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Sample records for factors engineering shfe

  1. Human Research Program Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichansky, Anna; Badler, Norman; Butler, Keith; Cummings, Mary; DeLucia, Patricia; Endsley, Mica; Scholtz, Jean

    2009-01-01

    The Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Standing Review Panel (SRP) evaluated 22 gaps and 39 tasks in the three risk areas assigned to the SHFE Project. The area where tasks were best designed to close the gaps and the fewest gaps were left out was the Risk of Reduced Safety and Efficiency dire to Inadequate Design of Vehicle, Environment, Tools or Equipment. The areas where there were more issues with gaps and tasks, including poor or inadequate fit of tasks to gaps and missing gaps, were Risk of Errors due to Poor Task Design and Risk of Error due to Inadequate Information. One risk, the Risk of Errors due to Inappropriate Levels of Trust in Automation, should be added. If astronauts trust automation too much in areas where it should not be trusted, but rather tempered with human judgment and decision making, they will incur errors. Conversely, if they do not trust automation when it should be trusted, as in cases where it can sense aspects of the environment such as radiation levels or distances in space, they will also incur errors. This will be a larger risk when astronauts are less able to rely on human mission control experts and are out of touch, far away, and on their own. The SRP also identified 11 new gaps and five new tasks. Although the SRP had an extremely large quantity of reading material prior to and during the meeting, we still did not feel we had an overview of the activities and tasks the astronauts would be performing in exploration missions. Without a detailed task analysis and taxonomy of activities the humans would be engaged in, we felt it was impossible to know whether the gaps and tasks were really sufficient to insure human safety, performance, and comfort in the exploration missions. The SRP had difficulty evaluating many of the gaps and tasks that were not as quantitative as those related to concrete physical danger such as excessive noise and vibration. Often the research tasks for cognitive risks that accompany poor task or

  2. 2015 Space Human Factors Engineering Standing Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) met for a site visit in Houston, TX on December 2 - 3, 2015. The SRP reviewed the updated research plans for the Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration (HARI Risk), the Risk of Inadequate Human-Computer Interaction (HCI Risk), and the Risk of Inadequate Mission, Process and Task Design (MPTask Risk). The SRP also received a status update on the Risk of Incompatible Vehicle/Habitat Design (Hab Risk) and the Risk of Performance Errors Due to Training Deficiencies (Train Risk). The SRP is pleased with the progress and responsiveness of the SHFE team. The presentations were much improved this year. The SRP is also pleased with the human-centered design approach. Below are some of the more extensive comments from the SRP. We have also made comments in each section concerning gaps/tasks in each. The comments below reflect more significant changes that impact more than just one particular section.

  3. Study on spillover effect of copper futures between LME and SHFE using wavelet multiresolution analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Research on information spillover effects between financial markets remains active in the economic community. A Granger-type model has recently been used to investigate the spillover between London Metal Exchange (LME) and Shanghai Futures Exchange (SHFE), however, possible correlation between the future price and return on different time scales have been ignored. In this paper, wavelet multiresolution decomposition is used to investigate the spillover effects of copper future returns between the two markets. The daily return time series are decomposed on 2n (n=1, ..., 6) frequency bands through wavelet multiresolution analysis. The correlation between the two markets is studied with decomposed data. It is shown that high frequency detail components represent much more energy than low-frequency smooth components. The relation between copper future daily returns in LME and that in SHFE are different on different time scales. The fluctuations of the copper future daily returns in LME have large effect on that in SHFE in 32-day scale, but small effect in high frequency scales. It also has evidence that strong effects exist between LME and SHFE for monthly responses of the copper futures but not for daily responses.

  4. Introduction to human factors engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derfuss, Ch.

    2010-01-01

    Some of the main aspects of human factors engineering are discussed. The following topics are considered: Integration into the design process; Identification and application of human-centered design requirements; Design of error-tolerant systems; Iterative process consisting of evaluations and feedback loops; Participation of operators/users; Utilization of an interdisciplinary design/ evaluation team; Documentation of the complete HFE-process: traceability

  5. Human Research Program: Space Human Factors and Habitability Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Dane M.

    2007-01-01

    The three project areas of the Space Human Factors and Habitability Element work together to achieve a working and living environment that will keep crews healthy, safe, and productive throughout all missions -- from Earth orbit to Mars expeditions. The Advanced Environmental Health (AEH) Project develops and evaluates advanced habitability systems and establishes requirements and health standards for exploration missions. The Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Project s goal is to ensure a safe and productive environment for humans in space. With missions using new technologies at an ever-increasing rate, it is imperative that these advances enhance crew performance without increasing stress or risk. The ultimate goal of Advanced Food Technology (AFT) Project is to develop and deliver technologies for human centered spacecraft that will support crews on missions to the moon, Mars, and beyond.

  6. Factors of airplane engine performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Victor R

    1921-01-01

    This report is based upon an analysis of a large number of airplane-engine tests. It contains the results of a search for fundamental relations between many variables of engine operation. The data used came from over 100 groups of tests made upon several engines, primarily for military information. The types of engines were the Liberty 12 and three models of the Hispano-Suiza. The tests were made in the altitude chamber, where conditions simulated altitudes up to about 30,000 feet, with engine speeds ranging from 1,200 to 2,200 r.p.m. The compression ratios of the different engines ranged from under 5 to over 8 to 1. The data taken on the tests were exceptionally complete, including variations of pressure and temperature, besides the brake and friction torques, rates of fuel and air consumption, the jacket and exhaust heat losses.

  7. Motivational factors, gender and engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmos, Anette; Mejlgaard, Niels; Haase, Sanne; Egelund Holgaard, Jette

    2013-06-01

    Based on survey data covering the full population of students enrolled in Danish engineering education in autumn 2010, we explore the motivational factors behind educational choice, with a particular aim of comparing male and female students1 reasons for choosing a career in engineering. We find that women are significantly more influenced by mentors than men, while men tend to be more motivated by intrinsic and financial factors, and by the social importance of the engineering profession. Parental influence is low across all programmes and by differentiating between specific clusters of engineering programmes, we further show that these overall gender differences are subtle and that motivational factors are unequally important across the different educational programmes. The findings from this study clearly indicate that intrinsic and social motivations are the most important motivational factors; however, gender and programme differentiation needs to be taken into account, and points towards diverse future strategies for attracting students to engineering education.

  8. Procurement engineering - the productivity factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bargerstock, S.B. (TENERA, L.P., Chattanooga, TN (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The industry is several years on the road to implementation of the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC) initiatives on commercial-grade item dedication and procurement. Utilities have taken several approaches to involve engineering in the procurement process. A common result for the approaches is the additional operations and maintenance (O M) cost imposed by the added resource requirements. Procurement engineering productivity is a key element in controlling this business area. Experience shows that 400 to 500% improvements in productivity are possible with a 2-yr period. Improving the productivity of the procurement engineering function is important in today's competitive utility environment. Procurement engineering typically involves four distinct technical evaluation responsibilities along with several administrative areas. Technical evaluations include the functionally based safety classification of replacement components and parts (lacking a master parts list), the determination of dedication requirements for safety-related commercial-grade items, the preparation of a procurement specification to maintain the licensed design bases, and the equivalency evaluation of alternate items not requiring the design-change process. Administrative duties include obtaining technical review of vendor-supplied documentation, identifying obsolete parts and components, resolving material nonconformances, initiating the design-change process for replacement items (as needed), and providing technical support to O M. Although most utilities may not perform or require all the noted activities, a large percentage will apply to each utility station.

  9. Procurement engineering - the productivity factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargerstock, S.B.

    1993-01-01

    The industry is several years on the road to implementation of the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC) initiatives on commercial-grade item dedication and procurement. Utilities have taken several approaches to involve engineering in the procurement process. A common result for the approaches is the additional operations and maintenance (O ampersand M) cost imposed by the added resource requirements. Procurement engineering productivity is a key element in controlling this business area. Experience shows that 400 to 500% improvements in productivity are possible with a 2-yr period. Improving the productivity of the procurement engineering function is important in today's competitive utility environment. Procurement engineering typically involves four distinct technical evaluation responsibilities along with several administrative areas. Technical evaluations include the functionally based safety classification of replacement components and parts (lacking a master parts list), the determination of dedication requirements for safety-related commercial-grade items, the preparation of a procurement specification to maintain the licensed design bases, and the equivalency evaluation of alternate items not requiring the design-change process. Administrative duties include obtaining technical review of vendor-supplied documentation, identifying obsolete parts and components, resolving material nonconformances, initiating the design-change process for replacement items (as needed), and providing technical support to O ampersand M. Although most utilities may not perform or require all the noted activities, a large percentage will apply to each utility station

  10. Motivational Factors, Gender and Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmos, Anette; Mejlgaard, Niels; Haase, Sanne; Holgaard, Jette Egelund

    2013-01-01

    Based on survey data covering the full population of students enrolled in Danish engineering education in autumn 2010, we explore the motivational factors behind educational choice, with a particular aim of comparing male and female students reasons for choosing a career in engineering. We find that women are significantly more influenced by…

  11. Motivational factors, gender and engineering education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolmos, Anette; Mejlgaard, Niels; Haase, Sanne Schioldann

    2013-01-01

    Based on survey data covering the full population of students enrolled in Danish engineering education in autumn 2010, we explore the motivational factors behind educational choice, with a particular aim of comparing male and female students1 reasons for choosing a career in engineering. We find...... that women are significantly more influenced by mentors than men, while men tend to be more motivated by intrinsic and financial factors, and by the social importance of the engineering profession. Parental influence is low across all programmes and by differentiating between specific clusters of engineering......; however, gender and programme differentiation needs to be taken into account, and points towards diverse future strategies for attracting students to engineering education....

  12. Some remarks about engineering factor determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svarny, J.

    2010-01-01

    The problem of the power distribution uncertainties is in general a multidimensional problem of random vector and problem of multidimensional Probability Density Function. The standard methodology of derivation WWER engineering factors is based on representation of analyzed power peaking in the linear form of random factors and on presumption about their normal Probability Density Function. In this paper is presented the derivation of locally defined engineering factors and for mechanical factors has been performed their reformulation. Final formulation of engineering factors as a statistics of relative deviations involves new parameter-mean. Engineering factors definition from so called endpoints of uncertainty tolerance interval is recommended. Approach (95%/95%) for normal Probability Density Function is discussed in detail, the relation to present standard uncertainty methodology of power distribution is found and problem of optimality in tolerance factor finding including limitation of sample size is discussed. On the bases of statistically based uncertainty kinf analysis for linear model has been shown that multivariate outputs vector of power peaking has nearly normal Probability Density Function independently on the Probability Density Function character of input multivariate vector from under its small dimension (lower than number of fuel assemblies in 1/6 core symmetry). Finally the development of the methodological part of the engineering factors for WWER-1000 design macrocode MOBY-DICK is described and their calculation direct on the bases of self-powered detector experimental data of Temelin NPP and Volgodonsk NPP has been performed with inclusion the variability of detector (self-powered detector). (Author)

  13. Human Factors Engineering Guidelines for Overhead Cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Faith; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This guideline provides standards for overhead crane cabs that can be applied to the design and modification of crane cabs to reduce the potential for human error due to design. This guideline serves as an aid during the development of a specification for purchases of cranes or for an engineering support request for crane design modification. It aids human factors engineers in evaluating existing cranes during accident investigations or safety reviews.

  14. Engineering growth factors for regenerative medicine applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Aaron C.; Briquez, Priscilla S.; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.; Cochran, Jennifer R.

    2016-01-15

    Growth factors are important morphogenetic proteins that instruct cell behavior and guide tissue repair and renewal. Although their therapeutic potential holds great promise in regenerative medicine applications, translation of growth factors into clinical treatments has been hindered by limitations including poor protein stability, low recombinant expression yield, and suboptimal efficacy. This review highlights current tools, technologies, and approaches to design integrated and effective growth factor-based therapies for regenerative medicine applications. The first section describes rational and combinatorial protein engineering approaches that have been utilized to improve growth factor stability, expression yield, biodistribution, and serum half-life, or alter their cell trafficking behavior or receptor binding affinity. The second section highlights elegant biomaterial-based systems, inspired by the natural extracellular matrix milieu, that have been developed for effective spatial and temporal delivery of growth factors to cell surface receptors. Although appearing distinct, these two approaches are highly complementary and involve principles of molecular design and engineering to be considered in parallel when developing optimal materials for clinical applications.

  15. Validation of human factor engineering integrated system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Apart from hundreds of thousands of human-machine interface resources, the control room of a nuclear power plant is a complex system integrated with many factors such as procedures, operators, environment, organization and management. In the design stage, these factors are considered by different organizations separately. However, whether above factors could corporate with each other well in operation and whether they have good human factors engineering (HFE) design to avoid human error, should be answered in validation of the HFE integrated system before delivery of the plant. This paper addresses the research and implementation of the ISV technology based on case study. After introduction of the background, process and methodology of ISV, the results of the test are discussed. At last, lessons learned from this research are summarized. (authors)

  16. Human factors engineering in nuclear plant rehabilitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernston, K.; Remisz, M.; Malcolm, S.

    2001-01-01

    There are several unique considerations when creating and maintaining a human factors program for a plant refurbishment. These consideration arise from a variety of sources, including budget and time constraints on life extension projects, working to existing plant protocols and current acceptable HFE practices, and issues relating to function and task analysis. This results in a need to streamline and carefully time HFE practices from project start up to completion. In order to perform this task adequately, a comprehensive Human Factors Engineering Program Plan should be designed and tailored to the project. Systems of planning and prioritization are essential, and the required HFE designer training needs to be established. HFE specialists need to be aware of the existing plant constraints, and he prepared to work within them when providing support. The current paper discusses these aspects in the context of major refurbishment work at CANDU stations. (author)

  17. Human Factors and Habitability Challenges for Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban

    2015-01-01

    As NASA is planning to send humans deeper into space than ever before, adequate crew health and performance will be critical for mission success. Within the NASA Human Research Program (HRP), the Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH) team is responsible for characterizing the risks associated with human capabilities and limitations with respect to long-duration spaceflight, and for providing mitigations (e.g., guidelines, technologies, and tools) to promote safe, reliable and productive missions. SHFH research includes three domains: Advanced Environmental Health (AEH), Advanced Food Technology (AFT), and Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE). The AEH portfolio focuses on understanding the risk of microbial contamination of the spacecraft and on the development of standards for exposure to potential toxins such as chemicals, bacteria, fungus, and lunar/Martian dust. The two risks that the environmental health project focuses on are adverse health effects due to changes in host-microbe interactions, and risks associated with exposure to dust in planetary surface habitats. This portfolio also proposes countermeasures to these risks by making recommendations that relate to requirements for environmental quality, foods, and crew health on spacecraft and space missions. The AFT portfolio focuses on reducing the mass, volume, and waste of the entire integrated food system to be used in exploration missions, and investigating processing methods to extend the shelf life of food items up to five years, while assuring that exploration crews will have nutritious and palatable foods. The portfolio also delivers improvements in both the food itself and the technologies for storing and preparing it. SHFE sponsors research to establish human factors and habitability standards and guidelines in five risk areas, and provides improved design concepts for advanced crew interfaces and habitability systems. These risk areas include: Incompatible vehicle/habitat design

  18. Human factors engineering program review model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission is performing nuclear power plant design certification reviews based on a design process plan that describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification and an acceptable implemented design. There are two principal reasons for this approach. First, the initial design certification applications submitted for staff review did not include detailed design information. Second, since human performance literature and industry experiences have shown that many significant human factors issues arise early in the design process, review of the design process activities and results is important to the evaluation of an overall design. However, current regulations and guidance documents do not address the criteria for design process review. Therefore, the HFE Program Review Model (HFE PRM) was developed as a basis for performing design certification reviews that include design process evaluations as well as review of the final design. A central tenet of the HFE PRM is that the HFE aspects of the plant should be developed, designed, and evaluated on the basis of a structured top-down system analysis using accepted HFE principles. The HFE PRM consists of ten component elements. Each element in divided into four sections: Background, Objective, Applicant Submittals, and Review Criteria. This report describes the development of the HFE PRM and gives a detailed description of each HFE review element

  19. Applications of human factors engineering in the digital HMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Bingjian

    2014-01-01

    In order to prevent and minimize human errors in the digital main control room, the principles of human factors engineering must be complied strictly in the design process of digital human-machine interface. This paper briefly describes the basic human factors engineering principles of designing main control room, introduces the main steps to implement the human factors engineering verification and validation of main control room, including HSI task support verification, human factors engineering design verification and integrated system validation. Meanwhile, according to the new digital human-machine interface characteristics, the development models of human error are analyzed. (author)

  20. Improving Safety through Human Factors Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewert, Bettina; Hochman, Mary G

    2015-10-01

    Human factors engineering (HFE) focuses on the design and analysis of interactive systems that involve people, technical equipment, and work environment. HFE is informed by knowledge of human characteristics. It complements existing patient safety efforts by specifically taking into consideration that, as humans, frontline staff will inevitably make mistakes. Therefore, the systems with which they interact should be designed for the anticipation and mitigation of human errors. The goal of HFE is to optimize the interaction of humans with their work environment and technical equipment to maximize safety and efficiency. Special safeguards include usability testing, standardization of processes, and use of checklists and forcing functions. However, the effectiveness of the safety program and resiliency of the organization depend on timely reporting of all safety events independent of patient harm, including perceived potential risks, bad outcomes that occur even when proper protocols have been followed, and episodes of "improvisation" when formal guidelines are found not to exist. Therefore, an institution must adopt a robust culture of safety, where the focus is shifted from blaming individuals for errors to preventing future errors, and where barriers to speaking up-including barriers introduced by steep authority gradients-are minimized. This requires creation of formal guidelines to address safety concerns, establishment of unified teams with open communication and shared responsibility for patient safety, and education of managers and senior physicians to perceive the reporting of safety concerns as a benefit rather than a threat. © RSNA, 2015.

  1. Women Engineers: Factors and Obstacles Related to the Pursuit of a Degree in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentling, Rose Mary; Camacho, Cristina

    Research on women in engineering confirms the presence of gender barriers that affect the recruitment and retention of women in engineering. These barriers stop some women from choosing engineering as a field of study, and impede some women from completing a degree in engineering. However, there are some young female students who complete their engineering education despite the presence of obstacles throughout their college years. This study addressed the factors that have hindered, motivated, and assisted women who graduated with a degree in engineering. By studying and understanding the barriers that hinder women in deciding to pursue and in completing a degree in engineering, as well as the factors that assist and encourage them, we can learn how to break down the barriers and how to facilitate the educational journey of female engineering students. This study provides valuable insights and created a framework from which high schools, universities, researchers, and female students can directly benefit.

  2. Human factor engineering applied to nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manrique, A.; Valdivia, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Advantages of implementing adequate Human Factor Engineering techniques in the design of nuclear reactors have become not only a fact recognized by the majority of engineers and operators but also an explicit requirement regulated and mandatory for the new designs of the so called advanced reactors. The first step for this is preparing a plan to incorporate all the Human Factor Engineering principles and developing an integral design of the Instrumentation and Control and Man-machine interface systems. Such a plan should state: -) Activities to be performed, and -) Creation of a Human Factor Engineering team adequately qualified. The Human Factor Engineering team is an integral part of the design team and is strongly linked to the engineering organizations but simultaneously has independence to act and is free to evaluate designs and propose changes in order to enhance human behavior. TECNATOM S.A. (a Spanish company) has been a part of the Design and Human Factor Engineering Team and has collaborated in the design of an advanced Nuclear Power Plant, developing methodologies and further implementing those methodologies in the design of the plant systems through the development of the plant systems operational analysis and of the man-machine interface design. The methodologies developed are made up of the following plans: -) Human Factor Engineering implementation in the Man-Machine Interface design; -) Plant System Functional Requirement Analysis; -) Allocation of Functions to man/machine; -) Task Analysis; -) Human-System Interface design; -) Control Room Verification and -) Validation

  3. Motivational and adaptational factors of successful women engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornsen, Susan Edith

    It is no surprise that there is a shortage of women engineers. The reasons for the shortage have been researched and discussed in myriad papers, and suggestions for improvement continue to evolve. However, there are few studies that have specifically identified the positive aspects that attract women to engineering and keep them actively engaged in the field. This paper examines how women engineers view their education, their work, and their motivation to remain in the field. A qualitative research design was used to understand the motivation and adaptability factors women use to support their decision to major in engineering and stay in the engineering profession. Women engineers were interviewed using broad questions about motivation and adaptability. Interviews were transcribed and coded, looking for common threads of factors that suggest not only why women engineers persist in the field, but also how they thrive. Findings focus on the experiences, insights, and meaning of women interviewed. A grounded theory approach was used to describe the success factors found in practicing women engineers. The study found categories of attraction to the field, learning environment, motivation and adaptability. Sub-categories of motivation are intrinsic motivational factors such as the desire to make a difference, as well as extrinsic factors such as having an income that allows the kind of lifestyle that supports the family. Women engineers are comfortable with and enjoy working with male peers and when barriers arise, women learn to adapt in the male dominated field. Adaptability was indicated in areas of gender, culture, and communication. Women found strength in the ability to 'read' their clients, and provide insight to their teams. Sufficient knowledge from the field advances theory and offers strategies to programs for administrators and faculty of schools of engineering as well as engineering firms, who have interest in recruitment, and retention of female students

  4. FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE OF ENGINEERED BARRIERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.A. BLINK, R.W. ANDREWS, J.N. BAILEY, T.W. DOERING J.H. LEE, J.K. MCCOY, D.G. MCKENZIE, D. SEVOUGIAN AND V. VALLIKAT

    1998-01-01

    For the Yucca Mountain Viability Assessment (VA), a reference design was tentatively selected in September 1997, and a series of model abstractions are being prepared for the performance assessment (PA) of that design. To determine the sensitivity of peak dose rate at the accessible environment to engineered components, several design options were subjected to the PA models available late in FY97

  5. Human factor engineering applied to nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manrique, A.; Valdivia, J.C.; Jimenez, A.

    2001-01-01

    For the design and construction of new nuclear power plants as well as for maintenance and operation of the existing ones new man-machine interface designs and modifications are been produced. For these new designs Human Factor Engineering must be applied the same as for any other traditional engineering discipline. Advantages of implementing adequate Human Factor Engineering techniques in the design of nuclear reactors have become not only a fact recognized by the majority of engineers and operators but also an explicit requirement regulated and mandatory for the new designs of the so called advanced reactors. Additionally, the big saving achieved by a nuclear power plant having an operating methodology which significantly decreases the risk of operating errors makes it necessary and almost vital its implementation. The first step for this is preparing a plan to incorporate all the Human Factor Engineering principles and developing an integral design of the Instrumentation and Control and Man-machine interface systems. (author)

  6. Factors Affecting Students' Choice of Science and Engineering in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Maria Jose B. M.; Leite, Maria Salete S. C. P.; Woolnough, Brian E.

    This paper presents the results of a study undertaken in Portugal to determine the influence of different factors on students' (n=499) decisions to study or refuse to study in one of the physical sciences or engineering. Some influencing factors are related to what goes on in school and during science lessons, and other factors are related to the…

  7. Research on the NPP human factors engineering operating experience review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Xiangchen; Miao Hongxing; Ning Zhonghe

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the importance of the human factors engineering (HFE) for the design of nuclear power plant (NPP), especially for the design of human-machine interface in the NPP. It also summarizes the scope and content of the NPP HFE. The function, scope, content and process of the NPP human factors engineering operating experience review (OER) are mainly focused on, and significantly discussed. Finally, it briefly introduces the situation of the studies on the OER in China. (authors)

  8. Development of human factors engineering guide for nuclear power project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Dangshi; Sheng Jufang

    1997-01-01

    'THE PRACTICAL GUIDE FOR APPLICATION OF HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING TO NUCLEAR POWER PROJECT (First Draft, in Chinese)', which was developed under a research program sponsored by National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA) is described briefly. It is hoped that more conscious, more systematical and more comprehensive application of Human Factors Engineering to the nuclear power projects from the preliminary feasibility studies up to the commercial operation will benefit the safe, efficient and economical operations of nuclear power plants in China

  9. Caution and Warning Alarm Design and Evaluation for NASA CEV Auditory Displays: SHFE Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRPP) report 12.07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begault, Durand R.; Godfroy, Martine; Sandor, Aniko; Holden, Kritina

    2008-01-01

    The design of caution-warning signals for NASA s Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and other future spacecraft will be based on both best practices based on current research and evaluation of current alarms. A design approach is presented based upon cross-disciplinary examination of psychoacoustic research, human factors experience, aerospace practices, and acoustical engineering requirements. A listening test with thirteen participants was performed involving ranking and grading of current and newly developed caution-warning stimuli under three conditions: (1) alarm levels adjusted for compliance with ISO 7731, "Danger signals for work places - Auditory Danger Signals", (2) alarm levels adjusted to an overall 15 dBA s/n ratio and (3) simulated codec low-pass filtering. Questionnaire data yielded useful insights regarding cognitive associations with the sounds.

  10. Human factors evaluation of the engineering test reactor control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, W.W.; Boone, M.P.

    1981-03-01

    The Reactor and Process Control Rooms at the Engineering Test Reactor were evaluated by a team of human factors engineers using available human factors design criteria. During the evaluation, ETR, equipment and facilities were compared with MIL-STD-1472-B, Human Engineering design Criteria for Military Systems. The focus of recommendations centered on: (a) displays and controls; placing displays and controls in functional groups; (b) establishing a consistent color coding (in compliance with a standard if possible); (c) systematizing annunciator alarms and reducing their number; (d) organizing equipment in functional groups; and (e) modifying labeling and lines of demarcation

  11. ESTIMATION OF AMPLIFICATION FACTOR IN EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarov Yuriy Pavlovich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors are the developers of Odyssey Software (Eurosoft Co. for the analysis of seismological data and computing of seismic loads and their parameters. While communicating with the users of the software, the authors have revealed some uncertainty about both understanding of the term "amplification factor (AF" and calculation of the amplification factor using various methods. In this article, a simple example shows that the determination of the amplification factor as the ratio of the acceleration’s spectrum to the maximal acceleration is derived from the classical definition of AF in the form of the ratio of maximal dynamic displacement to the displacement by the action of static load. Deterministic and probabilistic ap-proaches for the calculating of the AF were discussed. There was an example of AFs calculation and their envelopes for translational and rotational components of seismic impact by using Odyssey Software.

  12. New engineering safety factors for Loviisa NPP core calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuopanportti, Jaakko; Saarinen, Simo; Lahtinen, Tuukka; Ekstroem, Karoliina [Fortum Power and Heat Ltd., Fortum (Finland)

    2017-09-15

    In Loviisa NPP, there are two limiting thermal margins called the enthalpy rise margin and the linear heat rate margin that are monitored during normal operation. Engineering safety factors are applied in determination of both of these factors. The factors take into account the effect of various manufacturing tolerances, impact of the irradiation and simulation uncertainties on the local heat rate and on the enthalpy of the coolant. The engineering factors were re-evaluated during 2015 and the factors were approved by the Finnish radiation and nuclear safety authority in 2016. The re-evaluation was performed by considering all of the identified phenomena that affect the local heat rate or the enthalpy of the coolant. This paper summarizes the work that was performed during the re-evaluation of the engineering safety factors and presents the results for each uncertainty component. The new engineering safety factors are 1.115 for the linear heat rate and 1.100 for the enthalpy rise margin when the old factors were 1.12 and 1.16, respectively. The new factors improve the fuel economy by about 1%.

  13. Growth factor effects on costal chondrocytes for tissue engineering fibrocartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, D.E.; Athanasiou, K.A.

    2010-01-01

    Tissue engineered fibrocartilage could become a feasible option for replacing tissues like the knee meniscus or temporomandibular joint disc. This study employed five growth factors insulin-like growth factor-I, transforming growth factor-β1, epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor-BB, and basic fibroblast growth factor in a scaffoldless approach with costal chondrocytes, attempting to improve biochemical and mechanical properties of engineered constructs. Samples were quantitatively assessed for total collagen, glycosaminoglycans, collagen type I, collagen type II, cells, compressive properties, and tensile properties at two time points. Most treated constructs were worse than the no growth factor control, suggesting a detrimental effect, but the IGF treatment tended to improve the constructs. Additionally, the 6wk time point was consistently better than 3wks, with total collagen, glycosaminoglycans, and aggregate modulus doubling during this time. Further optimization of the time in culture and exogenous stimuli will be important in making a more functional replacement tissue. PMID:18597118

  14. Human Factors Engineering Aspects of Modifications in Control Room Modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo, Jacques [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Clefton, Gordon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This report describes the basic aspects of control room modernization projects in the U.S. nuclear industry and the need for supplementary guidance on the integration of human factors considerations into the licensing and regulatory aspects of digital upgrades. The report pays specific attention to the integration of principles described in NUREG-0711 (Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model) and how supplementary guidance can help to raise general awareness in the industry regarding the complexities of control room modernization projects created by many interdependent regulations, standards and guidelines. The report also describes how human factors engineering principles and methods provided by various resources and international standards can help in navigating through the process of licensing digital upgrades. In particular, the integration of human factors engineering guidance and requirements into the process of licensing digital upgrades can help reduce uncertainty related to development of technical bases for digital upgrades that will avoid the introduction of new failure modes.

  15. Modification and analysis of engineering hot spot factor of HFETR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yuechun; Deng Caiyu; Li Haitao; Xu Taozhong; Mo Zhengyu

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the modification and analysis of engineering hot spot factors of HFETR. The new factors are applied in the fuel temperature analysis and the estimated value of the safety allowable operating power of HFETR. The result shows the maximum cladding temperature of the fuel is lower when the new factor are in utilization, and the safety allowable operating power of HFETR if higher, thus providing the economical efficiency of HFETR. (authors)

  16. Patient safety - the role of human factors and systems engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carayon, Pascale; Wood, Kenneth E

    2010-01-01

    Patient safety is a global challenge that requires knowledge and skills in multiple areas, including human factors and systems engineering. In this chapter, numerous conceptual approaches and methods for analyzing, preventing and mitigating medical errors are described. Given the complexity of healthcare work systems and processes, we emphasize the need for increasing partnerships between the health sciences and human factors and systems engineering to improve patient safety. Those partnerships will be able to develop and implement the system redesigns that are necessary to improve healthcare work systems and processes for patient safety.

  17. Patient Safety: The Role of Human Factors and Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carayon, Pascale; Wood, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    Patient safety is a global challenge that requires knowledge and skills in multiple areas, including human factors and systems engineering. In this chapter, numerous conceptual approaches and methods for analyzing, preventing and mitigating medical errors are described. Given the complexity of healthcare work systems and processes, we emphasize the need for increasing partnerships between the health sciences and human factors and systems engineering to improve patient safety. Those partnerships will be able to develop and implement the system redesigns that are necessary to improve healthcare work systems and processes for patient safety. PMID:20543237

  18. Human factors engineering evaluation of the UTR-10 Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahti, D.; Nilius, D.; Heithoff, D.; Roche, G.; Sage, S.

    1982-01-01

    This paper is a description of a student design team's review and evaluation of Iowa State University's University Test Reactor (UTR-10). The review was based on how well the control room of the UTR-10 measured up to selected portions of NUREG-0800, chapter 18, Human Factor Engineering/Standard Review Plan Development. The review was conducted by inspecting the reactor and interviewing reactor operators. The control room workspace, instrumentation controls and other equipment were evaluated from a human factors engineering point of view that takes into account both system demands and operator capabilities. Identification, assessment, and suggestion for control room design modifications that correct inadequate or unsuitable items was made

  19. Engineering success: Persistence factors of African American doctoral recipients in engineering and applied science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Tiffany Monique

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify factors that influence African Americans to pursue and complete doctoral degrees in engineering and applied science disciplines. Critical race theory (CRT), two models of doctoral student persistence, and graduate student persistence literature guided the conceptual framework of this study. In-depth and focus group interviews were conducted to learn the key factors that positively impacted the persistence of 19 African Americans who earned doctoral degrees in engineering and applied science. The following two factors were found to significantly contribute to the decision to pursue the doctorate: encouragement from others and participation in a research or internship program. Key factors impacting doctoral degree completion included: peer support, faculty adviser support, support from university administrators, and family support. In addition to identifying factors that influenced 19 African Americans to pursue and complete doctoral degrees in engineering and applied science, this study was about the importance of diversity and inclusion of multiple perspectives in education research and scholarship. To this end, the study served to promote and include the expert knowledge of African American doctoral degree recipients in engineering and applied science in the scholarly discourse on the issue of low participation rates of African Americans in engineering and applied science disciplines. Such knowledge will challenge traditional views on this issue and hopefully inspire new ways of addressing and remedying this issue. With African Americans and other minority populations growing at an exponential rate, people of color are quickly becoming the majority in key states across the nation. Therefore, it is imperative that all Americans have an opportunity to develop skills necessary to compete for professional positions in the science and engineering workforce. This mandate is required for the United States to maintain

  20. Determination of engineering safety factor -routine in Hungary (a methodology for the normal operation local power engineering safety factors)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szecsenyi, Z.; Korpas, L.; Bona, G.; Kereszturi, A.

    2010-01-01

    From the late nineties Paks Nuclear Power Plant-in collaboration with KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute (KFKI AEKI)- is developing a system for determining the normal operation local power engineering safety factors. The system is based on a Monte Carlo sampling of the uncertain model input parameters. Additionally, the comparison of the calculation to the in-core measurements plays essential role for determining some important input parameters. By using new fuel types and the corresponding more recent detailed technological data, the applied method is being improved from time to time. Presently, the actually used and authorized engineering safety factors at Paks NPP are determined by using this method. In the paper, the system.s main properties are described (not going beyond the possible extent). The main points are as follows:-Mathematical definition of the engineering safety factor;-Sources of the uncertainties;-Input error propagation method constituting the basis of the system;-Flow-chart of the subsequent steps of the determination Finally, in the paper the engineering safety factors values of some selected parameters are presented as examples for demonstration of the capability of the method. (Authors)

  1. Status of human factors engineering system design in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ives, G.

    1990-01-01

    A review of the European status of human factors engineering has been carried out covering a wide scope of activities which includes psychology, cognitive science, ergonomics, design, training, procedure writing, operating, artificial intelligence and expert systems. There is an increasing awareness of the part that human factors play in major nuclear power plant accidents. The emphasis of attention in human factors is changing. In some areas there are encouraging signs of progress and development, but in other areas there is still scope for improvement

  2. Human Factors Interface with Systems Engineering for NASA Human Spaceflights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Douglas T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the past and present successes of the Habitability and Human Factors Branch (HHFB) at NASA Johnson Space Center s Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) in including the Human-As-A-System (HAAS) model in many NASA programs and what steps to be taken to integrate the Human-Centered Design Philosophy (HCDP) into NASA s Systems Engineering (SE) process. The HAAS model stresses systems are ultimately designed for the humans; the humans should therefore be considered as a system within the systems. Therefore, the model places strong emphasis on human factors engineering. Since 1987, the HHFB has been engaging with many major NASA programs with much success. The HHFB helped create the NASA Standard 3000 (a human factors engineering practice guide) and the Human Systems Integration Requirements document. These efforts resulted in the HAAS model being included in many NASA programs. As an example, the HAAS model has been successfully introduced into the programmatic and systems engineering structures of the International Space Station Program (ISSP). Success in the ISSP caused other NASA programs to recognize the importance of the HAAS concept. Also due to this success, the HHFB helped update NASA s Systems Engineering Handbook in December 2007 to include HAAS as a recommended practice. Nonetheless, the HAAS model has yet to become an integral part of the NASA SE process. Besides continuing in integrating HAAS into current and future NASA programs, the HHFB will investigate incorporating the Human-Centered Design Philosophy (HCDP) into the NASA SE Handbook. The HCDP goes further than the HAAS model by emphasizing a holistic and iterative human-centered systems design concept.

  3. Human Factors Engineering: Current Practices and Development Needs in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savioja, Paula; Norros, Leena; Liinasuo, Marja; Laarni, Jari [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finland (Finland)

    2011-08-15

    This paper describes initial findings from a study concerning the practices and development needs of Human Factors Engineering (HFE) in Finland. HFE is increasing in importance as the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority Finland (STUK) is renewing the regulatory guidelines and the intention is to include requirements concerning HFE. The motivation for the paper is to discover how HFE is conducted currently in order to envision what should be aimed at when modifying requirements for design practices. In an interview with STUK it was discovered that current HFE practices encompass mainly activities related to control room modifications and as such namely verification and validation of new designs. The adoption of the entire HFE process in design and modification projects requires changes that include better integration of technical and Human Factors Engineering approaches. Boundary objects that mediate between different design disciplines are needed in order to enforce the stronger integration. Concept of operations (CONOPS) is suggested as a such boundary object.

  4. Human Modeling for Ground Processing Human Factors Engineering Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambolian, Damon B.; Lawrence, Brad A.; Stelges, Katrine S.; Steady, Marie-Jeanne O.; Ridgwell, Lora C.; Mills, Robert E.; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald; Barth, Tim

    2011-01-01

    There have been many advancements and accomplishments over the last few years using human modeling for human factors engineering analysis for design of spacecraft. The key methods used for this are motion capture and computer generated human models. The focus of this paper is to explain the human modeling currently used at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and to explain the future plans for human modeling for future spacecraft designs

  5. The Human Factors Engineering in Process Design Modifications CNAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foronda Delgado, A.; Almeida Parra, P.; Bote Moreno, J.

    2013-01-01

    This contribution presents the process followed at the Almaraz and Trillo Nuclear Power Plants in order to integrate Human Factors Engineering (HFE) in the Design Modifications. This includes the applicable rules and regulations, the classification criteria used to categorize the modification, the activities that are to be carried out in each case, as well as recent examples where the full HFE program model was applied at Almaraz (Alternate Shutdown Panel) and Trillo (Primary Bleed and Feed).

  6. Rapid Prototyping and the Human Factors Engineering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-29

    conventional systems development techniques. It is not clear, however, exactly how rapid prototyping could be used in relation to conventional human...factors engineering analyses. Therefore, an investigation of the use of the V APS virtual prototyping system was carried out in five organizations. The...results show that a variety of task analysis approaches can be used to initiate rapid prototyping . Overall, it appears that rapid prototyping

  7. Human and organization factors: engineering operating safety into offshore structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bea, Robert G.

    1998-01-01

    History indicates clearly that the safety of offshore structures is determined primarily by the humans and organizations responsible for these structures during their design, construction, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning. If the safety of offshore structures is to be preserved and improved, then attention of engineers should focus on to how to improve the reliability of the offshore structure 'system,' including the people that come into contact with the structure during its life-cycle. This article reviews and discusss concepts and engineering approaches that can be used in such efforts. Two specific human factor issues are addressed: (1) real-time management of safety during operations, and (2) development of a Safety Management Assessment System to help improve the safety of offshore structures

  8. Components of WWER engineering factors for peaking factors: status and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsyganov, S.V.

    2010-01-01

    One of the topics for discussion at special working group 'Elaboration of the methodology for calculating the core design engineering factors' is the problem of engineering factor components. The list of components corresponds to the phenomena that are taken into account with the engineering factor. It is supposed the better understanding of the influenced phenomena is important stage for developing unified methodology. This paper presents some brief overview of components of the engineering factor for VVER core peaking factors as they are in the Kurchatov Institute methodology. The evolution of some components to less conservative values is observed. Author makes some assumptions as for the further progress in components assessment. The engineering factors providing observance of design limits at normal operation, should cover, with the set probability, the uncertainty, connected with process of core design. For definition of the value of factors it is necessary to define influence of these uncertainties on the investigated parameter of the reactor. Practice consists in defining all possible sources of uncertainties, to estimate influence of each of them, and on their basis to define total influence of all uncertainties. The important stage of a technique of factor calculation is a definition of the list influencing uncertainties. It is obvious that all characteristics of VVER core are known with some uncertainty-owing to manufacturing tolerances, the measurement errors, etc. However essential influence on the parameters connected with safety, render only a part from them. At list formation those characteristics get out only, whose influence is essential to the corresponding parameter. (Author)

  9. Factors affecting employee attrition among engineers and non-engineers in manufacturing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhardwaj, Shikha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Almost every industry nowadays is badly affected by attrition. Retention of talented employees is the biggest problem faced by India Incorporation. In order to gather more insights on the talent crunch, the undertaken study was conducted on technical and non-technical jobs in manufacturing sector in Delhi NCR. Research has identified three major factors – Salary, Boss and Stress in the jobs after conducted interviews with around 50 technical and non-technical respondents. A set of questions were prepared and send to 120 employee but only 75 responded. The study shows a strong relationship between type of job and factors of attrition. Chi-square test clearly states strong relationship among two. Thus, any change in one will affect the other also. At the same time other important outcomes were that for technical jobs salary is the most important factor whereas non-technical Boss is the factor. Out 75, 63 were engineer and rest were non-engineer. The research can be further done to understand factors of attrition with other demographic variable.

  10. Coupling growth-factor engineering with nanotechnology for therapeutic angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha Roy, Rituparna; Soni, Shivani; Harfouche, Rania; Vasudevan, Pooja R; Holmes, Oliver; de Jonge, Hugo; Rowe, Arthur; Paraskar, Abhimanyu; Hentschel, Dirk M; Chirgadze, Dimitri; Blundell, Tom L; Gherardi, Ermanno; Mashelkar, Raghunath A; Sengupta, Shiladitya

    2010-08-03

    Therapeutic angiogenesis is an emerging paradigm for the management of ischemic pathologies. Proangiogenic Therapy is limited, however, by the current inability to deliver angiogenic factors in a sustained manner at the site of pathology. In this study, we investigated a unique nonglycosylated active fragment of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor, 1K1, which acts as a potent angiogenic agent in vitro and in a zebrafish embryo and a murine matrigel implant model. Furthermore, we demonstrate that nanoformulating 1K1 for sustained release temporally alters downstream signaling through the mitogen activated protein kinase pathway, and amplifies the angiogenic outcome. Merging protein engineering and nanotechnology offers exciting possibilities for the treatment of ischemic disease, and furthermore allows the selective targeting of downstream signaling pathways, which translates into discrete phenotypes.

  11. Human factors engineering report for the cold vacuum drying facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IMKER, F.W.

    1999-06-30

    The purpose of this report is to present the results and findings of the final Human Factors Engineering (HFE) technical analysis and evaluation of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). Ergonomics issues are also addressed in this report, as appropriate. This report follows up and completes the preliminary work accomplished and reported by the Preliminary HFE Analysis report (SNF-2825, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Human Factors Engineering Analysis: Results and Findings). This analysis avoids redundancy of effort except for ensuring that previously recommended HFE design changes have not affected other parts of the system. Changes in one part of the system may affect other parts of the system where those changes were not applied. The final HFE analysis and evaluation of the CVDF human-machine interactions (HMI) was expanded to include: the physical work environment, human-computer interface (HCI) including workstation and software, operator tasks, tools, maintainability, communications, staffing, training, and the overall ability of humans to accomplish their responsibilities, as appropriate. Key focal areas for this report are the process bay operations, process water conditioning (PWC) skid, tank room, and Central Control Room operations. These key areas contain the system safety-class components and are the foundation for the human factors design basis of the CVDF.

  12. Human factors engineering report for the cold vacuum drying facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IMKER, F.W.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the results and findings of the final Human Factors Engineering (HFE) technical analysis and evaluation of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). Ergonomics issues are also addressed in this report, as appropriate. This report follows up and completes the preliminary work accomplished and reported by the Preliminary HFE Analysis report (SNF-2825, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Human Factors Engineering Analysis: Results and Findings). This analysis avoids redundancy of effort except for ensuring that previously recommended HFE design changes have not affected other parts of the system. Changes in one part of the system may affect other parts of the system where those changes were not applied. The final HFE analysis and evaluation of the CVDF human-machine interactions (HMI) was expanded to include: the physical work environment, human-computer interface (HCI) including workstation and software, operator tasks, tools, maintainability, communications, staffing, training, and the overall ability of humans to accomplish their responsibilities, as appropriate. Key focal areas for this report are the process bay operations, process water conditioning (PWC) skid, tank room, and Central Control Room operations. These key areas contain the system safety-class components and are the foundation for the human factors design basis of the CVDF

  13. Human Factors Engineering: Current and Emerging Dual-Use Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandlee, G. O.; Goldsberry, B. S.

    1994-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering is a multidisciplinary endeavor in which information pertaining to human characteristics is used in the development of systems and machines. Six representatives considered to be experts from the public and private sectors were surveyed in an effort to identify the potential dual-use of human factors technology. Each individual was asked to provide a rating as to the dual-use of 85 identified NASA technologies. Results of the survey were as follows: nearly 75 percent of the technologies were identified at least once as high dual-use by one of the six survey respondents, and nearly 25 percent of the identified NASA technologies were identified as high dual-use technologies by a majority of the respondents. The perceived level of dual-use appeared to be independent of the technology category. Successful identification of dual-use technology requires expanded input from industry. As an adjunct, cost-benefit analysis should be conducted to identify the feasibility of the dual-use technology. Concurrent with this effort should be an examination of precedents established by other technologies in other industrial settings. Advances in human factors and systems engineering are critical to reduce risk in any workplace and to enhance industrial competitiveness.

  14. Human factors engineering checklists for application in the SAR process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overlin, T.K.; Romero, H.A.; Ryan, T.G.

    1995-03-01

    This technical report was produced to assist the preparers and reviewers of the human factors portions of the SAR in completing their assigned tasks regarding analysis and/or review of completed analyses. The checklists, which are the main body of the report, and the subsequent tables, were developed to assist analysts in generating the needed analysis data to complete the human engineering analysis for the SAR. The technical report provides a series of 19 human factors engineering (HFE) checklists which support the safety analyses of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) reactor and nonreactor facilities and activities. The results generated using these checklists and in the preparation of the concluding analyses provide the technical basis for preparing the human factors chapter, and subsequent inputs to other chapters, required by DOE as a part of the safety analysis reports (SARs). This document is divided into four main sections. The first part explains the origin of the checklists, the sources utilized, and other information pertaining to the purpose and scope of the report. The second part, subdivided into 19 sections, is the checklists themselves. The third section is the glossary which defines terms that could either be unfamiliar or have specific meanings within the context of these checklists. The final section is the subject index in which the glossary terms are referenced back to the specific checklist and page the term is encountered.

  15. Human factors engineering checklists for application in the SAR process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overlin, T.K.; Romero, H.A.; Ryan, T.G.

