is vital to ensure efficiency of the global governance system. Though lacking in legitimacy G20, set up in response to the global economic and financial crisis, has proved its efficiency in crafting and implementing consensus based decisions with a catalytic impact for global governance. Russia has a very strong track record in the G20 and it is vital to build on the success. The article reviews the G20 role in the global governance system and examines the factors of Russia’s success in the G20. Looking into the future, the author outlines G20 future agenda; proposes a strategy and a set of measures which would maximize G20 utility for Russia. Content analysis of the G20 documents, Russia’s national G20-related documents, interviews and statements is carried out to track whether Russia’ priorities in G20 have been achieved. Historical overview of G20 performance and Russia’s work in the G20 is undertaken to identify success factors. The G20 SWOT analysis is applied to reveal G20 strengths and opportunities and identify weaknesses and threats. Results of the SWOT analysis are used to develop a proposal for Russia’s strategy with regard to the G20. Drawing on the long-term forecasts, assessment of the G20 performance so far and its engagement with the other international organizations, the author makes an assertion that G20 agenda will deepen in the

  13. SELF-REGULATION AS A FACTOR IN PERSONAL-PROFESSIONAL SELF-DEVELOPMENT OF FUTURE SPECIALISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna G. Garanina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the article considers the problem of personal and professional self-development of future specialists at the stage of higher education and the role of self-regulation in this process. The specifics and the stage of self-regulation process, among which are stages of awareness of the importance of selfdevelopment process, the formation of personal and professional goals, assessment of possible conditions of its achievement, self-programming stages of performing activities, monitoring and evaluation of the achievement of self-development purposes. Materials and Methods: the author used psychodiagnostic methods aimed at identifying the personal and profes¬sional characteristics of students. The correlation and cluster analysis was used for statistical treatment of results. Results: As a result of experimental research on personal and professional self-development of psychology students the factors were identified, which play an important role in achieving self-development purposes in the course of training. Cluster analysis revealed three groups of students with different levels of development of self-regulation, willingness to self-knowledge and self-development, and the level of self-control and self-efficacy. Discussion and Conclusions: the results show that self-regulation of students is related to such characteristics as commitment to self-development, self-attitude, self-efficacy and reflection. Professional and personal self-development of psychology students is quite a meaningful life value, which depends on the awareness of their professional and personal goals as well as on the level of formation of regulatory and reflective qualities that affect the focus and systematic process of personality .

  14. Integrating futures studies with organizational development : design options for the scenario project "RSW2020"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twist, van M.J.W.; Steen, van der M.; Vlist, van der M.J.; Demkes, R.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Most futures studies are not used by managers and strategists and do not influence the direction of organizational development. Although the contribution of future studies to management is in theory all but self-evident, the practice in organizations is that futures knowledge is hardly used, or at m

  15. Factors influencing junior doctors' choices of future specialty: trends over time and demographics based on results from UK national surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fay; Lambert, Trevor W; Goldacre, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    To study trends in factors influencing junior doctors' choice of future specialty. Respondents were asked whether each of 15 factors had a great deal of influence on their career choice, a little influence or no influence on it. Percentages are reported of those who specified that a factor had a great deal of influence on their career choice. UK. A total of 15,765 UK-trained doctors who graduated between 1999 and 2012. Questions about career choices and factors which may have influenced those choices, in particular comparing doctors who qualified in 2008-2012 with those who qualified in 1999-2002. Enthusiasm for and commitment to the specialty was a greater influence on career choice in the 2008-2012 qualifiers (81%) than those of 1999-2002 (64%), as was consideration of their domestic circumstances (43% compared with 20%). Prospects for promotion were less important to recent cohorts (16%) than older cohorts (21%), as were financial prospects (respectively, 10% and 14%). Domestic circumstances and working hours were considered more important, and financial prospects less important, by women than men. Inclination before medical school was rated as important by 41% of doctors who were over 30 years old, compared with 13% of doctors who were under 21, at the time of starting medical school. The increasing importance of both domestic circumstances and enthusiasm for their specialty choice in recent cohorts suggest that today's young doctors prize both work-life balance and personal fulfilment at work more highly than did their predecessors. The differences in motivations of older and younger generations of doctors, men and women, and doctors who start medical school relatively late are worthy of note. © The Royal Society of Medicine.

  16. Planetary X-ray studies: past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella

    2016-07-01

    Our solar system is a fascinating physics laboratory and X-ray observations are now firmly established as a powerful diagnostic tool of the multiple processes taking place in it. The science that X-rays reveal encompasses solar, space plasma and planetary physics, and the response of bodies in the solar system to the impact of the Sun's activity. This talk will review what we know from past observations and what we expect to learn in the short, medium and long term. Observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton have demonstrated that the origin of Jupiter's bright soft X-ray aurorae lies in the Charge eXchange (CX) process, likely to involve the interaction with atmospheric neutrals of local magnetospheric ions, as well as those carried in the solar wind. At higher energies electron bremsstrahlung is thought to be the X-ray emitting mechanism, while the whole planetary disk acts as a mirror for the solar X-ray flux via Thomson and fluorescent scattering. This 'X-ray mirror' phenomenon is all that is observed from Saturn's disk, which otherwise lacks X-ray auroral features. The Earth's X-ray aurora is bright and variable and mostly due to electron bremsstrahlung and line emission from atmospheric species. Un-magnetised planets, Venus and Mars, do not show X-ray aurorae but display the interesting combination of mirroring the solar X-ray flux and producing X-rays by Solar Wind Charge eXchange (SWCX) in their exospheres. These processes respond to different solar stimulation (photons and solar wind plasma respectively) hence their relative contributions are seen to vary according to the Sun's output. Present and future of planetary X-ray studies are very bright. We are preparing for the arrival of the Juno mission at Jupiter this summer and for coordinated observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton on the approach and later during Juno's orbital phase. These will allow direct correlation of the local plasma conditions with the X-ray emissions and the establishment of the

  17. A Dataset of Factors That Influence Preservice Teachers' Intentions to Use Web 2.0 Technologies in Future Teaching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusop, Farrah Dina

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, researchers have focused on investigating factors that influence preservice teachers' utilization of Web 2.0 technologies in their classrooms. Findings indicate that preservice teachers' intentions, beliefs and attitudes toward technology are important determinants of the success of future technology integration. However, studies…

  18. ADHD symptoms, academic achievement, self-perception of academic competence and future orientation: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtens, Sara; Rydell, Ann-Margret; Yang-Wallentin, Fan

    2013-06-01

    In the investigation of the effect of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms on school careers there is a need to study the role of adolescent and childhood ADHD symptoms and academic achievement, and to incorporate measures that include the individual's perspective. Our aim was to gain an overview of the long-term development of school careers in relation to ADHD symptoms. We studied associations between ADHD symptoms and academic achievement at different time-points and future orientation at the end of high school, and assessed the role of self-perceptions of academic competence in these associations. Participants were 192 children (47% girls) with a range of ADHD symptoms taken from a community sample. Collecting data at three time points, in 6th, 11th and 12th grade we tested a structural equation model. Results showed that ADHD symptoms in 6th grade negatively affected academic achievement concurrently and longitudinally. ADHD symptoms in 11th grade negatively affected concurrent academic achievement and academic self-perception and future orientation in 12th grade. Academic achievement had a positive influence on academic self-perception and future orientation. Given the other factors, self-perception of academic competence did not contribute to outcomes. We concluded that early ADHD symptoms may cast long shadows on young people's academic progress. This happens mainly by way of stability in symptoms and relations to early low academic achievement.

  19. Challenges to and the future of medication safety in Saudi Arabia: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljadhey, Hisham; Mahmoud, Mansour Adam; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Alrasheedy, Alian; Alahmad, Amjad; Saleem, Fahad; Sheikh, Aziz; Murray, Michael; Bates, David W

    2014-09-01

    Medication safety is a global concern among healthcare providers. However, the challenges to and the future of medication safety in Saudi Arabia have not been explored. We explored the perspectives of healthcare practitioners on current issues about medication safety in hospitals and community settings in Saudi Arabia in order to identify challenges to improving it and explore the future of medication safety practice. A total of 65 physicians, pharmacists, academics and nurses attended a one-day meeting in March 2010, designed especially for the purpose of this study. The participants were divided into nine round-table discussion sessions. Three major themes were explored in these sessions, including: major factors contributing to medication safety problems, challenges to improving medication safety practice, and participants' suggestions for improving medication safety. The round-table discussion sessions were videotaped and transcribed verbatim and analyzed by two independent researchers. The round-table discussions revealed that major factors contributing to medication safety problems included unrestricted public access to medications from various hospitals and community pharmacies, communication gaps between healthcare institutions, limited use of important technologies such as computerized provider order entry, and the lack of medication safety programs in hospitals. Challenges to current medication safety practice identified by participants included underreporting of medication errors and adverse drug reactions, multilingualism and differing backgrounds of healthcare professionals, lack of communication between healthcare providers and patients, and high workloads. Suggestions for improving medication safety practices in Saudi Arabia included continuous education for healthcare professionals and competency assessment focusing on medication safety, development of a culture that encourages medication error and adverse drug reactions reporting, use of technology

  20. Do spot prices move towards futures prices? A study on crude oil market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Nicolau

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The importance of studying the futures markets and the relationship between spot and futures prices is given by the possibility that futures contracts offer in order to reduce particular risks. The financial theory presents the relationships between spot and futures prices in the framework of both the non-arbitrage theory and the asset pricing theory, but none of them offer information about the direction of causality between spot and futures prices. This paper attempts to analyse the dynamic relationship between spot and futures prices of the crude oil, a very important commodity. The empirical analysis is focused to examine the causal dynamics between spot and futures prices in crude oil market; the results confirm that the prices of one and two maturity futures predict spot prices. Conversely, this is not true for longer maturity futures contracts.

  1. Study of Nb-Cu 1.3 GHz SRF cavity resonators for future particle accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Amelin, Kirill

    2017-01-01

    Niobium-coated superconducting radio-frequency cavities have a number of advantages over cavities made from bulk niobium. Cavities coated with high-power impulse magnetron sputtering are tested at CERN in order to optimize the coating and study the Q-slope that limits the performance. To accurately measure the quality factor as a function of accelerating field, it is important to have good matching between an input antenna and a cavity impedance. To improve the matching, a variable coupler that changes the length of the antenna can be used. We have shown that the Q-factor of the input antenna can be changed between $10^7-10^{11}$ by moving the antenna, which should allow to achieve critical coupling with a cavity. This technology could be used in future measurements, so that reflections are always minimized.

  2. Creative Uses of Factor Analysis in Psychotherapy Research: Past Examples and Future Possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, James M.

    Factor analysis is a statistical method of reducing a set number of variables by finding similarities between them. This paper reviews the potential of factor analysis, focusing on exploratory factor analysis, in research on psychotherapy. Within the field of psychotherapy, the use of factor analysis can be classified into three groups. The first…

  3. The Factor of Culture in Modernization fnd Predicting the Commonwealth of Independent States Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K P Kurylev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the integration processes features within the Commonwealth of Independent States, defines the role and place of cooperation in the humanitarian sphere. The authors make an attempt to predict the future of the CIS.

  4. Unhealthy parenting and potential mediators as contributing factors to future intimate violence: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jonathan P; Hage, Sally M; Bush, Imelda; Burns, Lauren Key

    2006-07-01

    Efforts to understand and prevent intimate violence have often focused on the intergenerational transmission of intimate violence. Although witnessing and/or experiencing abuse in the family of origin is well supported in the literature as a key component of the intergenerational transmission of intimate violence, there has been less attention to other family-of-origin factors that contribute to or mediate and/or moderate future intimate violence. Particularly, a focus on the effect of parenting on future intimate violence is needed beyond the effect of modeling abusive behavior. In this article, corporal punishment and poor parenting are reviewed as family-of-origin factors related to future intimate violence. In addition, attachment theory, interpersonal skills, and emotional and behavioral regulation and/or conduct disorder are reviewed as variables that may result and mediate the relationship between family-of-origin factors and future intimate violence. Implications for preventing intimate violence by intervening in the family of origin are also identified.

  5. Current perspectives and the future of domestication studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Greger; Piperno, Dolores R; Allaby, Robin G; Purugganan, Michael D; Andersson, Leif; Arroyo-Kalin, Manuel; Barton, Loukas; Climer Vigueira, Cynthia; Denham, Tim; Dobney, Keith; Doust, Andrew N; Gepts, Paul; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Gremillion, Kristen J; Lucas, Leilani; Lukens, Lewis; Marshall, Fiona B; Olsen, Kenneth M; Pires, J Chris; Richerson, Peter J; Rubio de Casas, Rafael; Sanjur, Oris I; Thomas, Mark G; Fuller, Dorian Q

    2014-04-29

    It is difficult to overstate the cultural and biological impacts that the domestication of plants and animals has had on our species. Fundamental questions regarding where, when, and how many times domestication took place have been of primary interest within a wide range of academic disciplines. Within the last two decades, the advent of new archaeological and genetic techniques has revolutionized our understanding of the pattern and process of domestication and agricultural origins that led to our modern way of life. In the spring of 2011, 25 scholars with a central interest in domestication representing the fields of genetics, archaeobotany, zooarchaeology, geoarchaeology, and archaeology met at the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center to discuss recent domestication research progress and identify challenges for the future. In this introduction to the resulting Special Feature, we present the state of the art in the field by discussing what is known about the spatial and temporal patterns of domestication, and controversies surrounding the speed, intentionality, and evolutionary aspects of the domestication process. We then highlight three key challenges for future research. We conclude by arguing that although recent progress has been impressive, the next decade will yield even more substantial insights not only into how domestication took place, but also when and where it did, and where and why it did not.

  6. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 4: Bulk Electric Power Systems. Operations and Transmission Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ela, Erik [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hein, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schneider, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Gregory [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  7. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 3. End-Use Electricity Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostick, Donna [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Belzer, David B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hadley, Stanton W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Markel, Tony [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Marnay, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kintner-Meyer, Michael [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  8. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 2. Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustine, Chad [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bain, Richard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chapman, Jamie [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Drury, Easan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hall, Douglas G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lantz, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thresher, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bishop, Norman A. [Knight Piesold, Denver, CO (United States); Brown, Stephen R. [HDR/DTA, Portland, ME (Untied States); Cada, Glenn F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Felker, Fort [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fernandez, Steven J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Goodrich, Alan C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hagerman, George [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Neil, Sean [Ocean Renewable Energy Coalition, Portland, OR (United States); Paquette, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Young, Katherine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  9. Empirical Study on Arbitrage Opportunities in China Copper Futures Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    No-arbitrage bound is established with no-arbitrage theory considering all kinds of trade costs, different deposit and loan interest rate, margin and tax in fuuaes markets. The empirical results find that there are many lower bound arbitrage opportunities in China copper futures market from August 8th, 2003 to August 16th, 2005. Concretely, no-arbitrage opportunity is dominant and lower bound arbitrage is narrow in normal market segment. Lower bound arbitrage almost always exists with huge magnitude in inverted market segment. There is basically no-arbitrage in normal market because spot volume is enough, so that upper or lower bound arbitrage can be realized. There is mostly lower bound arbitrage in inverted market because spot volume is lack.

  10. A study on future nuclear reactor technology and development strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, D. S.; Suk, S. D.; Zee, S. K.; Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. J.; Park, W. S

    2000-12-01

    Development of nuclear reactor and fuel cycle technology for future is essential to meet the current issues such as enhancement of nuclear power reactor safety, economically competitive with gas turbine power generation, less production of radioactive waste, proliferation resistant fuel cycle, and public acceptance in consideration of lack of energy resources in the nuclear countries worldwide as well as in Korea. This report deals with as follows, 1) Review the world energy demand and supply perspective and analyse nature of energy and sustainable development to set-up nuclear policy in Korea 2) Recaptitulate the current long term nuclear R and D activities 3) Review nuclear R and D activities and programs of USA, Japan, France, Russia, international organizations such as IAEA, OECD/NEA 4) Recommend development directions of nuclear reactors and fuels.

  11. Introducing future engineers to sustainable ecology problems: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipkowski, A.

    2011-12-01

    The problem of Earth environmental destruction by human activities is becoming dangerous. Engineers responsible for the production of any goods should be well aware of the negative influence of their activities on the state of the planet. This is why the understanding of ecological problems is essential for people responsible for production and industrial design. The energy, which they consume, is increasing the greenhouse effect and the waste poisons the environment. So far, most courses on ecology are offered to specialists in environmental engineering. These courses are filled with many details. The Warsaw Academy of Computer Science, Management and Administration teaches students in the direction of management and production engineering. Upon completion, the students receive the degree of 'engineer'. Their future work will mainly concern management of different types of industrial enterprises and they will be responsible for organising it in such a way as to avoid a dangerous contribution to environmental pollution and climate change. This is why it was decided to introduce a new course entitled 'Principles of Ecology and Environmental Management'. This course is quite broad, concerning almost all technical, law and organisational aspects of the problem. The presentation is made in a spectacular way, aiming to convince students that their future activity must be environmentally friendly. It contains information about international activities in ecology, legal aspects concerning pollution, technical and information methods of monitoring and, finally, the description of 'green' solutions. Altogether, 27 hours of lectures and 15 hours of discussions and students' presentations complete the course. Details of this course are described in this paper.

  12. Spectrum and orbit conservation as a factor in future mobile satellite system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Robert R.

    1990-01-01

    Access to the radio spectrum and geostationary orbit is essential to current and future mobile satellite systems. This access is difficult to obtain for current systems, and may be even more so for larger future systems. In this environment, satellite systems that minimize the amount of spectrum orbit resource required to meet a specific traffic requirement are essential. Several spectrum conservation techniques are discussed, some of which are complementary to designing the system at minimum cost. All may need to be implemented to the limits of technological feasibility if network growth is not to be constrained because of the lack of available spectrum-orbit resource.

  13. [Success factors in public healthy eating campaigns: a case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschemann-Witzel, J; Pérez-Cueto, F J A; Strand, M; Verbeke, W; Bech-Larsen, T

    2012-01-01

    Public campaigns and interventions are rarely fully evaluated regarding their effectiveness. The analysis of past, successful activities can contribute to the future development of public campaigns and interventions for healthier eating. The study of public campaigns and interventions for healthier eating aimed at identifying the underlying success factors and describing their relation. Interviews were conducted with representatives of 11 cases that had been identified as especially successful in an earlier research step. The interviews were analysed with regard to possible success factors and the latter used to develop a model of success factor interrelation. It was found that success of the cases was first, attributed to characteristics of the macro environment or to public private partnerships in the initiation of campaigns, second, to the engagement of social communities, elements of empowerment of the target group and the implementation of social marketing measures, and thirdly, in citizens adoption of the campaign and in accompanying structural changes. The model and identified success factors underline that success can stem from three crucial phases: the set up of a campaign, the conduction and finally, the interrelation with the citizen. The model can serve as a guide in the future development of campaigns.

  14. Key Factors in Planning a Sustainable Energy Future Including Hydrogen and Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedstrom, Lars; Saxe, Maria; Folkesson, Anders; Wallmark, Cecilia; Haraldsson, Kristina; Bryngelsson, Marten; Alvfors, Per

    2006-01-01

    In this article, a number of future energy visions, especially those basing the energy systems on hydrogen, are discussed. Some often missing comparisons between alternatives, from a sustainability perspective, are identified and then performed for energy storage, energy transportation, and energy use in vehicles. It is shown that it is important…

  15. Key Factors in Planning a Sustainable Energy Future Including Hydrogen and Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedstrom, Lars; Saxe, Maria; Folkesson, Anders; Wallmark, Cecilia; Haraldsson, Kristina; Bryngelsson, Marten; Alvfors, Per

    2006-01-01

    In this article, a number of future energy visions, especially those basing the energy systems on hydrogen, are discussed. Some often missing comparisons between alternatives, from a sustainability perspective, are identified and then performed for energy storage, energy transportation, and energy use in vehicles. It is shown that it is important…

  16. Transcription factor-based biosensors in biotechnology: current state and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahr, Regina; Frunzke, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Living organisms have evolved a plethora of sensing systems for the intra- and extracellular detection of small molecules, ions or physical parameters. Several recent studies have demonstrated that these principles can be exploited to devise synthetic regulatory circuits for metabolic engineering strategies. In this context, transcription factors (TFs) controlling microbial physiology at the level of transcription play a major role in biosensor design, since they can be implemented in synthetic circuits controlling gene expression in dependency of, for example, small molecule production. Here, we review recent progress on the utilization of TF-based biosensors in microbial biotechnology highlighting different areas of application. Recent advances in metabolic engineering reveal TF-based sensors to be versatile tools for strain and enzyme development using high-throughput (HT) screening strategies and adaptive laboratory evolution, the optimization of heterologous pathways via the implementation of dynamic control circuits and for the monitoring of single-cell productivity in live cell imaging studies. These examples underline the immense potential of TF-based biosensor circuits but also identify limitations and room for further optimization.

  17. Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha for Retinal Diseases: Current Knowledge and Future Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Mirshahi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α is a pro-inflammatory cytokine produced by macrophages and T-cells. It plays an important role both in inflammation and apoptosis. In the eye, TNF-α appears to have a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory, edematous, neovascular and neurodegenerative disorders. Several TNF-blocking drugs have been developed and approved, and are in clinical use for inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and ankylosing spondylitis. TNF-α blockers are widely used in ophthalmology as an off-label alternative to "traditional" immunosuppressive and immune-modulatory treatments in noninfectious uveitis. Preliminary studies suggest a positive effect of intravenously administered TNF-α blockers, mainly infliximab, for treating refractory diabetic macular edema and neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Unfortunately, much of the current data raises considerable safety concerns for intravitreal use of TNF-α inhibitors, in particular, intraocular inflammatory responses have been reported after intravitreal injection of infliximab. Results of dose-finding studies and humanized antibody or antibody fragments (e.g. adalimumab are anticipated in the coming years; these will shed light on potential benefits and risks of local and systemic TNF-α blockers used for treatment of diseases of the retina and choroid.

  18. Anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha for retinal diseases: current knowledge and future concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshahi, Alireza; Hoehn, René; Lorenz, Katrin; Kramann, Christina; Baatz, Holger

    2012-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine produced by macrophages and T-cells. It plays an important role both in inflammation and apoptosis. In the eye, TNF-α appears to have a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory, edematous, neovascular and neurodegenerative disorders. Several TNF-blocking drugs have been developed and approved, and are in clinical use for inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and ankylosing spondylitis. TNF-α blockers are widely used in ophthalmology as an off-label alternative to "traditional" immunosuppressive and immune-modulatory treatments in noninfectious uveitis. Preliminary studies suggest a positive effect of intravenously administered TNF-α blockers, mainly infliximab, for treating refractory diabetic macular edema and neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Unfortunately, much of the current data raises considerable safety concerns for intravitreal use of TNF-α inhibitors, in particular, intraocular inflammatory responses have been reported after intravitreal injection of infliximab. Results of dose-finding studies and humanized antibody or antibody fragments (e.g. adalimumab) are anticipated in the coming years; these will shed light on potential benefits and risks of local and systemic TNF-α blockers used for treatment of diseases of the retina and choroid.

  19. Future lunar mission Active X-ray Spectrometer development: Surface roughness and geometry studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naito, M., E-mail: com-nm@akane.waseda.jp [School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Hasebe, N. [School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Kusano, H. [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Nagaoka, H. [School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Kuwako, M.; Oyama, Y. [School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Shibamura, E.; Amano, Y. [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Ohta, T. [School of Education and Integrated Arts and Science, Waseda University, 1-104 Totsuka, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Kim, K.J. [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Gwahang-no 124, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Lopes, J.A.M. [Department of Physics, University of Coimbra, Apartado 3020, 3001-401 Coimbra (Portugal); Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Coimbra, 3030-199 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2015-07-11

    The Active X-ray Spectrometer (AXS) is considered as one of the scientific payload candidates for a future Japanese mission, SELENE-2. The AXS consists of pyroelectric X-ray generators and a Silicon Drift Detector to conduct X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) on the Moon to measure major elements: Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, and Fe; minor elements: Na, K, P, S, Cr and Mn; and the trace element Ni depending on their concentration. Some factors such as roughness, grain size and porosity of sample, and the geometry of X-ray incidence, emission and energy will affect the XRF measurements precision. Basic studies on the XRF are required to develop the AXS. In this study, fused samples were used to make homogeneous samples free from the effect of grain size and porosity. Experimental and numerical studies on the XRF were conducted to evaluate the effects from incidence and emission angles and surface roughness. Angle geometry and surface roughness will be optimized for the design of the AXS on future missions from the results of the experiment and the numerical simulation.

  20. Does a history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy help predict future essential hypertension? Findings from a prospective pregnancy cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, L K; Mamun, A; McIntyre, H D; Williams, G M; Najman, J M; Nitert, M D; Lawlor, D A

    2013-05-01

    Hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (HDP) is considered an important determinant in the prediction of future hypertension. The aim of this study is to examine whether HDP improves prediction of future hypertension, over prediction based on established risk factors measured during pregnancy. We used a community based cohort study of 2117 women who received antenatal care at a major hospital in Brisbane between 1981 and 1983 and had blood pressure assessed 21 years after the index pregnancy. Of these 2117 women, 193 (9.0%) experienced HDP and 345 (16.3%) had hypertension at 21 years postpartum. For women with HDP, the odds of being hypertensive at 21 years postpartum were 2.46 (95% CI 1.70, 3.56), adjusted for established risk factors including age, education, race, alcohol, cigarettes, exercise and body mass index. Addition of HDP did not improve the prediction model that included these established risk factors, with the area under the curve of receiver operator (AUROC) increasing from 0.710 to 0.716 (P-value for difference in AUROC=0.185). Our findings suggest that HDP is strongly and independently associated with future hypertension, and women who experience this condition should be counselled regarding lifestyle modification and careful ongoing blood pressure monitoring. However, the development of HDP during pregnancy does not improve our capacity to predict future hypertension, over risk factors identifiable at the time of pregnancy. This suggests that counseling regarding lifestyle modification and ongoing blood pressure monitoring might reasonably be provided to all pregnant and postpartum women with identifiable risk factors for future hypertension.

  1. Toxic-metabolic Risk Factors in Pediatric Pancreatitis: Recommendations for Diagnosis, Management, and Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Sohail Z; Morinville, Veronique; Pohl, John; Abu-El-Haija, Maisam; Bellin, Melena D; Freedman, Steve; Hegyi, Peter; Heyman, Melvin B; Himes, Ryan; Ooi, Chee Y; Schwarzenberg, Sarah J; Usatin, Danielle; Uc, Aliye

    2016-04-01

    Pancreatitis in children can result from metabolic and toxic risk factors, but the evidence linking these factors is sparse. We review the evidence for association or causality of these risk factors in pancreatitis, discuss management strategies, and their rationale. We conducted a review of the pediatric pancreatitis literature with respect to the following risk factors: hyperlipidemia, hypercalcemia, chronic renal failure, smoking exposure, alcohol, and medications. Areas of additional research were identified. Hypertriglyceridemia of 1000 mg/dL or greater poses an absolute risk for pancreatitis; persistent elevations of calcium are predisposing. Further research is necessary to determine whether end-stage renal disease leads to increased pancreatitis in children similar to adults. It is unknown whether cigarette smoking exposure, which clearly increases risk in adults, also increases risk in children. The role of alcohol in pediatric pancreatitis, whether direct or modifying, needs to be elucidated. The evidence supporting most cases of medication-induced pancreatitis is poor. Drug structure, improper handling of drug by host, and bystander status may be implicated. Other pancreatitis risk factors must be sought in all cases. The quality of evidence supporting causative role of various toxic and metabolic factors in pediatric pancreatitis is variable. Careful phenotyping is essential, including search for other etiologic risk factors. Directed therapy includes correction/removal of any agent identified, and general supportive measures. Further research is necessary to improve our understanding of these pancreatitis risk factors in children.

  2. Factors influencing receptivity to future screening options for pancreatic cancer in those with and without pancreatic cancer family history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breitkopf Carmen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreatic cancer (PC is considered the most lethal cancer and approximately 10% of PC is hereditary. The purpose of the study was to assess attitudes of at-risk family members with two or more relatives affected with pancreas cancer (PC toward PC risk and future screening options. Methods At-risk family members and primary care controls were surveyed regarding perceived PC risk, PC worry/concern, attitude toward cancer screening, screening test accuracy, and intentions regarding PC screening via blood testing or more invasive endoscopic ultrasound (EUS. Results PC family members reported greater perceived risk of PC than controls (54% vs. 6%, respectively, p 89% receptivity to the potential PC screening options presented, though receptivity was greater among PC family members as compared to controls (p  Conclusions Receptivity to screening options for PC appears high. Clinicians should address behavioral and genetic risk factors for PC and foster appropriate concern regarding PC risk among at-risk individuals.

  3. Transcription Factors and Plants Response to Drought Stress: Current Understanding and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Rohit; Wani, Shabir H.; Singh, Balwant; Bohra, Abhishek; Dar, Zahoor A.; Lone, Ajaz A.; Pareek, Ashwani; Singla-Pareek, Sneh L.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing vulnerability of plants to a variety of stresses such as drought, salt and extreme temperatures poses a global threat to sustained growth and productivity of major crops. Of these stresses, drought represents a considerable threat to plant growth and development. In view of this, developing staple food cultivars with improved drought tolerance emerges as the most sustainable solution toward improving crop productivity in a scenario of climate change. In parallel, unraveling the genetic architecture and the targeted identification of molecular networks using modern “OMICS” analyses, that can underpin drought tolerance mechanisms, is urgently required. Importantly, integrated studies intending to elucidate complex mechanisms can bridge the gap existing in our current knowledge about drought stress tolerance in plants. It is now well established that drought tolerance is regulated by several genes, including transcription factors (TFs) that enable plants to withstand unfavorable conditions, and these remain potential genomic candidates for their wide application in crop breeding. These TFs represent the key molecular switches orchestrating the regulation of plant developmental processes in response to a variety of stresses. The current review aims to offer a deeper understanding of TFs engaged in regulating plant’s response under drought stress and to devise potential strategies to improve plant tolerance against drought. PMID:27471513

  4. Transcription factors and plant response to drought stress: Current understanding and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Joshi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing vulnerability of plants to a variety of stresses such as drought, salt and extreme temperatures poses a global threat to sustained growth and productivity of major crops. Of these stresses, drought represents a considerable threat to plant growth and development. In view of this, developing staple food cultivars with improved drought tolerance emerges as the most sustainable solution towards improving crop productivity in a scenario of climate change. In parallel, unraveling the genetic architecture and the targeted identification of molecular networks using modern OMICS analyses, that can underpin drought tolerance mechanisms, is urgently required. Importantly, integrated studies intending to elucidate complex mechanisms can bridge the gap existing in our current knowledge about drought stress tolerance in plants. It is now well established that drought tolerance is regulated by several genes, including transcription factors (TFs that enable plants to withstand unfavorable conditions, and these remain potential genomic candidates for their wide application in crop breeding. These TFs represent the key molecular switches orchestrating the regulation of plant developmental processes in response to a variety of stresses. The current review aims to offer a deeper understanding of TFs engaged in regulating plant’s response under drought stress and to devise potential strategies to improve plant tolerance against drought.

  5. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 4: Bulk Electric Power Systems: Operations and Transmission Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Ela, E.; Hein, J.; Schneider, T.; Brinkman, G.; Denholm, P.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  6. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 3: End-Use Electricity Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostick, D.; Belzer, D.B.; Hadley, S.W.; Markel, T.; Marnay, C.; Kintner-Meyer, M.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  7. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 2: Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustine, C.; Bain, R.; Chapman, J.; Denholm, P.; Drury, E.; Hall, D.G.; Lantz, E.; Margolis, R.; Thresher, R.; Sandor, D.; Bishop, N.A.; Brown, S.R.; Cada, G.F.; Felker, F.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  8. Permeability factors in idiopathic nephrotic syndrome: historical perspectives and lessons for the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, R.J.H.; Deegens, J.K.J.; Wetzels, J.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    The term idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (iNS) traditionally covers minimal change disease and primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), now thought to be separate disease entities. Clinical and experimental evidence suggest that circulating permeability factors are involved in their pathogen

  9. Simulated equilibrium factor studies in radon chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiehchi Chu; Holing Liu [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Nuclear Science

    1996-05-01

    A series of experiments have been conducted to study the influences of environmental parameters on the equilibrium factor. Most of them were carried out in a walk-in type chamber. The deposition velocity was calculated using the Jacobi model. The ranges of the environmental parameters studied in the experiments are humidity 30-90% r.h. and radon concentration 2-40 kBqm{sup -3}. The aerosol sources included electric fumigator, mosquito coil, incense, a cigarette with the particle concentration 2000-6500 cm{sup -3} and the attachment rate 10-350 h{sup -1}. The results of the experiment show that the equilibrium factor tends to decrease as the radon concentration increases. On the other hand, the equilibrium factor tends to increase as the humidity increases, and so is the increasing attachment rate. Of all the parameters mentioned above, the influence that aerosols have on the equilibrium factor is the predominant factor. The calculated deposition velocity for the unattached fraction of radon daughters tends to increase as the radon concentration increases. However, it tends to decrease as the humidity increases. (Author).

  10. The role of future time perspective in psychological contracts: a study among older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, P.M.; Jansen, P.G.W.; van der Velde, M.E.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/183262107; de Lange, A.H.; Rousseau, D.M.

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of post-retirement workers (N = 176), this study investigated the role of future time perspective (FTP) in psychological contracts. The study aimed to test: (i) whether future time perspective is related to employer psychological contract fulfillment and (ii) whether it moderates

  11. The role of future time perspective in psychological contracts: A study among older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, P.M.; Jansen, P.G.W.; Velde, M.E.G. van der; Lange, A.H. de; Rousseau, D.M.

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of post-retirement workers (N = 176), this study investigated the role of future time perspective (FTP) in psychological contracts. The study aimed to test: (i) whether future time perspective is related to employer psychological contract fulfillment and (ii) whether it moderates

  12. The role of future time perspective in psychological contracts : A study among older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, P. Matthijs; Jansen, Paul G. W.; van der Velde, Mandy E. G.; de Lange, Annet H.; Rousseau, Denise M.

    Using a sample of post-retirement workers (N = 176), this study investigated the role of future time perspective (FTP) in psychological contracts. The study aimed to test: (i) whether future time perspective is related to employer psychological contract fulfillment and (ii) whether it moderates

  13. The role of future time perspective in psychological contracts : A study among older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, P. Matthijs; Jansen, Paul G. W.; van der Velde, Mandy E. G.; de Lange, Annet H.; Rousseau, Denise M.

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of post-retirement workers (N = 176), this study investigated the role of future time perspective (FTP) in psychological contracts. The study aimed to test: (i) whether future time perspective is related to employer psychological contract fulfillment and (ii) whether it moderates rela

  14. Scenarios for future agriculture in Finland: a Delphi study among agri-food sector stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. RIKKONEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents alternative scenarios for future agriculture in Finland up to 2025. These scenarios are the results of a large Delphi study carried out among Finnish agri-food sector stakeholders. The Delphi panel members gave their future view on desirable and probable futures. From these two dimensions, three scenarios were elaborated through the future images – the subjective future path and the importance analysis. The scenarios represent a technology optimistic “day-dream agriculture”, a probable future as “industrialised agriculture” and an undesirable future path as “drifting agriculture”. Two mini-scenarios are also presented. They are based on a discontinuity event as an unexpected impact of climate change and an analogy event as an ecological breakdown due to the expansive animal disease epidemics. In both mini-scenarios, the directions of storylines are dramatically changed. The scenarios support strategic planning introducing not only one forecast but alternative outcomes as a basis for future strategy and decisions. In this study the scenarios were constructed to address the opportunities as a desired vision and also the threats as to an undesirable future in the agricultural sector. These results bring to the table a Finnish agri-food expert community view of the future directions of relevant key issues in the agricultural policy agenda.;

  15. Stable isotopes in pharmacology studies: present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, T.R.

    1986-07-01

    Stable-isotope techniques offer advantages over older methods in safety, sensitivity, specificity, and reduction in numbers of subjects required and analytic determinations for some types of pharmacology studies. In addition to their use as internal standards in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analytic methods, stable isotopes have been successfully employed in studies of absorption, bioavailability, distribution, biotransformation, excretion, metabolite identification, time-dependent and dose-dependent pharmacokinetic changes, drug interactions, pharmacologic changes during pregnancy, mutagenicity, and teratogenicity. 32 references.

  16. Study on Angiogenesis Factor of Human Osteosarcoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Angiogenesis factor of human osteosarcoma was partially purified and its biological features were studied. The active peptide with 8000 to 10 000 u molecular weight in the conditioned medium obtained from the cultivation of human osteosarcoma cells were partially purified by ultrafiltration, chromatography and dialysis. The angiogenic effects of the fractions were assessed by proliferation assay of human umbilical vein and pig aorta thoracic endothelial cells. The results showed that the chromatography fractions of 4 to 6 could significantly promote the proliferation of the endothelial cells. It was suggested that the human osteosarcoma cells could synthesize and secrete angiogenesis factor with a molecular weight of 8000 to 10 000 u.

  17. Preliminary report on social psychological factors in long duration space flights: Review and directions for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, A. A.

    1978-01-01

    Group dynamics, sociological and psychological factors are examined. Crew composition and compatibility are studied. Group dynamics analysis includes: leadership; cohesiveness; conformity; and conflict.

  18. Recombinant factor VIII in the management of hemophilia A: current use and future promise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry S Powell

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Jerry S PowellDivision of Hematology and Oncology, University of California Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA, USAAbstract: Hemophilia A is a rare inherited bleeding disorder due to mutation of the gene that encodes the coagulation protein factor VIII. Historically, prior to the availability of treatment with factor VIII preparations, most boys died from uncontrolled bleeding, either spontaneous bleeding or after injury, before reaching 20 years of age. One of the most impressive triumphs of modern medicine is that with current recombinant factor VIII replacement therapy, a boy born in the 21st century with severe hemophilia A can anticipate a normal life expectancy with essentially no permanent complications from bleeding. For severe hemophilia A, current optimal treatment should have two goals: first, to provide sufficient factor VIII to prevent spontaneous bleeding, and second, to provide sufficient factor VIII to have normal coagulation function after any trauma. However, the replacement therapy requires tremendous resources for effective use, and remains extraordinarily expensive. Thus there are opportunities for further advances in therapy for hemophilia A. Two major concerns continue to trouble current optimal treatment approaches: some patients will develop neutralizing antibodies during the first 50 infusions of therapeutic factor VIII, and second, to administer therapeutic factor VIII every other day in young boys often requires placement of a central venous access device, and such use carries the life-threatening risks of infection and thrombosis. Because of the effectiveness of current therapy, any new developments in treatment will require significant concerns for safety, both immediate and in the long term. A number of research groups seek to prolong the biological efficacy of infused recombinant factor VIII. Currently, one such promising development is in the advanced stages of clinical trial. The goals will be to improve

  19. Study on the academic future of second-generation immigrants in Setubal and Faro (Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente J. Llorent

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The research focuses on the Luso-African secondary school pupils studying in two of the Portuguese cities with the largest number of immigrants (Setúbal and Faro. Especially this cities, according to the latest data offered in Portugal by the National Institute of Statistics, in the near future these young people constitute the majority of the school population in many schools in the country and at the same time, a large portion of them will help to raise and high rates of dropout and failure. In order to facilitate the social inclusion of these students wanted to determine their expectations of their school career, taking into account social, family, economic, educational and school aspects.After a relevant documentary study, we conducted a data collection based on the in situ observation and a vertebrate of questionnaire scales in seven groups: characteristics of their parents, school career, self-esteem, motivation to continue studying, expectations about the future professional, characterization and evaluation of the school context, and expectations after high school. Thus, variables relate concerning their social and family situation, your school career and social integration with their future prospects. Following the interpretation and analysis of the extracted data, among other findings, we argue that the most influential in the expectations of the Luso- African students who complete their secondary education factor is the interest of parents in the education of childrenIn order to facilitate the inclusion of socio students involved in migration processes, we aim to determine their expectations about their school. Especially because, according to latest data provided by the National Institute of Statistics in Portugal, in the near future these young people constitute the majority of the school population in many centers in that country and at the same time, much of it will help raise the actual high dropout and failure rates. Through our

  20. Women's Career Success: A Factor Analytic Study of Contributing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, LuAnn Ricketts

    1991-01-01

    A survey of 466 women employed in retailing received 205 responses identifying (1) factors influencing the success and advancement of women in retailing and (2) how those factors differ for women in upper versus middle positions. Upper-level executives placed more importance on ambition and abilities; midlevel executives credited opportunity and…

  1. The Future of the Past in Management and Organization Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadhwani, Dan; Bucheli, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    This chapter examines the opportunities and challenges presented by the incorporation of historical research and reasoning into management and organizational studies, and argues that the value of history lies in its ability to offer unique perspectives on management, organizations, and markets, r...... Organizations in Time: History, Theory, Methods and frames them in relationship to the broad topic of historical methods in organizational research.......This chapter examines the opportunities and challenges presented by the incorporation of historical research and reasoning into management and organizational studies, and argues that the value of history lies in its ability to offer unique perspectives on management, organizations, and markets...... the particular methodological approaches the historical perspective entails. The chapter introduces these issues and examines them against the backdrop of growing interest in the use of historical evidence and reasoning to study organizations. It introduces the essays contained in the collected volume...

  2. Treatment of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors with inhibitors of growth factor receptors and their signaling pathways: Recent advances and future perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael H(o)pfner; Detlef Schuppan; Hans Scherübl

    2008-01-01

    The limited efficacy of conventional cytotoxic treatment regimes for advanced gastrointestinal neuroendocrine cancers emphasizes the need for novel and more effective medical treatment options.Recent findings on the specific biological features of this family of neoplasms has led to the development of new targeted therapies,which take into account the high vascularization and abundant expression of specific growth factors and cognate tyrosine kinase receptors.This review will briefly summarize the status and future perspectives of antiangiogenic, mTOR- or growth factor receptor-based pharmacological approaches for the innovative treatment of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors.In view of the multitude of novel targeted approaches, the rationale for innovative combination therapies, i.e.combining growth factor (receptor)-targeting agents with chemoor biotherapeutics or with other novel anticancer drugs such as HDAC or proteasome inhibitors will be taken into account.

  3. Strategic planning for future learning environments: an exploration of interpersonal, interprofessional and political factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Cathrine

    2013-09-01

    This article, written from the stance of a public planner and a policy maker, explores the challenges and potential in creating future learning environments through the concept of a new learning landscape. It is based on the belief that physical planning can support the strategic goals of universities. In Denmark, a political focus on education as a mean to improve national capacity for innovation and growth are redefining the universities role in society. This is in turn changing the circumstances for the physical planning. Drawing on examples of physical initiatives in three different scales--city, building and room scale, the paper highlights how space and place matters on an interpersonal, an interprofessional and a political level. The article suggests that a wider understanding of how new learning landscapes are created--both as a material reality and a political discourse--can help frame an emerging community of practice. This involves university leaders, faculty and students, architects, designers and urban planners, citizens and policy makers with the common goal of creating future learning environments today.

  4. Parents’ concerns about future pregnancy after stillbirth: a qualitative study

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Meaney, Sarah

    2016-07-01

    As stillbirth has a devastating impact, it is imperative to understand the importance of clinical and emotional care after stillbirth and how it influences subsequent pregnancies. The aim of the study was to gain insight into the consideration and planning of a subsequent pregnancy by parents in the weeks following stillbirth.