    1995-03-01

    This technical report was produced to assist the preparers and reviewers of the human factors portions of the SAR in completing their assigned tasks regarding analysis and/or review of completed analyses. The checklists, which are the main body of the report, and the subsequent tables, were developed to assist analysts in generating the needed analysis data to complete the human engineering analysis for the SAR. The technical report provides a series of 19 human factors engineering (HFE) checklists which support the safety analyses of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) reactor and nonreactor facilities and activities. The results generated using these checklists and in the preparation of the concluding analyses provide the technical basis for preparing the human factors chapter, and subsequent inputs to other chapters, required by DOE as a part of the safety analysis reports (SARs). This document is divided into four main sections. The first part explains the origin of the checklists, the sources utilized, and other information pertaining to the purpose and scope of the report. The second part, subdivided into 19 sections, is the checklists themselves. The third section is the glossary which defines terms that could either be unfamiliar or have specific meanings within the context of these checklists. The final section is the subject index in which the glossary terms are referenced back to the specific checklist and page the term is encountered

  16. The influence of environmental factors on bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpalski, Caroline; Sagebin, Fabio; Barbaro, Marissa; Warren, Stephen M

    2013-05-01

    Bone repair and regeneration are dynamic processes that involve a complex interplay between the substrate, local and systemic cells, and the milieu. Although each constituent plays an integral role in faithfully recreating the skeleton, investigators have long focused their efforts on scaffold materials and design, cytokine and hormone administration, and cell-based therapies. Only recently have the intangible aspects of the milieu received their due attention. In this review, we highlight the important influence of environmental factors on bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Human factors engineering plan for reviewing nuclear plant modernization programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, John; Higgins, James

    2004-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of nuclear power plants (NPPs) involved in the modernization of the plant systems and control rooms. The purpose of a HFE review is to help ensure personnel and public safety by verifying that accepted HFE practices and guidelines are incorporated into the program and nuclear power plant design. Such a review helps to ensure the HFE aspects of an NPP are developed, designed, and evaluated on the basis of a structured top-down system analysis using accepted HFE principles. The review addresses eleven HFE elements: HFE Program Management, Operating Experience Review, Functional Requirements Analysis and Allocation, Task Analysis, Staffing, Human Reliability Analysis, Human-System Interface Design, Procedure Development, Training Program Development, Human Factors Verification and Validation, and Design Implementation

  18. Human factors engineering plan for reviewing nuclear plant modernization programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, John; Higgins, James [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    2004-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of nuclear power plants (NPPs) involved in the modernization of the plant systems and control rooms. The purpose of a HFE review is to help ensure personnel and public safety by verifying that accepted HFE practices and guidelines are incorporated into the program and nuclear power plant design. Such a review helps to ensure the HFE aspects of an NPP are developed, designed, and evaluated on the basis of a structured top-down system analysis using accepted HFE principles. The review addresses eleven HFE elements: HFE Program Management, Operating Experience Review, Functional Requirements Analysis and Allocation, Task Analysis, Staffing, Human Reliability Analysis, Human-System Interface Design, Procedure Development, Training Program Development, Human Factors Verification and Validation, and Design Implementation.

  19. Restricting Factors at Modification of Parameters of Associative Engineering Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, László

    Advancements in product development have reached full integration of engineering activities and processes in product lifecycle management (PLM) systems. PLM systems are based on high-level modeling, simulation and data management. Despite significant development of modeling in PLM systems, a strong demand was recognized for improved decision assistance in product development. Decision assistance can be improved by application of methods from the area of computer intelligence. In order for a product development company to stay competitive, it is important for its modeling system to be relied on local even personal knowledge. The authors analyzed current PLM systems for shortcomings and possibilities for extended intelligence at decision-making during product development. They propose methods in order to increase suitability of current modeling systems to accommodate knowledge based IT at definition of sets of parameters of modeled objects and in the management of frequent changes of modeled objects. In the center of the proposed methodology, constrained parameters act as restricting factors at definition and modification of parameters of associative engineering objects. Paper starts with an outlook to modeling in current engineering systems and preliminary results by the authors. Following this, groups of essential information as handled by he proposed modeling are summarized and procedures for processing of that groups of information are detailed. Next, management of chains of changes along chains of associa-tive product objects and a new style of decision assistance in modeling systems are explained. Changes are created or verified by behavior analysis. Finally, behavior analysis, human intent combination, product data view creation, and change management are discussed as the proposed integrated and coordinated methodology for enhanced support of decision-making in product development.

  20. The role of engineering judgement, safety culture, and organizational factors in risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzumdar, Ajit; Professor, Visiting

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of engineering judgement, safety culture, and organizational factors in risk assessment by examining the reasons for human-based error. The need for more emphasis on producing engineers with good engineering judgement is described. The progress in quantifying the role of safety culture and organizational factors in risk assessment studies is summarized

  1. Mechanotransduction and Growth Factor Signalling to Engineer Cellular Microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipitria, Amaia; Salmeron-Sanchez, Manuel

    2017-08-01

    Engineering cellular microenvironments involves biochemical factors, the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the interaction with neighbouring cells. This progress report provides a critical overview of key studies that incorporate growth factor (GF) signalling and mechanotransduction into the design of advanced microenvironments. Materials systems have been developed for surface-bound presentation of GFs, either covalently tethered or sequestered through physico-chemical affinity to the matrix, as an alternative to soluble GFs. Furthermore, some materials contain both GF and integrin binding regions and thereby enable synergistic signalling between the two. Mechanotransduction refers to the ability of the cells to sense physical properties of the ECM and to transduce them into biochemical signals. Various aspects of the physics of the ECM, i.e. stiffness, geometry and ligand spacing, as well as time-dependent properties, such as matrix stiffening, degradability, viscoelasticity, surface mobility as well as spatial patterns and gradients of physical cues are discussed. To conclude, various examples illustrate the potential for cooperative signalling of growth factors and the physical properties of the microenvironment for potential applications in regenerative medicine, cancer research and drug testing. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Human Factors Engineering Review Model for advanced nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.; Higgins, J.; Goodman, C.; Galletti, G.: Eckenrode, R.

    1993-01-01

    One of the major issues to emerge from the initial design reviews under the certification process was that detailed human-systems interface (HSI) design information was not available for staff review. To address the lack of design detail issue. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is performing the design certification reviews based on a design process plan which describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification. Since the review of a design process is unprecedented in the nuclear industry. The criteria for review are not addressed by current regulations or guidance documents and. therefore, had to be developed. Thus, an HFE Program Review Model was developed. This paper will describe the model's rationale, scope, objectives, development, general characteristics. and application

  3. Human factors in remote control engineering development activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, M.M.; Hamel, W.R.; Draper, J.V.

    1983-01-01

    Human factors engineering, which is an integral part of the advanced remote control development activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is described. First, work at the Remote Systems Development Facility (RSDF) has shown that operators can perform a wide variety of tasks, some of which were not specifically designed for remote systems, with a dextrous electronic force-reflecting servomanipulator and good television remote viewing capabilities. Second, the data collected during mock-up remote maintenance experiments at the RSDF have been analyzed to provide guidelines for the design of human interfaces with an integrated advanced remote maintenance system currently under development. Guidelines have been provided for task allocation between operators, remote viewing systems, and operator controls. 6 references, 5 figures, 2 tables

  4. Use of search engine optimization factors for Google page rank prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Tvrdi, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Over the years, search engines have become an important tool for finding information. It is known that users select the link on the first page of search results in 62% of the cases. Search engine optimization techniques enable website improvement and therefore a better ranking in search engines. The exact specification of the factors that affect website ranking is not disclosed by search engine owners. In this thesis we tried to choose some most frequently mentioned search engine optimizatio...

  5. Tissue Engineering Using Transfected Growth-Factor Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madry, Henning; Langer, Robert S.; Freed, Lisa E.; Trippel, Stephen; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2005-01-01

    A method of growing bioengineered tissues includes, as a major component, the use of mammalian cells that have been transfected with genes for secretion of regulator and growth-factor substances. In a typical application, one either seeds the cells onto an artificial matrix made of a synthetic or natural biocompatible material, or else one cultures the cells until they secrete a desired amount of an extracellular matrix. If such a bioengineered tissue construct is to be used for surgical replacement of injured tissue, then the cells should preferably be the patient s own cells or, if not, at least cells matched to the patient s cells according to a human-leucocyteantigen (HLA) test. The bioengineered tissue construct is typically implanted in the patient's injured natural tissue, wherein the growth-factor genes enhance metabolic functions that promote the in vitro development of functional tissue constructs and their integration with native tissues. If the matrix is biodegradable, then one of the results of metabolism could be absorption of the matrix and replacement of the matrix with tissue formed at least partly by the transfected cells. The method was developed for articular chondrocytes but can (at least in principle) be extended to a variety of cell types and biocompatible matrix materials, including ones that have been exploited in prior tissue-engineering methods. Examples of cell types include chondrocytes, hepatocytes, islet cells, nerve cells, muscle cells, other organ cells, bone- and cartilage-forming cells, epithelial and endothelial cells, connective- tissue stem cells, mesodermal stem cells, and cells of the liver and the pancreas. Cells can be obtained from cell-line cultures, biopsies, and tissue banks. Genes, molecules, or nucleic acids that secrete factors that influence the growth of cells, the production of extracellular matrix material, and other cell functions can be inserted in cells by any of a variety of standard transfection techniques.

  6. Preventing healthcare-associated infections through human factors engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Jesse T; Herwaldt, Loreen A; Durso, Francis T

    2018-05-24

    Human factors engineering (HFE) approaches are increasingly being used in healthcare, but have been applied in relatively limited ways to infection prevention and control (IPC). Previous studies have focused on using selected HFE tools, but newer literature supports a system-based HFE approach to IPC. Cross-contamination and the existence of workarounds suggest that healthcare workers need better support to reduce and simplify steps in delivering care. Simplifying workflow can lead to better understanding of why a process fails and allow for improvements to reduce errors and increase efficiency. Hand hygiene can be improved using visual cues and nudges based on room layout. Using personal protective equipment appropriately appears simple, but exists in a complex interaction with workload, behavior, emotion, and environmental variables including product placement. HFE can help prevent the pathogen transmission through improving environmental cleaning and appropriate use of medical devices. Emerging evidence suggests that HFE can be applied in IPC to reduce healthcare-associated infections. HFE and IPC collaboration can help improve many of the basic best practices including use of hand hygiene and personal protective equipment by healthcare workers during patient care.

  7. Automating the Human Factors Engineering and Evaluation Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastromonico, C.

    2002-01-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has developed a software tool for automating the Human Factors Engineering (HFE) design review, analysis, and evaluation processes. The tool provides a consistent, cost effective, graded, user-friendly approach for evaluating process control system Human System Interface (HSI) specifications, designs, and existing implementations. The initial set of HFE design guidelines, used in the tool, was obtained from NUREG- 0700. Each guideline was analyzed and classified according to its significance (general concept vs. supporting detail), the HSI technology (computer based vs. non-computer based), and the HSI safety function (safety vs. non-safety). Approximately 10 percent of the guidelines were determined to be redundant or obsolete and were discarded. The remaining guidelines were arranged in a Microsoft Access relational database, and a Microsoft Visual Basic user interface was provided to facilitate the HFE design review. The tool also provides the capability to add new criteria to accommodate advances in HSI technology and incorporate lessons learned. Summary reports produced by the tool can be easily ported to Microsoft Word and other popular PC office applications. An IBM compatible PC with Microsoft Windows 95 or higher is required to run the application

  8. Motivational and Adaptational Factors of Successful Women Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornsen, Susan Edith

    2012-01-01

    It is no surprise that there is a shortage of women engineers. The reasons for the shortage have been researched and discussed in myriad papers, and suggestions for improvement continue to evolve. However, there are few studies that have specifically identified the positive aspects that attract women to engineering and keep them actively engaged…

  9. Human Factors in Training - Space Medicine Proficiency Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Erin; Arsintescu, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    The early Constellation space missions are expected to have medical capabilities very similar to those currently on the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS). For Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) missions to ISS, medical equipment will be located on ISS, and carried into CEV in the event of an emergency. Flight Surgeons (FS) on the ground in Mission Control will be expected to direct the Crew Medical Officer (CMO) during medical situations. If there is a loss of signal and the crew is unable to communicate with the ground, a CMO would be expected to carry out medical procedures without the aid of a FS. In these situations, performance support tools can be used to reduce errors and time to perform emergency medical tasks. Work on medical training has been conducted in collaboration with the Medical Training Group at the Space Life Sciences Directorate and with Wyle Lab which provides medical training to crew members, Biomedical Engineers (BMEs), and to flight surgeons under the JSC Space Life Sciences Directorate s Bioastronautics contract. The space medical training work is part of the Human Factors in Training Directed Research Project (DRP) of the Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Project under the Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH) Element of the Human Research Program (HRP). Human factors researchers at Johnson Space Center have recently investigated medical performance support tools for CMOs on-orbit, and FSs on the ground, and researchers at the Ames Research Center performed a literature review on medical errors. The work proposed for FY10 continues to build on this strong collaboration with the Space Medical Training Group and previous research. This abstract focuses on two areas of work involving Performance Support Tools for Space Medical Operations. One area of research building on activities from FY08, involved the feasibility of just-in-time (JIT) training techniques and concepts for real-time medical procedures. In Phase 1

  10. Human factors engineering in the design of colour-graphic displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenton, E.F.

    1985-01-01

    The operator interface for Ontario Hydro's Darlington Nuclear Generating Station will rely extensively on the use of coloured graphic display formats. These are used for the presentation of both control and monitoring information. The displays are organized in a hierarchical relationship and a simple interactive selection method using light pens has been implemented. The application of human factors engineering principles has been a major factor in all aspects of the design. This paper describes the system and the human factors engineering function

  11. Identifying the challenging factors in the transition from colleges of engineering to employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baytiyeh, Hoda; Naja, Mohamad

    2012-03-01

    The transition from university to a career in engineering is a challenging process. This study examined the perceptions of engineering graduates regarding the difficulties they encountered in their transition from the university to the workplace. Lebanese practising engineers (n=217), living around the world, were surveyed to identify their current employment situations and their attitudes toward their academic preparation. Factor analysis revealed three main challenges facing engineering graduates: communication; responsibility; self-confidence. Seventeen interviews were conducted to gather information on ways to facilitate this transition. Comments reflected the need for better collaboration between engineering schools and engineering firms. The results will provide insight for engineering colleges, faculty members and administrators into the challenges faced by graduates and their aspirations for a smoother transition into employment.

  12. Discussion on verification criterion and method of human factors engineering for nuclear power plant controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hualong; Liu Yanzi; Jia Ming; Huang Weijun

    2014-01-01

    In order to prevent or reduce human error and ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants, control device should be verified from the perspective of human factors engineering (HFE). The domestic and international human factors engineering guidelines about nuclear power plant controller were considered, the verification criterion and method of human factors engineering for nuclear power plant controller were discussed and the application examples were provided for reference in this paper. The results show that the appropriate verification criterion and method should be selected to ensure the objectivity and accuracy of the conclusion. (authors)

  13. Emissions factors for gaseous and particulate pollutants from offshore diesel engine vessels in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F.; Chen, Y.; Tian, C.; Li, J.; Zhang, G.; Matthias, V.

    2015-09-01

    Shipping emissions have significant influence on atmospheric environment as well as human health, especially in coastal areas and the harbor districts. However, the contribution of shipping emissions on the environment in China still need to be clarified especially based on measurement data, with the large number ownership of vessels and the rapid developments of ports, international trade and shipbuilding industry. Pollutants in the gaseous phase (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, total volatile organic compounds) and particle phase (particulate matter, organic carbon, elemental carbon, sulfates, nitrate, ammonia, metals) in the exhaust from three different diesel engine power offshore vessels in China were measured in this study. Concentrations, fuel-based and power-based emissions factors for various operating modes as well as the impact of engine speed on emissions were determined. Observed concentrations and emissions factors for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, total volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter were higher for the low engine power vessel than for the two higher engine power vessels. Fuel-based average emissions factors for all pollutants except sulfur dioxide in the low engine power engineering vessel were significantly higher than that of the previous studies, while for the two higher engine power vessels, the fuel-based average emissions factors for all pollutants were comparable to the results of the previous studies. The fuel-based average emissions factor for nitrogen oxides for the small engine power vessel was more than twice the International Maritime Organization standard, while those for the other two vessels were below the standard. Emissions factors for all three vessels were significantly different during different operating modes. Organic carbon and elemental carbon were the main components of particulate matter, while water-soluble ions and elements were present in trace amounts. Best-fit engine speeds

  14. Revised emission factors for gas engines including start/stop emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Malene; Boll Illerup, J.; Birr-Petersen, K.

    2008-06-15

    Liberalisation of the electricity market has led to Danish gas engine plants increasingly converting to the spot and regulating power markets. In order to offer regulating power, plants need to be able to start and stop the engines at the plants quickly. The liberalisation causes a considerable change of operation practice of the engines e.g. less full load operation hours /year. The project provides an inventory determining the scale of the emissions during the start and stop sequence as well as proposals for engine modifications aimed at reducing start/stop emissions. This report includes calculation of emission factors as well as an inventory of total emissions and reduction potentials. (au)

  15. ESTIMATION OF EXTERNAL FACTORS INFLUENCE ON THE ORGANIZATIONAL AND RESOURCE SUPPORT OF ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Gusak

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The engineering industry is characterized by deep specialization and high co-operation, which suggests a high degree of interaction with other industries and the economy, highly sensitive to external factors. Effective regulation of the engineering industry’s organizational-resource support will ensure coherence of all the subsystems of the market economy, the competitive environment, a full course of the investment process and the success of the industry. Therefore there is a need for detailed estimation and analysis of the external factors’ influence on the formation and implementation indexes of the engineering industry’s organizational-resource support. Methodology. To establish the close connection between the set of external factors of formation and implementation indexes of the engineering industry organizational-resource support the correlation analysis was used, to calculate the amount of the formation and implementation indexes of the engineering industry organizational-resource support’s change under the influence of the external factors with malleability coefficient were applied. Findings. The external influence factors on the engineering industry organizational-resource support by the source of origin: industrial, economical, political, informational, and social were separated and grouped. The classification of the external factors influence on the engineering industry organizational-resource support, depending on their influence’s direction on the formation and implementation indexes of the engineering industry’s organizational-resource support was made. The connection closeness and the amount of the formation and implementation indexes of the engineering industry organizational-resource support change (the machinery index of and the sales volume machinery index under the influence of the external factors with malleability coefficient were determined. Originality. The estimation of the external factors

  16. Main factors affecting the fixing work about nuclear engineering and its discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhihua; Liu Yaoguan; Qian Dazhi; Liu Hangang; Xu Xianqi; Deng Yue

    2010-01-01

    Main factors to the impact of the fixing work about nuclear engineering such as project design, construction, plan program, document, preparation, order, locale management, surveillance, quality assurance system and so on were presented. These factors were analyzed and discussed in this paper. Some measures and suggestions were put forward to accelerate construction fixing plan and insure good quality. We wish provide some references and help for someone engaged with construction of nuclear engineering. (authors)

  17. Selected engagement factors and academic learning outcomes of undergraduate engineering students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Patricia J.

    The concept of student engagement and its relationship to successful student performance and learning outcomes has a long history in higher education (Kuh, 2007). Attention to faculty and student engagement has only recently become of interest to the engineering education community. This interest can be attributed to long-standing research by George Kuh's, National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) at the Indiana University Center for Postsecondary Research. In addition, research projects sponsored by the National Science Foundation, the Academic Pathway Study (APS) at the Center for the Advancement of Engineering Education (CAEE) and the Center for the Advancement of Scholarship on Engineering Education (CASEE), Measuring Student and Faculty Engagement in Engineering Education, at the National Academy of Engineering. These research studies utilized the framework and data from the Engineering Change study by the Center for the Study of Higher Education, Pennsylvania State, that evaluated the impact of the new Accreditation Board of Engineering and Technology (ABET) EC2000 "3a through k" criteria identify 11 learning outcomes expected of engineering graduates. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent selected engagement factors of 1. institution, 2. social, 3. cognitive, 4. finance, and 5. technology influence undergraduate engineering students and quality student learning outcomes. Through the descriptive statistical analysis indicates that there maybe problems in the engineering program. This researcher would have expected at least 50% of the students to fall in the Strongly Agree and Agree categories. The data indicated that the there maybe problems in the engineering program problems in the data. The problems found ranked in this order: 1). Dissatisfaction with faculty instruction methods and quality of instruction and not a clear understanding of engineering majors , 2). inadequate Engineering faculty and advisors availability especially applicable

  18. Human Factors in Training - Space Flight Resource Management Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryne, Vicky; Connell, Erin; Barshi, Immanuel; Arsintescu, L.

    2009-01-01

    . Work on SFRM training has been conducted in collaboration with the Expedition Vehicle Division at the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) and with United Space Alliance (USA) which provides training to Flight Controllers. The space flight resource management training work is part of the Human Factors in Training Directed Research Project (DRP) of the Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Project under the Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH) Element of the Human Research Program (HRP). Human factors researchers at the Ames Research Center have been investigating team work and distributed decision making processes to develop a generic SFRM training framework for flight controllers. The work proposed for FY10 continues to build on this strong collaboration with MOD and the USA Training Group as well as previous research in relevant domains such as aviation. In FY10, the work focuses on documenting and analyzing problem solving strategies and decision making processes used in MCC by experienced FCers.

  19. Some Factors Affecting Combustion in an Internal-Combustion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, A M; Cohn, Mildred

    1936-01-01

    An investigation of the combustion of gasoline, safety, and diesel fuels was made in the NACA combustion apparatus under conditions of temperature that permitted ignition by spark with direct fuel injection, in spite of the compression ratio of 12.7 employed. The influence of such variables as injection advance angle, jacket temperature, engine speed, and spark position was studied. The most pronounced effect was that an increase in the injection advance angle (beyond a certain minimum value) caused a decrease in the extent and rate of combustion. In almost all cases combustion improved with increased temperature. The results show that at low air temperatures the rates of combustion vary with the volatility of the fuel, but that at high temperatures this relationship does not exist and the rates depend to a greater extent on the chemical nature of the fuel.

  20. Immobilization and Application of Electrospun Nanofiber Scaffold-based Growth Factor in Bone Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guobao; Lv, Yonggang

    2015-01-01

    Electrospun nanofibers have been extensively used in growth factor delivery and regenerative medicine due to many advantages including large surface area to volume ratio, high porosity, excellent loading capacity, ease of access and cost effectiveness. Their relatively large surface area is helpful for cell adhesion and growth factor loading, while storage and release of growth factor are essential to guide cellular behaviors and tissue formation and organization. In bone tissue engineering, growth factors are expected to transmit signals that stimulate cellular proliferation, migration, differentiation, metabolism, apoptosis and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. Bolus administration is not always an effective method for the delivery of growth factors because of their rapid diffusion from the target site and quick deactivation. Therefore, the integration of controlled release strategy within electrospun nanofibers can provide protection for growth factors against in vivo degradation, and can manipulate desired signal at an effective level with extended duration in local microenvironment to support tissue regeneration and repair which normally takes a much longer time. In this review, we provide an overview of growth factor delivery using biomimetic electrospun nanofiber scaffolds in bone tissue engineering. It begins with a brief introduction of different kinds of polymers that were used in electrospinning and their applications in bone tissue engineering. The review further focuses on the nanofiber-based growth factor delivery and summarizes the strategies of growth factors loading on the nanofiber scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. The perspectives on future challenges in this area are also pointed out.

  1. A Virtual Campus Based on Human Factor Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuting; Kang, Houliang

    2014-01-01

    Three Dimensional or 3D virtual reality has become increasingly popular in many areas, especially in building a digital campus. This paper introduces a virtual campus, which is based on a 3D model of The Tourism and Culture College of Yunnan University (TCYU). Production of the virtual campus was aided by Human Factor and Ergonomics (HF&E), an…

  2. On Modeling and Analyzing Cost Factors in Information Systems Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutschler, B.B.; Reichert, M.U.

    Introducing enterprise information systems (EIS) is usually associated with high costs. It is therefore crucial to understand those factors that determine or influence these costs. Though software cost estimation has received considerable attention during the last decades, it is difficult to apply

  3. A Systematic Literature Review of Engineering Identity: Definitions, Factors, and Interventions Affecting Development, and Means of Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelock, John R.

    2017-01-01

    Studies exploring what it means to be an engineer professionally have been conducted for decades, but have boomed in recent years. This systematic literature review aims to organise extant studies on engineering identity by coding around four key variables: (a) definitions of engineering identity, (b) factors affecting engineering identity…

  4. Human factors engineering review for CRT screen design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, S. M.; Joo, C. Y.; Ra, J. C.

    1999-01-01

    The information interface between man and machine may be more important than hardware and workplace layout considerations. Transmitting and receiving data through this information interface can be characterized as a communication or interface problem. Management of man-machine interface is essential for the enhancement of the information processing and decision-making capability of computer users working in real time, demanding task. The design of human-computer interface is not a rigid and static procedure. The content and context of each interface varies according to the specific application. So, the purpose of this study is to review the human factor design process for interfaces, to make human factor guidelines for CRT screen and to apply these to CRT screen design. (author)

  5. Electronic cigarettes: incorporating human factors engineering into risk assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ling; Rudy, Susan F; Cheng, James M; Durmowicz, Elizabeth L

    2014-01-01

    Objective A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the impact of human factors (HF) on the risks associated with electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and to identify research gaps. HF is the evaluation of human interactions with products and includes the analysis of user, environment and product complexity. Consideration of HF may mitigate known and potential hazards from the use and misuse of a consumer product, including e-cigarettes. Methods Five databases were searched through Januar...

  6. Engineering Margin Factors Used in the Design of the VVER Fuel Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizorkin, M. P.; Shishkov, L. K.

    2017-12-01

    The article describes methods for determination of the engineering margin factors currently used to estimate the uncertainties of the VVER reactor design parameters calculated via the KASKAD software package developed at the National Research Center Kurchatov Institute. These margin factors ensure the meeting of the operating (design) limits and a number of other restrictions under normal operating conditions.

  7. Human-factors engineering-control-room design review: Shoreham Nuclear Power Station. Draft audit report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, L.R.; Preston-Smith, J.; Savage, J.W.; Rousseau, W.F.

    1981-01-01

    A human factors engineering preliminary design review of the Shoreham control room was performed at the site on March 30 through April 3, 1981. This design review was carried out by a team from the Human Factors Engineering Branch, Division of Human Factors Safety. This report was prepared on the basis of the HFEB's review of the applicant's Preliminary Design Assessment and the human factors engineering design review/audit performed at the site. The presented sections are numbered to conform to the guidelines of the draft version of NUREG-0700. They summarize the teams's observations of the control room design and layout, and of the control room operators' interface with the control room environment

  8. A comparison of educational factors promoting or discouraging the intent to remain in engineering by gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelink, Catherine T.; Meszaros, Peggy S.

    2011-03-01

    This study seeks to examine key extrinsic and intrinsic factors that encourage or discourage persistence in attaining an engineering degree and pursuing an engineering-related career among both male and female undergraduates. Quantitative and qualitative findings from nine participating undergraduate degree programmes reveal that career expectations formulated through educational experiences as undergraduates play a key role in motivating students. Among females, faculty interaction in the classroom, such as feedback received and the degree to which the faculty treat them with respect, is an important encouraging factor. For both males and females, discouraging elements of the undergraduate experience include the amount of time for coursework, competition in engineering classes and grades. The findings have several practical implications that faculty and administrators can employ in shaping the undergraduate experience to encourage short- and long-term interest in engineering among both male and female students.

  9. Engineering Design Handbook: Environmental Series. Part Three. Induced Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-20

    environmental factors. Rain will wash many pollutants from the atmosphere or winds will disperse them; rain or humidity will sup- press sand and dust...atmosphere (Ref. 11). (4) Air movement. Air movement serves to disperse 2-55 AMCP 70G-117 pollutants throughout the atmosphere. Airspeed and...CaCCL MgC03 MgCO^ Pure clay, kaolin , china clay Al203-2Si02.2H20 sand or dust environment includes (1) concentration (count or weight), (2

  10. Analysis on nuclear power plant control room system design and improvement based on human factor engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Feng; Liu Yanzi; Sun Yongbin

    2014-01-01

    The design of nuclear power plant control room system is a process of improvement with the implementation of human factor engineering theory and guidance. The method of implementation human factor engineering principles into the nuclear power plant control room system design and improvement was discussed in this paper. It is recommended that comprehensive address should be done from control room system function, human machine interface, digital procedure, control room layout and environment design based on the human factor engineering theory and experience. The main issues which should be paid more attention during the control room system design and improvement also were addressed in this paper, and then advices and notices for the design and improvement of the nuclear power plant control room system were afforded. (authors)

  11. Using human factors engineering to improve the effectiveness of infection prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Judith; Gosbee, Laura Lin; Bessesen, Mary; Williams, Linda

    2010-08-01

    Human factors engineering is a discipline that studies the capabilities and limitations of humans and the design of devices and systems for improved performance. The principles of human factors engineering can be applied to infection prevention and control to study the interaction between the healthcare worker and the system that he or she is working with, including the use of devices, the built environment, and the demands and complexities of patient care. Some key challenges in infection prevention, such as delayed feedback to healthcare workers, high cognitive workload, and poor ergonomic design, are explained, as is how human factors engineering can be used for improvement and increased compliance with practices to prevent hospital-acquired infections.

  12. Human factors and systems engineering approach to patient safety for radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, A Joy; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

    2008-01-01

    The traditional approach to solving patient safety problems in healthcare is to blame the last person to touch the patient. But since the publication of To Err is Human, the call has been instead to use human factors and systems engineering methods and principles to solve patient safety problems. However, an understanding of the human factors and systems engineering is lacking, and confusion remains about what it means to apply their principles. This paper provides a primer on them and their applications to patient safety.

  13. Safety review for human factors engineering and control rooms of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Mengzhuo

    1998-01-01

    Safety review for human factors engineering and control rooms of nuclear power plants (NPP) is in a forward position of science and technology, which began at American TMI severe accident and had been implemented in China. The importance and the significance of the safety review are expounded, the requirements of its scope and profundity are explained in detail. In addition, the situation of the technical document system for nuclear safety regulation on human factors engineering and control rooms of NPP in China is introduced briefly, on which the safety review is based

  14. Proposal of criteria for evaluation of engineering safety factors of VVER core parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishkov, L.; Tsyganov, S.; Dementiev, V.

    2009-01-01

    The paper states that the regulatory documentation, as a rule, do not give explicit recommendations on formation techniques of engineering safety factors for design limited parameters of normal operation (K eng ). The AER countries use different approaches to K eng evaluation (sometimes even one country in relation of various power units). The paper suggests the development of uniform rules to be used in calculation of engineering safety factor for all VVER reactors. The paper presents principal problems that must be solved in the course of the discussion, and in the form of an exercise suggests the way of their solution. (authors)

  15. Proposal of criteria for evaluation of engineering safety factors of WWER core parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishkov, L.; Tsyganov, S.; Dementiev, V.

    2009-01-01

    The paper states that the regulatory documentation, as a rule, do not give explicit recommendations on formation techniques of engineering safety factors for design limited parameters of normal operation. The AER countries use different approaches to evaluation (sometimes even one country in relation of various power units). The paper suggests the development of uniform rules to be used in calculation of engineering safety factor for all WWER reactors. The paper presents principal problems that must be solved in the course of the discussion, and in the form of an exercise suggests the way of their solution. (Authors)

  16. Human Factors and Systems Engineering Approach to Patient Safety for Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, A. Joy; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

    2008-01-01

    The traditional approach to solving patient safety problems in healthcare is to blame the last person to touch the patient. But since the publication of To Err is Human, the call has been instead to use human factors and systems engineering methods and principles to solve patient safety problems. However, an understanding of the human factors and systems engineering is lacking, and confusion remains about what it means to apply their principles. This paper provides a primer on them and their applications to patient safety

  17. Assessment of Environmental Factors of Geology on Waste and Engineering Barriers for Waste Storage Near Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arimuladi SP

    2007-01-01

    Geological environment factors include features and processes occurring within that spatial and temporal (post-closure) domain whose principal effect is to determine the evolution of the physical, chemical, biological and human conditions of the domain that are relevant to estimating the release and migration of radionuclide and consequent exposure to man. Hardness of radioactive waste and engineer barrier can be decrease by environmental factors. Disposal system domain geological environment factors is a category in the International FEP list and is divided into sub-categories. There are 13 sub-factors of geological environment, 12 sub-factors influence hardness of radioactive waste and engineer barrier, thermal processes and conditions in geosphere can be excluded. (author)

  18. Combustion characteristics and optimal factors determination with Taguchi method for diesel engines port-injecting hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Horng-Wen; Wu, Zhan-Yi

    2012-01-01

    This study applies the L 9 orthogonal array of the Taguchi method to find out the best hydrogen injection timing, hydrogen-energy-share ratio, and the percentage of exhaust gas circulation (EGR) in a single DI diesel engine. The injection timing is controlled by an electronic control unit (ECU) and the quantity of hydrogen is controlled by hydrogen flow controller. For various engine loads, the authors determine the optimal operating factors for low BSFC (brake specific fuel consumption), NO X , and smoke. Moreover, net heat-release rate involving variable specific heat ratio is computed from the experimental in-cylinder pressure. In-cylinder pressure, net heat-release rate, A/F ratios, COV (coefficient of variations) of IMEP (indicated mean effective pressure), NO X , and smoke using the optimum condition factors are compared with those by original baseline diesel engine. The predictions made using Taguchi's parameter design technique agreed with the confirmation results on 95% confidence interval. At 45% and 60% loads the optimum factor combination compared with the original baseline diesel engine reduces 14.52% for BSFC, 60.5% for NO X and for 42.28% smoke and improves combustion performance such as peak in-cylinder pressure and net heat-release rate. Adding hydrogen and EGR would not generate unstable combustion due to lower COV of IMEP. -- Highlights: ► We use hydrogen injector controlled by ECU and cooled EGR system in a diesel engine. ► Optimal factors by Taguchi method are determined for low BSFC, NO X and smoke. ► The COV of IMEP is lower than 10% so it will not cause the unstable combustion. ► We improve A/F ratio, in-cylinder pressure, and heat-release at optimized engine. ► Decrease is 14.5% for BSFC, 60.5% for NO X , and 42.28% for smoke at optimized engine.

  19. Safety, reliability, risk management and human factors: an integrated engineering approach applied to nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Silva, Eliane Magalhaes Pereira da; Costa, Antonio Carlos Lopes da; Reis, Sergio Carneiro dos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: vasconv@cdtn.br, e-mail: silvaem@cdtn.br, e-mail: aclc@cdtn.br, e-mail: reissc@cdtn.br

    2009-07-01

    Nuclear energy has an important engineering legacy to share with the conventional industry. Much of the development of the tools related to safety, reliability, risk management, and human factors are associated with nuclear plant processes, mainly because the public concern about nuclear power generation. Despite the close association between these subjects, there are some important different approaches. The reliability engineering approach uses several techniques to minimize the component failures that cause the failure of the complex systems. These techniques include, for instance, redundancy, diversity, standby sparing, safety factors, and reliability centered maintenance. On the other hand system safety is primarily concerned with hazard management, that is, the identification, evaluation and control of hazards. Rather than just look at failure rates or engineering strengths, system safety would examine the interactions among system components. The events that cause accidents may be complex combinations of component failures, faulty maintenance, design errors, human actions, or actuation of instrumentation and control. Then, system safety deals with a broader spectrum of risk management, including: ergonomics, legal requirements, quality control, public acceptance, political considerations, and many other non-technical influences. Taking care of these subjects individually can compromise the completeness of the analysis and the measures associated with both risk reduction, and safety and reliability increasing. Analyzing together the engineering systems and controls of a nuclear facility, their management systems and operational procedures, and the human factors engineering, many benefits can be realized. This paper proposes an integration of these issues based on the application of systems theory. (author)

  20. Safety, reliability, risk management and human factors: an integrated engineering approach applied to nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Silva, Eliane Magalhaes Pereira da; Costa, Antonio Carlos Lopes da; Reis, Sergio Carneiro dos

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear energy has an important engineering legacy to share with the conventional industry. Much of the development of the tools related to safety, reliability, risk management, and human factors are associated with nuclear plant processes, mainly because the public concern about nuclear power generation. Despite the close association between these subjects, there are some important different approaches. The reliability engineering approach uses several techniques to minimize the component failures that cause the failure of the complex systems. These techniques include, for instance, redundancy, diversity, standby sparing, safety factors, and reliability centered maintenance. On the other hand system safety is primarily concerned with hazard management, that is, the identification, evaluation and control of hazards. Rather than just look at failure rates or engineering strengths, system safety would examine the interactions among system components. The events that cause accidents may be complex combinations of component failures, faulty maintenance, design errors, human actions, or actuation of instrumentation and control. Then, system safety deals with a broader spectrum of risk management, including: ergonomics, legal requirements, quality control, public acceptance, political considerations, and many other non-technical influences. Taking care of these subjects individually can compromise the completeness of the analysis and the measures associated with both risk reduction, and safety and reliability increasing. Analyzing together the engineering systems and controls of a nuclear facility, their management systems and operational procedures, and the human factors engineering, many benefits can be realized. This paper proposes an integration of these issues based on the application of systems theory. (author)

  1. The effect of growth factors on both collagen synthesis and tensile strength of engineered human ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerty, Paul; Lee, Ann; Calve, Sarah; Lee, Cassandra A; Vidal, Martin; Baar, Keith

    2012-09-01

    Growth factors play a central role in the development and remodelling of musculoskeletal tissues. To determine which growth factors optimized in vitro ligament formation and mechanics, a Box-Behnken designed array of varying concentrations of growth factors and ascorbic acid were applied to engineered ligaments and the collagen content and mechanics of the grafts were determined. Increasing the amount of transforming growth factor (TGF) β1 and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 led to an additive effect on ligament collagen and maximal tensile load (MTL). In contrast, epidermal growth factor (EGF) had a negative effect on both collagen content and MTL. The predicted optimal growth media (50 μg/ml TGFβ, IGF-1, and GDF-7 and 200 μM ascorbic acid) was then validated in two separate trials: showing a 5.7-fold greater MTL and 5.2-fold more collagen than a minimal media. Notably, the effect of the maximized growth media was scalable such that larger constructs developed the same material properties, but larger MTL. These results show that optimizing the interactions between growth factors and engineered ligament volume results in an engineered ligament of clinically relevant function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Factors Affecting the Behavior of Engineering Students toward Safety Practices in the Machine Shop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Kristian M. Neria

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the factors that affect the behavior of engineering student toward safety practices in the machine shop. Descriptive type of research was utilized in the study. Results showed that most of the engineering students clearly understand the signage shown in the machine shop. Students are aware that they should not leave the machines unattended. Most of the engineering students handle and use the machine properly. The respondents have an average extent of safety practices in the machine shop which means that they are applying safety practices in their every activity in machine shop. There is strong relationship between the safety practices and the factors affecting behavior in terms of signage, reminder of teacher and rules and regulation.

  3. An Investigation of Factors Related to Self-Efficacy for Java Programming among Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askar, Petek; Davenport, David

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the factors related to self-efficacy for Java programming among first year engineering students. An instrument assessing Java programming self-efficacy was developed from the computer programming self-efficacy scale of Ramalingam & Wiedenbeck. The instrument was administered at the beginning of the…

  4. Growth Factor Supplementation Improves Native and Engineered Meniscus Repair in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Lara C.; Lee, Gregory C.; Huang, Kevin L.; Mauck, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Few therapeutic options exist for meniscus repair after injury. Local delivery of growth factors may stimulate repair and create a favorable environment for engineered replacement materials. In this study, we assessed the effect of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) (a pro-mitotic agent) and transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGF-β3) (a pro-matrix formation agent) on meniscus repair and the integration/maturation of electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds for meniscus tissue engineering. Circular meniscus repair constructs were formed and refilled with either native tissue or scaffolds. Repair constructs were cultured in serum-containing media for 4 and 8 weeks with various growth factor formulations, and assessed for mechanical strength, biochemical content, and histological appearance. Results showed that either short-term delivery of bFGF or sustained delivery of TGF-β3 increased integration strength for both juvenile and adult bovine tissue, with similar findings for engineered materials. While TGF-β3 increased proteoglycan content in the explants, bFGF did not increase DNA content after 8 weeks. This work suggests that in vivo delivery of bFGF or TGF-β3 may stimulate meniscus repair, but that the time course of delivery will strongly influence success. Further, this study demonstrates that electrospun scaffolds are a promising material for meniscus tissue engineering, achieving comparable or superior integration compared to native tissue. PMID:22698946

  5. ENGINEERING AND ECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING THE INSTALLATION OF CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR MULTIPOLLUTANT STRATEGIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report evaluates the engineering and economic factors associated with installing air pollution control technologies to meet the requirements of strategies to control sulfur dioxide (SO2), oxides of nitrogen (NOX), and mercury under the Clear Skies Act multipollutant control s...

  6. Engineering the substrate and inhibitor specificities of human coagulation Factor VIIa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Katrine S; Østergaard, Henrik; Bjelke, Jais R

    2007-01-01

    The remarkably high specificity of the coagulation proteases towards macromolecular substrates is provided by numerous interactions involving the catalytic groove and remote exosites. For FVIIa [activated FVII (Factor VII)], the principal initiator of coagulation via the extrinsic pathway, several...... for FVIIa by marked changes in primary substrate specificity and decreased rates of antithrombin III inhibition. Interestingly, these changes do not necessarily coincide with an altered ability to activate Factor X, demonstrating that inhibitor and macromolecular substrate selectivity may be engineered...

  7. Enhancing the Human Factors Engineering Role in an Austere Fiscal Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Jack W.

    2003-01-01

    An austere fiscal environment in the aerospace community creates pressures to reduce program costs, often minimizing or sometimes even deleting the human interface requirements from the design process. With an assumption that the flight crew can recover real time from a poorly human factored space vehicle design, the classical crew interface requirements have been either not included in the design or not properly funded, though carried as requirements. Cost cuts have also affected quality of retained human factors engineering personnel. In response to this concern, planning is ongoing to correct the acting issues. Herein are techniques for ensuring that human interface requirements are integrated into a flight design, from proposal through verification and launch activation. This includes human factors requirements refinement and consolidation across flight programs; keyword phrases in the proposals; closer ties with systems engineering and other classical disciplines; early planning for crew-interface verification; and an Agency integrated human factors verification program, under the One NASA theme. Importance is given to communication within the aerospace human factors discipline, and utilizing the strengths of all government, industry, and academic human factors organizations in an unified research and engineering approach. A list of recommendations and concerns are provided in closing.

  8. Design engineer perceptions and attitudes regarding human factors application to nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, R.; Jones, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    With the renewed interest in nuclear power and the possibility of constructing new reactors within the next decade in the U.S., there are several challenges for the regulators, designers, and vendors. One challenge is to ensure that Human Factors Engineering (HFE) is involved, and correctly applied in the life-cycle design of the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). As an important part of the effort, people would ask: 'is the system-design engineer effectively incorporating HFE in the NPPs design?' The present study examines the sagacity of Instrumentation and Control design engineers on issues relating to awareness, attitude, and application of HFE in NPP design. A questionnaire was developed and distributed, focusing on the perceptions and attitudes of the design engineers. The responses revealed that, while the participants had a relatively high positive attitude about HFE, their awareness and application of HFE were moderate. The results also showed that senior engineers applied HFE more frequently in their design work than young engineers. This study provides some preliminary results and implications for improved HFE education and application in NPP design. (authors)

  9. Assessment of NPP safety taking into account seismic and engineering-geological factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakovlev, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    Consideration is given to the problem of probabilistic analysis of NPP safety with account of risk of destructive effect of earthquakes and the danger of accidental geological processes (diapirism, karst etc.) under NPP operation. It is shown that account of seismic and engineering-geological (engineering-seismological) risk factors in probabilistic analysis of safety enables to perform anticipatory analysis of behaviour of principle plant objects and to improve safety of their operation by revealing the most unstable elements of geotechnical system forming the main contribution to the total NPP risk

  10. Emission factors for gaseous and particulate pollutants from offshore diesel engine vessels in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Chen, Yingjun; Tian, Chongguo; Lou, Diming; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Matthias, Volker

    2016-05-01

    Shipping emissions have significant influence on atmospheric environment as well as human health, especially in coastal areas and the harbour districts. However, the contribution of shipping emissions on the environment in China still need to be clarified especially based on measurement data, with the large number ownership of vessels and the rapid developments of ports, international trade and shipbuilding industry. Pollutants in the gaseous phase (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, total volatile organic compounds) and particle phase (particulate matter, organic carbon, elemental carbon, sulfates, nitrate, ammonia, metals) in the exhaust from three different diesel-engine-powered offshore vessels in China (350, 600 and 1600 kW) were measured in this study. Concentrations, fuel-based and power-based emission factors for various operating modes as well as the impact of engine speed on emissions were determined. Observed concentrations and emission factors for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, total volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter were higher for the low-engine-power vessel (HH) than for the two higher-engine-power vessels (XYH and DFH); for instance, HH had NOx EF (emission factor) of 25.8 g kWh-1 compared to 7.14 and 6.97 g kWh-1 of DFH, and XYH, and PM EF of 2.09 g kWh-1 compared to 0.14 and 0.04 g kWh-1 of DFH, and XYH. Average emission factors for all pollutants except sulfur dioxide in the low-engine-power engineering vessel (HH) were significantly higher than that of the previous studies (such as 30.2 g kg-1 fuel of CO EF compared to 2.17 to 19.5 g kg-1 fuel in previous studies, 115 g kg-1 fuel of NOx EF compared to 22.3 to 87 g kg-1 fuel in previous studies and 9.40 g kg-1 fuel of PM EF compared to 1.2 to 7.6 g kg-1 fuel in previous studies), while for the two higher-engine-power vessels (DFH and XYH), most of the average emission factors for pollutants were comparable to the results of the previous studies, engine type was

  11. TAL effectors: highly adaptable phytobacterial virulence factors and readily engineered DNA targeting proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Erin L.; Stoddard, Barry L.; Voytas, Daniel F.; Bogdanove, Adam J.

    2013-01-01

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors are transcription factors injected into plant cells by pathogenic bacteria in the genus Xanthomonas. They function as virulence factors by activating host genes important for disease, or as avirulence factors by turning on genes that provide resistance. DNA binding specificity is encoded by polymorphic repeats in each protein that correspond one-to-one with different nucleotides. This code has facilitated target identification and opened new avenues for engineering disease resistance. It has also enabled TAL effector customization for targeted gene control, genome editing, and other applications. This article reviews the structural basis for TAL effector-DNA specificity, the impact of the TAL effector-DNA code on plant pathology and engineered resistance, and recent accomplishments and future challenges in TAL effector-based DNA targeting. PMID:23707478

  12. Inter-assembly gap deviations in VVER-1000: Accounting for effects on engineering margin factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishkov, Lev; Gorodkov, Sergey; Mikailov, Eldar; Sukhino-Khomenko, Evgenia [Nuclear Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    Jacketless fuel assemblies change their form in the course of operation. Often they bow lengthwise. Primarily, these fuel assembly (FA) bows threaten to reduce the control rods' fall rate, but at the same time they change (e.g. increase) the amount of moderator in inter-assembly gaps, thus producing additional power surges. Gap sizes vary randomly and their impact is accounted for with the help of engineering margin factors. For VVER-1000, this account of engineering margin factors increases the fuel component of electricity generation cost by 3 - 5 %, and a half of this increase is due to inter- assembly gap variations. This paper discusses the technique used to account for the impact produced by these gaps on fuel rod power; gives numerical values of sensitivity factors for power variations vs. gap sizes depending on the computational model assumed; and discusses the interference of gap effects and the account of power and coolant temperature feedbacks.