  5. Dickens, Chesterton, and the Future of English Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampton, David

    2014-01-01

    The idea that literature has inspirational qualities and is produced by Great Writers has repeatedly come under attack as literary studies seeks to redefine itself. Yet the ability to think of the writer as genius, seer, moral guide, all the romantic possibilities, in short, is arguably as important as it has always been. Engaging with what G.K.…

  6. The Future in the Past of Native and Indigenous Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrior, Robert

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the author talks about some of the issues of the beginnings of Native and Indigenous studies and suggests that one looks more precisely at what people mean when they talk about those beginnings. The author is not a big fan of Native people emerging vaguely from the mists of time, but he is always tracing a history of Native studies…

  7. Global and regional health effects of future food production under climate change: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springmann, Marco; Mason-D'Croz, Daniel; Robinson, Sherman; Garnett, Tara; Godfray, H Charles J; Gollin, Douglas; Rayner, Mike; Ballon, Paola; Scarborough, Peter

    2016-05-07

    One of the most important consequences of climate change could be its effects on agriculture. Although much research has focused on questions of food security, less has been devoted to assessing the wider health impacts of future changes in agricultural production. In this modelling study, we estimate excess mortality attributable to agriculturally mediated changes in dietary and weight-related risk factors by cause of death for 155 world regions in the year 2050. For this modelling study, we linked a detailed agricultural modelling framework, the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT), to a comparative risk assessment of changes in fruit and vegetable consumption, red meat consumption, and bodyweight for deaths from coronary heart disease, stroke, cancer, and an aggregate of other causes. We calculated the change in the number of deaths attributable to climate-related changes in weight and diets for the combination of four emissions pathways (a high emissions pathway, two medium emissions pathways, and a low emissions pathway) and three socioeconomic pathways (sustainable development, middle of the road, and more fragmented development), which each included six scenarios with variable climatic inputs. The model projects that by 2050, climate change will lead to per-person reductions of 3·2% (SD 0·4%) in global food availability, 4·0% (0·7%) in fruit and vegetable consumption, and 0·7% (0·1%) in red meat consumption. These changes will be associated with 529,000 climate-related deaths worldwide (95% CI 314,000-736,000), representing a 28% (95% CI 26-33) reduction in the number of deaths that would be avoided because of changes in dietary and weight-related risk factors between 2010 and 2050. Twice as many climate-related deaths were associated with reductions in fruit and vegetable consumption than with climate-related increases in the prevalence of underweight, and most climate-related deaths were projected to

  8. Projecting the self into the future in individuals with schizophrenia: a preliminary cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffard, Stéphane; Bortolon, Catherine; D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Gardes, Jeanne; Gely-Nargeot, Marie-Christine; Capdevielle, Delphine; Van der Linden, Martial

    2016-07-01

    The ability to project oneself into the future contributes to development and maintenance of a coherent sense of identity. If recent research has revealed that schizophrenia is associated with difficulties envisioning the future, little is known about patients' future self-representations. In this study, 27 participants with schizophrenia and 26 healthy controls were asked to simulate mental representations of plausible and highly significant future events (self-defining future projections, SDFPs) that they anticipate to happen in their personal future. Main results showed that schizophrenia patients had difficulties in reflecting on the broader meaning and implications of imagined future events. In addition, and contrary to our hypothesis, a large majority of SDFPs in schizophrenia patients were positive events, including achievements, relationship, and leisure contents. Interestingly, patients and controls did not differ on the perceived probability that these events will occur in the future. Our results suggest that schizophrenia patients have an exaggerated positive perception of their future selves. Together, these findings lend support to the idea that past and future self-defining representations have both similar and distinct characteristics in schizophrenia.

  9. Animal venom studies: Current benefits and future developments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuri; N; Utkin

    2015-01-01

    Poisonous organisms are represented in many taxa, including kingdom Animalia. During evolution, animals have developed special organs for production and injection of venoms. Animal venoms are complex mixtures, compositions of which depend on species producing venom. The most known and studied poisonous terrestrial animals are snakes, scorpions and spiders. Among marine animals, these are jellyfishes, anemones and cone snails. The toxic substances in the venom ofthese animals are mainly of protein and peptide origin. Recent studies have indicated that the single venom may contain up to several hundred different components producing diverse physiological effects. Bites or stings by certain poisonous species result in severe envenomations leading in some cases to death. This raises the problem of bite treatment. The most effective treatment so far is the application of antivenoms. To enhance the effectiveness of such treatments, the knowledge of venom composition is needed. On the other hand, venoms contain substances with unique biological properties, which can be used both in basic science and in clinical applications. The best example of toxin application in basic science is α-bungarotoxin the discovery of which made a big impact on the studies of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Today compositions of venom from many species have already been examined. Based on these data, one can conclude that venoms contain a large number of individual components belonging to a limited number of structural types. Often minor changes in the amino acid sequence give rise to new biological properties. Change in the living conditions of poisonous animals lead to alterations in the composition of venoms resulting in appearance of new toxins. At the same time introduction of new methods of proteomics and genomics lead to discoveries of new compounds, which may serve as research tools or as templates for the development of novel drugs. The application of these sensitive and

  10. Studies of Expansive Learning: Foundations, Findings and Future Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yrjö Engeström

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines studies based on the theory of expansive learning, formulated in 1987. In recent years the theory has been used in a wide variety of studies and interventions. The theory builds on foundational ideas put forward by Vygotsky, Leont’ev, Il’enkov, and Davydov, key figures in the Russian school of cultural-historical activity theory. Studies based on the theory are reviewed in six sections: expansive learning as transformation of the object, expansive learning as movement in the zone of proximal development, expansive learning as cycles of learning actions, expansive learning as boundary crossing and network building, expansive learning as distributed and discontinuous movement, and formative interventions.A separate section is devoted to critiques of expansive learning. It is concluded that the ultimate test of learning theories is how they help practitioners to generate learning that grasps pressing issues the humankind is facing. The theory of expansive learning currently expands its analyses both up and down, outward and inward. Moving up and outward, it tackles learning in fields or networks of interconnected activity systems with their partially shared and often contested objects. Moving down and inward, it tackles issues of subjectivity, experiencing, personal sense, emotion, embodiment, identity, and moral commitment.

  11. Early-onset preeclampsia : Constitutional factors and consequences for future pregnancy outcome and cardiovascular health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, B.B.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, maternal constitutional factors related to long-term cardiovascular health and subsequent pregnancy outcome in women with early-onset preeclampsia is addressed. Aims of the thesis: To evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcome in women with a first pregnancy complicated by early-onset

  12. Human Factors Performance Data for Future Forward Area Air Defense Systems (FAADS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    did not meet operational requirements. 3. Allocation of function to man and machine is still an uncertain art (Price, 1985; Kantowitz & Sorkin, 1987... Kantowitz , B. H., & Sorkin, R. D. (1987). Allocation of functions. In G. Salvendy (Ed.), Handbook of human factors (Chapter 3.3, pp. 355-369). New York

  13. The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor in cancer : Old focus, new future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, Hermien; Wesseling, Jelle; Boezen, H. Marike; van der Graaf, Winette T. A.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) signalling in malignant behaviour of tumour cells is well established. Currently, development of drugs targeting the IGF-1R as anticancer treatment is emerging. Several IGF-1R targeting strategies are being investigated in phases I and

  14. The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor in cancer : Old focus, new future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, Hermien; Wesseling, Jelle; Boezen, H. Marike; van der Graaf, Winette T. A.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) signalling in malignant behaviour of tumour cells is well established. Currently, development of drugs targeting the IGF-1R as anticancer treatment is emerging. Several IGF-1R targeting strategies are being investigated in phases I and

  15. The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor in cancer: old focus, new future.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, H. de; Wesseling, J.; Boezen, H.M.; Graaf, W.T.A. van der

    2007-01-01

    The importance of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) signalling in malignant behaviour of tumour cells is well established. Currently, development of drugs targeting the IGF-1R as anticancer treatment is emerging. Several IGF-1R targeting strategies are being investigated in phases I and

  16. Early-onset preeclampsia : Constitutional factors and consequences for future pregnancy outcome and cardiovascular health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, B.B.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, maternal constitutional factors related to long-term cardiovascular health and subsequent pregnancy outcome in women with early-onset preeclampsia is addressed. Aims of the thesis: To evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcome in women with a first pregnancy complicated by early-onset pre

  17. Transactivation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor by G Protein-Coupled Receptors: Recent Progress, Challenges and Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixiang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Both G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs and receptor-tyrosine kinases (RTKs regulate large signaling networks, control multiple cell functions and are implicated in many diseases including various cancers. Both of them are also the top therapeutic targets for disease treatment. The discovery of the cross-talk between GPCRs and RTKs connects these two vast signaling networks and complicates the already complicated signaling networks that regulate cell signaling and function. In this review, we focus on the transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, a subfamily of RTKs, by GPCRs. Since the first report of EGFR transactivation by GPCR, significant progress has been made including the elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the transactivation. Here, we first provide a basic picture for GPCR, EGFR and EGFR transactivation by GPCR. We then discuss the progress made in the last five years and finally provided our view of the future challenge and future researches needed to overcome these challenges.

  18. Studying the history of Indonesian astronomy: future prospects and possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchiston, Wayne

    2017-08-01

    In this paper I identify a number of research topoics relating to Indonesian astronomical history that I feel are of international importance. Through these studies, Indonesia can make a valuable contribution to international history of astronomy. I also will discuss the role of SEAAN's new Working Group on Astronomical History and Heritage, and the values of the Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage and proceedings of the ICOA conferences as outlets for papers about Indonesian astronomical history. Finally, I mention chapters about Indonesia that will appear in a forthcoming book on the early development of astrophysics in Asia.

  19. A multi-omic future for microbiome studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Janet K.; Baker, Erin S.

    2016-04-26

    Microbes constitute about a third of the Earth’s biomass and play critical roles in sustaining life. While results from multiple sequence-based studies have illustrated the importance of microbial communities for human health and the environment, additional technological developments are still needed to gain more insight into their functions [1]. To date, the majority of sequencing studies have focused on the 16S rRNA gene as a phylogenetic marker. This approach has enabled exploration of microbial compositions in a range of sample types, while bypassing the need for cultivation. 16S rRNA gene sequencing has also enabled a vast majority of microorganisms never previously isolated in culture to be identified and placed into a phylogenetic context [2]. These technologies have been utilized to map the locations of microbes inhabiting various locations of the body [3]. Similarly, sequencing has been used to determine the identities and distributions of microorganisms inhabiting different ecosystems [4, 5], and efforts in single cell sequencing of the microbiome have helped fill in missing branches of the phylogenetic tree [6].

  20. Future language teachers’ pedagogical landscapes during their subject studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Jalkanen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the experiences, attitudes and perceptions language students have regarding the use of ICT in language teaching. In addition, the article analyses the key characteristics of language students’ pedagogical designs. The data come from a pedagogically oriented subject-studies course that focuses on the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages and the European Language Portfolio. The data, which consist of language students’ reflections and course plans, have been analysed using qualitative content analysis. The findings imply that language students’ pedagogical landscapes reflect their own experiences as learners. Furthermore, the literacy practices in language students’ designs are mainly static and do not respond to the needs of the knowledge society.

  1. Preliminary Study on Causative Factors Leading to Construction Cost Overrun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aftab Hameed Memon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cost is the fundamental component for any construction project. However, cost overrun is observed as one of the most frequently occurring issues in construction projects worldwide and need to be studied more to alleviate this issue in the future. This trend is more severe in developing countries where these overruns sometimes exceeds 100% of the anticipated cost of the project.   Like other countries, construction industry in Malaysia is also facing a lot of challenges such as the delay to complete the project in time, the expenditure exceeding the budget, the building defects and over dependent of foreign workers. The ultimate effects of project delay also results in exceeding cost. This leads to serious need of addressing the critical issue of construction cost overrun. To avoid construction cost overrun, very first and most important step is to identify and understand the causes and factors responsible for that. Hence, this paper is aimed to identify various factors responsible for construction cost overrun. Through a comprehensive study of literature review, common factors causing cost overrun resulting in identification of 78 factors were mapped in frequency table. A questionnaire survey and interviews were carried out amongst selected experienced personnel for expert opinion to identify the significant factors causing cost overrun in Malaysia. Five respondents were selected from each of the respondents groups including client, consultant and contractor. The questionnaire responses were analyzed by average index method, which resulted in identification of 59 common factors causing construction cost overrun in Malaysia. Results show that poor design & delays in Design, unrealistic contract duration & requirements imposed, lack of experience, late delivery of materials & equipment, relationship between management & labour, delay preparation & approval of drawings, inadequate planning & scheduling, poor site management & supervision and

  2. Source-Based Modeling Of Urban Stormwater Quality Response to the Selected Scenarios Combining Future Changes in Climate and Socio-Economic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borris, Matthias; Leonhardt, Günther; Marsalek, Jiri; Österlund, Heléne; Viklander, Maria

    2016-08-01

    The assessment of future trends in urban stormwater quality should be most helpful for ensuring the effectiveness of the existing stormwater quality infrastructure in the future and mitigating the associated impacts on receiving waters. Combined effects of expected changes in climate and socio-economic factors on stormwater quality were examined in two urban test catchments by applying a source-based computer model (WinSLAMM) for TSS and three heavy metals (copper, lead, and zinc) for various future scenarios. Generally, both catchments showed similar responses to the future scenarios and pollutant loads were generally more sensitive to changes in socio-economic factors (i.e., increasing traffic intensities, growth and intensification of the individual land-uses) than in the climate. Specifically, for the selected Intermediate socio-economic scenario and two climate change scenarios (RSP = 2.6 and 8.5), the TSS loads from both catchments increased by about 10 % on average, but when applying the Intermediate climate change scenario (RCP = 4.5) for two SSPs, the Sustainability and Security scenarios (SSP1 and SSP3), the TSS loads increased on average by 70 %. Furthermore, it was observed that well-designed and maintained stormwater treatment facilities targeting local pollution hotspots exhibited the potential to significantly improve stormwater quality, however, at potentially high costs. In fact, it was possible to reduce pollutant loads from both catchments under the future Sustainability scenario (on average, e.g., TSS were reduced by 20 %), compared to the current conditions. The methodology developed in this study was found useful for planning climate change adaptation strategies in the context of local conditions.

  3. Beyond speculative robot ethics: A vision assessment study on the future of the robotic caretaker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plas, A.P. van der; Smits, M.; Wehrmann, C.

    2010-01-01

    In this article we develop a dialogue model for robot technology experts and designated users to discuss visions on the future of robotics in long-term care. Our vision assessment study aims for more distinguished and more informed visions on future robots. Surprisingly, our experiment also led to s

  4. Studying the Future Through Environmental Education. Environmental Education Digest No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disinger, John F.

    This digest reviews briefly several futures-oriented efforts of pertinence to educational endeavors, focusing primarily on their environmental aspects. These efforts are considered under headings in the form of six questions. They are: (1) Are future studies scientific? (2) How are projections developed? (3) What do recent futuristic projections…

  5. Is there a Future to the study of the Past?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyd, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Whereas historical scholarship is prospering and is constantly moving into new and uncharted territories, the teaching of history seems to be in a serious crisis in terms of student enrollment and its public prestige. This is true at least in some countries and is especially so with respect to the teaching of eras which precede the twentieth century. The present article seeks to explore some of the reasons for this crisis, and proposes a few arguments which can provide a raison d’être for the study of history at the beginning of the twenty-first century. While history is no longer regarded simply as magistra vitae, nor is it the foundation for competing ideologies as it used to be in the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth, there are very important cultural functions, beyond sheer intellectual curiosity, that the study of history fulfills, functions which can, and should, be emphasized also to the public at large. Chief among them is the need to come to terms with rapid change in society and human affairs, a need which is especially acute nowadays, and which only the discipline of history is equipped to deal with systematically.

    Mientras el estudio académico de la Historia prospera y avanza constantemente en nuevos e inexplorados territorios, la enseñanza de la Historia parece estar en severa crisis, en términos de captación de estudiantes y de prestigio público. Esto es cierto al menos en algunos países, y especialmente respecto a la enseñanza de las épocas que precedieron al siglo XX. En este artículo se pretende explorar algunos de los motivos de esta crisis, y proponer algunos argumentos que puedan proporcionar una raison d’être para el estudio de la Historia en los comienzos del siglo XXI. Aunque la Historia ya no se contemple simplemente como magistra vitae, ni como el fundamento de ideologías en competencia, como solía ocurrir en el siglo XIX y en la primera mitad del siglo XX, persisten

  6. Attitudinal prosody: what we know and directions for future study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rachel L C; Ross, Elliott D

    2013-03-01

    Prosodic aspects of speech such as pitch, duration and amplitude constitute nonverbal cues that supplement or modify the meaning of the spoken word, to provide valuable clues as to a speakers' state of mind. It can thus indicate what emotion a person is feeling (emotional prosody), or their attitude towards an event, person or object (attitudinal prosody). Whilst the study of emotional prosody has gathered pace, attitudinal prosody now deserves equal attention. In social cognition, understanding attitudinal prosody is important in its own right, since it can convey powerful constructs such as confidence, persuasion, sarcasm and superiority. In this review, it is examined what prosody is, how it conveys attitudes, and which attitudes prosody can convey. The review finishes by considering the neuroanatomy associated with attitudinal prosody, and put forward the hypothesis that this cognition is mediated by the right cerebral hemisphere, particularly posterior superior lateral temporal cortex, with an additional role for the basal ganglia, and limbic regions such as the medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala. It is suggested that further exploration of its functional neuroanatomy is greatly needed, since it could provide valuable clues about the value of current prosody nomenclature and its separability from other types of prosody at the behavioural level.

  7. Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha for Retinal Diseases: Current Knowledge and Future Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Mirshahi; René Hoehn; Katrin Lorenz; Christina Kramann; Holger Baatz

    2012-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine produced by macrophages and T-cells. It plays an important role both in inflammation and apoptosis. In the eye, TNF-α appears to have a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory, edematous, neovascular and neurodegenerative disorders. Several TNF-blocking drugs have been developed and approved, and are in clinical use for inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and ankylosing spondylitis. TNF-α blockers ar...

  8. Studying risk factors associated with Human Leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandra Kamath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leptospirosis is one of the most under diagnosed and underreported disease in both developed and developing countries including India. It is established that environmental conditions and occupational habit of the individuals put them at risk of acquiring disease, which varies from community to community. Various seroprevalence studies across the world have documented emerging situation of this neglected tropical disease, but limited have probed to identify the risk factors, especially in India. Objectives: The objective of this study was to identify the environmental and occupational risk factors associated with the disease in Udupi District. Materials and Methods: This population-based case-control study was carried out in Udupi, a District in Southern India from April 2012 until August 2012. Udupi is considered to be endemic for Leptospirosis and reported 116 confirmed cases in the year 2011. Seventy of 116 laboratory confirmed cases and 140 sex matched neighborhood healthy controls participated in the study. A predesigned, semi-structured and validated questionnaire was used for data collection through house to house visit and observations were noted about environmental conditions. Univariate analysis followed by multivariate analysis (back ward conditional logistic regression was performed by using STATA version 9.2 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA to identify potential risk factors. Results: Occupational factors such as outdoor activities (matched odds ratio [OR] of 3.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-13.0, presence of cut or wound at body parts during work (matched OR: 4.88, CI: 1.83-13.02 and environmental factors such as contact with rodents through using the food materials ate by rat (matched OR: 4.29, CI: 1.45-12.73 and contact with soil or water contaminated with urine of rat (matched OR: 4.58, CI: 1.43-14.67 were the risk factors identified to be associated with disease. Conclusion: Leptospirosis is still

  9. Intuitive engineering, human factors, and the design of future interfaces (Invited Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, James B.

    2005-05-01

    Human factors engineering (HFE) professionals complain that they are often called in after-the-fact to help correct human interface problems. They believe many design flaws can be avoided if design teams involve them early on. However, in the case of innovative technology, such post hoc human factors may not be avoidable unless the inventor is also a human factors engineer or the prospective user. In rare cases an inventor of a new technology has an intuitive understanding of human engineering principles and knows well the capabilities and limitations of operators. This paper outlines the importance of focusing on the user-system interface and encouraging engineers to develop their own intuitive sense of users through mental imagery. If design engineers start with a clear mental picture of a specific user and task rather than generalities of use, fewer interface problems are likely to be encountered later in development. Successful technology innovators often use a visual thinking approach in the development of new concepts. Examples are presented to illustrate the successful application of intuitive design. An approach is offered on how designers can improve their non-verbal thinking skills. The author shares the view that the mission of HFE should not be to make system developers dependent on the small community of HF experts but rather to help them learn the value of applying user-centered design techniques.

  10. Feasibility studies for accessing nucleon structure observables with the PANDA experiment at the future FAIR facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora Espi, Maria Carmen

    2012-10-15

    The availability of a high-intensity antiproton beam with momentum up to 15 GeV/c at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) will open a unique opportunity to investigate wide areas of nuclear physics with the PANDA (antiProton ANnihilations at DArmstadt) detector. Part of these investigations concern the Electromagnetic Form Factors of the proton in the time-like region and the study of the transition distribution amplitudes, for which feasibility studies have been performed in this thesis. Moreover, simulations to study the efficiency and the energy resolution of the backward endcap of the electromagnetic calorimeter of PANDA are presented. This detector is crucial especially for the reconstruction of processes like anti pp{yields}e{sup +}e{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}, investigated in this work. Different arrangements of dead material were studied. The results show that both, the efficiency and the energy resolution of the backward endcap of the electromagnetic calorimeter fulfill the requirements for the detection of backward particles, and that this detector is necessary for the reconstruction of the channels of interest. The study of the annihilation channel anti pp{yields}e{sup +}e{sup -} will improve the knowledge of the electromagnetic form factors in the time-like region, and will help to understand their connection with the electromagnetic form factors in the space-like region. In this thesis the feasibility of a measurement of the anti pp{yields}e{sup +}e{sup -} cross section with PANDA is studied using Monte-Carlo simulations. The major background channel anti pp{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} is taken into account. The results show a 10{sup 9} background suppression factor, which assure a sufficiently clean signal with less than 0.1 % background contamination. The signal can be measured with an efficiency greater than 30 % up to s=14 (GeV/c){sup 2}. The Electromagnetic Form Factors are extracted from the reconstructed signal and corrected

  11. External Insect Morphology: A Negative Factor in Attitudes toward Insects and Likelihood of Incorporation in Future Science Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagler, Ron; Wagler, Amy

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated if the external morphology of an insect had a negative effect on United States (US) preservice elementary teacher's attitudes toward insects and beliefs concerning the likelihood of incorporating insects into future science education settings. 270 US kindergarten through sixth grade preservice elementary teachers…

  12. Modeling future demand for energy resources: A study of residential electricity usage in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilagupta, Prapassara

    1999-12-01

    2019, air conditioning will account for yy% of the total demand. Low, base, and high scenarios were modeled to provide estimates of the potential range of electricity demand that could be expected. The low scenario assumes the adoption of energy efficient appliances and reduced usage through conservation measures. Total demand in 2019 under the low scenario is xx, yy% of the demand under the base scenario. Through policy, education, and technology options, the potential exists for Thailand to reduce the future demand for energy. This study identifies key factors related to residential electricity demand that should facilitate planners in the development of these options.

  13. [Prognostic factors of bacteremia: prospective study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos Añón, R; Fernández Rodríguez, R; Paz Vidal, I; Tinajas, A; Cantón, I; Abel, V; González, R; Martínez, R; Gayoso, P; Fernández Alvarez, O

    2001-08-01

    To identify the epidemiology and risk factors with influence in the outcome and mortality of a series of bacteriemic patients. A prospective study of bloodstream infections with clinical significance detected in a secondary hospital of 650 beds over period from May 1998 to May 1999. The true bacteriemia was defined in basis to the criteria both the physician and microbiologist. A total of 16 variables were defined and categorized such as clinical-epidemiologic, intrinsic risk factor, extrinsic risk factor, outcome and survival. We used SPSS statistical package: For cuantitative variables we carried out with the mean with confidence interval of 95%, for cualitative variables: number and %. Univariate analysis of the results was carried out with the X2 test and t Student, the survival was expressed with Kaplan Meyer graphics and the logistic regression model. A total of 320 positive blood cultures were studied but only 272 blood cultures were considered true bacteriemia in 259 patients. The calculated incidence of significant episodes of bacteriemia per 1000 admissions/year was 13. The overall mortality was 22% whereas death attributable to bacteriemia was 16%. The mean age was 66.9 years (IC 95% 65-69), 59% episodes occurred in men. The 78% episodes occurred in patients hospitalized in medical services. 52% episodes were of nosocomial infection and 48% of community acquired infection. According to the severity of the underlying disease, 15% had fatal diseases and 35% episodes occurred in patients without underlying disease. According to the univariant analysis, the variables which where significantly associated with greater risk death were: etiology (fungus), septic shock, the inadequate antibiotic therapy, presence of extrinsic factors (central intravenous catheter, performance of invasive procedures, previous antimicrobial therapy) and the hospital stay of less than 10 days. According to the multivariable analysis showed that the factors remaining independent

  14. COMPETENCE APPROACH TO EDUCATION AS THE FACTOR OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE COMMUNICATIVE TOLERANCE OF A FUTURE TEACHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna Lazareva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives proof of the thesis that the competence approach to education is the factor of development of the communicative tolerance of the future teacher of a foreign language provided the subject-subject relations are maintained in the pedagogical process. Students’ valuation attitude to competences is brought to life on the empirical level. The article traces the degree of the influence of competences on the communicative tolerance of the personality of a graduating student of the basic educational programme of the bachelor.

  15. Academic plastic surgery: a study of current issues and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetrenne, Eleonore; Kosins, Aaron M; Wirth, Garrett A; Bui, Albert; Evans, Gregory R D; Wells, James H

    2008-06-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the role of a full-time academic plastic surgeon, (2) to define the indicators predictive of a successful career in academic plastic surgery, and (3) to understand the current issues that will affect future trends in the practice of academic plastic surgery. A questionnaire was developed to evaluate the role of current full-time academic plastic surgeons and to understand the current issues and future challenges facing academic plastic surgery. Each plastic surgery program director in the United States was sent the survey for distribution among all full-time academic plastic surgeons. Over a 6-week period, responses from 143 full-time academic plastic surgeons (approximately 31%) were returned. Fifty-three percent of respondents had been academic plastic surgeons for longer than 10 years. Seventy-three percent of respondents defined academic plastic surgeons as clinicians who are teachers and researchers. However, 53% of respondents believed that academic plastic surgeons were not required to teach or practice within university hospitals/academic centers. The 3 factors reported most frequently as indicative of a successful career in academic plastic surgery were peer recognition, personal satisfaction, and program reputation. Dedication and motivation were the personal characteristics rated most likely to contribute to academic success. Forty-four percent of respondents were unable to identify future academic plastic surgeons from plastic surgery residency applicants, and 27% were not sure. Most (93%) of the respondents believed that academic surgery as practiced today will change. The overall job description of a full-time academic plastic surgeon remains unchanged (teacher and researcher). Whereas peer recognition, personal satisfaction, and program reputation were most frequently cited as indicative of a successful plastic surgery career, financial success was rated the least indicative. Similarly, whereas the

  16. Factors Influencing Uptake of Rapid HIV and Hepatitis C Screening Among Drug Misusing Adult Emergency Department Patients: Implications for Future HIV/HCV Screening Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Roland C; DeLong, Allison K; Liu, Tao; Baird, Janette R

    2015-11-01

    In this randomized, controlled trial among 957 English- or Spanish-speaking drug misusing adult emergency department (ED) patients, we determined if a tailored brief intervention (BI) increased uptake of rapid HIV/HCV screening, and identified factors associated with greater screening uptake. Rapid HIV/HCV screening uptake was greater in the control than the BI arm (45 vs. 38 %; p Screening uptake depended on elapsed study time and which research staff member offered testing. In the control arm, uptake was lowest for those spending screening uptake generally increased over time. Tailored BI content specifically addressing participant HIV/HCV knowledge, HIV/HCV risk behaviors, or need for HIV/HCV screening was not associated with greater screening uptake. These study findings suggested factors that should be considered when designing future ED-based screening initiatives, such as elapsed study time, who offers testing, and the content of interventions.

  17. Episodic future thinking in semantic dementia: a cognitive and FMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armelle Viard

    Full Text Available Semantic dementia (SD is characterized by gradual loss of semantic memory. While episodic autobiographical memory seems relatively preserved, behavioral studies suggest that episodic future thinking is impaired. We used fMRI to measure brain activity in four SD patients (JPL, EP, LL, EG while they envisioned future events and remembered personal past events. Twelve healthy elders served as controls. Episodic quality, emotion, mental imagery and level of consciousness (via remember/know judgements were checked at debriefing. We analyzed the future compared to the past for each patient. All patients presented lateral temporal atrophy, but varied in terms of frontal and anterior hippocampal atrophy. Patient JPL presented atrophy in bilateral superior medial frontal gyri and left anterior hippocampus and was unable to engage in episodic future thinking, despite hyperactivations in frontal and occipital regions. Patient EP presented no atrophy in the anterior hippocampus, but atrophy in bilateral superior medial frontal gyrus and had difficulties to engage in episodic future thinking. Patient LL presented atrophy in left anterior hippocampus, but hyperactivated its right counterpart for future compared to past thinking, permitting her to project efficiently in the future in an episodic way. Patient EG presented no atrophy in the superior medial frontal gyri or anterior hippocampi and was able to engage in episodic future thinking. Altogether, patients' future projections differed depending on the severity and localization of their atrophy. The functional integrity of bilateral superior medial frontal gyri and anterior hippocampus appear crucial for episodic future thinking: atrophy of both structures strongly impairs future projection, while integrity of these structures or hyperactivation of residual tissue normalizes episodic future projection.

  18. Episodic future thinking in semantic dementia: a cognitive and FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viard, Armelle; Piolino, Pascale; Belliard, Serge; de La Sayette, Vincent; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis

    2014-01-01

    Semantic dementia (SD) is characterized by gradual loss of semantic memory. While episodic autobiographical memory seems relatively preserved, behavioral studies suggest that episodic future thinking is impaired. We used fMRI to measure brain activity in four SD patients (JPL, EP, LL, EG) while they envisioned future events and remembered personal past events. Twelve healthy elders served as controls. Episodic quality, emotion, mental imagery and level of consciousness (via remember/know judgements) were checked at debriefing. We analyzed the future compared to the past for each patient. All patients presented lateral temporal atrophy, but varied in terms of frontal and anterior hippocampal atrophy. Patient JPL presented atrophy in bilateral superior medial frontal gyri and left anterior hippocampus and was unable to engage in episodic future thinking, despite hyperactivations in frontal and occipital regions. Patient EP presented no atrophy in the anterior hippocampus, but atrophy in bilateral superior medial frontal gyrus and had difficulties to engage in episodic future thinking. Patient LL presented atrophy in left anterior hippocampus, but hyperactivated its right counterpart for future compared to past thinking, permitting her to project efficiently in the future in an episodic way. Patient EG presented no atrophy in the superior medial frontal gyri or anterior hippocampi and was able to engage in episodic future thinking. Altogether, patients' future projections differed depending on the severity and localization of their atrophy. The functional integrity of bilateral superior medial frontal gyri and anterior hippocampus appear crucial for episodic future thinking: atrophy of both structures strongly impairs future projection, while integrity of these structures or hyperactivation of residual tissue normalizes episodic future projection.

  19. Understanding the Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde nature of apoptosis-inducing factor: future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Preta

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF is emerging as a key protein in regulation of basic physiological processes including phagocytosis, mitophagy and regulation of the redox state. Recent evidences suggest that the enzymatic activity of AIF may play an active role in tumor progression controlling energy metabolism and redox balance. The present manuscript briefly describes the story of this protein from its initial discovery as caspase-independent apoptotic protein, throughout its role in oxidative phosphorylation and lately involvement in tumor progression. Understanding the dualistic nature of AIF is a critical starting point to clarify its contribution in tumor metabolic balance and to develop new AIF-specific therapeutic strategies.

  20. Quality of life - the factor of Russia success at present and in the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkalov S. V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of life and human development - these concepts are substantial characteristics of contemporary approaches to the challenges of economic growth and development of society. The quality of life in contemporary quality concepts means the integrated characteristics of social-economic, political, cultural-ideologic, ecologic factors and living conditions and social status of a person. State policy in the field of regulating population’s quality of life and living standards is the basis of creating totally new work force, essential needs in material wealth, life quality and working conditions indicators. We consider the definition "quality of life" within the concept of human development to define the system of the factors influencing it. We review the modern approaches to the analysis of the quality of life. Features and aspects of quality of life are considered, its role in social and economic development of the country is analysed. The main criteria define specifics of human development and social wellbeing of the population. To evaluate the quality of life of the population we use the statistical analysis of the United Nations (UN, Human Development Index (HDI.We conclude that the level of life is an integrated social and economic category that presents the level of development of physical, immaterial and social needs which influence the quality of life and population wellbeing Index.

  1. A study on relationship between abnormal accruals and future profitability: Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khodaei Valahzaghard

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between future profitability and abnormal accruals on selected firms from Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE. The study selects 223 firms from TSE market over the period 2007-2011. Using the regression analysis, the study shows there was no meaningful relationship between abnormal earnings and future profitability when the level of significance is five percent. There are also seven sub-hypotheses associated with the proposed study of this paper. The results indicate that while there were no meaningful relationship between firm size, ratio of book value to equity, capital expenditure, earnings quality, earning forecasted error and book value leverage on one side and future earnings, the study confirms a significance relationship between market leverage and future earnings.

  2. Risk factors that predict future onset of each DSM-5 eating disorder: Predictive specificity in high-risk adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Gau, Jeff M; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Because no single report has examined risk factors that predict future onset each type of eating disorder and core symptom dimensions that crosscut disorders, we addressed these aims to advance knowledge regarding risk factor specificity. Data from 3 prevention trials that targeted young women with body dissatisfaction (N = 1,272; Mage = 18.5, SD = 4.2) and collected annual diagnostic interview data over 3-year follow-up were combined to identify predictors of subthreshold/threshold anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and purging disorder (PD). Negative affect and functional impairment predicted onset of all eating disorders. Thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dieting, overeating, and mental health care predicted onset of subthreshold/threshold BN, BED, and PD; positive thinness expectations, denial of cost of pursuing the thin ideal, and fasting predicted onset of 2 of these 3 disorders. Similar risk factors predicted core eating disorder symptom onset. Low BMI and dieting specifically predicted onset of subthreshold/threshold AN or low BMI. Only a subset of factors showed unique predictive effects in multivariate models, likely due to moderate correlations between the risk factors (M r = .14). Results provide support for the theory that pursuit of the thin ideal and the resulting body dissatisfaction, dieting, and unhealthy weight control behaviors increase risk for binge/purge spectrum eating disorders, but suggest that youth who are inherently lean, rather than purposely pursuing the thin ideal, are at risk for AN. Impaired interpersonal functioning and negative affect are transdiagnostic risk factors, suggesting these factors should be targeted in prevention programs. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. The Future of the Russian Military: Constraints, Trends, and Factors Affecting Stability and Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-03

    University’s Center for Strategic and International Studies. In addition, there are numerous other new on-line resources in the Slavic studies field are now...at the November, 1992, annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies (AAASS). xxi LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure (1...American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies (AAASS). Phoenix, Arizona. Lukin, Vladimir P. "Our Security Predicament." Foreign Policy

  4. A pilot study on willingness to participate in future preventive HIV vaccine trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhadev, Mohanarani; Nyamathi, Adeline M; Swaminathan, Soumya; Venkatesan, P; Raja Sakthivel, M; Shenbagavalli, R; Suresh, Anitha; Fahey, John L

    2006-12-01

    In India, phase-I human clinical trials for a preventive HIV vaccine are being conducted at Pune and Chennai Centres. In order to find out the willingness of populations at risk to participate in future preventive HIV vaccine trials (HIVVTs) and to assess the factors that enhance or deter them from participation, a study was conducted at Chennai and Madurai in Tamil Nadu. This cross-sectional study was conducted among transport workers, people attending sexually transmitted infection clinics, injection drug users, men having sex with men, women in sex industry and a representative sample of monogamous married women, by employing measurement scales. A structured questionnaire on knowledge and attitudes about the HIV vaccine was used to measure the participants' knowledge and attitudes about HIV vaccine and HIVVTs. Of the 112 participants, 67 (60%) were men. Mean age of the respondents was 32 yr; 68 per cent were high school educated. Majority of respondents were willing to participate in a future HIVVT and the reasons were altruism, protection from HIV, and support for the researchers. Major concerns were vaccine efficacy, side effects of the vaccine and the impact of a HIV vaccine on the participants' lives. Majority (85%) agreed that sex without condom would not be safe despite the availability of an HIV vaccine. It is likely that high-risk volunteers will be willing to enroll in HIVVTs. Barriers and concerns should be dealt with carefully by providing correct information. Also there is a need for more education to ensure participants' understanding of key concepts of HIV vaccine trial.

  5. Human factors and ergonomics in home care: Current concerns and future considerations for health information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, Calvin K L; Valdez, Rupa S; Casper, Gail R; Carayon, Pascale; Burke, Laura J; Brennan, Patricia Flatley; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

    2009-01-01

    Sicker patients with greater care needs are being discharged to their homes to assume responsibility for their own care with fewer nurses available to aid them. This situation brings with it a host of human factors and ergonomic (HFE) concerns, both for the home care nurse and the home dwelling patient, that can affect quality of care and patient safety. Many of these concerns are related to the critical home care tasks of information access, communication, and patient self-monitoring and self-management. Currently, a variety of health information technologies (HITs) are being promoted as possible solutions to those problems, but those same technologies bring with them a new set of HFE concerns. This paper reviews the HFE considerations for information access, communication, and patients self-monitoring and self-management, discusses how HIT can potentially mitigate current problems, and explains how the design and implementation of HIT itself requires careful HFE attention.

  6. Using Open Data to Detect Organized Crime Threats—Factors Driving Future Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This work provides an innovative look at the use of open data for extracting information to detect and prevent crime, and also explores the link between terrorism and organized crime. In counter-terrorism and other forms of crime prevention, foresight about potential threats is vitally important......, counter-terrorism and crime science. It will also be of interest to those in related fields such as applications of computer science and data mining, public policy, and business intelligence......., such as communication between organized crime networks and radicalization towards terrorism, is driven by a combination of political, economic, social, technological, legal and environmental factors. The contributions to this volume represent a major step by researchers to systematically collect, filter, interpret...

  7. Understanding the Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde nature of apoptosis-inducing factor: future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preta, Giulio

    2017-08-01

    Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) is emerging as a key protein in regulation of basic physiological processes including phagocytosis, mitophagy and regulation of the redox state. Recent evidences suggest that the enzymatic activity of AIF may play an active role in tumor progression controlling energy metabolism and redox balance. The present manuscript briefly describes the story of this protein from its initial discovery as caspase-independent apoptotic protein, throughout its role in oxidative phosphorylation and lately involvement in tumor progression. Understanding the dualistic nature of AIF is a critical starting point to clarify its contribution in tumor metabolic balance and to develop new AIF-specific therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2017 Chang Gung University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The childhood immunization schedule and safety: stakeholder concerns, scientific evidence, and future studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice; Institute of Medicine; Committee on the Assessment of Studies of Health Outcomes Related to the Recommended Childhood Immunization Schedule

    2013-01-01

    "The Childhood Immunization Schedule and Safety: Stakeholder Concerns, Scientific Evidence, and Future Studies reviews scientific findings and stakeholders concerns related to the safety of the recommended childhood immunization schedule...

  9. Cochin backwaters: An introduction to the system, prior studies, historical trends and future implication

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Devi, K.S.

    Studies over the last 2 decades in the Cochin backwater system in India are reviewed to have an integrated profile with a point to evaluate future development projects in terms of potential consequences to the estuarine ecosystem. The trends...

  10. Structural studies on leukaemia inhibitory factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, R.S.; Maurer, T.; Smith, D.K. [Biomolecular Research Institute, Parville (Australia); Nicola, N.A. [Institute of Medical Research, Melbourne (Australia)

    1994-12-01

    Leukaemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that acts on a wide range of target cells, including mega-karyocytes, osteoblasts, hepatocytes, adipocytes, neurons, embryonic stem cells, and primordial germ cells. Many of its activities are shared with other cytokines, particularly interleukin-6, oncostatin-M, ciliary neurotrophic factor, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Although secreted in vivo as a glycoprotein, nonglycosylated recombinant protein expressed in E. coli is fully active and has been used in our nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of the three-dimensional structure and structure-function relationships of LIF. With 180 amino acids and a molecular mass of about 20 kDa, OF is too large for direct structure determination by two-dimensional and three-dimensional {sup 1}HNMR. It is necessary to label the protein with the stable isotopes {sup 15}N and {sup 13}C and employ heteronuclear three-dimensional NMR in order to resolve and interpret the spectral information required for three-dimensional structure determination. This work has been undertaken with both human LIF and a mouse-human chimaera that binds to the human LIF receptor with the same affinity as the human protein and yet expresses in E. coli at much higher levels. Sequence-specific resonance assignments and secondary structure elements for these proteins will be presented and progress towards determination of their three-dimensional structures described.

  11. Perceptions of vulnerability to a future outbreak: a study of horse managers affected by the first Australian equine influenza outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A growing body of work shows the benefits of applying social cognitive behavioural theory to investigate infection control and biosecurity practices. Protection motivation theory has been used to predict protective health behaviours. The theory outlines that a perception of a lack of vulnerability to a disease contributes to a reduced threat appraisal, which results in poorer motivation, and is linked to poorer compliance with advised health protective behaviours. This study, conducted following the first-ever outbreak of equine influenza in Australia in 2007, identified factors associated with horse managers’ perceived vulnerability to a future equine influenza outbreak. Results Of the 200 respondents, 31.9% perceived themselves to be very vulnerable, 36.6% vulnerable and 31.4% not vulnerable to a future outbreak of equine influenza. Multivariable logistic regression modelling revealed that managers involved in horse racing and those on rural horse premises perceived themselves to have low levels of vulnerability. Managers of horse premises that experienced infection in their horses in 2007 and those seeking infection control information from specific sources reported increased levels of perceived vulnerability to a future outbreak. Conclusion Different groups across the horse industry perceived differing levels of vulnerability to a future outbreak. Increased vulnerability contributes to favourable infection control behaviour and hence these findings are important for understanding uptake of recommended infection control measures. Future biosecurity communication strategies should be delivered through information sources suitable for the horse racing and rural sectors. PMID:23902718

  12. Changes in forcing factors affecting coastal and shallow water erosion in the future Arctic climate change projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrynin, Mikhail; Razumov, Sergey; Brovkin, Victor; Ilyina, Tatiana; Grigoriev, Mikhail

    2016-04-01

    Driving factors of seabed and coastal erosion in the Arctic can be classified as thermal and mechanical. Thermal factors such as air and ocean temperatures affect the seabed and coastal ground temperatures. Mechanical factors such as ocean currents and surface gravity waves contribute to the seabed and costal erosion due to shear stress. Due to polar amplification, the Arctic experiences strong increase in air and water temperature, sea-ice loss and changes in the ocean and atmospheric circulation, temperature and wind distribution. These climatic changes lead to changes in factors driving seabed and coastal erosion, which is expected to accelerate in the shallow Arctic regions such as the Laptev sea and East Siberian sea. In these regions, the coastal line to a large extent consists of frozen rocks, sediments and organic soils including ground ice. The increase of erosion rate of the coastal line will increase the release of organic and inorganic matter from thawed permafrost. Dynamics of thermal and mechanical drivers of seabed and coastal erosion in the present and future climate change (RCP8.5 scenario) simulated by the CMIP5 version of the MPI Earth system model and wave model WAM will be presented. Special attention will be given to changes in the air temperature, wind dynamics and development of new waves system in the ``ice-free'' Arctic and its role in the seabed and coastal erosion.