  13. Pengalokasian Tenaga Kerja dengan Human Factor Engineering di PT. Pelindo I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusnawati Yusnawati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia Port Corporation I (PT Pelabuhan Indonesia I (Persero or PT. Pelindo I is one of the Indonesian state-owned enterprises which manages port services in western Indonesia. Shipyard unit (Unit Galangan Kapal (UGK is a branch of PT. Pelindo I. At present, a problem arises if more than 2 ships are being repaired at once in the unit, UGK scheduling overlaps the repairing activities. In order to solve the problem, study of human factor is important. Human factor is the study of the limitations, capabilities, and human behavior, as well as its interaction with the product, environment, equipment and the establishment of tasks and activities. One part of the human factor is the human factor in system design. In order to improve the effectiveness of the system, the human factor must be involved in each phase of the design process in the system design. This includes a number of activities to obtain input specification work, therefore the working methods and the optimal amount of labor can be determined. Human factors engineering is the application of science that utilizes research on the human factor and use the basic knowledge to design, to repair and to install the system. This research method is causal, searching for the causes which led to delays in the completion of ship repairing. Through human factor engineering approach to the allocation of labor increased by 12.23 per cent of the actual conditions, so that the delay of ship repair were not found during normal conditions.

  14. Ambulatory Antibiotic Stewardship through a Human Factors Engineering Approach: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Sara C; Tamma, Pranita D; Cosgrove, Sara E; Miller, Melissa A; Sateia, Heather; Szymczak, Julie; Gurses, Ayse P; Linder, Jeffrey A

    2018-01-01

    In the United States, most antibiotics are prescribed in ambulatory settings. Human factors engineering, which explores interactions between people and the place where they work, has successfully improved quality of care. However, human factors engineering models have not been explored to frame what is known about ambulatory antibiotic stewardship (AS) interventions and barriers and facilitators to their implementation. We conducted a systematic review and searched OVID MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and CINAHL to identify controlled interventions and qualitative studies of ambulatory AS and determine whether and how they incorporated principles from a human factors engineering model, the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety 2.0 model. This model describes how a work system (ambulatory clinic) contributes to a process (antibiotic prescribing) that leads to outcomes. The work system consists of 5 components, tools and technology, organization, person, tasks, and environment, within an external environment. Of 1,288 abstracts initially identified, 42 quantitative studies and 17 qualitative studies met inclusion criteria. Effective interventions focused on tools and technology (eg, clinical decision support and point-of-care testing), the person (eg, clinician education), organization (eg, audit and feedback and academic detailing), tasks (eg, delayed antibiotic prescribing), the environment (eg, commitment posters), and the external environment (media campaigns). Studies have not focused on clinic-wide approaches to AS. A human factors engineering approach suggests that investigating the role of the clinic's processes or physical layout or external pressures' role in antibiotic prescribing may be a promising way to improve ambulatory AS. © Copyright 2018 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  15. Human Factors Engineering Incorporated into the Carolina Power and Light company's nuclear power plant control panel modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beith, D.M.; Shoemaker, E.M.; Horn, K.; Boush, D.

    1988-01-01

    Maintaining human factors conventions/practices that were established during the Detailed Control Design Review (DCRDR), is difficult if Human Factors Engineering (HFE) is not incorporated into the plant modification process. This paper presents the approach used at Carolina Power and Light's nuclear power plants that has successfully incorporated human factors engineering into their plant modification process. An HFE Design Guide or HFE Specification was developed which is used by the design engineers or plant engineering support groups in the preparation of plant modifications

  16. Draft audit report, human factors engineering control room design review: Saint Lucie Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, L.R.; Lappa, D.A.; Moore, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    A human factors engineering preliminary design review of the Saint Lucie Unit 2 control room was performed at the site on August 3 through August 7, 1981. This design review was carried out by a team from the Human Factors Engineering Branch, Division of Human Factors Safety. This report was prepared on the basis of the HFEB's review of the applicant's Preliminary Design Assessment and the human factors engineering design review/audit performed at the site. The review team included human factors consultants from BioTechnology, Inc., Falls Church, Virginia, and from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (University of California), Livermore, California

  17. Strategies to engineer tendon/ligament-to-bone interface: Biomaterials, cells and growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font Tellado, Sonia; Balmayor, Elizabeth R; Van Griensven, Martijn

    2015-11-01

    Integration between tendon/ligament and bone occurs through a specialized tissue interface called enthesis. The complex and heterogeneous structure of the enthesis is essential to ensure smooth mechanical stress transfer between bone and soft tissues. Following injury, the interface is not regenerated, resulting in high rupture recurrence rates. Tissue engineering is a promising strategy for the regeneration of a functional enthesis. However, the complex structural and cellular composition of the native interface makes enthesis tissue engineering particularly challenging. Thus, it is likely that a combination of biomaterials and cells stimulated with appropriate biochemical and mechanical cues will be needed. The objective of this review is to describe the current state-of-the-art, challenges and future directions in the field of enthesis tissue engineering focusing on four key parameters: (1) scaffold and biomaterials, (2) cells, (3) growth factors and (4) mechanical stimuli. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics Analysis for the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Results and Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GARVIN, L.J.

    1999-09-20

    The purpose for this supplemental report is to follow-up and update the information in SNF-3907, Human Factors Engineering (HFE) Analysis: Results and Findings. This supplemental report responds to applicable U.S. Department of Energy Safety Analysis Report review team comments and questions. This Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics (HFE/Erg) analysis was conducted from April 1999 to July 1999; SNF-3907 was based on analyses accomplished in October 1998. The HFE/Erg findings presented in this report and SNF-3907, along with the results of HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project, Final Safety Analysis Report, Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report,'' Chapter A3.0, ''Hazards and Accidents Analyses,'' provide the technical basis for preparing or updating HNF-3553. Annex A, Chaptex A13.0, ''Human Factors Engineering.'' The findings presented in this report allow the HNF-3553 Chapter 13.0, ''Human Factors,'' to respond fully to the HFE requirements established in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  19. Tissue-engineered cartilage: the crossroads of biomaterials, cells and stimulating factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Nandana; Devi, Dipali; Mandal, Biman B

    2015-02-01

    Damage to cartilage represents one of the most challenging tasks of musculoskeletal therapeutics due to its limited propensity for healing and regenerative capabilities. Lack of current treatments to restore cartilage tissue function has prompted research in this rapidly emerging field of tissue regeneration of functional cartilage tissue substitutes. The development of cartilaginous tissue largely depends on the combination of appropriate biomaterials, cell source, and stimulating factors. Over the years, various biomaterials have been utilized for cartilage repair, but outcomes are far from achieving native cartilage architecture and function. This highlights the need for exploration of suitable biomaterials and stimulating factors for cartilage regeneration. With these perspectives, we aim to present an overview of cartilage tissue engineering with recent progress, development, and major steps taken toward the generation of functional cartilage tissue. In this review, we have discussed the advances and problems in tissue engineering of cartilage with strong emphasis on the utilization of natural polymeric biomaterials, various cell sources, and stimulating factors such as biophysical stimuli, mechanical stimuli, dynamic culture, and growth factors used so far in cartilage regeneration. Finally, we have focused on clinical trials, recent innovations, and future prospects related to cartilage engineering. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics Analysis for the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Results and Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GARVIN, L.J.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose for this supplemental report is to follow-up and update the information in SNF-3907, Human Factors Engineering (HFE) Analysis: Results and Findings. This supplemental report responds to applicable U.S. Department of Energy Safety Analysis Report review team comments and questions. This Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics (HFE/Erg) analysis was conducted from April 1999 to July 1999; SNF-3907 was based on analyses accomplished in October 1998. The HFE/Erg findings presented in this report and SNF-3907, along with the results of HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project, Final Safety Analysis Report. Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report,'' Chapter A3.0, ''Hazards and Accidents Analyses,'' provide the technical basis for preparing or updating HNF-3553, Annex A, Chapter A13.0, ''Human Factors Engineering.'' The findings presented in this report allow the HNF-3553 Chapter 13.0, ''Human Factors,'' to respond fully to the HFE requirements established in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports

  1. Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics Analysis for the Canister Storage Building (CSB): Results and Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GARVIN, L.J.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose for this supplemental report is to follow-up and update the information in SNF-3907, Human Factors Engineering (HFE) Analysis: Results and Findings. This supplemental report responds to applicable U.S. Department of Energy Safety Analysis Report review team comments and questions. This Human Factors Engineering and Ergonomics (HFE/Erg) analysis was conducted from April 1999 to July 1999; SNF-3907 was based on analyses accomplished in October 1998. The HFE/Erg findings presented in this report and SNF-3907, along with the results of HNF-3553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project, Final Safety Analysis Report, Annex A, ''Canister Storage Building Final Safety Analysis Report,'' Chapter A3.0, ''Hazards and Accidents Analyses,'' provide the technical basis for preparing or updating HNF-3553. Annex A, Chaptex A13.0, ''Human Factors Engineering.'' The findings presented in this report allow the HNF-3553 Chapter 13.0, ''Human Factors,'' to respond fully to the HFE requirements established in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports

  2. NOx emission calculations for bulk carriers by using engine power probabilities as weighting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chih-Wen; Hua, Jian; Hwang, Daw-Shang

    2017-10-01

    An important marine pollution issue identified by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) is NO x emissions; however, the stipulated method for determining the NO x certification value does not reflect the actual high emission factors of slow-speed two-stroke diesel engines over long-term slow steaming. In this study, an accurate method is presented for calculating the NO x emission factors and total amount of NO x emissions by using the actual power probabilities of the diesel engines in four types of bulk carriers. The proposed method is suitable for all types and purposes of diesel engines, is not restricted to any operating modes, and is highly accurate. Moreover, it is recommended that the IMO-stipulated certification value calculation method be modified accordingly to genuinely reduce the amount of NO x emissions. The successful achievement of this level of reduction will help improve the air quality, especially in coastal and port areas, and the health of local residents. As per the IMO, the NO x emission certification value of marine diesel engines having a rated power over 130 kW must be obtained using specified weighting factor (WF)-based calculation. However, this calculation fails to represent the current actual situation. Effective emission reductions of 6.91% (at sea) and 31.9% (in ports) were achieved using a mathematical model of power probability functions. Thus, we strongly recommend amending the certification value of NO x Technical Code 2008 (NTC 2008) by removing the WF constraints, such that the NO x emissions of diesel engines is lower than the Tier-limits at any load level to obtain genuine NO x emission reductions.

  3. Two-vehicle injury severity models based on integration of pavement management and traffic engineering factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ximiao; Huang, Baoshan; Yan, Xuedong; Zaretzki, Russell L; Richards, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The severity of traffic-related injuries has been studied by many researchers in recent decades. However, the evaluation of many factors is still in dispute and, until this point, few studies have taken into account pavement management factors as points of interest. The objective of this article is to evaluate the combined influences of pavement management factors and traditional traffic engineering factors on the injury severity of 2-vehicle crashes. This study examines 2-vehicle rear-end, sideswipe, and angle collisions that occurred on Tennessee state routes from 2004 to 2008. Both the traditional ordered probit (OP) model and Bayesian ordered probit (BOP) model with weak informative prior were fitted for each collision type. The performances of these models were evaluated based on the parameter estimates and deviances. The results indicated that pavement management factors played identical roles in all 3 collision types. Pavement serviceability produces significant positive effects on the severity of injuries. The pavement distress index (PDI), rutting depth (RD), and rutting depth difference between right and left wheels (RD_df) were not significant in any of these 3 collision types. The effects of traffic engineering factors varied across collision types, except that a few were consistently significant in all 3 collision types, such as annual average daily traffic (AADT), rural-urban location, speed limit, peaking hour, and light condition. The findings of this study indicated that improved pavement quality does not necessarily lessen the severity of injuries when a 2-vehicle crash occurs. The effects of traffic engineering factors are not universal but vary by the type of crash. The study also found that the BOP model with a weak informative prior can be used as an alternative but was not superior to the traditional OP model in terms of overall performance.

  4. Human factors engineering design review acceptance criteria for the safety parameter display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGevna, V.; Peterson, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    This report contains human factors engineering design review acceptance criteria developed by the Human Factors Engineering Branch (HFEB) of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to use in evaluating designs of the Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS). These criteria were developed in response to the functional design criteria for the SPDS defined in NUREG-0696, Functional Criteria for Emergency Response Facilities. The purpose of this report is to identify design review acceptance criteria for the SPDS installed in the control room of a nuclear power plant. Use of computer driven cathode ray tube (CRT) displays is anticipated. General acceptance criteria for displays of plant safety status information by the SPDS are developed. In addition, specific SPDS review criteria corresponding to the SPDS functional criteria specified in NUREG-0696 are established

  5. Critical review on the physical and mechanical factors involved in tissue engineering of cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaut, Carrie; Sugaya, Kiminobu

    2015-01-01

    Articular cartilage defects often progress to osteoarthritis, which negatively impacts quality of life for millions of people worldwide and leads to high healthcare expenditures. Tissue engineering approaches to osteoarthritis have concentrated on proliferation and differentiation of stem cells by activation and suppression of signaling pathways, and by using a variety of scaffolding techniques. Recent studies indicate a key role of environmental factors in the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells to mature cartilage-producing chondrocytes. Therapeutic approaches that consider environmental regulation could optimize chondrogenesis protocols for regeneration of articular cartilage. This review focuses on the effect of scaffold structure and composition, mechanical stress and hypoxia in modulating mesenchymal stem cell fate and the current use of these environmental factors in tissue engineering research.

  6. Annuity factors, duration and convexity : insights from a financial engineering perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ekern, Steinar

    1998-01-01

    This paper applies a unified and integrative financial engineering perspective to key derived concepts in traditional fixed income analysis, with the purpose of enhancing conceptual insights and motivating computational applications. The emphasis on annuity factors and their impact on duration and convexity differs from the focus prevailing in related discussions. By decomposing the cashflow streams of a coupon bond into different, specific, and clearly defined portfolios of component bonds w...

  7. Computer Vision Syndrome and Associated Factors Among Medical and Engineering Students in Chennai

    OpenAIRE

    Logaraj, M; Madhupriya, V; Hegde, SK

    2014-01-01

    Background: Almost all institutions, colleges, universities and homes today were using computer regularly. Very little research has been carried out on Indian users especially among college students the effects of computer use on the eye and vision related problems. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of computer vision syndrome (CVS) among medical and engineering students and the factors associated with the same. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted...

  8. Factors affecting the development of sprays produced by multihole injectors for direct-injection engine applications

    OpenAIRE

    Van Romunde, R. Z.

    2011-01-01

    The spray form development from a state of the art multi-hole injector for gasoline direct injection internal combustion engines is examined to attempt to determine the thermo-fluid dynamics affecting the spray development. The current state of knowledge regarding spray break-up and the interactivity of the factors on spray form are detailed. The spray under investigation was injected into purposely designed quiescent chambers to decouple the effects of the fluid mechanics on s...

  9. EDF EPR project: operating principles validation and human factor engineering program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefebvre, B.; Berard, E.; Arpino, J.-M.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the specificities of the operating principles chosen by EDF for the EPR project as a result of an extensive Human Factor Engineering program successfully implemented in an industrial project context. The design process and its achievements benefit of the EDF experience feedback not only in term of NPP operation - including the fully computerized control room of the N4-serie - but also in term of NPP designer. The elements exposed hereafter correspond to the basic design phase of EPR HMI which has been completed and successfully validated by the end of 2003. The article aims to remind the context of the project which basically consists in designing a modern and efficient HMI taking into account the operating needs while relying on proven and reliable technologies. The Human Factor Engineering program implemented merges these both aspects by : 1) being fully integrated within the project activities and scheduling; 2) efficiently taking into account the users needs as well as the feasibility constraints by relying on a multidisciplinary design team including HF specialists, I and C specialists, Process specialists and experienced operator representatives. The resulting design process makes a wide use of experience feedback and experienced operator knowledge to complete largely the existing standards for providing a fully useable and successful design method in an industrial context. The article underlines the design process highlights that largely contribute to the successful implementation of a Human Factor Engineering program for EPR. (authors)

  10. Identification of advanced human factors engineering analysis, design and evaluation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plott, C.; Ronan, A. M.; Laux, L.; Bzostek, J.; Milanski, J.; Scheff, S.

    2006-01-01

    NUREG-0711 Rev.2, 'Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model,' provides comprehensive guidance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in assessing the human factors practices employed by license applicants for Nuclear Power Plant control room designs. As software based human-system interface (HSI) technologies supplant traditional hardware-based technologies, the NRC may encounter new HSI technologies or seemingly unconventional approaches to human factors design, analysis, and evaluation methods which NUREG-0711 does not anticipate. A comprehensive survey was performed to identify advanced human factors engineering analysis, design and evaluation methods, tools, and technologies that the NRC may encounter in near term future licensee applications. A review was conducted to identify human factors methods, tools, and technologies relevant to each review element of NUREG-0711. Additionally emerging trends in technology which have the potential to impact review elements, such as Augmented Cognition, and various wireless tools and technologies were identified. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the survey results and to highlight issues that could be revised or adapted to meet with emerging trends. (authors)

  11. Survey of control-room design practices with respect to human factors engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.; Parsons, S.O.

    1980-01-01

    Human factors engineering is an interdisciplinary speciality concerned with influencing the design of equipment systems, facilities, and operational environments to promote safe, efficient, and reliable operator performance. This emphasis has been applied to most military and space systems in the past 30 y. A review of five nuclear power-plant control rooms, reported in the November-December 1977 issue of Nuclear Safety, revealed that human factors principles of design have generally not been incorporated in present-generation control rooms. This article summarizes the findings of a survey of 20 control-board designers from a mix of nuclear steam-supply system and architect-engineering firms. The interviews with these designers probed design methods currently used in developing control rooms. From these data it was concluded that there is currently no consistent, formal, uniform concern for the human factors aspects of control-room design on the part of the design organizations, the utilities, or the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Although all the parties involved are concerned with human factors issues, this responsibility is not focused, and human factors yardsticks, or design standards, specific to power plants have not been evolved and applied in the development and verification of control-room designs from the standpoint of the man-machine interface

  12. Application of chitosan scaffolds on vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor 2 expressions in tissue engineering principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariyati Retno Pratiwi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tissue engineering has given satisfactory results as biological tissue substitutes to restore, replace, or regenerate tissues that have a defect. Chitosan is an organic biomaterial often used in the biomedical field. Chitosan has biocompatible, antifungal, and antibacterial properties. Chitosan is osteoconductive, suitable for bone regeneration applications. Bone defect healing begins with inflammatory phase as a response to the presence of vascular injury, so new vascularization is required. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and basic fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2 are indicators of the beginning of bone regeneration process, playing an important role in angiogenesis. Purpose: This research was aimed to determine the effects of chitosan scaffold application on the expressions of VEGF and FGF2 in tissue engineering principles. Method: Chitosan was dissolved in CH3COOH and NaOH to form a gel. Chitosan gel was then printed in mould to freeze dry for 24 hours. Those rats with defected bones were divided into two groups. Group 1 was the control group which defected bones were not administrated with chitosan scaffolds. Group 2 was the treatment group which defected bones were administrated with chitosan scaffolds. Those rats were sacrificed on day 14. Tissue preparations were made, and then immunohistochemical staining was conducted. Finally, a statistical analysis was conducted using Kruskal Wallis test. Result: There was no significant difference in the expressions of VEGF and FGF2 between the control group and the treatment group (p>0.05. Conclusion: Chitosan scaffolds do not affect the expressions of VEGF and FGF2 during bone regeneration process on day 14 in tissue engineering principles

  13. Cartilage tissue engineering: Role of mesenchymal stem cells along with growth factors & scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M B Gugjoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage injury poses a major challenge for both the patient and orthopaedician. Articular cartilage defects once formed do not regenerate spontaneously, rather replaced by fibrocartilage which is weaker in mechanical competence than the normal hyaline cartilage. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs along with different growth factors and scaffolds are currently incorporated in tissue engineering to overcome the deficiencies associated with currently available surgical methods and to facilitate cartilage healing. MSCs, being readily available with a potential to differentiate into chondrocytes which are enhanced by the application of different growth factors, are considered for effective repair of articular cartilage after injury. However, therapeutic application of MSCs and growth factors for cartilage repair remains in its infancy, with no comparative clinical study to that of the other surgical techniques. The present review covers the role of MSCs, growth factors and scaffolds for the repair of articular cartilage injury.

  14. Aircraft Maintenance Engineering: Factors Impacting Airlines E-Maintenance Technologies, Authoring and Illustrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayianes, Frank

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate factors influencing acceptance and use of technologies in the field of aircraft maintenance authoring, graphics, and documentation. Maintenance engineering authors convert complex engineering used in aircraft production and transform that data using technology (tools) into usable technical publications data. While the current literature includes a large volume of research in technology acceptance in various domains of industry and business, the problem is that no such studies exist with respect to the aircraft maintenance engineering authoring, allowing any number of tools to be used and acceptance to be unsure. The study was based on theoretical approaches of the Technology Acceptance Model and the associated hypothesis related to eight research questions. A survey questionnaire was developed for data collection from a selected population of aircraft maintenance engineering authors. Data collected from 148 responses were exposed to a range of statistical methods and analyses. Analysis of data were performed within the structural equation model using exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and a range of regression methods. The analyses generally provided results consistent with prior literature. Two survey questions yielded unexpected results contrary to similar studies. The relationship between prior experience and job level did not show a significant relationship with perceived usefulness or perceived ease of use. Other results included the significant relationship between Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Ease of Use with Technology acceptance. Recommendations include understanding how Technology Acceptance can be improved for the industry and the need for further research not covered to refine recommendations for technology acceptance related to the aviation industry.

  15. Tools for Developing a Quality Management Program: Human Factors and Systems Engineering Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, Barrett S.

    2008-01-01

    During the past 10 years, there has been growing acceptance and encouragement of partnerships between medical teams and engineers. Using human factors and systems engineering descriptions of process flows and operational sequences, the author's research laboratory has helped highlight opportunities for reducing adverse events and improving performance in health care and other high-consequence environments. This research emphasized studying human behavior that enhances system performance and a range of factors affecting adverse events, rather than a sole emphasis on human error causation. Developing a balanced evaluation requires novel approaches to causal analyses of adverse events and, more importantly, methods of recovery from adverse conditions. Recent work by the author's laboratory in collaboration with the Regenstrief Center for Healthcare Engineering has started to address possible improvements in taxonomies describing health care tasks. One major finding includes enhanced understanding of events and how event dynamics influence provider tasks and constraints. Another element of this research examines team coordination tasks that strongly affect patient care and quality management, but may be undervalued as 'indirect patient care' activities

  16. Extracellular matrix and growth factor engineering for controlled angiogenesis in regenerative medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikaël M Martino

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Blood vessel growth plays a key role in regenerative medicine, both to restore blood supply to ischemic tissues and to ensure rapid vascularization of clinical-size tissue-engineered grafts. For example, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is the master regulator of physiological blood vessel growth and is one of the main molecular targets of therapeutic angiogenesis approaches. However, angiogenesis is a complex process and there is a need to develop rational therapeutic strategies based on a firm understanding of basic vascular biology principles, as evidenced by the disappointing results of initial clinical trials of angiogenic factor delivery. In particular, the spatial localization of angiogenic signals in the extracellular matrix is crucial to ensure the proper assembly and maturation of new vascular structures. Here we discuss the therapeutic implications of matrix interactions of angiogenic factors, with a special emphasis on VEGF, as well as provide an overview of current approaches, based on protein and biomaterial engineering that mimic the regulatory functions of extracellular matrix to optimize the signaling microenvironment of vascular growth factors.

  17. Engineering factors influencing Corbicula fouling in nuclear-service water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henager, C.H.; Johnson, K.I.; Page, T.L.

    1983-06-01

    Corbicula fouling is a continuing problem in nuclear-service water systems. More knowledge of biological and engineering factors is needed to develop effective detection and control methods. A data base on Corbicula fouling was compiled from nuclear and non-nuclear power stations and industries using raw water. This data base was used in an analysis to identify systems and components which are conducive to fouling by Corbicula. Bounds on several engineering parameters such as velocity and temperature which support Corbicula growth are given. Service water systems found in BWR and PWR reactors are listed and those that show fouling are identified. Possible safety implications of Corbicula fouling are discussed for specific service water systems. Several effective control methods in current use include backflushing with heated water, centrifugal strainers, and continuous chlorination during spawning seasons

  18. Enrolling in Science and Engineering Academic Programs—Motivating and Deterring Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomazan, Valentina; Mihalaşcu, Doina; Petcu, Lucian C.; Gîrtu, Mihai A.

    2010-01-01

    We report the results of the student responses to a survey aiming to determine the factors influencing the young generation in choosing a career in science and technology. The goal of the study is twofold: to identify the motives that determine students to enroll in university programs in science and technology and to engage in applied science and engineering careers and to discover the barriers that manifest at different age levels, preventing students from making such choices. The study was conducted at the Ovidius University and the "Energetic" Technical High School, both in Constanta, Romania, with samples of 257 and 106 students respectively, based on a 38 item online questionnaire. The samples selected from the student population allow for a wide range of analyses with respect to gender, family and educational background, field of study, etc. We discuss the role of the raw models, parents, educators, and we comment on ways to increase student enrollment in science and engineering.

  19. Load and resistance factor design calibration to determine a resistance factor for the modification of the Kansas Department of Transportation-Engineering News Record formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This report contains the results of a study describing the development of resistance factors for use : with the Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) Engineering News Record (ENR) formula for driven : piles. KDOT has verified driven pile resista...

  20. Tissue engineering of bladder using vascular endothelial growth factor gene-modified endothelial progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bai-Song; Xie, Hua; Zhang, Sheng-Li; Geng, Hong-Quan; Zhou, Jun-Mei; Pan, Jun; Chen, Fang

    2011-12-01

    This study assessed the use of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene-modified endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) seeded onto bladder acellular matrix grafts (BAMGs), to enhance the blood supply in tissue-engineered bladders in a porcine model. Autologous porcine peripheral EPCs were isolated, cultured, expanded, characterized, and modified with the VEGF gene using an adenovirus vector. The expression of VEGF was examined using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). VEGF gene modified EPCs were seeded onto BAMG and cultured for 3 days before implantation into pigs for bladder tissue engineering. A partial bladder cystectomy was performed in 12 pigs. The experimental group (6 pigs) received VEGF gene-modified EPC-seeded BAMG. The control group (6 pigs) received BAMG without seeded EPCs. The resulting tissue-engineered bladders were subject to a general and histological analysis. Microvessel density (MVD) was assessed using immunohistochemistry. The ex vivo transfection efficiency of EPCs was greater than 60%-70% when concentrated adenovirus was used. The genetically modified cells expressed both VEGF and green fluorescent protein (GFP). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Masson's trichrome staining of cross sections of the cultured cells seeded to BAMG showed cell attachment and proliferation on the surface of the BAMG. Histological examination revealed bladder regeneration in a time-dependent fashion. Significant increases in MVD were observed in the experimental group, in comparison with the control group. VEGF-modified EPCs significantly enhanced neovascularization, compared with BAMG alone. These results indicate that EPCs, combined with VEGF gene therapy, may be a suitable approach for increasing blood supply in the tissue engineering of bladders. Thus, a useful strategy to achieve a tissue-engineered bladder is indicated.

  1. Exploration of Factors Affecting Success of Undergraduate Engineering Majors at a Historically Black University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbinoba, Egheosa P.

    Blacks are underrepresented amongst persons who earn college degrees in the United States and Black males attend and complete college at a lower rate than Black females (Toldson, Fry Brown, & Sutton, 2009). According to Toldson et al. (2009), this quandary may be attributed to Black males' apathy toward education in general, waning support and ideological challenges toward Pell Grants and affirmative action, cultural incompetency on the part of the 90% White, ethnic makeup of the U.S. teaching force, and the relatively high numbers of Black males who are held back in school. In spite of the dismal statistics regarding Black male academic achievement and matriculation, there are those Black males who do participate in postsecondary education. While many studies have highlighted reasons that Black males do not achieve success in attending and persisting through college, few have adopted the anti-deficit research framework suggested by Harper (2010), identifying reasons Black males do persist in higher education. Although science, technology, engineering, and mathematics careers are identified as those most imperative to the economic competitiveness of the United States, few studies have concentrated solely on engineering majors and fewer, if any, solely on Black male engineering majors at an historically Black college and university. The aim of this study was to address an apparent gap in the literature and invoke theories for recruitment, retention, and success of Black males in engineering degree programs by employing an anti-deficit achievement framework for research of students of color in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Data garnered from the study included insight into participants' definitions of success, precollege experiences, factors contributing to the persistence during undergraduate study, and perceptions of attending a historically Black college and university versus a primarily White institution.

  2. Mathematical Model of Growth Factor Driven Haptotaxis and Proliferation in a Tissue Engineering Scaffold

    KAUST Repository

    Pohlmeyer, J. V.

    2013-01-29

    Motivated by experimental work (Miller et al. in Biomaterials 27(10):2213-2221, 2006, 32(11):2775-2785, 2011) we investigate the effect of growth factor driven haptotaxis and proliferation in a perfusion tissue engineering bioreactor, in which nutrient-rich culture medium is perfused through a 2D porous scaffold impregnated with growth factor and seeded with cells. We model these processes on the timescale of cell proliferation, which typically is of the order of days. While a quantitative representation of these phenomena requires more experimental data than is yet available, qualitative agreement with preliminary experimental studies (Miller et al. in Biomaterials 27(10):2213-2221, 2006) is obtained, and appears promising. The ultimate goal of such modeling is to ascertain initial conditions (growth factor distribution, initial cell seeding, etc.) that will lead to a final desired outcome. © 2013 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  3. Use of fibroblast growth factor 2 for expansion of chondrocytes and tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana (Inventor); Martin, Ivan (Inventor); Freed, Lisa E. (Inventor); Langer, Robert (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides an improved method for expanding cells for use in tissue engineering. In particular the method provides specific biochemical factors to supplement cell culture medium during the expansion process in order to reproduce events occurring during embryonic development with the goal of regenerating tissue equivalents that resemble natural tissues both structurally and functionally. These specific biochemical factors improve proliferation of the cells and are capable of de-differentiation mature cells isolated from tissue so that the differentiation potential of the cells is preserved. The bioactive molecules also maintain the responsiveness of the cells to other bioactive molecules. Specifically, the invention provides methods for expanding chondrocytes in the presence of fibroblast growth factor 2 for use in regeneration of cartilage tissue.

  4. Spent nuclear fuel project, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility human factors engineering (HFE) analysis: Results and findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garvin, L.J.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the background, methodology, and findings of a human factors engineering (HFE) analysis performed in May, 1998, of the Spent Nuclear Fuels (SNF) Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF), to support its Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR), in responding to the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23 (DOE 1992a) and drafted to DOE-STD-3009-94 format. This HFE analysis focused on general environment, physical and computer workstations, and handling devices involved in or directly supporting the technical operations of the facility. This report makes no attempt to interpret or evaluate the safety significance of the HFE analysis findings. The HFE findings presented in this report, along with the results of the CVDF PSAR Chapter 3, Hazards and Accident Analyses, provide the technical basis for preparing the CVDF PSAR Chapter 13, Human Factors Engineering, including interpretation and disposition of findings. The findings presented in this report allow the PSAR Chapter 13 to fully respond to HFE requirements established in DOE Order 5480.23. DOE 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports, Section 8b(3)(n) and Attachment 1, Section-M, require that HFE be analyzed in the PSAR for the adequacy of the current design and planned construction for internal and external communications, operational aids, instrumentation and controls, environmental factors such as heat, light, and noise and that an assessment of human performance under abnormal and emergency conditions be performed (DOE 1992a)

  5. Human factors engineering applications to the cask design activities of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake, W.H.; Peck, M. III

    1993-01-01

    The use of human factors engineering (HFE) in the design and use of spent fuel casks being developed for the Department of Energy's Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is addressed. The safety functions of cask systems are presented as background for HFE considerations. Because spent fuel casks are passive safety devices they could be subject to latent system failures due to human error. It is concluded that HFE should focus on operations and verifications tests, but should begin, to the extent possible, at the beginning of cask design. Use of HFE during design could serve to eliminate or preclude opportunity for human error

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING GUIDANCE FOR SAFETY EVALUATIONS OF ADVANCED REACTORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'HARA, J.; PERSENSKY, J.; SZABO, A.

    2006-01-01

    Advanced reactors are expected to be based on a concept of operations that is different from what is currently used in today's reactors. Therefore, regulatory staff may need new tools, developed from the best available technical bases, to support licensing evaluations. The areas in which new review guidance may be needed and the efforts underway to address the needs will be discussed. Our preliminary results focus on some of the technical issues to be addressed in three areas for which new guidance may be developed: automation and control, operations under degraded conditions, and new human factors engineering methods and tools

  7. Human factors engineering applications in the testing of the legal weight truck cask transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.C.; Peck, M. III; Sealock, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) will collect performance data to be used in limited human factors engineering analysis of the light weight tractor as a component of the legal weight truck cask transport system. The Management and Operating contractor will provide an analysis and comparison of limited data on driver behavior and subjective driver evaluations of the light weight tractor performance versus that of a heavier baseline tractor. A significant difference in performance data would suggest that given tractor configurations affect driver behavior differently

  8. Methods for Engineering Enterprise Management Based on the Inter-factor Productive-Economic Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Naydis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the current state of engineering enterprises in the Russian Federation. It conducts a review and analysis of existing methods for business management using indicators to characterize enterprise activities by means of the scalars, functional dependencies of one factor value on the other (function one, wherein the magnitude of one factor value corresponds to a single magnitude of the other value - a dependent factor, as well as by means of data tables, and, as an example, by balance list and articulation statement used in accounting. The paper gives statements of need for taking into account the mutual influences and system interrelation of factors diversity and for special methods of their identification. The article is aimed at development of methods for business management of engineering enterprises taking into account a variety of factors and their interdependencies. The relevance of the issue stems from the fact that the analysis of existing methods of business management has shown that it is impossible to have the requested information about a considerable number of productive-economic factors in their system-based interrelation. There is a proposal for the management objects wherein multiple factors and their interactions are taken into consideration to be called inter-factor productive-economic relations (IPER. The paper presents the IPER-based structure of the business management system. It describes a method to identify controlled productive-economic factors and provides allocation and justification of the significant ones for the IPER control. Described methods of business management are distinguished by a large amount of control information, and data form rather complex structures. Therefore, it is proposed to use them in automatic control systems. The paper describes principles of information support for business management through binding IPER to organizational structures of the enterprise. It offers an

  9. Factors that facilitate or inhibit interest of domestic students in the engineering PhD: A mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell Smith, Michelle C.

    Given the increasing complexity of technology in our society, the United States has a growing demand for a more highly educated technical workforce. Unfortunately, the proportion of United States citizens earning a PhD in engineering has been declining and there is concern about meeting the economic, national security and quality of life needs of our country. This mixed methods sequential exploratory instrument design study identified factors that facilitate or inhibit interest in engineering PhD programs among domestic engineering undergraduate students in the United States. This study developed a testable theory for how domestic students become interested in engineering PhD programs and a measure of that process, the Exploring Engineering Interest Inventory (EEII). The study was conducted in four phases. The first phase of the study was a qualitative grounded theory exploration of interest in the engineering PhD. Qualitative data were collected from domestic engineering students, engineering faculty and industry professional who had earned a PhD in engineering. The second phase, instrument development, developed the Exploring Engineering Interest Inventory (EEII), a measurement instrument designed with good psychometric properties to test a series of preliminary hypotheses related to the theory generated in the qualitative phase. In the third phase of the study, the EEII was used to collect data from a larger sample of junior and senior engineering majors. The fourth phase integrated the findings from the qualitative and quantitative phases. Four factors were identified as being significant influences of interest in the engineering PhD: Personal characteristics, educational environment, misperceptions of the economic and personal costs, and misperceptions of engineering work. Recommendations include increasing faculty encouragement of students to pursue an engineering PhD and programming to correct the misperceptions of the costs of the engineering PhD and the

  10. TEACHERS' PERSPECTIVE ABOUT FACTORS THAT PREVENT SUCCESS IN TEACHING AND LEARNING PROCESS IN HIGHER EDUCATION OF ENGINEERING IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Nolasco de Almeida Mello

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The last fifteen years, in Brazil, the number of engineering freshmen had a huge increased and, although the number of graduated also had increased over the same period, the percentage of engineering freshmen are by far higher than engineers graduated. In this context, there is a clear evidence of the high dropout rate in higher education courses of engineering in Brazil. Once most of developed researches about engineering courses dropout in Brazil are focused in the students and institutions point of view about factors that affect dropout rate, in this research it was investigated the professors perspective to answer the three questions: (1 What are the main factors which prevent success in teaching and learning process identified by professors of engineering during the classes? (2 How can professors to improve the teaching and learning process in higher education courses of engineering in Brazil? (3 How can Higher Education Institutions (HEI support the professors? The research data were collected through team activities developed with 134 professors of higher education courses of engineering. This research reveals that the most important factors that affect negatively the teaching and learning process are related to inadequate high school preparation and behaviour of students. Main suggestions of professors for improving the teaching and learning process and also students' motivation are related to pedagogical aspects such as: use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs as support of classes and implementation of professor and student support programs with significant participation of HEI.

  11. Computer vision syndrome and associated factors among medical and engineering students in chennai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logaraj, M; Madhupriya, V; Hegde, Sk

    2014-03-01

    Almost all institutions, colleges, universities and homes today were using computer regularly. Very little research has been carried out on Indian users especially among college students the effects of computer use on the eye and vision related problems. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of computer vision syndrome (CVS) among medical and engineering students and the factors associated with the same. A cross-sectional study was conducted among medical and engineering college students of a University situated in the suburban area of Chennai. Students who used computer in the month preceding the date of study were included in the study. The participants were surveyed using pre-tested structured questionnaire. Among engineering students, the prevalence of CVS was found to be 81.9% (176/215) while among medical students; it was found to be 78.6% (158/201). A significantly higher proportion of engineering students 40.9% (88/215) used computers for 4-6 h/day as compared to medical students 10% (20/201) (P medical students. Students who used computer for 4-6 h were at significantly higher risk of developing redness (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.0-3.1,P = 0.04), burning sensation (OR = 2.1,95% CI = 1.3-3.1, P computer for less than 4 h. Significant correlation was found between increased hours of computer use and the symptoms redness, burning sensation, blurred vision and dry eyes. The present study revealed that more than three-fourth of the students complained of any one of the symptoms of CVS while working on the computer.

  12. Introduction of Human Factors Engineering Program Plan of a Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Tong Il; Lee, Hyun Chul

    2011-01-01

    KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has a contract with Jordan to export a research and training reactor. KAERI is performing the project as an SD (System Design) and the design work has been performing by 8 design teams which include an Instrumentation and Control (I and C). A design of the MCR (Main Control Room) and the SCR (Supplementary Control Room) is being developed by the HFE design team which is a part of the I and C team. For the control room design considering the human factors principles, the HFE design team developed an HFEPP (Human Factors Engineering Program Plan) which should be established to meet regulatory requirements. In this study, the HFEPP for the JRTR (Jordan Research and Training Reactor) is introduced and the details are described

  13. Pharmacokinetics of natural and engineered secreted factors delivered by mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica S Elman

    Full Text Available Transient cell therapy is an emerging drug class that requires new approaches for pharmacological monitoring during use. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are a clinically-tested transient cell therapeutic that naturally secrete anti-inflammatory factors to attenuate immune-mediated diseases. MSCs were used as a proof-of-concept with the hypothesis that measuring the release of secreted factors after cell transplantation, rather than the biodistribution of the cells alone, would be an alternative monitoring tool to understand the exposure of a subject to MSCs. By comparing cellular engraftment and the associated serum concentration of secreted factors released from the graft, we observed clear differences between the pharmacokinetics of MSCs and their secreted factors. Exploration of the effects of natural or engineered secreted proteins, active cellular secretion pathways, and clearance mechanisms revealed novel aspects that affect the systemic exposure of the host to secreted factors from a cellular therapeutic. We assert that a combined consideration of cell delivery strategies and molecular pharmacokinetics can provide a more predictive model for outcomes of MSC transplantation and potentially other transient cell therapeutics.

  14. Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Systems Engineering Training and Education in the Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-30

    learning. Recommendations are also presented for additional research into a more effective systems engineering andragogy . 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16...into a more effective systems engineering andragogy . Purpose Competency-based training for defense acquisition workers in the systems engineering

  15. Muscle Tissue Engineering Using Gingival Mesenchymal Stem Cells Encapsulated in Alginate Hydrogels Containing Multiple Growth Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Sahar; Chen, Chider; Xu, Xingtian; Annabi, Nasim; Zadeh, Homayoun H; Wu, Benjamin M; Khademhosseini, Ali; Shi, Songtao; Moshaverinia, Alireza

    2016-06-01

    Repair and regeneration of muscle tissue following traumatic injuries or muscle diseases often presents a challenging clinical situation. If a significant amount of tissue is lost the native regenerative potential of skeletal muscle will not be able to grow to fill the defect site completely. Dental-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in combination with appropriate scaffold material, present an advantageous alternative therapeutic option for muscle tissue engineering in comparison to current treatment modalities available. To date, there has been no report on application of gingival mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs) in three-dimensional scaffolds for muscle tissue engineering. The objectives of the current study were to develop an injectable 3D RGD-coupled alginate scaffold with multiple growth factor delivery capacity for encapsulating GMSCs, and to evaluate the capacity of encapsulated GMSCs to differentiate into myogenic tissue in vitro and in vivo where encapsulated GMSCs were transplanted subcutaneously into immunocompromised mice. The results demonstrate that after 4 weeks of differentiation in vitro, GMSCs as well as the positive control human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSCs) exhibited muscle cell-like morphology with high levels of mRNA expression for gene markers related to muscle regeneration (MyoD, Myf5, and MyoG) via qPCR measurement. Our quantitative PCR analyzes revealed that the stiffness of the RGD-coupled alginate regulates the myogenic differentiation of encapsulated GMSCs. Histological and immunohistochemical/fluorescence staining for protein markers specific for myogenic tissue confirmed muscle regeneration in subcutaneous transplantation in our in vivo animal model. GMSCs showed significantly greater capacity for myogenic regeneration in comparison to hBMMSCs (p alginate hydrogel with multiple growth factor delivery capacity is a promising candidate for muscle tissue engineering.

  16. Growth factor stimulation improves the structure and properties of scaffold-free engineered auricular cartilage constructs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata G Rosa

    Full Text Available The reconstruction of the external ear to correct congenital deformities or repair following trauma remains a significant challenge in reconstructive surgery. Previously, we have developed a novel approach to create scaffold-free, tissue engineering elastic cartilage constructs directly from a small population of donor cells. Although the developed constructs appeared to adopt the structural appearance of native auricular cartilage, the constructs displayed limited expression and poor localization of elastin. In the present study, the effect of growth factor supplementation (insulin, IGF-1, or TGF-β1 was investigated to stimulate elastogenesis as well as to improve overall tissue formation. Using rabbit auricular chondrocytes, bioreactor-cultivated constructs supplemented with either insulin or IGF-1 displayed increased deposition of cartilaginous ECM, improved mechanical properties, and thicknesses comparable to native auricular cartilage after 4 weeks of growth. Similarly, growth factor supplementation resulted in increased expression and improved localization of elastin, primarily restricted within the cartilaginous region of the tissue construct. Additional studies were conducted to determine whether scaffold-free engineered auricular cartilage constructs could be developed in the 3D shape of the external ear. Isolated auricular chondrocytes were grown in rapid-prototyped tissue culture molds with additional insulin or IGF-1 supplementation during bioreactor cultivation. Using this approach, the developed tissue constructs were flexible and had a 3D shape in very good agreement to the culture mold (average error <400 µm. While scaffold-free, engineered auricular cartilage constructs can be created with both the appropriate tissue structure and 3D shape of the external ear, future studies will be aimed assessing potential changes in construct shape and properties after subcutaneous implantation.

  17. Human Factors Engineering (HFE) insights for advanced reactors based upon operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, J.; Nasta, K.

    1997-01-01

    The NRC Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (HFE PRM, NUREG-0711) was developed to support a design process review for advanced reactor design certification under 10CFR52. The HFE PRM defines ten fundamental elements of a human factors engineering program. An Operating Experience Review (OER) is one of these elements. The main purpose of an OER is to identify potential safety issues from operating plant experience and ensure that they are addressed in a new design. Broad-based experience reviews have typically been performed in the past by reactor designers. For the HFE PRM the intent is to have a more focussed OER that concentrates on HFE issues or experience that would be relevant to the human-system interface (HSI) design process for new advanced reactors. This document provides a detailed list of HFE-relevant operating experience pertinent to the HSI design process for advanced nuclear power plants. This document is intended to be used by NRC reviewers as part of the HFE PRM review process in determining the completeness of an OER performed by an applicant for advanced reactor design certification. 49 refs

  18. Engineering tolerance to industrially relevant stress factors in yeast cell factories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deparis, Quinten; Claes, Arne; Foulquié-Moreno, Maria R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The main focus in development of yeast cell factories has generally been on establishing optimal activity of heterologous pathways and further metabolic engineering of the host strain to maximize product yield and titer. Adequate stress tolerance of the host strain has turned out to be another major challenge for obtaining economically viable performance in industrial production. Although general robustness is a universal requirement for industrial microorganisms, production of novel compounds using artificial metabolic pathways presents additional challenges. Many of the bio-based compounds desirable for production by cell factories are highly toxic to the host cells in the titers required for economic viability. Artificial metabolic pathways also turn out to be much more sensitive to stress factors than endogenous pathways, likely because regulation of the latter has been optimized in evolution in myriads of environmental conditions. We discuss different environmental and metabolic stress factors with high relevance for industrial utilization of yeast cell factories and the experimental approaches used to engineer higher stress tolerance. Improving stress tolerance in a predictable manner in yeast cell factories should facilitate their widespread utilization in the bio-based economy and extend the range of products successfully produced in large scale in a sustainable and economically profitable way. PMID:28586408

  19. Microcapsule Technology for Controlled Growth Factor Release in Musculoskeletal Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Porta, Giovanna; Ciardulli, Maria C; Maffulli, Nicola

    2018-06-01

    Tissue engineering strategies have relied on engineered 3-dimensional (3D) scaffolds to provide architectural templates that can mimic the native cell environment. Among the several technologies proposed for the fabrication of 3D scaffold, that can be attractive for stem cell cultivation and differentiation, moulding or bioplotting of hydrogels allow the stratification of layers loaded with cells and with specific additives to obtain a predefined microstructural organization. Particularly with bioplotting technology, living cells, named bio-ink, and additives, such as biopolymer microdevices/nanodevices for the controlled delivery of growth factors or biosignals, can be organized spatially into a predesigned 3D pattern by automated fabrication with computer-aided digital files. The technologies for biopolymer microcarrier/nanocarrier fabrication can be strategic to provide a controlled spatiotemporal delivery of specific biosignals within a microenvironment that can better or faster address the stem cells loaded within it. In this review, some examples of growth factor-controlled delivery by biopolymer microdevices/nanodevices embedded within 3D hydrogel scaffolds will be described, to achieve a bioengineered 3D interactive microenvironment for stem cell differentiation. Conventional and recently proposed technologies for biopolymer microcapsule fabrication for controlled delivery over several days will also be illustrated and critically discussed.