  13. A study of factors influencing advanced puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Jun Park

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the timing of puberty and the factors inducing advanced puberty in elemental school students of low grades. Methods : The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grade elemental students from the Goyang province were randomly selected, and their sexual maturation rate was assessed by physical examination. After obtaining an informed consent, a questionnaire was administered to the parents; eating habits, lifestyle, use of growth-inducing medication, and present illness of the students were evaluated to determine the factors that induced advanced puberty. The data were statistically analyzed. Results : We selected 170 children and the girls:boys sex ratio was 1.2:1. Two 9-year-old boys were in genital stage 2. Two (14.3% 6-year-old girls, 6 (19.4% 7-year-old girls, 15 (39.6% 8-year-old girls, and 4 (57.1% 9-year-old girls were in breast stage 2. The average pubertal timing predicted for girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years. The main factors influencing pubertal timing were obesity scale, frequency of eating fast food, and the use of growth-inducing medication. A high rating on the obesity scale and high frequency of eating fast food indicated advanced stage of puberty. Growth-inducing medication induced puberty through obesity. Conclusion : We proposed that predictive average pubertal timing in girls was 9.11¡?#?.86; years, which was consistent with the previously reported findings from abroad. The significant influencing factors in advanced puberty were obesity scale and frequency of fast food.

  14. Passive Smoking in China: Contributing Factors and Areas for Future Interventions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To reduce tobacco consumption and exposure to passive smoking in China.Methods Discussion consisting of 80 focus groups and 35 interviews were held in three rural intervention counties of Jiangxi,Henan,and Sichuan Provinces. Participants came from hospitals,schools,rural areas,and urban areas.Results Tobacco use and exposure to passive smoking were widely prevalent in the investigated schools,hospitals,county towns,and rural areas. Knowledge of the risks for passive smoking on health is lacking,especially in rural areas. Barriers to the control of tobacco use in public places include reluctance of administrators to implement tobacco control policies,lack of consistent policies,difficulties with regulations and enforcement,and reluctance of non-smokers to exercise their right to clean air.Conclusion To curb the current tobacco epidemic in China,tobacco control efforts must focus on reducing exposure to passive smoking. A strategy should be formulated to reduce the factors that contribute to tobacco use and exposure to passive smoking.

  15. The Future of Hemophilia Treatment: Longer-Acting Factor Concentrates versus Gene Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangrande, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Gene therapy is the only novel technology that currently offers the prospect of a lasting cure for hemophilia and freedom from the burden of repeated injections. Recent data from a handful of patients who have undergone gene therapy for hemophilia B are very encouraging with a sustained factor IX (FIX) level of 0.05 IU/mL maintained for over 4 years. While this level is above the current usual target trough levels, it falls well short of the level that patients on prophylaxis with longer-acting products can expect. Prophylaxis is also associated with high peak levels, which permits patients to maintain an active lifestyle. A major barrier to widespread adoption of gene therapy is a high seroprevalence of antibodies to adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors in the general population. Young children would be the best candidates for gene therapy in view of much lower seroprevalence to AAV in infants. A stable level of FIX early in life would prevent the onset of joint bleeds and the development of arthropathy. The recent experience with apolipoprotein tiparvovec (Glybera; uniQure, Amsterdam, the Netherlands) indicates that gene therapy is unlikely to prove to be a cheap therapeutic option. It is also quite possible that other new technologies that do not require viral vectors (such as stem cell therapy) may overtake gene therapy during development and make it redundant. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. Transcription factor families in Arabidopsis: major progress and outstanding issues for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Li-Jia; Zhu, Yu-Xian

    2006-10-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are a group of proteins that control cellular processes by regulating the expression of downstream target genes. Recent progress has been made in the cloning and characterization of Arabidopsis TFs on the genome scale, especially on the cloning of open reading frames (ORFs), sequence analysis and the expression profiling of different TF families. Huge difference in numbers of subfamily members were found for Arabidopsis MYB, C2H2 (Zn), C3H-type 1 (Zn), C3H-type 2 (Zn) TFs by independent research groups, mainly because of differences in bioinformatic search stringency. However, the Arabidopsis and rice genomes contain very different numbers of TFs in the WRKY, NAC, bZIP, MADS, ALFIN-like, GRAS and C2C2 (Zn)-dof families, indicating a possible divergence of biological functions from dicots to monocots. TFs have also been found to play key roles in the biosynthesis and signaling of plant hormones, in cell growth and differentiation, and in photomorphogenesis.

  17. A methodology for the preliminary scoping of future changes in ecosystem services, with an illustration from the future midwestern landscapes study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The product is a white paper defining a methodology for the preliminary scoping of future changes in ecosystem services, with an Illustration from the Future Midwestern Landscapes Study. The scoping method develops a hierarchy of relevant societal values, identifies the ecosyste...

  18. Future Orientation, Social Support, and Psychological Adjustment among Left-behind Children in Rural China: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaobing Su

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Existing research has found that parental migration may negatively impact the psychological adjustment of left-behind children. However, limited longitudinal research has examined if and how future orientation (individual protective factor and social support (contextual protective factor are associated with the indicators of psychological adjustment (i.e., life satisfaction, school satisfaction, happiness, and loneliness of left-behind children. In the current longitudinal study, we examined the differences in psychological adjustment between left-behind children and non-left behind children (comparison children in rural areas, and explored the protective roles of future orientation and social support on the immediate (cross-sectional effects and subsequent (lagged effects status of psychological adjustment for both groups of children, respectively. The sample included 897 rural children (Mage = 14.09, SD = 1.40 who participated in two waves of surveys across six months. Among the participants, 227 were left-behind children with two parents migrating, 176 were with one parent migrating, and 485 were comparison children. Results showed that, (1 left-behind children reported lower levels of life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness, as well as a higher level of loneliness in both waves; (2 After controlling for several demographics and characteristics of parental migration among left-behind children, future orientation significantly predicted life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness in both cross-sectional and longitudinal regression models, as well as loneliness in the longitudinal regression analysis. Social support predicted immediate life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness, as well as subsequent school satisfaction. Similar to left-behind children, comparison children who reported higher scores in future orientation, especially future expectation, were likely to have higher scores in most indicators of

  19. Separation Anxiety Disorder in Childhood as a Risk Factor for Future Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Holm-Denoma, Jill M.; Small, Jason W.; Seeley, John R.; Joiner, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine the association between childhood separation anxiety disorder (SAD) and the risk of the development of psychopathology during young adulthood was conducted. Results showed that SAD contributed to the risk for the development of internalizing disorders, which are panic and depression, but decreased the risk for externalizing…

  20. Discovering the Future of the Case Study Method in Evaluation Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Robert K.

    1994-01-01

    It is assumed that evaluators of the future will still be interested in case study methodology. Scenarios that ignore a case study method, that look back to a distinctive case study method, and that see the case study method as an integrating force in the qualitative-quantitative debate are explored. (SLD)

  1. Discovering the Future of the Case Study Method in Evaluation Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Robert K.

    1994-01-01

    It is assumed that evaluators of the future will still be interested in case study methodology. Scenarios that ignore a case study method, that look back to a distinctive case study method, and that see the case study method as an integrating force in the qualitative-quantitative debate are explored. (SLD)

  2. Beyond speculative robot ethics: a vision assessment study on the future of the robotic caretaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Plas, Arjanna; Smits, Martijntje; Wehrmann, Caroline

    2010-11-01

    In this article we develop a dialogue model for robot technology experts and designated users to discuss visions on the future of robotics in long-term care. Our vision assessment study aims for more distinguished and more informed visions on future robots. Surprisingly, our experiment also led to some promising co-designed robot concepts in which jointly articulated moral guidelines are embedded. With our model, we think to have designed an interesting response on a recent call for a less speculative ethics of technology by encouraging discussions about the quality of positive and negative visions on the future of robotics.

  3. Depression Treatment Among Rural Older Adults: Preferences and Factors Influencing Future Service Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Katherine A; McKibbin, Christine L; Wykes, Thomas L; Lee, Aaron A; Carrico, Catherine P; McConnell, Katelynn A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate depression treatment preferences and anticipated service use in a sample of adults aged 55 years or older who reside in rural Wyoming. Sixteen participants (mean age = 59) completed 30- to 60-minute, semi-structured interviews. Qualitative methods were used to characterize common themes. Social/provider support and community gatekeepers were perceived by participants as important potential facilitators for seeking depression treatment. In contrast, perceived stigma and the value placed on self-sufficiency emerged as key barriers to seeking treatment for depression in this rural, young-old sample. Participants anticipated presenting for treatment in the primary care sector and preferred a combination of medication and psychotherapy for treatment. Participants were, however, more willing to see mental health professionals if they were first referred by a clergy member or primary care physician.

  4. Attributions, future time perspective and career maturity in nursing undergraduates: correlational study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cheng; Yang, Liu; Chen, Yuxia; Zou, Huijing; Su, Yonggang; Fan, Xiuzhen

    2016-01-25

    Career maturity is an important parameter as nursing undergraduates prepare for their future careers. However, little is known regarding the relationships between attributions, future time perspective and career maturity among nursing undergraduates. The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree of career maturity and its relationship with attributions and future time perspective. A cross-sectional survey was designed. This survey was administered to 431 Chinese nursing undergraduates. Independent-sample t-tests and one-way ANOVA were performed to examine the mean differences between categories of binary and categorical demographic characteristics, respectively. Pearson correlations and multiple linear regressions were used to test the relationships between attributions, future time perspective and career maturity. The degree of career maturity was moderate among nursing undergraduates and that internal attributions of academic achievement, future efficacy and future purpose consciousness were positively associated with career maturity (all p imperative roles of internal attributions and future time perspective and to facilitate their transition from school to clinical practice.

  5. The Future of Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian; Ossandón, José

    2013-01-01

    Review of Elena Esposito: The Future of Futures. The Time of Money in Financing and Society Cheltenham. Edward Elgar, 2011.......Review of Elena Esposito: The Future of Futures. The Time of Money in Financing and Society Cheltenham. Edward Elgar, 2011....

  6. Factors related to physical activity: a study of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhjalmsson, R; Thorlindsson, T

    1998-09-01

    Although the consequences of physical activity have been carefully documented, less is known about its correlates, particularly among children and youth. Based on a representative national survey of 1131 Icelandic adolescents, the study examined various physical, psychological, social and demographic factors related to physical activity. Male sex, significant others' involvement in physical activity (father, friend and older brother), sociability, perceived importance of sport and of health improvement and satisfaction with mandatory gym classes in school, were all related to more involvement, whereas hours of paid work and TV-viewing were related to less. Furthermore, the data suggested that the influence of friend's participation in physical activity depends on his or her emotional significance. Influential others appeared to affect males and females in the same way. The meaning of the results and their implications for future research are discussed.

  7. Top quark pair production and calorimeter energy resolution studies at a future collider experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, Katja

    2012-03-27

    This thesis is focused on detector concepts and analyses investigated at a future linear electron positron collider. For precision measurements at such a collider, the CALICE collaboration develops imaging calorimeters, which are characterized by a fine granularity. CALICE has constructed prototypes of several design options for electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters and has successfully operated these detectors during combined test beam programs at DESY, CERN and Fermilab. To improve the hadronic energy reconstruction and energy resolution of a hadron calorimeter prototype with analog readout three software compensation techniques are presented in this thesis, of which one is a local and two are global software compensation approaches. One method is based on a neural network to optimize the energy reconstruction, while two are energy weighting techniques, depending on the energy density. Weight factors are extracted from and applied to simulated and test beam data and result in an average energy resolution improvement of 15 - 25% compared to a reconstruction without software compensation. Whether such software compensation techniques are also applicable to a detector concept for a future linear electron positron collider is studied in the second part of this thesis. Simulated data, two different hadronic detector models and a local software compensation technique are used for this study. The energy resolutions for single hadrons and for jets are presented with and without software compensation. In the third part of this thesis, a study on top quark pair production at a center-of-mass energy of 500 GeV at the proposed electron positron collider CLIC is presented. The analysis is based on full detector simulations, including realistic background contributions dominated by two photon processes. The mass and width of the top quark are studied in fully-hadronic and semi-leptonic decays of top quark pairs using event samples of signal and Standard Model background

  8. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation. Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C. D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Brown, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Dunphy, R. T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Planning initiatives in many regions and communities aim to reduce transportation energy use, decrease emissions, and achieve related environmental benefits by changing land use. This report reviews and summarizes findings from existing literature on the relationship between the built environment and transportation energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying results trends as well as potential future actions. The indirect influence of federal transportation and housing policies, as well as the direct impact of municipal regulation on land use are examined for their effect on transportation patterns and energy use. Special attention is given to the 'four D' factors of density, diversity, design and accessibility. The report concludes that policy-driven changes to the built environment could reduce transportation energy and GHG emissions from less than 1% to as much as 10% by 2050, the equivalent of 16%-18% of present-day urban light-duty-vehicle travel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  9. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation: Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; Dunphy, R. T.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-01

    Planning initiatives in many regions and communities aim to reduce transportation energy use, decrease emissions, and achieve related environmental benefits by changing land use. This report reviews and summarizes findings from existing literature on the relationship between the built environment and transportation energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying results trends as well as potential future actions. The indirect influence of federal transportation and housing policies, as well as the direct impact of municipal regulation on land use are examined for their effect on transportation patterns and energy use. Special attention is given to the 'four D' factors of density, diversity, design and accessibility. The report concludes that policy-driven changes to the built environment could reduce transportation energy and GHG emissions from less than 1% to as much as 10% by 2050, the equivalent of 16%-18% of present-day urban light-duty-vehicle travel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  10. Age, gender and disability predict future disability in older people: the Rotterdam Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koes Bart W

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To develop a prediction model that predicts disability in community-dwelling older people. Insight in the predictors of disability is needed to target preventive strategies for people at increased risk. Methods Data were obtained from the Rotterdam Study, including subjects of 55 years and over. Subjects who had complete data for sociodemographic factors, life style variables, health conditions, disability status at baseline and complete data for disability at follow-up were included in the analysis. Disability was expressed as a Disability Index (DI measured with the Health Assessment Questionnaire. We used a multivariable polytomous logistic regression to derive a basic prediction model and an extended prediction model. Finally we developed readily applicable score charts for the calculation of outcome probabilities. Results Of the 5027 subjects included, 49% had no disability, 18% had mild disability, 16% had severe disability and 18% had deceased at follow-up after six years. The strongest predictors were age and prior disability. The contribution of other predictors was relatively small. The discriminative ability of the basic model was high; the extended model did not enhance predictive ability. Conclusion As prior disability status predicts future disability status, interventive strategies should be aimed at preventing disability in the first place.

  11. Velocity and abundance precisions for future high-resolution spectroscopic surveys: a study for 4MOST

    CERN Document Server

    Caffau, E; Sbordone, L; Sartoretti, P; Hansen, C J; Royer, F; Leclerc, N; Bonifacio, P; Christlieb, N; Ludwig, H G; Grebel, E K; de Jong, R S; Chiappini, C; Walcher, J; Mignot, S; Feltzing, S; Cohen, M; Minchev, I; Helmi, A; Piffl, T; Depagne, E; Schnurr, O

    2012-01-01

    In preparation for future, large-scale, multi-object, high-resolution spectroscopic surveys of the Galaxy, we present a series of tests of the precision in radial velocity and chemical abundances that any such project can achieve at a 4m class telescope. We briefly discuss a number of science cases that aim at studying the chemo-dynamical history of the major Galactic components (bulge, thin and thick disks, and halo) - either as a follow-up to the Gaia mission or on their own merits. Based on a large grid of synthetic spectra that cover the full range in stellar parameters of typical survey targets, we devise an optimal wavelength range and argue for a moderately high-resolution spectrograph. As a result, the kinematic precision is not limited by any of these factors, but will practically only suffer from systematic effects, easily reaching uncertainties <1 km/s. Under realistic survey conditions (namely, considering stars brighter than r=16 mag with reasonable exposure times) we prefer an ideal resolving...

  12. A history of futures: A review of scenario use in water policy studies in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasnoot, M; Middelkoop, H

    2012-05-01

    The future of human life in the world's river deltas depends on the success of water management. To deal with uncertainties about the future, policymakers in the Netherlands have used scenarios to develop water management strategies for the coastal zone of the Rhine-Meuse delta. In this paper we reflect on six decades of scenario use in the Netherlands, and provide recommendations for future studies. Based on two criteria, 'Decision robustness' and 'Learning success', we conclude that (1) the possibilities for robust decisionmaking increased through a paradigm shift from predicting to exploring futures, but the scenario method is not yet fully exploited for decisionmaking under uncertainty; and (2) the scenarios enabled learning about possible impacts of developments and effectiveness of policy options. New scenario approaches are emerging to deal with the deep uncertainties water managers are currently facing.

  13. Factors influencing frontline health service providers' likelihood to recommend a future, preventive HIV vaccine to key populations in Karnataka, south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClarty, Leigh M; Lorway, Robert R; Ramanaik, Satyanarayana; Wylie, John; Becker, Marissa L

    2015-01-29

    The HIV epidemic in the south Indian state of Karnataka disproportionately burdens key populations of men who have sex with men and female sex workers. Despite having successfully reduced HIV incidence among certain key populations through the use of targeted intervention, India's HIV epidemic remains one of its greatest public health issues. The best long-term strategy for managing the global HIV epidemic might involve a preventive vaccine; however, vaccine availability cannot guarantee its accessibility or acceptability. Vaccine recommendations from frontline health service providers have previously been identified as useful strategies to enhance vaccine uptake among target groups. This study used structured interviews to explore frontline health service providers' self-identified likelihood to recommend a future, preventive HIV vaccine to key populations in Karnataka. A modified social ecological model was then used to categorise factors that might prevent health service providers from recommending an HIV vaccine. Overall, 83% of health service providers reported that they would be very likely to recommend an HIV vaccine to men who have sex with men and female sex workers, while less than one-third of participants identified one or more barrier to vaccine recommendation. Intrapersonal, interpersonal, and structural/political factors were most commonly reported to act as potential barriers to future HIV vaccine recommendation among health service providers in Karnataka. This study adds to the limited body of literature focussing on future HIV vaccine acceptability in low- and middle-income countries and highlights some of the several complexities surrounding vaccine acceptability and uptake among key populations in Karnataka. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Case Study On Power Factor Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarjit Bhattacharyya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrical Power constitutes a major component of the manufacturing cost in industry. In an electrical installation, power factor may become poor because of induction motors, welding machines, powertransformers, voltage regulators, arc and induction furnaces, choke coils, neon signs etc. A poor power factor for the plant causes huge amount of losses, leading to thermal problem in switchgears. However power factor is controllable with a properly designed power factor improvement capacitors system. The power factor correction obtained by using capacitor banks to generate locally the reactive energy necessary for the transfer of electrical useful power, allows a better and more rational technical-economical management of the plants. This paper describes different aspects of power factor improvement in a typical industrial plant with the help of a casestudy.

  15. Civil Service Workforce Market Supply and the Effect on Cost Estimating Relationship (CERS) that May Effect the Productivity Factors for Future NASA Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterk, Steve; Chesley, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    The upcoming retirement of the Baby Boomers will leave a workforce age gap between the younger generation (the future NASA decision makers) and the gray beards. This paper will reflect on the average age of the workforce across NASA Centers, the Aerospace Industry and other Government Agencies, like DoD. This paper will dig into Productivity and Realization Factors and how they get applied to bi-monthly (payroll) data for true full-time equivalent (FTE) calculations that could be used at each of the NASA Centers and other business systems that are on the forefront in being implemented. This paper offers some comparative costs analysis/solutions, from simple FTE cost-estimating relationships (CERs) versus CERs for monthly time-phasing activities for small research projects that start and get completed within a government fiscal year. This paper will present the results of a parametric study investigating the cost-effectiveness of alternative performance-based CERs and how they get applied into the Center's forward pricing rate proposals (FPRP). True CERs based on the relationship of a younger aged workforce will have some effects on labor rates used in both commercial cost models and other internal home-grown cost models which may impact the productivity factors for future NASA missions.

  16. Civil Service Workforce Market Supply and the Effect on the Cost Estimating Relationships (CERs) that may effect the Productivity Factors for Future NASA Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterk, Steve; Chesley, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    The upcoming retirement of the Baby Boomers on the horizon will leave a performance gap between younger generation (the future NASA decision makers) and the gray beards. This paper will reflect on the average age of workforce across NASA Centers, the Aerospace Industry and other Government Agencies, like DoD. This papers will dig into Productivity and Realization Factors and how they get applied to bimonthly (payroll data) for true FTE calculations that could be used at each of the NASA Centers and other business systems that are on the forefront in being implemented. This paper offers some comparative costs solutions, from simple - full time equivalent (FTE) cost estimating relationships CERs, to complex - CERs for monthly time-phasing activities for small research projects that start and get completed within a government fiscal year. This paper will present the results of a parametric study investigating the cost-effectiveness of different alternatives performance based cost estimating relationships (CERs) and how they get applied into the Center s forward pricing rate proposals (FPRP). True CERs based on the relationship of a younger aged workforce will have some effects on labor rates used in both commercial cost models and internal home-grown cost models which may impact the productivity factors for future NASA missions.

  17. Future Contingents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter; Hasle., Per F. V.

    2015-01-01

    will be a sea-battle tomorrow” could serve as standard examples. What could be called the problem of future contingents concerns how to ascribe truth-values to such statements. If there are several possible decisions out of which one is going to be made freely tomorrow, can there be a truth now about which one......, ‘future contingents’ could also refer to future contingent objects. A statement like “The first astronaut to go to Mars will have a unique experience” could be analyzed as referring to an object not yet existing, supposing that one day in the distant future some person will indeed travel to Mars......, but that person has not yet been born. The notion of ‘future contingent objects’ involves important philosophical questions, for instance the issue of ethical obligations towards future generations, quantification over ‘future contingent objects’ etc. However, this entry is confined to the study of future...

  18. Future Contingents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter; Hasle., Per F. V.

    2011-01-01

    will be a sea-battle tomorrow” could serve as standard examples. What could be called the problem of future contingents concerns how to ascribe truth-values to such statements. If there are several possible decisions out of which one is going to be made freely tomorrow, can there be a truth now about which one......, ‘future contingents’ could also refer to future contingent objects. A statement like “The first astronaut to go to Mars will have a unique experience” could be analyzed as referring to an object not yet existing, supposing that one day in the distant future some person will indeed travel to Mars......, but that person has not yet been born. The notion of ‘future contingent objects’ involves important philosophical questions, for instance the issue of ethical obligations towards future generations, quantification over ‘future contingent objects’ etc. However, this entry is confined to the study of future...

  19. Exchange Rates’ Effect on Spot and Futures Equity Index Markets: A Study on Borsa Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayben Koy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the linkages between the foreign exchange rates, spot equity index and equity index futures. The study aims to investi-gate whether there is difference between the spot and futures markets in the scope of relation with the foreign exchange rates’ returns and which leads the other. The relationships are examined by using the vector autoregression (VAR model, impulse-response functions, variance decomposition and Granger Causality tests. The sample of the study consists of US dollar to Turkish Lira rate (USD/TRY, Euro to Turkish Lira rate (EUR/TRY, BIST 30 Index and BIST 30 Index Futures. The data of the study includes the period between January 2011 and December 2014 with daily data range. Our results have evidence that the foreign exchange rate markets in Turkey are driven by the equity market.

  20. Study on spillover effect of copper futures between LME and SHFE using wavelet multiresolution analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Research on information spillover effects between financial markets remains active in the economic community. A Granger-type model has recently been used to investigate the spillover between London Metal Exchange (LME) and Shanghai Futures Exchange (SHFE), however, possible correlation between the future price and return on different time scales have been ignored. In this paper, wavelet multiresolution decomposition is used to investigate the spillover effects of copper future returns between the two markets. The daily return time series are decomposed on 2n (n=1, ..., 6) frequency bands through wavelet multiresolution analysis. The correlation between the two markets is studied with decomposed data. It is shown that high frequency detail components represent much more energy than low-frequency smooth components. The relation between copper future daily returns in LME and that in SHFE are different on different time scales. The fluctuations of the copper future daily returns in LME have large effect on that in SHFE in 32-day scale, but small effect in high frequency scales. It also has evidence that strong effects exist between LME and SHFE for monthly responses of the copper futures but not for daily responses.

  1. An empirical study on information spillover effects between the Chinese copper futures market and spot market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangli; Cheng, Siwei; Wang, Shouyang; Hong, Yongmiao; Li, Yi

    2008-02-01

    This study employs a parametric approach based on TGARCH and GARCH models to estimate the VaR of the copper futures market and spot market in China. Considering the short selling mechanism in the futures market, the paper introduces two new notions: upside VaR and extreme upside risk spillover. And downside VaR and upside VaR are examined by using the above approach. Also, we use Kupiec’s [P.H. Kupiec, Techniques for verifying the accuracy of risk measurement models, Journal of Derivatives 3 (1995) 73-84] backtest to test the power of our approaches. In addition, we investigate information spillover effects between the futures market and the spot market by employing a linear Granger causality test, and Granger causality tests in mean, volatility and risk respectively. Moreover, we also investigate the relationship between the futures market and the spot market by using a test based on a kernel function. Empirical results indicate that there exist significant two-way spillovers between the futures market and the spot market, and the spillovers from the futures market to the spot market are much more striking.

  2. A general review of concepts for reducing skin friction, including recommendations for future studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, M. C.; Ash, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Four main concepts which have significantly reduced skin friction in experimental studies are discussed; suction, gaseous injection, particle additives, and compliant wall. It is considered possible that each of these concepts could be developed and applied in viable skin friction reduction systems for aircraft application. Problem areas with each concept are discussed, and recommendations for future studies are made.

  3. Review of Current Studies in Instructional Design Theory in Korea: Major Trends and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Cheolil; Yeon, Eunkyoung

    2009-01-01

    This article reviewed recent studies of instructional design theory in Korea to explore major trends and suggest future directions. Based on the analysis of 40 articles from the "Journal of Educational Technology" between 1994 and 2006, this study identified six trends: little emphasis on the conceptualization of instructional design…

  4. Chinese women's motivation to receive future screening: the role of social-demographic factors, knowledge and risk perception of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Can; Chan, Carmen W H; He, Guo-Ping; Choi, K C; Yang, Sheng-Bo

    2013-04-01

    This paper adopted Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) to examine Chinese women's knowledge and perceptions of cervical cancer risk and factors influencing their motivation to receive future screening. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 167 Chinese women (142 women were willing to receive a screening in the future and 25 women were not) in 2007 to collect women's socio-demographic information and sexual history, perceptions related to body health and knowledge about cervical cancer and screening, and Protection Motivation Theory measures. The majority of women stated they intended to receive future screening and response efficacy was significantly associated with their intention. However, no significant association was observed between sexual history and protection motivation. Using multivariate analysis, cancer in relatives (odds ratio, OR = 9.97, 95% CI [1.44-436.3], p = 0.010), a perception that visiting a doctor regularly is important to health (OR = 9.85, 95% CI [1.61-999.9], p = 0.009)), and ever attending for cervical screening during the previous three years (OR = 3.49, 95% CI [1.23-11.02], p = 0.016) were significantly associated with women' motivation to receive future screening. The findings of this study highlight the important role of women's beliefs in the value of cervical screening and previous screening experience in motivating them to receive a screening. Education intervention is needed to provide information and raise public awareness about the importance of cervical screening to women's health. Culture-related beliefs and social motivational processes in addition to those specified by PMT need to be addressed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Market Efficiency in the Crude Oil Futures Market - an Empirical Study after the Shale Oil Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Lade, Ragne Myrhol

    2016-01-01

    This thesis has studied efficiency in the crude oil futures market for WTI and the Brent Blend for a period including the “shale oil revolution”. The main objective was to provide new information by investigating a period in time not much explored in already published articles. Furthermore, the thesis sought to close a gap of earlier empirical studies performed, by combining the two crude oil types and including up to 6 months maturities for futures contracts, while at the same time having a ...

  6. A NASA study of the impact of technology on future carrier based tactical aircraft - Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S. B., III

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of technology on future carrier based tactical aircraft. The results were used in the Center for Naval Analysis Future Carrier Study. The NASA Team designed three classes of aircraft ('Fighter', 'Attack', and 'Multimission') with two different technology levels. The Multimission aircraft were further analyzed by examining the penalty on the aircraft for both catapult launch/arrested landing recovery (Cat/trap) and short take-off/vertical landing (STOVL). The study showed the so-called STOVL penalty was reduced by engine technology and the next generation Strike Fighter will pay more penalty for Cat/trap than for STOVL capability.

  7. The Research on the Influecing Factors of Chinese Gold Futures%中国黄金期货价格影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨胜刚; 陈帅立; 王盾

    2014-01-01

    采用线性回归、Breush-Godfrey LM相关性检验、VAR 模型的方差分解和脉冲响应图、价格波动率的单位根检验和 Granger格兰杰因果检验等方法对中国黄金期货价格的影响因素进行实证研究。结果表明:上海、香港、伦敦的黄金现货和纽约黄金期货价格以及美元指数是影响中国黄金期货价格的主要因素,而中国黄金期货价格的波动显著受到伦敦黄金现货价格波动和纽约黄金期货价格波动的影响。虽然目前中国黄金期货市场已具备一定的规避风险功能,且初具价格发现功能,但国际影响力有待继续提升。%This paper mainly studies the influencing factors of Chinese gold futures by apply-ing the linear regression,the Breush-Godfrey LM correlation analysis,the Variance Decomposition as well as the Impulse Response diagram in the VAR model and the Unit Root test and the Granger causality test of the price volatility,etc.,empirically.The result of the empirical test confirms that the price of Chinese gold futures is mainly affected by the gold spot price of Shang-hai,Hongkong,London,the gold futures price of New York,and the dollar index;the price vol-atility of Chinese gold futures is greatly influenced by the London gold spot price and the New York futures gold price fluctuation.The Chinese gold futures market has already performed roles of risks-avoiding and price-discovery to some extent.However,its international influence is yet to be further developed.

  8. What Factors Inflence Teachers' Level of Follow Up on Their Training? Further Findings from the 2003 End of School Year Survey Intel Teach to the Future[R] U.S. Classic Implementation. CCT Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Wendy; Kanaya, Tomoe; Crichton, Jacinth

    2004-01-01

    This report is an addendum to a previous report summarizing teacher responses to a survey administered to U.S. Classic Master and Participant Teachers in April 2003. It specifically examines the factors that influence whether and to what degree teachers follow up on their experience with Intel Teach to the Future. examines a key evaluation…

  9. Pollutant emissions and energy efficiency of Chinese gasifier cooking stoves and implications for future intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Ellison M; Shan, Ming; Yang, Xudong; Li, Jiarong; Baumgartner, Jill

    2014-06-03

    Household air pollution from solid fuel combustion is the leading environmental health risk factor globally. In China, almost half of all homes use solid fuel to meet their household energy demands. Gasifier cookstoves offer a potentially affordable, efficient, and low-polluting alternative to current solid fuel combustion technology, but pollutant emissions and energy efficiency performance of this class of stoves are poorly characterized. In this study, four Chinese gasifier cookstoves were evaluated for their pollutant emissions and efficiency using the internationally recognized water boiling test (WBT), version 4.1.2. WBT performance indicators included PM2.5, CO, and CO2 emissions and overall thermal efficiency. Laboratory investigation also included evaluation of pollutant emissions (PM2.5 and CO) under stove operating conditions designed to simulate common Chinese cooking practices. High power average overall thermal efficiencies ranged from 22 to 33%. High power average PM2.5 emissions ranged from 120 to 430 mg/MJ of useful energy, and CO emissions ranged from 1 to 30 g/MJ of useful energy. Compared with several widely disseminated "improved" cookstoves selected from the literature, on average, the four Chinese gasifier cookstoves had lower PM2.5 emissions and higher CO emissions. The recent International Organization for Standardization (ISO) International Workshop Agreement on tiered cookstove ranking was developed to help classify stove performance and identify the best-performing stoves. The results from this study highlight potential ways to further improve this approach. Medium power stove operation emitted nearly twice as much PM2.5 as was emitted during high power stove operation, and the lighting phase of a cooking event contributed 45% and 34% of total PM2.5 emissions (combined lighting and cooking). Future approaches to laboratory-based testing of advanced cookstoves could improve to include greater differentiation between different modes of

  10. Factors Influencing Smallholder Farmers' Climate Change Perceptions: A Study from Farmers in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habtemariam, Lemlem Teklegiorgis; Gandorfer, Markus; Kassa, Getachew Abate; Heissenhuber, Alois

    2016-08-01

    Factors influencing climate change perceptions have vital roles in designing strategies to enrich climate change understanding. Despite this, factors that influence smallholder farmers' climate change perceptions have not yet been adequately studied. As many of the smallholder farmers live in regions where climate change is predicted to have the most negative impact, their climate change perception is of particular interest. In this study, based on data collected from Ethiopian smallholder farmers, we assessed farmers' perceptions and anticipations of past and future climate change. Furthermore, the factors influencing farmers' climate change perceptions and the relation between farmers' perceptions and available public climate information were assessed. Our findings revealed that a majority of respondents perceive warming temperatures and decreasing rainfall trends that correspond with the local meteorological record. Farmers' perceptions about the past climate did not always reflect their anticipations about the future. A substantial number of farmers' anticipations of future climate were less consistent with climate model projections. The recursive bivariate probit models employed to explore factors affecting different categories of climate change perceptions illustrate statistical significance for explanatory variables including location, gender, age, education, soil fertility status, climate change information, and access to credit services. The findings contribute to the literature by providing evidence not just on farmers' past climate perceptions but also on future climate anticipations. The identified factors help policy makers to provide targeted extension and advisory services to enrich climate change understanding and support appropriate farm-level climate change adaptations.

  11. Factors Influencing Smallholder Farmers' Climate Change Perceptions: A Study from Farmers in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habtemariam, Lemlem Teklegiorgis; Gandorfer, Markus; Kassa, Getachew Abate; Heissenhuber, Alois

    2016-08-01

    Factors influencing climate change perceptions have vital roles in designing strategies to enrich climate change understanding. Despite this, factors that influence smallholder farmers' climate change perceptions have not yet been adequately studied. As many of the smallholder farmers live in regions where climate change is predicted to have the most negative impact, their climate change perception is of particular interest. In this study, based on data collected from Ethiopian smallholder farmers, we assessed farmers' perceptions and anticipations of past and future climate change. Furthermore, the factors influencing farmers' climate change perceptions and the relation between farmers' perceptions and available public climate information were assessed. Our findings revealed that a majority of respondents perceive warming temperatures and decreasing rainfall trends that correspond with the local meteorological record. Farmers' perceptions about the past climate did not always reflect their anticipations about the future. A substantial number of farmers' anticipations of future climate were less consistent with climate model projections. The recursive bivariate probit models employed to explore factors affecting different categories of climate change perceptions illustrate statistical significance for explanatory variables including location, gender, age, education, soil fertility status, climate change information, and access to credit services. The findings contribute to the literature by providing evidence not just on farmers' past climate perceptions but also on future climate anticipations. The identified factors help policy makers to provide targeted extension and advisory services to enrich climate change understanding and support appropriate farm-level climate change adaptations.

  12. Psychological and Behavioral Risk Factors for Obesity Onset in Adolescent Girls: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Shaw, Heather; Rohde, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Because little is known about risk factors for obesity, the authors tested whether certain psychological and behavioral variables predicted future onset of obesity. The authors used data from a prospective study of 496 adolescent girls who completed a baseline assessment at age 11-15 years and 4 annual follow-ups. Self-reported dietary restraint,…

  13. Psychological and Behavioral Risk Factors for Obesity Onset in Adolescent Girls: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Shaw, Heather; Rohde, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Because little is known about risk factors for obesity, the authors tested whether certain psychological and behavioral variables predicted future onset of obesity. The authors used data from a prospective study of 496 adolescent girls who completed a baseline assessment at age 11-15 years and 4 annual follow-ups. Self-reported dietary restraint,…

  14. Post traumatic stress disorder in the wake of heart disease: Prevalence, risk factors, and future research directions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Helle; Pedersen, Susanne Schmidt

    2005-01-01

    Background There is increasing recognition that patients following a cardiac event may be at riskof developing PTSD. The present article reviews studies looking at PTSD as a sequel of heart disease witha particular focus on prevalence and risk factors. Potential pathogenic pathways that may link ...

  15. Experience of Future Economists’ Self-Study Organization in Foreign Higher Education Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyev Oktay

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article consolidates information sources on the issues of future economists’ self-study organization at foreign universities. There has been carried out the study of approaches to the interpretation of the term “self-study process” in the contemporary scientific thought abroad. There have been specified the productive ideas of foreign experience which are to be understood and implemented into practice of domestic higher education institutions in terms of professional training of future specialists in the field of social and behavioural sciences majoring in Economics, including the following: 1 student self-study is supposed to be a mandatory part of the educational process, with the amount of time dedicated to being less than 65 percent. At the same time a student-personalized approach to each student should be implemented and the course of study, specifics of the subject being learnt should be taken into account; the teachers are expected to offer verbal consulting and ICT support (including university web resources of student self-study; 2 while organizing the educational process (syllabi, curricula for students of different educational levels it should be taken into account that there is a link between self-education of future economists with his/her practical activities along with development prospects of the sector; 3 organization of future economists’ self-study should be based on the student’s conscious attitude to learning, recognition of its role in meeting the challenges and solving the urgent problems of economic education (motivational component; on knowledge forming the basis for the individual’s self-study and determining his/her readiness for self-education in their future careers (cognitive component; on combination of skills and abilities of the individual, determining his/her functional readiness for professional self-education on challenging issues of economic sphere (operational and pragmatist component.

  16. Historical Pattern and Future Trajectories of Terrestrial N2O Emission driven by Multi-factor Global Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, C.; Tian, H.; Yang, J.; Zhang, B.; Xu, R.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is among the most important greenhouse gases only next to carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) due to its long life time and high radiative forcing (with a global warming potential 265 times as much as CO2 at 100-year time horizon). The Atmospheric concentration of N2O has increased by 20% since pre-industrial era, and this increase plays a significant role in shaping anthropogenic climate change. However, compared to CO2- and CH4-related research, fewer studies have been performed in assessing and predicting the spatiotemporal patterns of N2O emission from natural and agricultural soils. Here we used a coupled biogeochemical model, DLEM, to quantify the historical and future changes in global terrestrial N2O emissions resulting from natural and anthropogenic perturbations including climate variability, atmospheric CO2 concentration, nitrogen deposition, land use and land cover changes, and agricultural land management practices (i.e., synthetic nitrogen fertilizer use, manure application, and irrigation etc.) over the period 1900-2099. We focused on inter-annual variation and long-term trend of terrestrial N2O emission driven by individual and combined environmental changes during historical and future periods. The sensitivity of N2O emission to climate, atmospheric composition, and human activities has been examined at biome-, latitudinal, continental and global scales. Future projections were conducted to identify the hot spots and hot time periods of global N2O emission under two emission scenarios (RCP2.6 and RCP8.5). It provides a modeling perspective for understanding human-induced N2O emission growth and developing potential management strategies to mitigate further atmospheric N2O increase and climate warming.

  17. Buildings of the Future Scoping Study: A Framework for Vision Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Na [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Goins, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The Buildings of the Future Scoping Study, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Technologies Office, seeks to develop a vision for what U.S. mainstream commercial and residential buildings could become in 100 years. This effort is not intended to predict the future or develop a specific building design solution. Rather, it will explore future building attributes and offer possible pathways of future development. Whether we achieve a more sustainable built environment depends not just on technologies themselves, but on how effectively we envision the future and integrate these technologies in a balanced way that generates economic, social, and environmental value. A clear, compelling vision of future buildings will attract the right strategies, inspire innovation, and motivate action. This project will create a cross-disciplinary forum of thought leaders to share their views. The collective views will be integrated into a future building vision and published in September 2015. This report presents a research framework for the vision development effort based on a literature survey and gap analysis. This document has four objectives. First, it defines the project scope. Next, it identifies gaps in the existing visions and goals for buildings and discusses the possible reasons why some visions did not work out as hoped. Third, it proposes a framework to address those gaps in the vision development. Finally, it presents a plan for a series of panel discussions and interviews to explore a vision that mitigates problems with past building paradigms while addressing key areas that will affect buildings going forward.

  18. Fuzzy Cognitive Maps for futures studies : a methodological assessment of concepts and methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jetter, J.J.; Kok, K.

    2014-01-01

    Fuzzy Cognitive Map (FCM) modelling is highly suitable for the demands of future studies: it uses a mix of qualitative and quantitative approaches, it enables the inclusion of multiple and diverse sources to overcome the limitations of expert opinions, it considers multivariate interactions that lea

  19. The Chinese Society of Rare Earth is Studying The Feasibility of Marketing Rare Earth Futures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Lin Donglu,secretary-general of the Chinese Society of Rare Earth recently said,the Chinese Society of Rare Earth undertook the research on subject of the National Social Science Fund Foundation on the reform of Chinese rare earth trading pricing mechanism on promoting RMB globalization,and is focusing on studying the feasibility of marketing rare earth futures variety.

  20. Studies on Written Corrective Feedback: Theoretical Perspectives, Empirical Evidence, and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Jiang, Lin

    2015-01-01

    The role of written corrective feedback (WCF) in the process of acquiring a second language (L2) has been an issue of considerable controversies over past decades. This article intends to provide a critical review of the increasing number of WCF studies thus far and to inspire new perspectives for future research. It starts by briefly tracing the…

  1. Beauty and charm to study new physics at future linear colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, M. [Santa Cruz Institute of Particle Physics, University of California at Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); CERN, DG Department, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland)

    2011-01-15

    The b and c hadrons are instrumental to the identification and study of the Higgs sector and new physics at a future lepton collider. This paper reviews highlights of b and c physics for the linear collider programs and the directions of ongoing R and D on pixellated silicon sensors for its vertex tracker.

  2. Fuzzy Cognitive Maps for futures studies : a methodological assessment of concepts and methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jetter, J.J.; Kok, K.

    2014-01-01

    Fuzzy Cognitive Map (FCM) modelling is highly suitable for the demands of future studies: it uses a mix of qualitative and quantitative approaches, it enables the inclusion of multiple and diverse sources to overcome the limitations of expert opinions, it considers multivariate interactions that

  3. Vertical Cities of the Future: Implications for the Study and Teaching of Urban Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Michael L.

    1974-01-01

    The implications of a vertical city, of which the John Hancock Center in Chicago is a prototype, should be considered by teachers of urban studies. Questions clustering around nine discussion areas indicate the kinds of expanded, critical, and interdisciplinary thinking that planning and teaching for the future require. (JH)

  4. Perceptions and Expectations of Youth with Disabilities. A Special Topic Report on Findings from the National Longitudinal Study-2 (NLTS2): Chapter 6--Youth's Expectations for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Mary; Newman, Lynn; Cameto, Renee; Levine, Phyllis; Marder, Camille

    2007-01-01

    At 15 to 19 years old, National Longitudinal Study-2 (NLTS2) youth are on the threshold of adulthood. As they look toward their future adult roles, what are their academic, occupational, and independence expectations? Multiple factors have been found to be associated with aspirations and expectations, including individual abilities and social…

  5. Some Theoretical and Methodological Problems Related to Studying the Future of Adult Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilija Lavrnja

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The following paper first discusses some epistemological and theoretically methodological initial theses for a futurological research in education. In analysing them, the author first dwells upon different orientations and doctrines for futuro logical research work (rational detenninism and indetenninism, agnosticism and probabil· ism. This article is focusing upon possibilities and limits of hypotheses, related to the educational development in the future. In doing so, re-orientation or reconstruction of knowledge, educational phenomena and pedagogical thinking related to the education as a factor inducing individual and social development are taken into account.