  20. Engineering tolerance to industrially relevant stress factors in yeast cell factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deparis, Quinten; Claes, Arne; Foulquié-Moreno, Maria R; Thevelein, Johan M

    2017-06-01

    The main focus in development of yeast cell factories has generally been on establishing optimal activity of heterologous pathways and further metabolic engineering of the host strain to maximize product yield and titer. Adequate stress tolerance of the host strain has turned out to be another major challenge for obtaining economically viable performance in industrial production. Although general robustness is a universal requirement for industrial microorganisms, production of novel compounds using artificial metabolic pathways presents additional challenges. Many of the bio-based compounds desirable for production by cell factories are highly toxic to the host cells in the titers required for economic viability. Artificial metabolic pathways also turn out to be much more sensitive to stress factors than endogenous pathways, likely because regulation of the latter has been optimized in evolution in myriads of environmental conditions. We discuss different environmental and metabolic stress factors with high relevance for industrial utilization of yeast cell factories and the experimental approaches used to engineer higher stress tolerance. Improving stress tolerance in a predictable manner in yeast cell factories should facilitate their widespread utilization in the bio-based economy and extend the range of products successfully produced in large scale in a sustainable and economically profitable way. © FEMS 2017.

  1. NRC Reviewer Aid for Evaluating the Human Factors Engineering Aspects of Small Modular Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OHara, J.M.; Higgins, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) are a promising approach to meeting future energy needs. Although the electrical output of an individual SMR is relatively small compared to that of typical commercial nuclear plants, they can be grouped to produce as much energy as a utility demands. Furthermore, SMRs can be used for other purposes, such as producing hydrogen and generating process heat. The design characteristics of many SMRs differ from those of current conventional plants and may require a distinct concept of operations (ConOps). The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) conducted research to examine the human factors engineering (HFE) and the operational aspects of SMRs. The research identified thirty potential human-performance issues that should be considered in the NRC's reviews of SMR designs and in future research activities. The purpose of this report is to support NRC HFE reviewers of SMR applications by identifying some of the questions that can be asked of applicants whose designs have characteristics identified in the issues. The questions for each issue were identified and organized based on the review elements and guidance contained in Chapter 18 of the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800), and the Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (NUREG-0711).

  2. Microporous silk fibroin scaffolds embedding PLGA microparticles for controlled growth factor delivery in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenk, Esther; Meinel, Anne J; Wildy, Sarah; Merkle, Hans P; Meinel, Lorenz

    2009-05-01

    The development of prototype scaffolds for either direct implantation or tissue engineering purposes and featuring spatiotemporal control of growth factor release is highly desirable. Silk fibroin (SF) scaffolds with interconnective pores, carrying embedded microparticles that were loaded with insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), were prepared by a porogen leaching protocol. Treatments with methanol or water vapor induced water insolubility of SF based on an increase in beta-sheet content as analyzed by FTIR. Pore interconnectivity was demonstrated by SEM. Porosities were in the range of 70-90%, depending on the treatment applied, and were better preserved when methanol or water vapor treatments were prior to porogen leaching. IGF-I was encapsulated into two different types of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microparticles (PLGA MP) using uncapped PLGA (50:50) with molecular weights of either 14 or 35 kDa to control IGF-I release kinetics from the SF scaffold. Embedded PLGA MP were located in the walls or intersections of the SF scaffold. Embedment of the PLGA MP into the scaffolds led to more sustained release rates as compared to the free PLGA MP, whereas the hydrolytic degradation of the two PLGA MP types was not affected. The PLGA types used had distinct effects on IGF-I release kinetics. Particularly the supernatants of the lower molecular weight PLGA formulations turned out to release bioactive IGF-I. Our studies justify future investigations of the developed constructs for tissue engineering applications.

  3. Human Factors in Training: Space Medical Proficiency Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Vicky E.; Barshi, I.; Arsintescu, L.; Connell, E.

    2010-01-01

    The early Constellation space missions are expected to have medical capabilities very similar to those currently on the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS). For Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) missions to the ISS, medical equipment will be located on the ISS, and carried into CEV in the event of an emergency. Flight surgeons (FS) on the ground in Mission Control will be expected to direct the crew medical officer (CMO) during medical situations. If there is a loss of signal and the crew is unable to communicate with the ground, a CMO would be expected to carry out medical procedures without the aid of a FS. In these situations, performance support tools can be used to reduce errors and time to perform emergency medical tasks. The space medical training work is part of the Human Factors in Training Directed Research Project (DRP) of the Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Project under the Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH) Element of the Human Research Program (HRP). This is a joint project consisting of human factors team from the Ames Research Center (ARC) with Immanuel Barshi as Principal Investigator and the Johnson Space Center (JSC). Human factors researchers at JSC have recently investigated medical performance support tools for CMOs on-orbit, and FSs on the ground, and researchers at the Ames Research Center performed a literature review on medical errors. Work on medical training has been conducted in collaboration with the Medical Training Group at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) and with Wyle Laboratories that provides medical training to crew members, biomedical engineers (BMEs), and to flight surgeons under the Bioastronautics contract. One area of research building on activities from FY08, involved the feasibility of just-in-time (JIT) training techniques and concepts for real-time medical procedures. A second area of research involves FS performance support tools. Information needed by the FS during the ISS mission

  4. Human factors engineering applied to Control Centre Design of a research nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Larissa P. de; Santos, Isaac J.A. Luquetti dos; Carvalho, Paulo V.R., E-mail: larissapfarias@ymail.com [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (DENN/SEESC/IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab, de Usabilidade e Confiabilidade Humana; Monteiro, Beany G. [Universidade Federal do Rio Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Desenho Industrial

    2017-07-01

    The Human Factors Engineering (HFE) program is an essential aspect for the design of nuclear installations. The overall aim of the HFE program is the improvement of the operational reliability and safety of plant operation. The HFE program main purpose is to ensure that human factor practices are incorporated into the plant design, emphasizing man-machine interface issues and design improvement of the nuclear reactor Control Centre. The Control Centre of nuclear reactor is a combination of control rooms, control suites and local control stations, which are functionally connected and located on the reactor site. The objective of this paper is to present a design approach for the Control Centre of a nuclear reactor used to produce radioisotopes and for nuclear research, including human factor issues. The design approach is based on participatory design principles, using human factor standards, ergonomic guidelines, and the participation of a multidisciplinary team during all design phases. Using the information gathered, an initial sketch 3D of the Control Centre was developed. (author)

  5. Human factors engineering applied to Control Centre Design of a research nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, Larissa P. de; Santos, Isaac J.A. Luquetti dos; Carvalho, Paulo V.R.; Monteiro, Beany G.

    2017-01-01

    The Human Factors Engineering (HFE) program is an essential aspect for the design of nuclear installations. The overall aim of the HFE program is the improvement of the operational reliability and safety of plant operation. The HFE program main purpose is to ensure that human factor practices are incorporated into the plant design, emphasizing man-machine interface issues and design improvement of the nuclear reactor Control Centre. The Control Centre of nuclear reactor is a combination of control rooms, control suites and local control stations, which are functionally connected and located on the reactor site. The objective of this paper is to present a design approach for the Control Centre of a nuclear reactor used to produce radioisotopes and for nuclear research, including human factor issues. The design approach is based on participatory design principles, using human factor standards, ergonomic guidelines, and the participation of a multidisciplinary team during all design phases. Using the information gathered, an initial sketch 3D of the Control Centre was developed. (author)

  6. Women of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics: A qualitative exploration into factors of success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olund, Jeanine K.

    Although the number of women entering science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines has increased in recent years, overall there are still more men than women completing four-year degrees in these fields, especially in physics, engineering, and computer science. At higher levels of education and within the workplace, the number of women declines even further and the attrition rate is high. Studies to explain this phenomenon abound and remedial action has been taken in many institutions. Nonetheless, the problem remains. There are women who have entered this environment, however, who are not only surviving but thriving. Through the lens of positive scholarship, this qualitative study explores characteristics of twelve high-achieving women of STEM to discover if there are common factors that have contributed to their success. The data show that successful women of STEM are enterprising, relational, self-aware, and have a positive perspective. These results suggest that the four factors, particularly through their juxtaposition, are foundational to the success of STEM women within the current culture of science. Furthermore, the behaviors, responses, and values of these women have likely contributed to systemic changes within their immediate environments and perhaps even beyond. Research has shown that positive behaviors and values can be adopted by others and integrated deeply into their psyches. Therefore, the women of this study, and others like them, could serve as role models for colleagues and peers to support the development of these factors of success in others. Women, and men, of STEM may thereby learn new ways to approach difficulties, to create new avenues for success, and to bring forth positive change within themselves and their environments.

  7. * Hierarchically Structured Electrospun Scaffolds with Chemically Conjugated Growth Factor for Ligament Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Hannah M; Sathy, Binulal N; Olvera, Dinorath; McCarthy, Helen O; Kelly, Daniel J; Popat, Ketul C; Dunne, Nicholas J; Haut Donahue, Tammy Lynn

    2017-08-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee is vital for proper joint function and is commonly ruptured during sports injuries or car accidents. Due to a lack of intrinsic healing capacity and drawbacks with allografts and autografts, there is a need for a tissue-engineered ACL replacement. Our group has previously used aligned sheets of electrospun polycaprolactone nanofibers to develop solid cylindrical bundles of longitudinally aligned nanofibers. We have shown that these nanofiber bundles support cell proliferation and elongation and the hierarchical structure and material properties are similar to the native human ACL. It is possible to combine multiple nanofiber bundles to create a scaffold that attempts to mimic the macroscale structure of the ACL. The goal of this work was to develop a hierarchical bioactive scaffold for ligament tissue engineering using connective tissue growth factor (CTGF)-conjugated nanofiber bundles and evaluate the behavior of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on these scaffolds in vitro and in vivo. CTGF was immobilized onto the surface of individual nanofiber bundles or scaffolds consisting of multiple nanofiber bundles. The conjugation efficiency and the release of conjugated CTGF were assessed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, assays, and immunofluorescence staining. Scaffolds were seeded with MSCs and maintained in vitro for 7 days (individual nanofiber bundles), in vitro for 21 days (scaled-up scaffolds of 20 nanofiber bundles), or in vivo for 6 weeks (small scaffolds of 4 nanofiber bundles), and ligament-specific tissue formation was assessed in comparison to non-CTGF-conjugated control scaffolds. Results showed that CTGF conjugation encouraged cell proliferation and ligament-specific tissue formation in vitro and in vivo. The results suggest that hierarchical electrospun nanofiber bundles conjugated with CTGF are a scalable and bioactive scaffold for ACL tissue engineering.

  8. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α: A Potential Factor for the Enhancement of Osseointegration between Dental Implants and Tissue-Engineered Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duohong Zou

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tissue-engineered bones are widely utilized to protect healthy tissue, reduce pain, and increase the success rate of dental implants. one of the most challenging obstacles lies in obtaining effective os-seointegration between dental implants and tissue-engineered structures. Deficiencies in vascularization, osteogenic factors, oxygen, and other nutrients inside the tissue-engineered bone during the early stages following implantation all inhibit effective osseointe-gration. Oxygen is required for aerobic metabolism in bone and blood vessel tissues, but oxygen levels inside tissue-engineered bone are not suf-ficient for cell proliferation. HIF-1α is a pivotal regulator of hypoxic and ischemic vascular responses, driving transcriptional activation of hundreds of genes involved in vascular reactivity, angiogenesis, arteriogenesis, and osteogenesis.The hypothesis: Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α seems a potential factor for the enhancement of osseointegration between dental implants and tissue-engineered bone.Evaluation of the hypothesis: Enhancement of HIF-1α protein expression is recognized as the most promising approach for angiogenesis, because it can induce multiple angiogenic targets in a coordinated manner. Therefore, it will be a novel potential therapeutic methods targeting HIF-1α expression to enhance osseointegration be-tween dental implants and tissue-engineered bone.

  9. Human-factors engineering control-room design review/audit report: Byron Generating Station, Commonwealth Edison Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    A human factors engineering design review/audit of the Byron Unit 1 control room was performed at the site on November 17 through November 19, 1981. This review was accomplished using the Unit 2 control room appropriately mocked-up to reflect design changes already committed to be incorporated in Unit 1. The report was prepared on the basis of the HFEB's audit of the applicant's Preliminary Design Assessment report and the human factors engineering design review performed at the site. This design review was carried out by a team from the Human Factors Engineering Branch, Division of Human Factors Safety. The review team was assisted by consultants from BioTechnology, Inc. (Falls Church, Virginia), and from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (University of California), Livermore, California

  10. Engineering synthetic TALE and CRISPR/Cas9 transcription factors for regulating gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabadi, Ami M; Gersbach, Charles A

    2014-09-01

    Engineered DNA-binding proteins that can be targeted to specific sites in the genome to manipulate gene expression have enabled many advances in biomedical research. This includes generating tools to study fundamental aspects of gene regulation and the development of a new class of gene therapies that alter the expression of endogenous genes. Designed transcription factors have entered clinical trials for the treatment of human diseases and others are in preclinical development. High-throughput and user-friendly platforms for designing synthetic DNA-binding proteins present innovative methods for deciphering cell biology and designing custom synthetic gene circuits. We review two platforms for designing synthetic transcription factors for manipulating gene expression: Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) and the RNA-guided clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system. We present an overview of each technology and a guide for designing and assembling custom TALE- and CRISPR/Cas9-based transcription factors. We also discuss characteristics of each platform that are best suited for different applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Reactivation of Latent HIV-1 Expression by Engineered TALE Transcription Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdigão, Pedro; Gaj, Thomas; Santa-Marta, Mariana; Barbas, Carlos F; Goncalves, Joao

    2016-01-01

    The presence of replication-competent HIV-1 -which resides mainly in resting CD4+ T cells--is a major hurdle to its eradication. While pharmacological approaches have been useful for inducing the expression of this latent population of virus, they have been unable to purge HIV-1 from all its reservoirs. Additionally, many of these strategies have been associated with adverse effects, underscoring the need for alternative approaches capable of reactivating viral expression. Here we show that engineered transcriptional modulators based on customizable transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins can induce gene expression from the HIV-1 long terminal repeat promoter, and that combinations of TALE transcription factors can synergistically reactivate latent viral expression in cell line models of HIV-1 latency. We further show that complementing TALE transcription factors with Vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, enhances HIV-1 expression in latency models. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that TALE transcription factors are a potentially effective alternative to current pharmacological routes for reactivating latent virus and that combining synthetic transcriptional activators with histone deacetylase inhibitors could lead to the development of improved therapies for latent HIV-1 infection.

  12. Reactivation of Latent HIV-1 Expression by Engineered TALE Transcription Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Perdigão

    Full Text Available The presence of replication-competent HIV-1 -which resides mainly in resting CD4+ T cells--is a major hurdle to its eradication. While pharmacological approaches have been useful for inducing the expression of this latent population of virus, they have been unable to purge HIV-1 from all its reservoirs. Additionally, many of these strategies have been associated with adverse effects, underscoring the need for alternative approaches capable of reactivating viral expression. Here we show that engineered transcriptional modulators based on customizable transcription activator-like effector (TALE proteins can induce gene expression from the HIV-1 long terminal repeat promoter, and that combinations of TALE transcription factors can synergistically reactivate latent viral expression in cell line models of HIV-1 latency. We further show that complementing TALE transcription factors with Vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, enhances HIV-1 expression in latency models. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that TALE transcription factors are a potentially effective alternative to current pharmacological routes for reactivating latent virus and that combining synthetic transcriptional activators with histone deacetylase inhibitors could lead to the development of improved therapies for latent HIV-1 infection.

  13. Applications of human factors engineering to LNG release prevention and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shikiar, R.; Rankin, W.L.; Rideout, T.B.

    1982-06-01

    The results of an investigation of human factors engineering and human reliability applications to LNG release prevention and control are reported. The report includes a discussion of possible human error contributions to previous LNG accidents and incidents, and a discussion of generic HF considerations for peakshaving plants. More specific recommendations for improving HF practices at peakshaving plants are offered based on visits to six facilities. The HF aspects of the recently promulgated DOT regulations are reviewed, and recommendations are made concerning how these regulations can be implemented utilizing standard HF practices. Finally, the integration of HF considerations into overall system safety is illustrated by a presentation of human error probabilities applicable to LNG operations and by an expanded fault tree analysis which explicitly recognizes man-machine interfaces.

  14. Human factor engineering analysis for computerized human machine interface design issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhifang; Gu Pengfei; Zhang Jianbo

    2010-01-01

    The application of digital I and C technology in nuclear power plants is a significant improvement in terms of functional performances and flexibility, and it also poses a challenge to operation safety. Most of the new NPPs under construction are adopting advanced control room design which utilizes the computerized human machine interface (HMI) as the main operating means. Thus, it greatly changes the way the operators interact with the plant. This paper introduces the main challenges brought out by computerized technology on the human factor engineering aspect and addresses the main issues to be dealt with in the computerized HMI design process. Based on a operator task-resources-cognitive model, it states that the root cause of human errors is the mismatch between resources demand and their supply. And a task-oriented HMI design principle is discussed. (authors)

  15. Experiences in the application of human factors engineering to human-system interface modernization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba Alonso, Pedro; Illobre, Luis Fernandez; Ortega Pascual, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Almost all the existing Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) include plans to modernize their existing Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems and associated Human System Interfaces (HSIs), due to obsolescence problems. Tecnatom, S.A. has been participating in modernization programs in NPPs to help them to plan, specify, design and implement the modernization of control rooms and associated I and C and HSIs. The application of Human Factors Engineering (HFE) in modernization programs is nowadays unavoidable. This is because is becoming a regulatory requirement, and also because it is needed to ensure that any plant modification, involving the modernization of I and C and HSI, is well designed to improve overall plant operations, reliability, and safety. This paper shows some experiences obtained during the application of HFE to the modernization of these HSIs. The experience applying HFE in modernizations and design modifications show a positive effect, improving the associated HSIs, with the acceptability of the final user. (authors)

  16. THE DEVELOPMENT OF DETAILED HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING GUIDELINES FOR DIGITAL CONTROL ROOM UPGRADES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BROWN, W.; O'HARA, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    As part of the Department of Energy and Electric Power Research Institute's hybrid control room project, detailed human factors engineering guidance was developed for designing human-system interfaces that may be affected by introduction of additional digital technology during modernization of nuclear power plants. The guidance addresses several aspects of human-system interaction: information display, interface management, soft controls, alarms, computer-based procedures, computerized operator support systems, communications, and workstation/workplace design. In this paper, the ways in which digital upgrades might affect users' interaction with systems in each of these contexts are briefly described, and the contents of the guidance developed for each of the topics is also described

  17. Technical issues related to NUREG 0800, Chapter 18: Human Factors Engineering/Standard Review Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    The revision of Chapter 18 of NUREG 0800, Human Factors Engineering Standard Review Plan (SRP) will be based on SECY 82-111 and guidance contained in NUREG 0700, NUREG 0801 and NUREG 0835, plus other references. In conducting field reviews of control rooms, the NRC has identified technical issues which can be used to enhance the development of the revised version of NUREG 0800, and to establish priorities among the list of possible Branch Technical Positions (BTP) in NUREG 0800, Rev. 0, Table 18.0-2. This report is a compilation of comments and suggestions from the people who used NUREG 0700 in the Control Room field reviews. This information was used to establish possible BTP topic priorities so that the most important BTPs could be issued first. The comments and suggestions are included for HFEB review in conjunction with the table of priorities

  18. Experiences in the application of human factors engineering to human-system interface modernization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba Alonso, Pedro; Fernandez Illobre, Luis; Ortega Pascual, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Almost all the existing Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) include plans to modernize their existing Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems and associated Human System Interfaces (HSIs), due to obsolescence problems. Tecnatom, S.A. has been participating in modernization programs in NPPs to help them to plan, specify, design and implement the modernization of control rooms and associated I and C and HSIs. The application of Human Factors Engineering (HFE) in modernization programs is nowadays unavoidable. This is because is becoming a regulatory requirement, and also because it is needed to ensure that any plant modification, involving the modernization of I and C and HSI, is well designed to improve overall plant operations, reliability, and safety. This paper shows some experiences obtained during the application of HFE to the modernization of these HSIs. The experience applying HFE in modernizations and design modifications show a positive effect, improving the associated HSIs, with the acceptability of the final user.

  19. Experiences in the application of human factors engineering to human-system interface modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba Alonso, Pedro; Fernandez Illobre, Luis; Ortega Pascual, Fernando [Tecnatom S.A., San Sebastian de los Reyes (Spain). Simulation and Control Rooms Div.

    2015-07-15

    Almost all the existing Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) include plans to modernize their existing Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems and associated Human System Interfaces (HSIs), due to obsolescence problems. Tecnatom, S.A. has been participating in modernization programs in NPPs to help them to plan, specify, design and implement the modernization of control rooms and associated I and C and HSIs. The application of Human Factors Engineering (HFE) in modernization programs is nowadays unavoidable. This is because is becoming a regulatory requirement, and also because it is needed to ensure that any plant modification, involving the modernization of I and C and HSI, is well designed to improve overall plant operations, reliability, and safety. This paper shows some experiences obtained during the application of HFE to the modernization of these HSIs. The experience applying HFE in modernizations and design modifications show a positive effect, improving the associated HSIs, with the acceptability of the final user.

  20. Growth Factor Stimulation Improves the Structure and Properties of Scaffold-Free Engineered Auricular Cartilage Constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Renata G.; Joazeiro, Paulo P.; Bianco, Juares; Kunz, Manuela; Weber, Joanna F.; Waldman, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    The reconstruction of the external ear to correct congenital deformities or repair following trauma remains a significant challenge in reconstructive surgery. Previously, we have developed a novel approach to create scaffold-free, tissue engineering elastic cartilage constructs directly from a small population of donor cells. Although the developed constructs appeared to adopt the structural appearance of native auricular cartilage, the constructs displayed limited expression and poor localization of elastin. In the present study, the effect of growth factor supplementation (insulin, IGF-1, or TGF-β1) was investigated to stimulate elastogenesis as well as to improve overall tissue formation. Using rabbit auricular chondrocytes, bioreactor-cultivated constructs supplemented with either insulin or IGF-1 displayed increased deposition of cartilaginous ECM, improved mechanical properties, and thicknesses comparable to native auricular cartilage after 4 weeks of growth. Similarly, growth factor supplementation resulted in increased expression and improved localization of elastin, primarily restricted within the cartilaginous region of the tissue construct. Additional studies were conducted to determine whether scaffold-free engineered auricular cartilage constructs could be developed in the 3D shape of the external ear. Isolated auricular chondrocytes were grown in rapid-prototyped tissue culture molds with additional insulin or IGF-1 supplementation during bioreactor cultivation. Using this approach, the developed tissue constructs were flexible and had a 3D shape in very good agreement to the culture mold (average error tissue structure and 3D shape of the external ear, future studies will be aimed assessing potential changes in construct shape and properties after subcutaneous implantation. PMID:25126941

  1. A nanoparticulate injectable hydrogel as a tissue engineering scaffold for multiple growth factor delivery for bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyondi D

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Deepti Dyondi,1 Thomas J Webster,2 Rinti Banerjee11Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India; 2Nanomedicine Laboratories, Division of Engineering and Department of Orthopedics, Brown University, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Gellan xanthan gels have been shown to be excellent carriers for growth factors and as matrices for several tissue engineering applications. Gellan xanthan gels along with chitosan nanoparticles of 297 ± 61 nm diameter, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, and bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7 were employed in a dual growth factor delivery system to promote the differentiation of human fetal osteoblasts. An injectable system with ionic and temperature gelation was optimized and characterized. The nanoparticle loaded gels showed significantly improved cell proliferation and differentiation due to the sustained release of growth factors. A differentiation marker study was conducted, analyzed, and compared to understand the effect of single vs dual growth factors and free vs encapsulated growth factors. Dual growth factor loaded gels showed a higher alkaline phosphatase and calcium deposition compared to single growth factor loaded gels. The results suggest that encapsulation and stabilization of growth factors within nanoparticles and gels are promising for bone regeneration. Gellan xanthan gels also showed antibacterial effects against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis, the common pathogens in implant failure.Keywords: bone tissue engineering, bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, hydrogel, nanoparticles, osteoblasts

  2. The Effects of Environmental Factors on Smooth Muscle Cells Differentiation from Adipose-Derived Stem Cells and Esophagus Tissues Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fang

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are increasingly being used for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) can be differentiated from ASCs. Oxygen is a key factor influencing the stem cell differentiation. Tissue engineered esophagus has been a preferred solution...... of esophagus was studied. Our results showed that both SMCs and ASCs could attach on the porcine esophageal acellular matrix (EAM) scaffold in vitro after 24 hours and survive until 7 days. Thus ASCs might be a substitute for SMCs in the construction of tissue engineered esophageal muscle layer....

  3. Human factors engineering control-room-design review/audit report: Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Arizona Public Service Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, J.W.; Lappa, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    A human factors engineering design review of the Palo Verde control room simulator was performed at the site on September 15 through September 17, 1981. Observed human factors design discrepancies were given priority ratings. This report summarizes the team's observations of the control room design and layout and of the control room operators' interface with the control room environment. A list of the human factors strengths observed in the Palo Verde control room simulator is given

  4. Human Factors Engineering in Designing the Passengers' Cockpit of the Malaysian Commercial Suborbital Spaceplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridzuan Zakaria, Norul; Mettauer, Adrian; Abu, Jalaluddin; Hassan, Mohd Roshdi; Ismail, Anwar Taufeek; Othman, Jamaluddin; Shaari, Che Zhuhaida; Nasron, Nasri

    2010-09-01

    The design of the passengers’ cabin or cockpit of commercial suborbital spaceplane is a new and exciting frontier in human factors engineering, which emphasizes on comfort and safety. There is a program to develop small piloted 3 seats commercial suborbital spaceplane by a group of Malaysians with their foreign partners, and being relatively small and due to its design philosophy, the spaceplane does not require a cabin, but only a cockpit for its 2 passengers. In designing the cockpit, human factors engineering and safety principles are given priority. The cockpit is designed with the intention to provide comfort and satisfaction to the passengers without compromising the safety, in such a way that there are passenger-view wide angled video camera to observe the passengers at all time in flight, “rear-view”, “under-the-floor-view” and “fuselage-view” video cameras for the passengers, personalized gauges and LCDs on the dashboard to provide vital and useful information during the flight to the passengers, and biomedical engineered products which not only entertain the passengers, but also provide important information on the passengers to the ground crews who are responsible in the comfort and safety of the passengers. The passenger-view video-camera, which record the passengers with Earth visible through the glass canopy as the background, not only provides live visual of the passengers for safety reason, but also provide the most preferred memorable video collection for the passengers, while other video cameras provide the opportunity to view at various angles from unique positions to both the passengers and the ground observers. The gauges and LCDs on the dashboard provide access to the passengers to information such as the gravity, orientation, rate of climb and flight profile of the spaceplane, graphical presentation of the spaceplane in flight, and live video from the onboard video cameras. There is also a control stick for each passenger to

  5. Interaction of Psychological Factors in Shaping Entrepreneurial Intention among Computer and Electrical Engineering Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Tung Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous technopreneurs start their ventures at college age, but the entrepreneurship of computer and electrical engineering (CEE students remains under-studied. This study analysed both the combined and interactive effects of psychological factors on the entrepreneurial intentions of CEE students. In this study, entrepreneurial intention comprised two dimensions, conviction and preparation. Regarding the direct effects, the results indicated that self-efficacy affected entrepreneurial conviction the most, followed by negative emotion, intrinsic motivation, and metacognition. Negative emotion affected entrepreneurial preparation the most, followed by self-efficacy and positive emotion. The results also revealed several crucial interactive effects resulting from psychological factors. An increase in cognitive load increased the entrepreneurial intention of students exhibiting high intrinsic motivation and reduced the intention of students exhibiting low intrinsic motivation. An increase in metacognition increased the entrepreneurial conviction of students exhibiting either high or low intrinsic motivation. An increase in positive emotion reduced the entrepreneurial intention of students exhibiting high negative emotion and increased the intention of students exhibiting low negative emotion. An increase in self-efficacy increased the entrepreneurial intention of students exhibiting either high or low negative emotion.

  6. Integrating Human Factors Engineering and Information Processing Approaches to Facilitate Evaluations in Criminal Justice Technology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvemini, Anthony V; Piza, Eric L; Carter, Jeremy G; Grommon, Eric L; Merritt, Nancy

    2015-06-01

    Evaluations are routinely conducted by government agencies and research organizations to assess the effectiveness of technology in criminal justice. Interdisciplinary research methods are salient to this effort. Technology evaluations are faced with a number of challenges including (1) the need to facilitate effective communication between social science researchers, technology specialists, and practitioners, (2) the need to better understand procedural and contextual aspects of a given technology, and (3) the need to generate findings that can be readily used for decision making and policy recommendations. Process and outcome evaluations of technology can be enhanced by integrating concepts from human factors engineering and information processing. This systemic approach, which focuses on the interaction between humans, technology, and information, enables researchers to better assess how a given technology is used in practice. Examples are drawn from complex technologies currently deployed within the criminal justice system where traditional evaluations have primarily focused on outcome metrics. Although this evidence-based approach has significant value, it is vulnerable to fully account for human and structural complexities that compose technology operations. Guiding principles for technology evaluations are described for identifying and defining key study metrics, facilitating communication within an interdisciplinary research team, and for understanding the interaction between users, technology, and information. The approach posited here can also enable researchers to better assess factors that may facilitate or degrade the operational impact of the technology and answer fundamental questions concerning whether the technology works as intended, at what level, and cost. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Reducing the Cost and Time to Perform a Human Factors Engineering Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geary, L.C. Dr.

    2003-01-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, a contractor to the Department of Energy, has developed a new software tool for automating the Human Factors Engineering design review, analysis, and evaluation processes. The set of design guidelines, used in the tool, was obtained from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Nuclear Regulatory Guide, NUREG- 0700 - Human System Interface Design Review Guideline. This tool has been described at a previous IEEE Conference on Human Factors and Power Plants. The original software tool in NUREG- 0700 was used to evaluate a facility and a separate independent evaluation was performed using the new tool for the same facility. A comparison was made between the two different tools; both in results obtained and cost and time to complete the evaluation. The results demonstrate a five to ten fold reduction in time and cost to complete the evaluation using the newly developed tool while maintaining consistent evaluation results. The time to per form the review was measured in weeks using the new software tool rather than months using the existing NUREG-0700 tool. The new tool has been so successful that it was applied to two additional facilities with the same reduced time and cost savings. Plans have been made to use the new tool at other facilities in order to provide the same savings

  8. A review of factors influencing underground construction quality and the performance of engineered features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbot, R.; Moy, D.; Breeds, C.D.; Kostelec, C.M.; Emsley, S.J.; Shuttle, D.; Cutler, J.; Hedman, T.; Carlsson, A.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes research to identify and rank the factors that should be considered for an assessment of the radioactive containment capability of repository engineered features. Containment is to be achieved through the use of multiple barriers to radionuclide movement, including the waste, waste container, repository structures and backfill, and repository seals. A review of the literature is used to identify radionuclide mobilisation and transport processes for the anticipated environmental conditions, and to compile a data base of repository design features, functional requirements, and design objectives. For selected design components, the report identifies alternative designs and factors contributing to design, focusing on the requirements for a design process, design specifications, construction requirements, and quality assurance requirements for the both design and construction. Existing practice in large, underground civil construction projects is used as a part of comparison, in conjunction with reported performance assessments, to determine those areas in which the repository developer will need to provide additional data, justification, and documentation prior to construction to ensure that performance requirements can be achieved. (Author)

  9. Rosetta comparative modeling for library design: Engineering alternative inducer specificity in a transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Ramesh K; Chakraborti, Subhendu; Kern, Theresa L; Fox, David T; Strauss, Charlie E M

    2015-07-01

    Structure-based rational mutagenesis for engineering protein functionality has been limited by the scarcity and difficulty of obtaining crystal structures of desired proteins. On the other hand, when high-throughput selection is possible, directed evolution-based approaches for gaining protein functionalities have been random and fortuitous with limited rationalization. We combine comparative modeling of dimer structures, ab initio loop reconstruction, and ligand docking to select positions for mutagenesis to create a library focused on the ligand-contacting residues. The rationally reduced library requirement enabled conservative control of the substitutions by oligonucleotide synthesis and bounding its size within practical transformation efficiencies (∼ 10(7) variants). This rational approach was successfully applied on an inducer-binding domain of an Acinetobacter transcription factor (TF), pobR, which shows high specificity for natural effector molecule, 4-hydroxy benzoate (4HB), but no native response to 3,4-dihydroxy benzoate (34DHB). Selection for mutants with high transcriptional induction by 34DHB was carried out at the single-cell level under flow cytometry (via green fluorescent protein expression under the control of pobR promoter). Critically, this selection protocol allows both selection for induction and rejection of constitutively active mutants. In addition to gain-of-function for 34DHB induction, the selected mutants also showed enhanced sensitivity and response for 4HB (native inducer) while no sensitivity was observed for a non-targeted but chemically similar molecule, 2-hydroxy benzoate (2HB). This is unique application of the Rosetta modeling protocols for library design to engineer a TF. Our approach extends applicability of the Rosetta redesign protocol into regimes without a priori precision structural information. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING PROCESS TO SUPPORT HUMAN-SYSTEM INTERFACE DESIGN IN CONTROL ROOM MODERNIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovesdi, C.; Joe, J.; Boring, R.

    2017-05-01

    The primary objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program is to sustain operation of the existing commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) through a multi-pathway approach in conducting research and development (R&D). The Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) System Technologies pathway conducts targeted R&D to address aging and reliability concerns with legacy instrumentation and control (I&C) and other information systems in existing U.S. NPPs. Control room modernization is an important part following this pathway, and human factors experts at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have been involved in conducting R&D to support migration of new digital main control room (MCR) technologies from legacy analog and legacy digital I&C. This paper describes a human factors engineering (HFE) process that supports human-system interface (HSI) design in MCR modernization activities, particularly with migration of old digital to new digital I&C. The process described in this work is an expansion from the LWRS Report INL/EXT-16-38576, and is a requirements-driven approach that aligns with NUREG-0711 requirements. The work described builds upon the existing literature by adding more detail around key tasks and decisions to make when transitioning from HSI Design into Verification and Validation (V&V). The overall objective of this process is to inform HSI design and elicit specific, measurable, and achievable human factors criteria for new digital technologies. Upon following this process, utilities should have greater confidence with transitioning from HSI design into V&V.

  11. Assessment of growth factor treatment on fibrochondrocyte and chondrocyte co-cultures for TMJ fibrocartilage engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpakci, Kerem N; Kim, Eric J; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A

    2011-04-01

    Treatments for patients suffering from severe temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction are limited, motivating the development of strategies for tissue regeneration. In this study, co-cultures of fibrochondrocytes (FCs) and articular chondrocytes (ACs) were seeded in agarose wells, and supplemented with growth factors, to engineer tissue with biomechanical properties and extracellular matrix composition similar to native TMJ fibrocartilage. In the first phase, growth factors were applied alone and in combination, in the presence or absence of serum, while in the second phase, the best overall treatment was applied at intermittent dosing. Continuous treatment of AC/FC co-cultures with TGF-β1 in serum-free medium resulted in constructs with glycosaminoglycan/wet weight ratios (12.2%), instantaneous compressive moduli (790 kPa), relaxed compressive moduli (120 kPa) and Young's moduli (1.87 MPa) that overlap with native TMJ disc values. Among co-culture groups, TGF-β1 treatment increased collagen deposition ∼20%, compressive stiffness ∼130% and Young's modulus ∼170% relative to controls without growth factor. Serum supplementation, though generally detrimental to functional properties, was identified as a powerful mediator of FC construct morphology. Finally, both intermittent and continuous TGF-β1 treatment showed positive effects, though continuous treatment resulted in greater enhancement of construct functional properties. This work proposes a strategy for regeneration of TMJ fibrocartilage and its future application will be realized through translation of these findings to clinically viable cell sources. Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Human-factors engineering control-room design review/audit: Waterford 3 SES Generating Station, Louisiana Power and Light Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    A human factors engineering design review/audit of the Waterford-3 control room was performed at the site on May 10 through May 13, 1982. The report was prepared on the basis of the HFEB's review of the applicant's Preliminary Human Engineering Discrepancy (PHED) report and the human factors engineering design review performed at the site. This design review was carried out by a team from the Human Factors Engineering Branch, Division of Human Factors Safety. The review team was assisted by consultants from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (University of California), Livermore, California

  13. Implementation Pilot Project in Human Factors Engineering ENUSA; Proyecto Piloto Implantacion de Facores Humanos en Ingenieria de ENUSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choithramani Becerra, S.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper the analysis of an engineering project of the Technology and Commercial Fuel ENUSA called Designing a 5PWR reload from the point of view of Human Factors described. The study was conducted by analyzing error precursors and barriers, observation techniques, interviews and the methodology for risk analysis. Similarly, the tools applied and the results obtained are described in this paper.

  14. Causes and risk factors for fatal accidents in non-commercial twin engine piston general aviation aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Douglas D

    2015-04-01

    Accidents in twin-engine aircraft carry a higher risk of fatality compared with single engine aircraft and constitute 9% of all general aviation accidents. The different flight profile (higher airspeed, service ceiling, increased fuel load, and aircraft yaw in engine failure) may make comparable studies on single-engine aircraft accident causes less relevant. The objective of this study was to identify the accident causes for non-commercial operations in twin engine aircraft. A NTSB accident database query for accidents in twin piston engine airplanes of 4-8 seat capacity with a maximum certified weight of 3000-8000lbs. operating under 14CFR Part 91 for the period spanning 2002 and 2012 returned 376 accidents. Accident causes and contributing factors were as per the NTSB final report categories. Total annual flight hour data for the twin engine piston aircraft fleet were obtained from the FAA. Statistical analyses employed Chi Square, Fisher's Exact and logistic regression analysis. Neither the combined fatal/non-fatal accident nor the fatal accident rate declined over the period spanning 2002-2012. Under visual weather conditions, the largest number, n=27, (27%) of fatal accidents was attributed to malfunction with a failure to follow single engine procedures representing the most common contributing factor. In degraded visibility, poor instrument approach procedures resulted in the greatest proportion of fatal crashes. Encountering thunderstorms was the most lethal of all accident causes with all occupants sustaining fatal injuries. At night, a failure to maintain obstacle/terrain clearance was the most common accident cause leading to 36% of fatal crashes. The results of logistic regression showed that operations at night (OR 3.7), off airport landings (OR 14.8) and post-impact fire (OR 7.2) all carried an excess risk of a fatal flight. This study indicates training areas that should receive increased emphasis for twin-engine training/recency. First, increased

  15. A human factors engineering evaluation of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donohoo, D.T. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Sarver, T.L. [ARES Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1995-06-05

    This report documents the methods and results of a human factors engineering (HFE) review conducted on the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF), Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Project 236A, to be constructed at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility at Hanford, Washington. This HFE analysis of the MWTF was initiated by WHC to assess how well the current facility and equipment design satisfies the needs of its operations and maintenance staff and other potential occupants, and to identify areas of the design that could benefit from improving the human interfaces at the facility. Safe and effective operations, including maintenance, is a primary goal for the MWTF. Realization of this goal requires that the MWTF facility, equipment, and operations be designed in a manner that is consistent with the abilities and limitations of its operating personnel. As a consequence, HFE principles should be applied to the MWTF design, construction, its operating procedures, and its training. The HFE review was focused on the 200-West Area facility as the design is further along than that of the 200-East Area. The review captured, to the greatest extent feasible at this stage of design, all aspects of the facility activities and included the major topics generally associated with HFE (e.g., communication, working environment). Lessons learned from the review of the 200 West facility will be extrapolated to the 200-East Area, as well as generalized to the Hanford Site.

  16. A human factors engineering evaluation of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donohoo, D.T.; Sarver, T.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report documents the methods and results of a human factors engineering (HFE) review conducted on the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF), Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Project 236A, to be constructed at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility at Hanford, Washington. This HFE analysis of the MWTF was initiated by WHC to assess how well the current facility and equipment design satisfies the needs of its operations and maintenance staff and other potential occupants, and to identify areas of the design that could benefit from improving the human interfaces at the facility. Safe and effective operations, including maintenance, is a primary goal for the MWTF. Realization of this goal requires that the MWTF facility, equipment, and operations be designed in a manner that is consistent with the abilities and limitations of its operating personnel. As a consequence, HFE principles should be applied to the MWTF design, construction, its operating procedures, and its training. The HFE review was focused on the 200-West Area facility as the design is further along than that of the 200-East Area. The review captured, to the greatest extent feasible at this stage of design, all aspects of the facility activities and included the major topics generally associated with HFE (e.g., communication, working environment). Lessons learned from the review of the 200 West facility will be extrapolated to the 200-East Area, as well as generalized to the Hanford Site

  17. Pro-region engineering for improved yeast display and secretion of brain derived neurotrophic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Michael L; Malott, Thomas M; Metcalf, Kevin J; Puguh, Arthya; Chan, Jonah R; Shusta, Eric V

    2016-03-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a promising therapeutic candidate for a variety of neurological diseases. However, it is difficult to produce as a recombinant protein. In its native mammalian context, BDNF is first produced as a pro-protein with subsequent proteolytic removal of the pro-region to yield mature BDNF protein. Therefore, in an attempt to improve yeast as a host for heterologous BDNF production, the BDNF pro-region was first evaluated for its effects on BDNF surface display and secretion. Addition of the wild-type pro-region to yeast BDNF production constructs improved BDNF folding both as a surface-displayed and secreted protein in terms of binding its natural receptors TrkB and p75, but titers remained low. Looking to further enhance the chaperone-like functions provided by the pro-region, two rounds of directed evolution were performed, yielding mutated pro-regions that further improved the display and secretion properties of BDNF. Subsequent optimization of the protease recognition site was used to control whether the produced protein was in pro- or mature BDNF forms. Taken together, we have demonstrated an effective strategy for improving BDNF compatibility with yeast protein engineering and secretion platforms. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. How system designers think: a study of design thinking in human factors engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papantonopoulos, Sotiris

    2004-11-01

    The paper presents a descriptive study of design thinking in human factors engineering. The objective of the study is to analyse the role of interpretation in design thinking and the role of design practice in guiding interpretation. The study involved 10 system designers undertaking the allocation of cognitive functions in three production planning and control task scenarios. Allocation decisions were recorded and verbal protocols of the design process were collected to elicit the subjects' thought processes. Verbal protocol analysis showed that subjects carried out the design of cognitive task allocation as a problem of applying a selected automation technology from their initial design deliberations. This design strategy stands in contrast to the predominant view of system design that stipulates that user requirements should be thoroughly analysed prior to making any decisions about technology. Theoretical frameworks from design research and ontological design showed that the system design process may be better understood by recognizing the role of design hypotheses in system design, as well as the diverse interactions between interpretation and practice, means and ends, and design practice and the designer's pre-understanding which shape the design process. Ways to balance the bias exerted on the design process were discussed.

  19. Model for impact assessment in human factors engineering project of PWR plants with digital control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roedel, Frederico G.; Schirru, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    New nuclear power plants are being designed with the digital Instrumentation and Control (I and C) as the backbone for the functions of protection, control, monitoring and display and with digital Human-System Interface (HSI). In this new environment, rather than play physical control actions, the operators begin to act as decision makers and, within this context, the Human Factors Engineering (HFE) has become an integral part of the projects. As the operational experience with the use of digital I and C systems and HSI is limited since, besides the small number of applications, it is proprietary, the objective of this work is to carry out an assessment in order to identify the most relevant aspects of a digital HSI project. The proposed model is based on concepts of fuzzy logic, uses MATLAB for data processing, defines criteria for evaluation and quantification of impacts in the project and has been applied to the General Principles and the Guidelines presented in the NUREG-0700. The assessment indicated that the Guidelines for User-Interface Interaction and Management, for Information Display and for Computer-Based Procedures System should be carefully evaluated in the design of a digital HSI considering the new Users Tasks Demand, the Organization of HSI Elements and the Work Environment. (author)

  20. Human factors engineering and design validation for the redesigned follitropin alfa pen injection device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahony, Mary C; Patterson, Patricia; Hayward, Brooke; North, Robert; Green, Dawne

    2015-05-01

    To demonstrate, using human factors engineering (HFE), that a redesigned, pre-filled, ready-to-use, pre-asembled follitropin alfa pen can be used to administer prescribed follitropin alfa doses safely and accurately. A failure modes and effects analysis identified hazards and harms potentially caused by use errors; risk-control measures were implemented to ensure acceptable device use risk management. Participants were women with infertility, their significant others, and fertility nurse (FN) professionals. Preliminary testing included 'Instructions for Use' (IFU) and pre-validation studies. Validation studies used simulated injections in a representative use environment; participants received prior training on pen use. User performance in preliminary testing led to IFU revisions and a change to outer needle cap design to mitigate needle stick potential. In the first validation study (49 users, 343 simulated injections), in the FN group, one observed critical use error resulted in a device design modification and another in an IFU change. A second validation study tested the mitigation strategies; previously reported use errors were not repeated. Through an iterative process involving a series of studies, modifications were made to the pen design and IFU. Simulated-use testing demonstrated that the redesigned pen can be used to administer follitropin alfa effectively and safely.

  1. Model for impact assessment in human factors engineering project of PWR plants with digital control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roedel, Frederico G.; Schirru, Roberto, E-mail: froedel@nuclear.ufrj.br, E-mail: schirru@lmp.ufrj.br [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    New nuclear power plants are being designed with the digital Instrumentation and Control (I and C) as the backbone for the functions of protection, control, monitoring and display and with digital Human-System Interface (HSI). In this new environment, rather than play physical control actions, the operators begin to act as decision makers and, within this context, the Human Factors Engineering (HFE) has become an integral part of the projects. As the operational experience with the use of digital I and C systems and HSI is limited since, besides the small number of applications, it is proprietary, the objective of this work is to carry out an assessment in order to identify the most relevant aspects of a digital HSI project. The proposed model is based on concepts of fuzzy logic, uses MATLAB for data processing, defines criteria for evaluation and quantification of impacts in the project and has been applied to the General Principles and the Guidelines presented in the NUREG-0700. The assessment indicated that the Guidelines for User-Interface Interaction and Management, for Information Display and for Computer-Based Procedures System should be carefully evaluated in the design of a digital HSI considering the new Users Tasks Demand, the Organization of HSI Elements and the Work Environment. (author)

  2. Updating Human Factors Engineering Guidelines for Conducting Safety Reviews of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.M.; Higgins, J.; Fleger, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) programs of applicants for nuclear power plant construction permits, operating licenses, standard design certifications, and combined operating licenses. The purpose of these safety reviews is to help ensure that personnel performance and reliability are appropriately supported. Detailed design review procedures and guidance for the evaluations is provided in three key documents: the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800), the HFE Program Review Model (NUREG-0711), and the Human-System Interface Design Review Guidelines (NUREG-0700). These documents were last revised in 2007, 2004 and 2002, respectively. The NRC is committed to the periodic update and improvement of the guidance to ensure that it remains a state-of-the-art design evaluation tool. To this end, the NRC is updating its guidance to stay current with recent research on human performance, advances in HFE methods and tools, and new technology being employed in plant and control room design. This paper describes the role of HFE guidelines in the safety review process and the content of the key HFE guidelines used. Then we will present the methodology used to develop HFE guidance and update these documents, and describe the current status of the update program.

  3. Three-dimensional computer-aided human factors engineering analysis of a grafting robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Y C; Chen, S; Wu, G J; Lin, Y H

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this research was to conduct a human factors engineering analysis of a grafting robot design using computer-aided 3D simulation technology. A prototype tubing-type grafting robot for fruits and vegetables was the subject of a series of case studies. To facilitate the incorporation of human models into the operating environment of the grafting robot, I-DEAS graphic software was applied to establish individual models of the grafting robot in line with Jack ergonomic analysis. Six human models (95th percentile, 50th percentile, and 5th percentile by height for both males and females) were employed to simulate the operating conditions and working postures in a real operating environment. The lower back and upper limb stresses of the operators were analyzed using the lower back analysis (LBA) and rapid upper limb assessment (RULA) functions in Jack. The experimental results showed that if a leg space is introduced under the robot, the operator can sit closer to the robot, which reduces the operator's level of lower back and upper limbs stress. The proper environmental layout for Taiwanese operators for minimum levels of lower back and upper limb stress are to set the grafting operation at 23.2 cm away from the operator at a height of 85 cm and with 45 cm between the rootstock and scion units.

  4. Engineered reversal of drug resistance in cancer cells--metastases suppressor factors as change agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vinod Kumar; Kumar, Akinchan; Mann, Anita; Aggarwal, Suruchi; Kumar, Maneesh; Roy, Sumitabho Deb; Pore, Subrata Kumar; Banerjee, Rajkumar; Mahesh Kumar, Jerald; Thakur, Ram Krishna; Chowdhury, Shantanu

    2014-01-01

    Building molecular correlates of drug resistance in cancer and exploiting them for therapeutic intervention remains a pressing clinical need. To identify factors that impact drug resistance herein we built a model that couples inherent cell-based response toward drugs with transcriptomes of resistant/sensitive cells. To test this model, we focused on a group of genes called metastasis suppressor genes (MSGs) that influence aggressiveness and metastatic potential of cancers. Interestingly, modeling of 84 000 drug response transcriptome combinations predicted multiple MSGs to be associated with resistance of different cell types and drugs. As a case study, on inducing MSG levels in a drug resistant breast cancer line resistance to anticancer drugs caerulomycin, camptothecin and topotecan decreased by more than 50-60%, in both culture conditions and also in tumors generated in mice, in contrast to control un-induced cells. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of engineered reversal of drug resistance in cancer cells based on a model that exploits inherent cellular response profiles.

  5. A Review on the Regulatory Strategy of Human Factors Engineering Consideration in Pakistan Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohail, Sabir [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seong Nam [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this paper, the legal and regulatory infrastructure available in Pakistan for HFE requirements is assessed, and the methodology for strengthening of legal infrastructure is presented. The regulatory strategy on evaluation of HFE consideration should provide reviewers with guidance on review process. Therefore, the suggested methodology is based on preparation of guidance documents such as checklist, working procedures, S and Gs etc.; incorporation of PRM elements in regulatory system; and finally the development of PRM implementation criteria. Altogether, the scheme provide the enhancement in regulatory infrastructure and also the effective and efficient review process. The Three Mile Island (TMI) accident brought the general consensus among the nuclear community on the integration of human factors engineering (HFE) principles in all phases of nuclear power. This notion has further strengthened after the recent Fukushima nuclear accident. Much effort has been put over to incorporate the lesson learned and continuous technical evolution on HFE to device different standards. The total of 174 ergonomics standards are alone identified by Dul et al. (2004) published by International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) and number of standards and HFE guidelines (S and Gs) are also published by organizations like Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IEEE), International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), etc. The ambition of effective review on HFE integration in nuclear facility might be accomplished through the development of methodology for systematic implementation of S and Gs. Such kind of methodology would also be beneficial for strengthening the regulatory framework and practices for countries new in the nuclear arena and with small scale nuclear program. The objective of paper is to review the

  6. Genetically engineered Rice with transcription factor DREB genes for abiotic stress tolerance(abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, S.K.; Datta, K.

    2005-01-01

    Water stress (drought and Salinity) is the most severe limitation to rice productivity. Several breeding approaches (MAS, QTL) applied to suitable genotypes are in place at IRRI and elsewhere. Phenotyping of water stress tolerance is in progress with potential predictability. Dr. Shinozaki's group has cloned a number of transcription factor genes, which have been shown to work in Arabidopsis to achieve drought, cold, and salinity tolerant plants. None of these genes have as yet displayed their potential functioning in rice. Genetic engineering aims at cross talk between different stress signaling pathways leading to stress tolerance. Osmotic Adjustment (OA) is an effective component of abiotic stress (drought and salinity) tolerance in many plants including rice. When plant experiences water stress, OA contributes to turgor maintenance of both shoots and roots. Conventional breeding could not achieve the OA in rice excepting a few rice cultivars, which are partially adapted to water-stress conditions. Several stress-related genes have now been cloned and transferred in to enhance the osmolytes and some transgenic lines showed increased tolerance to osmotic stress. A few strategies could be effectively deployed for a better understanding of water-stress tolerance in rice and to develop transgenic rice, which can survive for a critical period of water-stress conditions: 1) Switching on of transcription factor regulating the expression of several genes related to abiotic stress, 2) Use of a suitable stress inducible promoter driving the target gene for an efficient and directed expression in plants, 3) Understanding of phenotyping and GxE in a given environment, 4) Selection of a few adaptive rice cultivars suitable in drought/salinity prone areas, 5) Microarray, proteomics, QTL and MAS may expedite the cloning and characterizing the stress induced genes, and 6) Finally, the efficient transformation system for generating a large number of transgenic rice of different

  7. Success Factors for Using Case Method in Teaching and Learning Software Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Rozilawati; Zainal, Dzulaiha Aryanee Putri

    2013-01-01

    The Case Method (CM) has long been used effectively in Social Science education. Its potential use in Applied Science such as Software Engineering (SE) however has yet to be further explored. SE is an engineering discipline that concerns the principles, methods and tools used throughout the software development lifecycle. In CM, subjects are…

  8. Women of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics: A Qualitative Exploration into Factors of Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olund, Jeanine K.

    2012-01-01

    Although the number of women entering science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines has increased in recent years, overall there are still more men than women completing four-year degrees in these fields, especially in physics, engineering, and computer science. At higher levels of education and within the workplace, the…

  9. Are Quantity Surveyors Competent to Value for Civil Engineering Works? Evaluating QSs' Competencies and Militating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olawumi, Timothy Oluwatosin; Ayegun, Olaleke Amos

    2016-01-01

    The role of the quantity surveyor is one that is often unclear amongst the general public. This study discussed the competencies of the quantity surveyor in measuring and managing civil engineering works and also carrying out the financial management for civil engineering construction projects; also outlined the various competencies and skills…

  10. INCORPORATION OF HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING ANALYSES AND TOOLS INTO THE DESIGN PROCESS FOR DIGITAL CONTROL ROOM UPGRADES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'HARA, J.M.; BROWN, W.

    2004-01-01

    Many nuclear power plants are modernizing with digital instrumentation and control systems and computer-based human-system interfaces (HSIs). The purpose of this paper is to summarize the human factors engineering (HFE) activities that can help to ensure that the design meets personnel needs. HFE activities should be integrated into the design process as a regular part of the engineering effort of a plant modification. The HFE activities will help ensure that human performance issues are addressed, that new technology supports task performance, and that the HSIs are designed in a manner that is compatible with human physiological, cognitive and social characteristics

  11. Latent Transforming Growth Factor-beta1 Functionalised Electrospun Scaffolds Promote Human Cartilage Differentiation: Towards an Engineered Cartilage Construct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erh-Hsuin Lim

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundTo overcome the potential drawbacks of a short half-life and dose-related adverse effects of using active transforming growth factor-beta 1 for cartilage engineering, a cell-mediated latent growth factor activation strategy was developed incorporating latent transforming growth factor-β1 (LTGF into an electrospun poly(L-lactide scaffold.MethodsThe electrospun scaffold was surface modified with NH3 plasma and biofunctionalised with LTGF to produce both random and orientated biofunctionalised electrospun scaffolds. Scaffold surface chemical analysis and growth factor bioavailability assays were performed. In vitro biocompatibility and human nasal chondrocyte gene expression with these biofunctionalised electrospun scaffold templates were assessed. In vivo chondrogenic activity and chondrocyte gene expression were evaluated in athymic rats.ResultsChemical analysis demonstrated that LTGF anchored to the scaffolds was available for enzymatic, chemical and cell activation. The biofunctionalised scaffolds were non-toxic. Gene expression suggested chondrocyte re-differentiation after 14 days in culture. By 6 weeks, the implanted biofunctionalised scaffolds had induced highly passaged chondrocytes to re-express Col2A1 and produce type II collagen.ConclusionsWe have demonstrated a proof of concept for cell-mediated activation of anchored growth factors using a novel biofunctionalised scaffold in cartilage engineering. This presents a platform for development of protein delivery systems and for tissue engineering.

  12. A system engineer's Perspective on Human Errors For a more Effective Management of Human Factors in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong-Hee; Jang, Tong-Il; Lee, Soo-Kil

    2007-01-01

    The management of human factors in nuclear power plants (NPPs) has become one of the burden factors during their operating period after the design and construction period. Almost every study on the major accidents emphasizes the prominent importance of the human errors. Regardless of the regulatory requirements such as Periodic Safety Review, the management of human factors would be a main issue to reduce the human errors and to enhance the performance of plants. However, it is not easy to find out a more effective perspective on human errors to establish the engineering implementation plan for preventing them. This paper describes a system engineer's perspectives on human errors and discusses its application to the recent study on the human error events in Korean NPPs

  13. Integrated System Validation of Barakah Nuclear Power Plant in UAE for The Human Factor Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Munsoo [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    APR1400 simulator has been developed based on the state-of-the-art object-oriented simulation technology of TH(Thermo-Hydraulic) and Reactor Core model, which is applied for the first time in the our country and for the exportation, to well simulate characteristics of APR1400. Barakah unit 1,2 simulator are constructed and supplied with this type simulator model. Integrated system validation was performed using a simulator to verify the HFE(Human Factor Engineering) design of the MCR(Maim Control Room) for instrumentation and control system validation of the UAE nuclear power plant. APR1400 for the Barakah unit 1,2 has many specific features such as digital I and C, and digitalized main control room (MCR) design. From January 2016 to February, during six weeks, the tests carried out three times repeatedly and the various proposals for ergonomical satisfactation were derived. However, the HFE errors that cause significant change of validation target for APR1400 MCR design safety fidelity wasn't found. This has resulted in the conclusion to prove the stability of the basic design of APR1400 MCR. In the future, using the simulator derives the HFE requirements of the MCR systems and continually improve the simulator will be built in close to real high-fidelity power plant. These Integrated system validations are likely to be a great help in operating safety and preventing human errors by operators. Therefore successful completion of the Integrated System Validation for BNPP simulation will be effective to promotion the distinction of our simulator and APR1400 NPP.

  14. Engineering the Oryza sativa cell wall with rice NAC transcription factors regulating secondary wall formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouki eYoshida

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant tissues that require structural rigidity synthesize a thick, strong secondary cell wall of lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses in a complicated bridged structure. Master regulators of secondary wall synthesis were identified in dicots, and orthologs of these regulators have been identified in monocots, but regulation of secondary cell wall formation in monocots has not been extensively studied. Here we demonstrate that the rice transcription factors SECONDARY WALL NAC DOMAIN PROTEINs (SWNs can regulate secondary wall formation in rice (Oryza sativa and are potentially useful for engineering the monocot cell wall. The OsSWN1 promoter is highly active in sclerenchymatous cells of the leaf blade and less active in xylem cells. By contrast, the OsSWN2 promoter is highly active in xylem cells and less active in sclerenchymatous cells. OsSWN2 splicing variants encode two proteins; the shorter protein (OsSWN2S has very low transcriptional activation ability, but the longer protein (OsSWN2L and OsSWN1 have strong transcriptional activation ability. In rice, expression of an OsSWN2S chimeric repressor, driven by the OsSWN2 promoter, resulted in stunted growth and para-wilting (leaf rolling and browning under normal water conditions due to impaired vascular vessels. The same OsSWN2S chimeric repressor, driven by the OsSWN1 promoter, caused a reduction of cell wall thickening in sclerenchymatous cells, a drooping leaf phenotype, reduced lignin and xylose contents and increased digestibility as forage. These data suggest that OsSWNs regulate secondary wall formation in rice and manipulation of OsSWNs may enable improvements in monocotyledonous crops for forage or biofuel applications.

  15. Exploring Barriers to Medication Safety in an Ethiopian Hospital Emergency Department: A Human Factors Engineering Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ephrem Abebe

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe challenges associated with the medication use process and potential medication safety hazards in an Ethiopian hospital emergency department using a human factors approach. Methods: We conducted a qualitative study employing observations and semi-structured interviews guided by the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety model of work system as an analytical framework. The study was conducted in the emergency department of a teaching hospital in Ethiopia. Study participants included resident doctors, nurses, and pharmacists. We performed content analysis of the qualitative data using accepted procedures. Results: Organizational barriers included communication failures, limited supervision and support for junior staff contributing to role ambiguity and conflict. Compliance with documentation policy was minimal. Task related barriers included frequent interruptions and work-related stress resulting from job requirements to continuously prioritize the needs of large numbers of patients and family members. Person related barriers included limited training and work experience. Work-related fatigue due to long working hours interfered with staff’s ability to document and review medication orders. Equipment breakdowns were common as were non-calibrated or poorly maintained medical devices contributing to erroneous readings. Key environment related barriers included overcrowding and frequent interruption of staff’s work. Cluttering of the work space compounded the problem by impeding efforts to locate medications, medical supplies or medical charts. Conclusions: Applying a systems based approach allows a context specific understanding of medication safety hazards in EDs from low-income countries. When developing interventions to improve medication and overall patient safety, health leaders should consider the interactions of the different factors. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or

  16. Soliton compression to few-cycle pulses with a high quality factor by engineering cascaded quadratic nonlinearities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Xianglong; Guo, Hairun; Zhou, Binbin

    2012-01-01

    We propose an efficient approach to improve few-cycle soliton compression with cascaded quadratic nonlinearities by using an engineered multi-section structure of the nonlinear crystal. By exploiting engineering of the cascaded quadratic nonlinearities, in each section soliton compression...... with a low effective order is realized, and high-quality few-cycle pulses with large compression factors are feasible. Each subsequent section is designed so that the compressed pulse exiting the previous section experiences an overall effective self-defocusing cubic nonlinearity corresponding to a modest...... soliton order, which is kept larger than unity to ensure further compression. This is done by increasing the cascaded quadratic nonlinearity in the new section with an engineered reduced residual phase mismatch. The low soliton orders in each section ensure excellent pulse quality and high efficiency...

  17. Meta-Analysis of Human Factors Engineering Studies Comparing Individual Differences, Practice Effects and Equipment Design Variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-21

    Approvoid foT public 90Ieleol, 2* . tJni7nited " - . - o . - ’--. * . -... . 1 UNCLASSIFIED S, E CURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE-" REPORT DOCUMENTATION...ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) . Veta -Analysis of Human Factors Engineering Studies Comparing Individual Differences, Practice...Background C Opportunity D Significance E History III. PHASE I FINAL REPORT A Literature Review B Formal Analysis C Results D Implications for Phase II IV

  18. Factors affecting the matriculation of African American undergraduate students in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alfred L., II

    Previous research studies indicated that African Americans remain severely underrepresented in the field of science, mathematics, engineering, and technology (SMET), making up only 3% of that workforce, while representing 11.1% of all professional and related workers and 12.6% of the general population. As this country moves towards a more culturally diverse population, then representation of African Americans in SMET-related fields must be addressed in order to ensure our nation's competitiveness in a global market. This research study analyzed characteristics of African American undergraduate SMET majors participating in the Alliance for Minority Participation (AMP) program in six different states located in the Southeast region of the United States. These states consisted of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, and South Carolina. AMP program participants completed a survey questionnaire, which collected information about potential factors that could affect their matriculation in SMET programs of studies at their respective institutions. Follow-up interviews and focus group sessions were also conducted with AMP participants to provide supplemental information to the survey data. The results of student responses were analyzed according to the type of institution the students attended (Historically Black College or University and Majority White Institution) as well as by the statewide Alliance program in which the students were involved. The students responded to survey questions that asked for their reasons for majoring in their field of study, their level of satisfaction with their institution, their impressions of student support programs and persons, their impressions of faculty and advisors, their reasons for thinking of switching majors, and their level of high school preparation. Statistical analyses of the student responses found that African American AMP students attending Historically Black Colleges and Universities differed from those

  19. Implications of the new Food and Drug Administration draft guidance on human factors engineering for diabetes device manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Stephen B; Drucker, Daniel

    2012-03-01

    This article discusses the implications of the new Food and Drug Administration's draft guidance on human factors and usability engineering for the development of diabetes-related devices. Important considerations include the challenge of identifying users, when the user population is so dramatically broad, and the challenge of identifying use environments when the same can be said for use environments. Another important consideration is that diabetes-related devices, unlike many other medical devices, are used constantly as part of the user's lifestyle--adding complexity to the focus on human factors and ease of use emphasized by the draft guidance. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  20. An Exploratory Investigation of Teaching Innovations and Learning Factors in a Lean Manufacturing Systems Engineering Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choomlucksana, Juthamas; Doolen, Toni L.

    2017-01-01

    The use of collaborative activities and simulation sessions in engineering education has been explored previously. However, few studies have investigated the relationship of these types of teaching innovations with other learner characteristics, such as self-efficacy and background knowledge. This study explored the effects of collaborative…

  1. Speciation Profiles and Toxic Emission Factors for Nonroad Engines: DRAFT REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document details the research and development behind how MOVES2014a estimates air toxic emissions for nonroad engines and equipment run on conventional gasoline without ethanol (E0) and gasoline blended with 10% ethanol (E10) as well as diesel fuel, compressed natural gas (C...

  2. Factors Influencing Engineering Students' Decisions to Cheat by Type of Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passow, Honor J.; Mayhew, Matthew J.; Finelli, Cynthia J.; Harding, Trevor S.; Carpenter, Donald D.

    2006-01-01

    Academic dishonesty (cheating) has been prevalent on college campuses for decades, and the percentage of students reporting cheating varies by college major. This study, based on a survey of 643 undergraduate engineering majors at 11 institutions, used two parallel hierarchical multiple regression analyses to predict the frequency of cheating on…

  3. The rotator cuff: from bench to bedside. Developments in tissue engineering, surgical techniques and pathogenetic factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Longo, U.G.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis originates from the difficulties in the management of patients with rotator cuff tears. Since tendon healing rate is relatively slow compared with other connective tissues, we reviewed the available literature on tissue engineered biological augmentation for tendon healing, including

  4. Factors Affecting Students' Satisfaction in Engineering Disciplines: Traditional vs. Blended Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Caro, Eva; Campuzano-Bolarin, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a two-year field study was carried out to analyse how satisfaction differs across the traditional and blended learning methods. Altogether, 21 courses for graduate and postgraduate engineering students were evaluated. Several variables and their relationship with student satisfaction in the first year, with all courses delivered in…

  5. Influence of several factors on ignition lag in a compression-ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Harold C; Voss, Fred

    1932-01-01

    This investigation was made to determine the influence of fuel quality, injection advance angle, injection valve-opening pressure, inlet-air pressure, compression ratio, and engine speed on the time lag of auto-ignition of a Diesel fuel oil in a single-cylinder compression-ignition engine as obtained from an analysis of indicator diagrams. Three cam-operated fuel-injection pumps, two pumps cams, and an automatic injection valve with two different nozzles were used. Ignition lag was considered to be the interval between the start of injection of the fuel as determined with a Stroborama and the start of effective combustion as determined from the indicator diagram, the latter being the point where 4.0 x 10(exp-6) pound of fuel had been effectively burned. For this particular engine and fuel it was found that: (1) for a constant start and the same rate of fuel injection up the point of cut-off, a variation in fuel quantity from 1.2 x 10(exp-4) to 4.1 x 10(exp-4) pound per cycle has no appreciable effect on the ignition lag; (2) injection advance angle increases or decreases the lag according to whether density, temperature, or turbulence has the controlling influence; (3) increase in valve-opening pressure slightly increases the lag; and (4) increase of inlet-air pressure, compression ratio, and engine speed reduces the lag.

  6. From nano- to macro-scale: nanotechnology approaches for spatially controlled delivery of bioactive factors for bone and cartilage engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Vítor E; Gomes, Manuela E; Mano, João F; Reis, Rui L

    2012-07-01

    The field of biomaterials has advanced towards the molecular and nanoscale design of bioactive systems for tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and drug delivery. Spatial cues are displayed in the 3D extracellular matrix and can include signaling gradients, such as those observed during chemotaxis. Architectures range from the nanometer to the centimeter length scales as exemplified by extracellular matrix fibers, cells and macroscopic shapes. The main focus of this review is the application of a biomimetic approach by the combination of architectural cues, obtained through the application of micro- and nanofabrication techniques, with the ability to sequester and release growth factors and other bioactive agents in a spatiotemporal controlled manner for bone and cartilage engineering.

  7. Virtual Environment Computer Simulations to Support Human Factors Engineering and Operations Analysis for the RLV Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunsford, Myrtis Leigh

    1998-01-01

    The Army-NASA Virtual Innovations Laboratory (ANVIL) was recently created to provide virtual reality tools for performing Human Engineering and operations analysis for both NASA and the Army. The author's summer research project consisted of developing and refining these tools for NASA's Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) program. Several general simulations were developed for use by the ANVIL for the evaluation of the X34 Engine Changeout procedure. These simulations were developed with the software tool dVISE 4.0.0 produced by Division Inc. All software was run on an SGI Indigo2 High Impact. This paper describes the simulations, various problems encountered with the simulations, other summer activities, and possible work for the future. We first begin with a brief description of virtual reality systems.

  8. Human factors engineering evaluation of the Advanced Test Reactor Control Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boone, M.P.; Banks, W.W.

    1980-12-01

    The information presented here represents preliminary findings related to an ongoing human engineering evaluation of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Control Room. Although many of the problems examined in this report have been previously noted by ATR operations personnel, the systematic approach used in this investigation produced many new insights. While many violations of Human Engineering military standards (MIL-STD) are noted, and numerous recommendations made, the recommendations should be examined cautiously. The reason for our suggested caution lies in the fact that many ATR operators have well over 10-years experience in operating the controls, meters, etc. Hence, it is assumed adaptation to the existing system is quite developed and the introduction of hardware/control changes, even though the changes enhance the system, may cause short-term (or long-term, depending upon the amount of operator experience and training) adjustment problems for operators adapting to the new controls/meters and physical layout

  9. Chemistry for engineering students: A key factor for social and technological development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Llorens Molina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarity of Chemistry as a basic subject in Engineering Studies and its embedded potential difficulties are matters which are now common to universities worldwide. In particular, the learning of Chemistry in the new (post Bologna degrees of Engineering in Spain and other countries is facing several challenges. In other words, there is a need to deepen into research and innovation tasks aiming at improving such studies within this new educational paradigm. Not to mention, two crucial aspects which are very often neglected, namely, reaching maximum efficiency of all types of available resources and obtaining a “knock on effect” from students and teachers at Secondary school level. The latter playing a crucial role so as to increase students’ awareness of the importance that Chemistry has at this particular educational level. Not to mention, how this increases their motivation towards this subject in the Higher Education scenario.

  10. Re-Factoring Glycolytic Genes for Targeted Engineering of Catabolism in Gram-Negative Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez-Pascuala, Alberto; Nikel, Pablo I.; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2018-01-01

    the potential applications of such a portable tool for targeted pathway engineering, in the present protocol we describe how the genes encoding all the enzymes of the linear EMP route have been individually recruited from the genome of E. coli K-12, edited in silico to remove their endogenous regulatory signals......The Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway is widely accepted to be the biochemical standard of glucose catabolism. The well-characterized glycolytic route of Escherichia coli, based on the EMP catabolism, is an example of an intricate pathway in terms of genomic organization of the genes involved...... and patterns of gene expression and regulation. This intrinsic genetic and metabolic complexity renders it difficult to engineer glycolytic activities and transfer them onto other microbial cell factories, thus limiting the biotechnological potential of bacterial hosts that lack the route. Taking into account...

  11. Articular cartilage tissue engineering with plasma-rich in growth factors and stem cells with nano scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaser, Laila M.; Abbassy, Hadeer A.; Fawzy, Sherin M.

    2016-09-01

    The ability to heal soft tissue injuries and regenerate cartilage is the Holy Grail of musculoskeletal medicine. Articular cartilage repair and regeneration is considered to be largely intractable due to the poor regenerative properties of this tissue. Due to their low self-repair ability, cartilage defects that result from joint injury, aging, or osteoarthritis, are the most often irreversible and are a major cause of joint pain and chronic disability. However, current methods do not perfectly restore hyaline cartilage and may lead to the apparition of fibro- or continue hypertrophic cartilage. The lack of efficient modalities of treatment has prompted research into tissue engineering combining stem cells, scaffold materials and environmental factors. The field of articular cartilage tissue engineering, which aims to repair, regenerate, and/or improve injured or diseased cartilage functionality, has evoked intense interest and holds great potential for improving cartilage therapy. Plasma-rich in growth factors (PRGF) and/or stem cells may be effective for tissue repair as well as cartilage regenerative processes. There is a great promise to advance current cartilage therapies toward achieving a consistently successful approach for addressing cartilage afflictions. Tissue engineering may be the best way to reach this objective via the use of stem cells, novel biologically inspired scaffolds and, emerging nanotechnology. In this paper, current and emergent approach in the field of cartilage tissue engineering is presented for specific application. In the next years, the development of new strategies using stem cells, in scaffolds, with supplementation of culture medium could improve the quality of new formed cartilage.

  12. The State and Factors of the Economic Dynamics of Mechanical Engineering Enterprises in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stadnyk Valentyna V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic dynamics of mechanical engineering enterprises in Ukraine is considered. Steady negative trends in the volumes of production and sales of mechanical engineering products are revealed. The analysis of the export capabilities of the mechanical engineering industry in the context of the main commodity groups showed an increase in the exports of products of the third technological mode, which indicates a decrease in its science intensity. The study of the impact on the state of the industry of general macroeconomic trends, which are reflected in the changes in the Global Competitiveness Index of Ukraine in 2014-2016, demonstrated some improvements in the indicators characterizing the conditions of business management and the results of their innovation activities. With the purpose of assessing the conformity of the directions in innovation activities of enterprises in the industrial sector of Ukraine to the objectives of increasing their innovative potential, there conducted an analysis of the structure of innovation costs, which showed a significant predominance of costs on acquiring equipment, while the implementation of new technologies is carried out mainly on the basis of resource saving and not flexibility; the introduction of product innovations in the market, especially of fundamentally new ones, decreases. The examination of organizational forms of innovation management in mechanical engineering enterprises indicated the lack of complementarity of innovation management and quality management systems, as well as a low level of staff involvement in these improvement processes. The necessity of eliminating these deficiencies in management for increasing the innovative potential of enterprises and achieving cognitive self-sufficiency is underlined. It is noted that the principles underlying modern quality management systems can be used to solve these problems.

  13. Internal education quality evaluation as a factor of development of engineering education quality in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Shvindt Antoniy; Nikanorov Ivan

    2017-01-01

    In the paper, general approaches to evaluation of quality of engineering education in Russia, stated by expert community, are considered. The authors arrived at the conclusion that attention to internal evaluation mechanism of the education quality in Russian normative framework of higher education system is insufficient, as compared to European higher education practices. A pattern of involving the students in the internal evaluation of higher education quality is submitted to be a tool to d...

  14. Re-Factoring Glycolytic Genes for Targeted Engineering of Catabolism in Gram-Negative Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pascuala, Alberto; Nikel, Pablo I; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2018-01-01

    The Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway is widely accepted to be the biochemical standard of glucose catabolism. The well-characterized glycolytic route of Escherichia coli, based on the EMP catabolism, is an example of an intricate pathway in terms of genomic organization of the genes involved and patterns of gene expression and regulation. This intrinsic genetic and metabolic complexity renders it difficult to engineer glycolytic activities and transfer them onto other microbial cell factories, thus limiting the biotechnological potential of bacterial hosts that lack the route. Taking into account the potential applications of such a portable tool for targeted pathway engineering, in the present protocol we describe how the genes encoding all the enzymes of the linear EMP route have been individually recruited from the genome of E. coli K-12, edited in silico to remove their endogenous regulatory signals, and synthesized de novo following a standard (i.e., GlucoBrick) that facilitates their grouping in the form of functional modules that can be combined at the user's will. This novel genetic tool allows for the à la carte implementation or boosting of EMP pathway activities into different Gram-negative bacteria. The potential of the GlucoBrick platform is further illustrated by engineering novel glycolytic activities in the most representative members of the Pseudomonas genus (Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas aeruginosa).

  15. A Possible Approach for Addressing Neglected Human Factors Issues of Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher W.; Holloway, C. Michael

    2011-01-01

    The increasing complexity of safety-critical applications has led to the introduction of decision support tools in the transportation and process industries. Automation has also been introduced to support operator intervention in safety-critical applications. These innovations help reduce overall operator workload, and filter application data to maximize the finite cognitive and perceptual resources of system operators. However, these benefits do not come without a cost. Increased computational support for the end-users of safety-critical applications leads to increased reliance on engineers to monitor and maintain automated systems and decision support tools. This paper argues that by focussing on the end-users of complex applications, previous research has tended to neglect the demands that are being placed on systems engineers. The argument is illustrated through discussing three recent accidents. The paper concludes by presenting a possible strategy for building and using highly automated systems based on increased attention by management and regulators, improvements in competency and training for technical staff, sustained support for engineering team resource management, and the development of incident reporting systems for infrastructure failures. This paper represents preliminary work, about which we seek comments and suggestions.

  16. A software prototype development of human system interfaces for human factors engineering validation tests of SMART MCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jong Tae; Han, Kwan Ho; Yang, Seung Won

    2011-02-01

    An integrated system validation test bed used for human factors engineering validation test is being developed. This study has a goal to develop a software prototype for HFE validation of SMART MCR design. To achieve these, first, some prototype specifications of the software was developed. Then software prototypes of alarm reduction logic system, Plant Protection System, ESF-CCS, Elastic Tile Alarm Indication, and EID-based HSIs were implemented as codes. Test procedures for the software prototypes were established to verify the completeness of the codes implemented. The careful software test has been done according to these test procedures, and the result were documented

  17. Quality of engineering surveysas a factor of natural-technogenic systems formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashperyuk Pavel Ivanovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction in urban areas is often related to reusing previously developed sites, which requires solving additional tasks both by builders and surveyors additional. The tasks are related to the evaluation of already changed natural (geological environment of this area and its further investigation in connection with the proposed creation of a new natural-technogenic system (NTS. This article presents some examples of the influence of engineering survey quality on adopting extraordinary project solutions excluding the negative impact on NTS formation in the process of construction and operation of facilities in Moscow. In particular it is stated that the lack of control in the process of land works and transfer from the platform of water-bearing communications may ultimately lead to a different change in the strength and deformation properties of soil at the base of structures, and in some cases to geoecological disfuncion of the newly created NTS due to adverse geological processes development. The author draws attention to the complexity and responsibility of engineering geological surveys in the areas of developing powerful (>10 m strata of bulk soils. The article considers some aspects of the influence of the temperature regime of soils in the foundation structures active zone on heat and moisture transfer in these soils, their condition and deformation properties in city area. A particular example of the construction of a high-rise building in Moscow has shown that the presence of heat-bearing communications within 3—10 m from the earth's surface may increase the annual average temperature of the strata up to 30 degrees and more, thus, dismantling such communications leads to different changes in the established temperature regime and conditions of clay soils. It is noted that the forecast of the change in basic physical and mechanical properties of the base soil in urban conditions is not possible without thermometric work during

  18. Interplay between abiotic factors and species assemblages mediated by the ecosystem engineer Sabellaria alveolata (Annelida: Polychaeta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Auriane G.; Dubois, Stanislas F.; Desroy, Nicolas; Fournier, Jérôme

    2018-01-01

    Sabellaria alveolata is a gregarious polychaete that uses sand particles to build three-dimensional structures known as reefs, fixed atop rocks or built on soft sediments. These structures are known to modify the local grain-size distribution and to host a highly diversified macrofauna, altered when the reef undergoes disturbances. The goal of this study was to investigate the different sedimentary and biological changes associated with the presence of a S. alveolata reef over two contrasting seasons (late winter and late summer), and how these changes were linked. Three different sediments were considered: the engineered sediment (the actual reef), the associated sediment (the soft sediment surrounding the reef structures) and a control soft sediment (i.e. no reef structures in close proximity). Univariate and multivariate comparisons of grain-size distribution, soft sediment characteristics (organic matter content, chlorophyll a, pheopigments and carbohydrate concentrations) and macrofauna were conducted between the different sediment types at both seasons and between the two seasons for each sediment type. A distance-based redundancy analyses (dbRDA) was used to investigate the link between the different environmental parameters and the macrofauna assemblages. Finally, we focused on a disturbance continuum of the engineered sediments proxied by an increase in the mud present in these sediments. The effects of a continuous and increasing disturbance on the associated fauna were investigated using pairwise beta diversity indices (Sørensen and Bray-Curtis dissimilarities and their decomposition into turnover and nestedness). Results showed a significant effect of the reef on the local sediment distribution (coarser sediments compared to the control) and on the benthic primary production (higher in the associated sediments). At both seasons, S. alveolata biomass and sediment principal mode were the environmental parameters which best differentiated the engineered

  19. Novel chitosan/collagen scaffold containing transforming growth factor-β1 DNA for periodontal tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yufeng; Cheng Xiangrong; Wang Jiawei; Wang Yining; Shi Bin; Huang Cui; Yang Xuechao; Liu Tongjun

    2006-01-01

    The current rapid progression in tissue engineering and local gene delivery system has enhanced our applications to periodontal tissue engineering. In this study, porous chitosan/collagen scaffolds were prepared through a freeze-drying process, and loaded with plasmid and adenoviral vector encoding human transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). These scaffolds were evaluated in vitro by analysis of microscopic structure, porosity, and cytocompatibility. Human periodontal ligament cells (HPLCs) were seeded in this scaffold, and gene transfection could be traced by green fluorescent protein (GFP). The expression of type I and type III collagen was detected with RT-PCR, and then these scaffolds were implanted subcutaneously into athymic mice. Results indicated that the pore diameter of the gene-combined scaffolds was lower than that of pure chitosan/collagen scaffold. The scaffold containing Ad-TGF-β1 exhibited the highest proliferation rate, and the expression of type I and type III collagen up-regulated in Ad-TGF-β1 scaffold. After implanted in vivo, EGFP-transfected HPLCs not only proliferated but also recruited surrounding tissue to grow in the scaffold. This study demonstrated the potential of chitosan/collagen scaffold combined Ad-TGF-β1 as a good substrate candidate in periodontal tissue engineering

  20. Human Factors engineering criteria and design for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant preliminary safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, J.A.; Schur, A.; Stitzel, J.C.L.

    1993-09-01

    This report provides a rationale and systematic methodology for bringing Human Factors into the safety design and operations of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). Human Factors focuses on how people perform work with tools and machine systems in designed settings. When the design of machine systems and settings take into account the capabilities and limitations of the individuals who use them, human performance can be enhanced while protecting against susceptibility to human error. The inclusion of Human Factors in the safety design of the HWVP is an essential ingredient to safe operation of the facility. The HWVP is a new construction, nonreactor nuclear facility designed to process radioactive wastes held in underground storage tanks into glass logs for permanent disposal. Its design and mission offer new opposites for implementing Human Factors while requiring some means for ensuring that the Human Factors assessments are sound, comprehensive, and appropriately directed

  1. Factors promoting increased rate of tissue regeneration: the zebrafish fin as a tool for examining tissue engineering design concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boominathan, Vijay P; Ferreira, Tracie L

    2012-12-01

    Student interest in topics of tissue engineering is increasing exponentially as the number of universities offering programs in bioengineering are on the rise. Bioengineering encompasses all of the STEM categories: Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math. Inquiry-based learning is one of the most effective techniques for promoting student learning and has been demonstrated to have a high impact on learning outcomes. We have designed program outcomes for our bioengineering program that require tiered activities to develop problem solving skills, peer evaluation techniques, and promote team work. While it is ideal to allow students to ask unique questions and design their own experiments, this can be difficult for instructors to have reagents and supplies available for a variety of activities. Zebrafish can be easily housed, and multiple variables can be tested on a large enough group to provide statistical value, lending them well to inquiry-based learning modules. We have designed a laboratory activity that takes observation of fin regeneration to the next level: analyzing conditions that may impact regeneration. Tissue engineers seek to define the optimum conditions to grow tissue for replacement parts. The field of tissue engineering is likely to benefit from understanding natural mechanisms of regeneration and the factors that influence the rate of regeneration. We have outlined the results of varying temperature on fin regeneration and propose other inquiry modules such as the role of pH in fin regeneration. Furthermore, we have provided useful tools for developing critical thinking and peer review of research ideas, assessment guidelines, and grading rubrics for the activities associated with this exercise.

  2. Bloch-Wave Engineered Submicron Diameter Micropillars with Quality Factors Exceeding 10,000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofling, S.; Lermer, M.; Gregersen, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Adiabatic design submicron diameter quantum-dot micropillars have been designed and implemented for cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments. Ultra-high experimental quality factors (>10,000) are obtained for submicron diameters and strong light-matter interaction is observed....

  3. Controllable mineral coatings on scaffolds as carriers for growth factor release for bone tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurez-Gonzalez, Darilis

    The work presented in this document, focused on the development and characterization of mineral coatings on scaffold materials to serve as templates for growth factor binding and release. Mineral coatings were formed using a biomimetic approach that consisted in the incubation of scaffolds in modified simulated body fluids (mSBF). To modulate the properties of the mineral coating, which we hypothesized would dictate growth factor release, we used carbonate (HCO3) concentration in mSBF of 4.2 mM, 25mM, and 100mM. Analysis of the mineral coatings formed using scanning electron microscopy indicated growth of a continuous layer of mineral with different morphologies. X-ray diffraction analysis showed peaks associated with hydroxyapatite. FTIR data confirmed the substitution of HCO3 in the mineral. As the extent of HCO3 substitution increased, the coating exhibited more rapid dissolution kinetics in an environment deficient in calcium and phosphate. The mineral coatings provided an effective mechanism for bioactive growth factor binding and release. Peptide versions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) were bound with efficiencies up to 90% to mineral-coated PCL scaffolds. Recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor (rhVEGF) also bound to mineral coated scaffolds with lower efficiency (20%) and released with faster release kinetics compared to peptides growth factor. Released rhVEGF induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation in vitro and enhanced blood vessel formation in vivo in an intramuscular sheep model. In addition to the use the mineral coatings for single growth factor release, we expanded the concept and bound both an angiogenic (rhVEGF) and osteogenic (mBMP2) growth factor by a simple double dipping process. Sustained release of both growth factors was demonstrated for over 60 days. Released rhVEGF enhanced blood vessel formation in vivo in sheep and its biological activity was

  4. Sequential growth factor application in bone marrow stromal cell ligament engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Jodie E; Chen, Jingsong; Horan, Rebecca L; Kaplan, David L; Altman, Gregory H

    2005-01-01

    In vitro bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) growth may be enhanced through culture medium supplementation, mimicking the biochemical environment in which cells optimally proliferate and differentiate. We hypothesize that the sequential administration of growth factors to first proliferate and then differentiate BMSCs cultured on silk fiber matrices will support the enhanced development of ligament tissue in vitro. Confluent second passage (P2) BMSCs obtained from purified bone marrow aspirates were seeded on RGD-modified silk matrices. Seeded matrices were divided into three groups for 5 days of static culture, with medium supplement of basic fibroblast growth factor (B) (1 ng/mL), epidermal growth factor (E; 1 ng/mL), or growth factor-free control (C). After day 5, medium supplementation was changed to transforming growth factor-beta1 (T; 5 ng/mL) or C for an additional 9 days of culture. Real-time RT-PCR, SEM, MTT, histology, and ELISA for collagen type I of all sample groups were performed. Results indicated that BT supported the greatest cell ingrowth after 14 days of culture in addition to the greatest cumulative collagen type I expression measured by ELISA. Sequential growth factor application promoted significant increases in collagen type I transcript expression from day 5 of culture to day 14, for five of six groups tested. All T-supplemented samples surpassed their respective control samples in both cell ingrowth and collagen deposition. All samples supported spindle-shaped, fibroblast cell morphology, aligning with the direction of silk fibers. These findings indicate significant in vitro ligament development after only 14 days of culture when using a sequential growth factor approach.

  5. A Prospective Investigation of Injury Incidence and Risk Factors Among Army Recruits in Combat Engineer Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    Sports 1997, 7:304–311. 23. Knapik JJ, Spiess A, Swedler D, Grier T, Darakjy S, Amoroso P, Jones BH: Injury risk factors in parachuting and...reducing parachute-related ankle injuries. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2004, 36:S312. 26. Knapik JJ, Grier T, Spiess A, Swedler DI, Hauret KG, Graham B, Yoder...Knapik JJ, Spiess A, Darakjy S, Grier T, Manning F, Livingstone E, Swedler D, Amoroso P, Jones BH: Risk factors for parachute injuries and comments about

  6. Business process re-engineering in the logistics industry: a study of implementation, success factors, and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chien-wen; Chou, Ching-Chih

    2010-02-01

    As business process re-engineering (BPR) is an important foundation to ensure the success of enterprise systems, this study would like to investigate the relationships among BPR implementation, BPR success factors, and business performance for logistics companies. Our empirical findings show that BPR companies outperformed non-BPR companies, not only on information processing, technology applications, organisational structure, and co-ordination, but also on all of the major logistics operations. Comparing the different perceptions of the success factors for BPR, non-BPR companies place greater emphasis on the importance of employee involvement while BPR companies are more concerned about the influence of risk management. Our findings also suggest that management attitude towards BPR success factors could affect performance with regard to technology applications and logistics operations. Logistics companies which have not yet implemented the BPR approach could refer to our findings to evaluate the advantages of such an undertaking and to take care of those BPR success factors affecting performance before conducting BPR projects.

  7. Step out of the groove : epigenetic gene control systems and engineered transcription factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschure, P.J.; Visser, A.E.; Rots, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    At the linear DNA level, gene activity is believed to be driven by binding of transcription factors, which subsequently recruit the RNA polymerase to the gene promoter region. However, it has become clear that transcriptional activation involves large complexes of many different proteins, which not

  8. Human factors science and safety engineering : can the STAMP model serve in establishing a common language?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanikas, Nektarios; Schwarz, M; Harfmann, J

    2017-01-01

    A symbiotic relationship between human factors and safety scientists is needed to ensure the provision of holistic solutions for problems emerging in modern socio-technical systems. System Theoretic Accident Model and Processes (STAMP) tackles both interactions and individual failures of human and

  9. Mathematical Model of Growth Factor Driven Haptotaxis and Proliferation in a Tissue Engineering Scaffold

    KAUST Repository

    Pohlmeyer, J. V.; Waters, S. L.; Cummings, L. J.

    2013-01-01

    nutrient-rich culture medium is perfused through a 2D porous scaffold impregnated with growth factor and seeded with cells. We model these processes on the timescale of cell proliferation, which typically is of the order of days. While a quantitative

  10. Estonian Language of Technology as a Factor Supporting the Evolution of Engineering Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mägi, Vahur

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Casual mention of teaching technology subjects in Estonian schools dates back several centuries. Navigation and construction were amongthe earliest professional skills that were taught. As both of them required mathematical thinking skills, teaching the subjects was usually accompanied by explaining the principles of mathematics. The first technology book in Estonian was published about two centuries ago and it dealed with geodesy. The earliest Estonian glossaries of technological terminology were published in the fields of physics and chemistry. The rise of Estonian as a language of higher education and science in the country came about in the 1920s and 1930s. Faculty members of the Tallinn School of Technology then published the first textbooks composed in the Estonian language for students of technology. The Estonian Society for Technology and the Estonian Association of Engineers became seriously involved in linguistic activities. Together with the Vocational Teachers’ Assembly of Tartu they published an illustrated technology glossary for machinery and tools terms. It was followed by a glossary of construction and building terms, compiled under the lead of the University of Technology. In addition, journals of technology introducedinnovations in the lexicon of technology to the general public. The postwar period in the development of the lexicon of technical terms was of little significance at first. A surge in language creativity could be detected in the 1960s, when terminology became a target of constantly growing attention to the development of technology lexicon. Series of technology glossaries were published. This tendency has continued to this day.

  11. A combinatorial approach to synthetic transcription factor-promoter combinations for yeast strain engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dossani, Zain Y.; Apel, Amanda Reider; Szmidt-Middleton, Heather

    2018-01-01

    regions, we have built a library of hybrid promoters that are regulated by a synthetic transcription factor. The hybrid promoters consist of native S. cerevisiae promoters, in which the operator regions have been replaced with sequences that are recognized by the bacterial LexA DNA binding protein....... Correspondingly, the synthetic transcription factor (TF) consists of the DNA binding domain of the LexA protein, fused with the human estrogen binding domain and the viral activator domain, VP16. The resulting system with a bacterial DNA binding domain avoids the transcription of native S. cerevisiae genes...... levels, using the same synthetic TF and a given estradiol. This set of promoters, in combination with our synthetic TF, has the potential to regulate numerous genes or pathways simultaneously, to multiple desired levels, in a single strain....

  12. Insulin-like growth factor I enhances collagen synthesis in engineered human tendon tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herchenhan, Andreas; Bayer, Monika L.; Eliasson, Pernilla

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Isolated human tendon cells form 3D tendon constructs that demonstrate collagen fibrillogenesis and feature structural similarities to tendon when cultured under tensile load. The exact role of circulating growth factors for collagen formation in tendon is sparsely examined. We...... investigated the influence of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) on tendon construct formation in 3D cell culture. DESIGN: Tendon constructs were grown in 0.5 or 10% FBS with or without IGF-I (250 mg/ml) supplementation. Collagen content (fluorometric), mRNA levels (PCR) and fibril diameter (transmission...... electron microscopy) were determined at 7, 10, 14, 21 and 28 days. RESULTS: IGF-I revealed a stimulating effect on fibril diameter (up to day 21), mRNA for collagen (to day 28), tenomodulin (to day 28) and scleraxis (at days 10 and 14), and on overall collagen content. 10% FBS diminished the development...

  13. [Regeneration of autologous tissue-engineered cartilage by using basic-fibroblast growth factor in vitro culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiao-bang; Cheng, Ning-xin; Chen, Bing; Xia, Wan-yao; Cui, Lei; Liu, Wei; Cao, Yi-lin

    2004-05-01

    To investigate the effect of the basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF) to regenerate an autologous tissue-engineered cartilage in vitro. The Cells were harvested from the elastic auricular cartilage of swine,and were plated at the concentration of 1 x 10(4) cells/cm2 , studied in vitro at two different media enviroments: Group I contained Ham's F-12 with supplements and b-FGF, Group II contained Ham's F-12 only with supplements. The passage 2 cells (after 12.75 +/- 1.26 days) were harvested and mixed with 30% pluronic F-127/Ham's F-12 at the concentration of 50 x 10(6) cells/ml. It was injected subcutaneously at 0.5 ml per implant. The implants were harvested 8 weeks after the vivo culture and examined with the histological stains. The chondrocytes displayed morphologically similar to the fibroblasts in the media containing basic-FGF. The number of cell doublings (after 12.75 +/- 1.26 days) in vitro culture was as the following: Group I, 70; Group II, 5.4. Eight 8 weeks after the vivo autologous implantation, the average weight (g) and volume (cm3) in each group was as the following: Group I, 0.371 g/0.370 cm3 Group II, 0.179 g/0.173 cm3 (P < 0.01). With the b-FGF in vitro culture, the cells were expanded by 70 times after 2 weeks. Histologically, all of the engineered cartilage in the two groups were similar to the native elastic cartilage. These results indicate that the basic-FGF could be used positively to enhance the quality and quantity of the seeding cells for the generation of the well-engineered cartilage.