  6. Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors in non-small cell lung cancer: current status and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Zükin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Two classes of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR inhibitors are currently available for clinical use: tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs and monoclonal antibodies. The introduction of pharmacological agents that are able to inhibit EGFR represents an important step in the management of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. The use of EGFR inhibitors has not only led to meaningful therapeutic gains for patients, but has also expanded our knowledge about the disease itself, as it is now recognized that activating mutations of EGFR play a pathogenetic role in NSCLC, especially in adenocarcinoma, patients who never smoked or former light smokers, females, and Asian individuals. Patients with NSCLC and one or more of these features are more likely to harbor tumors with EGFR mutations, and hence to respond to TKIs, than individuals without these features. Currently, TKIs are considered by many as the treatment of first choice in both the first- and second-line treatment of patients with clinical or molecular predictors of therapeutic benefit, and chemotherapy is a second option in these cases, especially when activating mutations of EGFR are present. Moreover, TKIs and anti-EGFR antibodies may be used in other settings, and their therapeutic role in NSCLC is clearly expanding. However, despite an initially successful treatment course, patients with advanced NSCLC eventually develop resistance to TKIs; and novel agents that hold promise for the future include irreversible EGFR inhibitors with activity against resistance-conferring EGFR mutations.

  7. Management of the Pregnant Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patient on Antitumour Necrosis Factor Therapy: State of the Art and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette PY Leung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antitumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF therapy has been a major advance in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD by improving rates of mucosal healing, steroid-free remission, and decreasing rates of hospitalization and surgery. Because IBD affects women in their reproductive years, clinicians have and will continue to be asked in the future about the safety profile of these agents and their potential impact on pregnancy, the developing fetus and newborn. Immunoglobulin G transfer from the mother to fetus begins in the second trimester, with an elevation starting at 22 weeks of gestation and the largest amount transferred in the third trimester. Although research investigating the long-term outcomes of children exposed to anti-TNF therapy in utero is limited, there is no known adverse effect on either pregnancy or newborn outcomes including infectious complications with this class of drugs. The World Congress of Gastroenterology consensus statement on biological therapy for IBD considered infliximab and adalimumab to be low risk and compatible with use during conception and during pregnancy in at least the first two trimesters. Based on a clinical algorithm used at the University of Calgary Pregnancy and IBD clinic (Calgary, Alberta, recommendations have been provided on the management of pregnant patients on anti-TNF therapy, particularly with regard to third-trimester dosing, taking into account disease characteristics of individual patients. When educated about the safety of anti-TNF therapy during pregnancy, patients often choose to continue on therapy during the third trimester.

  8. Influence of juice processing factors on quality of black chokeberry pomace as a future resource for colour extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagiri, Michael; Jensen, Martin

    2017-02-15

    Aronia melanocarpa berries are a rich source of anthocyanins and its pomace, a by-product of juice processing, could be efficiently used for extraction of natural colours for the food industry. This study evaluated the influence blanching, freezing, maceration temperatures (2°C, 50°C) and enzyme treatments before juice pressing on the yield and anthocyanin composition of both juice and pomace. Total anthocyanin levels in pomace were affected mostly by enzyme treatment followed by maceration temperature. The pre-heating of the mash prior to processing increased juice yield and retention of anthocyanins in the pomace. Cold maceration of frozen berries without enzyme addition gave the highest concentrations of anthocyanins in the pomace, and both cold and hot maceration of fresh unblanched berries with enzyme the lowest. The results support future exploitation of natural colours from pomace side streams of Aronia, thus increasing competitiveness of Aronia berry production.

  9. Impact of Future Climate Change on Regional Crop Water Requirement—A Case Study of Hetao Irrigation District, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianwa Zhou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage is a limiting factor for agricultural production in China, and climate change will affect agricultural water use. Studying the effects of climate change on crop irrigation requirement (CIR would help to tackle climate change, from both food security and sustainable water resource use perspectives. This paper applied SDSM (Statistical DownScaling Model to simulate future meteorological parameters in the Hetao irrigation district (HID in the time periods 2041–2070 and 2071–2099, and used the Penman–Monteith equation to calculate reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0, which was further used to calculate crop evapotranspiration (ETc and crop water requirement (CWR. CWR and predicted future precipitation were used to calculate CIR. The results show that the climate in the HID will become warmer and wetter; ET0 would would increase by 4% to 7%; ETc and CWR have the same trend as ET0, but different crops have different increase rates. CIR would increase because of the coefficient of the increase of CWR and the decrease of effective precipitation. Based on the current growing area, the CIR would increase by 198 × 106 to 242 × 106 m3 by the year 2041–2070, and by 342 × 106 to 456 × 106 m3 by the years 2071–2099 respectively. Future climate change will bring greater challenges to regional agricultural water use.

  10. An Exploratory Study of E-Business Success Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jingting; HUANG Jinghua

    2004-01-01

    E-business success factors are important for traditional enterprises to implement e-business. This topic is attracting more and more researchers to study. This paper makes an exploratory study on the factors influencing e-business success. Firstly, based on the literature review, 52 factors are suggested. Secondly, two rounds of survey with Delphi method are conducted. Qualitative and quantitative analysis are used to identify 57factors. This is the foundation of empirical study.

  11. Could be the future climate change an opportunity for the winegrowers? The case study of Aglianico wine in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante, Antonello; Basile, Angelo; Dragonetti, Giovanna; De Lorenzi, Francesca; De Mascellis, Roberto; Gambuti, Angelita; Giorio, Pasquale; Guida, Giampiero; Manna, Piero; Minieri, Luciana; Oliva, Marco; Orefice, Nadia; Terribile, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    Water deficit is a limiting factor to yield production and crop adaptation to future climate conditions. This is true for crops addressed mainly for biomass production (e.g. maize, wheat, etc.) but not for those where the quality is relevant. Specifically, in grapevine water stress (mid or limited) - occurring during specific phenological phases - is a factor to produce good quality wines. It induces for example the production of anthocyanins and aroma precursors. Therefore, the water stress, due to the future increase of temperature and the rainfall decrease, could represent an opportunity to increase winegrowers' incomes. The study was carried out in Campania region (Southern Italy), in an area vocated to high quality wines production (ZOVISA project: Viticultural zoning at farm scale) The study was realized in two different soils (calcisol and cambisol), under the same climate, on Aglianico cultivar, standard clone population on 1103 Paulsen rootstocks placed along a slope of 90 m length with 11% of gradient. The agro-hydrological model SWAP was calibrated and applied to estimate soil-plant water status at the various crop phenological phases for three vintages (2011-2013). Crop water stress index (CWSI) - estimated by the model - was related to physiological measurements (e.g leaf water potential), grape bunches measurements (e.g. sugar content) and wine quality (e.g. tannins). For both soils, the correlation between measurements and CWSI were high (e.g. -0.97** with sugar; 0.895* with anthocyanins in the skins). Then, the model was applied to future climate condition (2021-2051) obtained from statistical downscaling of GCM in order to estimate the effect of the climate on CWSI and hence on vine quality. The results show that the effects of the climate change on the vine quality is dependent by the soil, being relevant to the cambisol and less pronounced to the calcisol, with an expected improvement of wine quality in the cambisol.

  12. Study of New Silicon Sensors for Experiments at Future Particle Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Muñoz Sánchez, Francisca Javiela

    In this work, two new technologies for future tracker detectors at future colliders are studied. In addition, the characterization techniques are described and the obtained results are presented. On one side, we studied two-dimensional position-sensitive microstrip sensors. This sensors use a resistive material as electrode instead of the standard metallic one. In this way, using a single sensor we can get information about two coordinates of a particle hit. On the other side, we studied double-sided double-type 3D pixel sensors. This sensors are manufactured in 3D technology instead of in the planar technology. They show more radiation hardness and require less energy to be efficiently operated than sensors manufactured in planar technology. With this work, we demonstrate the resistive microstrip sensors functionality as particle detector and the radiation hardness of 3D pixel detectors has been evaluated.

  13. Unprofessional Behaviors Among Tomorrow's Physicians: Review of the Literature With a Focus on Risk Factors, Temporal Trends, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargen, Kyle M; Drolet, Brian C; Philibert, Ingrid

    2016-06-01

    Recent reports have identified concerning patterns of unprofessional and dishonest behavior by physician trainees. Despite this publicity, the prevalence and impact of these behaviors is not well described; thus, the authors aimed to review and analyze the various studies on unprofessional behavior among U.S. medical trainees. The authors performed a literature review. They sought all reports on unprofessional and dishonest behavior among U.S. medical school students or resident physicians published in English and indexed in PubMed between January 1980 and May 2014. A total of 51 publications met criteria for inclusion in the study. The data in these reports suggest that plagiarism, cheating on examinations, and listing fraudulent publications on residency/fellowship applications were reported in 5% to 15% of the student and resident populations that were studied. Other behaviors, such as inaccurately reporting that a medical examination was performed on a patient or falsifying duty hours, appear to be even more common (reportedly occurring among 40% to 50% of students and residents). "Unprofessional behavior" lacks a unified definition. The data on the prevalence of unprofessional behavior in medical students and residents are limited. Unprofessional behaviors are common and appear to be occurring in various demographic groups within the medical trainee population. The relationship between unprofessional behaviors in training and future disciplinary action is poorly understood. Going forward, defining "unprofessional behavior"; developing validated instruments to evaluate such behaviors scientifically; and studying their incidence, motivations, and consequences are critical.

  14. A designed screening study with prespecified combinations of factor settings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson-cook, Christine M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Robinson, Timothy J [U. WYOMING

    2009-01-01

    In many applications, the experimenter has limited options about what factor combinations can be chosen for a designed study. Consider a screening study for a production process involving five input factors whose levels have been previously established. The goal of the study is to understand the effect of each factor on the response, a variable that is expensive to measure and results in destruction of the part. From an inventory of available parts with known factor values, we wish to identify a best collection of factor combinations with which to estimate the factor effects. Though the observational nature of the study cannot establish a causal relationship involving the response and the factors, the study can increase understanding of the underlying process. The study can also help determine where investment should be made to control input factors during production that will maximally influence the response. Because the factor combinations are observational, the chosen model matrix will be nonorthogonal and will not allow independent estimation of factor effects. In this manuscript we borrow principles from design of experiments to suggest an 'optimal' selection of factor combinations. Specifically, we consider precision of model parameter estimates, the issue of replication, and abilities to detect lack of fit and to estimate two-factor interactions. Through an example, we present strategies for selecting a subset of factor combinations that simultaneously balance multiple objectives, conduct a limited sensitivity analysis, and provide practical guidance for implementing our techniques across a variety of quality engineering disciplines.

  15. URBAN GROWTH SCENARIOS OF A FUTURE MEGA CITY: CASE STUDY AHMEDABAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lehner

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of urban areas and their development focuses on cities, their physical and demographic expansion and the tensions and impacts that go along with urban growth. Especially in developing countries and emerging national economies like India, consistent and up to date information or other planning relevant data all too often is not available. With its Smart Cities Mission, the Indian government places great importance on the future developments of Indian urban areas and pays tribute to the large-scale rural to urban migration. The potentials of urban remote sensing and its contribution to urban planning are discussed and related to the Indian Smart Cities Mission. A case study is presented showing urban remote sensing based information products for the city of Ahmedabad. Resulting urban growth scenarios are presented, hotspots identified and future action alternatives proposed.

  16. Urban Growth Scenarios of a Future MEGA City: Case Study Ahmedabad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, A.; Kraus, V.; Steinnocher, K.

    2016-06-01

    The study of urban areas and their development focuses on cities, their physical and demographic expansion and the tensions and impacts that go along with urban growth. Especially in developing countries and emerging national economies like India, consistent and up to date information or other planning relevant data all too often is not available. With its Smart Cities Mission, the Indian government places great importance on the future developments of Indian urban areas and pays tribute to the large-scale rural to urban migration. The potentials of urban remote sensing and its contribution to urban planning are discussed and related to the Indian Smart Cities Mission. A case study is presented showing urban remote sensing based information products for the city of Ahmedabad. Resulting urban growth scenarios are presented, hotspots identified and future action alternatives proposed.

  17. Implied Volatility Futures Trading Activity and Impacts on Asian Stock Market: An Empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Duc Nam Trung

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes impacts of the adoption of a new type of derivatives instrument in the Asian stock market- the implied volatility futures. Furthermore, the analysis is carried on to the preferences of hedging tools in the two pioneering markets in such adoption, Hong Kong and Japan. Unlike other conventional derivatives, the relationship derivatives on volatility and its underlying assets is almost impossible to be modeled, thus creates several difficulties in pricing as well as researchi...

  18. Future Directions in Studies on Student Perception of Teacher Written Feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Rui

    2015-01-01

    Teacher feedback plays a key role in teaching second language writing. Though teachers have devoted a great deal of time to giving written feedback to L2 students, some students complained that they benefit little from written feedback. This study reviews research on the effectiveness of teacher written feedback in ESL context or EFL context in United States, and tries to sug⁃gest future direction in further research.

  19. Service design as an approach to new service development : reflections and futures studies

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Eun; Sangiorgi, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    This paper illustrates how, although Service Design has been described as evolving from a narrow description of a phase in New Service Development (NSD) to an approach to Service Innovation, the current Service Design research is still focused on the initial stages of NSD. Comparing existing Service Design research with foundational knowledge on NSD, the authors have proposed two complementary directions for future Service Design studies: 1) the expansion of ‘service design as a phase’ to inv...

  20. Kardiovize Brno 2030, a prospective cardiovascular health study in Central Europe: Methods, baseline findings and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movsisyan, Narine K; Vinciguerra, Manlio; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Kunzová, Šárka; Homolka, Martin; Jaresova, Jana; Cífková, Renata; Sochor, Ondřej

    2017-01-01

    Background Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is highly prevalent in Eastern and Central Europe, where the incidence is the highest in the world. The Kardiovize Brno 2030 study was designed as a prospective cohort study to investigate the complex relationships of cardiovascular disease and outcomes with a range of biological, psychosocial, environmental, behavioral, and economic factors in an urban population of the Czech Republic. Methods We randomly selected a 1% sample of the city of Brno residents aged 25-64 years stratified by sex and age. The study assessed traditional and novel cardiovascular disease risk factors, including sociodemographic and smoking status, physical activity, diet, depression, stress, body fat, cardio-ankle vascular index, and intima media thickness, complemented by blood tests; biological samples were stored for future analyses. Results The study enrolled 2160 participants (54.8% women), with a mean age of 47 ± 11.3 years. They were mostly full-time employed (75.6%) and married (62.1%). Hyperlipidemia was highly prevalent (70.7% in men, and 67.1% in women, NS). Hypertension and diabetes mellitus were more prevalent in men than in women (54.3% vs. 38.7% and 7.1% vs. 3.5%, respectively, P 2030 study will provide unique multidimensional and longitudinal cardiovascular health data from a region where epidemiological studies are scarce.

  1. Modeling the interplay of multilevel risk factors for future academic and behavior problems: a person-centered approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Stephanie T; Rhoades, Brittany L; Nix, Robert L; Greenberg, Mark T

    2010-05-01

    This study identified profiles of 13 risk factors across child, family, school, and neighborhood domains in a diverse sample of children in kindergarten from four US locations (n = 750; 45% minority). It then examined the relation of those early risk profiles to externalizing problems, school failure, and low academic achievement in Grade 5. A person-centered approach, latent class analysis, revealed four unique risk profiles, which varied considerably across urban African American, urban White, and rural White children. Profiles characterized by several risks that cut across multiple domains conferred the highest risk for negative outcomes. Compared to a variable-centered approach, such as a cumulative risk index, these findings provide a more nuanced understanding of the early precursors to negative outcomes. For example, results suggested that urban children in single-parent homes that have few other risk factors (i.e., show at least average parenting warmth and consistency and report relatively low stress and high social support) are at quite low risk for externalizing problems, but at relatively high risk for poor grades and low academic achievement. These findings provide important information for refining and targeting preventive interventions to groups of children who share particular constellations of risk factors.

  2. A Marketing Approach to Commodity Futures Exchanges : A Case Study of the Dutch Hog Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes a marketing strategic approach to commodity futures exchanges to optimise the (hedging) services offered. First, the environment of commodity futures exchanges is examined. Second, the threats and opportunities of commodity futures exchanges are analysed. Our analysis demonstrate

  3. Methodological problems with population cancer studies: The forgotten confounding factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, Russell L

    2015-01-01

    Among clinical physicians it is the population study that is considered to be the "gold standard" of medical evidence concerning acceptable treatments. As new information comes to light concerning the many variables and confounding factors that can affect such studies, many older studies lose much of their original impact. While newer population studies take into consideration a far greater number of confounding factors many are still omitted and a number of these omitted factors can have profound effects on interpretation and validity of the study. In this editorial, I will discuss some of the omitted confounding factors and demonstrate how they can alter the interpretation of these papers and their clinical application.

  4. Counterfactual thinking: an fMRI study on changing the past for a better future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Ampe, Lisa; Baetens, Kris; Van Overwalle, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that a brain network mainly associated with episodic memory has a more general function in imagining oneself in another time, place or perspective (e.g. episodic future thought, theory of mind, default mode). If this is true, counterfactual thinking (e.g. ‘If I had left the office earlier, I wouldn’t have missed my train.’) should also activate this network. Present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study explores the common and distinct neural activity of counterfactual and episodic thinking by directly comparing the imagining of upward counterfactuals (creating better outcomes for negative past events) with the re-experiencing of negative past events and the imagining of positive future events. Results confirm that episodic and counterfactual thinking share a common brain network, involving a core memory network (hippocampal area, temporal lobes, midline, and lateral parietal lobes) and prefrontal areas that might be related to mentalizing (medial prefrontal cortex) and performance monitoring (right prefrontal cortex). In contrast to episodic past and future thinking, counterfactual thinking recruits some of these areas more strongly and extensively, and additionally activates the bilateral inferior parietal lobe and posterior medial frontal cortex. We discuss these findings in view of recent fMRI evidence on the working of episodic memory and theory of mind. PMID:22403155

  5. Counting bodies? On future engagements with science studies in medical anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates-Doerr, Emily

    2017-08-01

    Thirty years ago, Nancy Scheper-Hughes and Margaret Lock outlined a strategy for 'future work in medical anthropology' that focused on three bodies. Their article - a zeitgeist for the field - sought to intervene into the Cartesian dualisms characterizing ethnomedical anthropology at the time. Taking a descriptive and diagnostic approach, they defined 'the mindful body' as a domain of future anthropological inquiry and mapped three analytic concepts that could be used to study it: the individual/phenomenological body, the social body, and the body politic. Three decades later, this paper returns to the 'three bodies'. It analyses ethnographic fieldwork on chronic illness, using a rescriptive, practice-oriented approach to bodies developed by science studies scholars that was not part of the initial three bodies framework. It illustrates how embodiment was a technical achievement in some practices, while in others bodies did not figure as relevant. This leads to the suggestion that an anthropology of health need not be organized around numerable bodies. The paper concludes by suggesting that future work in medical anthropology might embrace translational competency, which does not have the goal of better definitions (better health, better bodies, etc.) but the goal of better engaging with exchanges between medical and non-medical practices. That health professionals are themselves moving away from bodies to embrace 'planetary health' makes a practice-focused orientation especially crucial for medical anthropology today.

  6. Counterfactual thinking: an fMRI study on changing the past for a better future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoeck, Nicole; Ma, Ning; Ampe, Lisa; Baetens, Kris; Vandekerckhove, Marie; Van Overwalle, Frank

    2013-06-01

    Recent studies suggest that a brain network mainly associated with episodic memory has a more general function in imagining oneself in another time, place or perspective (e.g. episodic future thought, theory of mind, default mode). If this is true, counterfactual thinking (e.g. 'If I had left the office earlier, I wouldn't have missed my train.') should also activate this network. Present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study explores the common and distinct neural activity of counterfactual and episodic thinking by directly comparing the imagining of upward counterfactuals (creating better outcomes for negative past events) with the re-experiencing of negative past events and the imagining of positive future events. Results confirm that episodic and counterfactual thinking share a common brain network, involving a core memory network (hippocampal area, temporal lobes, midline, and lateral parietal lobes) and prefrontal areas that might be related to mentalizing (medial prefrontal cortex) and performance monitoring (right prefrontal cortex). In contrast to episodic past and future thinking, counterfactual thinking recruits some of these areas more strongly and extensively, and additionally activates the bilateral inferior parietal lobe and posterior medial frontal cortex. We discuss these findings in view of recent fMRI evidence on the working of episodic memory and theory of mind.

  7. A commentary on studies presenting projections of the future prevalence of dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norton Sam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population ageing over the first half of this century is likely to lead to dramatic increases in the prevalence of dementia. This will affect all regions of the world, but particularly developing regions. Dementia projections have been used extensively to support policy. It is therefore important these projections are as accurate as possible. Discussion In this paper we provide a commentary on studies projecting the future prevalence of dementia for the world or for individual continents. We identify some important limitations of the methods used in published projections and provide recommendations to improve the accuracy of future projections, and allow for the checking of the accuracy of the predictions. Summary Accurate projections of dementia incidence, at both the global and local level, are essential for healthcare planners.

  8. Review of Recent Developments and the Future Prospective in West African Atmosphere/Land Interaction Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongkang Xue

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews West African land/atmosphere interaction studies during the past decade. Four issues are addressed in this paper: land data development, land/atmosphere interactions at seasonal-interannual scales, mesoscale studies, and the future prospective. The development of the AMMA Land Surface Model Intercomparison Project has produced a valuable analysis of the land surface state and fluxes which have been applied in a number of large-scale African regional studies. In seasonal-interannual West African climate studies, the latest evidence from satellite data analyses and modeling studies confirm that the West African region has a climate which is particularly sensitive to land surface processes and there is a strong coupling between land surface processes and regional climate at intraseasonal/seasonal scales. These studies indicate that proper land surface process representations and land status initialization would substantially improve predictions and enhance the predictability of West African climate. Mesoscale studies have revealed new understanding of how soil moisture heterogeneity influences the development of convective storms over the course of the diurnal cycle. Finally, several important issues regarding the future prospective are briefly addressed.

  9. Top quark pair production and calorimeter energy resolution studies at a future collider experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Seidel, Katja

    This thesis is focused on detector concepts and analyses investigated at a future linear electron positron collider. For precision measurements at such a collider, the CALICE collaboration develops imaging calorimeters, which are characterized by a fine granularity. CALICE has constructed prototypes of several design options for electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters and has successfully operated these detectors during combined test beam programs at DESY, CERN and Fermilab. To improve the hadronic energy reconstruction and energy resolution of a hadron calorimeter prototype with analog readout three software compensation techniques are presented in this thesis, of which one is a local and two are global software compensation approaches. One method is based on a neural network to optimize the energy reconstruction, while two are energy weighting techniques, depending on the energy density. Weight factors are extracted from and applied to simulated and test beam data and result in an average energy resolutio...

  10. Current asthma control predicts future risk of asthma exacerbation: a 12-month prospective cohort study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Hua-hua; ZHOU Ting; WANG Lan; ZHANG Hong-ping; FU Juan-juan; WANG Lei; JI Yu-lin; WANG Gang

    2012-01-01

    Background The performance of asthma control test (ACT) at baseline for predicting future risk of asthma exacerbation has not been previously demonstrated.This study was designed to explore the ability of the baseline ACT score to predict future risk of asthma exacerbation during a 12-month follow-up.Methods This post hoc analysis included data from a 12-month prospective cohort study in patients with asthma (n=290).The time to the first asthma exacerbation was analyzed and the association between baseline ACT scores and future risk of asthma exacerbation was calculated as adjusted odds ratio (OR) using Logistic regression models.Further,sensitivity and specificity were estimated at each cut-point of ACT scores for predicting asthma exacerbations.Results The subjects were divided into three groups,which were uncontrolled (U,n=128),partly-controlled (PC,n=111),and well controlled (C,n=51) asthma.After adjustment,the decreased ACT scores at baseline in the U and PC groups were associated with an increased probability of asthma exacerbations (OR 3.65 and OR 5.75,respectively),unplanned visits (OR 8.03 and OR 8.21,respectively) and emergency visits (OR 20.00 and OR 22.60,respectively) over a 12-month follow-up period.The time to the first asthma exacerbation was shorter in the groups with U and PC asthma (all P<0.05).The baseline ACT of 20 identified as the cut-point for screening the patients at high risk of asthma exacerbations had an increased sensitivity of over 90.0% but a lower specificity of about 30.0%.Conclusion Our findings indicate that the baseline ACT score with a high sensitivity could rule out patients at low risk of asthma exacerbations and oredict future risk of asthma exacerbations in clinical practice.

  11. Nursing student plans for the future after graduation: a multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palese, A; Falomo, M; Brugnolli, A; Mecugni, D; Marognolli, O; Montalti, S; Tameni, A; Gonella, S; Dimonte, V

    2017-03-01

    When modelling the nursing workforce, estimations of the numbers and characteristics of new graduates over the forecast period are assumed on the basis of previous generations; however, new graduates may have different plans for their future than those documented previously in different socio-economical contexts. To explore (a) nursing student plans after graduation and factors influencing their plans, and (b) factors associated with the intention to emigrate. A survey questionnaire was developed and distributed to students attending their final third year of nursing education in seven universities in Italy in 2015. Nine hundred and twenty-three (90.4%) students participated. Four different plans after graduation emerged: about two-thirds reported an intention to look for a nursing job in Italy; the remaining reported (a) an intention to emigrate, looking for a nursing job abroad, (b) an intention to search for a nursing job in both Italy and abroad, and (c) while a few an intention to continue nursing education in Italy. Having previous experience abroad, the need to grow and be satisfied, trusting the target country and a desire to increase knowledge encouraged an intention to emigrate, whereas the desire to stay in a comfortable environment and nurture personal relationships prevented the desire to migrate. Nursing students may have different plans after graduation, and this should be considered when modelling the nursing workforce of the future. Policymakers should be aware of different plans after graduation to guide healthcare human resource strategies. Knowing these trajectories allows policymakers to estimate the appropriate nursing workforce, and also to act at both macro- and meso-levels, on work environments and opportunities for professional development, according to the different levels of expectations. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  12. The future of practical skills in undergraduate medical education – an explorative Delphi-Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberg, Katja Anne; Stroben, Fabian; Schröder, Therese; Thomas, Anke; Hautz, Wolf E.

    2016-01-01

    statement, 231 of the goals were assessed as relevant, and 57 were deemed irrelevant for the short-term future. Discussion: The theses on the future of healthcare, which were generated in this study and which were validated by numerous experts, provide indications of future developments of overall requirements for medical school graduates. For example, when applied to the content of the “Clinical-Practical Skills” NKLM chapter, they largely validate the future relevance of developing practical skills while also providing indications for their further development as applied to the consensus statement. PMID:27579362

  13. Growth, characterization, and properties of metastable and modulated semiconductor structures - Prospects for future studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunthaner, F. J.; Madhukar, A.

    1983-01-01

    The general field of preparation and study of metastable and modulated semiconductor structures has progressed rapidly in recent years. This short overview offers an assessment of the progress and current understanding in the areas of fabrication, characterization, and utilization of these new material systems. The discussion includes the more prominent growth techniques, theoretical and experimental analysis of growth kinetics, and an overview of structural, chemical, electronic, and optical characterization. The probable application of these structures for the technological development of new device structures and concepts is considered. The discussion particularly emphasizes the prospects for future studies in view of the specific current understanding.

  14. Dominant valued reasons of future rehabilitology experts while studying of discipline «massotherapy»

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlo Iefimenko

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: exposure of dominant reasons during studying of discipline «massotherapy» by the students of direction of specialize «Health of man» of Kharkov state academy of physical culture. Material and Methods: motivation of students of future rehabilitologists at the study of discipline «massotherapy» was determined by a questionnaire at the beginning and at the end of practical pursuit conducted within the framework of business game. Out of the academic group of specialization the «Physical ...

  15. Future Circular Collider Study (FCC) kick-off meeting | 12-15 February

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    The kick-off meeting of the international "Future Circular Collider Study" (FCC) will take place in Geneva from 12 to 15 February 2014 at the University of Geneva, Unimail site. The programme and registration details can be found on the meeting's website. This meeting is the starting point of the five-year international "Future Circular Collider Study" (FCC). The main emphasis of the conceptual design study will be on a hadron collider with a centre-of-mass energy of the order of 100 TeV in a new tunnel with a 80-100 km circumference for the purposes of studying physics at the highest energies. The study will also include a lepton collider, as a potential intermediate step towards realisation of the hadron facility. Options for e-p scenarios will also be considered. The main purpose of this meeting is to discuss the study topics and to prepare international collaborations. The meeting is a public meeting with a registration deadline closing on Friday 31 Janua...

  16. Factors associated with pharmacy student interest in international study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Owen, Chelsea; Breheny, Patrick; Ingram, Richard; Pfeifle, William; Cain, Jeff; Ryan, Melody

    2013-01-01

      To examine the interest of pharmacy students in international study, the demographic factors and involvement characteristics associated with that interest, and the perceived advantages and barriers...

  17. CURRENT CONCEPTS ON THE GENETIC FACTORS IN ROTATOR CUFF PATHOLOGY AND FUTURE IMPLICATIONS FOR SPORTS PHYSICAL THERAPISTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paré, Jessica; Froehlich, John E

    2017-01-01

    Context Recent advances within the field of genetics are currently changing many of the methodologies in which medicine is practiced. These advances are also beginning to influence the manner in which physical therapy services are rendered. Rotator cuff pathology is one of the most common diagnoses treated by the sports physical therapist. The purpose of this commentary is to educate sports physical therapists on the recent advances regarding how genetics influences rotator cuff pathology, including rotator cuff tears, and provide a perspective on how this information will likely influence post-operative shoulder rehabilitation in the near future. Evidence Acquisition A comprehensive review of the literature was completed using the Medline database along with individual searches of relevant physical therapy, surgical, cell biology, and sports medicine journals. Search terms included: shoulder, rotator cuff pathology, genetics, apoptosis, and physical therapy. Search results were compiled and evaluated; relevant primary studies and review articles were gathered; the results from this comprehensive review are summarized here. Study Design Clinical Commentary, Review of the Literature Results Recent advances within the understanding of rotator cuff pathology have further elucidated the cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with rotator cuff tears. There appears to be a hypoxic-induced apoptotic cellular pathway that contributes to rotator cuff tears. Activation of specific proteins termed matrix metalloproteinases appear to be involved in not only primary rotator cuff tears, but also may influence the re-tear rate after surgical intervention. Further advancements in the understanding of the cellular mechanisms contributing to rotator cuff tears and postoperative techniques to help prevent re-tears, may soon influence the methodology in which physical therapy services are provided to patients sustaining a rotator cuff injury. Conclusions At this time continued

  18. A Parametric Study on Using Active Debris Removal to Stabilize the Future LEO Debris Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Recent analyses of the instability of the orbital debris population in the low Earth orbit (LEO) region and the collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 have reignited the interest in using active debris removal (ADR) to remediate the environment. There are; however, monumental technical, resources, operational, legal, and political challenges in making economically viable ADR a reality. Before a consensus on the need for ADR can be reached, a careful analysis of the effectiveness of ADR must be conducted. The goal is to demonstrate the feasibility of using ADR to preserve the future environment and to guide its implementation to maximize the benefit-cost ratio. This paper describes a comprehensive sensitivity study on using ADR to stabilize the future LEO debris environment. The NASA long-term, orbital debris evolutionary model, LEGEND, is used to quantify the effects of many key parameters. These parameters include (1) the starting epoch of ADR implementation, (2) various target selection criteria, (3) the benefits of collision avoidance maneuvers, (4) the consequence of targeting specific inclination or altitude regimes, (5) the consequence of targeting specific classes of vehicles, and (6) the timescale of removal. Additional analyses on the importance of postmission disposal and how future launches might affect the requirements to stabilize the environment are also included.

  19. Precision study of MSSM at future e+e- linear colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, K; Tsukamoto, T; Fujii, Keisuke; Nojiri, Mihoko M; Tsukamoto, Toshifumi

    1995-01-01

    The lighter scalar tau lepton \\sti may be the lightest scalar lepton and therefore would be found earlier in future collider experiments. We point out the impact of the measurement of the mass and the mixing angle of \\st to discriminate the models of SUSY breaking. Furthermore, the measurement of the polarization of \\tau lepton(P_{\\tau}) from the decaying \\sti helps to determine the Yukawa sector of minimal supersymmetric standard model. We present our MC study of the production and the decay of \\sti lepton at a future linear collider at \\sqrt{s}=500 GeV. The mass, mixing angle of \\sti and P_{\\tau}(\\sti\\rightarrow\\tau \\chi_1^0) would be measured precisely at the future LC. ( talks given at Yukawa International Seminar(YIKS) '95 on some very hot and humid day in August, and also at Workshop on {\\it Physics and Experiments with Linear e^+e^- Colliders} Appi, Iwate Japan Sep.8-12 1995.)

  20. Focus Group Study Exploring Factors Related to Frequent Sickness Absence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Notenbomer

    Full Text Available Research investigating frequent sickness absence (3 or more episodes per year is scarce and qualitative research from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves is lacking. The aim of the current study is to explore awareness, determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves.We performed a qualitative study of 3 focus group discussions involving a total of 15 frequent absentees. Focus group discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Results were analyzed with the Graneheim method using the Job Demands Resources (JD-R model as theoretical framework.Many participants were not aware of their frequent sickness absence and the risk of future long-term sickness absence. As determinants, participants mentioned job demands, job resources, home demands, poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Managing these factors and improving communication (skills were regarded as solutions to reduce frequent sickness absence.The JD-R model provided a framework for determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence. Additional determinants were poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Frequent sickness absence should be regarded as a signal that something is wrong. Managers, supervisors, and occupational health care providers should advise and support frequent absentees to accommodate job demands, increase both job and personal resources, and improve health rather than express disapproval of frequent sickness absence and apply pressure regarding work attendance.

  1. Blueprints for the assessment, treatment, and future study of catatonia in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhossche, Dirk Marcel; Shah, Amitta; Wing, Lorna

    2006-01-01

    The blueprints for the assessment, treatment, and future study of catatonia in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which are submitted in this chapter aim to increase early recognition and treatment of catatonia in ASDs, show the urgency of controlled treatment trials, and increase collaborative and interdisciplinary research into the co-occurrence of these two enigmatic disorders. Catatonia should be assessed in any patient with ASDs when there is an obvious and marked deterioration in movement, pattern of activities, self-care, and practical skills, compared with previous levels, through a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation of medical and psychiatric symptoms. A formal diagnosis should be ascertained using ASD specific criteria for catatonia that takes into account baseline symptoms like muteness, echophenomena, stereotypy, negativism, or other psychomotor abnormalities. Any underlying medical and neurological conditions should be treated, and culprit medications or other substances that may cause catatonia should be eliminated. Separate treatment blueprints are presented for mild, moderate, and severe catatonia, featuring combinations of a psychological approach developed by Shah and Wing and medical treatments that have shown efficacy in catatonia: lorazepam challenge, lorazepam trial, lorazepam continuation, and bilateral electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). These treatment modalities in themselves are well established. Side effects and complications are known and manageable. Legal, ethical, and practice guidelines governing all treatment aspects should be followed. The treatment blueprints should be viewed as best estimates pending future controlled studies. The blueprint for the future study of catatonia in ASDs describes promising clinical and preclinical research avenues. Longitudinal studies need to assess the possible effect of early recognition and adequate treatment of catatonia in ASDs in order to avoid the impairment associated with chronicity. Effects of

  2. 3D integration of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes aimed to very high fill-factor pixels for future linear colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilella, E.; Alonso, O.; Diéguez, A.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the maximum achievable fill-factor by a pixel detector of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes with the Chartered 130 nm/Tezzaron 3D process. The analysis shows that fill-factors between 66% and 96% can be obtained with different array architectures and a time-gated readout circuit of minimum area. The maximum fill-factor is achieved when the two-layer vertical stack is used to overlap the non-sensitive areas of one layer with the sensitive areas of the other one. Moreover, different sensor areas are used to further increase the fill-factor. A chip containing a pixel detector of the Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes and aimed to future linear colliders has been designed with the Chartered 130 nm/Tezzaron 3D process to increase the fill-factor.

  3. A study to determine influential factors on product positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Product positioning plays an important role on business development especially in food industry. In this paper, we perform an exploration study to find important factors influencing product positioning in Iranian food industry. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 260 randomly selected people from food industry. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.86 in preliminary stage and final 0.697 in final stage, which are statistically acceptable. The study uses factor analysis to find important factors and detects six important factors including marketing organization, market analysis, past perception strategy, product presentation, brand loyalty and dynamic organizational structure.

  4. A Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Prostate Cancer in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mahmoudi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Iran, yet there are few studies examining risk factors specific to the Iranian context. We conducted a case-control study to explore risk factors for prostate cancer in Mazandaran, Iran from 2005 to 2008. The cases were 137 men with clinicopathologically confirmed prostate cancer. Controls were 137 neighborhood and age match men without prostate cancer by PSA and digit examination. Analysis comprised an exploratory stage to identify potential risk factors, defined as variables associated with case status at the P < 0.20 level in conditional logistic regression. A second stage included all potential risk factors in multiple conditional logistic regression analysis, retaining those associated with prostate cancer at the P < 0.05 level. Potential risk factors for prostate cancer in exploratory analysis included family history of prostate cancer, history of other cancer, prostatitis, alcohol consumption, pipe or hookah smoking, walking to work, duration of occupational physical activity, intensity of occupational physical activity, body mass index, and older age. Multivariate analysis found intensity of occupational physical activity, prostatitis, and older age as independent predictors of increased risk for prostate cancer in this Iranian population. Our study confirms several recognized risk factors for prostate cancer, contributes evidence to the discussions of other hypothesized risk factors, and points to potentially new factors. Findings, along with confirmatory studies, can help guide efforts for early detection, treatment, and prevention for this common malignancy that is set to increase in Iran in future decades.

  5. Futures market efficiency diagnostics via temporal two-point correlations. Russian market case study

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhail Kopytin; Evgeniy Kazantsev

    2013-01-01

    Using a two-point correlation technique, we study emergence of market efficiency in the emergent Russian futures market by focusing on lagged correlations. The correlation strength of leader-follower effects in the lagged inter-market correlations on the hourly time frame is seen to be significant initially (2009-2011) but gradually goes down, as the erstwhile leader instruments -- crude oil, the USD/RUB exchange rate, and the Russian stock market index -- seem to lose the leader status. An i...

  6. Dominant valued reasons of future rehabilitology experts while studying of discipline «massotherapy»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlo Iefimenko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: exposure of dominant reasons during studying of discipline «massotherapy» by the students of direction of specialize «Health of man» of Kharkov state academy of physical culture. Material and Methods: motivation of students of future rehabilitologists at the study of discipline «massotherapy» was determined by a questionnaire at the beginning and at the end of practical pursuit conducted within the framework of business game. Out of the academic group of specialization the «Physical rehabilitation» two sub-groups of students were formed. Results: the limited level of their personal interest is exposed to study the discipline of «massotherapy» and necessity to increase interest acquire its knowledge. Conclusions: positive influence of the offered method is revealed on the level of interests, values and reasons in relation to the study of discipline «massotherapy».

  7. Debating the future of genetically modified plants - bridging knowledge dimensions. A technology foresight study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Kristian; Rasmussen, Birgitte

    2003-01-01

    to offer a coordinating method for developing and strengthening those linkages. To test this, a technological foresight study was performed on genetically modified (GM) crop technology in the Danish context. Thebackground to the study was the conflict and intense debate in Denmark over applications of gene...... technology, and especially over the deliberate release of GM crops. However, the current debate characteristically involves sharply opposed fronts. In it,stakeholders and experts on both side of the conflict advocate widely differing opinions. Without a proper, generally intelligible dialogue, the broader...... public audience finds it hard to comprehend this type of debate. The study pursues the notion thatpublic dialogue can act as a driver of future applications in the technological domain, specifically GM crops. The study concluded with a stakeholder workshop that revealed three key issues that might...

  8. Ecology of Urban Bees: A Review of Current Knowledge and Directions for Future Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon W. Frankie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban bee ecology is an emerging field that holds promise for advancing knowledge of bee community dynamics and promoting bee conservation. Published studies of bee communities in urban and suburban habitats are fewer than those documenting bees in agricultural and wildland settings. As land lost to urbanization is predicted to increase in coming years the necessity of studying urban bee populations is growing. We reviewed 59 publications on urban bee ecology with the following goals, to assess current knowledge, to highlight areas in need of further research, and to suggest applications of study findings to bee conservation. Identified trends in urban areas included the following, negative correlation between bee species richness and urban development, increase in abundance of cavity-nesters in urban habitats, and scarcity of floral specialists. Future directions for studying urban bee ecology include incorporation of landscape-scale assessments, conducting manipulative experiments and actively designing urban bee habitats.

  9. A Study of E-services Adoption Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scupola, Ada; Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter we combine two subjects that are in our heart: e-services and diffusion of innovation. By drawing on earlier research on e-services, innovation, and technology adoption we investigate the factors that influence adoption of e-services in a specific academic library, Roskilde...... University Library (RUB). The conclusion of this research is that both external environmental factors and internal organizational factors are important factors in adoption of e-services at Roskilde University Library. However the study shows that external factors such as government intervention...

  10. Factors Influencing the Behavioural Intention towards Full Electric Vehicles: An Empirical Study in Macau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan K. W. Lai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the factors that influence individual intentions towards the adoption of full electric vehicles. A sample including 308 respondents was collected on the streets of Macau. The collected data were analysed by confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. The results demonstrate that environmental concerns and the perception of environmental policy are antecedent factors of the perception of full electric vehicles, which influences the behavioural intention to purchase full electric vehicles. This study also finds that the perception of economic benefit is one of the key factors influencing the adoption of full electric vehicles. Vehicle operators seek economic benefits from future long-term fuel savings, high energy efficiency, and cheap electricity. Thus, a government striving to promote low-carbon transportation needs to scale up its efforts to enhance citizens’ environmental concerns and to establish proper environmental policy as well as to provide long-term financial and strategic support for electric vehicles.

  11. Energizing Future Studies. Futures Information Interchange, Vol. V, No. 1, December 1977 [And] The Best from Futures Information Interchange, Vol. V, No. 2, April 1978 [And] Futures Information Interchange, Vol. VI, No. 1, 1978 [And] Futures Information Interchange, Vol. VI, No. 2, 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts Univ., Amherst. School of Education.

    The document is comprised of four newsletters which present a collection of essays, practical teaching methods, and learning activities introducing future studies into the classroom. Aimed at primary and secondary teachers, subject areas include forecasting methods, curriculum implementation and evaluation, innovative teaching materials and…

  12. History and future of the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Amy; Ponté, Linnae; Jerome, Lisa; Doblin, Rick

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the teenage vision of the founder of the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) that humanity's future would be aided by the therapeutic and spiritual potential of psychedelic substances. The article traces the trajectory of MAPS from inception in 1986 to its present, noting future goals with respect to research, outreach, and harm reduction. MAPS was created as a non-profit psychedelic pharmaceutical company in response to the 1985 scheduling of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Overcoming many hurdles, MAPS developed the first double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and plans for FDA prescription approval in 2021. MAPS' program of research expanded to include a trial of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)-assisted psychotherapy for anxiety when facing life-threatening illness, observational studies of ibogaine in the treatment of addiction, and studies of MDMA for social anxiety in people with autism spectrum disorders. MAPS meets the challenges of drug development through a clinical research team led by a former Novartis drug development professional experienced in the conduct, monitoring, and analysis of clinical trials. MAPS' harm-reduction efforts are intended to avoid backlash and build a post-prohibition world by assisting non-medical users to transform difficult psychedelic experiences into opportunities for growth.