  14. A Human Factors Study on an Information Visualization System for Nuclear Power Plants Decommissioning Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chih Wei; Yang, Li Chen [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Atomic Energy Council, Longtan (China)

    2014-08-15

    Most nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the world have an operating life of up to 40 years. The utility should prepare a comprehensive decommissioning plan with purpose to document and to display how decommissioning activities can be safely performed. In the past, most studies related to NPPs decommissioning planning put emphasis on technical issues, little attention have been given to human factors in decommissioning activities. In fact, human factors are a critical factor to successful NPPs decommissioning. NPPs decommissioning will face potential risks. These risks include not only dismantling and moving large equipment but also treating with the radioactive materials. Using information visualization system, such as virtual reality (VR) technology, for staff training can improve decommissioning work safety and economy. Therefore, this study presents a study using VR to solve real world problems in the nuclear plant decommissioning. Then appropriate cases for introducing VR systems are summarized and future prospects are given. This study assesses availability and performance of the work training system by using heuristic evaluation and actual experiment. In the result, block type of radiation visibility was found relatively better both in performance and person's preference than other types. The results presented in this paper illustrate the VR applications a NPP decommissioning perspective.

  15. A Human Factors Study on an Information Visualization System for Nuclear Power Plants Decommissioning Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chih Wei; Yang, Li Chen

    2014-01-01

    Most nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the world have an operating life of up to 40 years. The utility should prepare a comprehensive decommissioning plan with purpose to document and to display how decommissioning activities can be safely performed. In the past, most studies related to NPPs decommissioning planning put emphasis on technical issues, little attention have been given to human factors in decommissioning activities. In fact, human factors are a critical factor to successful NPPs decommissioning. NPPs decommissioning will face potential risks. These risks include not only dismantling and moving large equipment but also treating with the radioactive materials. Using information visualization system, such as virtual reality (VR) technology, for staff training can improve decommissioning work safety and economy. Therefore, this study presents a study using VR to solve real world problems in the nuclear plant decommissioning. Then appropriate cases for introducing VR systems are summarized and future prospects are given. This study assesses availability and performance of the work training system by using heuristic evaluation and actual experiment. In the result, block type of radiation visibility was found relatively better both in performance and person's preference than other types. The results presented in this paper illustrate the VR applications a NPP decommissioning perspective

  16. Applying human factors engineering program to the modernization project of NPP Control Room in accordance with U.S.NRC and KTA regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avellar, Renato Koga de; Schirru, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Application of Human Factors Engineering (HFE) in the design and implementation of such a project is essential to ensure that the new man-machine interface outcoming from the modernization does not have any negative impacts on human performance and plant safety. This paper analyzes the applicability of the Human Factors Engineering Program in the licensing and certification of Konvoi Nucleoelectric Power Plant Control Room Modernization Project using digital instrumentation and control in accordance with U.S.NRC and KTA regulations. The results of the analyses show that although regulatory bodies adopt different methodology in the process of licensing the modernization of control rooms, the engineering aspects are being developed based on the principles of engineering. (author)

  17. Applying human factors engineering program to the modernization project of NPP Control Room in accordance with U.S.NRC and KTA regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avellar, Renato Koga de, E-mail: rkoga@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobrás Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Assessoria de Licenciamento Nuclear e Ambiental; Schirru, Roberto, E-mail: schirru@lmp.ufrj.br [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    Application of Human Factors Engineering (HFE) in the design and implementation of such a project is essential to ensure that the new man-machine interface outcoming from the modernization does not have any negative impacts on human performance and plant safety. This paper analyzes the applicability of the Human Factors Engineering Program in the licensing and certification of Konvoi Nucleoelectric Power Plant Control Room Modernization Project using digital instrumentation and control in accordance with U.S.NRC and KTA regulations. The results of the analyses show that although regulatory bodies adopt different methodology in the process of licensing the modernization of control rooms, the engineering aspects are being developed based on the principles of engineering. (author)

  18. Engineering a pharmacologically superior form of granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor by fusion with gelatin-like-protein polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-Shan; Wen, Xiao-Fang; Wu, Yi-Liang; Wang, Ye-Fei; Fan, Min; Yang, Zhi-Yu; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Lin-Fu

    2010-03-01

    The plasma half-life of therapeutic proteins is a critical factor in many clinical applications. Therefore, new strategies to prolong plasma half-life of long-acting peptides and protein drugs are in high demand. Here, we designed an artificial gelatin-like protein (GLK) and fused this hydrophilic GLK polymer to granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) to generate a chimeric GLK/G-CSF fusion protein. The genetically engineered recombinant GLK/G-CSF (rGLK/G-CSF) fusion protein was purified from Pichia pastoris. In vitro studies demonstrated that rGLK/G-CSF possessed an enlarged hydrodynamic radius, improved thermal stability and retained full bioactivity compared to unfused G-CSF. Following a single subcutaneous administration to rats, the rGLK/G-CSF fusion protein displayed a slower plasma clearance rate and stimulated greater and longer lasting increases in circulating white blood cells than G-CSF. Our findings indicate that fusion with this artificial, hydrophilic, GLK polymer provides many advantages in the construction of a potent hematopoietic factor with extended plasma half-life. This approach could be easily applied to other therapeutic proteins and have important clinical applications. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Human factors, system safety, and systems engineering in the transportation of U.S. high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.L.; Chu, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board is an independent agency charged with evaluating the technical and scientific validity of the U.S. Department of Energy's program to manage the disposal of spent fuel and defense high-level waste. The Board has continued to emphasize the importance of using a true system approach in designing the waste management system. The Board has recommended the application of basic design disciplines such as human factors, system safety, and systems engineering. A top-level system study needs to be undertaken that focuses on minimizing handling. The analysis must be well done, in a timely manner, and without the inclusion in the analysis of arbitrary and artificial constraints. (author)

  20. The human factors engineering approach to biomedical informatics projects: state of the art, results, benefits and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuscart-Zéphir, M-C; Elkin, Peter; Pelayo, Sylvia; Beuscart, Regis

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to define a comprehensible overview of the Human Factors approach to biomedical informatics applications for healthcare. The overview starts with a presentation of the necessity of a proper management of Human factors for Healthcare IT projects to avoid unusable products and unsafe work situations. The first section is dedicated to definitions of the Human Factors Engineering (HFE) main concepts. The second section describes a functional model of an HFE lifecycle adapted for healthcare work situations. The third section provides an overview of existing HF and usability methods for healthcare products and presents a selection of interesting results. The last section discusses the benefits and limitations of the HFE approach. Literature review based on Pubmed and conference proceedings in the field of Medical Informatics coupled with a review of other databases and conference proceedings in the field of Ergonomics focused on papers addressing healthcare work and system design. Usability studies performed on healthcare applications have uncovered unacceptable usability flaws that make the systems error prone, thus endangering the patient safety. Moreover, in many cases, the procurement and the implementation process simply forget about human factors: following only technological considerations, they issue potentially dangerous and always unpleasant work situations. But when properly applied to IT projects, the HFE approach proves efficient when seeking to improve patient safety, users' satisfaction and adoption of the products. We recommend that the HFE methodology should be applied to most informatics and systems development projects, and the usability of the products should be systematically checked before permitting their release and implementation. This requires the development of Centers specialized in Human Factors for Healthcare and Patient safety in each Country/Region.

  1. Tissue engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, John P; Bronzino, Joseph D

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly viewed as the future of medicine, the field of tissue engineering is still in its infancy. As evidenced in both the scientific and popular press, there exists considerable excitement surrounding the strategy of regenerative medicine. To achieve its highest potential, a series of technological advances must be made. Putting the numerous breakthroughs made in this field into a broad context, Tissue Engineering disseminates current thinking on the development of engineered tissues. Divided into three sections, the book covers the fundamentals of tissue engineering, enabling technologies, and tissue engineering applications. It examines the properties of stem cells, primary cells, growth factors, and extracellular matrix as well as their impact on the development of tissue engineered devices. Contributions focus on those strategies typically incorporated into tissue engineered devices or utilized in their development, including scaffolds, nanocomposites, bioreactors, drug delivery systems, and gene t...

  2. Influence of Climatic Factors on the Efficiency of Disposal Metal- Hydride Unit for the Double-Fuel Low-Speed Internal Combustion Engine of Gas Tankers

    OpenAIRE

    Cherednichenko, Oleksandr Costyntunovich; Tkach, Mykhaylo Romanovich

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary tendencies in the development of ship power engineering have been analyzed. Consideration was given to the specific features of the transportation of liquefied natural gas by gas tankers. The prospects of utilization of the secondary energy resources of marine double-fuel low-speed diesel engines were defined. The metal hydride units of a continuous action were offered for this purpose. The need for the estimation of the influence of climatic factors on the efficiency of disposal...

  3. Examining the relationship of ethnicity, gender and social cognitive factors with the academic achievement of first-year engineering students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Bruce Henry

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships of social cognitive factors and their influence on the academic performance of first-year engineering students. The nine social cognitive variables identified were under the groupings of personal support, occupational self-efficacy, academic self-efficacy, vocational interests, coping, encouragement, discouragement, outcome expectations, and perceived stress. The primary student participants in this study were first-year engineering students from underrepresented groups which include African American, Hispanic American students and women. With this in mind, the researcher sought to examine the interactive influence of race/ethnicity and gender based on the aforementioned social cognitive factors. Differences in academic performance (university GPA of first-year undergraduate engineering students) were analyzed by ethnicity and gender. There was a main effect for ethnicity only. Gender was found not to be significant. Hispanics were not found to be significantly different in their GPAs than Whites but Blacks were found to have lower GPAs than Whites. Also, Pearson correlation coefficients were used to examine the relationship between and among the nine identified social cognitive variables. The data from the analysis uncovered ten significant correlations which were as follows: occupational self-efficacy and academic self-efficacy, occupational self-efficacy and vocational interest, occupational self-efficacy and perceived stress, academic self-efficacy and encouragement, academic self-efficacy and outcome expectations, academic self-efficacy and perceived stress, vocational interest and outcome expectations, discouragement and encouragement, coping and perceived stress, outcome expectations and perceived stress. Next, a Pearson correlation coefficient was utilized to examine the relationship between academic performance (college GPA) of first-year undergraduate engineering students and the nine identified

  4. Human factors engineering guidance for the review of advanced alarm systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; Stubler, W.F.

    1994-09-01

    This report provides guidance to support the review of the human factors aspects of advanced alarm system designs in nuclear power plants. The report is organized into three major sections. The first section describes the methodology and criteria that were used to develop the design review guidelines. Also included is a description of the scope, organization, and format of the guidelines. The second section provides a systematic review procedure in which important characteristics of the alarm system are identified, described, and evaluated. The third section provides the detailed review guidelines. The review guidelines are organized according to important characteristics of the alarm system including: alarm definition; alarm processing and reduction; alarm prioritization and availability; display; control; automated; dynamic, and modifiable characteristics; reliability, test, maintenance, and failure indication; alarm response procedures; and control-display integration and layout

  5. Structure-mechanism-based engineering of chemical regulators targeting distinct pathological factors in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Michael W; Derrick, Jeffrey S; Kerr, Richard A; Oh, Shin Bi; Cho, Woo Jong; Lee, Shin Jung C; Ji, Yonghwan; Han, Jiyeon; Tehrani, Zahra Aliakbar; Suh, Nayoung; Kim, Sujeong; Larsen, Scott D; Kim, Kwang S; Lee, Joo-Yong; Ruotolo, Brandon T; Lim, Mi Hee

    2016-10-13

    The absence of effective therapeutics against Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a result of the limited understanding of its multifaceted aetiology. Because of the lack of chemical tools to identify pathological factors, investigations into AD pathogenesis have also been insubstantial. Here we report chemical regulators that demonstrate distinct specificity towards targets linked to AD pathology, including metals, amyloid-β (Aβ), metal-Aβ, reactive oxygen species, and free organic radicals. We obtained these chemical regulators through a rational structure-mechanism-based design strategy. We performed structural variations of small molecules for fine-tuning their electronic properties, such as ionization potentials and mechanistic pathways for reactivity towards different targets. We established in vitro and/or in vivo efficacies of the regulators for modulating their targets' reactivities, ameliorating toxicity, reducing amyloid pathology, and improving cognitive deficits. Our chemical tools show promise for deciphering AD pathogenesis and discovering effective drugs.

  6. Human factors engineering guidance for the review of advanced alarm systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; Stubler, W.F. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-09-01

    This report provides guidance to support the review of the human factors aspects of advanced alarm system designs in nuclear power plants. The report is organized into three major sections. The first section describes the methodology and criteria that were used to develop the design review guidelines. Also included is a description of the scope, organization, and format of the guidelines. The second section provides a systematic review procedure in which important characteristics of the alarm system are identified, described, and evaluated. The third section provides the detailed review guidelines. The review guidelines are organized according to important characteristics of the alarm system including: alarm definition; alarm processing and reduction; alarm prioritization and availability; display; control; automated; dynamic, and modifiable characteristics; reliability, test, maintenance, and failure indication; alarm response procedures; and control-display integration and layout.

  7. Design, Analysis, and Interpretation of Screening Studies for Human Factors Engineering Research. Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-01

    Ill-C 1 B1 .ANO SPACES "EPREIEN’r ZERO PERCENTj -ALL FACTORS PFE4 A T14jU61 F’ INCLuSIvj SPACES WITH4 ZEROES RHW*(tNT SOME PERCENT WLLjEp Tj EIMA2 THIS...4 so). l : b1 04 at m 0 aa 004 11 4 12 u t3 0. Ub 14 NSI33. ;. .* ** . U Z, L f0 Il 4NU A4. 1,41Jw 0 uMA WMA UN444<. H 43~IW a a. 1 A l13 93 .*L...Education Research Information Center Monash University Processing & Reference Facility Clayton, Victoria 3168 4833 Rugby Ave., Suite 303 Australia

  8. Identifying Watershed, Landscape, and Engineering Design Factors that Influence the Biotic Condition of Restored Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Doll

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Restored stream reaches at 79 sites across North Carolina were sampled for aquatic macroinvertebrates using a rapid bioassessment protocol. Morphological design parameters and geographic factors, including watershed and landscape parameters (e.g., valley slope, substrate, were also compiled for these streams. Principal component regression analyses revealed correlations between design and landscape variables with macroinvertebrate metrics. The correlations were strengthened by adding watershed variables. Ridge regression was used to find the best-fit model for predicting dominant taxa from the “pollution sensitive” orders of Ephemeroptera (mayflies, Plecoptera (stoneflies, and Trichoptera (caddisflies, or EPT taxa, resulting in coefficient weights that were most interpretable relative to site selection and design parameters. Results indicate that larger (wider streams located in the mountains and foothills where there are steeper valleys, larger substrate, and undeveloped watersheds are expected to have higher numbers of dominant EPT taxa. In addition, EPT taxa numbers are positively correlated with accessible floodplain width and negatively correlated with width-to-depth ratio and sinuosity. This study indicates that both site selection and design should be carefully considered in order to maximize the resulting biotic condition and associated potential ecological uplift of the stream.

  9. Factors affecting the mechanical behavior of collagen hydrogels for skin tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensalfini, Marco; Ehret, Alexander E; Stüdeli, Silvia; Marino, Daniela; Kaech, Andres; Reichmann, Ernst; Mazza, Edoardo

    2017-05-01

    The effect of the production factors yielding a functional dermal substitute was investigated by means of monotonic and cyclic uniaxial tensile tests, as well as electron microscopy visualizations. The role of (i) plastic compression, (ii) product incubation, and (iii) cell permanence in the collagenous matrix in order to achieve a skin-like behavior were characterized in terms of material and structural stiffness, in-plane kinematics, and cyclic response, as well as pore size and network density. The plastic compression resulted in a denser and stiffer material, while no corresponding change was observed in the behavior of the entire structure. This was related to the progressive reduction in product thickness and amount of excess water, rather than to formation of new crosslinks between fibers. Contrary, irrespective of the presence of human fibroblasts, the product incubation induced both material and structural stiffening, indicating the formation of a denser network. These results were confirmed by similar evolutions in the construct in-plane kinematics and cyclic stress reduction. Finally, comparison of constructs incubated in different culture media indicated a determinant contribution of the biochemical environment, rather than of the seeded cells, to the achieved mechanical properties. The observed features are relevant in terms of mechanical biocompatibility of the implant and might direct future optimizations of the production process in order to rapidly attain the desired mechanical properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetically engineered bacteriophage delivers a tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonist coating on neural electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Jun; Nam, Chang-Hoon; Jin, Young-Hyun; Stieglitz, Thomas; Salieb-Beugelaar, Georgette B

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a novel approach for the formation of anti-inflammatory surface coating on a neural electrode. The surface coating is realized using a recombinant f88 filamentous bacteriophage, which displays a short platinum binding motif and a tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonist (TNF-α antagonist) on p3 and p8 proteins, respectively. The recombinant bacteriophages are immobilized on the platinum surface by a simple dip coating process. The selective and stable immobilization of bacteriophages on a platinum electrode is confirmed by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring, atomic force microscope and fluorescence microscope. From the in vitro cell viability test, the inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α) induced cell death was prevented by presenting recombinant bacteriophage coating, albeit with no significant cytotoxic effect. It is also observed that the bacteriophage coating does not have critical effects on the electrochemical properties such as impedance and charge storage capacities. Thus, this approach demonstrates a promising anti-apoptotic as well as anti-inflammatory surface coating for neural implant applications. (paper)

  11. Fabrication and characterization of a novel microparticle with gyrus-patterned surface and growth factor delivery for cartilage tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Sha [Department of Oral Histology and Pathology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Research and Development Center for Tissue Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Wang Yijuan [Key Laboratory for Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Liang Tang [Department of Oral Histology and Pathology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Research and Development Center for Tissue Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Jin Fang [Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Liu Shouxin [Key Laboratory for Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Jin Yan, E-mail: yanjin@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of Oral Histology and Pathology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Research and Development Center for Tissue Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China)

    2009-05-05

    Microparticles can serve as substrates for cell amplification and deliver the expanded cells to the site of the defect. It was hypothesized that a novel microparticle combined of sustained and localized delivery of proliferative growth factors and gyrus-patterned surface would influence the cell behaviours of adherence and expansion on the microparticle in the present study. To test the hypothesis, gelatin particles with diameter ranging from 280 to 350 {mu}m were fabricated and were modified by cryogenic freeze-drying treatment and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) incorporation. The results of in vitro chondrocyte culture illustrated that cells could proliferate more obviously on the microparticles with bFGF addition, but no correlation between attachment rate and bFGF was observed. On the other hand, microparticles with gyrus-patterned surface demonstrated the highest cell attachment rate and higher rate of cell growth, in particular on bFGF combined ones. It seems to be a promising candidate as a chondrocyte microparticle and could be the potential application in cartilage tissue engineering.

  12. Enhanced normal short-term human myelopoiesis in mice engineered to express human-specific myeloid growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paul H; Cheung, Alice M S; Beer, Philip A; Knapp, David J H F; Dhillon, Kiran; Rabu, Gabrielle; Rostamirad, Shabnam; Humphries, R Keith; Eaves, Connie J

    2013-01-31

    Better methods to characterize normal human hematopoietic cells with short-term repopulating activity cells (STRCs) are needed to facilitate improving recovery rates in transplanted patients.We now show that 5-fold more human myeloid cells are produced in sublethally irradiated NOD/SCID-IL-2Receptor-γchain-null (NSG) mice engineered to constitutively produce human interleukin-3, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and Steel factor (NSG-3GS mice) than in regular NSG mice 3 weeks after an intravenous injection of CD34 human cord blood cells. Importantly, the NSG-3GS mice also show a concomitant and matched increase in circulating mature human neutrophils. Imaging NSG-3GS recipients of lenti-luciferase-transduced cells showed that human cells being produced 3 weeks posttransplant were heterogeneously distributed, validating the blood as a more representative measure of transplanted STRC activity. Limiting dilution transplants further demonstrated that the early increase in human granulopoiesis in NSG-3GS mice reflects an expanded output of differentiated cells per STRC rather than an increase in STRC detection. NSG-3GS mice support enhanced clonal outputs from human short-term repopulating cells (STRCs) without affecting their engrafting efficiency. Increased human STRC clone sizes enable their more precise and efficient measurement by peripheral blood monitoring.

  13. Fabrication and characterization of a novel microparticle with gyrus-patterned surface and growth factor delivery for cartilage tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Sha; Wang Yijuan; Liang Tang; Jin Fang; Liu Shouxin; Jin Yan

    2009-01-01

    Microparticles can serve as substrates for cell amplification and deliver the expanded cells to the site of the defect. It was hypothesized that a novel microparticle combined of sustained and localized delivery of proliferative growth factors and gyrus-patterned surface would influence the cell behaviours of adherence and expansion on the microparticle in the present study. To test the hypothesis, gelatin particles with diameter ranging from 280 to 350 μm were fabricated and were modified by cryogenic freeze-drying treatment and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) incorporation. The results of in vitro chondrocyte culture illustrated that cells could proliferate more obviously on the microparticles with bFGF addition, but no correlation between attachment rate and bFGF was observed. On the other hand, microparticles with gyrus-patterned surface demonstrated the highest cell attachment rate and higher rate of cell growth, in particular on bFGF combined ones. It seems to be a promising candidate as a chondrocyte microparticle and could be the potential application in cartilage tissue engineering.

  14. Factors Influencing the Self-Efficacy of Black High School Students Enrolled in PLTW Pre-Engineering Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Brandon R.

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing demand for trained engineers (especially Black engineers) it is imperative that the US invests more money and resources into programs that provide quality engineering experiences and exposures, this study evaluates the effect of various K-12 outreach initiatives and their ability to inspire students enrolled in Project Lead the…

  15. Factors that Influence First-Career Choice of Undergraduate Engineers in Software Services Companies: A South Indian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokuladas, V. K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify how undergraduate engineering students differ in their perception about software services companies in India based on variables like gender, locations of the college and branches of engineering. Design/methodology/approach: Data obtained from 560 undergraduate engineering students who had the…

  16. Rational selection and engineering of exogenous principal sigma factor (σ(HrdB)) to increase teicoplanin production in an industrial strain of Actinoplanes teichomyceticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiyong; Yang, Liu; Wu, Kuo; Li, Guanghui

    2014-01-16

    Transcriptional engineering has presented a strong ability of phenotypic improvement in microorganisms. However, it could not be directly applied to Actinoplanes teichomyceticus L-27 because of the paucity of endogenous transcription factors in the strain. In this study, exogenous transcription factors were rationally selected and transcriptional engineering was carried out to increase the productivity of teicoplanin in L-27. It was illuminated that the σ(HrdB) molecules shared strong similarity of amino acid sequences among some genera of actinomycetes. Combining this advantage with the ability of transcriptional engineering, exogenous sigma factor σ(HrdB) molecules were rationally selected and engineered to improve L-27. hrdB genes from Actinoplanes missouriensis 431, Micromonospora aurantiaca ATCC 27029 and Salinispora arenicola CNS-205 were selected based on molecular evolutionary analysis. Random mutagenesis, DNA shuffling and point mutation were subsequently performed to generate diversified mutants. A recombinant was identified through screening program, yielding 5.3 mg/ml of teicoplanin, over 2-fold compared to that of L-27. More significantly, the engineered strain presented a good performance in 500-l pilot scale fermentation, which meant its valuable potential application in industry. Through rational selection and engineering of exogenous transcriptional factor, we have extended the application of transcriptional engineering. To our knowledge, it is the first time to focus on the related issue. In addition, possessing the advantage of efficient metabolic perturbation in transcription level, this strategy could be useful in analyzing metabolic and physiological mechanisms of strains, especially those with the only information on taxonomy.

  17. Example of a Human Factors Engineering approach to a medication administration work system: potential impact on patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuscart-Zéphir, Marie-Catherine; Pelayo, Sylvia; Bernonville, Stéphanie

    2010-04-01

    The objectives of this paper are: In this approach, the implementation of such a complex IT solution is considered a major redesign of the work system. The paper describes the Human Factor (HF) tasks embedded in the project lifecycle: (1) analysis and modelling of the current work system and usability assessment of the medication CPOE solution; (2) HF recommendations for work re-design and usability recommendations for IT system re-engineering both aiming at a safer and more efficient work situation. Standard ethnographic methods were used to support the analysis of the current work system and work situations, coupled with cognitive task analysis methods and documents review. Usability inspection (heuristic evaluation) and both in-lab (simulated tasks) and on-site (real tasks) usability tests were performed for the evaluation of the CPOE candidate. Adapted software engineering models were used in combination with usual textual descriptions, tasks models and mock-ups to support the recommendations for work and product re-design. The analysis of the work situations identified different work organisations and procedures across the hospital's departments. The most important differences concerned the doctor-nurse communications and cooperation modes and the procedures for preparing and administering the medications. The assessment of the medication CPOE functions uncovered a number of usability problems including severe ones leading to impossible to detect or to catch errors. Models of the actual and possible distribution of tasks and roles were used to support decision making in the work design process. The results of the usability assessment were translated into requirements to support the necessary re-engineering of the IT application. The HFE approach to medication CPOE efficiently identifies and distinguishes currently unsafe or uncomfortable work situations that could obviously benefit from an IT solution from other work situations incorporating efficient work

  18. Advanced human-system interface design review guideline. Evaluation procedures and guidelines for human factors engineering reviews

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.; Baker, C.C.; Welch, D.L.; Granda, T.M.; Vingelis, P.J.

    1994-07-01

    Advanced control rooms will use advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator's overall role in the system, the method of information presentation, and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported to protect public health and safety. The principal guidance available to the NRC, however, was developed more than ten years ago, well before these technological changes. Accordingly, the human factors guidance needs to be updated to serve as the basis for NRC review of these advanced designs. The purpose of this project was to develop a general approach to advanced HSI review and the human factors guidelines to support. NRC safety reviews of advanced systems. This two-volume report provides the results of the project. Volume I describes the development of the Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline (DRG) including (1) its theoretical and technical foundation, (2) a general model for the review of advanced HSIs, (3) guideline development in both hard-copy and computer-based versions, and (4) the tests and evaluations performed to develop and validate the DRG. Volume I also includes a discussion of the gaps in available guidance and a methodology for addressing them. Volume 2 provides the guidelines to be used for advanced HSI review and the procedures for their use

  19. Advanced human-system interface design review guideline. Evaluation procedures and guidelines for human factors engineering reviews

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Baker, C.C.; Welch, D.L.; Granda, T.M.; Vingelis, P.J. [Carlow International Inc., Falls Church, VA (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Advanced control rooms will use advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator`s overall role in the system, the method of information presentation, and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported to protect public health and safety. The principal guidance available to the NRC, however, was developed more than ten years ago, well before these technological changes. Accordingly, the human factors guidance needs to be updated to serve as the basis for NRC review of these advanced designs. The purpose of this project was to develop a general approach to advanced HSI review and the human factors guidelines to support. NRC safety reviews of advanced systems. This two-volume report provides the results of the project. Volume I describes the development of the Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline (DRG) including (1) its theoretical and technical foundation, (2) a general model for the review of advanced HSIs, (3) guideline development in both hard-copy and computer-based versions, and (4) the tests and evaluations performed to develop and validate the DRG. Volume I also includes a discussion of the gaps in available guidance and a methodology for addressing them. Volume 2 provides the guidelines to be used for advanced HSI review and the procedures for their use.

  20. Effects of Human Factors in Engineering and Design for Teaching Mathematics: A Comparison Study of Online and Face-to-Face at a Technical College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mativo, John M.; Hill, Roger B.; Godfrey, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this study was to examine four characteristics for successful and unsuccessful students enrolled in basic mathematics courses at a technical college. The characteristics, considered to be in part effects of human factors in engineering and design, examined the preferred learning styles, computer information systems competency,…

  1. The nuclear programme in Spain - Success factors and present issues from an architect-engineer's point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.

    1990-01-01

    During 1989, the 10 nuclear units in commercial operation in Spain, having a total capacity of 7,838 MWe, supplied over 38% of the electricity generated in the country. With the exception of one gas-graphite reactor, presently shut down due to a significant fire in the turbine-generator, the rest are light water reactors - 7 PRs and 2 BWRs. A further units have been granted construction permits but are currently under government imposed moratorium due to an excess in generation capacity; construction for two of them however - namely the Valdecaballeros BWRs - is likely to be resumed in the near future. Although the NSSS design is imported from basically two sources - USA and Germany, the last two nuclear power units connected to the grid in 1988 have reached over 85% in local participation. As for the plants in operation, their performance indicators compare favourable with international standards. From the perspective of an architect-engineering company, this paper describes some of the basic strategies and success factors of our nuclear programme and reviews some relevant issues presently being discussed or implemented by the nuclear industry in Spain. (author)

  2. Delivery of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor by 3D Biocompatible Polymeric Scaffolds for Neural Tissue Engineering and Neuronal Regeneration

    KAUST Repository

    Limongi, Tania; Rocchi, A.; Cesca, F.; Tan, H.; Miele, E.; Giugni, Andrea; Orlando, M.; Perrone Donnorso, M.; Perozziello, G.; Benfenati, Fabio; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2018-01-01

    Biopolymers are increasingly employed for neuroscience applications as scaffolds to drive and promote neural regrowth, thanks to their ability to mediate the upload and subsequent release of active molecules and drugs. Synthetic degradable polymers are characterized by different responses ranging from tunable distension or shrinkage to total dissolution, depending on the function they are designed for. In this paper we present a biocompatible microfabricated poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) scaffold for primary neuron growth and maturation that has been optimized for the in vitro controlled release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). We demonstrate that the designed morphology confers to these devices an enhanced drug delivery capability with respect to monolithic unstructured supports. After incubation with BDNF, micropillared PCL devices progressively release the neurotrophin over 21 days in vitro. Moreover, the bioactivity of released BDNF is confirmed using primary neuronal cultures, where it mediates a consistent activation of BDNF signaling cascades, increased synaptic density, and neuronal survival. These results provide the proof-of-principle on the fabrication process of micropatterned PCL devices, which represent a promising therapeutic option to enhance neuronal regeneration after lesion and for neural tissue engineering and prosthetics.

  3. Enhancing succinic acid biosynthesis in Escherichia coli by engineering its global transcription factor, catabolite repressor/activator (Cra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Wen; Xia, Shi-Tao; Wei, Li-Na; Li, Hong-Mei; Yuan, Zhan-Peng; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2016-11-04

    This study was initiated to improve E. coli succinate production by engineering the E. coli global transcription factor, Cra (catabolite repressor/activator). Random mutagenesis libraries were generated through error-prone PCR of cra. After re-screening and mutation site integration, the best mutant strain was Tang1541, which provided a final succinate concentration of 79.8 ± 3.1 g/L: i.e., 22.8% greater than that obtained using an empty vector control. The genes and enzymes involved in phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylation and the glyoxylate pathway were activated, either directly or indirectly, through the mutation of Cra. The parameters for interaction of Cra and DNA indicated that the Cra mutant was bound to aceBAK, thereby activating the genes involved in glyoxylate pathway and further improving succinate production even in the presence of its effector fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP). It suggested that some of the negative effect of FBP on Cra might have been counteracted through the enhanced binding affinity of the Cra mutant for FBP or the change of Cra structure. This work provides useful information about understanding the transcriptional regulation of succinate biosynthesis.

  4. Investigation on environmental factors of waste plastics into oil and its emulsion to control the emission in DI diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P Senthil; Sankaranarayanan, G

    2016-12-01

    Rapid depletion of conventional fossil fuel resources, their rising prices and environmental issues are the major concern of alternative fuels. On the other hand waste plastics cause a very serious environmental dispute because of their disposal problems. Waste plastics are one of the promising factors for fuel production because of their high heat of combustion and their increasing availability in local communities. In this study, waste plastic oil (WPO) is tested in DI diesel engine to evaluate its performance and emission characteristics. Results showed that oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) emission get increased with WPO when compared to diesel oil. Further, the three phase (O/W/O) plastic oil emulsion is prepared with an aid of ultrasonicater according to the %v (10, 20 & 30). Results expose that brake thermal efficiency (BTE) is found to be increased. NO x and smoke emissions were reduced up to 247ppm and 41% respectively, when compared to diesel at full load condition with use of 30% emulsified WPO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Delivery of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor by 3D Biocompatible Polymeric Scaffolds for Neural Tissue Engineering and Neuronal Regeneration

    KAUST Repository

    Limongi, Tania

    2018-04-04

    Biopolymers are increasingly employed for neuroscience applications as scaffolds to drive and promote neural regrowth, thanks to their ability to mediate the upload and subsequent release of active molecules and drugs. Synthetic degradable polymers are characterized by different responses ranging from tunable distension or shrinkage to total dissolution, depending on the function they are designed for. In this paper we present a biocompatible microfabricated poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) scaffold for primary neuron growth and maturation that has been optimized for the in vitro controlled release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). We demonstrate that the designed morphology confers to these devices an enhanced drug delivery capability with respect to monolithic unstructured supports. After incubation with BDNF, micropillared PCL devices progressively release the neurotrophin over 21 days in vitro. Moreover, the bioactivity of released BDNF is confirmed using primary neuronal cultures, where it mediates a consistent activation of BDNF signaling cascades, increased synaptic density, and neuronal survival. These results provide the proof-of-principle on the fabrication process of micropatterned PCL devices, which represent a promising therapeutic option to enhance neuronal regeneration after lesion and for neural tissue engineering and prosthetics.

  6. Contextual Factors Related to Stereotype Threat and Student Success in Science Technology Engineering Mathematics Education: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leker, Lindsey Beth

    Stereotype threat is a widely researched phenomenon shown to impact performance in testing and evaluation situations (Katz, Roberts, & Robinson, 1965; Steele & Aronson, 1995). When related to gender, stereotype threat can lead women to score lower than men on standardized math exams (Spencer, Steele, & Quinn, 1999). Stereotype threat may be one reason women have lower enrollment in most science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors, hold a smaller number of STEM careers than men, and have a higher attrition rate in STEM professions (Hill, Corbet, & Rose, 2010; Picho & Brown 2011; Sorby & Baartmans, 2000). Most research has investigated stereotype threat using experiments yielding mixed results (Stoet & Geary, 2012). Thus, there is a need to explore stereotype threat using quantitative surveys and qualitative methods to examine other contextual factors that contribute to gender difference in STEM fields. This dissertation outlined a mixed methods study designed to, first, qualitatively explore stereotype threat and contextual factors related to high achieving women in STEM fields, as well as women who have failed and/or avoided STEM fields. Then, the quantitative portion of the study used the themes from the qualitative phase to create a survey that measured stereotype threat and other contextual variables related to STEM success and failure/avoidance. Fifteen participants were interviewed for the qualitative phase of the study and six themes emerged. The quantitative survey was completed 242 undergraduate participants. T-tests, correlations, regressions, and mediation analyses were used to analyze the data. There were significant relationships between stereotype threat and STEM confidence, STEM anxiety, giving up in STEM, and STEM achievement. Overall, this mixed methods study advanced qualitative research on stereotype threat, developed a much-needed scale for the measurement of stereotype threat, and tested the developed scale.

  7. The proposed human factors engineering program plan for man-machine interface system design of the next generation NPP in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, I.S.; Lee, H.C.; Seo, S.M.; Cheon, S.W.; Park, K.O.; Lee, J.W.; Sim, B.S.

    1994-01-01

    Human factors application to nuclear power plant (NPP) design, especially, to man-machine interface system (MMIS) design becomes an important issue among the licensing requirements. Recently, the nuclear regulatory bodies require the evidence of systematic human factors application to the MMIS design. Human Factors Engineering Program Plan (HFEPP), as a basis and central one among the human factors application by the MMIS designers. This paper describes the framework of HFEPP for the MMIS design of next generation NPP (NG-NPP) in Korea. This framework provides an integral plan and some bases of the systematic application of human factors to the MMIS design, and consists of purpose and scope, codes and standards, human factors organization, human factors tasks, engineering control methodology, human factors documentations, and milestones. The proposed HFEPP is a top level document to define and describe human factors tasks, based on each step of MMIS design process, in view point of how, what, when and by whom to be performed. (author). 11 refs, 1 fig

  8. Load-Dependent Emission Factors and Chemical Characteristics of IVOCs from a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Eben S; Sappok, Alexander G; Wong, Victor W; Kroll, Jesse H

    2015-11-17

    A detailed understanding of the climate and air quality impacts of mobile-source emissions requires the characterization of intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs), relatively-low-vapor-pressure gas-phase species that may generate secondary organic aerosol with high yields. Due to challenges associated with IVOC detection and quantification, IVOC emissions remain poorly understood at present. Here, we describe measurements of the magnitude and composition of IVOC emissions from a medium-duty diesel engine. Measurements are made on an engine dynamometer and utilize a new mass-spectrometric instrument to characterize the load dependence of the emissions in near-real-time. Results from steady-state engine operation indicate that IVOC emissions are highly dependent on engine power, with highest emissions at engine idle and low-load operation (≤25% maximum rated power) with a chemical composition dominated by saturated hydrocarbon species. Results suggest that unburned fuel components are the dominant IVOCs emitted at low loads. As engine load increases, IVOC emissions decline rapidly and become increasingly characterized by unsaturated hydrocarbons and oxygenated organics, newly formed from incomplete combustion processes at elevated engine temperatures and pressures. Engine transients, including a cold-start ignition and engine acceleration, show IVOC emission profiles that are different in amount or composition compared to steady-state combustion, underscoring the utility of characterizing IVOC emissions with high time resolution across realistic engine operating conditions. We find possible evidence for IVOC losses on unheated dilution and sampling surfaces, which need to be carefully accounted for in IVOC emission studies.

  9. Color-coding and human factors engineering to improve patient safety characteristics of paper-based emergency department clinical documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Leo; Boss, Robert M; Gibbs, Frantz J; Goldlust, Eric; Hennedy, Michelle M; Monti, James E; Siegel, Nathan A

    2011-01-01

    Investigators studied an emergency department (ED) physical chart system and identified inconsistent, small font labeling; a single-color scheme; and an absence of human factors engineering (HFE) cues. A case study and description of the methodology with which surrogate measures of chart-related patient safety were studied and subsequently used to reduce latent hazards are presented. Medical records present a challenge to patient safety in EDs. Application of HFE can improve specific aspects of existing medical chart organization systems as they pertain to patient safety in acute care environments. During 10 random audits over 5 consecutive days (573 data points), 56 (9.8%) chart binders (range 0.0-23%) were found to be either misplaced or improperly positioned relative to other chart binders; 12 (21%) were in the critical care area. HFE principles were applied to develop an experimental chart binder system with alternating color-based chart groupings, simple and prominent identifiers, and embedded visual cues. Post-intervention audits revealed significant reductions in chart binder location problems overall (p < 0.01), for Urgent Care A and B pods (6.4% to 1.2%; p < 0.05), Fast Track C pod (19.3% to 0.0%; p < 0.05) and Behavioral/Substance Abuse D pod (15.7% to 0.0%; p < 0.05) areas of the ED. The critical care room area did not display an improvement (11.4% to 13.2%; p = 0.40). Application of HFE methods may aid the development, assessment, and modification of acute care clinical environments through evidence-based design methodologies and contribute to safe patient care delivery.

  10. Direct activation of human and mouse Oct4 genes using engineered TALE and Cas9 transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiabiao; Lei, Yong; Wong, Wing-Ki; Liu, Senquan; Lee, Kai-Chuen; He, Xiangjun; You, Wenxing; Zhou, Rui; Guo, Jun-Tao; Chen, Xiongfong; Peng, Xianlu; Sun, Hao; Huang, He; Zhao, Hui; Feng, Bo

    2014-04-01

    The newly developed transcription activator-like effector protein (TALE) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 transcription factors (TF) offered a powerful and precise approach for modulating gene expression. In this article, we systematically investigated the potential of these new tools in activating the stringently silenced pluripotency gene Oct4 (Pou5f1) in mouse and human somatic cells. First, with a number of TALEs and sgRNAs targeting various regions in the mouse and human Oct4 promoters, we found that the most efficient TALE-VP64s bound around -120 to -80 bp, while highly effective sgRNAs targeted from -147 to -89-bp upstream of the transcription start sites to induce high activity of luciferase reporters. In addition, we observed significant transcriptional synergy when multiple TFs were applied simultaneously. Although individual TFs exhibited marginal activity to up-regulate endogenous gene expression, optimized combinations of TALE-VP64s could enhance endogenous Oct4 transcription up to 30-fold in mouse NIH3T3 cells and 20-fold in human HEK293T cells. More importantly, the enhancement of OCT4 transcription ultimately generated OCT4 proteins. Furthermore, examination of different epigenetic modifiers showed that histone acetyltransferase p300 could enhance both TALE-VP64 and sgRNA/dCas9-VP64 induced transcription of endogenous OCT4. Taken together, our study suggested that engineered TALE-TF and dCas9-TF are useful tools for modulating gene expression in mammalian cells.

  11. Young Women’s Perceptions of Technology and Engineering: Factors Influencing Their Participation in Math, Science and Technology?

    OpenAIRE

    Roue, Leah C.

    2007-01-01

    The current number of women in technology and engineering only represents a fraction of today’s workforce. Technological innovation depends on our nation’s best and brightest, representing all segments of our diverse society. Sanders (2005), in talking about women in technology and engineering, stated that women’s lack of participation can only be measured in jobs not filled, problems not solved, and technology not created. Research in the area of how young women view technology will provide ...

  12. Nitrogen oxide emission calculation for post-Panamax container ships by using engine operation power probability as weighting factor: A slow-steaming case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chih-Wen; Hua, Jian; Hwang, Daw-Shang

    2017-12-07

    In this study, the nitrogen oxide (NO x ) emission factors and total NO x emissions of two groups of post-Panamax container ships operating on a long-term slow-steaming basis along Euro-Asian routes were calculated using both the probability density function of engine power levels and the NO x emission function. The main engines of the five sister ships in Group I satisfied the Tier I emission limit stipulated in MARPOL (International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships) Annex VI, and those in Group II satisfied the Tier II limit. The calculated NO x emission factors of the Group I and Group II ships were 14.73 and 17.85 g/kWhr, respectively. The total NO x emissions of the Group II ships were determined to be 4.4% greater than those of the Group I ships. When the Tier II certification value was used to calculate the average total NO x emissions of Group II engines, the result was lower than the actual value by 21.9%. Although fuel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions were increased by 1.76% because of slow steaming, the NO x emissions were markedly reduced by 17.2%. The proposed method is more effective and accurate than the NO x Technical Code 2008. Furthermore, it can be more appropriately applied to determine the NO x emissions of international shipping inventory. The usage of operating power probability density function of diesel engines as the weighting factor and the NO x emission function obtained from test bed for calculating NO x emissions is more accurate and practical. The proposed method is suitable for all types and purposes of diesel engines, irrespective of their operating power level. The method can be used to effectively determine the NO x emissions of international shipping and inventory applications and should be considered in determining the carbon tax to be imposed in the future.

  13. Load and resistance factor design calibration to determine a resistance factor for the modification of the Kansas Department of Transportation-Engineering News Record formula : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) has, in recent years, used a : variation of the Engineering News Record (ENR) formula to determine the capacity of : piles in the field. It was a concern that the KDOT-ENR formula was under-predicting : ...

  14. INVESTMENT AND INNOVATION FACTORS IN THE MECHANICAL ENGINEERING OF THE REGIONS IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAMME OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE ARCTIC ZONE OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Borisov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: in the article we have carried out research of efficiency of investment and innovative-technological activity in the mechanical engineering of the regions involved in the Program development of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation. Presented the approach to the assessment of efficiency of investment and technological innovation activities in these regions and influence the development of mechanical engineering.Purpose: in the article we have carried out research of efficiency of investment and innovative-technological activity in the mechanical engineering of the regions involved in the Program development of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation. Presented the approach to the assessment of efficiency of investment and technological innovation activities in these regions and influence the development of mechanical engineering.Methods: suggested and used the tools of forecasting and analytical studies of the effects that result from the impact of the investment and innovative-technological factors on the development of industry in the regions, with priority mechanical engineering.Results: as a result, we have got a quantitative evaluation of investment and innovative factors for the development of regional economies. We also have built integrated indicators of economic and technological effects arising from the investment and innovative-technological activity involving machinery production in these regions.Conclusions and relevance: interpretation of the results shows that in most regions innovation and investment activities have a significant impact on the competitiveness of manufactured machinery products and on the export potential of the region. The potential of regional economic development lies in the interaction of domestic production and the innovative technological component. In the course of the implementation of the Arctic project, the demand for new technologies and scientific results is formed, the specific

  15. Exploration of Factors Related to the Development of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Graduate Teaching Assistants' Teaching Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Joanna; Maher, Michelle A.; Feldon, David F.; Timmerman, Briana

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that modifying teachers' beliefs about learning and teaching (i.e. teaching orientation) may be a prerequisite to changing their teaching practices. This mixed methods study quantitized data from interviews with 65 graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) from science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields to assess…

  16. Project based education as motivation factor in undergraduate program in Electronics at Copenhagen University College of Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friesel, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the contents of our experience with project based courses and team work in the undergraduate program in Electronics. The main points of our program are described in this paper, where the leading idea is to combine theory with practical engineering projects. Our students work...

  17. An engineered transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) monomer that functions as a dominant negative to block TGF-β signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Kyung; Barron, Lindsey; Hinck, Cynthia S.; Petrunak, Elyse M.; Cano, Kristin E.; Thangirala, Avinash; Iskra, Brian; Brothers, Molly; Vonberg, Machell; Leal, Belinda; Richter, Blair; Kodali, Ravindra; Taylor, Alexander B.; Du, Shoucheng; Barnes, Christopher O.; Sulea, Traian; Calero, Guillermo; Hart, P. John; Hart, Matthew J.; Demeler, Borries; Hinck, Andrew P. (Texas-HSC); (NRCC); (Pitt)

    2017-02-22

    The transforming growth factor β isoforms, TGF-β1, -β2, and -β3, are small secreted homodimeric signaling proteins with essential roles in regulating the adaptive immune system and maintaining the extracellular matrix. However, dysregulation of the TGF-β pathway is responsible for promoting the progression of several human diseases, including cancer and fibrosis. Despite the known importance of TGF-βs in promoting disease progression, no inhibitors have been approved for use in humans. Herein, we describe an engineered TGF-β monomer, lacking the heel helix, a structural motif essential for binding the TGF-β type I receptor (TβRI) but dispensable for binding the other receptor required for TGF-β signaling, the TGF-β type II receptor (TβRII), as an alternative therapeutic modality for blocking TGF-β signaling in humans. As shown through binding studies and crystallography, the engineered monomer retained the same overall structure of native TGF-β monomers and bound TβRII in an identical manner. Cell-based luciferase assays showed that the engineered monomer functioned as a dominant negative to inhibit TGF-β signaling with a Ki of 20–70 nM. Investigation of the mechanism showed that the high affinity of the engineered monomer for TβRII, coupled with its reduced ability to non-covalently dimerize and its inability to bind and recruit TβRI, enabled it to bind endogenous TβRII but prevented it from binding and recruiting TβRI to form a signaling complex. Such engineered monomers provide a new avenue to probe and manipulate TGF-β signaling and may inform similar modifications of other TGF-β family members.