  13. Study of Visual Factors in Concept Formation. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnheim, Rudolf

    The study undertakes to clarify and redefine some of the concepts underlying the relations between visual perception and thinking. A sample bibliography suggests sources for future research. Psychological and psysiological theory is shown historically to have separated the two mental functions in principle. Correspondingly, present-day education,…

  14. 赛事消费者支出与未来参赛意愿的影响因素分析--以上海国际马拉松赛为例%Research on the Influencing Factors of Consumer Expenditure and Their Future Intentions to Attend the Game:A Case Study of Shanghai International Marathon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海霞

    2015-01-01

    参与型体育赛事的主要消费者是参赛运动员。本文验证了性别、年龄、国籍、职业、教育程度以及收入水平对不同现居地的上海国际马拉松赛参赛者的本体支出、非本体支出,以及未来参赛意愿的影响。研究表明,举办地消费者的本体支出占总消费支出的主要部分;非举办地消费者的非本体支出占总消费支出的主要部分。消费者支出与性别、年龄、教育程度没有显著相关,与家庭收入情况显著相关。性别、居住地、总体满意度对未来参赛意愿有显著影响。未来吸引高收入人群和非举办地消费者参赛,促进赛事与旅游结合是扩大赛事经济效益的途径。%For participatory sporting events, the participants are their main customers. Taking Shanghai International Marathon as a case, this paper investigated the influence of gender, age, nationality, occupation, education and economic status on the partic-ipants’ expenditures on the event and event-related items, such as application fee, accommodation. It also examined the influ-encing factors of participants’ intentions to attend the game again. The results showed that expenditures on the event, such as ap-plication fee, souvenir and race outfit were local participants’ main spending; while expenditures on event-related items, such as beverage, accommodation, transportation, shopping, sightseeing accounted for the majority of non-local participants’ spend-ing. It also revealed that participants’ expenditures was significantly related to their economic status, but not to their gender, age of education background. Gender, residence, overall satisfaction were significant influencing factors of participants’ intentions to attend the game again. To expand the economic benefit of a participatory sporting event, attracting high-earning and non-local people to participate in the game and improving the combination of sport and tourism are useful

  15. Quality of the Teaching Process and its Factors of Influence from the Perspective of Future Business Specialists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra-Maria Drule

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the large number of Romanian economic graduates competing for a relatively small number of specialized positions, an increasingly dynamic environment that requires specialists and leaders with practical skills, internationalization and increasing competition among higher education institutions to attract both students and financing, it is necessary to evaluate the quality and performance of business educational programs. Periodic evaluation is the premise of improving and modernizing educational services, and students, as the primary beneficiaries of education, are the first to be included in this process. Therefore, the goal of this research is to identify the perceptions of students specializing in the financial management of European funds regarding the quality of teaching staff and the teaching process. This study takes a quantitative approach using a survey method and a questionnaire as a data collection instrument. The questionnaire includes a set of 11 specific items that are considered to be most relevant to the quality of higher education services and two related to overall perceptions of quality. Data were collected from a sample of more than 1,500 students enrolled in a new master’s program on the axis specified above. Analyses showed that three factors have a significant influence not only on the assessment of teacher performance during courses and seminars but also on the quality of the teacher involved in the process: the use of modern teaching techniques, the degree to which master’s students are trained and actively participate in teaching activities, and the presentation of quality and coherent information. A teacher’s performance is influenced to a lesser extent, but still a significant one, by other two items included in this study: delivering materials on time and efficiently using the time allocated to the discipline. However, professor performance is also negatively correlated with the relevance of

  16. Feasibility studies of time-like proton electromagnetic form factors at PANDA at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, B. [Aligarth Muslim Univ., Aligarth (India). Physics Dept.; Erni, W.; Krusche, B. [Basel Univ. (Switzerland); Collaboration: The PANDA Collaboration; and others

    2016-10-15

    Simulation results for future measurements of electromagnetic proton form factors at PANDA(FAIR) within the PandaRoot software framework are reported. The statistical precision with which the proton form factors can be determined is estimated. The signal channel anti pp → e{sup +}e{sup -} is studied on the basis of two different but consistent procedures. The suppression of the main background channel, i.e. anti pp → π{sup +}π{sup -}, is studied. Furthermore, the background versus signal efficiency, statistical and systematical uncertainties on the extracted proton form factors are evaluated using two different procedures. The results are consistent with those of a previous simulation study using an older, simplified framework. However, a slightly better precision is achieved in the PandaRoot study in a large range of momentum transfer, assuming the nominal beam conditions and detector performance. (orig.)

  17. Feasibility studies of time-like proton electromagnetic form factors at overlinePANDA at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B.; Erni, W.; Krusche, B.; Steinacher, M.; Walford, N.; Liu, B.; Liu, H.; Liu, Z.; Shen, X.; Wang, C.; Zhao, J.; Albrecht, M.; Erlen, T.; Fink, M.; Heinsius, F.; Held, T.; Holtmann, T.; Jasper, S.; Keshk, I.; Koch, H.; Kopf, B.; Kuhlmann, M.; Kümmel, M.; Leiber, S.; Mikirtychyants, M.; Musiol, P.; Mustafa, A.; Pelizäus, M.; Pychy, J.; Richter, M.; Schnier, C.; Schröder, T.; Sowa, C.; Steinke, M.; Triffterer, T.; Wiedner, U.; Ball, M.; Beck, R.; Hammann, C.; Ketzer, B.; Kube, M.; Mahlberg, P.; Rossbach, M.; Schmidt, C.; Schmitz, R.; Thoma, U.; Urban, M.; Walther, D.; Wendel, C.; Wilson, A.; Bianconi, A.; Bragadireanu, M.; Caprini, M.; Pantea, D.; Patel, B.; Czyzycki, W.; Domagala, M.; Filo, G.; Jaworowski, J.; Krawczyk, M.; Lisowski, F.; Lisowski, E.; Michałek, M.; Poznański, P.; Płażek, J.; Korcyl, K.; Kozela, A.; Kulessa, P.; Lebiedowicz, P.; Pysz, K.; Schäfer, W.; Szczurek, A.; Fiutowski, T.; Idzik, M.; Mindur, B.; Przyborowski, D.; Swientek, K.; Biernat, J.; Kamys, B.; Kistryn, S.; Korcyl, G.; Krzemien, W.; Magiera, A.; Moskal, P.; Pyszniak, A.; Rudy, Z.; Salabura, P.; Smyrski, J.; Strzempek, P.; Wronska, A.; Augustin, I.; Böhm, R.; Lehmann, I.; Nicmorus Marinescu, D.; Schmitt, L.; Varentsov, V.; Al-Turany, M.; Belias, A.; Deppe, H.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Ehret, A.; Flemming, H.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Gromliuk, A.; Gruber, L.; Karabowicz, R.; Kliemt, R.; Krebs, M.; Kurilla, U.; Lehmann, D.; Löchner, S.; Lühning, J.; Lynen, U.; Orth, H.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Saito, T.; Schepers, G.; Schmidt, C. J.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Täschner, A.; Traxler, M.; Ugur, C.; Voss, B.; Wieczorek, P.; Wilms, A.; Zühlsdorf, M.; Abazov, V.; Alexeev, G.; Arefiev, V. A.; Astakhov, V.; Barabanov, M. Yu.; Batyunya, B. V.; Davydov, Y.; Dodokhov, V. Kh.; Efremov, A.; Fechtchenko, A.; Fedunov, A. G.; Galoyan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Koshurnikov, E. K.; Lobanov, Y. Yu.; Lobanov, V. I.; Makarov, A. F.; Malinina, L. V.; Malyshev, V.; Olshevskiy, A. G.; Perevalova, E.; Piskun, A. A.; Pocheptsov, T.; Pontecorvo, G.; Rodionov, V.; Rogov, Y.; Salmin, R.; Samartsev, A.; Sapozhnikov, M. G.; Shabratova, G.; Skachkov, N. B.; Skachkova, A. N.; Strokovsky, E. A.; Suleimanov, M.; Teshev, R.; Tokmenin, V.; Uzhinsky, V.; Vodopianov, A.; Zaporozhets, S. A.; Zhuravlev, N. I.; Zorin, A. G.; Branford, D.; Glazier, D.; Watts, D.; Böhm, M.; Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Pfaffinger, M.; Uhlig, F.; Dobbs, S.; Seth, K.; Tomaradze, A.; Xiao, T.; Bettoni, D.; Carassiti, V.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dalpiaz, P.; Drago, A.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Savrie, M.; Akishina, V.; Kisel, I.; Kozlov, G.; Pugach, M.; Zyzak, M.; Gianotti, P.; Guaraldo, C.; Lucherini, V.; Bersani, A.; Bracco, G.; Macri, M.; Parodi, R. F.; Biguenko, K.; Brinkmann, K.; Di Pietro, V.; Diehl, S.; Dormenev, V.; Drexler, P.; Düren, M.; Etzelmüller, E.; Galuska, M.; Gutz, E.; Hahn, C.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Kesselkaul, M.; Kühn, W.; Kuske, T.; Lange, J. S.; Liang, Y.; Metag, V.; Nanova, M.; Nazarenko, S.; Novotny, R.; Quagli, T.; Reiter, S.; Rieke, J.; Rosenbaum, C.; Schmidt, M.; Schnell, R.; Stenzel, H.; Thöring, U.; Ullrich, M.; Wagner, M. N.; Wasem, T.; Wohlfahrt, B.; Zaunick, H.; Ireland, D.; Rosner, G.; Seitz, B.; Deepak, P. N.; Kulkarni, A.; Apostolou, A.; Babai, M.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Lemmens, P. J.; Lindemulder, M.; Loehner, H.; Messchendorp, J.; Schakel, P.; Smit, H.; Tiemens, M.; van der Weele, J. C.; Veenstra, R.; Vejdani, S.; Dutta, K.; Kalita, K.; Kumar, A.; Roy, A.; Sohlbach, H.; Bai, M.; Bianchi, L.; Büscher, M.; Cao, L.; Cebulla, A.; Dosdall, R.; Gillitzer, A.; Goldenbaum, F.; Grunwald, D.; Herten, A.; Hu, Q.; Kemmerling, G.; Kleines, H.; Lehrach, A.; Nellen, R.; Ohm, H.; Orfanitski, S.; Prasuhn, D.; Prencipe, E.; Pütz, J.; Ritman, J.; Schadmand, S.; Sefzick, T.; Serdyuk, V.; Sterzenbach, G.; Stockmanns, T.; Wintz, P.; Wüstner, P.; Xu, H.; Zambanini, A.; Li, S.; Li, Z.; Sun, Z.; Xu, H.; Rigato, V.; Isaksson, L.; Achenbach, P.; Corell, O.; Denig, A.; Distler, M.; Hoek, M.; Karavdina, A.; Lauth, W.; Liu, Z.; Merkel, H.; Müller, U.; Pochodzalla, J.; Sanchez, S.; Schlimme, S.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.; Ahmadi, H.; Ahmed, S.; Bleser, S.; Capozza, L.; Cardinali, M.; Dbeyssi, A.; Deiseroth, M.; Feldbauer, F.; Fritsch, M.; Fröhlich, B.; Jasinski, P.; Kang, D.; Khaneft, D.; Klasen, R.; Leithoff, H. H.; Lin, D.; Maas, F.; Maldaner, S.; Martínez, M.; Michel, M.; Mora Espí, M. C.; Morales Morales, C.; Motzko, C.; Nerling, F.; Noll, O.; Pflüger, S.; Pitka, A.; Rodríguez Piñeiro, D.; Sanchez-Lorente, A.; Steinen, M.; Valente, R.; Weber, T.; Zambrana, M.; Zimmermann, I.; Fedorov, A.; Korjik, M.; Missevitch, O.; Boukharov, A.; Malyshev, O.; Marishev, I.; Balanutsa, V.; Balanutsa, P.; Chernetsky, V.; Demekhin, A.; Dolgolenko, A.; Fedorets, P.; Gerasimov, A.; Goryachev, V.; Chandratre, V.; Datar, V.; Dutta, D.; Jha, V.; Kumawat, H.; Mohanty, A. K.; Parmar, A.; Roy, B.; Sonika, G.; Fritzsch, C.; Grieser, S.; Hergemöller, A.; Hetz, B.; Hüsken, N.; Khoukaz, A.; Wessels, J. P.; Khosonthongkee, K.; Kobdaj, C.; Limphirat, A.; Srisawad, P.; Yan, Y.; Barnyakov, M.; Barnyakov, A. Yu.; Beloborodov, K.; Blinov, A. E.; Blinov, V. E.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Kononov, S.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Kuyanov, I. A.; Martin, K.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S.; Sokolov, A.; Tikhonov, Y.; Atomssa, E.; Kunne, R.; Marchand, D.; Ramstein, B.; van de Wiele, J.; Wang, Y.; Boca, G.; Costanza, S.; Genova, P.; Montagna, P.; Rotondi, A.; Abramov, V.; Belikov, N.; Bukreeva, S.; Davidenko, A.; Derevschikov, A.; Goncharenko, Y.; Grishin, V.; Kachanov, V.; Kormilitsin, V.; Levin, A.; Melnik, Y.; Minaev, N.; Mochalov, V.; Morozov, D.; Nogach, L.; Poslavskiy, S.; Ryazantsev, A.; Ryzhikov, S.; Semenov, P.; Shein, I.; Uzunian, A.; Vasiliev, A.; Yakutin, A.; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.; Roy, U.; Yabsley, B.; Belostotski, S.; Gavrilov, G.; Izotov, A.; Manaenkov, S.; Miklukho, O.; Veretennikov, D.; Zhdanov, A.; Makonyi, K.; Preston, M.; Tegner, P.; Wölbing, D.; Bäck, T.; Cederwall, B.; Rai, A. K.; Godre, S.; Calvo, D.; Coli, S.; De Remigis, P.; Filippi, A.; Giraudo, G.; Lusso, S.; Mazza, G.; Mignone, M.; Rivetti, A.; Wheadon, R.; Balestra, F.; Iazzi, F.; Introzzi, R.; Lavagno, A.; Olave, J.; Amoroso, A.; Bussa, M. P.; Busso, L.; De Mori, F.; Destefanis, M.; Fava, L.; Ferrero, L.; Greco, M.; Hu, J.; Lavezzi, L.; Maggiora, M.; Maniscalco, G.; Marcello, S.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Birsa, R.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Martin, A.; Calen, H.; Ikegami Andersson, W.; Johansson, T.; Kupsc, A.; Marciniewski, P.; Papenbrock, M.; Pettersson, J.; Schönning, K.; Wolke, M.; Galnander, B.; Diaz, J.; Pothodi Chackara, V.; Chlopik, A.; Kesik, G.; Melnychuk, D.; Slowinski, B.; Trzcinski, A.; Wojciechowski, M.; Wronka, S.; Zwieglinski, B.; Bühler, P.; Marton, J.; Steinschaden, D.; Suzuki, K.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.

    2016-10-01

    Simulation results for future measurements of electromagnetic proton form factors at overlinePANDA (FAIR) within the PandaRoot software framework are reported. The statistical precision with which the proton form factors can be determined is estimated. The signal channel bar{p}p→ e+e- is studied on the basis of two different but consistent procedures. The suppression of the main background channel, i.e. bar{p}p→ π+π-, is studied. Furthermore, the background versus signal efficiency, statistical and systematical uncertainties on the extracted proton form factors are evaluated using two different procedures. The results are consistent with those of a previous simulation study using an older, simplified framework. However, a slightly better precision is achieved in the PandaRoot study in a large range of momentum transfer, assuming the nominal beam conditions and detector performance.

  18. Feasibility studies of time-like proton electromagnetic form factors at PANDA at FAIR

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, B.; Krusche, B.; Steinacher, M.; Walford, N.; Liu, B.; Liu, H.; Liu, Z.; Shen, X.; Wang, C.; Zhao, J.; Albrecht, M.; Erlen, T.; Fink, M.; Heinsius, F.; Held, T.; Holtmann, T.; Jasper, S.; Keshk, I.; Koch, H.; Kopf, B.; Kuhlmann, M.; Kümmel, M.; Leiber, S.; Mikirtychyants, M.; Musiol, P.; Mustafa, A.; Pelizäus, M.; Pychy, J.; Richter, M.; Schnier, C.; Schröder, T.; Sowa, C.; Steinke, M.; Triffterer, T.; Wiedner, U.; Ball, M.; Beck, R.; Hammann, C.; Ketzer, B.; Kube, M.; Mahlberg, P.; Rossbach, M.; Schmidt, C.; Schmitz, R.; Thoma, U.; Urban, M.; Walther, D.; Wendel, C.; Wilson, A.; Bianconi, A.; Bragadireanu, M.; Caprini, M.; Pantea, D.; Patel, B.; Czyzycki, W.; Domagala, M.; Filo, G.; Jaworowski, J.; Krawczyk, M.; Lisowski, F.; Lisowski, E.; Michałek, M.; Poznański, P.; Płażek, J.; Korcyl, K.; Kozela, A.; Kulessa, P.; Lebiedowicz, P.; Pysz, K.; Schäfer, W.; Szczurek, A.; Fiutowski, T.; Idzik, M.; Mindur, B.; Przyborowski, D.; Swientek, K.; Biernat, J.; Kamys, B.; Kistryn, S.; Korcyl, G.; Krzemien, W.; Magiera, A.; Moskal, P.; Pyszniak, A.; Rudy, Z.; Salabura, P.; Smyrski, J.; Strzempek, P.; Wronska, A.; Augustin, I.; Böhm, R.; Lehmann, I.; Marinescu, D. Nicmorus; Schmitt, L.; Varentsov, V.; Al-Turany, M.; Belias, A.; Deppe, H.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Ehret, A.; Flemming, H.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Gromliuk, A.; Gruber, L.; Karabowicz, R.; Kliemt, R.; Krebs, M.; Kurilla, U.; Lehmann, D.; Löchner, S.; Lühning, J.; Lynen, U.; Orth, H.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Saito, T.; Schepers, G.; Schmidt, C.J.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Täschner, A.; Traxler, M.; Ugur, C.; Voss, B.; Wieczorek, P.; Wilms, A.; Zühlsdorf, M.; Abazov, V.; Alexeev, G.; Arefiev, V.A.; Astakhov, V.; Barabanov, M. Yu.; Batyunya, B.V.; Davydov, Y.; Dodokhov, V. Kh.; Efremov, A.; Fechtchenko, A.; Fedunov, A.G.; Galoyan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Koshurnikov, E.K.; Lobanov, Y. Yu.; Lobanov, V.I.; Makarov, A.F.; Malinina, L.V.; Malyshev, V.; Olshevskiy, A.G.; Perevalova, E.; Piskun, A.A.; Pocheptsov, T.; Pontecorvo, G.; Rodionov, V.; Rogov, Y.; Salmin, R.; Samartsev, A.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Shabratova, G.; Skachkov, N.B.; Skachkova, A.N.; Strokovsky, E.A.; Suleimanov, M.; Teshev, R.; Tokmenin, V.; Uzhinsky, V.; Vodopianov, A.; Zaporozhets, S.A.; Zhuravlev, N.I.; Zorin, A.G.; Branford, D.; Glazier, D.; Watts, D.; Böhm, M.; Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Pfaffinger, M.; Uhlig, F.; Dobbs, S.; Seth, K.; Tomaradze, A.; Xiao, T.; Bettoni, D.; Carassiti, V.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dalpiaz, P.; Drago, A.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Savrie, M.; Akishina, V.; Kisel, I.; Kozlov, G.; Pugach, M.; Zyzak, M.; Gianotti, P.; Guaraldo, C.; Lucherini, V.; Bersani, A.; Bracco, G.; Macri, M.; Parodi, R.F.; Biguenko, K.; Brinkmann, K.; Di Pietro, V.; Diehl, S.; Dormenev, V.; Drexler, P.; Düren, M.; Etzelmüller, E.; Galuska, M.; Gutz, E.; Hahn, C.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Kesselkaul, M.; Kühn, W.; Kuske, T.; Lange, J.S.; Liang, Y.; Metag, V.; Nanova, M.; Nazarenko, S.; Novotny, R.; Quagli, T.; Reiter, S.; Rieke, J.; Rosenbaum, C.; Schmidt, M.; Schnell, R.; Stenzel, H.; Thöring, U.; Ullrich, M.; Wagner, M.N.; Wasem, T.; Wohlfahrt, B.; Zaunick, H.; Ireland, D.; Rosner, G.; Seitz, B.; Deepak, P.N.; Kulkarni, A.; Apostolou, A.; Babai, M.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Lemmens, P.J.; Lindemulder, M.; Loehner, H.; Messchendorp, J.; Schakel, P.; Smit, H.; Tiemens, M.; van der Weele, J.C.; Veenstra, R.; Vejdani, S.; Dutta, K.; Kalita, K.; Kumar, A.; Roy, A.; Sohlbach, H.; Bai, M.; Bianchi, L.; Büscher, M.; Cao, L.; Cebulla, A.; Dosdall, R.; Gillitzer, A.; Goldenbaum, F.; Grunwald, D.; Herten, A.; Hu, Q.; Kemmerling, G.; Kleines, H.; Lehrach, A.; Nellen, R.; Ohm, H.; Orfanitski, S.; Prasuhn, D.; Prencipe, E.; Pütz, J.; Ritman, J.; Schadmand, S.; Sefzick, T.; Serdyuk, V.; Sterzenbach, G.; Stockmanns, T.; Wintz, P.; Wüstner, P.; Xu, H.; Zambanini, A.; Li, S.; Li, Z.; Sun, Z.; Rigato, V.; Isaksson, L.; Achenbach, P.; Corell, O.; Denig, A.; Distler, M.; Hoek, M.; Karavdina, A.; Lauth, W.; Merkel, H.; Müller, U.; Pochodzalla, J.; Sanchez, S.; Schlimme, S.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.; Ahmadi, H.; Ahmed, S.; Bleser, S.; Capozza, L.; Cardinali, M.; Dbeyssi, A.; Deiseroth, M.; Feldbauer, F.; Fritsch, M.; Fröhlich, B.; Jasinski, P.; Kang, D.; Khaneft, D.; Klasen, R.; Leithoff, H.H.; Lin, D.; Maas, F.; Maldaner, S.; Marta, M.; Michel, M.; Espí, M. C. Mora; Morales Morales, C.; Motzko, C.; Nerling, F.; Noll, O.; Pflüger, S.; Pitka, A.; Piñeiro, D. Rodríguez; Sanchez-Lorente, A.; Steinen, M.; Valente, R.; Weber, T.; Zambrana, M.; Zimmermann, I.; Fedorov, A.; Korjik, M.; Missevitch, O.; Boukharov, A.; Malyshev, O.; Marishev, I.; Balanutsa, V.; Balanutsa, P.; Chernetsky, V.; Demekhin, A.; Dolgolenko, A.; Fedorets, P.; Gerasimov, A.; Goryachev, V.; Chandratre, V.; Datar, V.; Dutta, D.; Jha, V.; Kumawat, H.

    2016-01-01

    The results of simulations for future measurements of electromagnetic form factors at \\PANDA (FAIR) within the PandaRoot software framework are reported. The statistical precision at which the proton form factors can be determined is estimated. The signal channel $\\bar p p \\to e^+ e^-$ is studied on the basis of two different but consistent procedures. The suppression of the main background channel, i.e. the $\\bar p p \\to \\pi^+ \\pi^-$, is studied. Furthermore, the background versus signal efficiency, statistic and systematic uncertainties on the extracted proton form factors are evaluated using to the two different procedures. The results are consistent with those of a previous simulation study using an older, simplified framework. However, a slightly better precision is achieved in the PandaRoot study in a large range of momentum transfer, assuming the nominal beam condition and detector performances.

  19. 3D integration of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes aimed to very high fill-factor pixels for future linear colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilella, E., E-mail: evilella@el.ub.edu; Alonso, O.; Diéguez, A.

    2013-12-11

    This paper presents an analysis of the maximum achievable fill-factor by a pixel detector of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes with the Chartered 130 nm/Tezzaron 3D process. The analysis shows that fill-factors between 66% and 96% can be obtained with different array architectures and a time-gated readout circuit of minimum area. The maximum fill-factor is achieved when the two-layer vertical stack is used to overlap the non-sensitive areas of one layer with the sensitive areas of the other one. Moreover, different sensor areas are used to further increase the fill-factor. A chip containing a pixel detector of the Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes and aimed to future linear colliders has been designed with the Chartered 130 nm/Tezzaron 3D process to increase the fill-factor. -- Highlights: •GAPD pixel detectors present a low detection efficiency due to a reduced fill-factor. •3D-ICs are proposed as a solution to increase the fill-factor of GAPD detectors. •The maximum achievable fill-factor by a GAPD detector in a 3D-IC process is analyzed. •Fill-factors between 66% and 96% can be obtained with different array architectures. •The array is operated in a time-gated mode to reduce the expected sensor noise.

  20. Family Structure, Psychosocial Factors, and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the NHLBI CARDIA Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    24) found that for men, having preschool aged children negatively impacted health while having a preschool aged child had protective functions for...2   Psychosocial Factors in the Development of CAD and...177 billion in 2011 (1). Therefore, the study of the contributing factors involved in the development of CAD may ultimately lead to development of

  1. Sick leave among home-care personnel: a longitudinal study of risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmström Eva B

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sick leave due to neck, shoulder and back disorders (NSBD is higher among health-care workers, especially nursing aides/assistant nurses, compared with employees in other occupations. More information is needed about predictors of sick leave among health care workers. The aim of the study was to assess whether self-reported factors related to health, work and leisure time could predict: 1 future certified sick leave due to any cause, in nursing aides/assistant nurses (Study group I and 2 future self-reported sick leave due to NSBD in nursing aides/assistant nurses (Study group II. Methods Study group I, comprised 443 female nursing aides/assistant nurses, not on sick leave at baseline when a questionnaire was completed. Data on certified sick leave were collected after 18 months. Study group II comprised 274 of the women, who at baseline reported no sick leave during the preceding year due to NSBD and who participated at the 18 month follow-up. Data on sick leave due to NSBD were collected from the questionnaire at 18 months. The associations between future sick leave and factors related to health, work and leisure time were tested by logistic regression analyses. Results Health-related factors such as previous low back disorders (OR: 1.89; 95% CI 1.20–2.97 and previous sick leave (OR 6.40; 95%CI 3.97–10.31, were associated with a higher risk of future sick leave due to any cause. Factors related to health, work and leisure time, i.e. previous low back disorders (OR: 4.45; 95% CI 1.27–15.77 previous sick leave, not due to NSBD (OR 3.30; 95%CI 1.33–8.17, high strain work (OR 2.34; 95%CI 1.05–5.23 and high perceived physical exertion in domestic work (OR 2.56; 95%CI 1.12–5.86 were associated with a higher risk of future sick leave due to NSBD. In the final analyses, previous low back disorders and previous sick leave remained significant in both study groups. Conclusion The results suggest a focus on previous low

  2. Future ecological studies of Brazilian headwater streams under global-changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Callisto

    Full Text Available This paper results from discussions triggered during the "Stream Ecology Symposium" that took place at the XIII Congress of the Brazilian Society of Limnology in September of 2011 in Natal, Brazil. Based on our experiences, we have raised several questions regarding ecological studies of headwater streams facing threats under global-changes and proposed numerous subjects to be addressed in future studies in Brazil. These studies deal with the necessity of knowing species biology and the elaboration of models to assess changes (which implies the availability of time-series or large-scale data sets; the ecology of riparian zones and the interchange of materials and energy across the land-water boundaries; forest conversions and standardized sampling strategies and data treatment to assess global change.

  3. A NASA study of the impact of technology on future sea based attack aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Andrew S.

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual aircraft design study was recently completed evaluating carrier-based, subsonic attack aircraft using contemporary and future technology assumptions. The study examined a configuration matrix that was made up of light and medium bomb loads, one and two man crews, internal and external weapons carriage, as well as conventional and flying wing planforms. Use of common technology assumptions, engine cycle simulation code, design mission, and consistent application of methods allow for direct comparison of the aircraft. This paper describes the design study ground rules and the aircraft designed. The aircraft descriptions include weights, dimensions, layout, design mission, design constraints, maneuver performance, and fallout mission performance. The strengths, and weaknesses of each aircraft are highlighted.

  4. Predicting Future Hip Fractures on Routine Abdominal CT Using Opportunistic Osteoporosis Screening Measures: A Matched Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Scott J; Anderson, Paul A; Pickhardt, Perry J

    2017-08-01

    Hip fracture is a major consequence of low bone mineral density, which is treatable but underdiagnosed. The purpose of this case-control study is to determine whether lumbar vertebral trabecular attenuation, vertebral compression fractures, and femoral neck T scores readily derived from abdominopelvic CT scans obtained for various indications are associated with future hip fragility fracture. A cohort of 204 patients with hip fracture (130 women and 74 men; mean age, 74.3 years) who had undergone abdominopelvic CT before fracture occurred (mean interval, 24.8 months) was compared with an age- and sex-matched control cohort without hip fracture. L1 trabecular attenuation, vertebral compression fractures of grades 2 and 3, and femoral neck T scores derived from asynchronous quantitative CT were recorded. The presence of one or more clinical risk factor for fracture was also recorded. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine the association of each measurement with the occurrence of hip fracture. The mean L1 trabecular attenuation value, the presence of one or more vertebral compression fracture, and CT-derived femoral neck T scores were all significantly different in patients with hip fracture versus control subjects (p hip fracture outcome after adjustments were made for age, sex, and the presence of one or more clinical risk factor. L1 trabecular attenuation and CT-derived femoral neck T scores showed moderate accuracy in differentiating case and control patients (AUC, 0.70 and 0.78, respectively). L1 trabecular attenuation, CT-derived femoral neck T scores, and the presence of at least one vertebral compression fracture on CT are all associated with future hip fragility fracture in adults undergoing routine abdominopelvic CT for a variety of conditions.

  5. Patient factors that influence clinicians' decision making in self-management support: A clinical vignette study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos-Touwen, Irene D; Trappenburg, Jaap C A; van der Wulp, Ineke; Schuurmans, Marieke J; de Wit, Niek J

    2017-01-01

    Self-management support is an integral part of current chronic care guidelines. The success of self-management interventions varies between individual patients, suggesting a need for tailored self-management support. Understanding the role of patient factors in the current decision making of health professionals can support future tailoring of self-management interventions. The aim of this study is to identify the relative importance of patient factors in health professionals' decision making regarding self-management support. A factorial survey was presented to primary care physicians and nurses. The survey consisted of clinical vignettes (case descriptions), in which 11 patient factors were systematically varied. Each care provider received a set of 12 vignettes. For each vignette, they decided whether they would give this patient self-management support and whether they expected this support to be successful. The associations between respondent decisions and patient factors were explored using ordered logit regression. The survey was completed by 60 general practitioners and 80 nurses. Self-management support was unlikely to be provided in a third of the vignettes. The most important patient factor in the decision to provide self-management support as well as in the expectation that self-management support would be successful was motivation, followed by patient-provider relationship and illness perception. Other factors, such as depression or anxiety, education level, self-efficacy and social support, had a small impact on decisions. Disease, disease severity, knowledge of disease, and age were relatively unimportant factors. This is the first study to explore the relative importance of patient factors in decision making and the expectations regarding the provision of self-management support to chronic disease patients. By far, the most important factor considered was patient's motivation; unmotivated patients were less likely to receive self-management support

  6. Affective bias and current, past and future adolescent depression: A familial high risk study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilford, Emma J.; Foulkes, Lucy; Potter, Robert; Collishaw, Stephan; Thapar, Anita; Rice, Frances

    2015-01-01

    Background Affective bias is a common feature of depressive disorder. However, a lack of longitudinal studies means that the temporal relationship between affective bias and depression is not well understood. One group where studies of affective bias may be particularly warranted is the adolescent offspring of depressed parents, given observations of high rates of depression and a severe and impairing course of disorder in this group. Methods A two wave panel design was used in which adolescent offspring of parents with recurrent depression completed a behavioural task assessing affective bias (The Affective Go/No Go Task) and a psychiatric interview. The affective processing of adolescents with current, prior and future depressive disorder was compared to that of adolescents free from disorder. Results Adolescents with current depression and those who developed depression at follow-up made more commission errors for sad than happy targets compared to adolescents free from disorder. There was no effect of prior depression on later affective processing. Limitations Small cell sizes meant we were unable to separately compare those with new onset and recurrent depressive disorder. Conclusions Valence-specific errors in behavioural inhibition index future vulnerability to depression in adolescents already at increased risk and may represent a measure of affective control. Currently depressed adolescents show a similar pattern of affective bias or deficits in affective control. PMID:25527997

  7. Contributions to Future Stratospheric Climate Change: An Idealized Chemistry-Climate Model Sensitivity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, M. M.; Braesicke, P.; Pyle, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Within the framework of an idealized model sensitivity study, three of the main contributors to future stratospheric climate change are evaluated: increases in greenhouse gas concentrations, ozone recovery, and changing sea surface temperatures (SSTs). These three contributors are explored in combination and separately, to test the interactions between ozone and climate; the linearity of their contributions to stratospheric climate change is also assessed. In a simplified chemistry-climate model, stratospheric global mean temperature is most sensitive to CO2 doubling, followed by ozone depletion, then by increased SSTs. At polar latitudes, the Northern Hemisphere (NH) stratosphere is more sensitive to changes in CO2, SSTs and O3 than is the Southern Hemisphere (SH); the opposing responses to ozone depletion under low or high background CO2 concentrations, as seen with present-day SSTs, are much weaker and are not statistically significant under enhanced SSTs. Consistent with previous studies, the strength of the Brewer-Dobson circulation is found to increase in an idealized future climate; SSTs contribute most to this increase in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS) region, while CO2 and ozone changes contribute most in the stratosphere and mesosphere.

  8. Validation of new psychosocial factors questionnaires: a Colombian national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Gloria H; Vargas, Angélica M; Rondón, Martin A; Felknor, Sarah A

    2013-01-01

    The study of workers' health problems possibly associated with stressful conditions requires valid and reliable tools for monitoring risk factors. The present study validates two questionnaires to assess psychosocial risk factors for stress-related illnesses within a sample of Colombian workers. The validation process was based on a representative sample survey of 2,360 Colombian employees, aged 18-70 years. Worker response rate was 90%; 46% of the responders were women. Internal consistency was calculated, construct validity was tested with factor analysis and concurrent validity was tested with Spearman correlations. The questionnaires demonstrated adequate reliability (0.88-0.95). Factor analysis confirmed the dimensions proposed in the measurement model. Concurrent validity resulted in significant correlations with stress and health symptoms. "Work and Non-work Psychosocial Factors Questionnaires" were found to be valid and reliable for the assessment of workers' psychosocial factors, and they provide information for research and intervention. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A Review of Published Analyses of Case-Cohort Studies and Recommendations for Future Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Stephen J.; Poulaliou, Manon; Thompson, Simon G.; White, Ian R.; Wood, Angela M.

    2014-01-01

    The case-cohort study design combines the advantages of a cohort study with the efficiency of a nested case-control study. However, unlike more standard observational study designs, there are currently no guidelines for reporting results from case-cohort studies. Our aim was to review recent practice in reporting these studies, and develop recommendations for the future. By searching papers published in 24 major medical and epidemiological journals between January 2010 and March 2013 using PubMed, Scopus and Web of Knowledge, we identified 32 papers reporting case-cohort studies. The median subcohort sampling fraction was 4.1% (interquartile range 3.7% to 9.1%). The papers varied in their approaches to describing the numbers of individuals in the original cohort and the subcohort, presenting descriptive data, and in the level of detail provided about the statistical methods used, so it was not always possible to be sure that appropriate analyses had been conducted. Based on the findings of our review, we make recommendations about reporting of the study design, subcohort definition, numbers of participants, descriptive information and statistical methods, which could be used alongside existing STROBE guidelines for reporting observational studies. PMID:24972092

  10. A review of published analyses of case-cohort studies and recommendations for future reporting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Sharp

    Full Text Available The case-cohort study design combines the advantages of a cohort study with the efficiency of a nested case-control study. However, unlike more standard observational study designs, there are currently no guidelines for reporting results from case-cohort studies. Our aim was to review recent practice in reporting these studies, and develop recommendations for the future. By searching papers published in 24 major medical and epidemiological journals between January 2010 and March 2013 using PubMed, Scopus and Web of Knowledge, we identified 32 papers reporting case-cohort studies. The median subcohort sampling fraction was 4.1% (interquartile range 3.7% to 9.1%. The papers varied in their approaches to describing the numbers of individuals in the original cohort and the subcohort, presenting descriptive data, and in the level of detail provided about the statistical methods used, so it was not always possible to be sure that appropriate analyses had been conducted. Based on the findings of our review, we make recommendations about reporting of the study design, subcohort definition, numbers of participants, descriptive information and statistical methods, which could be used alongside existing STROBE guidelines for reporting observational studies.

  11. The global status of freshwater fish age validation studies and a prioritization framework for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Kevin L.; Hamel, Martin J.; Pegg, Mark A.; Spurgeon, Jonathan J.

    2016-01-01

    Age information derived from calcified structures is commonly used to estimate recruitment, growth, and mortality for fish populations. Validation of daily or annual marks on age structures is often assumed, presumably due to a lack of general knowledge concerning the status of age validation studies. Therefore, the current status of freshwater fish age validation studies was summarized to show where additional effort is needed, and increase the accessibility of validation studies to researchers. In total, 1351 original peer-reviewed articles were reviewed from freshwater systems that studied age in fish. Periodicity and age validation studies were found for 88 freshwater species comprising 21 fish families. The number of age validation studies has increased over the last 30 years following previous calls for more research; however, few species have validated structures spanning all life stages. In addition, few fishes of conservation concern have validated ageing structures. A prioritization framework, using a combination of eight characteristics, is offered to direct future age validation studies and close the validation information gap. Additional study, using the offered prioritization framework, and increased availability of published studies that incorporate uncertainty when presenting research results dealing with age information are needed.

  12. Key success factors of health research centers: A mixed method study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofighi, Shahram; Teymourzadeh, Ehsan; Heydari, Majid

    2017-01-01

    Background In order to achieve success in future goals and activities, health research centers are required to identify their key success factors. Objective This study aimed to extract and rank the factors affecting the success of research centers at one of the medical universities in Iran. Methods This study is a mixed method (qualitative-quantitative) study, which was conducted between May to October in 2016. The study setting was 22 health research centers. In qualitative phase, we extracted the factors affecting the success in research centers through purposeful interviews with 10 experts of centers, and classified them into themes and sub-themes. In the quantitative phase, we prepared a questionnaire and scored and ranked the factors recognized by 54 of the study samples by Friedman test. Results Nine themes and 42 sub-themes were identified. Themes included: strategic orientation, management, human capital, support, projects, infrastructure, communications and collaboration, paradigm and innovation and they were rated respectively as components of success in research centers. Among the 42 identified factors, 10 factors were ranked respectively as the key factors of success, and included: science and technology road map, strategic plan, evaluation indexes, committed human resources, scientific evaluation of members and centers, innovation in research and implementation, financial support, capable researchers, equipment infrastructure and teamwork. Conclusion According to the results, the strategic orientation was the most important component in the success of research centers. Therefore, managers and authorities of research centers should pay more attention to strategic areas in future planning, including the science and technology road map and strategic plan.

  13. 3D integration of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes aimed to very high fill-factor pixels for future linear colliders 

    CERN Document Server

    Vilella, E; Dieguez, A

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the maximum achievable fill-factor by a pixel detector of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes with the Chartered 130 nm/Tezzaron 3D process. The analysis shows that fillfactors between 66% and 96% can be obtained with different array architectures and a time-gated readout circuit of minimum area. The maximum fill-factor is achieved when the two-layer vertical stack is used to overlap the non-sensitive areas of one layer with the sensitive areas of the other one. Moreover, different sensor areas are used to further increase the fill-factor. A chip containing a pixel detector of the Geigermode avalanche photodiodes and aimed to future linear colliders has been designed with the Chartered 130 nm/Tezzaron 3D process to increase the fill-factor.

  14. Mental Time Travel into the Past and the Future in Healthy Aged Adults: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viard, Armelle; Chetelat, Gael; Lebreton, Karine; Desgranges, Beatrice; Landeau, Brigitte; de La Sayette, Vincent; Eustache, Francis; Piolino, Pascale

    2011-01-01

    Remembering the past and envisioning the future rely on episodic memory which enables mental time travel. Studies in young adults indicate that past and future thinking share common cognitive and neural underpinnings. No imaging data is yet available in healthy aged subjects. Using fMRI, we scanned older subjects while they remembered personal…

  15. Making the future memorable: The phenomenology of remembered future events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLelland, Victoria C; Devitt, Aleea L; Schacter, Daniel L; Addis, Donna Rose

    2015-01-01

    Although our ability to remember future simulations conveys an adaptive advantage, enabling us to better prepare for upcoming events, the factors influencing the memorability of future simulations are not clear. In this study, participants generated future simulations that combined specific people, places and objects from memory, and for each trial, made a series of phenomenological ratings about the event components and the simulation as a whole. Memory for simulations was later assessed using a cued-recall test. We used multilevel modelling to determine whether the phenomenological qualities of event components (familiarity, emotionality and significance) and simulations (detail, plausibility) were predictive of whether the simulation was successfully encoded and later accessible. Our results demonstrate that person familiarity, detail and plausibility were significant predictors of whether a given future simulation was encoded into memory and later accessible. These findings suggest that scaffolding future simulations with pre-existing episodic memories is the path to a memorable future.

  16. Factors influencing a problem-based learning implementation: A case study of IT courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darus, Norida Muhd; Mohd, Haslina; Baharom, Fauziah; Saip, Mohamed Ali; Puteh, Nurnasran; Marzuki @ Matt, Zaharin; Husain, Mohd Zabidin; Yasin, Azman

    2016-08-01

    IT students must be trained to work efficiently as teamwork. One of the techniques that can be used to train them is through Problem-Based Learning (PBL) approach. The PBL implementation can be influenced by various factors depending on the ultimate goal of the study. This study is focusing on the IT students' perception of the PBL implementation. The student's perception is important to ensure the successfulness of the PBL implementation. Therefore, it is important to identify the factors that might influence the implementation of PBL of IT courses. This study aims to identify some catalyst factors that may influence the PBL implementation of IT courses. The study involved three (3) main phases: identifying PBL implementation factors, constructing a PBL model, and PBL model validation using statistical analysis. Four main factors are identified: PBL Characteristics, PBL Course Assessment, PBL Practices, and PBL Perception. Based on these four factors, a PBL model is constructed. Then, based on the proposed PBL model, four hypotheses are formulated and analyzed to validate the model. All hypotheses are significantly acceptable. The result shows that the PBL Characteristics and PBL Course Assessment factors are significantly influenced the PBL Practices and indirectly influenced the Students' Perception of the PBL Implementation for IT courses. This PBL model can assist decision makers in enhancing the PBL teaching and learning strategy for IT courses. It is also can be tested to other courses in the future.

  17. Past and Future Work on Radiobiology Mega-Studies: A Case Study At Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haley, Benjamin; Wang, Qiong; Wanzer, Beau; Vogt, Stefan; Finney, Lydia; Yang, Ping Liu; Paunesku, Tatjana; Woloschak, Gayle

    2011-09-06

    Between 1952 and 1992, more than 200 large radiobiology studies were conducted in research institutes throughout Europe, North America, and Japan to determine the effects of external irradiation and internal emitters on the lifespan and tissue toxicity development in animals. At Argonne National Laboratory, 22 external beam studies were conducted on nearly 700 beagle dogs and 50,000 mice between 1969 and 1992. These studies helped to characterize the effects of neutron and gamma irradiation on lifespan, tumorigenesis, and mutagenesis across a range of doses and dosing patterns. The records and tissues collected at Argonne during that time period have been carefully preserved and redisseminated. Using these archived data, ongoing statistical work has been done and continues to characterize quality of radiation, dose, dose rate, tissue, and gender-specific differences in the radiation responses of exposed animals. The ongoing application of newly-developed molecular biology techniques to the archived tissues has revealed gene-specific mutation rates following exposure to ionizing irradiation. The original and ongoing work with this tissue archive is presented here as a case study of a more general trend in the radiobiology megastudies. These experiments helped form the modern understanding of radiation responses in animals and continue to inform development of new radiation models. Recent archival efforts have facilitated open access to the data and materials produced by these studies, and so a unique opportunity exists to expand this continued research.