  18. Impact of Bulldozer's Engine Load Factor on Fuel Consumption, CO2 Emission and Cost

    OpenAIRE

    V. Kecojevic; D. Komljenovic

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Bulldozers consume a large amount of diesel fuel and consequently produce a significant quantity of CO2. Environmental and economic cost issues related to fuel consumption and CO2 emission represent a substantial challenge to the mining industry. Approach: Impact of engine load conditions on fuel consumption and the subsequent CO2 emission and cost was analyzed for Caterpillar bulldozers. Results were compared with the data on bulldozers' fuel consu...

  19. Amino acids supply in culture media is not a limiting factor in the matrix synthesis of engineered cartilage tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, K. W.; DeFrancis, J. G.; Kugler, L. E.; Kelly, T.-A. N.; Ho, M. M.; O’Conor, C. J.; Ateshian, G. A.; Hung, C. T.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Increased amino acid supplementation (0.5×, 1.0×, and 5.0× recommended concentrations or additional proline) was hypothesized to increase the collagen content in engineered cartilage. No significant differences were found between groups in matrix content or dynamic modulus. Control constructs possessed the highest compressive Young’s modulus on day 42. On day 42, compared to controls, decreased type II collagen was found with 0.5×, 1.0×, and 5.0× supplementation and significantly increased DNA content found in 1.0× and 5.0×. No effects were observed on these measures with added proline. These results lead us to reject our hypothesis and indicate that the low collagen synthesis in engineered cartilage is not due to a limited supply of amino acids in media but may require a further stimulatory signal. The results of this study also highlight the impact that culture environment can play on the development of engineered cartilage. PMID:17713744

  20. Engineering metal (hydr)oxide sorbents for removal of arsenate and similar weak-acid oxyanion contaminants: A critical review with emphasis on factors governing sorption processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristovski, Kiril D; Markovski, Jasmina

    2017-11-15

    To create an integrative foundation for engineering of the next generation inexpensive sorbent systems, this critical review addresses the existing knowledge gap in factor/performance relationships between weak-acid oxyanion contaminants and metal (hydr)oxide sorbents. In-depth understanding of fundamental thermodynamics and kinetics mechanisms, material fabrication, and analytical and characterization techniques, is necessary to engineer sorbent that exhibit high capacity, selectivity, stability, durability and mass transport of contaminants under a wide range of operating and water matrix conditions requirements. From the perspective of thermodynamics and kinetics, this critical review examines the factors affecting sorbent performances and analyzes the existing research to elucidate future directions aimed at developing novel sorbents for removal of weak-acid oxyanion contaminants from water. Only sorbents that allow construction of simple and inexpensive water treatment systems adapted to overcome fiscal and technological barriers burdening small communities could pave the road for providing inexpensive potable water to millions of people. Novel sorbents, which exhibit (1) poor performances in realistic operating and water matrix conditions and/or (2) do not comply with the purely driven economics factors of production scalability or cost expectations, are predestined to never be commercialized. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Work System Assessment to Facilitate the Dissemination of a Quality Improvement Program for Optimizing Blood Culture Use: A Case Study Using a Human Factors Engineering Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Anping; Woods-Hill, Charlotte Z; King, Anne F; Enos-Graves, Heather; Ascenzi, Judy; Gurses, Ayse P; Klaus, Sybil A; Fackler, James C; Milstone, Aaron M

    2017-11-20

    Work system assessments can facilitate successful implementation of quality improvement programs. Using a human factors engineering approach, we conducted a work system assessment to facilitate the dissemination of a quality improvement program for optimizing blood culture use in pediatric intensive care units at 2 hospitals. Semistructured face-to-face interviews were conducted with clinicians from Johns Hopkins All Children's Hospital and University of Virginia Medical Center. Interview data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Blood culture-ordering practices are influenced by various work system factors, including people, tasks, tools and technologies, the physical environment, organizational conditions, and the external environment. A clinical decision-support tool could facilitate implementation by (1) standardizing blood culture-ordering practices, (2) ensuring that prescribing clinicians review the patient's condition before ordering a blood culture, (3) facilitating critical thinking, and (4) empowering nurses to communicate with physicians and advocate for adherence to blood culture-ordering guidelines. The success of interventions for optimizing blood culture use relies heavily on the local context. A work system analysis using a human factors engineering approach can identify key areas to be addressed for the successful dissemination of quality improvement interventions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Engineering Encounters: Engineering Adaptations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatling, Anne; Vaughn, Meredith Houle

    2015-01-01

    Engineering is not a subject that has historically been taught in elementary schools, but with the emphasis on engineering in the "Next Generation Science Standards," curricula are being developed to explicitly teach engineering content and design. However, many of the scientific investigations already conducted with students have…

  3. Organizational stress and individual strain: A social-psychological study of risk factors in coronary heart disease among administrators, engineers, and scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    It is hypothesized that organizational stresses, such as high quantitative work load, responsibility for persons, poor relations with role senders, and contact with alien organizational territories, may be associated with high levels of psychological and physiological strain which are risk factors in coronary heart disease. It is further hypothesized that persons with coronary-prone Type A personality characteristics are most likely to exhibit strain under conditions of organizational stress. Measures of these stresses, personality traits, and strains were obtained from 205 male NASA administrators, engineers, and scientists. Type A personality measures included sense of time urgency, persistence, involved striving, leadership, and preference for competitive and environmentally overburdening situations.

  4. Engineering customized TALE nucleases (TALENs) and TALE transcription factors by fast ligation-based automatable solid-phase high-throughput (FLASH) assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyon, Deepak; Maeder, Morgan L; Khayter, Cyd; Tsai, Shengdar Q; Foley, Jonathan E; Sander, Jeffry D; Joung, J Keith

    2013-07-01

    Customized DNA-binding domains made using transcription activator-like effector (TALE) repeats are rapidly growing in importance as widely applicable research tools. TALE nucleases (TALENs), composed of an engineered array of TALE repeats fused to the FokI nuclease domain, have been used successfully for directed genome editing in various organisms and cell types. TALE transcription factors (TALE-TFs), consisting of engineered TALE repeat arrays linked to a transcriptional regulatory domain, have been used to up- or downregulate expression of endogenous genes in human cells and plants. This unit describes a detailed protocol for the recently described fast ligation-based automatable solid-phase high-throughput (FLASH) assembly method. FLASH enables automated high-throughput construction of engineered TALE repeats using an automated liquid handling robot or manually using a multichannel pipet. Using the automated approach, a single researcher can construct up to 96 DNA fragments encoding TALE repeat arrays of various lengths in a single day, and then clone these to construct sequence-verified TALEN or TALE-TF expression plasmids in a week or less. Plasmids required for FLASH are available by request from the Joung lab (http://eGenome.org). This unit also describes improvements to the Zinc Finger and TALE Targeter (ZiFiT Targeter) web server (http://ZiFiT.partners.org) that facilitate the design and construction of FLASH TALE repeat arrays in high throughput. © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  5. Designing requirements engineering research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.; Heerkens, Johannes M.G.

    2007-01-01

    Engineering sciences study different topics than natural sciences, and utility is an essential factor in choosing engineering research problems. But despite these differences, research methods for the engineering sciences are no different than research methods for any other kind of science. At most

  6. Human factors engineering measures taken by nuclear power plant owners/operators for optimisation of the man-machine interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisgruber, H.

    1996-01-01

    Both operating results and human factors studies show that man is able to meet the requirements in this working environment. Hence the degree of human reliability required by the design basis of nuclear power plants is ensured. This means: - Nuclear technology for electricity generation is justifiable from the human factors point of view. - The chief opponent is not right in saying that man is not able to cope with the risks and challenges brought about by nuclear technology applications. The human factors concept for optimisation or configuration of the man-machine systems represents an additional endeavor on the part of nuclear power plant operators within the framework of their responsibilities. Human factors analyses meet with good response by the personnel, as analysis results and clarification of causes of accident scenarios contribute to relieve the personnel (exoneration) and find ways for remedial action. (orig./DG) [de

  7. Hierarchical Fabrication of Engineered Vascularized Bone Biphasic Constructs via Dual 3D Bioprinting: Integrating Regional Bioactive Factors into Architectural Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Haitao; Zhu, Wei; Nowicki, Margaret; Zhou, Xuan; Khademhosseini, Ali; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-09-01

    A biphasic artificial vascularized bone construct with regional bioactive factors is presented using dual 3D bioprinting platform technique, thereby forming a large functional bone grafts with organized vascular networks. Biocompatible mussel-inspired chemistry and "thiol-ene" click reaction are used to regionally immobilize bioactive factors during construct fabrication for modulating or improving cellular events. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. A qualitative, interprofessional analysis of barriers to and facilitators of implementation of the Department of Veterans Affairs' Clostridium difficile prevention bundle using a human factors engineering approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanke, Eric; Moriarty, Helene; Carayon, Pascale; Safdar, Nasia

    2018-03-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is increasingly prevalent, severe, and costly. Adherence to infection prevention practices remains suboptimal. More effective strategies to implement guidelines and evidence are needed. Interprofessional focus groups consisting of physicians, resident physicians, nurses, and health technicians were conducted for a quality improvement project evaluating adherence to the Department of Veterans Affairs' (VA) nationally mandated C difficile prevention bundle. Qualitative analysis with a visual matrix display identified barrier and facilitator themes guided by the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety model, a human factors engineering approach. Several themes, encompassing both barriers and facilitators to bundle adherence, emerged. Rapid turnaround time of C difficile polymerase chain reaction testing was a facilitator of timely diagnosis. Too few, poorly located, and cluttered sinks were barriers to appropriate hand hygiene. Patient care workload and the time-consuming process of contact isolation precautions were also barriers to adherence. Multiple work system components serve as barriers to and facilitators of adherence to the VA CDI prevention bundle among an interprofessional group of health care workers. Organizational factors appear to significantly influence bundle adherence. Interprofessional perspectives are needed to identify barriers to and facilitators of bundle implementation, which is a necessary first step to address adherence to bundled infection prevention practices. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Preventable coronary heart disease events from control of cardiovascular risk factors in US adults with diabetes (projections from utilizing the UKPDS risk engine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Nathan D; Patao, Christopher; Malik, Shaista; Iloeje, Uchenna

    2014-04-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) carries significant risks for coronary heart disease (CHD). We examined the potential US population impact of single and composite risk factor control. Among US adults with diagnosed T2DM aged≥30 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007 to 2012, we assessed CHD events preventable using the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study CHD risk engine. We examined in all those not at goal the impact of statistical control of smoking, glycated hemoglobin, systolic blood pressure, and total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, according to the predefined criteria setting risk factors at different levels of control representing (1) "All to Goal," (2) at "Nominal Control," or (3) at "Aggressive Control." Preventable CHD events represented the difference between the number of events estimated from the control of these risk factors versus current levels of the risk factors. Of 606 men (representing 6.2 million) and 603 women (6.3 million) with DM and no previous CHD, 1.3 million men and 0.7 million women would develop a CHD event within 10 years if left uncontrolled. Controlling all risk factors to goal was projected to prevent 35% and 45% of CHD events in men and women, respectively. Nominal risk factor control was projected to prevent 36% and 38% and aggressive control 51% and 61% of CHD events, respectively. In conclusion, a significant proportion of CHD events in adults with T2DM could be prevented from composite control of risk factors often not at goal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Engineering of a mammalian O-glycosylation pathway in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: production of O-fucosylated epidermal growth factor domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigira, Yuko; Oka, Takuji; Okajima, Tetsuya; Jigami, Yoshifumi

    2008-04-01

    Development of a heterologous system for the production of homogeneous sugar structures has the potential to elucidate structure-function relationships of glycoproteins. In the current study, we used an artificial O-glycosylation pathway to produce an O-fucosylated epidermal growth factor (EGF) domain in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The in vivo O-fucosylation system was constructed via expression of genes that encode protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 and the EGF domain, along with genes whose protein products convert cytoplasmic GDP-mannose to GDP-fucose. This system allowed identification of an endogenous ability of S. cerevisiae to transport GDP-fucose. Moreover, expression of EGF domain mutants in this system revealed the different contribution of three disulfide bonds to in vivo O-fucosylation. In addition, lectin blotting revealed differences in the ability of fucose-specific lectin to bind the O-fucosylated structure of EGF domains from human factors VII and IX. Further introduction of the human fringe gene into yeast equipped with the in vivo O-fucosylation system facilitated the addition of N-acetylglucosamine to the EGF domain from factor IX but not from factor VII. The results suggest that engineering of an O-fucosylation system in yeast provides a powerful tool for producing proteins with homogenous carbohydrate chains. Such proteins can be used for the analysis of substrate specificity and the production of antibodies that recognize O-glycosylated EGF domains.

  11. Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor With a Glyco-Engineered Fc-Region Has Increased Efficacy in Mice With Colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemendaal, Felicia M.; Levin, Alon D.; Wildenberg, Manon E.; Koelink, Pim J.; Mcrae, Bradford L.; Salfeld, Jochen; Lum, Jenifer; van der Neut Kolfschoten, Marijn; Claassens, Jill W.; Visser, Remco; Bentlage, Arthur; D'Haens, Geert R. A. M.; Verbeek, J. Sjef; Vidarsson, Gestur; van den Brink, Gijs R.

    2017-01-01

    Although tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists reduce many clinical features of inflammatory bowel disease, complete mucosal healing occurs in fewer than 50% of patients. The Fc-region of monoclonal antibodies against TNF has immunosuppressive properties via effects on macrophage polarization. We

  12. Factors Affecting Student Choice of Career in Science and Engineering: Parallel Studies in Australia, Canada, China, England, Japan and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolnough, Brian E.; Guo, Yuying; Leite, Maria Salete; Jose de Almeida, Maria; Ryu, Tae; Wang, Zhen; Young, Deidra

    1997-01-01

    Describes studies that utilized questionnaires and interviews to explore the factors affecting the career choices of students. Reveals differences between scientists and nonscientists with regard to their preferred learning styles and relates these differences to career choice and self-perception. (DDR)

  13. Effects of growth factors and glucosamine on porcine mandibular condylar cartilage cells and hyaline cartilage cells for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Limin; Detamore, Michael S

    2009-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condylar cartilage is a distinct cartilage that has both fibrocartilaginous and hyaline-like character, with a thin proliferative zone that separates the fibrocartilaginous fibrous zone at the surface from the hyaline-like mature and hypertrophic zones below. In this study, we compared the effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1), and glucosamine sulphate on porcine TMJ condylar cartilage and ankle cartilage cells in monolayer culture. In general, TMJ condylar cartilage cells proliferated faster than ankle cartilage cells, while ankle cells produced significantly greater amounts of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and collagen than TMJ condylar cartilage cells. IGF-I and bFGF were potent stimulators of TMJ cell proliferation, while no signals statistically outperformed controls for ankle cell proliferation. IGF-I was the most effective signal for GAG production with ankle cells, and the most potent upregulator of collagen synthesis for both cell types. Glucosamine sulphate promoted cell proliferation and biosynthesis at specific concentrations and outperformed growth factors in certain instances. In conclusion, hyaline cartilage cells had lower cell numbers and superior biosynthesis compared to TMJ condylar cartilage cells, and we have found IGF-I at 100 ng/mL and glucosamine sulphate at 100 microg/mL to be the most effective signals for these cells under the prescribed conditions.

  14. An engineered tale-transcription factor rescues transcription of factor VII impaired by promoter mutations and enhances its endogenous expression in hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbon, Elena; Pignani, Silvia; Branchini, Alessio; Bernardi, Francesco; Pinotti, Mirko; Bovolenta, Matteo

    2016-06-24

    Tailored approaches to restore defective transcription responsible for severe diseases have been poorly explored. We tested transcription activator-like effectors fused to an activation domain (TALE-TFs) in a coagulation factor VII (FVII) deficiency model. In this model, the deficiency is caused by the -94C > G or -61T > G mutation, which abrogate the binding of Sp1 or HNF-4 transcription factors. Reporter assays in hepatoma HepG2 cells naturally expressing FVII identified a single TALE-TF (TF4) that, by targeting the region between mutations, specifically trans-activated both the variant (>100-fold) and wild-type (20-40-fold) F7 promoters. Importantly, in the genomic context of transfected HepG2 and transduced primary hepatocytes, TF4 increased F7 mRNA and protein levels (2- to 3-fold) without detectable off-target effects, even for the homologous F10 gene. The ectopic F7 expression in renal HEK293 cells was modestly affected by TF4 or by TALE-TF combinations. These results provide experimental evidence for TALE-TFs as gene-specific tools useful to counteract disease-causing promoter mutations.

  15. Engineering Encounters: Reverse Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Veronica Cassone; Ventura, Marcia; Bell, Philip

    2017-01-01

    This column presents ideas and techniques to enhance your science teaching. This month's issue shares information on how students' everyday experiences can support science learning through engineering design. In this article, the authors outline a reverse-engineering model of instruction and describe one example of how it looked in our fifth-grade…

  16. Investigating the factors affecting the development of a sustainable national accreditation body for engineering and technology laboratories in North Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Elsmuai, T

    2015-01-01

    Quality Assurance has become one of the prime factors for consideration by a customer whether a person or organisation in order to achieve highly competitive industrial activity. Within the developing countries there is limited awareness among the public regarding the role and purpose of accreditation. This constitutes a major constraint and it is one of several constraints for accreditation, specifically, in the Arab region. The primary objective of a National Accreditation Body is to enable...

  17. The Use of the Maurer Factor for Estimating the Cost of a Turbine Engine in the Early Stages of Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    0-24%) 15-51H AISI 8735-40 17-22A B5F5 301-306 B1112 4O 10 6-321, 347 Chromology0•o5,410 D6ac 416, 420, 431, 440 M50 1010 Carbon Steel Magnesium...Thorium 1074, 1095 Nitrally N135 413o- 4140 S Monel 4340 Wrought 4140 , 464P Wrought Alloy Steel 8630 Vasoojet 1000 9310 A (weighting factor = 6.65--Nickel

  18. "The Invisible Staff": A Qualitative Analysis of Environmental Service Workers' Perceptions of the VA Clostridium difficile Prevention Bundle Using a Human Factors Engineering Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanke, Eric; Moriarty, Helene; Carayon, Pascale; Safdar, Nasia

    2018-06-11

    Using a novel human factors engineering approach, the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety model, we evaluated environmental service workers' (ESWs) perceptions of barriers and facilitators influencing adherence to the nationally mandated Department of Veterans Affairs Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) prevention bundle. A focus group of ESWs was conducted. Qualitative analysis was performed employing a visual matrix display to identify barrier/facilitator themes related to Department of Veterans Affairs CDI bundle adherence using the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety work system as a framework. Environmental service workers reported adequate cleaning supplies/equipment and displayed excellent knowledge of CDI hand hygiene requirements. Environmental service workers described current supervisory practices as providing an acceptable amount of time to clean CDI rooms, although other healthcare workers often pressured ESWs to clean rooms more quickly. Environmental service workers reported significant concern for CDI patients' family members as well as suggesting uncertainty regarding the need for family members to follow infection prevention practices. Small and cluttered patient rooms made cleaning tasks more difficult, and ESW cleaning tasks were often interrupted by other healthcare workers. Environmental service workers did not feel comfortable asking physicians for more time to finish cleaning a room nor did ESWs feel comfortable pointing out lapses in physician hand hygiene. Multiple work system components serve as barriers to and facilitators of ESW adherence to the nationally mandated Department of Veterans Affairs CDI bundle. Environmental service workers may represent an underappreciated resource for hospital infection prevention, and further efforts should be made to engage ESWs as members of the health care team.

  19. Factors controlling the redox potential of ZnCe6 in an engineered bacterioferritin photochemical 'reaction centre'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboob, Abdullah; Vassiliev, Serguei; Poddutoori, Prashanth K; van der Est, Art; Bruce, Doug

    2013-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) of photosynthesis has the unique ability to photochemically oxidize water. Recently an engineered bacterioferritin photochemical 'reaction centre' (BFR-RC) using a zinc chlorin pigment (ZnCe6) in place of its native heme has been shown to photo-oxidize bound manganese ions through a tyrosine residue, thus mimicking two of the key reactions on the electron donor side of PSII. To understand the mechanism of tyrosine oxidation in BFR-RCs, and explore the possibility of water oxidation in such a system we have built an atomic-level model of the BFR-RC using ONIOM methodology. We studied the influence of axial ligands and carboxyl groups on the oxidation potential of ZnCe6 using DFT theory, and finally calculated the shift of the redox potential of ZnCe6 in the BFR-RC protein using the multi-conformational molecular mechanics-Poisson-Boltzmann approach. According to our calculations, the redox potential for the first oxidation of ZnCe6 in the BRF-RC protein is only 0.57 V, too low to oxidize tyrosine. We suggest that the observed tyrosine oxidation in BRF-RC could be driven by the ZnCe6 di-cation. In order to increase the efficiency of tyrosine oxidation, and ultimately oxidize water, the first potential of ZnCe6 would have to attain a value in excess of 0.8 V. We discuss the possibilities for modifying the BFR-RC to achieve this goal.

  20. Building a Formal Model of a Human-Interactive System: Insights into the Integration of Formal Methods and Human Factors Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Matthew L.; Bass, Ellen J.

    2009-01-01

    Both the human factors engineering (HFE) and formal methods communities are concerned with finding and eliminating problems with safety-critical systems. This work discusses a modeling effort that leveraged methods from both fields to use model checking with HFE practices to perform formal verification of a human-interactive system. Despite the use of a seemingly simple target system, a patient controlled analgesia pump, the initial model proved to be difficult for the model checker to verify in a reasonable amount of time. This resulted in a number of model revisions that affected the HFE architectural, representativeness, and understandability goals of the effort. If formal methods are to meet the needs of the HFE community, additional modeling tools and technological developments are necessary.

  1. Culture, social networks, and information sharing: An exploratory study of Japanese aerospace engineers' information-seeking processes and habits in light of cultural factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuko

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of culture and language on Japanese aerospace engineers' information-seeking processes by both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The Japanese sample consisted of 162 members of the Japan Society for Aeronautical and Space Sciences (JSASS). U.S. aerospace engineers served as a reference point, consisting of 213 members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). The survey method was utilized in gathering data using self-administered mail questionnaires in order to explore the following eight areas: (1) the content and use of information resources; (2) production and use of information products; (3) methods of accessing information service providers; (4) foreign language skills; (5) studying/researching/collaborating abroad as a tool in expanding information resources; (6) scientific and technical societies as networking tools; (7) alumni associations (school/class reunions) as networking tools; and (8) social, corporate, civic and health/fitness clubs as networking tools. Nine Japanese cultural factors expressed as statements about Japanese society are as follows: (1) information is neither autonomous, objective, nor independent of the subject of cognition; (2) information and knowledge are not readily accessible to the public; (3) emphasis on groups is reinforced in a hierarchical society; (4) social networks thrive as information-sharing vehicles; (5) high context is a predominant form of communication in which most of the information is already in the person, while very little is in the coded, transmitted part of the message; (6) obligations based on mutual trust dictate social behaviors instead of contractual agreements; (7) a surface message is what is presented while a bottom-line message is true feeling privately held; (8) various religious beliefs uphold a work ethic based on harmony; (9) ideas from outside are readily assimilated into its own society. The result of the

  2. Construction of multifunctional proteins for tissue engineering: epidermal growth factor with collagen binding and cell adhesive activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannachi Imen, Elloumi; Nakamura, Makiko; Mie, Masayasu; Kobatake, Eiry

    2009-01-01

    The development of different techniques based on natural and polymeric scaffolds are useful for the design of different biomimetic materials. These approaches, however, require supplementary steps for the chemical or physical modification of the biomaterial. To avoid such steps, in the present study, we constructed a new multifunctional protein that can be easily immobilized onto hydrophobic surfaces, and at the same time helps enhance specific cell adhesion and proliferation onto collagen substrates. A collagen binding domain was fused to a previously constructed protein, which had an epidermal growth factor fused to a hydrophobic peptide that allows for cell adhesion. The new fusion protein, designated fnCBD-ERE-EGF is produced in Escherichia coli, and its abilities to bind to collagen and promote cell proliferation were investigated. fnCBD-ERE-EGF was shown to keep both collagen binding and cell growth-promoting activities comparable to those of the corresponding unfused proteins. The results obtained in this study also suggest the use of a fnCBD-ERE-EGF as an alternative for the design of multifunctional ECM-bound growth factor based materials.

  3. Characterization of genetically engineered mouse hepatoma cells with inducible liver functions by overexpression of liver-enriched transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hideaki; Tonello, Jane Marie; Sambuichi, Takanori; Kawabe, Yoshinori; Ito, Akira; Kamihira, Masamichi

    2018-01-01

    New cell sources for the research and therapy of organ failure could significantly alleviate the shortage of donor livers that are available to patients who suffer from liver disease. Liver carcinoma derived cells, or hepatoma cells, are the ideal cells for developing bioartificial liver systems. Such cancerous liver cells are easy to prepare in large quantities and can be maintained over long periods under standard culture conditions, unlike primary hepatocytes. However, hepatoma cells possess only a fraction of the functions of primary hepatocytes. In a previous study, by transducing cells with liver-enriched transcription factors that could be inducibly overexpressed-hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)1α, HNF1β, HNF3β [FOXA2], HNF4α, HNF6, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)α, C/EBPβ and C/EBPγ-we created mouse hepatoma cells with high liver-specific gene expression called the Hepa/8F5 cell line. In the present study, we performed functional and genetic analyses to characterize the Hepa/8F5 cell line. Further, in three-dimensional cultures, the function of these cells improved significantly compared to parental cells. Ultimately, these cells might become a new resource that can be used in basic and applied hepatic research. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Prospects of engineering thermotolerance in crops through modulation of heat stress transcription factor and heat shock protein networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkostefanakis, Sotirios; Röth, Sascha; Schleiff, Enrico; Scharf, Klaus-Dieter

    2015-09-01

    Cell survival under high temperature conditions involves the activation of heat stress response (HSR), which in principle is highly conserved among different organisms, but shows remarkable complexity and unique features in plant systems. The transcriptional reprogramming at higher temperatures is controlled by the activity of the heat stress transcription factors (Hsfs). Hsfs allow the transcriptional activation of HSR genes, among which heat shock proteins (Hsps) are best characterized. Hsps belong to multigene families encoding for molecular chaperones involved in various processes including maintenance of protein homeostasis as a requisite for optimal development and survival under stress conditions. Hsfs form complex networks to activate downstream responses, but are concomitantly subjected to cell-type-dependent feedback regulation through factor-specific physical and functional interactions with chaperones belonging to Hsp90, Hsp70 and small Hsp families. There is increasing evidence that the originally assumed specialized function of Hsf/chaperone networks in the HSR turns out to be a complex central stress response system that is involved in the regulation of a broad variety of other stress responses and may also have substantial impact on various developmental processes. Understanding in detail the function of such regulatory networks is prerequisite for sustained improvement of thermotolerance in important agricultural crops. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Effects on Proliferation and Differentiation of Human Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Engineered to Express Neurotrophic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are multipotential cells with capability to form colonies in vitro and differentiate into distinctive end-stage cell types. Although MSCs secrete many cytokines, the efficacy can be improved through combination with neurotrophic factors (NTFs. Moreover, MSCs are excellent opportunities for local delivery of NTFs into injured tissues. The aim of this present study is to evaluate the effects of overexpressing NTFs on proliferation and differentiation of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs. Overexpressing NTFs had no effect on cell proliferation. Overexpressing NT-3, BDNF, and NGF also had no significant effect on the differentiation of HUMSCs. Overexpressing NTFs all promoted the neurite outgrowth of embryonic chick E9 dorsal root ganglion (DRG. The gene expression profiles of the control and NT-3- and BDNF-modified HUMSCs were compared using RNA sequencing and biological processes and activities were revealed. This study provides novel information about the effects of overexpressing NTFs on HUMSCs and insight into the choice of optimal NTFs for combined cell and gene therapy.

  6. Engineer Ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dae Sik; Kim, Yeong Pil; Kim, Yeong Jin

    2003-03-01

    This book tells of engineer ethics such as basic understanding of engineer ethics with history of engineering as a occupation, definition of engineering and specialized job and engineering, engineer ethics as professional ethics, general principles of ethics and its limitation, ethical theory and application, technique to solve the ethical problems, responsibility, safety and danger, information engineer ethics, biotechnological ethics like artificial insemination, life reproduction, gene therapy and environmental ethics.

  7. Optimization of Methods for Articular Cartilage Surface Tissue Engineering: Cell Density and Transforming Growth Factor Beta Are Critical for Self-Assembly and Lubricin Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Kenjiro; Reddi, A Hari

    2017-07-01

    Lubricin/superficial zone protein (SZP)/proteoglycan4 (PRG4) plays an important role in boundary lubrication in articular cartilage. Lubricin is secreted by superficial zone chondrocytes and synoviocytes of the synovium. The specific objective of this investigation is to optimize the methods for tissue engineering of articular cartilage surface. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of cell density on the self-assembly of superficial zone chondrocytes and lubricin secretion as a functional assessment. Superficial zone chondrocytes were cultivated as a monolayer at low, medium, and high densities. Chondrocytes at the three different densities were treated with transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)1 twice a week or daily, and the accumulated lubricin in the culture medium was analyzed by immunoblots and quantitated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cell numbers in low and medium densities were increased by TGF-β1; whereas cell numbers in high-density cell cultures were decreased by twice-a-week treatment of TGF-β1. On the other hand, the cell numbers were maintained by daily TGF-β treatment. Immunoblots and quantitation of lubricin by ELISA analysis indicated that TGF-β1 stimulated lubricin secretion by superficial zone chondrocytes at all densities with twice-a-week TGF-β treatment. It is noteworthy that the daily treatment of TGF-β1 increased lubricin much higher compared with twice-a-week treatment. These data demonstrate that daily treatment is optimal for the TGF-β1 response in a higher density of monolayer cultures. These findings have implications for self-assembly of surface zone chondrocytes of articular cartilage for application in tissue engineering of articular cartilage surface.

  8. Cognitive and Motivational Factors that Inspire Hispanic Female Students to Pursue STEM-Related Academic Programs that Lead to Careers in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel-Baker, Sonaliz

    Hispanics, and women in particular, continue to be underrepresented in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). The purpose of this study was to analyze cognitive and motivational factors that inspired Hispanic female college students to major in STEM programs and aspire to academic success. This mixed methods study was conducted using both quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis techniques in a sequential phase. Quantitative data were collected through the use of the 80-item Honey and Mumford Learning Styles Questionnaire, which was focused on the students' learning styles and how they impact Hispanic female students upon engaging in a STEM-related curriculum. Qualitative data were collected during interviews focusing on factors that led students to select, participate in, and make a commitment to some aspect of a STEM-related program. The questions that were asked during the interviews were intended to examine whether the existence of role models and STEM initiatives motivate Hispanic female students to major in STEM-related academic programs and aspire to academic success. The participants in this study were undergraduate Hispanic female students majoring in STEM-related academic programs and at a four-year university. The results indicate that the majority of the participants (88%) identified as reflectors, 4% as activists, 4% as theorists, and 4% as pragmatists. The results from the interviews suggested that the existence of role models (family members, educators, or STEM professionals) was a factor that motivated Hispanic females to major in STEM-related subjects and that exposure to STEM initiatives during K-12 education motivated Hispanic females to pursue a career in STEM.

  9. Mathematical learning instruction and teacher motivation factors affecting science technology engineering and math (STEM) major choices in 4-year colleges and universities: Multilevel structural equation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ahlam

    2011-12-01

    Using the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002/06, this study examined the effects of the selected mathematical learning and teacher motivation factors on graduates' science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) related major choices in 4-year colleges and universities, as mediated by math performance and math self-efficacy. Using multilevel structural equation modeling, I analyzed: (1) the association between mathematical learning instruction factors (i.e., computer, individual, and lecture-based learning activities in mathematics) and students' STEM major choices in 4-year colleges and universities as mediated by math performance and math self-efficacy and (2) the association between school factor, teacher motivation and students' STEM major choices in 4-year colleges and universities via mediators of math performance and math self-efficacy. The results revealed that among the selected learning experience factors, computer-based learning activities in math classrooms yielded the most positive effects on math self-efficacy, which significantly predicted the increase in the proportion of students' STEM major choice as mediated by math self-efficacy. Further, when controlling for base-year math Item Response Theory (IRT) scores, a positive relationship between individual-based learning activities in math classrooms and the first follow-up math IRT scores emerged, which related to the high proportion of students' STEM major choices. The results also indicated that individual and lecture-based learning activities in math yielded positive effects on math self-efficacy, which related to STEM major choice. Concerning between-school levels, teacher motivation yielded positive effects on the first follow up math IRT score, when controlling for base year IRT score. The results from this study inform educators, parents, and policy makers on how mathematics instruction can improve student math performance and encourage more students to prepare for STEM careers. Students

  10. Engineering opportunities in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    The pattern of education and training of Nuclear Engineers in the UK is outlined under the headings; degree courses for professional engineers, postgraduate courses, education of technician engineers. Universities which offer specific courses are stated and useful addresses listed. (UK)

  11. Human Factors Engineering. Student Supplement,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    123.0 154.2 154.8 143.7 4 CHEST ( NIPPLE ) HEIGHT* 117.9 120.8 109.3 136.5 138.5 1273 5 ELBOW (RADIALE) HEIGHT 101.0 104.8 94. 117.3 120.0 110.7 6...HEIGHT 52.6 52.5 4B.4 60.7 60.9 56.6 4 CHEST ( NIPPLE ) HEIGHT * 464 47.5 430 53.7 54.5 50.3 5 ELBOW IRADIALE) HEIGHT 39.3 41.3 37A 464 47.2 43. 6...Escape Movtes NM W a DIMMIIS clearnes" Force Require- Deen/Usch Men - luesgNIcy ilt Comtri/Oiiplay got~ ad dle Attuntion RealuWaes Ratio Torque Sauces

  12. Software Re-Engineering of the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System - (Maintenance Extension) Using Object Oriented Methods in a Microsoft Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    replication) -- all from Visual Basic and VBA . In fact, we found that the SQL Server engine actually had a plethora of options, most formidable of...2002, the new SQL Server 2000 database engine, and Microsoft Visual Basic.NET. This thesis describes our use of the Spiral Development Model to...versions of Microsoft products? Specifically, the pending release of Microsoft Office 2002, the new SQL Server 2000 database engine, and Microsoft

  13. Tokamak engineering mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Yuntao; Wu, Weiyue; Du, Shijun

    2014-01-01

    Provides a systematic introduction to tokamaks in engineering mechanics. Includes design guides based on full mechanical analysis, which makes it possible to accurately predict load capacity and temperature increases. Presents comprehensive information on important design factors involving materials. Covers the latest advances in and up-to-date references on tokamak devices. Numerous examples reinforce the understanding of concepts and provide procedures for design. Tokamak Engineering Mechanics offers concise and thorough coverage of engineering mechanics theory and application for tokamaks, and the material is reinforced by numerous examples. Chapter topics include general principles, static mechanics, dynamic mechanics, thermal fluid mechanics and multiphysics structural mechanics of tokamak structure analysis. The theoretical principle of the design and the methods of the analysis for various components and load conditions are presented, while the latest engineering technologies are also introduced. The book will provide readers involved in the study of mechanical/fusion engineering with a general understanding of tokamak engineering mechanics.

  14. Engineering Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Projects Past Projects Publications NSEC » Engineering Institute Engineering Institute Multidisciplinary engineering research that integrates advanced modeling and simulations, novel sensing systems and new home of Engineering Institute Contact Institute Director Charles Farrar (505) 665-0860 Email UCSD EI

  15. Mechanical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Darbyshire, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Alan Darbyshire's best-selling text book provides five-star high quality content to a potential audience of 13,000 engineering students. It explains the most popular specialist units of the Mechanical Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering and Operations & Maintenance Engineering pathways of the new 2010 BTEC National Engineering syllabus. This challenging textbook also features contributions from specialist lecturers, ensuring that no stone is left unturned.

  16. Study of Effectiveness of Human Factors Engineering Interference in Cumulative Trauma Disorders Rate Decreasing in the Tehran South Health Center 2005-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Noorisepehr

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Up to now accomplished many investigations about cumulative trauma disorders (CTD accession. For the most part sitting pattern and unsuitable task posture has been specified reason of these complications. In the publicized stats from a foreign source ambit of 44 percent of people who worked with computer has been afflict to the CTD's. The aim of this paper is to find and measurement of CTD and ergonomic intervention and investigation rate of this intervention's effect in the Tehran south health center. This center use paperless system. Methods: In this research Nordic questionnaire distribute between 68 persons of the center to determine CTD's. By technical expert inspection specified reason of complications. Observantly to state methods reason which create more severity and frequency CTD's has been recognized and interference with human factors engineering. For the more efficiency of interference Anthropometry has been used for all of Work stations and for any person designed a significant posture. Results: results that obtained before interference indicate that were CTD's complications at more of employees which 90 percent of them suffered of up spine pain. Also 27.4 percent of them had shoulder pain and 20.4 percent had neck pain. After the interference these measures decreased. And complaint of employee decreased 40.8 percent to up spine pain. Also for the shoulder pain it reached to 22 and neck pain 17.6 percent. With state test identified that there are significant difference between CTD after and before of intervention (p<0.005. Conclusion: Being unsuitable task posture is main cause of CTD's in the Work stations. We can prevent to increasing these complications in the work place by simple approach like adjustment in the desk and chair height, correct performance working training and doing simple exercise.

  17. Health-promoting factors in medical students and students of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics: design and baseline results of a comparative longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kötter, Thomas; Tautphäus, Yannick; Scherer, Martin; Voltmer, Edgar

    2014-07-04

    The negative impact of medical school on students' general and mental health has often been reported. Compared to students of other subjects, or employed peers, medical students face an increased risk of developing depression, anxiety and burnout. While pathogenetic factors have been studied extensively, less is known about health-promoting factors for medical students' health. This longitudinal study aims to identify predictors for maintaining good general and mental health during medical education. We report here the design of the study and its baseline results. We initiated a prospective longitudinal cohort study at the University of Lübeck, Germany. Two consecutive classes of students, entering the university in 2011 and 2012, were recruited. Participants will be assessed annually for the duration of their course. We use validated psychometric instruments covering health outcomes (general and mental health) and personality traits, as well as self-developed, pre-tested items covering leisure activities and sociodemographic data. At baseline, compared to students of STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) subjects (n = 531; 60.8% response rate), a larger proportion of medical students (n = 350; 93.0% response rate) showed good general health (90.9% vs. 79.7%) and a similar proportion was in good mental health (88.3% vs. 86.3%). Medical students scored significantly higher in the personality traits of extraversion, conscientiousness, openness to experience and agreeableness. Neuroticism proved to be a statistically significant negative predictor for mental health in the logistic regression analyses. Satisfaction with life as a dimension of study-related behaviour and experience predicted general health at baseline. Physical activity was a statistically significant predictor for general health in medical students. Baseline data revealed that medical students reported better general and similar mental health compared to STEM students. The annual

  18. Health-promoting factors in medical students and students of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics: design and baseline results of a comparative longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The negative impact of medical school on students' general and mental health has often been reported. Compared to students of other subjects, or employed peers, medical students face an increased risk of developing depression, anxiety and burnout. While pathogenetic factors have been studied extensively, less is known about health-promoting factors for medical students' health. This longitudinal study aims to identify predictors for maintaining good general and mental health during medical education. We report here the design of the study and its baseline results. Methods We initiated a prospective longitudinal cohort study at the University of Lübeck, Germany. Two consecutive classes of students, entering the university in 2011 and 2012, were recruited. Participants will be assessed annually for the duration of their course. We use validated psychometric instruments covering health outcomes (general and mental health) and personality traits, as well as self-developed, pre-tested items covering leisure activities and sociodemographic data. Results At baseline, compared to students of STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) subjects (n = 531; 60.8% response rate), a larger proportion of medical students (n = 350; 93.0% response rate) showed good general health (90.9% vs. 79.7%) and a similar proportion was in good mental health (88.3% vs. 86.3%). Medical students scored significantly higher in the personality traits of extraversion, conscientiousness, openness to experience and agreeableness. Neuroticism proved to be a statistically significant negative predictor for mental health in the logistic regression analyses. Satisfaction with life as a dimension of study-related behaviour and experience predicted general health at baseline. Physical activity was a statistically significant predictor for general health in medical students. Conclusions Baseline data revealed that medical students reported better general and similar mental

  19. Engineering Cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters NIH Research Matters March 3, 2014 Engineering Cartilage Artistic rendering of human stem cells on ... situations has been a major goal in tissue engineering. Cartilage contains water, collagen, proteoglycans, and chondrocytes. Collagens ...

  20. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Most people agree that our world face daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel dominant...... perspectives in challenge per-ception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping of engineering education...... and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter strives to elicit the bodies...

  1. Industrial Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally).......Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally)....

  2. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Most people agree that our world faces daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel...... dominant perspectives in challenge perception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping...... of engineering education and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter...

  3. Computer Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncarz, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Looks at computer engineers and describes their job, employment outlook, earnings, and training and qualifications. Provides a list of resources related to computer engineering careers and the computer industry. (JOW)

  4. Engineering _ litteraturliste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillasen, Martin Krabbe; Daugbjerg, Peer; Nielsen, Keld

    2017-01-01

    Litteraturliste udarbejdet som grundlag for artiklen ”Engineering – svaret på naturfagenes udfordringer?”......Litteraturliste udarbejdet som grundlag for artiklen ”Engineering – svaret på naturfagenes udfordringer?”...

  5. Engineering allostery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Srivatsan; Taylor, Noah; Genuth, Naomi; Fields, Stanley; Church, George M

    2014-12-01

    Allosteric proteins have great potential in synthetic biology, but our limited understanding of the molecular underpinnings of allostery has hindered the development of designer molecules, including transcription factors with new DNA-binding or ligand-binding specificities that respond appropriately to inducers. Such allosteric proteins could function as novel switches in complex circuits, metabolite sensors, or as orthogonal regulators for independent, inducible control of multiple genes. Advances in DNA synthesis and next-generation sequencing technologies have enabled the assessment of millions of mutants in a single experiment, providing new opportunities to study allostery. Using the classic LacI protein as an example, we describe a genetic selection system using a bidirectional reporter to capture mutants in both allosteric states, allowing the positions most crucial for allostery to be identified. This approach is not limited to bacterial transcription factors, and could reveal new mechanistic insights and facilitate engineering of other major classes of allosteric proteins such as nuclear receptors, two-component systems, G protein-coupled receptors, and protein kinases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Aircraft engine pollution reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines. An experimental program designed to develop and demonstrate these and other advanced, low pollution combustor design methods is described. Results that have been obtained to date indicate considerable promise for reducing advanced engine exhaust pollutants to levels significantly below current engines.

  7. Engineering Complex Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    MIKOS, ANTONIOS G.; HERRING, SUSAN W.; OCHAREON, PANNEE; ELISSEEFF, JENNIFER; LU, HELEN H.; KANDEL, RITA; SCHOEN, FREDERICK J.; TONER, MEHMET; MOONEY, DAVID; ATALA, ANTHONY; VAN DYKE, MARK E.; KAPLAN, DAVID; VUNJAK-NOVAKOVIC, GORDANA

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes the views expressed at the third session of the workshop “Tissue Engineering—The Next Generation,” which was devoted to the engineering of complex tissue structures. Antonios Mikos described the engineering of complex oral and craniofacial tissues as a “guided interplay” between biomaterial scaffolds, growth factors, and local cell populations toward the restoration of the original architecture and function of complex tissues. Susan Herring, reviewing osteogenesis and vasculogenesis, explained that the vascular arrangement precedes and dictates the architecture of the new bone, and proposed that engineering of osseous tissues might benefit from preconstruction of an appropriate vasculature. Jennifer Elisseeff explored the formation of complex tissue structures based on the example of stratified cartilage engineered using stem cells and hydrogels. Helen Lu discussed engineering of tissue interfaces, a problem critical for biological fixation of tendons and ligaments, and the development of a new generation of fixation devices. Rita Kandel discussed the challenges related to the re-creation of the cartilage-bone interface, in the context of tissue engineered joint repair. Frederick Schoen emphasized, in the context of heart valve engineering, the need for including the requirements derived from “adult biology” of tissue remodeling and establishing reliable early predictors of success or failure of tissue engineered implants. Mehmet Toner presented a review of biopreservation techniques and stressed that a new breakthrough in this field may be necessary to meet all the needs of tissue engineering. David Mooney described systems providing temporal and spatial regulation of growth factor availability, which may find utility in virtually all tissue engineering and regeneration applications, including directed in vitro and in vivo vascularization of tissues. Anthony Atala offered a clinician’s perspective for functional tissue

  8. Pro region engineering of nerve growth factor by deep mutational scanning enables a yeast platform for conformational epitope mapping of anti-NGF monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Cucurella, Angélica V; Zhu, Yaqi; Bowen, Scott J; Bergeron, Lisa M; Whitehead, Timothy A

    2018-04-12

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) plays a central role in multiple chronic pain conditions. As such, anti-NGF monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that function by antagonizing NGF downstream signaling are leading drug candidates for non-opioid pain relief. To evaluate anti-canine NGF (cNGF) mAbs we sought a yeast surface display platform of cNGF. Both mature cNGF and pro-cNGF displayed on the yeast surface but bound conformationally sensitive mAbs at most 2.5-fold in mean fluorescence intensity above background, suggesting that cNGF was mostly misfolded. To improve the amount of folded, displayed cNGF, we used comprehensive mutagenesis, FACS, and deep sequencing to identify point mutants in the pro-region of canine NGF that properly enhance the folded protein displayed on the yeast surface. Out of 1,737 tested single point mutants in the pro region, 49 increased the amount of NGF recognized by conformationally sensitive mAbs. These gain-of-function mutations cluster around residues A-61-P-26. Gain-of-function mutants were additive, and a construct containing three mutations increased amount of folded cNGF to 23- fold above background. Using this new cNGF construct, fine conformational epitopes for tanezumab and three anti-cNGF mAbs were evaluated. The epitope revealed by the yeast experiments largely overlapped with the tanezumab epitope previously determined by X-ray crystallography. The other mAbs showed site-specific differences with tanezumab. As the number of binding epitopes of functionally neutralizing anti-NGF mAbs on NGF are limited, subtle differences in the individual interacting residues on NGF that bind each mAb contribute to the understanding of each antibody and variations in its neutralizing activity. These results demonstrate the potential of deep sequencing-guided protein engineering to improve the production of folded surface-displayed protein, and the resulting cNGF construct provides a platform to map conformational epitopes for other anti-neurotrophin m

  9. Computational engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The book presents state-of-the-art works in computational engineering. Focus is on mathematical modeling, numerical simulation, experimental validation and visualization in engineering sciences. In particular, the following topics are presented: constitutive models and their implementation into finite element codes, numerical models in nonlinear elasto-dynamics including seismic excitations, multiphase models in structural engineering and multiscale models of materials systems, sensitivity and reliability analysis of engineering structures, the application of scientific computing in urban water management and hydraulic engineering, and the application of genetic algorithms for the registration of laser scanner point clouds.