  18. The role of epidermal growth factor receptor in photodynamic therapy: a review of the literature and proposal for future investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Carpio, Pedro A; Trelles, Mario A

    2010-11-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway seems to be an important contributor to the antiproliferative response to photodynamic therapy (PDT), in terms of cell death, apoptosis and tumour destruction. We reviewed all preclinical investigations in the scientific literature on the role of the EGFR pathway in PDT. A systematic search of Medline-indexed references up to March 2010 using the recommended strategies for Medline information retrieval and identifying relevant studies from systematic reviews, revealed 16 full articles that were exhaustively analysed. EGFR inhibition/degradation appeared to be a major effect of PDT in all investigations. PDT was found to result in a time-dependent reduction of EGFR expression, inhibition of tyrosine phosphorylation and induction of apoptosis during the regression of tumours. Within the time period of the PDT reaction, normal and malignant cells lose their responsiveness to EGF. The ERK1/2 and EGFR-PI3K-Akt pathways seem to be involved in cellular survival after PDT. Pharmacotherapy and immunotherapy to block EGFR activity combined with PDT seem to be very effective in reducing malignant tumours in vivo. The effect of PDT is associated with inactivation of the EGFR pathway, but biochemical and cellular phenomena are important and scarcely investigated. EGFR inhibitors and PDT act synergistically, and this is highly relevant for clinical use.

  19. Accelerator mass spectrometry-enabled studies: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjomand, Ali

    2010-03-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry is a detection platform with exceptional sensitivity compared with other bioanalytical platforms. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is widely used in archeology for radiocarbon dating applications. Early exploration of the biological and pharmaceutical applications of AMS began in the early 1990s. AMS has since demonstrated unique problem-solving ability in nutrition science, toxicology and pharmacology. AMS has also enabled the development of new applications, such as Phase 0 microdosing. Recent development of AMS-enabled applications has transformed this novelty research instrument to a valuable tool within the pharmaceutical industry. Although there is now greater awareness of AMS technology, recognition and appreciation of the range of AMS-enabled applications is still lacking, including study-design strategies. This review aims to provide further insight into the wide range of AMS-enabled applications. Examples of studies conducted over the past two decades will be presented, as well as prospects for the future of AMS.

  20. Literature Review of Dynamic Unmanned Aerial System Routing Problems and Proposals For Future Studies of UASs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihan Ercan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Outwith the technological developments made with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV; other important issues for the users like effective planning and re-planning; providing the clear, concise and timely information to the decision makers is part of the Network Enabled Capability. Significant improvements to the Communication and Information systems have made it possible to find dynamic solutions for Vehicle Routing Problems. In this context, "Vehicle Routing" applications for UAVs in reconnaissance missions are increasing exponentially. This study investigates the literature in "dynamic route planning", defining the scope and identifying shortcomings for future studies in Unmanned Aerial Systems. Using this approach not only reduces stagnant travel time to target time but increases the usable times spent on targets.

  1. The Healthy Primary School of the Future : study protocol of a quasi-experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willeboordse, M; Jansen, M W; van den Heijkant, S N; Simons, A; Winkens, B; de Groot, R H M; Bartelink, N; Kremers, S P; van Assema, P; Savelberg, H H; de Neubourg, E; Borghans, L; Schils, T; Coppens, K M; Dietvorst, R; Ten Hoopen, R; Coomans, F; Klosse, S; Conjaerts, M H J; Oosterhoff, M; Joore, M A; Ferreira, I; Muris, P; Bosma, H; Toppenberg, H L; van Schayck, C P

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Unhealthy lifestyles in early childhood are a major global health challenge. These lifestyles often persist from generation to generation and contribute to a vicious cycle of health-related and social problems. This design article presents a study evaluating the effects of two novel heal

  2. Gamma ray spectrometer for future Mars mission: design concept and simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, S. K.; Banerjee, D.; Vadawale, S.; Panda, Dipak K.; Patel, A. R.; Patinge, A.; Ladiya, T.; Sarbadhikari, A. B.

    2016-07-01

    One of the basic keys to understand the evolution and formation of any planet is the knowledge of the elemental composition of its surface. Gamma spectroscopy on Mars orbiter provides a unique opportunity to measure the elemental composition of its surface, with an atmosphere thin enough to allow detection of gamma rays produced from the near surface rock and soil materials. We are developing gamma ray spectrometer using High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector for future Mars orbiter mission. The scientific objective of the instrument is to map the naturally occurring radioactive elements (Th, U, and K) and other major elements (Fe, Mg, Cl, Al, Si, S, Mg, Cl) over the entire Martian surface with a spatial resolution of better than 250 km. Gamma ray spectrometer will also have Anti - Coincidence Shield (ACS) detector for background subtraction from the surrounding material. This paper gives the details of the GEANT4 simulation, carried out to study the design requirements for a gamma ray spectrometer for a future Mars orbiter mission. This includes the selection of the size of HPGe detector, selection of the detector material and thickness for the ACS detector, and attenuation of gamma rays in the Martian atmosphere. Generation of gamma rays from the Martian surface due to Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) particles' interaction has also been simulated. Preliminary results from the standard off the shelf detector are also presented here.

  3. Impact of future urbanization on a hot summer: a case study of Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Shai; Georgescu, Matei; Alfasi, Nurit; Kloog, Itai

    2017-04-01

    Israel's population is projected to increase significantly through the middle of the current century, requiring further expansion of the built environment to accommodate additional inhabitants and accompanying urban infrastructure. This study examines the climatic impacts of future urban expansion through simulated near-surface temperature and energy flux components associated with built environment growth. The Weather Research and Forecasting model was used to simulate present day extreme summertime conditions, at 1-km resolution, utilizing contemporary urban representation. To determine impacts associated with the physical growth of the urban environment, sensitivity simulations, also at 1-km resolution, incorporating projected changes in urban areas for Israel-based national development plans, were performed. Spatially and diurnally averaged at the national scale, projected urbanization is shown to increase summertime temperatures 0.4-0.8 °C, with greater temperature rise in northern compared to southern parts of the country. Across the diurnal cycle, urban impacts on near-surface warming are minimal during daytime hours, but exceed 3 °C across many urban locales during nighttime hours. The results presented here demonstrate the spatio-temporal impact of future urban expansion in Israel on temperature. The magnitude of these changes highlight the need for strategically designed regional and national planning to alleviate potentially deleterious climatic impacts associated with the physical growth of the built environment.

  4. A study of correlations between crude oil spot and futures markets: A rolling sample test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Wan, Jieqiu

    2011-10-01

    In this article, we investigate the asymmetries of exceedance correlations and cross-correlations between West Texas Intermediate (WTI) spot and futures markets. First, employing the test statistic proposed by Hong et al. [Asymmetries in stock returns: statistical tests and economic evaluation, Review of Financial Studies 20 (2007) 1547-1581], we find that the exceedance correlations were overall symmetric. However, the results from rolling windows show that some occasional events could induce the significant asymmetries of the exceedance correlations. Second, employing the test statistic proposed by Podobnik et al. [Quantifying cross-correlations using local and global detrending approaches, European Physics Journal B 71 (2009) 243-250], we find that the cross-correlations were significant even for large lagged orders. Using the detrended cross-correlation analysis proposed by Podobnik and Stanley [Detrended cross-correlation analysis: a new method for analyzing two nonstationary time series, Physics Review Letters 100 (2008) 084102], we find that the cross-correlations were weakly persistent and were stronger between spot and futures contract with larger maturity. Our results from rolling sample test also show the apparent effects of the exogenous events. Additionally, we have some relevant discussions on the obtained evidence.

  5. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF FORMING A PROFESSIONAL IMAGE OF THE FUTURE PUBLIC RELATIONS SPECIALIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Mikhailovna Semenova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the organization of research work on forming professional image of the future public relations specialist. The purposes of the work were to study components of students’ image, to test the concept of a professional image of the specialist, and also to process and evaluate the results. The author has presented three phases of experimental research: statement, formative and evaluative. As a result, a positive trend of forming a professional image was found. The conceptual model of forming a professional image of the future experts tested in the course of experiment has shown to be highly effective, while new methods of training (training, workshops, panel discussions, action games, etc. have substantially improved the level of development of a professional image. The results can be used in the training and retraining of specialists of higher education and people whose profession related to communications.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-48

  6. Assessing hydrological drought risk for the irrigation sector in future climate scenarios: lessons learned from the Apulia case study (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critto, Andrea; Torresan, Silvia; Ronco, Paolo; Zennaro, Federica; Santini, Monia; Trabucco, Antonio; Marcomini, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Climate change is already affecting the frequency of drought events which may threaten the current stocks of water resources and thus the availability of freshwater for the irrigation. The achievement of a sustainable equilibrium between the availability of water resources and the irrigation demand is essentially related to the planning and implementation of evidence-based adaptation strategies and actions. In this sense, the improvement (of existing) and the development of (new) appropriate risk assessment methods and tools to evaluate the impact of drought events on irrigated crops is fundamental in order to assure that the agricultural yields are appropriate to meet the current and future food and market demand. This study evaluates the risk of hydrological drought on the irrigated agronomic compartment of Apulia, a semi-arid region in Southern Italy. We applied a stepwise Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) procedure, based on the consecutive analysis of hazards, exposure, vulnerability and risks, integrating the qualitative and quantitative available information. Future climate projections for the timeframes 2021-2050 and 2041-2070 were provided by COSMO-CLM under the radiative forcing RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. The run-off feeding the water stocks of the most important irrigation reservoirs in Apulia was then modeled with Arc-SWAT. Hence, the hazard analysis was carried out in order to estimate the degree of fulfillment of actual irrigation demand satisfied by water supply of different reservoirs in future scenarios. Vulnerability of exposed irrigated crops was evaluated depending on three factors accounting for crop yield variation vs water stress, water losses along the irrigation network, diversification of water supply. Resulting risk and vulnerability maps allowed: the identification of Reclamation Consortia at higher risk of not fulfilling their future irrigation demand (e.g. Capitanata Reclamation Consortia in RCP8.5 2041-2070 scenario); the ranking of most

  7. Atmospheric studies in complex terrain: a planning guide for future studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orgill, M.M.

    1981-02-01

    The objective of this study is to assist the US Department of Energy in Conducting its atmospheric studies in complex terrain (ASCOT0 by defining various complex terrain research systems and relating these options to specific landforms sites. This includes: (1) reviewing past meteorological and diffusion research on complex terrain; (2) relating specific terrain-induced airflow phenomena to specific landforms and time and space scales; (3) evaluating the technical difficulty of modeling and measuring terrain-induced airflow phenomena; and (4) avolving severdal research options and proposing candidate sites for continuing and expanding field and modeling work. To evolve research options using variable candidate sites, four areas were considered: site selection, terrain uniqueness and quantification, definition of research problems and research plans. 36 references, 111 figures, 20 tables.

  8. A Study of the Factors Leading English Teachers to Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cephe, Pasa Tevfik

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a research study carried out on teacher burnout with a group of English instructors (N=44) in order to identify the major factor(s) leading instructors to burnout at various levels. A survey research model was first applied to find out the instructors (N=37) with a burnout problem and categorize them at different levels of…

  9. A Study of the Factors Leading English Teachers to Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cephe, Pasa Tevfik

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a research study carried out on teacher burnout with a group of English instructors (N=44) in order to identify the major factor(s) leading instructors to burnout at various levels. A survey research model was first applied to find out the instructors (N=37) with a burnout problem and categorize them at different levels of…

  10. Stress generation in depression: A systematic review of the empirical literature and recommendations for future study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Richard T.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2011-01-01

    Within the past 20 years, depression research has given increasing consideration to the possibility of complex and reciprocal relations between stress and depression. Not only does stress increase risk for depression (i.e., a stress exposure model of depression), but depression, or depressogenic vulnerabilities, in turn, also increases susceptibility to stressful events that are at least in part influenced by the individual (i.e., stress generation; Hammen, 1991). The present review provides a systematic examination of the stress generation literature to date, with specific focus given to depression and depressogenic risk factors (i.e., past stress, negative cognitive styles, and personality and interpersonal vulnerabilities) as predictors of the stress generation effect, as well as gender differences in stress generation, the sequelae of generated stress, and the relative specificity of this phenomenon to depression. The research thus far appears most consistent in supporting the role of depression in predicting generated stress, although more research is still required. In addition to highlighting these findings, methodological limitations and conceptual gaps in the literature are discussed with the view of informing future research in this area. PMID:20478648

  11. Wildlife Refuges : Changes in funding, staffing, and other factors create concerns about future sustainability : Report to congressional requesters

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — GAO was asked to (1) describe changing factors that the refuge system experienced from fiscal years 2002 through 2007, including funding and staffing changes, and...

  12. Favipiravir Pharmacokinetics in Nonhuman Primates and Insights for Future Efficacy Studies of Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madelain, Vincent; Guedj, Jérémie; Mentré, France; Nguyen, Thi Huyen Tram; Jacquot, Frédéric; Oestereich, Lisa; Kadota, Takumi; Yamada, Koichi; Taburet, Anne-Marie; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Raoul, Hervé

    2017-01-01

    Favipiravir is an RNA polymerase inhibitor that showed strong antiviral efficacy in vitro and in small-animal models of several viruses responsible for hemorrhagic fever (HF), including Ebola virus. The aim of this work was to characterize the complex pharmacokinetics of favipiravir in nonhuman primates (NHPs) in order to guide future efficacy studies of favipiravir in large-animal models. Four different studies were conducted in 30 uninfected cynomolgus macaques of Chinese (n = 17) or Mauritian (n = 13) origin treated with intravenous favipiravir for 7 to 14 days with maintenance doses of 60 to 180 mg/kg of body weight twice a day (BID). A pharmacokinetic model was developed to predict the plasma concentrations obtained with different dosing regimens, and the model predictions were compared to the 50% effective concentration (EC50) of favipiravir against several viruses. Favipiravir pharmacokinetics were described by a model accounting for concentration-dependent aldehyde oxidase inhibition. The enzyme-dependent elimination rate increased over time and was higher in NHPs of Mauritian origin than in those of Chinese origin. Maintenance doses of 100 and 120 mg/kg BID in Chinese and Mauritian NHPs, respectively, are predicted to achieve median trough plasma free concentrations above the EC50 for Lassa and Marburg viruses until day 7. For Ebola virus, higher doses are required. After day 7, a 20% dose increase is needed to compensate for the increase in drug clearance over time. These results will help rationalize the choice of dosing regimens in future studies evaluating the antiviral effect of favipiravir in NHPs and support its development against a variety of HF viruses.

  13. The past, present, and future of soils and human health studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, E. C.; Sauer, T. J.

    2015-01-01

    The idea that human health is tied to the soil is not a new one. As far back as circa 1400 BC the Bible depicts Moses as understanding that fertile soil was essential to the well-being of his people. In 400 BC the Greek philosopher Hippocrates provided a list of things that should be considered in a proper medical evaluation, including the properties of the local ground. By the late 1700s and early 1800s, American farmers had recognized that soil properties had some connection to human health. In the modern world, we recognize that soils have a distinct influence on human health. We recognize that soils influence (1) food availability and quality (food security), (2) human contact with various chemicals, and (3) human contact with various pathogens. Soils and human health studies include investigations into nutrient supply through the food chain and routes of exposure to chemicals and pathogens. However, making strong, scientific connections between soils and human health can be difficult. There are multiple variables to consider in the soil environment, meaning traditional scientific studies that seek to isolate and manipulate a single variable often do not provide meaningful data. The complete study of soils and human health also involves many different specialties such as soil scientists, toxicologists, medical professionals, anthropologists, etc. These groups do not traditionally work together on research projects, and do not always effectively communicate with one another. Climate change and how it will affect the soil environment/ecosystem going into the future is another variable affecting the relationship between soils and health. Future successes in soils and human health research will require effectively addressing difficult issues such as these.

  14. Factors associated with future commitment and past history of human papilloma virus vaccination among female college students in northern Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Ping-Fen; Yeh, Ying-Tse; Sheu, Shuh-Jen; Wang, Tze-Fang

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate factors influencing commitment to human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination and prior vaccination among female college students in northern Taiwan. Methods A quota sample of 400 female college students was recruited from nine colleges in northern Taiwan during March 2013. Of these, 398 completed the self administered questionnaire which was designed based on the health promotion model. Results The results showed that factors associated with prior vaccination behavior we...

  15. On the study of foreign philosophy in Chinese cultural construction and Its future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Since the "Conference on Foreign Philosophy" held in Wuhu in October 1978,the study of foreign philosophy in China has undergone a prosperous stage.This article discusses the significance of the study of foreign philosophy in the context of renovation,transformation and remolding of Chinese contemporary culture,explores the role of the discipline in the context of Chinese cultural construction,and anticipates the future of this discipline.A cross-cultural perspective is needed for a proper understanding of the significance of the learning and study of foreign philosophy in Chinese cultural construction;otherwise we might fall into cultural conservationism.Secondly,to make philosophy and social sciences prosperous is also a task for foreign philosophy studies,and whether or not foreign philosophy can be well studied should be a mark of the prosperousness of the construction of Chinese culture.Finally,philosophy is a product of human beings and should eventually serve human beings.Chinese culture should open itself up to the world and so should foreign philosophy studies in China.

  16. Human factors in resuscitation: Lessons learned from simulator studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunziker S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical algorithms, technical skills, and repeated training are the classical cornerstones for successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. Increasing evidence suggests that human factors, including team interaction, communication, and leadership, also influence the performance of CPR. Guidelines, however, do not yet include these human factors, partly because of the difficulties of their measurement in real-life cardiac arrest. Recently, clinical studies of cardiac arrest scenarios with high-fidelity video-assisted simulations have provided opportunities to better delineate the influence of human factors on resuscitation team performance. This review focuses on evidence from simulator studies that focus on human factors and their influence on the performance of resuscitation teams. Similar to studies in real patients, simulated cardiac arrest scenarios revealed many unnecessary interruptions of CPR as well as significant delays in defibrillation. These studies also showed that human factors play a major role in these shortcomings and that the medical performance depends on the quality of leadership and team-structuring. Moreover, simulated video-taped medical emergencies revealed that a substantial part of information transfer during communication is erroneous. Understanding the impact of human factors on the performance of a complex medical intervention like resuscitation requires detailed, second-by-second, analysis of factors involving the patient, resuscitative equipment such as the defibrillator, and all team members. Thus, high-fidelity simulator studies provide an important research method in this challenging field.

  17. A prospective study of risk factors for foot ulceration: The West of Ireland Diabetes Foot Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hurley, L

    2013-09-25

    BackgroundThis is the first study to examine risk factors for diabetic foot ulceration in Irish general practice.AimTo determine the prevalence of established risk factors for foot ulceration in a community-based cohort, and to explore the potential for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to act as a novel risk factor.DesignA prospective observational study.MethodsPatients with diabetes attending 12 (of 17) invited general practices were invited for foot screening. Validated clinical tests were carried out at baseline to assess for vascular and sensory impairment and foot deformity. Ulcer incidence was ascertained by patient self-report and medical record. Patients were re-assessed 18 months later. ResultsOf 828 invitees, 563 (68%) attended screening. On examination 23-25% had sensory dysfunction and 18-39% had evidence of vascular impairment. Using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network risk stratification system we found the proportion at moderate and high risk of future ulceration to be 25% and 11% respectively. At follow-up 16\\/383 patients (4.2%) developed a new foot ulcer (annual incidence rate of 2.6%). We observed an increasing probability of abnormal vascular and sensory test results (pedal pulse palpation, doppler waveform assessment, 10g monofilament, vibration perception and neuropathy disability score) with declining eGFR levels. We were unable to show an independent association between new ulceration and reduced eGFR [Odds ratio 1.01; p=0.64].ConclusionsOur data show the extent of foot complications in a representative sample of diabetes patients in Ireland. Use of eGFR did not improve identification of patients at risk of foot ulceration.

  18. Stature and jumping height are required in female volleyball, but motor coordination is a key factor for future elite success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pion, Johan A; Fransen, Job; Deprez, Dieter N; Segers, Veerle I; Vaeyens, Roel; Philippaerts, Renaat M; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2015-06-01

    It was hypothesized that differences in anthropometry, physical performance, and motor coordination would be found between Belgian elite and sub-elite level female volleyball players using a retrospective analysis of test results gathered over a 5-year period. The test sample in this study consisted of 21 young female volleyball players (15.3 ± 1.5 years) who were selected to train at the Flemish Top Sports Academy for Volleyball in 2008. All players (elite, n = 13; sub-elite, n = 8) were included in the same talent development program, and the elite-level athletes were of a high to very high performance levels according to European competition level in 2013. Five multivariate analyses of variance were used. There was no significant effect of playing level on measures of anthropometry (F = 0.455, p = 0.718, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.07), flexibility (F = 1.861, p = 0.188, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.19), strength (F = 1.218, p = 0.355, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.32); and speed and agility (F = 1.176, p = 0.350, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.18). Multivariate analyses of variance revealed significant multivariate effects between playing levels for motor coordination (F = 3.470, p = 0.036, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.59). A Mann-Whitney U test and a sequential discriminant analysis confirmed these results. Previous research revealed that stature and jump height are prerequisites for talent identification in female volleyball. In addition, the results show that motor coordination is an important factor in determining inclusion into the elite level in female volleyball.

  19. An exploration study on factors influencing Iranian food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Hosseinzadeh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The proposed study of this paper present an empirical investigation to detect important factors impacting on food market using factor analysis. The proposed study designed a questionnaire, distributed among 207 customers who were regular customers of two food chains in city of Tehran, Iran named Shahrvand and Hyperstar. The results of our survey indicate that six major factors including brand loyalty, physical characteristics, pricing effects, performance characteristics, brand relationship and brand position influence food industry, significantly. In terms of the first factor, brand loyalty, “Trust”, “Packaging design characteristics”, “Competitive pricing strategy”, “Stability in quality”, “External relationships” and “Meeting expectations” are important factors in different categories.

  20. NIH study confirms risk factors for male breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooled data from studies of about 2,400 men with breast cancer and 52,000 men without breast cancer confirmed that risk factors for male breast cancer include obesity, a rare genetic condition called Klinefelter syndrome, and gynecomastia.

  1. A study on the establishment of nuclear cooperative relations and future direction between Korea and Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, H. J.; Yun, S. W.; Ko, H. S

    2000-10-01

    This study was carried out in order to review the cooperation with Egypt and establish and activate the cooperative relations with Egypt. Recent policy trends in the use and development of nuclear energy in Egypt, were investigated including introduction of nuclear power plant, and cooperative relations between two nations were also established under the implementation of the project. It was agreed through exchanges of visits of nuclear cooperation delegation; 1) exchange of visits of cooperation delegation, 2) invitation of egypt experts to policy seminar 3) cooperation between relevant nuclear related organizations of two countries, 4) future cooperation fields and directions between two countries. It is recommended that cooperation with Egypt be implemented systematically through the long term based on national basic cooperation directions and integrated strategies.

  2. Study on the water related disaster risks using the future socio-economic scenario in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiguchi, M.; Hatono, M.; Ikeuchi, H.; Nakamura, S.; Hirabayashi, Y.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, flood risks in the present and the end of the 21st century in Asia are estimated using a future socio-economic scenario. Using the runoff data of 7 GCMs (RCP 8.5) of CMIP5, the river discharge, inundation area, and inundation depth are calculated for the assessment of flood risk. Finally, the flood risk is estimated using a function of damage. The flood frequency in the end of the 21st century in Asia tends to increase. Inundation area in Japan, Taiwan, and Kyrgyz is almost unchanged. At the same time, that in Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Laos, and Myanmar reached about 1.4-1.6 times compared to present. Damage cost is largely influenced by economic growth, however, we show that it is important that we distinguish the influence of climate change from economic development and evaluate it when we think about an adaptation.

  3. Future of Green Products in Pakistan: An Empirical Study about Green Purchase Intentions

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Rizwan; Rana Muhammad Asif; Sajjad Hussain; Mubashir Asghar; Muhammad Hassan; Umer Javeed

    2013-01-01

    Success of Green products becomes very necessary to keep our earth alive and help the human race to sustain. The purpose of this study is to identify the important factors that influence the green purchase intentions of the people of Pakistan. A self-administered questionnaire technique is use to analyze the green purchase intention of the people. Green purchase intention of people is tested by their green awareness, green perceived trust, green perceived value, green perceived risk and envir...

  4. Epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in Greece: aims, design and baseline characteristics of the ATTICA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrysohoou Christina

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an attempt to evaluate the levels of several cardiovascular risk factors in Greece we conducted a population-based health and nutrition survey, the "ATTICA study". In this work we present the design and the methodology of the study, as well as the status of various baseline characteristics of the participants. Methods From May 2001 to December 2002 we randomly enrolled 1514 adult men and 1528 adult women, stratified by age – gender (census 2000, from the greater area of Athens. More than 300 demographic, lifestyle, behavioral, dietary, clinical and biochemical variables have been recorded. Results Regarding the frequency of the classical cardiovascular risk factors we observed that 51% of men and 39% of women reported smokers (p Conclusions The prevalence of the common cardiovascular risk factors in our population seems high. As a consequence a considerable proportion of Greek adults are at "high-risk" for future cardiovascular events.

  5. Prevalence of HIV/AIDS and prediction of future trends in north-west region of India: A six-year ICTC-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyas Nitya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study was conducted to analyze previous six-year prevalence data of HIV infection in the Northwest region of India and predict future trends for a couple of years. Objectives: The study was conducted to aid SACS and NACO to plan and arrange resources for the future scenario. Materials and Methods: All the attendees of ICTC, Jaipur, from January 2002 to December 2007 were included and variables like age, sex, marital status, occupation, place of residence, pattern of risk behavior and HIV serostatus were studied. As per the strategy and policy prescribed by NACO, tests (E/R/S were performed on the serum samples. Data was collected; compiled and analyzed using standard statistical methods. Future trends of HIV-prevalence in north-west India were anticipated. Results: The overall positivity rates among attendees of ICTC, were found to be 12.2% (386/3161, 11.8% (519/4381, 11.1% (649/5867, 13% (908/6983, 14% (1385/9911 and 17.34% (1756/10133 in the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2007 respectively. Future trends for the next couple of years depict further increase in prevalence without any plateau. Conclusion: Epidemiological studies should be carried out in various settings to understand the role and complex relations of innumerable behavioral, social and demographic factors, which will help, interrupt and control the transmission of HIV/ AIDS.

  6. The K-meson form factor and charge radius: linking low-energy data to future high-energy Jefferson Laboratory results

    CERN Document Server

    Krutov, A F; Troitsky, V E

    2016-01-01

    Starting from a successful model of the $\\pi$-meson electromagnetic form factor, we calculate the similar form factor, f_K(Q^2), of the charged K meson for a wide range of the momentum transfer squared, Q^2. The only remaining free parameter is to be determined from the measurements of the K-meson charge radius, r_K. We fit this single parameter to the published data of the NA-7 experiment which measured f_K(Q^2) at Q^2->0 and determine our preferred range of r_K, which happens to be close to recent lattice results. Still, the accuracy in the determination of r_K is poor. However, future measurements of the K-meson electromagnetic form factor at Q^2<~5.5 GeV^2, scheduled in Jefferson Laboratory for 2017, will test our approach and will reduce the uncertainty in r_K significantly.

  7. Study on Market Stability and Price Limit of Chinese Stock Index Futures Market: An Agent-Based Modeling Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiong; Nan, Ding; Yang, Yang; Yongjie, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores a method of managing the risk of the stock index futures market and the cross-market through analyzing the effectiveness of price limits on the Chinese Stock Index 300 futures market. We adopt a cross-market artificial financial market (include the stock market and the stock index futures market) as a platform on which to simulate the operation of the CSI 300 futures market by changing the settings of price limits. After comparing the market stability under different price limits by appropriate liquidity and volatility indicators, we find that enhancing price limits or removing price limits both play a negative impact on market stability. In contrast, a positive impact exists on market stability if the existing price limit is maintained (increase of limit by10%, down by 10%) or it is broadened to a proper extent. Our study provides reasonable advice for a price limit setting and risk management for CSI 300 futures.

  8. Study on Market Stability and Price Limit of Chinese Stock Index Futures Market: An Agent-Based Modeling Perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Xiong

    Full Text Available This paper explores a method of managing the risk of the stock index futures market and the cross-market through analyzing the effectiveness of price limits on the Chinese Stock Index 300 futures market. We adopt a cross-market artificial financial market (include the stock market and the stock index futures market as a platform on which to simulate the operation of the CSI 300 futures market by changing the settings of price limits. After comparing the market stability under different price limits by appropriate liquidity and volatility indicators, we find that enhancing price limits or removing price limits both play a negative impact on market stability. In contrast, a positive impact exists on market stability if the existing price limit is maintained (increase of limit by10%, down by 10% or it is broadened to a proper extent. Our study provides reasonable advice for a price limit setting and risk management for CSI 300 futures.

  9. Study of methane hydrate as a future energy resource: low emission extraction and power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.; Yamada, H.; Kanda, Y.; Sasaki, H.; Okajima, J.; Iga, Y.; Komiya, A.; Maruyama, S.

    2016-08-01

    With the fast increase of world energy consumption in recent years, new and sustainable energy sources are becoming more and more important. Methane Hydrate is one promising candidate for the future energy supply of humankind, due to its vast existence in permafrost regions and near-coast seabed. This study is focused on the effective low emission utilization of methane hydrate from deep seabed. The Nankai Trough of Japan is taken as the target region in this study for methane hydrate extraction and utilization system design. Low emission system and power generation system with CCS (Carbon Capture and Sequestration) processes are proposed and analyzed for production rate and electricity generation efficiency problem study. It is found that the gas production price can reach the current domestic natural gas supply price level if the production rate can be improved. The optimized system is estimated to have power efficiency about 35%. In addition, current development and analysis from micro-to-macro scale methane hydrate production and dissociation dynamics are also discussed into detail in this study.

  10. The emerging role of SMPD1 mutations in Parkinson's disease: Implications for future studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan-Or, Ziv; Orr-Urtreger, Avi; Alcalay, Roy N; Bressman, Susan; Giladi, Nir; Rouleau, Guy A

    2015-10-01

    Recently, an additional study confirmed the association between SMPD1 mutations and Parkinson's disease (PD). While the first study on SMPD1 and PD suggested that only one SMPD1 mutations is responsible for the association to PD, the recent study argued that all SMPD1 mutations may be associated with an increased risk for PD. Since SMPD1 mutations are being routinely screened in some populations with high carrier frequencies, and since it will be further screened in additional PD populations, it is important to better define the association between SMPD1 and PD. We reanalyzed the data from the recent and previous papers, and we show that the association between SMPD1 and PD is indeed not driven by only one mutation, but it is also not driven by all SMPD1 mutations. In the Ashkenazi-Jewish population, the p.fs330P (OR = 3.03, p = 0.0026) and p.L302P (OR = 9.62, p < 0.0001) are associated with PD, and the p.R496L mutation is not (OR = 0.84, p = 0.71), and similar observation was noted in the Chinese population. Thus, we conclude that similar to the GBA gene where different mutations have differential effects, SMPD1 mutations also have a differential effects on the risk for PD. Future studies should therefore examine the association by mutation and not by accumulative risk of all mutations.

  11. A statistical study of weather-related disasters. Past, present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, H.; Bouwman, A.; Petersen, A.; Ligtvoet, W.

    2012-07-15

    Disasters such as floods, storms, heatwaves and droughts may have serious implications for human health and the economic development of countries. One of the main findings of this report is that disaster burdens are dominated by economic and demographic developments, rather than climate change. Furthermore, disaster burden appears to be spread unequally over rich and poor countries. In Chapter 2 the background of the three regions used throughout this report is described: OECD, BRIICS (Brazil, Russia, India, Indonesia, China and South Africa and remaining countries. Furthermore, an overview of the disaster databases is given, along with definitions of disaster terminology. The statistical treatment of trends in disaster data is shortly exemplified. Chapter 3 gives on overview of the results for disaster burden and trends therein on a global scale. Results are split-up as for different disaster types. In Chapters 4 and 5 the same analysis is performed, but now split-up for three regions. In Chapter 4, disaster burdens are quantified, while analyses of trends in disaster burdens are given in Chapter 5. Here, the analyses are confined to weather-related disaster events only. In Chapter 6 the trend patterns found in Chapter 5, are explained as far as possible. Here, changes in wealth, changes in population, the role of climate change and changes due to adaptation are treated in separate sections. Chapter 7 shortly deals with communicational aspects of disasters: the attribution of individual disasters to climate change and results in the literature which are contradictory to results presented here. Chapters 3 through 7 deal with historical data on disaster burden. In the subsequent Chapters 8 and 9 the future of disaster burden will be dealt with. Chapter 8 gives a short overview of the future of disasters as presented in the literature. In Chapter 9 a PBL case study for flooding on a global scale is given, with predictions for people at risk and economic losses at

  12. Comparative Analysis of Modeling Studies on China's Future Energy and Emissions Outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David

    2010-09-01

    The past decade has seen the development of various scenarios describing long-term patterns of future Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, with each new approach adding insights to our understanding of the changing dynamics of energy consumption and aggregate future energy trends. With the recent growing focus on China's energy use and emission mitigation potential, a range of Chinese outlook models have been developed across different institutions including in China's Energy Research Institute's 2050 China Energy and CO2 Emissions Report, McKinsey & Co's China's Green Revolution report, the UK Sussex Energy Group and Tyndall Centre's China's Energy Transition report, and the China-specific section of the IEA World Energy Outlook 2009. At the same time, the China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has developed a bottom-up, end-use energy model for China with scenario analysis of energy and emission pathways out to 2050. A robust and credible energy and emission model will play a key role in informing policymakers by assessing efficiency policy impacts and understanding the dynamics of future energy consumption and energy saving and emission reduction potential. This is especially true for developing countries such as China, where uncertainties are greater while the economy continues to undergo rapid growth and industrialization. A slightly different assumption or storyline could result in significant discrepancies among different model results. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the key models in terms of their scope, methodologies, key driver assumptions and the associated findings. A comparative analysis of LBNL's energy end-use model scenarios with the five above studies was thus conducted to examine similarities and divergences in methodologies, scenario storylines, macroeconomic drivers and assumptions as well as aggregate energy and emission scenario results. Besides directly tracing

  13. Factor analytic study of the personality of female methadone outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, R B

    1980-10-01

    Several researchers have examined the personality of chemical abusers by employing a multivariate clustering strategy. All of these studies focused on hospitalized inpatient addicts. Only one included females in the study. The purpose of this study is to examine the transposed data factor analytically derived profiles of female methadone maintained outpatients. All clients were given the Mini-Mult short form version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Seventy profiles were randomly selected from 130 female profiles. Program Factor of the Analyses of Behavioral Sciences Data program series was employed in statistically processing this data. Descriptions of the five factors are provided. Most of the profile types seem to fall into the normal or personality disordered categories. Forth-two percent of the profiles were normal, 24% were Personality Disorders, 6% were Neurotic, and 28% were unclassified using five factors.

  14. Factors Influencing Student Participation in College Study Abroad Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Soumava; Bandyopadhyay, Kakoli

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework to investigate the factors that influence student participation in college study abroad programs. The authors posit that students' general perceptions regarding the study abroad experience and their expectations of intercultural awareness from study abroad programs will impact their perceptions of…

  15. Cryotanks in future vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydenreich, R.

    Cryogenic storage of liquid hydrogen and oxygen is a need in future transportation systems. Therefore, MAN Technologie is studying various concepts for cryogenic tanks made of carbon reinforced plastics (CFRP) material. For space application the demand of a CFRP cryotank derives from the mechanical loads in combination with the thermal environment. Mass saving has priority for single stage launchers. In order to separate the influence of complex requirements on the tank components test samples are proposed with the help of scaling factors. For future aircraft the need for replacement of kerosene is growing. Due to the storage conditions the insulation requirement is very stringent. For ground traffic there are relatively small and cheap tanks to be produced in future. An overview on all these applications is given. The advantage of composite in relation to metallic tanks is maximum for use in spacecraft.

  16. The Social Psychology of Citizenship: Engagement With Citizenship Studies and Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford Stevenson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article we review the argument outlined in the opening article in this special thematic section: that the current social psychology of citizenship can be understood as the development of longstanding conceptualisations of the concept within the discipline. These conceptualisations have contributed to the current social psychological study of the constructive, active and collective (but often exclusive understandings of citizenship in people’s everyday lives, as evidenced by contributions to this thematic section. We consider how this emerging body of work might fit with current citizenship studies and in particular how it may contribute to the current trend towards conceiving citizenship as an active practice embedded in everyday social life. Specifically, we highlight three areas of future research that we think are particularly promising: citizenship and recognition; displays and enactments of citizenship in public space; citizenship and lived coexistence. Although this is far from an exhaustive list of possibilities, we propose that research in these areas could enable the way for social psychology to articulate a distinct, recognisable and valuable contribution to citizenship studies.

  17. Cannabis use in adolescence and risk of future disability pension: a 39-year longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, Anna-Karin; Agardh, Emilie; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Allebeck, Peter; Falkstedt, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed at examining a possible association between cannabis use in adolescence and future disability pension (DP). DP can be granted to any person in Sweden aged 16-65 years if working capacity is judged to be permanently reduced due to long-standing illness or injury. Data were obtained from a longitudinal cohort study comprising 49,321 Swedish men born in 1949-1951 who were conscripted to compulsory military service aged 18-20 years. Data on DP was collected from national registers. Results showed that individuals who used cannabis in adolescence had considerably higher rates of disability pension throughout the follow-up until 59 years of age. In Cox proportional-hazards regression analyses, adjustment for covariates (social background, mental health, physical fitness, risky alcohol use, tobacco smoking and illicit drug use) attenuated the associations. However, when all covariates where entered simultaneously, about a 30% increased hazard ratio of DP from 40 to 59 years of age still remained in the group reporting cannabis use more than 50 times. This study shows that heavy cannabis use in late adolescence was associated with an increased relative risk of labor market exclusion through disability pension. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Studies towards optimisation of the analog hadronic calorimeter for future linear collider detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Huong Lan [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Collaboration: CALICE-D-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The Analog Hadronic Calorimeter (AHCAL) is a highly granular calorimeter developed in the CALICE collaboration for future linear collider detectors. Its design concept is based on 3 x 3 cm{sup 2} scintillator tiles readout by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM). With this design the ambitious required jet energy resolution of 3-4 % can be achieved using the Pandora Particle Flow Algorithm (PandoraPFA). Recent discussions concerning the overall size and cost of the ILD detector has triggered new studies to optimise AHCAL cell size. A smaller number of cells can reduce the detector cost but the corresponding larger cell size can lead to a degradation of the jet energy resolution. The AHCAL optimisation study therefore has to achieve the best balance between physics performance and cost. Recent studies using the latest version of PandoraPFA with improved pattern recognition have shown significant improvement of jet energy resolution. Moreover, a better energy reconstruction of single particles, in which software compensation plays an important role, can lead to further improvements. This talk will discuss the software compensation technique and its impact on the final cell size optimisation.

  19. Initial multi-national study of future energy systems and impacts of some evolving technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-03-25

    Participants from thirteen member nations of the International Energy Agency and the Commission of European Communities have been conducting cooperative energy systems analyses, the goal of which is to evaluate the possible impacts of new and conservation technologies. Such studies are intended to provide analytical bases to aid future decisions on cooperative research and development projects. In the initial studies, a quantitative description of the 1974 energy system has been prepared for each participating nation. The nations accounted for approximately half of the world energy consumption in 1974. They imported more than 30 percent of their primary energy requirements from other nations of the world. Oil and natural gas supplied almost /sup 3///sub 4/ of the energy. Reference projections were made for the years 1985 and 2000 to provide base cases for studies of the impacts of new and conservation technologies. Although these projections are not intended to be forecasts, taken together they indicate an increasing gap between the demand for energy and foreseeable domestic supplies, thus underscoring the urgency for the vigorous introduction of new energy technologies as well as the need for strong efforts in energy conservation. Some preliminary evaluations of selected technologies were made as a function of current development plans. None of these technologies taken individually appear capable of balancing the demand-supply equation.

  20. A history of futures: A review of scenario use in water policy studies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasnoot, M.; Middelkoop, H.

    2012-01-01

    The future of human life in the world's river deltas depends on the success of water management. To deal with uncertainties about the future, policymakers in the Netherlands have used scenarios to develop water management strategies for the coastal zone of the Rhine–Meuse delta. In this paper we ref

  1. A history of futures: A review of scenario use in water policy studies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasnoot, M.; Middelkoop, H.

    2012-01-01

    The future of human life in the world’s river deltas depends on the success of water management. To deal with uncertainties about the future, policymakers in the Netherlands have used scenarios to develop water management strategies for the coastal zone of the Rhine–Meuse delta. In this paper we ref

  2. A question of value: a qualitative study of vocational dental practitioners' views on oral healthcare systems and their future careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Jennifer E; Clarke, Wendy; Eaton, Kenneth A; Wilson, Nairn H F

    2009-01-01

    New dental graduates in England and Wales spend one year as vocational dental practitioners (VDPs) preparing for independent clinical practice. In recent years, they have entered a state-funded healthcare system undergoing the greatest period of change since the inception of the National Health Service (NHS) and a profession in which there has been a significant shift of care to the private sector. Against this background, the objectives of this study were to investigate VDPs' vision of their future professional career and the influences that will impact on their choice of state-funded (NHS) and/or private dentistry, and to identify what factors may attract graduates to work for the NHS. In 2004/2005, purposive sampling of a range of VDP training schemes across England and Wales was used to select the VDPs from ten schemes to take part in focus groups. To standardise data collection, a topic guide was used. Respondents' views were recorded on tape and field notes. The data were transcribed and analysed using framework methodology. Ninety-nine VDPs from all parts of England and Wales participated in ten focus groups. They identified three main categories of future practice: private, state-funded (NHS), and mixed. Private practice was perceived as providing 'professional independence', 'financial reward', 'time with patients' and 'clinical freedom'. NHS practice was associated with 'providing access to specialist training' and 'gaining clinical experience', often as preparation for private practice. Providing NHS care was attractive for VDPs who valued the ethos of public service. The VDPs considered that NHS practice could be made more attractive to young dentists by a range of factors, involving the funding, culture and philosophy of the system and the degree of fit with their personal and professional vision. They reported that they would welcome 'incentives to work in areas of high need', 'assistance with debt' and a 'culture of valuing NHS dentists'. The

  3. A Study Of Risk Factors For Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deswal B S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the extent of low weight babies born in hospitals and its association with some maternal factors? Objectives: 1. To find an overall prevalence of low birth weight babies amongst hospital births in Meerut city. 2. To identify and quantify the effects of some risk factors for low birth weight. Setting: District women Hospital of Meerut city of western U.P. Study Design: Hospital based matched case-control study. Sample size: 491 low birth weight babies as ‘cases’ and an equal number of babies of normal birth weight in ‘control’ group matched for maternal age, sex of baby, birth order and institution of delivery. Study variables: Socio-economic Status: maternal biological factors including obstetric history: antenatal factors: nutritional factors: history of abortion: toxaemia of pregnancy etc. Results: Overall proportion of low birth weight babies was found to be 21.8% amongst hospital live births and 30.9% born to mothers aged below 30 years of age. Low maternal weight, under nutrition, lack of antenatal care, short inter-pregnancy interval, toxacmia of pregnancy were independent factors increasing the risk of low birth weight significantly. Conclusions: The study suggested that a substantial proportion of low birth weight babies can be averted by improving maternal nutritional status including anemic condition, birth spacing and proper antenatal care.

  4. A study on effective factors on employee motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ghodrati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Management is often considered as collaboration with others and this requires knowing about employers' behavior and the factors influencing their behaviors to motivate them for obtaining some predicted aims. This paper presents a study to detect important factors influencing motivation of some employees who work for a public offices in city of Kashan, Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 160 randomly selected participants. The questions are divided into two groups of management performance and motivational factors. To evaluate the effect of demographic factors on the quality of respondents' statements, a rating analysis based on Kruskal–Wallis test is used. To measure the effective vote, the motivation levels are divided into three groups of highly motivated, motivated and not motivated and they are analyzed based on rating mean variance with freedman scale. The results indicate that interesting job, job security, good salary and benefits and promotions, etc. are important factors to impact on the employers' motivation. For the newly – employed personal, job security is the most important motivation factor and for old – established employees, job attractive and sense of being considered is the most effective factor.

  5. Bone dynamic study. Evaluation for factor analysis of hip joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Kotaro; Toyama, Hinako; Ishikawa, Nobuyoshi; Hatakeyama, Rokuro; Akisada, Masayoshi; Miyagawa, Shunpei

    1989-02-01

    Factor analysis was applied to dynamic study of Tc-99m MDP for the evaluation of hip joint disorders. Fifteen patients were examined; eight were normal, six was osteoarthritis in which one accompanied synovitis was included, and one was aseptic necrosis on the head of the femur. In normals, according to the Tc-99m MDP kinetics, three factor images and time-activity curves were obtained which were named as blood vessel, soft tissue, and bone factor images and curves. In the patient with osteoarthritis, increased accumulation of the hip joint was shown in bone factor image only. But in one patient, who took osteoarthritis with synovitis, marked accumulations of the Tc-99m MDP appeared not only on the bone factor image but also on the soft tissue. Operation revealed thickening synovial tissue around the hip joint, caused by inflammatory process. In follow-up studies of the patient with aseptic necrosis on the head of the left femur, exessive accumulations, which were seemed in his left hip joint on both bone and soft tissue factor images at first, were decreased respondently to the treatment of this lesion. In conclusion, the factor analysis was useful for differential diagnosis of the hip joint disorders and observation of the clinical course of the hip joint disorders.

  6. Risk factors for anal fistula: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D; Yang, G; Qiu, J; Song, Y; Wang, L; Gao, J; Wang, C

    2014-07-01

    The aim of our study was to identify potential risk factors for anal fistula in order to improve prevention and treatment of anal fistula. A retrospective case-control study for anal fistula was conducted at our unit. Logistic regression analyses were carried out to identify associated risk factors for anal fistula. The final model obtained by the stepwise forward logistic regression analysis method identified the following items as independent risk factors: body mass index of >25.0 kg/m(2), high daily salt intake, history of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, dermatosis, anorectal surgery, history of smoking and alcohol intake, sedentary lifestyle, excessive intake of spicy/greasy food, very infrequent participation in sports and prolonged sitting on the toilet for defecation. Our results indicate that lifestyle factors and certain medical conditions increase an individual's risk of developing anal fistula.

  7. Reproductive risk factors associated with breast carcinoma in a tertiary care hospital of north India: A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Context: Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. In India and other developing countries, breast carcinoma ranks second only to cervical carcinoma among women. But the incidence of breast cancer is on the rise and may become number one cancer in females in near future. Aims: (1) To find out the magnitude of reproductive risk factors of carcinoma breast among the study subjects; and (2) to find out the association of reproductive risk factors with breast carcinoma. Mate...

  8. Plasma rich in growth factors: preliminary results of use in the preparation of future sites for implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, E

    1999-01-01

    This article presents preliminary clinical evidence of the beneficial effect of the use of plasma rich in growth factors of autologous origin. The plasma is obtained from the individual patient by plasmapheresis. The macroscopic and microscopic results obtained with bone regeneration using this technique, which uses no membrane or barrier, can be observed. The incorporation of these concepts can introduce several advantages, including the enhancement and acceleration of bone regeneration and more rapid and predictable soft tissue healing.

  9. Heighten the Study on Factor Seven Activating Protease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺石林; 陈方平; 张广森; 文志斌

    2008-01-01

    @@ Recent studies have showed that factor seven activating protease (FSAP) is a novel serine protease in human plasma. Immunoreactivity for FSAP has been observed in vascular endothelial cells,epithelial cells and macrophages but FSAP-specific mRNA expression only exists in the former two cells. FSAP has three epidermal growth factor (EGF) domains,a kringle domain and a serine protease domain.

  10. Verification modeling study for the influential factors of secondary clarifier

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Haiwen

    2016-01-01

    A numerical Quasi 3-D model of secondary clarifier is applied to verify the data obtained through the literature and analyze the influential factors for secondary clarifiers. The data from the papers provide the input parameters for the model. During this study, several influential factors (density waterfall; surface overflow rate; solids loading rate; solids-settling characteristics; mixed liquor suspended solid; clarifier geometry) are tested. The results show that there are some difference...

  11. Performance of Modular Prefabricated Architecture: Case Study-Based Review and Future Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Edmond Boafo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Even though tightened building energy efficiency standards are implemented periodically in many countries, existing buildings continually consume a momentous quota of the total primary energy. Energy efficiency solutions range from material components to bulk systems. A technique of building construction, referred to as prefabricated architecture (prefab, is increasing in reputation. Prefab encompasses the offsite fabrication of building components to a greater degree of finish as bulk building structures and systems, and their assembly on-site. In this context, prefab improves the speed of construction, quality of architecture, efficiency of materials, and worker safety, while limiting environmental impacts of construction, as compared to conventional site-built construction practices. Quite recently, a 57 story skyscraper was built in 19 days using prefabricated modules. From the building physics point of view, the bulk systems and tighter integration method of prefab minimizes thermal bridges. This study seeks to clearly characterize the levels of prefab and to investigate the performance of modular prefab; considering acoustic constrain, seismic resistance, thermal behavior, energy consumption, and life cycle analysis of existing prefab cases and, thus, provides a dynamic case study-based review. Generally, prefab can be categorized into components, panels (2D, modules (3D, hybrids, and unitized whole buildings. On average, greenhouse gas emissions from conventional construction were higher than for modular construction, not discounting some individual discrepancies. Few studies have focused on monitored data on prefab and occupants’ comfort but additional studies are required to understand the public’s perception of the technology. The scope of the work examined will be of interest to building engineers, manufacturers, and energy experts, as well as serve as a foundational reference for future study.

  12. Study and Developement of Compact Permanent Magnet Hall Thrusters for Future Brazillian Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Martins, Alexandre; Cerda, Rodrigo

    2016-07-01

    The Plasma Physics Laboratory of UnB has been developing a Permanent Magnet Hall Thruster (PHALL) for the UNIESPAÇO program, part of the Space Activities Program conducted by AEB- The Brazillian Space Agency since 2004. Electric propulsion is now a very successful method for primary and secondary propulsion systems. It is essential for several existing geostationary satellite station keeping systems and for deep space long duration solar system missions, where the thrusting system can be designed to be used on orbit transfer maneuvering and/or for satellite attitude control in long term space missions. Applications of compact versions of Permanent Magnet Hall Thrusters on future brazillian space missions are needed and foreseen for the coming years beginning with the use of small divergent cusp field (DCFH) Hall Thrusters type on CUBESATS ( 5-10 kg , 1W-5 W power consumption) and on Micro satellites ( 50- 100 kg, 10W-100W). Brazillian (AEB) and German (DLR) space agencies and research institutions are developing a new rocket dedicated to small satellite launching. The VLM- Microsatellite Launch Vehicle. The development of PHALL compact versions can also be important for the recently proposed SBG system, a future brazillian geostationary satellite system that is already been developed by an international consortium of brazillian and foreign space industries. The exploration of small bodies in the Solar System with spacecraft has been done by several countries with increasing frequency in these past twenty five years. Since their historical beginning on the sixties, most of the Solar System missions were based on gravity assisted trajectories very much depended on planet orbit positioning relative to the Sun and the Earth. The consequence was always the narrowing of the mission launch window. Today, the need for Solar System icy bodies in situ exploration requires less dependence on gravity assisted maneuvering and new high precision low thrust navigation methods

  13. Managing future air quality in megacities: A case study for Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Markus; Purohit, Pallav; Bhanarkar, Anil D.; Bertok, Imrich; Borken-Kleefeld, Jens; Cofala, Janusz; Heyes, Chris; Kiesewetter, Gregor; Klimont, Zbigniew; Liu, Jun; Majumdar, Dipanjali; Nguyen, Binh; Rafaj, Peter; Rao, Padma S.; Sander, Robert; Schöpp, Wolfgang; Srivastava, Anjali; Vardhan, B. Harsh

    2017-07-01

    Megacities in Asia rank high in air pollution at the global scale. In many cities, ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) have been exceeding both the WHO interim targets as well as respective national air quality standards. This paper presents a systems analytical perspective on management options that could efficiently improve air quality at the urban scale, having Delhi as a case study. We employ the newly developed GAINS-City policy analysis framework, consisting of a bottom up emission calculation combined with atmospheric chemistry-transport calculation, to derive innovative insights into the current sources of pollution and their impacts on ambient PM2.5, both from emissions of primary PM as well as precursors of secondary inorganic and organic aerosols. We outline the likely future development of these sources, quantify the related ambient PM2.5 concentrations and health impacts, and explore potential policy interventions that could effectively reduce environmental pollution and resulting health impacts in the coming years. The analysis demonstrates that effective improvement of Delhi's air quality requires collaboration with neighboring States and must involve sources that are less relevant in industrialized countries. At the same time, many of the policy interventions will have multiple co-benefits on development targets in Delhi and its neighboring States. Outcomes of this study, as well as the modelling tools used herein, are applicable to other urban areas and fast growing metropolitan zones in the emerging Asian regions.

  14. Introducing a Novel Applicant Ranking Tool to Predict Future Resident Performance: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowe, Sarah N; Weitzel, Erik K; Hannah, William N; Fitzgerald, Brian M; Kraus, Gregory P; Nagy, Christopher J; Harrison, Stephen A

    2017-01-01

    The purposes of this study are to (1) introduce our novel Applicant Ranking Tool that aligns with the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education competencies and (2) share our preliminary results comparing applicant rank to current performance. After a thorough literature review and multiple roundtable discussions, an Applicant Ranking Tool was created. Feasibility, satisfaction, and critiques were discussed via open feedback session. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using weighted kappa statistic (κ) and Kendall coefficient of concordance (W). Fisher's exact tests evaluated the ability of the tool to stratify performance into the top or bottom half of their class. Internal medicine and anesthesiology residents served as the pilot cohorts. The tool was considered user-friendly for both data input and analysis. Inter-rater reliability was strongest with intradisciplinary evaluation (W = 0.8-0.975). Resident performance was successfully stratified into those functioning in the upper vs. lower half of their class within the Clinical Anesthesia-3 grouping (p = 0.008). This novel Applicant Ranking Tool lends support for the use of both cognitive and noncognitive traits in predicting resident performance. While the ability of this instrument to accurately predict future resident performance will take years to answer, this pilot study suggests the instrument is worthy of ongoing investigation.

  15. A Factor Analytic Study of the Teaching Events Stress Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Livingston; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to determine if definitive factors emerge from the responses of teachers to the Teaching Events Stress Inventory (TESI). In a series of three studies during the years 1980 to 1982, data were collected to assess the levels and sources of stress experienced by 660 teachers in central and western Kentucky. The subjects…

  16. A Factor Analytic Study of the Internet Usage Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monetti, David M.; Whatley, Mark A.; Hinkle, Kerry T.; Cunningham, Kerry T.; Breneiser, Jennifer E.; Kisling, Rhea

    2011-01-01

    This study developed an Internet Usage Scale (IUS) for use with adolescent populations. The IUS is a 26-item scale that measures participants' beliefs about how their Internet usage impacts their behavior. The sample for this study consisted of 947 middle school students. An exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation was conducted on the…

  17. Comparative Analysis of Discovery Function of Cotton Future Price among Different Regions——A Case Study of Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Through comparative analysis, We research the relationship between cotton future price and cotton spot price in different regions, in order to formulate corresponding strategies in different regions under the new situation. We use ADF unit root test, E-G two-step cointegration test, Granger causality test, and other research methods in Eviews 5.0 statistical software, to empirically study the relationship between the cotton future price and cotton spot price in Xinjiang, the relationship between the cotton future price and cotton spot price in China. The results show that there is a long-term relationship between the cotton future price and cotton spot price in Xinjiang, between the cotton future price and cotton spot price in China; the cotton future price plays unidirectional role in guiding cotton spot price in Xinjiang and cotton spot price in China. The discovery function of cotton future price plays much greater role in the cotton market of China than in the cotton market of Xinjiang.

  18. Time as a cultural factor and its socioeconomic importance: State of the art and future research lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Cladellas

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is analyzing the economic concept of time based on historical and cultural factors. The manuscript presents the historical evolution of the concept of time, highlighting its conceptualization since ancient times until now. Subsequently, the paper analyzes the economic value of time down through the history of no-time (leisure time and its cultural contextualization (occidental culture/linear conception vs. oriental culture/cyclical conception. Finally, the contemporary state of the concepts of time and money, and suggests the need to establish a new culture of time, which should be taught from an early age.

  19. Identification of Variables and Factors Impacting Consumer Behavior in On-line Shopping in India: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhikara, Sudesh

    On-line shopping is a recent phenomenon in the field of E-Business and is definitely going to be the future of shopping in the world. Most of the companies are running their on-line portals to sell their products/services. Though online shopping is very common outside India, its growth in Indian Market, which is a large and strategic consumer market, is still not in line with the global market. The potential growth of on-line shopping has triggered the idea of conducting a study on on-line shopping in India. The present research paper has used exploratory study to depict and highlight the various categories of factors and variables impacting the behavior of consumers towards on-line shopping in India. The data was collected through in-depth interviews on a sample of 41 respondents from Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Bangalore. The results of the study show that on-line shopping in India is basically impacted by five categories of factors like demographics factor, Psychographics factor, Online shopping feature and policies, Technological factor, Security factor. The results of the study are used to present a comprehensive model of on-line shopping which could be further used by the researchers and practitioners for conducting future studies in the similar area. A brief operational definition of all the factors and variables impacting on-line shopping in India is also described. And finally practical implications of the study are also elucidated.

  20. Perceived stress among 20-21 year-olds and their future labour market participation - an eight-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolle, Nanna; Lund, Thomas; Winding, Trine Nohr; Labriola, Merete

    2017-03-31

    Labour market participation among young adults is essential for their future socioeconomic status and health. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between perceived stress among 20-21 year-olds and their labour market participation 8 years later as well as investigate any potential gender differences. A cohort of 1640 young adults born in 1983 completed a questionnaire in 2004 in which perceived stress was measured. The cohort was followed in a register of social benefits for 12 months in 2011-2012 and was categorized into active and passive labour market participation. Logistic regression was used to analyse the association between perceived stress and future labour market participation, taking into account effects of potential confounders. The analyses were stratified by gender. The effects of perceived stress on future labour market participation differed significantly among young women and young men (p = 0.029). For young men, higher levels of perceived stress reduced the risk of future passive labour market participation, when adjusting for socioeconomic factors, self-rated health and copings strategies (p = 0.045). For young women, higher levels of perceived stress increased the risk of future passive labour market participation, when adjusting for the same potential confounding factors, although unlike the men, this association was not statistically significant (p = 0.335). The observed gender difference has important implications from a public health point of view. Healthcare professionals might need to differentiate between the genders in terms of health communication, research and when developing preventive strategies.

  1. Mapping of the Lunokhod-1 Landing Site: A Case Study for Future Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karachevtseva, I.; Oberst, J.; Konopikhin, A.; Shingareva, K.; Gusakova, E.; Kokhanov, A.; Baskakova, M.; Peters, O.; Scholten, F.; Wählisch, M.; Robinson, M.

    2012-04-01

    preliminary results of crater morphology show that highest H/D for studied craters of the Lunokhod 1 area is ~0.14, that is noticeably smaller than that for very fresh well studied small craters, for example, in the Apollo 14 [6]. At present more detailed geomorphology analyses using orthoimages with different illumination is in progress and will be shown at the conference. Conclusions and future works. While new missions to the Lunar surface are being planned, it is of utmost importance to identify and make available for access all Lunar surface data. We show that these data can be used for large-scale mapping and surface studies of landing sites for future lunar missions, for example LUNA-GLOB and LUNA-RESOURCE. Acknowledgments: This research was partly funded by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (MEGA-GRANT, Project name: "Geodesy, cartography and the study of planets and satellites", contract No. 11.G34.31.0021).

  2. The Past, Present, and Future of Soils and Human Health Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, E. C.; Sauer, T. J.

    2012-04-01

    speculation and anecdotal evidence." So, the scientific study of soils and human health is a recent undertaking, but the idea that healthy soils are required for healthy people is not a particularly new one. In the modern world, we recognize that soils have a distinct influence on human health. We recognize that soils influence 1) food availability and quality (food security), 2) human contact with various chemicals, and 3) human contact with various pathogens. Soils and human health studies include investigations into nutrient supply through the food web and routes of exposure to chemicals and pathogens. However, making strong, scientific connections between soils and human health can be difficult. There are multiple variables to consider in the soil environment, meaning traditional scientific studies that seek to isolate and manipulate a single variable often do not provide meaningful data. The complete study of soils and human health also involves many different specialties such as soil scientists, toxicologists, medical professionals, anthropologists, etc. These groups do not traditionally work together on research projects, and do not always effectively communicate with one another. Climate change and how it will affect the soil environment/ecosystem going into the future is another variable we need to get a better understanding of. Future successes in soils and human health research will require effectively addressing difficult issues such as these.

  3. Runaway youths and correlating factors, study in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techakasem, Pisarn; Kolkijkovin, Varuna

    2006-02-01

    To study differences between runaways and non-runaways in a mental health clinic and to study differences between runaways in a mental health clinic and legal / shelter system. Psychiatric records of runaways and non-runaways from Vajira Hospital were collected from June 1994 to October 2003. 21 cases in each group were studied in various factors. 21 runaway cases who were in child and adolescent shelters were interviewed by the researchers. Neglect, sexual abuse, rejection, poverty and truancy were more common in the runaway group. The runaway group had more conduct disorder and substance abuse. Physical abuse, authoritarian and being in custody were more common in runaways in shelters. Various factors correlate with running away. These factors lie beneath long before runaway has taken place and understanding and managing them help in preventing and prompt treatment.

  4. Provocative dietary factors in geriatric hypertension: A surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagtap, Madhavi V; Deole, Yogesh S; Chandola, Harimohan; Ravishankar, B

    2012-10-01

    Hypertension is the most common psychosomatic disorder affecting 972 million people worldwide being more prevalent in old age. The present survey of hypertensive patients fulfilling the standard diagnostic criteria of WHO/ISH (2004) is carried out in geriatric age group from the Saurashtra region of Gujarat in India to observe the dietary pattern and provocative factors. Total 120 patients of 50 to 80 years of age having systolic blood pressure >140 mm Hg and ≤180 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure >90 mm Hg and ≤110 mm Hg irrespective of gender and religion were selected for the present study. They were interviewed for list of provocative factors enlisted in Ayurveda. As observed, the study supported the facts described in Ayurveda that dietary etiological factors, such as excess intake of Lavana (salty), Amla (sour), Katu (pungent), Tikshna, Ushna (hot), Vidahi (producing burning sensation), Viruddha (incompatible), Snigdha (unctuous), Abhishyandi (leading to obstruction), Madhura (sweet), Guru (heavy to digest) dietary articles, Ajirnashana (taking diet before complete digestion of previous meal), Adhyashana (repeated eating at short intervals), will vitiate Rakta dhatu as well as Pitta dosha in the body leading to disorders like hypertension. Hypertension in old age is found to be a disease of Vata-Pitta dominant vitiation with the involvement of Rasa, Rakta, Meda as main Dushya (vitiated factors) and dietary factors can contribute to worsening of the disease. The etiological factors having role in the pathogenesis can also be applied for preventive guidelines for the management of hypertension.

  5. An exploration study on factors influencing green marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Esmaeeli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available These days, there have been tremendous efforts on offering products, which are environment friendly. Green marketing plays an important role for attracting new customer and customer retention. This paper presents an empirical investigation based on the implementation of factor analysis to locate important factors influencing green marketing planning and strategies. building market oriented business units. The study designs a questionnaire including 23 questions and the questionnaire was distributed among 200 people who were visiting organic product exhibition. Cronbach alpha was calculated as 0.845, which is well above the minimum acceptable limit and validates the results. The results of factor analysis reveal four major factors including green labeling, compatibility, product value and marketing component and size.

  6. A Study of Future Communications Concepts and Technologies for the National Airspace System-Part III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, Denise S.; Apaza, Rafael D.; Wichgersm Joel M.; Haynes, Brian; Roy, Aloke

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) is investigating current and anticipated wireless communications concepts and technologies that the National Airspace System (NAS) may need in the next 50 years. NASA has awarded three NASA Research Announcements (NAR) studies with the objective to determine the most promising candidate technologies for air-to-air and air-to-ground data exchange and analyze their suitability in a post-NextGen NAS environment. This paper will present progress made in the studies and describe the communications challenges and opportunities that have been identified as part of the study. NASA's NextGen Concepts and Technology Development (CTD) Project integrates solutions for a safe, efficient and high-capacity airspace system through joint research efforts and partnerships with other government agencies. The CTD Project is one of two within NASA's Airspace Systems Program and is managed by the NASA Ames Research Center. Research within the CTD Project is in support the 2011 NASA Strategic Plan Sub-Goal 4.1: Develop innovative solutions and advanced technologies, through a balanced research portfolio, to improve current and future air transportation. The focus of CTD is on developing capabilities in traffic flow management, dynamic airspace configuration, separation assurance, super density operations and airport surface operations. Important to its research is the development of human/automation information requirements and decisionmaking guidelines for human-human and human-machine airportal decision-making. Airborne separation, oceanic intrail climb/descent and interval management applications depend on location and intent information of surrounding aircraft. ADS-B has been proposed to provide the information exchange, but other candidates such as satellite-based receivers, broadband or airborne internet, and cellular communications are possible candidate's.

  7. A Pan-Arctic Network to Study Past, Present, and Future Sea Ice Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Carolyn; Frey, Karen E.; Michel, Christine

    2011-03-01

    Arctic in Rapid Transition Implementation Workshop; Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, 18-20 October 2010 ; Rapid transitions in Arctic sea ice and the associated global integrated Earth system impacts and socioeconomic consequences have brought the Arctic Ocean to the top of national and international geophysical and political agendas. Alarmingly, there is a persistent mismatch between observed and predicted patterns, which speaks to the complexity of planning adaptation and mitigation activities in the Arctic. Predicting future conditions of Arctic marine ecosystems for climate change requires interdisciplinary and pan-Arctic characterization and understanding of past and present trends. The Arctic in Rapid Transition (ART) initiative is an integrative, international, interdisciplinary, pan-Arctic network to study spatial and temporal changes in sea ice cover and ocean circulation over broad time scales to better understand and forecast the impact of these changes on Arctic marine ecosystems and biogeochemistry. The ART initiative began in October 2008 and is still led by early-career scientists. The ART science plan, developed after the ART initiation workshop in November 2009, was endorsed by the Arctic Ocean Sciences Board, which is now the Marine Working Group of the International Arctic Science Committee.

  8. Experimental, Theoretical and Computational Studies of Plasma-Based Concepts for Future High Energy Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Chan [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Mori, W. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2013-10-21

    This is the final report on the DOE grant number DE-FG02-92ER40727 titled, “Experimental, Theoretical and Computational Studies of Plasma-Based Concepts for Future High Energy Accelerators.” During this grant period the UCLA program on Advanced Plasma Based Accelerators, headed by Professor C. Joshi has made many key scientific advances and trained a generation of students, many of whom have stayed in this research field and even started research programs of their own. In this final report however, we will focus on the last three years of the grant and report on the scientific progress made in each of the four tasks listed under this grant. Four tasks are focused on: Plasma Wakefield Accelerator Research at FACET, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, In House Research at UCLA’s Neptune and 20 TW Laser Laboratories, Laser-Wakefield Acceleration (LWFA) in Self Guided Regime: Experiments at the Callisto Laser at LLNL, and Theory and Simulations. Major scientific results have been obtained in each of the four tasks described in this report. These have led to publications in the prestigious scientific journals, graduation and continued training of high quality Ph.D. level students and have kept the U.S. at the forefront of plasma-based accelerators research field.

  9. Current scenario of the wind energy in Pakistan challenges and future perspectives: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar H. Baloch

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Electricity plays an important role in the socioeconomic growth and social prosperity of any country. It is to be considered as the basic need for human development. Nowadays, low production of electricity is a serious problem in Pakistan, which directly restricts the development of the state. One-third of Pakistan’s population does not have any electricity in the rural areas and about 10–12 hours load shedding in urban areas and is quite common. Although, the state of Pakistan always shows a deficit in the conventional resources, but no progress was also being made in the renewable resources such as the wind and solar energy. Therefore, it is better to utilize these natural assets in order to fulfill the electricity supply the country. In this manuscript, our main objective is to study and outlooks the country energy profile situation vis-à-vis wind energy potential characteristics of the most important wind corridor in the southern part of the country. Pakistan has around 1100 kilometers (km coastal line for the wind energy potential, but in this manuscript, we have chosen one of the most suitable wind corridors of the southern part of the country. We also tried to prove theoretically that this wind zone is more favorable for country consumer demand. Moreover, future perspective and the major challenges during windmill implementation is also being discussed herein.

  10. High-throughput sorting of mosquito larvae for laboratory studies and for future vector control interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marois Eric

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquito transgenesis offers new promises for the genetic control of vector-borne infectious diseases such as malaria and dengue fever. Genetic control strategies require the release of large number of male mosquitoes into field populations, whether they are based on the use of sterile males (sterile insect technique, SIT or on introducing genetic traits conferring refractoriness to disease transmission (population replacement. However, the current absence of high-throughput techniques for sorting different mosquito populations impairs the application of these control measures. Methods A method was developed to generate large mosquito populations of the desired sex and genotype. This method combines flow cytometry and the use of Anopheles gambiae transgenic lines that differentially express fluorescent markers in males and females. Results Fluorescence-assisted sorting allowed single-step isolation of homozygous transgenic mosquitoes from a mixed population. This method was also used to select wild-type males only with high efficiency and accuracy, a highly desirable tool for genetic control strategies where the release of transgenic individuals may be problematic. Importantly, sorted males showed normal mating ability compared to their unsorted brothers. Conclusions The developed method will greatly facilitate both laboratory studies of mosquito vectorial capacity requiring high-throughput approaches and future field interventions in the fight against infectious disease vectors.

  11. Study of Electrochemical Reduction of CO2 for Future Use in Secondary Microbial Electrochemical Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimkiewicz, Carla; Hegner, Richard; Gutensohn, Mareike F; Koch, Christin; Harnisch, Falk

    2017-03-09

    The fluctuation and decentralization of renewable energy have triggered the search for respective energy storage and utilization. At the same time, a sustainable bioeconomy calls for the exploitation of CO2 as feedstock. Secondary microbial electrochemical technologies (METs) allow both challenges to be tackled because the electrochemical reduction of CO2 can be coupled with microbial synthesis. Because this combination creates special challenges, the electrochemical reduction of CO2 was investigated under conditions allowing microbial conversions, that is, for their future use in secondary METs. A reproducible electrodeposition procedure of In on a graphite backbone allowed a systematic study of formate production from CO2 with a high number of replicates. Coulomb efficiencies and formate production rates of up to 64.6±6.8 % and 0.013±0.002 mmolformate  h(-1)  cm(-2) , respectively, were achieved. Electrode redeposition, reusability, and long-term performance were investigated. Furthermore, the effect of components used in microbial media, that is, yeast extract, trace elements, and phosphate salts, on the electrode performance was addressed. The results demonstrate that the integration of electrochemical reduction of CO2 in secondary METs can become technologically relevant.

  12. Are there future psychiatrists among medical students in Croatia? The role of premedical and medical factors on career choice in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojnic Kuzman, Martina; Smoljan, Mia; Lovrec, Petra; Jovanovic, Nikolina; Lydall, Greg; Farooq, Kitty; Malik, Amit; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2013-08-01

    Despite the high prevalence of mental disorders, a worldwide shortage of psychiatrists exists. Moreover, the number of students interested in choosing psychiatry as their future profession is low and psychiatry is frequently regarded as one of the least wanted medical specializations. We report the findings of a cross-sectional quantitative survey of final year Croatian medical students as part of the International Survey of Student Career Choice in Psychiatry (ISoSCCiP). The questionnaire consisted of three sections: socio-demographic factors, psychiatric education during medical school, and attitudes and personality characteristics. Out of 200 students, 122 completed the questionnaire (response rate 61%). The overall student evaluation of the compulsory psychiatry curriculum was 'average'. Significantly higher ratings were reported by students who attended special psychiatry teaching modules, or felt more involved in the teaching of the subject. Poor evaluation of medical school psychiatric education significantly increased the likelihood of not choosing psychiatry as a future career. The choice of psychiatry was also predicted by attitudes towards psychiatry and by personal characteristics. In conclusion, student ratings of medical school psychiatric education and involvement in teaching appear to influence choice towards psychiatry. Addressing these issues may increase the number of students motivated to pursue psychiatry as their future career choice.

  13. Social Media and Alcohol: Summary of Research, Intervention Ideas and Future Study Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan A. Moreno

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol content is frequently displayed on social media through both user-generated posts and advertisements. Previous work supports that alcohol content on social media is influential and often associated with offline behaviors for adolescents and young adults. Social media may have a role in future alcohol intervention efforts including identifying those at risk or providing timely prevention messages. Future intervention efforts may benefit from an affordance approach rather than focusing on a single platform.

  14. Social Media and Alcohol: Summary of Research, Intervention Ideas and Future Study Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan A. Moreno

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol content is frequently displayed on social media through both user-generated posts and advertisements. Previous work supports that alcohol content on social media is influential and often associated with offline behaviors for adolescents and young adults. Social media may have a role in future alcohol intervention efforts including identifying those at risk or providing timely prevention messages. Future intervention efforts may benefit from an affordance approach rather than focusing on a single platform.

  15. Factors that influence nursing and midwifery students' intentions to study abroad: A qualitative study using the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, Seán; FitzGerald, Serena; Hegarty, Josephine

    2016-09-01

    Future health care professionals need to be broadly-educated, adaptable individuals who have significant experience in the world beyond the classroom. Study abroad is an ideal means of developing some of the skills and attitudes that are not only valued among health professionals, but also have global applicability. Although internationalisation through study abroad is widely publicised as a preferred means of developing globally competent third level graduates very little is known about the factors that influence students' predisposition to study abroad, students decision making process and how various factors influence that process. To explore the motivating factors that influence nursing and midwifery student's intentions to study abroad. Qualitative descriptive. A third level institution in Ireland. A purposive sample (n=25) of undergraduate nursing and midwifery students. Data were obtained individually and in a free response format by means of an open ended belief elicitation questionnaire. The theory of planned behaviour was used a theoretical framework to guide both the structure of the questionnaire and the content analysis. The study's findings support earlier works in identifying the main behavioural, normative and control factors that influence a student's decision to study abroad and is the first study to recognise enhanced professional identity as a potential benefit of study abroad. Factors such as cultural sensitivity, employability, language and cost emerged as important issues in need of further investigation. The findings of this study have implications for administrators, academics, and others involved in the development of third level study abroad programmes for nursing and midwifery students. New methods which promote the perceived benefits of study abroad, address the perceived barriers and ultimately increase student participation are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Factors associated with incomplete small bowel capsule endoscopy studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mitchell; M; Lee; Andrew; Jacques; Eric; Lam; Ricky; Kwok; Pardis; Lakzadeh; Ajit; Sandhar; Brandon; Segal; Sigrid; Svarta; Joanna; Law; Robert; Enns

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To identify patient risk factors associated with incomplete small bowel capsule endoscopy(CE) studies.METHODS:Data from all CE procedures performed at St.Paul's Hospital in Vancouver,British Columbia,Canada,between December 2001 and June 2008 were collected and analyzed on a retrospective basis.Data collection for complete and incomplete CE study groups included patient demographics as well as a number of potential risk factors for incomplete CE including indication for the procedure,hospitalization,dia...

  17. The PROSPECTS study: design of a prospective cohort study on prognosis and perpetuating factors of medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dessel, Nikki; Leone, Stephanie S; van der Wouden, Johannes C; Dekker, Joost; van der Horst, Henriëtte E

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes the rationale and methodology of the PROSPECTS study, a study which aims to assess the course and prognosis of medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS), in terms of symptom severity and physical and social functioning. Additionally, it aims to identify different course types and to determine which factors are associated with these course types. Based on these factors, one or more prediction models will be developed. This study is a prospective, multicenter longitudinal cohort study with 1 baseline and 4 follow-up measurements during a 3 year period. 450 MUPS patients (age 18-70 years) will be included, divided over a primary care group, recruited in general practices, and a secondary/tertiary care group, recruited in specialized MUPS care programs. Primary outcome measures are severity of symptoms and degree of functional impairment. Secondary outcome measures are health care consumption and level of depressive symptoms and anxiety. Potential predictors are based on current theoretical models describing the perpetuation of MUPS and include somatic, psychological and social factors. Latent Class Growth Mixture Modeling will be used to identify distinct course types. Logistic regression analysis will be used to identify risk factors associated with these course types. Finally, one or more multivariate prediction models for the course of MUPS will be developed and tested. The PROSPECTS study aims to enhance our insight into the course of MUPS, thus contributing to better recognition of future patients at risk for persistent MUPS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Low FAB score as a predictor of future falling in patients with Parkinson's disease: a 2.5-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Hiroshi; Ueno, Satoshi

    2015-09-01

    Falling is one of the most disabling features of Parkinson's disease (PD). Many cross-sectional studies, case-control studies, and prospective studies have attempted to identify risk factors or predictors of falls, but consistent results are yet to be obtained because of the various factors involved. We prospectively studied patients with various severities of PD to identify risk factors for future falls during 2.5 years of follow-up. We registered 95 patients with PD, and 83 patients were included in data analysis. A total of 23 variables were evaluated by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Thirty-one patients (37%) had a previous history of falling, and 26 patients (30%) experienced their first fall. The prevalence of falls at 2.5 years was 62% (52 of 83 patients). Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) score (OR 1.393, p = 0.005, 95% CI 1.104-1.759) and history of fall present (OR 0.142, p = 0.002, 95% CI 0.042-0.48) were related to falling on multiple logistic regression analysis. The following variables differed significantly between patients with first falls and those without falling: levodopa equivalent dose (p = 0.023), UPDRS part I (p = 0.006), SF-8 (p = 0.017), and FAB (p = 0.026). Calculation of the FAB score may be useful for predicting the risk of future falls in patients with various severities of PD. Our results suggest that a low FAB score combined with a history of falling within the past 6 months carries an increased risk of future falls.

  19. Internet of Things in Higher Education: A Study on Future Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldowah, Hanan; Rehman, Shafiq Ul; Ghazal, Samar; Naufal Umar, Irfan

    2017-09-01

    In the coming years, technology will impact the learning experience in many ways. Internet of Things (IoT) continues to confirm its important position in the context of Information and Communication Technologies and the development of society. With the support of IoT, institutions can enhance learning outcomes by providing more affluent learning experiences, improved operational efficiency, and by gaining real-time, actionable insight into student performance. The purpose of this study is to find out the potential of IoT in higher education and how to maximize its benefits and reducing the risks involved with it. Further efforts are necessary for releasing the full potential of IoT systems and technologies. Therefore, this paper presents a study about the impact of IoT on higher education especially universities. IoT stands to change dramatically the way universities work, and enhance student learning in many disciplines and at any level. It has huge potential for universities or any other educational institutions; if well prepared to ensure widespread and successful implementation by leadership, staff, and students. IoT needs development where universities can lead. Academics, researchers, and students are in a unique place to lead the discovery and development of IoT systems, devices, applications, and services. Moreover, this paper provides an evidences about the future of IoT in the higher education during the next few years, which have offered by a number of research organizations and enterprises. On the other hand, IoT also brings tremendous challenges to higher education. Hence, this paper also presents the perspective on the challenges of IoT in higher education.

  20. An explorative study on factors influencing the career success of management employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Koekemoer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: South African organisations are increasingly recognising the importance of attracting, developing and retaining top talent, especially management employees.Research purpose: In an attempt to help organisations with retaining talent, this study focused on career success and identified specific factors that influence the career success of managers in the South African work environment.Motivation for the study: Organisations need to establish favourable organisational conditions and human resource practices to retain their management employees. By identifying influential factors for the career success of managers, this research may help organisations to focus more accurately on their retention strategies for management employees.Research approach, design and method: The present study used a qualitative research design that followed an exploratory approach. A non-probability purposive sample of 24 senior management employees was selected from two financial institutions in South Africa. Qualitative data was collected by means of semi-structured interviews and the verbatim transcriptions were analysed by content analysis.Main findings: Managers identified various factors that impact on their career success. One can distinguish ‘external’ factors (e.g. political and economic climate and business environment from ‘internal’ factors (e.g. individuals’ personal attributes, skills and education.Practical/managerial implications: Individuals should focus on the internal contributing factors, whilst organisations should manage the external contributing factors more effectively.Contribution/value-add: Specific South African factors that influence the career success of managers should be included in future retention strategies. From the findings it is suggested that both the individuals and organisations can implement strategies to ensure career success and thereby help retain the top talent in organisations.

  1. Factors affecting clinical reasoning of occupational therapists: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaroodi, Narges; Kamali, Mohammad; Parvizy, Soroor; Mehraban, Afsoon Hassani; O’Toole, Giyn

    2014-01-01

    Background: Clinical reasoning is generally defined as the numerous modes of thinking that guide clinical practice but little is known about the factors affecting how occupational therapists manage the decision-making process. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the factors influencing the clinical reasoning of occupational therapists. Methods: Twelve occupational therapy practitioners working in mental and physical dysfunction fields participated in this study. The sampling method was purposeful and interviews were continued until data saturation. All the interviews were recorded and transcribed. The data were analyzed through a qualitative content analysis method. Results: There were three main themes. The first theme: socio-cultural conditions included three subthemes: 1- client beliefs; 2- therapist values and beliefs; 3- social attitude to disability. The second theme: individual attributions included two subthemes 1- client attributions; 2- therapist attributions. The final theme was the workplace environment with the three subthemes: 1- knowledge of the managers of rehabilitation services, 2- working in an inter-professional team; 3- limited clinical facilities and resources. Conclusion: In this study, the influence of the attitudes and beliefs of client, therapist and society about illness, abilities and disabilities upon reasoning was different to previous studies. Understanding these factors, especially the socio-cultural beliefs basis can play a significant role in the quality of occupational therapy services. Accurate understanding of these influential factors requires more extensive qualitative and quantitative studies. PMID:25250253

  2. Early menopause predicts future coronary heart disease and stroke: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellons, Melissa; Ouyang, Pamela; Schreiner, Pamela J; Herrington, David M; Vaidya, Dhananjay

    2012-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the number one killer of women. Identifying women at risk of cardiovascular disease has tremendous public health importance. Early menopause is associated with increased cardiovascular disease events in some predominantly white populations, but not consistently. Our objective was to determine if self-reported early menopause (menopause at an age menopause (either natural menopause or surgical removal of ovaries at an age menopause. In survival curves, women with early menopause had worse coronary heart disease and stroke-free survival (log rank P = 0.008 and P = 0.0158). In models adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, Multi-ethnic Study Atherosclerosis site, and traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, this risk for coronary heart disease and stroke remained (hazard ratio, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.17-3.70; and hazard ratio, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.11-4.32, respectively). Early menopause is positively associated with coronary heart disease and stroke in a multiethnic cohort, independent of traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors.

  3. European Contribution to Human Aspect Investigations for Future Planetary Habitat Definition Studies: Field Tests at MDRS on Crew Time Utilisation and Habitat Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletser, Vladimir; Foing, Bernard

    2011-02-01

    Human factors are a dominant aspect in space missions, which may strongly influence work results and efficiency. To assess their impact on future long term space missions and to attempt a general quantification, the environmental and technical conditions to which astronauts may be confronted need to be reproduced as closely as possible. Among the stressors that occur during space missions, limited resources, limited social interactions, long term living and working in confined and isolated areas are among the most important for future planetary exploration. The European Space Agency (ESA) has a strong interest in obtaining data and insights in human aspects to prepare for future studies on the definition of future Lunar and Martian planetary habitats. In this frame, ESA's Directorate of Human Space Flight was associated to the EuroGeoMars campaign conducted by the Crews 76 and 77 in February 2009 in The Mars Society's `Mars Desert Research Station' (MDRS) in the Desert of Utah. The EuroGeoMars Campaign lasted 5 weeks and encompassed two groups of experiments, on human crew related aspects and field experiments in geology, biology and astronomy/astrophysics. The human crew related aspects covered (1) crew time organization in a planetary habitat, (2) an evaluation of the different functions and interfaces of this habitat, (3) an evaluation of man-machine interfaces of science and technical equipment. Several forms and questionnaires were filled in by all crew members: time and location evaluation sheets and two series of questionnaires. In addition, the crew participated in another on-going food study where the type of food was imposed and crew impressions were collected via questionnaires. The paper recalls the objectives of the human crew related experiments of the EuroGeoMars project and presents the first results of these field investigations. Some recommendations and lessons learnt will be presented and used as first inputs for future planetary habitat

  4. Association between adolescent suicide and sociodemographic factors in Chile: cross-sectional ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado, Cristóbal; Zitko, Pedro; Covarrubias, Trinidad; Hernandez, Dunia; Sade, Cristina; Klein, Carolina; Gomez, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent suicide rates (ASR) are a matter of concern worldwide. Causes of this trend are not understood and could correspond to socioeconomic factors such as inequality. To investigate sociodemographic variables related to ASR, particularly the potential association with indicators of socioeconomic inequality. Cross-sectional ecological study analyzing data from 29 health districts with univariate and multivariable multilevel Poisson models. ASR were higher in male adolescents and at increasing age. No association was found between ASR and inequality (Gini coefficient and 20/20 ratio). Analysis revealed that living in a single-parent family is associated with ASR. The usual demographic patterns of adolescent suicide apply in Chile. An emerging variable of interest is single-parent family. No cross-sectional association between social inequality and ASR was found based on conflicting evidence. These results should be explored in future prospective population studies to further understand associated social factors.

  5. Factors associated with occupational roles in older Brazilians: a cross-sectional pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Rebellato

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Gerontology points out concerns in understanding aging and its consequences, in order to propose specific policies. Objective: Identify occupational roles of older Brazilians and the relationship of these roles to demographic, socioeconomic, and health factors. Method: Participants included 67 non-institutionalized individuals 70–84 years of age (33 men and 34 women; average age: 74.6 years. The roles performed in the Past, Present and Future were examined using the Role Checklist. Results: The occupational roles have changed over time, evidencing the loss of roles during the transition from Past to Present, although the participants stated that they intend to be engaged in a higher number of roles in the Future. The main roles performed in the Present are Hobbyist/Amateur, Home Maintainer and Family Member. In general, engaging in occupational roles was associated with higher education and income either in the Past, Present and Future. Conclusions: The study enabled to detect the diversity and complexity of older people’s participation in society, contributing to a further understanding of their occupational careers. The main limitation of this study concerns to the specific sample composition, with independent older people. Further studies are in need to obtain an in-depth theoretical and empirical understanding of the trends and trajectories of the roles of older people.

  6. Severe acute maternal morbidity: study of epidemiology and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mridu Sinha

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Study of risk factors associated with SAMM can provide important contributions to improve quality of available health care system in order to achieve reduction in maternal mortality. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(7.000: 2141-2145

  7. On the Importance of Cultural Factors in Oral English Studying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Juan

    2016-01-01

    Language communication, in some way, is cultural communication, in order to have a better ability of communicating, students have to know and understand enough culture knowledge. This paper will analyze the relationship between language and culture, emphasize the importance of cultural factors in oral English studying.

  8. Factors Causing Demotivation in EFL Teaching Process: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Selami

    2012-01-01

    Studies have mainly focused on strategies to motivate teachers or the student-teacher motivation relationships rather than teacher demotivation in the English as a foreign language (EFL) teaching process, whereas no data have been found on the factors that cause teacher demotivation in the Turkish EFL teaching contexts at the elementary education…

  9. Extracting Factors for Students' Motivation in Studying Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Sian Hoon; Koo, Ah Choo; Singh, Parmjit

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify factors that statistically explain the variation and the measures on the level of motivation of a sample of mathematics students in a university. Specifically, this analysis will identify groups of similar items and reduce the number of variables used in a study. This article explains the use of…

  10. Male factor in infertility: study from a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalavathi D. Biradar

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: High prevalence of male factor in infertility was noted in the present study. Refraining from addictions, certain life style changes including exercise and timely medical attention can address the issue. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(6.000: 2022-2025

  11. STUDY OF VIRULENCE FACTORS IN UROPATHOGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayalakshmi; Hymavathi; Renuka Devi; Ramanamma; Swarnalatha; Surekha; Anitha Lavanya; Somasekhar

    2015-01-01

    Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) is a causative agent in the vast majority of Urinary Tract infections (UTIs), including Cystitis, Pyelonephritis which may result in renal failure in healthy individuals and in renal transplant patients. UPEC express a multitude of virulence factors to break the inertia of the mucosal barrier. PURPOSE: To study ...

  12. Effects of future climate change on grape and wine quality: a case study for the Aglianico grape, Campania. Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante, Antonello; Gambuti, Angelita; Monaco, Eugenia; Langella, Giuliano; Manna, Piero; Orefice, Nadia; Albrizio, Rossella; Basile, Angelo; Terribile, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    Water deficits limit yields and this is one of the negative aspects of climate change. However, this applies particularly when emphasis is on biomass production (e.g. for crops like maize, wheat, etc.) but not for plants where quality, not quantity is most relevant. For example, water stress occurring during specific phenological phases of grapevine development is an important factor when producing good quality wines. It induces, for example, the production of anthocyanins and aroma precursors. Water stress due to future increases of temperature and decreases of rainfall due to climate change can, therefore, represent an opportunity to increase winegrowers' incomes. This study was carried out in Campania region (Southern Italy), an area well known for high quality wine production. Growth of the Aglianico grapevine cultivar, with a standard clone population on 1103 Paulsen rootstocks, was studied on two different types of soil: Calcisols and Cambisols occurring along a slope of 90 m length with 11% gradient. The agro-hydrological model SWAP was calibrated and applied to estimate soil-plant water status at the various crop phenological phases for three vintages (2011-2013). Then, the Crop water stress index (CWSI), as estimated by the model, was related to physiological measurements (e.g. leaf water potential), grape bunches measurements (e.g. sugar content) and wine quality (e.g. tannins). For both soils, the correlation between measurements and CWSI were high (e.g. -0.97** with sugar; 0.895* with anthocyanins in the skins). Next, the model was applied to future climate conditions (2021-2051) obtained from statistical downscaling of Global Circulation Models (AOGCM) in order to estimate the effect of the climate on CWSI and hence on vine quality. Results show that the effects of climate change on grape and wine quality are not expected to be significant for this particular grape variety when grown on these Calcisols and Cambisols. However, significant differences

  13. Exploratory study: breastfeeding knowledge, attitudes towards sexuality and breastfeeding, and disposition towards supporting breastfeeding in future Puerto Rican male parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Alvarado, Ivelisse; Vázquez García, Virginia; Dávila Torres, René R; Parrilla Rodríguez, Ana M

    2006-12-01

    Identify the breastfeeding knowledge, the attitudes towards sexuality and breastfeeding and the disposition towards supporting breastfeeding in future fathers were the aims of this study. A non-probabilistic sample (n = 100) of future Puerto Rican male parents was used in this study. A self-administered questionnaire was used consisting of four sections. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis and t-test to the inferential analysis. 88.8% of the participants presented a low level of knowledge. However, 81.6% had a positive attitude toward sexuality and breastfeeding. Also, 92.0% of the participants indicated much/enough willingness to support their partners in exclusively breastfeeding. Disposition to support the breastfeeding was associated with knowledge towards breastfeeding (p = 0.04) and attitudes toward sexuality and breastfeeding (p = 0.00). The knowledge and the attitudes, in this study, are strongly related with the disposition of the father to supporting the breastfeeding in the future.

  14. Self-reported preclinical mobility limitation and fall history as predictors of future falls in older women: prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mänty, Minna Regina; Heinonen, A; Viljanen, A

    2010-01-01

    We studied if self-reported preclinical mobility limitation, described as modification of task performance without perception of difficulty, predicts future falls in older women with and without fall history. Our results suggest that combined measure of self-reported preclinical mobility limitation...... and fall history may offer one possibility for inexpensive fall-risk evaluation in clinical practice. INTRODUCTION: We studied if self-reported preclinical mobility limitation predicts future falls in older women with and without fall history. METHODS: The study population consisted of 428 community...... mobility limitation. Fall history was recalled for previous 12 months and dichotomized. The incidence of future falls over 12 months was followed up with fall calendars. RESULTS: During the fall follow-up, a total of 440 falls were reported by 201 participants. Among those with fall history, women...

  15. Anesthesia students\\' awareness and interest to their field of study and future career in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B kazemi haki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract    Introduction : Interest to the field of education will bring commitments which may lead to higher efficiency in the health care delivery field. The purpose of this study was to evaluate anesthesia students' awareness and interest into their field of study and future career.   Methods : In this cross-sectional study, students studying in the field of anesthesia in Tabriz university of medical science in 2001-2002 academic year at the undergraduate level were entered into the study (n = 90. The data collection tool was a questionnaire consisting of 20 questions. To analyze the data, descriptive statistics, t-test and SPSS V-16 were used.   Results : Overall, 8.7 percent of students were completely happy with their chosen program of study. Of all, 11.1% were quite concerned about their future career and 6.35 percent were concerned about their future career. Of all, 15.6 percent of them preferred to change their program of study if possible. There was a difference between the responses of men and women regarding their field of education (P <0.05.   Conclusion : Most students were not aware about their future career before choosing their field of study. We suggest information and consultation sessions before enrolling in university. Also by introducing postgraduates programs in the field more students become encouraged to undertake the under graduate program.

  16. Applying Future Studies Methods to Understanding the Impact of University Information and Communication Technology Strategies on Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aczel, J. C.; Hardy, P.

    2007-01-01

    This article aims to explore the potential of certain future studies techniques to provide insight into the question of the impact of higher education information and communication technology (ICT) strategies on student learning. The approach is to consider three case studies of new universities in different countries, and to identify the main…

  17. Comparing snow models under current and future climates: Uncertainties and implications for hydrological impact studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troin, Magali; Poulin, Annie; Baraer, Michel; Brissette, François

    2016-09-01

    Projected climate change effects on snow hydrology are investigated for the 2041-2060 horizon following the SRES A2 emissions scenario over three snowmelt-dominated catchments in Quebec, Canada. A 16-member ensemble of eight snow models (SM) simulations, based on the high-resolution Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM-15 km) simulations driven by two realizations of the Canadian Global Climate Model (CGCM3), is established per catchment. This study aims to compare a range of SMs in their ability at simulating snow processes under current climate, and to evaluate how they affect the assessment of the climate change-induced snow impacts at the catchment scale. The variability of snowpack response caused by the use of different models within two different SM approaches (degree-day (DD) versus mixed degree-day/energy balance (DD/EB)) is also evaluated, as well as the uncertainty of natural climate variability. The simulations cover 1961-1990 in the present period and 2041-2060 in the future period. There is a general convergence in the ensemble spread of the climate change signals on snow water equivalent at the catchment scale, with an earlier peak and a decreased magnitude in all basins. The results of four snow indicators show that most of the uncertainty arises from natural climate variability (inter-member variability of the CRCM) followed by the snow model. Both the DD and DD/EB models provide comparable assessments of the impacts of climate change on snow hydrology at the catchment scale.

  18. Moderate sedation helps improve future behavior in pediatric dental patients – a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Espíndola ANTUNES

    Full Text Available Abstract There is little evidence on the long-term effects of pharmacological management in children undergoing dental treatment. This study aimed to assess children’s behavior in consecutive dental sessions following oral rehabilitation using different pharmacological regimens for behavioral control. Participants were preschoolers who were previously treated for caries under one of the following: no sedative, oral sedation with midazolam, oral sedation with midazolam/ketamine, or general anesthesia. The children’s behavior in the follow-up sessions was assessed using the Ohio State University Behavioral Rating Scale (OSUBRS; higher scores represented less cooperative behavior (range 5–20. Follow-up assessments were conducted on 50 children under four years old for up to 29 months. Data were analyzed by the Friedman/Wilcoxon tests and Cox regression model. OSUBRS mean (standard deviation scores for the whole sample decreased from 11.9 (5.4 before treatment to 6.8 (3.2 at the final recall session (p < 0.001. Moderate sedation with midazolam (OR 2.9, 95%CI 1.2–6.9 or midazolam/ketamine (OR 4.3, 95%CI 1.6–11.4 improved children’s future behavior. The general anesthesia group (n = 4 had a small sample size and the results should be considered with caution. Although invasive dental treatment negatively affected the child’s behavior in the dental chair, they became more cooperative over time. Moderately sedated children showed better prospective behavior than those in the non-sedation group.

  19. Portfolio Diversification with Commodity Futures: Properties of Levered Futures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodard, J.D.; Egelkraut, T.M.; Garcia, P.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Portfolio Diversification with Commodity Futures: Properties of Levered Futures This study extends previous work on the impact of commodity futures on portfolio performance by explicitly incorporating levered futures into the portfolio optimization problem. Using data on nine individual commodity

  20. Portfolio Diversification with Commodity Futures: Properties of Levered Futures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodard, J.D.; Egelkraut, T.M.; Garcia, P.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Portfolio Diversification with Commodity Futures: Properties of Levered Futures This study extends previous work on the impact of commodity futures on portfolio performance by explicitly incorporating levered futures into the portfolio optimization problem. Using data on nine individual commodity fu

  1. The Impact of Non-intelligent Factors in English Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程芸

    2015-01-01

    China has taken the police of Reform and Open for about more than twenty years, which changed China a lot. During the development of China, it has joined the World Trade Organization (WTO), and succeeded in applying for the permission to hold the 2008 the Beijing Olympic Games and the 2010 the Guangzhou Asian Games, either in the official occasion or our daily life, English has played a more and more important role. The government and the society pay more attention to English in the national education as well. However, English study is not an easy job, it is influenced by many factors, among which, and non-intelligent factor is important one.

  2. Study on the mortality in Ecuador related to dietary factors

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Alejandro Neira-Mosquera; Fernando Pérez-Rodríguez; Sungey Sánchez-Llaguno; Rafael Moreno Rojas

    2013-01-01

    Diet is an important factor related to the development of numerous diseases. In developing countries like Ecuador, this aspect is not considered as priority however, the study of the incidence of certain diet-related diseases could help to assess consumption habits of a country from a Public Health perspective and support national nutrition policies and programs. The objective the present study is to investigate the mortality rate of certain diet-related diseases in Ecuador and its possible r...

  3. STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING CUSTOMER BEHAVIOUR USING BIG DATA TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Prabin Sahoo; Dr. Nilay Yajnik

    2014-01-01

    Big data technology is getting momentum recently. There are several articles, books, blogs and discussion points to various facets of big data technology. The study in this paper focuses on big data as concept, and insights into 3 Vs such as Volume, Velocity and Variety and demonstrates their significance with respect to factors that can be processed using big data for studying customer behaviour for online users.

  4. Risk factors of kernicterus; a study in 312 icteric neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behjati Ardakani S

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kernicterus, also known as bilirubin encephalopathy, is a neurologic syndrome resulting from the deposition of unconjugated bilirubin in the basal ganglia and brainstem nuclei. Indirect bilirubin is toxic for brain. Neurologic dysfunction (BIND that include acute phase (hyperbilirubin encephalopathy and chronic phase (Kernicterus resulting from hyperbilirubinemia and disruption of blood brain barrier. In this study, the association between bilirubin encephalopathy and risk factors was evaluated. Methods: In this retrospective study, 312 icteric neonates were admitted in the neonatal ward of Children's Hospital, Medical Center, Tehran, and 305 of these cases were evaluated. Patient histories were taken and physical examinations were performed. For each patient, the age, sex, birth weight, time of discharge from the hospital and risk factors were recorded, and a questionnaire was completed. Results: In this study, of the 305 icteric neonates evaluated, 25 cases had kernicterus. Risk factors included acidosis, prematurity, hemolysis, hypoglycemia, sepsis, respiratory distress, low birth weight, ABO incompatibility and G6PD deficiency. The mean level of bilirubin in cases of kernicterus was 32 mg/dl and in the others was 20 mg/dl (p=0.001. Kernicterus was most common among high risk neonates (p<0.001. Birth weight less than 2,500 gm was also an important factor (p=0.04. Conclusion: High-risk neonates need prompt treatment for hyperbilirubinemia compared to low risk neonates.

  5. Effective factors in providing holistic care: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Zamanzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Holistic care is a comprehensive model of caring. Previous studies have shown that most nurses do not apply this method. Examining the effective factors in nurses′ provision of holistic care can help with enhancing it. Studying these factors from the point of view of nurses will generate real and meaningful concepts and can help to extend this method of caring. Materials and Methods: A qualitative study was used to identify effective factors in holistic care provision. Data gathered by interviewing 14 nurses from university hospitals in Iran were analyzed with a conventional qualitative content analysis method and by using MAXQDA (professional software for qualitative and mixed methods data analysis software. Results: Analysis of data revealed three main themes as effective factors in providing holistic care: The structure of educational system, professional environment, and personality traits. Conclusion: Establishing appropriate educational, management systems, and promoting religiousness and encouragement will induce nurses to provide holistic care and ultimately improve the quality of their caring.

  6. Studying Effective Factors on Corporate Entrepreneurship: Representing a Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Soleimani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Development and advancement of current organizations depends on Corporate Entrepreneurship (CE and its anticipants considerably. Therefore purpose of conducting this survey is to study effective factors on corporate entrepreneurship (personal characteristics of entrepreneurship, human resource practices, organizational culture and employees' satisfaction. This survey was conducted using descriptive-field methodology. Statistical population included managers and experts of Hexa Consulting Engineers Company (Tehran/Iran and the sample consisted of forty seven of them. Questionnaire was tool of data collection. Data was collected in cross-sectional form in July-August 2011. Descriptive and inferential (spearman correlation statistics methods were used for data analysis. According to results, there is a positive significant relationship among all factors (personal characteristics of entrepreneurship, human resource practices, organizational culture and employees' satisfaction and corporate entrepreneurship. In other words, the proposed variables as effective factors on corporate entrepreneurship were confirmed in conceptual model of survey.

  7. Predictive factors for pregnancy after intrauterine insemination: A prospective study of factors affecting outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan S Kamath

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To determine the predictive factors for pregnancy after controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH/intrauterine insemination (IUI. Design : Prospective observational study. Setting : University-level tertiary care center. Patients and Methods : 366 patients undergoing 480 stimulated IUI cycles between November 2007 and December 2008. Interventions : Ovarian stimulation with gonadotrophins was initiated and a single IUI was performed 36 h after triggering ovulation. Main Outcome Measures : The primary outcome measures were clinical pregnancy and live birth rates. Predictive factors evaluated were female age, duration of infertility, indication for IUI, number of preovulatory follicles, luteinizing hormone level on day of trigger and postwash total motile fraction (TMF. Results : The overall clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate were 8.75% and 5.83%, respectively. Among the predictive factors evaluated, the duration of infertility (5.36 vs. 6.71 years, P = 0.032 and the TMF (between 10 and 20 million, P = 0.002 significantly influenced the clinical pregnancy rate. Conclusion : Our results indicate that COH/IUI is not an effective option in couples with infertility due to a male factor. Prolonged duration of infertility is also associated with decreased success, and should be considered when planning treatment.

  8. A study on influencing factors on brand loyalty: A case study of Mobile industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bahman Dehestani; Nadereh Sadat Najafi Zadeh; Iraj Noori

    2013-01-01

    .... In this paper, we present an empirical survey to study the effects of different factors including brand associate, brand awareness, distribution intensity and quality perception on brand loyalty...

  9. Risk factor for phlebitis: a questionnaire study of nurses' perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Milutinović

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjectives: to assess nurses' perceptions of risk factors for the development of phlebitis, with a special focus on the perception of phlebitic potentials of some infusion medications and solutions.Method: a cross-sectional questionnaire study, which included a sample of 102 nurses.Results: Nurses recognized some factors that may reduce the incidence of phlebitis; however, more than half of the nurses were unaware that the material and diameter of the cannula can affect the incidence rate of phlebitis. Furthermore,underlying disease and high pH of medications or solutions were identified as potential risk factors, whereas low pH and low osmolality were not. Nurses identified Vancomycin and Benzylpenicillin antibiotics with the strongest phlebitic potential. Among other medications and intravenous fluids, Aminophylline, Amiodaronehydrochloride and Potassium chloride 7.4% were identified as potentially causing phlebitis.Conclusion: predisposing factors for phlebitis relating to patients and administered therapy were identified by nurses, while some cannula related risk factors, in particular its physicochemical properties and the time for cannula replacement, were not fully perceived.

  10. Organizational-level study of the impact of past turnover on future turnover in the Sultanate of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruqaiya Mohamed Al Balushi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Turnover phenomena attracted researchers from all over the world for generations. Most of this research was directed towards turnover antecedents with a few scattered conceptual and empirical studies related to turnover consequences. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of past turnover on future turnover in public organizations, in addition to test the mediation role of organizational climate in this relationship. Public schools as separate identities were the best choice as the study sample. Data were collected through questionnaires from 142 public schools in all educational regions in Oman. Two-step structural equation modeling approach, and nested model comparison were used for data analysis. The results revealed that: (1 past turnover predicts future turnover, significantly; (2 organizational climate fails to mediate this relationship. The study added to the body of knowledge by confirming Staw’s hypothesis relating past turnover to future turnover in the Omani context. Human resource professionals and educational administration practitioners may play an important role in decreasing future turnover by tackling and decreasing past turnover, in addition to improving the relationship climate in schools. The study is limited to public schools in Oman and further studies about turnover consequences in the Arabic context are needed to affirm the results.

  11. Personality factors in the Long Life Family Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stacy L; Sun, Jenny X; Sebastiani, Paola

    2013-01-01

    within average population values. No significant differences were found between long-lived family members and their spouses.Discussion. Personality factors and more specifically low neuroticism and high extraversion may be important for achieving extreme old age. In addition, personality scores of family......Objectives. To evaluate personality profiles of Long Life Family Study participants relative to population norms and offspring of centenarians from the New England Centenarian Study.Method. Personality domains of agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion, neuroticism, and openness were...... assessed with the NEO Five-Factor Inventory in 4,937 participants from the Long Life Family Study (mean age 70 years). A linear mixed model of age and gender was implemented adjusting for other covariates. RESULTS: A significant age trend was found in all five personality domains. On average, the offspring...

  12. A study on ranking ethical factors influencing customer loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Modiri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Having loyal customer is the primary objective of any business owner since loyal customers purchase on regular basis, create sustainable growth and reduce risk of bankruptcy. During the past few years, many people argue that customer loyalty must be established through ethical values. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to detect ethical factors influencing customer loyalty. The proposed study determines five criteria including customer repurchase, interest in brand, recommending brand to others, positive attitude toward brand and cognitive loyalty to brand. These criteria have been ranked using fuzzy analytical network process. The study determines 14 different ethical values, which may play essential role on customer loyalty and using VIKOR, different ethical values are ranked. The study indicates that welcoming customers is the most important factor followed by cheerfulness, on time delivery, being informative and having appropriate standards.

  13. Perspectives on Adolescent Alcohol Use and Consideration of Future Consequences: Results from a Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Séamus A.; McKay, Michael T.

    2017-01-01

    Consideration of future consequences (CFC) is described as the attention that individuals pay to the potential outcomes of their behaviour, and how their behaviour is affected as a result of attention to these outcomes. Greater CFC has been associated with less alcohol use, thus indicating its potential utility in health-promotion initiatives. A…

  14. Future Directions of Robotic Surgery: A Case Study of the Cornell Athermal Robotic Technique of Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Leung

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Robotic radical prostatectomy (RRP has become an effective modality in the treatment of localized prostate cancer. We detail the experience at our institution and provide a perspective for future considerations of RRP with respect to improved preoperative imaging and surgical instrumentation.

  15. Assessing Future Ecosystem Services: a Case Study of the Northern Highlands Lake District, Wisconsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry D. Peterson

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The Northern Highlands Lake District of Wisconsin is in transition from a sparsely settled region to a more densely populated one. Expected changes offer benefits to northern Wisconsin residents but also threaten to degrade the ecological services they rely on. Because the future of this region is uncertain, it is difficult to make decisions that will avoid potential risks and take advantage of potential opportunities. We adopt a scenario planning approach to cope with this problem of prediction. We use an ecological assessment framework developed by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment to determine key social and ecological driving forces in the Northern Highlands Lake District. From these, we describe three alternative scenarios to the year 2025 in which the projected use of ecological services is substantially different. The work reported in this paper demonstrates how scenarios can be developed for a region and provides a starting point for a participatory discussion of alternative futures for northern Wisconsin. Although the future is unknowable, we hope that the assessment process begun in this paper will help the people of the Northern Highlands Lake District choose the future path of their region.

  16. Pharmacovigilance Skills, Knowledge and Attitudes in our Future Doctors - A Nationwide Study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, Tim; Tichelaar, Jelle; Reumerman, Michael O; van Eekeren, Rike; Rissmann, Robert; Kramers, Cornelis; Richir, Milan C; van Puijenbroek, Eugène P; van Agtmael, Michiel A

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance centres monitor the safety of drugs, based on adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reported by doctors, pharmacists and pharmaceutical companies. However, the underreporting of ADRs remains a major problem. Our aim was to investigate preparedness of future doctors for their role in

  17. Pharmacovigilance Skills, Knowledge and Attitudes in our Future Doctors - A Nationwide Study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, T.; Tichelaar, J.; Reumerman, M.O.; Eekeren, R. van; Rissmann, R.; Kramers, C.; Richir, M.C.; Puijenbroek, E.P. van; Agtmael, M.A. van

    2017-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance centres monitor the safety of drugs, based on adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reported by doctors, pharmacists and pharmaceutical companies. However, the under-reporting of ADRs remains a major problem. Our aim was to investigate preparedness of future doctors for their role in

  18. Futuring, Strategic Planning and Shared Awareness: An Ohio University Libraries' Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, David J.; Seaman, Scott; Theodore-Shusta, Eileen

    2012-01-01

    A critical component of strategic planning is creating a shared-awareness among library staff of the potential societal, political, economic and technological changes that will influence how future users will create and consume scholarly materials, what will be expected of library services, and how facilities will be used. The ACRL Futuring…

  19. Enhancing student motivation: a longitudinal intervention study based on future time perspective theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuitema, J.; Peetsma, T.; van der Veen, I.

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of an intervention developed to enhance student motivation in the first years of secondary education. The intervention, based on future time perspective (FTP) theory, has been found to be effective in prevocational secondary education (T. T. D. Peetsma & I. Van

  20. Future Language Teachers Learning to Become CALL Designers--Methodological Perspectives in Studying Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keisanen, Tiina; Kuure, Leena

    2015-01-01

    Language teachers of the future, our current students, live in an increasingly technology-rich world. However, language students do not necessarily see their own digital practices as having relevance for guiding language learning. Research in the fields of CALL and language education more generally indicates that teaching practices change slowly…

  1. University Strategic Planning and the Foresight/Futures Approach: An Irish Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munck, Ronaldo; McConnell, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    The contemporary university operates within a global context characterized by ever-increasing uncertainty and complexity. Strategic planning must, therefore, be cognizant of future trends and how those trends will affect the university by creating both threats and opportunities. Our hypothesis is that an approach we refer to as "strategic…

  2. Futuring, Strategic Planning and Shared Awareness: An Ohio University Libraries' Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, David J.; Seaman, Scott; Theodore-Shusta, Eileen

    2012-01-01

    A critical component of strategic planning is creating a shared-awareness among library staff of the potential societal, political, economic and technological changes that will influence how future users will create and consume scholarly materials, what will be expected of library services, and how facilities will be used. The ACRL Futuring…

  3. University Strategic Planning and the Foresight/Futures Approach: An Irish Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munck, Ronaldo; McConnell, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    The contemporary university operates within a global context characterized by ever-increasing uncertainty and complexity. Strategic planning must, therefore, be cognizant of future trends and how those trends will affect the university by creating both threats and opportunities. Our hypothesis is that an approach we refer to as "strategic…

  4. Risk Factors For Ectopic Pregnancy : A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshmukh J.S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: Which are the risk factors for ectopic pregnancy . Objective: To study the strength of association between hypothesised risk factors and ectopic pregnancy. Study design: Unmatched case- control study. Setting: Government Medical College, Hospital, Nagpur. Participants: 133 cases of ectopic pregnancy and equal number of controls (non pregnant women admitted to study hospital. Study variables : Pelvic inflammatory diseases, sexually transmitted diseases, IUD use at conception , past use of IUD, prior ectopic pregnancy, OC pills use at the time of conception, past use of OC pills, induced abortion, spontaneous abortion, infertility and pelvic and abdominal surgery. Statistical analysis: Odds ratios & their 95% CI, Pearson’s chi square test, unconditional logistic regression analysis and population attributable risk proportion. Results : Use of IUD at conception, prior ectopic pregnancy , pelvic inflammatory disease, sexually transmitted diseases, infertility, OC pills use at the time of conception, past use of IUD and induced abortion were found to be significantly associated with ectopic pregnancy. Conclusion: Identification of these risk factors for etopic pregnancy shall help in early detection and appropriate management in an individual case and it may help in devising a comprehensive preventive strategy for ectopic pregnancy

  5. In-vitro regeneration studies of an important legume, Cicer arietinum: Hurdles and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragati Kumari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There are several economically important grain legumes including chickpea that play significant role in nutrition of the rural and urban poor in developing world. Plants are subjected to a large number of stresses that may interfere with the normal growth and development. The model legumes are being developed as experimental systems to study a number of key biological questions using molecular tools including genomics and proteomics. Most of the functional genomics approaches rely upon the highthroughput transformation system useful for studying various gene identification strategies. The difficulty to transform a plant varies from species to species in legumes. There is limited success in exchange of the desirable characters by the classical and modern breeding technologies, in important pulse crop chickpea and biotechnological tools like plant tissue culture and genetic transformation techniques have emerged as a potential supplement. The major bottleneck is requirement of an in vitro manipulation of leguminosae members and the availability of reproducible, efficient and better plant regeneration methods. The regeneration and transformation of legumes particularly chickpea suffers due to recalcitrant nature towards rooting and transplantation of the in vitro regenerated plants. This becomes a limiting factor for the application of this technology towards designated mandate of crop improvement programs. This article discusses the hurdles and strategies for transformation of legumes in general and chickpea in particular.

  6. Factors Influencing School Health in Elementary Schools in Isfahan, Iran: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Heidarali; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Motaghi, Minoo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Students’ health and future health of the community are related to providing health care in schools and since in every society, different contextual factors affect this matter, the present study aims to recognize the factors influencing the health care elementary students are provided with. Methods: This qualitative content analysis was performed in 2014 in Isfahan. This study was conducted on school health instructors of elementary schools. Through targeted sampling, 15 health care providers, two mothers and 3 principals from 23 elementary schools were selected. Twenty-two semi-structured interviews were performed. Qualitative data analysis was done using qualitative content analysis. Results: In this study, 3 concepts were extracted: family umbrella over health (with two sub-categories of ‘family’s social status and its effect on health’ and ‘family and health’), functional resources (with two sub-categories of ‘opportunity’, ‘availability of resources for diagnosis’) and health components (with two sub-categories of ‘culture’, ‘the value of school health’). These contextual factors must be considered in providing health care for schools. Conclusions: Consideration of effective contextual factors on providing elementary students with health care can help improve health for this group. PMID:27713898

  7. Study of the physical culture of person formed in the future teachers at the beginning of the first year.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriventsova I.V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The components of physical culture of future teachers are identified. Based on them, four components of physical culture of teachers are singled out. The completed experiment touches an already formed conceptual apparatus of physical education, health state, relationship to the physical education subject in school, the relations to sports activities of 486 first-year students, including 117 boys and 369 girls. These data indicate a high probability of disease in persons entering the pedagogical universities. The necessity of developing and implementing in preparation of future teachers of modern technology of the forming of a physical culture as a factor in their personal and professional culture, as well as ideologies aimed at health improvement of the nation.

  8. Continuation of Health Behaviors: Psychosocial Factors Sustaining Drinking Water Chlorination in a Longitudinal Study from Chad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Lilje

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Behavior that has changed following promotion campaigns is usually not maintained at its initial level. Psychosocial factors for initiating behavior are often not the same as for the continuation of health behaviors such as water treatment and are much less understood. Better knowledge of factors for behavioral continuation would help to improve programs, both in the design of strategies for sustainable behavior change and by defining stronger criteria for the evaluation of sustainability. This study compared the mindsets of caregivers who continuously performed household drinking water treatment over time with individuals that stopped doing so in a population sample from Chad. Several factors from health psychology based on the Risks, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, and Self-Regulation (RANAS model were used to compare the two groups and examine their differing development. Normative factors such as others’ behavior, personal obligation, social support and discourse, perceived self-efficacy convictions, action control, and intention best discriminated between the two groups and developed significantly more positively over time for continuers of water treatment. These factors should be considered when designing future interventions intended to lead to sustainable behavior change.

  9. Feasibility studies of time-like proton electromagnetic form factors at PANDA-FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dbeyssi, Alaa; Capozza, Luigi; Deiseroth, Malte; Froehlich, Bertold; Khaneft, Dmitry; Mora Espi, Maria Carmen; Noll, Oliver; Rodriguez Pineiro, David; Valente, Roserio; Zambrana, Manuel; Zimmermann, Iris [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Maas, Frank [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Institute of Nuclear Physics, Mainz (Germany); PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Mainz (Germany); Marchand, Dominique; Tomasi-Gustafsson, Egle; Wang, Ying [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay (France); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    Electromagnetic form factors are fundamental quantities which describe the intrinsic electric and magnetic distributions of hadrons. Time-like proton form factors are experimentally accessible through the annihilation processes anti p+p <-> e{sup +}+e{sup -}. Their measurement in the time-like region had been limited by the low statistics achieved by the experiments. This contribution reports on the results of Monte Carlo simulations for future measurements of electromagnetic proton form factors at PANDA (antiProton ANnihilation at DArmstadt). In frame of the PANDARoot software, the statistical precision at which the proton form factors will be determined is estimated. The signal (anti p+p → e{sup +}+e{sup -}) identification and the suppression of the main background process (anti p+p → π{sup +}+π{sup -}) are studied. Different methods have been used and/or developed to generate and analyse the processes of interest. The results show that time-like proton form factors will be measured at PANDA with unprecedented statistical accuracy.

  10. The Effect of Technology Transfer Factors on Performance: An Empirical Study of Libyan Petroleum Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In Libya, like most petroleum producing countries, attempts began to develop the petroleum industry through several frames of Technology Transfer (TT. The realization of TT is progressively more forecasted with a starting point of essential factors mainly government support, Knowledge base, environment, Willingness to learn and anticipated to rely more on these factors further in the future. Approach: This study evaluated the degree of significance for the government support, knowledge base, environment and the willingness to learn after years of implementing industry standards, importing technology and training employees and joint ventures with advanced companies were applied to the Libyan petroleum industry. Results: The TT performance factor measurements were derived from a questionnaire survey conducted recently on the Libyan petroleum industry, which involved in TT process. With response rate of 68.35%, the findings showed that the TT performance correlates with the level of readiness of environment, knowledge base, willingness to learn factors and the influential role of government support factor in the Libyan petroleum industry. Conclusion: Hence, results implied or even established that successful performance of TT, which able to cultivate petroleum industry employees can provide a broader spectrum of benefits to the petroleum industry.

  11. Risk factors for incidental durotomy during lumbar surgery: a retrospective study by multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhixiang; Shao, Peng; Sun, Qizhao; Zhao, Dong

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to use a prospectively collected data to evaluate the rate of incidental durotomy (ID) during lumbar surgery and determine the associated risk factors by using univariate and multivariate analysis. We retrospectively reviewed 2184 patients who underwent lumbar surgery from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2011 at a single hospital. Patients with ID (n=97) were compared with the patients without ID (n=2019). The influences of several potential risk factors that might affect the occurrence of ID were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses. The overall incidence of ID was 4.62%. Univariate analysis demonstrated that older age, diabetes, lumbar central stenosis, posterior approach, revision surgery, prior lumber surgery and minimal invasive surgery are risk factors for ID during lumbar surgery. However, multivariate analysis identified older age, prior lumber surgery, revision surgery, and minimally invasive surgery as independent risk factors. Older age, prior lumber surgery, revision surgery, and minimal invasive surgery were independent risk factors for ID during lumbar surgery. These findings may guide clinicians making future surgical decisions regarding ID and aid in the patient counseling process to alleviate risks and complications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Future mobility case studies. Life cycle assessments of BEVs and ICVs with a global perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Hongrui; Riera-Palou, Xavier; Tait, Nigel [Shell Global Solutions (United Kingdom), Chester (United Kingdom). Shell Technology Center Thornton; Balthasar, Felix; Warnecke, Wolfgang [Shell Global Solutions (Deutschland) GmbH, Hamburg (Germany). PAE-Labor

    2012-11-01

    To highlight the potential risks associated with simplification, we present a relevant case study on electric vehicles, where the outcome of the analysis changes substantially with the methodological/system boundary choices made. Electric vehicles have increasingly gained worldwide interest as one of the most promising potential long-term solutions to sustainable personal mobility; in particular, battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer zero tailpipe emissions enabling them not only to reduce transport GHG emissions but also to reduce other regulated emissions (e.g. smog). However, their true ability to contribute to GHG emissions reductions can only be properly assessed by comparing a full life cycle assessment of their GHG emissions with a similar assessment for conventional internal combustion vehicles (ICVs). In this study, we have carried out an analysis for vehicles typical of those expected to be introduced in 2012 in Western Europe, the U.S. and China, taking into account the impact of three important factors: (a) like-forlike vehicle comparison and effect of real-world driving conditions, (b) accounting for the GHG emissions associated with meeting the additional electricity demand for charging the batteries, and (c) the GHG emissions associated with the vehicle life cycle (e.g. manufacture and disposal, etc). We find that BEVs can deliver significant GHG savings compared to ICVs providing that the grid GHG intensity used to charge the batteries is sufficiently low. In particular, BEVs perform best relative to ICVs in terms of GHG emissions in low speed (e.g. urban) driving and when lightly loaded with weight and auxiliaries. However, vehicle life cycle emissions are higher for BEVs than ICVs due to the GHG emissions associated with battery manufacture. Furthermore, our analysis illustrates that it is inappropriate to draw general conclusions about the relative GHG performance of BEVs and ICVs without due reference to the context - such relative performance

  13. A comparison of new, old and future densiometic techniques as applied to volcanologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankhurst, Matthew; Moreland, William; Dobson, Kate; Þórðarson, Þorvaldur; Fitton, Godfrey; Lee, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The density of any material imposes a primary control upon its potential or actual physical behaviour in relation to its surrounds. It follows that a thorough understanding of the physical behaviour of dynamic, multi-component systems, such as active volcanoes, requires knowledge of the density of each component. If we are to accurately predict the physical behaviour of synthesized or natural volcanic systems, quantitative densiometric measurements are vital. The theoretical density of melt, crystals and bubble phases may be calculated using composition, structure, temperature and pressure inputs. However, measuring the density of natural, non-ideal, poly-phase materials remains problematic, especially if phase specific measurement is important. Here we compare three methods; Archimedes principle, He-displacement pycnometry and X-ray micro computed tomography (XMT) and discuss the utility and drawbacks of each in the context of modern volcanologic study. We have measured tephra, ash and lava from the 934 AD Eldgjá eruption (Iceland), and the 2010 AD Eyjafjallajökull eruption (Iceland), using each technique. These samples exhibit a range of particle sizes, phases and textures. We find that while the Archimedes method remains a useful, low-cost technique to generate whole-rock density data, relative precision is problematic at small particles sizes. Pycnometry offers a more precise whole-rock density value, at a comparable cost-per-sample. However, this technique is based upon the assumption pore spaces within the sample are equally available for gas exchange, which may or may not be the case. XMT produces 3D images, at resolutions from nm to tens of µm per voxel where X-ray attenuation is a qualitative measure of relative electron density, expressed as greyscale number/brightness (usually 16-bit). Phases and individual particles can be digitally segmented according to their greyscale and other characteristics. This represents a distinct advantage over both

  14. Modelling sea ice for climate studies: recent advances and future challenges (Louis Agassiz Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichefet, Thierry

    2016-04-01

    determining the mean state and variability of sea ice in both hemispheres. There is therefore an urgent need to account for these processes in the next generation of global climate models. We also demonstrate that sea ice data assimilation in models is a powerful tool to calibrate sea ice parameters and to improve seasonal sea ice predictions. Furthermore, we show that it is possible to understand to a certain extent differences between models and to reduce sea ice projection uncertainties by using appropriate sea ice process-oriented diagnostics and emergent constraints. Finally, we discuss possible future developments and challenges in sea ice modelling for climate studies.

  15. Modeling Green Infrastructure Land Use Changes on Future Air Quality—Case Study in Kansas City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Bash, J. O.; Roselle, S. J.; Gilliland, A. B.; Shatas, A.; DeYoung, R.; Piziali, J.

    2016-12-01

    Green infrastructure can be a cost-effective approach for reducing stormwater runoff and improving water quality as a result, but it could also bring co-benefits for air quality: less impervious surfaces and more vegetation can decrease the urban heat island effect, and also result in more removal of air pollutants via dry deposition with increased vegetative surfaces. Cooler surface temperatures can also decrease ozone formation through the increases of NOx titration; however, cooler surface temperatures also lower the height of the boundary layer resulting in more concentrated pollutants within the same volume of air, especially for primary emitted pollutants (e.g. NOx, CO, primary particulate matter). To better understand how green infrastructure impacts air quality, the interactions between all of these processes must be considered collectively. In this study, we use a comprehensive coupled meteorology-air quality model (WRF-CMAQ) to simulate the influence of planned land use changes that include green infrastructure in Kansas City (KC) on regional meteorology and air quality. Current and future land use data was provided by the Mid-America Regional Council for 2012 and 2040 (projected land use due to population growth, city planning and green infrastructure implementation). We found that the average 2-meter temperatures (T2) during summer (June, July and August) are projected to slightly decrease over the downtown of KC and slightly increase over the newly developed regions surrounding the urban core. The planetary boundary layer (PBL) height changes are consistent with the T2 changes: the PBL height is somewhat lowered over the downtown and raised over the newly developed areas. We also saw relatively small decreases in O3 in the downtown area for the mean of all hours as well as for the maximum 8 hour average (MDA8), corresponding with the changes in T2 and PBL height. However, we also found relatively small PM2.5 concentration increases over KC, especially

  16. Robot Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Anja; Grindsted Nielsen, Sally; Jochum, Elizabeth Ann

    Robots are increasingly used in health care settings, e.g., as homecare assistants and personal companions. One challenge for personal robots in the home is acceptance. We describe an innovative approach to influencing the acceptance of care robots using theatrical performance. Live performance...... is a useful testbed for developing and evaluating what makes robots expressive; it is also a useful platform for designing robot behaviors and dialogue that result in believable characters. Therefore theatre is a valuable testbed for studying human-robot interaction (HRI). We investigate how audiences...... perceive social robots interacting with humans in a future care scenario through a scripted performance. We discuss our methods and initial findings, and outline future work....

  17. Secondhand Smoke Is an Important Modifiable Risk Factor in Sickle Cell Disease: A Review of the Current Literature and Areas for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Christy Sadreameli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sickle cell disease (SCD is an autosomal recessive hemoglobinopathy that causes significant morbidity and mortality related to chronic hemolytic anemia, vaso-occlusion, and resultant end-organ damage. Tobacco smoke exposure (TSE through secondhand smoke exposure in people with SCD of all ages and through primary smoking in adolescents and adults is associated with significantly increased morbidity, with increased rates of emergency department visits and hospitalizations for painful vaso-occlusive crises and acute chest syndrome (ACS. Secondhand smoke is also associated with pulmonary function abnormalities in children with SCD who are already at risk for pulmonary function abnormalities on the basis of SCD. TSE is emerging as one of the few modifiable risk factors of SCD. This review discusses the current state of the evidence with respect to TSE and SCD morbidity, discusses potential mechanisms, and highlights current gaps in the evidence and future research directions.

  18. How Future Goals Enhance Motivation and Learning in Multicultural Classrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriessen, I.; Lens, W.; Phalet, K.

    2004-01-01

    This review examines the impact of future goals on motivation and learning in multicultural classrooms. Across cultures, schooling is a future-oriented investment. Studies of minority students’ school achievement have advanced future goals as a crucial protective factor in the face of frequent schoo

  19. How Future Goals Enhance Motivation and Learning in Multicultural Classrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriessen, I.; Lens, W.; Phalet, K.

    2004-01-01

    This review examines the impact of future goals on motivation and learning in multicultural classrooms. Across cultures, schooling is a future-oriented investment. Studies of minority students’ school achievement have advanced future goals as a crucial protective factor in the face of frequent schoo

  20. A population-based longitudinal study of risk factors for suicide attempts in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, James M; Pagura, Jina; Enns, Murray W; Grant, Bridget; Sareen, Jitender

    2010-10-01

    No longitudinal study has examined risk factors for future suicide attempts in major depressive disorder in a nationally representative sample. The objective of this study was to investigate baseline sociodemographic characteristics, comorbid mental disorders, specific depressive symptoms, and previous suicidal behavior as potential risk factors for suicide attempts at 3 years follow-up. Data came from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions (NESARC), a large nationally representative longitudinal survey of mental illness in adults [Wave 1 (2001-2002); Wave 2 (2004-2005) n=34,653]. Logistic regression examined associations between risk factors present at Wave 1 and suicide attempts at Wave 2 (n=169) among individuals with major depressive disorder at baseline assessment (n=6004). Risk factors for incident suicide attempts at Wave 2 (n=63) were identified among those with major depressive disorder at Wave 1 and no lifetime history of suicide attempts (n=5170). Results revealed specific comorbid anxiety, personality, and substance use disorders to be associated with incident suicide attempts at Wave 2. Comorbid borderline personality disorder was strongly associated with suicide attempts in all models. Several comorbid disorders were strongly associated with suicide attempts at Wave 2 even after adjusting for previous suicidal behavior, notably posttraumatic stress disorder (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=2.20; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.27-3.83) and dependent personality disorder (AOR=4.43; 95% CI 1.93-10.18). These findings suggest that mental illness comorbidity confers an increased risk of future suicide attempts in major depressive disorder that is not solely accounted for by past suicidal behavior.