  10. Global Software Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebert, Christof; Kuhrmann, Marco; Prikladnicki, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Professional software products and IT systems and services today are developed mostly by globally distributed teams, projects, and companies. Successfully orchestrating Global Software Engineering (GSE) has become the major success factor both for organizations and practitioners. Yet, more than...... and experience reported at the IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering (ICGSE) series. The outcomes of our analysis show GSE as a field highly attached to industry and, thus, a considerable share of ICGSE papers address the transfer of Software Engineering concepts and solutions to the global stage...

  11. Architectural Engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Premer

    engineering is addresses from two perspectives – as an educational response and an occupational constellation. Architecture and engineering are two of the traditional design professions and they frequently meet in the occupational setting, but at educational institutions they remain largely estranged....... The paper builds on a multi-sited study of an architectural engineering program at the Technical University of Denmark and an architectural engineering team within an international engineering consultancy based on Denmark. They are both responding to new tendencies within the building industry where...... the role of engineers and architects increasingly overlap during the design process, but their approaches reflect different perceptions of the consequences. The paper discusses some of the challenges that design education, not only within engineering, is facing today: young designers must be equipped...

  12. Microscale technologies for cell engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Gaharwar, Akhilesh

    2016-01-01

    This book offers readers cutting-edge research at the interface of polymer science and engineering, biomedical engineering, materials science, and biology. State-of-the-art developments in microscale technologies for cell engineering applications are covered, including technologies relevant to both pluripotent and adult stem cells, the immune system, and somatic cells of the animal and human origin. This book bridges the gap in the understanding of engineering biology at multiple length scale, including microenvironmental control, bioprocessing, and tissue engineering in the areas of cardiac, cartilage, skeletal, and vascular tissues, among others. This book also discusses unique, emerging areas of micropatterning and three-dimensional printing models of cellular engineering, and contributes to the better understanding of the role of biophysical factors in determining the cell fate. Microscale Technologies for Cell Engineering is valuable for bioengineers, biomaterial scientists, tissue engineers, clinicians,...

  13. The experiences of female high school students and interest in STEM: Factors leading to the selection of an engineering or computer science major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genoways, Sharon K.

    STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math) education creates critical thinkers, increases science literacy, and enables the next generation of innovators, which leads to new products and processes that sustain our economy (Hossain & Robinson, 2012). We have been hearing the warnings for several years, that there simply are not enough young scientists entering into the STEM professional pathways to replace all of the retiring professionals (Brown, Brown, Reardon, & Merrill, 2011; Harsh, Maltese, & Tai, 2012; Heilbronner, 2011; Scott, 2012). The problem is not necessarily due to a lack of STEM skills and concept proficiency. There also appears to be a lack of interest in these fields. Recent evidence suggests that many of the most proficient students, especially minority students and women, have been gravitating away from science and engineering toward other professions. (President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology, 2010). The purpose of this qualitative research study was an attempt to determine how high schools can best prepare and encourage young women for a career in engineering or computer science. This was accomplished by interviewing a pool of 21 women, 5 recent high school graduates planning to major in STEM, 5 college students who had completed at least one full year of coursework in an engineering or computer science major and 11 professional women who had been employed as an engineer or computer scientist for at least one full year. These women were asked to share the high school courses, activities, and experiences that best prepared them to pursue an engineering or computer science major. Five central themes emerged from this study; coursework in physics and calculus, promotion of STEM camps and clubs, teacher encouragement of STEM capabilities and careers, problem solving, critical thinking and confidence building activities in the classroom, and allowing students the opportunity to fail and ask questions in a safe environment. These

  14. Institute of Industrial Engineers Asian Conference 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Tsao, Yu-Chung; Lin, Shi-Woei

    2013-01-01

    This book is based on the research papers presented during The Institute of Industrial Engineers Asian Conference 2013 held at Taipei in July 2013. It presents information on the most recent and relevant research, theories and practices in industrial and systems engineering. Key topics include: Engineering and Technology Management Engineering Economy and Cost Analysis Engineering Education and Training Facilities Planning and Management Global Manufacturing and Management Human Factors Industrial & Systems Engineering Education Information Processing and Engineering Intelligent Systems Manufacturing Systems Operations Research Production Planning and Control Project Management Quality Control and Management Reliability and Maintenance Engineering Safety, Security and Risk Management Supply Chain Management Systems Modeling and Simulation Large scale complex systems.

  15. The Experiences of Female High School Students and Interest in STEM: Factors Leading to the Selection of an Engineering or Computer Science Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genoways, Sharon K.

    2017-01-01

    STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math) education creates critical thinkers, increases science literacy, and enables the next generation of innovators, which leads to new products and processes that sustain our economy (Hossain & Robinson, 2012). We have been hearing the warnings for several years, that there simply are not enough…

  16. Engineering Technical Review Planning Briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Terrie

    2012-01-01

    The general topics covered in the engineering technical planning briefing are 1) overviews of NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and Engineering, 2) the NASA Systems Engineering(SE) Engine and its implementation , 3) the NASA Project Life Cycle, 4) MSFC Technical Management Branch Services in relation to the SE Engine and the Project Life Cycle , 5) Technical Reviews, 6) NASA Human Factor Design Guidance , and 7) the MSFC Human Factors Team. The engineering technical review portion of the presentation is the primary focus of the overall presentation and will address the definition of a design review, execution guidance, the essential stages of a technical review, and the overall review planning life cycle. Examples of a technical review plan content, review approaches, review schedules, and the review process will be provided and discussed. The human factors portion of the presentation will focus on the NASA guidance for human factors. Human factors definition, categories, design guidance, and human factor specialist roles will be addressed. In addition, the NASA Systems Engineering Engine description, definition, and application will be reviewed as background leading into the NASA Project Life Cycle Overview and technical review planning discussion.

  17. Engineering mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Dietmar; Schröder, Jörg; Wall, Wolfgang A; Rajapakse, Nimal

    Statics is the first volume of a three-volume textbook on Engineering Mechanics. The authors, using a time-honoured straightforward and flexible approach, present the basic concepts and principles of mechanics in the clearest and simplest form possible to advanced undergraduate engineering students of various disciplines and different educational backgrounds. An important objective of this book is to develop problem solving skills in a systematic manner. Another aim of this volume is to provide engineering students as well as practising engineers with a solid foundation to help them bridge the gap between undergraduate studies on the one hand and advanced courses on mechanics and/or practical engineering problems on the other. The book contains numerous examples, along with their complete solutions. Emphasis is placed upon student participation in problem solving. The contents of the book correspond to the topics normally covered in courses on basic engineering mechanics at universities and colleges. Now in i...

  18. Invisible Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Hideo

    Questionnaire to ask “mention three names of scientists you know” and “three names of engineers you know” was conducted and the answers from 140 adults were analyzed. The results indicated that the image of scientists is represented by Nobel laureates and that of engineers by great inventors like Thomas Edison and industry founders like Soichiro Honda. In order to reveal the image of engineers among young generation, questionnaire was conducted for pupils in middle and high schools. Answers from 1,230 pupils were analyzed and 226 names mentioned as engineers were classified. White votes reached 60%. Engineers who are neither big inventors nor company founders collected less than 1% of named votes. Engineers are astonishingly invisible from young generation. Countermeasures are proposed.

  19. Global engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plass, L.

    2001-01-01

    This article considers the challenges posed by the declining orders in the plant engineering and contracting business in Germany, the need to remain competitive, and essential preconditions for mastering the challenge. The change in engineering approach is illustrated by the building of a methanol plant in Argentina by Lurgi with the basic engineering completed in Frankfurt with involvement of key personnel from Poland, completely engineered subsystems from a Brazilian subsupplier, and detailed engineering work in Frankfurt. The production of methanol from natural gas using the LurgiMega/Methanol process is used as a typical example of the industrial plant construction sector. The prerequisites for successful global engineering are listed, and error costs in plant construction, possible savings, and process intensification are discussed

  20. The role of environmental factors in regulating the development of cartilaginous grafts engineered using osteoarthritic human infrapatellar fat pad-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yurong; Buckley, Conor T; Downey, Richard; Mulhall, Kevin J; Kelly, Daniel J

    2012-08-01

    Engineering functional cartilaginous grafts using stem cells isolated from osteoarthritic human tissue is of fundamental importance if autologous tissue engineering strategies are to be used in the treatment of diseased articular cartilage. It has previously been demonstrated that human infrapatellar fat pad (IFP)-derived stem cells undergo chondrogenesis in pellet culture; however, the ability of such cells to generate functional cartilaginous grafts has not been adequately addressed. The objective of this study was to explore how environmental conditions regulate the functional development of cartilaginous constructs engineered using diseased human IFP-derived stem cells (FPSCs). FPSCs were observed to display a diminished chondrogenic potential upon encapsulation in a three-dimensional hydrogel compared with pellet culture, synthesizing significantly lower levels of glycosaminoglycan and collagen on a per cell basis. To engineer more functional cartilaginous grafts, we next explored whether additional biochemical and biophysical stimulations would enhance chondrogenesis within the hydrogels. Serum stimulation was observed to partially recover the diminished chondrogenic potential within hydrogel culture. Over 42 days, stem cells that had first been expanded in a low-oxygen environment proliferated extensively on the outer surface of the hydrogel in response to serum stimulation, assembling a dense type II collagen-positive cartilaginous tissue resembling that formed in pellet culture. The application of hydrostatic pressure did not further enhance extracellular matrix synthesis within the hydrogels, but did appear to alter the spatial accumulation of extracellular matrix leading to the formation of a more compact tissue with superior mechanically functionality. Further work is required in order to recapitulate the environmental conditions present during pellet culture within scaffolds or hydrogels in order to engineer more functional cartilaginous grafts using

  1. Human engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seong Hwan; Park, Bum; Gang, Yeong Sik; Gal, Won Mo; Baek, Seung Ryeol; Choe, Jeong Hwa; Kim, Dae Sung

    2006-07-01

    This book mentions human engineering, which deals with introduction of human engineering, Man-Machine system like system design, and analysis and evaluation of Man-Machine system, data processing and data input, display, system control of man, human mistake and reliability, human measurement and design of working place, human working, hand tool and manual material handling, condition of working circumstance, working management, working analysis, motion analysis working measurement, and working improvement and design in human engineering.

  2. Engineering Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Se Yun

    2009-01-01

    This book deals with engineering electromagnetics. It contains seven chapters, which treats understanding of engineering electromagnetics such as magnet and electron spin, current and a magnetic field and an electromagnetic wave, Essential tool for engineering electromagnetics on rector and scalar, rectangular coordinate system and curl vector, electrostatic field with coulomb rule and method of electric images, Biot-Savart law, Ampere law and magnetic force, Maxwell equation and an electromagnetic wave and reflection and penetration of electromagnetic plane wave.

  3. Information engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, D.N.

    1997-02-01

    The Information Engineering thrust area develops information technology to support the programmatic needs of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Engineering Directorate. Progress in five programmatic areas are described in separate reports contained herein. These are entitled Three-dimensional Object Creation, Manipulation, and Transport, Zephyr:A Secure Internet-Based Process to Streamline Engineering Procurements, Subcarrier Multiplexing: Optical Network Demonstrations, Parallel Optical Interconnect Technology Demonstration, and Intelligent Automation Architecture.

  4. Software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerville, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The ninth edition of Software Engineering presents a broad perspective of software engineering, focusing on the processes and techniques fundamental to the creation of reliable, software systems. Increased coverage of agile methods and software reuse, along with coverage of 'traditional' plan-driven software engineering, gives readers the most up-to-date view of the field currently available. Practical case studies, a full set of easy-to-access supplements, and extensive web resources make teaching the course easier than ever.

  5. Mechanical Engineering | Classification | College of Engineering & Applied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering Concentration on Ergonomics M.S. Program in Computer Science Interdisciplinary Concentration on Energy Doctoral Programs in Engineering Non-Degree Candidate Departments Biomedical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Industry Advisory Council Civil & Environmental Engineering Civil &

  6. Biomedical Engineering | Classification | College of Engineering & Applied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering Concentration on Ergonomics M.S. Program in Computer Science Interdisciplinary Concentration on Energy Doctoral Programs in Engineering Non-Degree Candidate Departments Biomedical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Industry Advisory Council Civil & Environmental Engineering Civil &

  7. Materials Science & Engineering | Classification | College of Engineering &

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomedical Engineering Concentration on Ergonomics M.S. Program in Computer Science Interdisciplinary Concentration on Energy Doctoral Programs in Engineering Non-Degree Candidate Departments Biomedical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Industry Advisory Council Civil & Environmental Engineering Civil &

  8. Electrical Engineering | Classification | College of Engineering & Applied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering Concentration on Ergonomics M.S. Program in Computer Science Interdisciplinary Concentration on Energy Doctoral Programs in Engineering Non-Degree Candidate Departments Biomedical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Industry Advisory Council Civil & Environmental Engineering Civil &

  9. Engineering tribology

    CERN Document Server

    Stachowiak, Gwidon; Batchelor, A W; Batchelor, Andrew W

    2005-01-01

    As with the previous edition, the third edition of Engineering Tribology provides a thorough understanding of friction and wear using technologies such as lubrication and special materials. Tribology is a complex topic with its own terminology and specialized concepts, yet is vitally important throughout all engineering disciplines, including mechanical design, aerodynamics, fluid dynamics and biomedical engineering. This edition includes updated material on the hydrodynamic aspects of tribology as well as new advances in the field of biotribology, with a focus throughout on the engineering ap

  10. Food Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, R.M.; Janssen, A.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Food engineering is a rapidly changing discipline. Traditionally, the main focus was on food preservation and stabilization, whereas trends now are on diversity, health, taste, and sustainable production. Next to a general introduction of the definition of food engineering, this article gives a

  11. Fluids engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Fluids engineering has played an important role in many applications, from ancient flood control to the design of high-speed compact turbomachinery. New applications of fluids engineering, such as in high-technology materials processing, biotechnology, and advanced combustion systems, have kept up unwaining interest in the subject. More accurate and sophisticated computational and measurement techniques are also constantly being developed and refined. On a more fundamental level, nonlinear dynamics and chaotic behavior of fluid flow are no longer an intellectual curiosity and fluid engineers are increasingly interested in finding practical applications for these emerging sciences. Applications of fluid technology to new areas, as well as the need to improve the design and to enhance the flexibility and reliability of flow-related machines and devices will continue to spur interest in fluids engineering. The objectives of the present seminar were: to exchange current information on arts, science, and technology of fluids engineering; to promote scientific cooperation between the fluids engineering communities of both nations, and to provide an opportunity for the participants and their colleagues to explore possible joint research programs in topics of high priority and mutual interest to both countries. The Seminar provided an excellent forum for reviewing the current state and future needs of fluids engineering for the two nations. With the Seminar ear-marking the first formal scientific exchange between Korea and the United States in the area of fluids engineering, the scope was deliberately left broad and general

  12. Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Suh, Sang C; Tanik, Murat M

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical Engineering: Health Care Systems, Technology and Techniques is an edited volume with contributions from world experts. It provides readers with unique contributions related to current research and future healthcare systems. Practitioners and researchers focused on computer science, bioinformatics, engineering and medicine will find this book a valuable reference.

  13. Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, John

    1973-01-01

    Presents a review of genetic engineering, in which the genotypes of plants and animals (including human genotypes) may be manipulated for the benefit of the human species. Discusses associated problems and solutions and provides an extensive bibliography of literature relating to genetic engineering. (JR)

  14. Corrosion Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Charles V.

    A description is provided for a Corrosion and Corrosion Control course offered in the Continuing Engineering Education Program at the General Motors Institute (GMI). GMI is a small cooperative engineering school of approximately 2,000 students who alternate between six-week periods of academic study and six weeks of related work experience in…

  15. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2001-01-01

    The aim of Engineering Surveying has always been to impart and develop a clear understanding of the basic topics of the subject. The author has fully revised the book to make it the most up-to-date and relevant textbook available on the subject.The book also contains the latest information on trigonometric levelling, total stations and one-person measuring systems. A new chapter on satellites ensures a firm grasp of this vitally important topic.The text covers engineering surveying modules for civil engineering students on degree courses and forms a reference for the engineering surveying module in land surveying courses. It will also prove to be a valuable reference for practitioners.* Simple clear introduction to surveying for engineers* Explains key techniques and methods* Details reading systems and satellite position fixing

  16. Emotional engineering

    CERN Document Server

    In an age of increasing complexity, diversification and change, customers expect services that cater to their needs and to their tastes. Emotional Engineering vol 2. describes how their expectations can be satisfied and managed throughout the product life cycle, if producers focus their attention more on emotion. Emotional engineering provides the means to integrate products to create a new social framework and develops services beyond product realization to create of value across a full lifetime.  14 chapters cover a wide range of topics that can be applied to product, process and industry development, with special attention paid to the increasing importance of sensing in the age of extensive and frequent changes, including: • Multisensory stimulation and user experience  • Physiological measurement • Tactile sensation • Emotional quality management • Mental model • Kansei engineering.   Emotional Engineering vol 2 builds on Dr Fukuda’s previous book, Emotional Engineering, and provides read...

  17. Engineering Self-Efficacy Contributing to the Academic Performance of AMAIUB Engineering Students: A Qualitative Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleta, Beda T.

    2016-01-01

    This research study aims to determine the factors of engineering skills self- efficacy sources contributing on the academic performance of AMAIUB engineering students. Thus, a better measure of engineering self-efficacy is needed to adequately assess engineering students' beliefs in their capabilities to perform tasks in their engineering…

  18. Development of the safety evaluation system in the respects of organizational factors and workers' consciousness. Pt. 3. On know-how of its applying to an engineering company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasou, Kunihide; Hasegawa, Naoko; Hirose, Ayako; Tsuge, Tadashi; Hayase, Kenichi; Takano, Kenichi

    2003-01-01

    'Safety Culture' has been paid attentions since Chernobyl accident in 1986. The criticality accident in 1999 and other kinds of scandals involving big name companies in Japan make them realize the importance of safety culture. CRIEPI is developing a safety evaluation system. The evaluation is based on the answers to the questionnaire and their statistical analysis such as t-test principal component analysis. This report discusses know-how when applying this evaluation technique to an engineering company whose jobs are ranging from production of products to engineering services to customers. About 15% engineers of the company answered the questionnaire and the answers were statistically analyzed. The results show the followings. First, the evaluation technique is not suitable to evaluations between departments with different kinds of jobs in each. That is because risk on the business of each department differs from each other due to the differences in the kinds of jobs. This indicates that the evaluation technique should be applied to groups whose jobs and risks on their business are equal. Second, the technique is applicable to branches with some kinds of jobs. A branch consists of small groups with different jobs but the ratios of the groups in a branch are nearly equal to those in other branches. Therefore, risks in each branch are equal. Finally, the technique should consider the frequency in which risks of a group to be tested realize. The larger the frequency in which workers face them is, the more the workers pay attention to safety issues. These findings indicate that the safety evaluation system needs several kinds of the standards of comparisons to be applied to evaluate safety levels in wide range of industrial companies. (author)

  19. Glycosylation Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Henrik; Wandall, Hans H.; Steentoft, Catharina

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of the cellular pathways of glycosylation across phylogeny provides opportunities for designing glycans via genetic engineering in a wide variety of cell types including bacteria, fungi, plant cells, and mammalian cells. The commercial demand for glycosylation engineering is broad......, including production of biological therapeutics with defined glycosylation (Chapter 57). This chapter describes how knowledge of glycan structures and their metabolism (Parts I–III of this book) has led to the current state of glycosylation engineering in different cell types. Perspectives for rapid...

  20. Engineering mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, John

    2014-01-01

    A practical introduction to the core mathematics required for engineering study and practiceNow in its seventh edition, Engineering Mathematics is an established textbook that has helped thousands of students to succeed in their exams.John Bird's approach is based on worked examples and interactive problems. This makes it ideal for students from a wide range of academic backgrounds as the student can work through the material at their own pace. Mathematical theories are explained in a straightforward manner, being supported by practical engineering examples and applications in order to ensure

  1. Engineering mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Stroud, K A

    2013-01-01

    A groundbreaking and comprehensive reference that's been a bestseller since it first debuted in 1970, the new seventh edition of Engineering Mathematics has been thoroughly revised and expanded. Providing a broad mathematical survey, this innovative volume covers a full range of topics from the very basic to the advanced. Whether you're an engineer looking for a useful on-the-job reference or want to improve your mathematical skills, or you are a student who needs an in-depth self-study guide, Engineering Mathematics is sure to come in handy time and time again.

  2. Software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerville, Ian

    2016-01-01

    For courses in computer science and software engineering The Fundamental Practice of Software Engineering Software Engineering introduces readers to the overwhelmingly important subject of software programming and development. In the past few years, computer systems have come to dominate not just our technological growth, but the foundations of our world's major industries. This text seeks to lay out the fundamental concepts of this huge and continually growing subject area in a clear and comprehensive manner. The Tenth Edition contains new information that highlights various technological updates of recent years, providing readers with highly relevant and current information. Sommerville's experience in system dependability and systems engineering guides the text through a traditional plan-based approach that incorporates some novel agile methods. The text strives to teach the innovators of tomorrow how to create software that will make our world a better, safer, and more advanced place to live.

  3. Harmonic engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L [Livermore, CA

    2009-10-20

    A high efficiency harmonic engine based on a resonantly reciprocating piston expander that extracts work from heat and pressurizes working fluid in a reciprocating piston compressor. The engine preferably includes harmonic oscillator valves capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into and out of the expander, and also preferably includes a shunt line connecting an expansion chamber of the expander to a buffer chamber of the expander for minimizing pressure variations in the fluidic circuit of the engine. The engine is especially designed to operate with very high temperature input to the expander and very low temperature input to the compressor, to produce very high thermal conversion efficiency.

  4. Engineering personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paskievici, W.

    The expansion of nuclear power is taxing human, material, and capital resources in developed and developing countries. This paper explores the human resources as represented by employment, graduation statistics, and educational curricula for nuclear engineers. (E.C.B.)

  5. Green Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Engineering is the design, commercialization and use of processes and products that are feasible and economical while reducing the generation of pollution at the source and minimizing the risk to human health and the environment.

  6. Coastal Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, E.T.J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Introduction, waves, sediment transport, littoral transport, lonshore sediment transport, onshore-offshore sediment transport, coastal changes, dune erosion and storm surges, sedimentation in channels and trenches, coastal engineering in practice.

  7. Geoenvironmental engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Eun Cheol; Park, Jeong Jun

    2009-08-01

    This book deals with definition of soil and scope of clean-up of soil, trend of geoenvironmental engineering at home and foreign countries, main concern of geoenvironmental engineering in domestic and abroad, design and building of landfills such as summary, trend of landfill policy in Korea, post management of landfill facilities, stabilizing and stability of landfill, research method and soil pollution source, restoration technology of soil pollution like restoration technique of oil pollution with thermal processing.

  8. Microwave engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Pozar, David M

    2012-01-01

    The 4th edition of this classic text provides a thorough coverage of RF and microwave engineering concepts, starting from fundamental principles of electrical engineering, with applications to microwave circuits and devices of practical importance.  Coverage includes microwave network analysis, impedance matching, directional couplers and hybrids, microwave filters, ferrite devices, noise, nonlinear effects, and the design of microwave oscillators, amplifiers, and mixers. Material on microwave and RF systems includes wireless communications, radar, radiometry, and radiation hazards. A large

  9. Reliability Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Yong

    1992-07-01

    This book is about reliability engineering, which describes definition and importance of reliability, development of reliability engineering, failure rate and failure probability density function about types of it, CFR and index distribution, IFR and normal distribution and Weibull distribution, maintainability and movability, reliability test and reliability assumption in index distribution type, normal distribution type and Weibull distribution type, reliability sampling test, reliability of system, design of reliability and functionality failure analysis by FTA.

  10. Systems Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughan, William W.

    2016-01-01

    The term “systems engineering” when entered into the Google search page, produces a significant number of results, evidence that systems engineering is recognized as being important for the success of essentially all products. Since most readers of this item will be rather well versed in documents concerning systems engineering, I have elected to share some of the points made on this subject in a document developed by the European Cooperation for Space Standardization (ECSS), a component of t...

  11. Electric engineering summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sing Eun; Park, Seong Taek; Lim, Yong Un

    1975-03-01

    This book is made up six parts, which deals with circuit theory about sinusoidal alternating current, basic current circuit, wave power, distorted wave, two terminal network, distributed circuit, laplace transformation and transfer function, power engineering on line, failure analysis transmission of line, substation and protection device and hydroelectric power plant, electricity machine like DC machine, electric transformer, induction machine and rectifier, electromagnetic on dielectric substance current, electromagnetic, electricity application like lighting engineering, heat transfer and electricity chemistry, industry, industry math with integer, rational number, factorization, matrix and differential.

  12. Advanced structural wind engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kareem, Ahsan

    2013-01-01

    This book serves as a textbook for advanced courses as it introduces state-of-the-art information and the latest research results on diverse problems in the structural wind engineering field. The topics include wind climates, design wind speed estimation, bluff body aerodynamics and applications, wind-induced building responses, wind, gust factor approach, wind loads on components and cladding, debris impacts, wind loading codes and standards, computational tools and computational fluid dynamics techniques, habitability to building vibrations, damping in buildings, and suppression of wind-induced vibrations. Graduate students and expert engineers will find the book especially interesting and relevant to their research and work.

  13. Hire a Milwaukee Engineer | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  14. Computer aided control engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymkat, Maciej; Ravn, Ole

    1997-01-01

    Current developments in the field of Computer Aided Control Engineering (CACE) have a visible impact on the design methodologies and the structure of the software tools supporting them. Today control engineers has at their disposal libraries, packages or programming environments that may...... in CACE enhancing efficient flow of information between the tools supporting the following phases of the design process. In principle, this flow has to be two-way, and more or less automated, in order to enable the engineer to observe the propagation of the particular design decisions taken at various...... levels.The major conclusions of the paper are related with identifying the factors affecting the software tool integration in a way needed to facilitate design "inter-phase" communication. These are: standard application interfaces, dynamic data exchange mechanisms, code generation techniques and general...

  15. UPS fellowships support creative engineering research

    OpenAIRE

    Crumbley, Liz

    2007-01-01

    A new $40,000 grant marks the 11th anniversary of support from the United Parcel Service (UPS) Foundation for doctoral fellowships in the Human Factors and Safety Engineering Graduate Program in the Grado Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering (ISE) in the College of Engineering.

  16. Fostering Passion among First Year Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Quamrul H.

    2010-01-01

    Engineering is a complex field of study. Declining enrollment in engineering programs in the United States is of concern and understanding the various factors that contribute to this decline is in order. Fostering a higher level of student engagement with the content may foster passion towards engineering which could increase academic competency…

  17. Engineering physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherji, Uma

    2015-01-01

    ENGINEERING PHYSICS is designed as a textbook for first year engineering students of a two semester course in Applied Physics according to new revised syllabus. However the scope of this book is not only limited to undergraduate engineering students and science students, it can also serve as a reference book for practicing scientists.Advanced technological topics like LCD, Squid, Maglev system, Electron microscopes, MRI, Photonics - Photonic fibre, Nano-particles, CNT, Quantum computing etc., are explained with basic underlying principles of Physics.This text explained following topics with numerous solved, unsolved problems and questions from different angles. Part-I contains crystal structure, Liquid crystal, Thermo-electric effect, Thermionic emission, Ultrasonic, Acoustics, semiconductor and magnetic materials. Whereas Part-2 contains Optics, X-rays, Electron optics, Dielectric materials, Quantum Physics and Schrodinger wave equation, Laser, Fibre-optics and Holography, Radio-activity, Super-conductivity,...

  18. Music engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brice, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Music Engineering is a hands-on guide to the practical aspects of electric and electronic music. It is both a compelling read and an essential reference guide for anyone using, choosing, designing or studying the technology of modern music. The technology and underpinning science are introduced through the real life demands of playing and recording, and illustrated with references to well known classic recordings to show how a particular effect is obtained thanks to the ingenuity of the engineer as well as the musician. In addition, an accompanying companion website containing over 50 specially chosen tracks for download, provides practical demonstrations of the effects and techniques described in the book. Written by a music enthusiast and electronic engineer, this book covers the electronics and physics of the subject as well as the more subjective aspects. The second edition includes an updated Digital section including MPEG3 and fact sheets at the end of each chapter to summarise the key electronics and s...

  19. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2007-01-01

    Engineering surveying involves determining the position of natural and man-made features on or beneath the Earth's surface and utilizing these features in the planning, design and construction of works. It is a critical part of any engineering project. Without an accurate understanding of the size, shape and nature of the site the project risks expensive and time-consuming errors or even catastrophic failure.Engineering Surveying 6th edition covers all the basic principles and practice of this complex subject and the authors bring expertise and clarity. Previous editions of this classic text have given readers a clear understanding of fundamentals such as vertical control, distance, angles and position right through to the most modern technologies, and this fully updated edition continues that tradition.This sixth edition includes:* An introduction to geodesy to facilitate greater understanding of satellite systems* A fully updated chapter on GPS, GLONASS and GALILEO for satellite positioning in surveying* Al...

  20. Engineering Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Iizuka, Keigo

    2008-01-01

    Engineering Optics is a book for students who want to apply their knowledge of optics to engineering problems, as well as for engineering students who want to acquire the basic principles of optics. It covers such important topics as optical signal processing, holography, tomography, holographic radars, fiber optical communication, electro- and acousto-optic devices, and integrated optics (including optical bistability). As a basis for understanding these topics, the first few chapters give easy-to-follow explanations of diffraction theory, Fourier transforms, and geometrical optics. Practical examples, such as the video disk, the Fresnel zone plate, and many more, appear throughout the text, together with numerous solved exercises. There is an entirely new section in this updated edition on 3-D imaging.

  1. Investigation of functional aspects of the N-terminal region of elongation factor Tu from Escherichia coli using a protein engineering approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, M; Mansilla, Francisco; Clark, Brian F. C.

    1998-01-01

    The function of the N-terminal region of elongation factor Tu is still unexplained. Until recently, it has not been visible in electron density maps from x-ray crystallography studies, but the presence of several well conserved basic residues suggest that this part of the molecule is of structural...

  2. An Analysis of Factors Affecting Choice of Majors in Science, Mathematics, and Engineering at the University of Michigan. Research Report #23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manis, Jean D.; And Others

    Women have traditionally not entered the fields of science and mathematics. This study examines survey responses of University of Michigan seniors interested in science for factors associated with the attraction away from the sciences among women, and reasons why they are more attracted to other fields. The survey respondents were senior women…

  3. Biochemistry engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Ho Nam

    1993-01-01

    This deals with biochemistry engineering with nine chapters. It explains bionics on development and prospect, basics of life science on classification and structure, enzyme and metabolism, fundamentals of chemical engineering on viscosity, shear rate, PFR, CSTR, mixing, dispersion, measurement and response, Enzyme kinetics, competitive inhibition, pH profile, temperature profile, stoichiometry and fermentation kinetics, bio-reactor on Enzyme-reactor and microorganism-reactor, measurement and processing on data acquisition and data processing, separation and purification, waste water treatment and economics of bionics process.

  4. Micro Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo; Kimura, F.; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2003-01-01

    The paper addresses the questions of how micro products are designed and how they are manufactured. Definitions of micro products and micro engineering are discussed and the presentation is aimed at describing typical issues, possibilities and tools regarding design of micro products. The implica......The paper addresses the questions of how micro products are designed and how they are manufactured. Definitions of micro products and micro engineering are discussed and the presentation is aimed at describing typical issues, possibilities and tools regarding design of micro products...

  5. Engineering tribology

    CERN Document Server

    Stachowiak, Gwidon

    2014-01-01

    Engineering Tribology, 4th Edition is an established introductory reference focusing on the key concepts and engineering implications of tribology. Taking an interdisciplinary view, the book brings together the relevant knowledge from different fields needed to achieve effective analysis and control of friction and wear. Updated to cover recent advances in tribology, this new edition includes new sections on ionic and mesogenic lubricants, surface texturing, and multiscale characterization of 3D surfaces and coatings. Current trends in nanotribology are discussed, such as those relating to

  6. Software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Thorin, Marc

    1985-01-01

    Software Engineering describes the conceptual bases as well as the main methods and rules on computer programming. This book presents software engineering as a coherent and logically built synthesis and makes it possible to properly carry out an application of small or medium difficulty that can later be developed and adapted to more complex cases. This text is comprised of six chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the fundamental notions of entities, actions, and programming. The next two chapters elaborate on the concepts of information and consistency domains and show that a proc

  7. Corrosion engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontana, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    This book emphasizes the engineering approach to handling corrosion. It presents corrosion data by corrosives or environments rather than by materials. It discusses the corrosion engineering of noble metals, ''exotic'' metals, non-metallics, coatings, mechanical properties, and corrosion testing, as well as modern concepts. New sections have been added on fracture mechanics, laser alloying, nuclear waste isolation, solar energy, geothermal energy, and the Statue of Liberty. Special isocorrosion charts, developed by the author, are introduced as a quick way to look at candidates for a particular corrosive.

  8. Soil temperature of peatland landscapes as a factor in the development of exogenous processes of biogenic relief formation in engineering development of territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkin, S.; Talyneva, O.; Kail, E.

    2018-03-01

    In the presented work we consider mire landscapes in the context of temperature monitoring. The mire landscapes in engineering development of the territory are very sensitive to anthropogenic impact that leads to a change in surface conditions, changes in natural succession and, as a rule, to changes in soil temperature and properties, which in turn may develop a complex of hostile geodynamic processes. For this study we used recording systems for field measurement of peat and subsoil temperatures. The measurements were made in two key areas: the territory of the north-taiga landscapes of Western Siberia (the Siberian Ridges), and the territory of the middle-taiga landscapes of Western Siberia (the Ob middle-river lowland). The paper analyses the data obtained from five observation sites (3, 5, 5a, 6 and 8) referred to hydromorphic landscapes. For the territory of the Siberian Ridges the 5-year average soil temperature was 3°C. For the Ob middle-river lowland the 6-year average soil temperature was 4.2°C. The annual soil temperature in the period 2015-2016 for Site 5a (man-disturbed area) was 8.3°C at all depths, which is 3.8°C higher than in a natural bog (Site 5 was a control area).

  9. Efficient generation of smooth muscle cells from adipose-derived stromal cells by 3D mechanical stimulation can substitute the use of growth factors in vascular tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvizi, Mojtaba; Bolhuis-Versteeg, Lydia A M; Poot, André A; Harmsen, Martin C

    2016-07-01

    Occluding artery disease causes a high demand for bioartificial replacement vessels. We investigated the combined use of biodegradable and creep-free poly (1,3-trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) with smooth muscle cells (SMC) derived by biochemical or mechanical stimulation of adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASC) to engineer bioartificial arteries. Biochemical induction of cultured ASC to SMC was done with TGF-β1 for 7d. Phenotype and function were assessed by qRT-PCR, immunodetection and collagen contraction assays. The influence of mechanical stimulation on non-differentiated and pre-differentiated ASC, loaded in porous tubular PTMC scaffolds, was assessed after culturing under pulsatile flow for 14d. Assays included qRT-PCR, production of extracellular matrix and scanning electron microscopy. ASC adhesion and TGF-β1-driven differentiation to contractile SMC on PTMC did not differ from tissue culture polystyrene controls. Mesenchymal and SMC markers were increased compared to controls. Interestingly, pre-differentiated ASC had only marginal higher contractility than controls. Moreover, in 3D PTMC scaffolds, mechanical stimulation yielded well-aligned ASC-derived SMC which deposited ECM. Under the same conditions, pre-differentiated ASC-derived SMC maintained their SMC phenotype. Our results show that mechanical stimulation can replace TGF-β1 pre-stimulation to generate SMC from ASC and that pre-differentiated ASC keep their SMC phenotype with increased expression of SMC markers. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Engineered zinc-finger transcription factors inhibit the replication and transcription of HBV in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Wang, Junxia; Xu, Dengfeng; Bai, Huili; Zhang, Yangli; Zhang, Yuhong; Li, Xiaosong

    2018-04-01

    In the present study, an artificial zinc-finger transcription factor eukaryotic expression vector specifically recognizing and binding to the hepatitis B virus (HBV) enhancer (Enh) was constructed, which inhibited the replication and expression of HBV DNA. The HBV EnhI‑specific pcDNA3.1‑artificial transcription factor (ATF) vector was successfully constructed, and then transformed or injected into HepG2.2.15 cells and HBV transgenic mice, respectively. The results demonstrated that the HBV EnhI (1,070‑1,234 bp)‑specific ATF significantly inhibited the replication and transcription of HBV DNA in vivo and in vitro. The HBV EnhI‑specific ATF may be a meritorious component of progressive combination therapies for eliminating HBV DNA in infected patients. A radical cure for chronic HBV infection may become feasible by using this bioengineering technology.

  11. An In Vitro Investigation of Platelet-Rich Plasma-Gel as a Cell and Growth Factor Delivery Vehicle for Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Jalowiec, Jagoda M.; D'Este, Matteo; Bara, Jennifer Jane; Denom, Jessica; Menzel, Ursula; Alini, Mauro; Verrier, Sophie; Herrmann, Marietta

    2015-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been used for different applications in human and veterinary medicine. Many studies have shown promising therapeutic effects of PRP; however, there are still many controversies regarding its composition, properties, and clinical efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different platelet concentrations on the rheological properties and growth factor (GF) release profile of PRP-gels. In addition, the viability of incorporated bone marrow-d...

  12. Engineering Obsolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohn, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    Editor's Note: In this contribution to the series on Hackers, Makers, and Engineers, she tells us about her research on relationships to technological change in a long-lived NASA-ESA software infrastructure project. Her research considers how people live alongside technological change, inhabit...

  13. Combustion engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Ragland, Kenneth W

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to Combustion Engineering The Nature of Combustion Combustion Emissions Global Climate Change Sustainability World Energy Production Structure of the Book   Section I: Basic Concepts Fuels Gaseous Fuels Liquid Fuels Solid Fuels Problems Thermodynamics of Combustion Review of First Law Concepts Properties of Mixtures Combustion StoichiometryChemical EnergyChemical EquilibriumAdiabatic Flame TemperatureChemical Kinetics of CombustionElementary ReactionsChain ReactionsGlobal ReactionsNitric Oxide KineticsReactions at a Solid SurfaceProblemsReferences  Section II: Combustion of Gaseous and Vaporized FuelsFlamesLaminar Premixed FlamesLaminar Flame TheoryTurbulent Premixed FlamesExplosion LimitsDiffusion FlamesGas-Fired Furnaces and BoilersEnergy Balance and EfficiencyFuel SubstitutionResidential Gas BurnersIndustrial Gas BurnersUtility Gas BurnersLow Swirl Gas BurnersPremixed-Charge Engine CombustionIntroduction to the Spark Ignition EngineEngine EfficiencyOne-Zone Model of Combustion in a Piston-...

  14. Factors influencing pediatric Injury Severity Score and Glasgow Coma Scale in pediatric automobile crashes: results from the Crash Injury Research Engineering Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Peter F; Brown, J Kristine; Sochor, Mark R; Wang, Stewart C; Eichelberger, Martin E

    2006-11-01

    Motor vehicle crashes account for more than 50% of pediatric injuries. Triage of pediatric patients to appropriate centers can be based on the crash/injury characteristics. Pediatric motor vehicle crash/injury characteristics can be determined from an in vitro laboratory using child crash dummies. However, to date, no detailed data with respect to outcomes and crash mechanism have been presented with a pediatric in vivo model. The Crash Injury Research Engineering Network is comprised of 10 level 1 trauma centers. Crashes were examined with regard to age, crash severity (DeltaV), crash direction, restraint use, and airbag deployment. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed with Injury Severity Score (ISS) and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) as outcomes. Standard age groupings (0-4, 5-9, 10-14, and 15-18) were used. The database is biases toward a survivor population with few fatalities. Four hundred sixty-one motor vehicle crashes with 2500 injuries were analyzed (242 boys, 219 girls). Irrespective of age, DeltaV > 30 mph resulted in increased ISS and decreased GCS (eg, for 0-4 years, DeltaV 30: ISS = 19.5, GCS = 10.6; P 15) injuries than did backseat passengers (odds ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 0.7-3.4). A trend was noted for children younger than 12 years sitting in the front seat to have increased ISS and decreased GCS with airbag deployment but was limited by case number. A reproducible pattern of increased ISS and lower GCS characterized by high severity, lateral crashes in children was noted. Further analysis of the specific injuries as a function and the crash characteristic can help guide management and prevention strategies.

  15. Biocommodity Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynd; Wyman; Gerngross

    1999-10-01

    The application of biotechnology to the production of commodity products (fuels, chemicals, and materials) offering benefits in terms of sustainable resource supply and environmental quality is an emergent area of intellectual endeavor and industrial practice with great promise. Such "biocommodity engineering" is distinct from biotechnology motivated by health care at multiple levels, including economic driving forces, the importance of feedstocks and cost-motivated process engineering, and the scale of application. Plant biomass represents both the dominant foreseeable source of feedstocks for biotechnological processes as well as the only foreseeable sustainable source of organic fuels, chemicals, and materials. A variety of forms of biomass, notably many cellulosic feedstocks, are potentially available at a large scale and are cost-competitive with low-cost petroleum whether considered on a mass or energy basis, and in terms of price defined on a purchase or net basis for both current and projected mature technology, and on a transfer basis for mature technology. Thus the central, and we believe surmountable, impediment to more widespread application of biocommodity engineering is the general absence of low-cost processing technology. Technological and research challenges associated with converting plant biomass into commodity products are considered relative to overcoming the recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass (converting cellulosic biomass into reactive intermediates) and product diversification (converting reactive intermediates into useful products). Advances are needed in pretreatment technology to make cellulosic materials accessible to enzymatic hydrolysis, with increased attention to the fundamental chemistry operative in pretreatment processes likely to accelerate progress. Important biotechnological challenges related to the utilization of cellulosic biomass include developing cellulase enzymes and microorganisms to produce them, fermentation of

  16. From Usability Testing to Clinical Simulations: Bringing Context into the Design and Evaluation of Usable and Safe Health Information Technologies. Contribution of the IMIA Human Factors Engineering for Healthcare Informatics Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushniruk, A; Nohr, C; Jensen, S; Borycki, E M

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to explore human factors approaches to understanding the use of health information technology (HIT) by extending usability engineering approaches to include analysis of the impact of clinical context through use of clinical simulations. Methods discussed are considered on a continuum from traditional laboratory-based usability testing to clinical simulations. Clinical simulations can be conducted in a simulation laboratory and they can also be conducted in real-world settings. The clinical simulation approach attempts to bring the dimension of clinical context into stronger focus. This involves testing of systems with representative users doing representative tasks, in representative settings/environments. Application of methods where realistic clinical scenarios are used to drive the study of users interacting with systems under realistic conditions and settings can lead to identification of problems and issues with systems that may not be detected using traditional usability engineering methods. In conducting such studies, careful consideration is needed in creating ecologically valid test scenarios. The evidence obtained from such evaluation can be used to improve both the usability and safety of HIT. In addition, recent work has shown that clinical simulations, in particular those conducted in-situ, can lead to considerable benefits when compared to the costs of running such studies. In order to bring context of use into the testing of HIT, clinical simulation, involving observing representative users carrying out tasks in representative settings, holds considerable promise.

  17. Factores de Deserción Estudiantil en Ingeniería: Una Aplicación de Modelos de Duración Student Dropout Factors in Engineering: An Application of Duration Models

    OpenAIRE

    Christian J Díaz

    2009-01-01

    Se analizó la deserción estudiantil universitaria, en estudiantes de carreras de ingeniería de la cohorte del año 2004 hasta enero del año 2007. Se evaluó la retención utilizando un modelo de Kaplan-Meier, y se determinaron factores de la deserción con un modelo de riesgos proporcionales de Cox. Los resultados muestran que la mayor probabilidad de desertar se presenta en los tres primeros semestres, y en estudiantes que provienen de colegios financiados por el estado. Son factores determinant...

  18. Ligament Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Wasim Sardar

    2016-01-01

    Ligaments are commonly injured in the knee joint, and have a poor capacity for healing due to their relative avascularity. Ligament reconstruction is well established for injuries such as anterior cruciate ligament rupture, however the use of autografts and allografts for ligament reconstruction are associated with complications, and outcomes are variable. Ligament tissue engineering using stem cells, growth factors and scaffolds is a novel technique that has the potential to provide an unlim...

  19. Search engine optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Marolt, Klemen

    2013-01-01

    Search engine optimization techniques, often shortened to “SEO,” should lead to first positions in organic search results. Some optimization techniques do not change over time, yet still form the basis for SEO. However, as the Internet and web design evolves dynamically, new optimization techniques flourish and flop. Thus, we looked at the most important factors that can help to improve positioning in search results. It is important to emphasize that none of the techniques can guarantee high ...

  20. Introduction to tissue engineering and application for cartilage engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Isla, N; Huseltein, C; Jessel, N; Pinzano, A; Decot, V; Magdalou, J; Bensoussan, D; Stoltz, J-F

    2010-01-01

    Tissue engineering is a multidisciplinary field that applies the principles of engineering, life sciences, cell and molecular biology toward the development of biological substitutes that restore, maintain, and improve tissue function. In Western Countries, tissues or cells management for clinical uses is a medical activity governed by different laws. Three general components are involved in tissue engineering: (1) reparative cells that can form a functional matrix; (2) an appropriate scaffold for transplantation and support; and (3) bioreactive molecules, such as cytokines and growth factors that will support and choreograph formation of the desired tissue. These three components may be used individually or in combination to regenerate organs or tissues. Thus the growing development of tissue engineering needs to solve four main problems: cells, engineering development, grafting and safety studies.

  1. New insight in the derivation of amplification factor by taking into account soil parameters. In : Proceedings of the 16th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    ZENDAGUI, Djawad; STAMBOULI BOUDGHENE, Ahmed; BARD, Pierre Yves; DERRAS, Boumédiène

    2017-01-01

    It is currently admitted that the amplification factor (AF) is one of the best tools to describe site effects. AF depends on soil parameters that are derived from the geometrical and mechanical soil properties of the soil profile. Thus, it is important to identify which soil parameters shape the form of the AF. The aim of this paper is to measure the effects of various site parameters on the variation of AF. As the problem is highly complex, a tool using the GRNN (Generalized Regression Neura...

  2. Emission factors and congener-specific characterization of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, PBDD/Fs and PBDEs from an off-road diesel engine using waste cooking oil-based biodiesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shui-Jen; Tsai, Jen-Hsiung; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Wang, Lin-Chi; Lin, Wen-Yinn; Lin, Chih-Chung; Yeh, C Kuei-Jyum

    2017-10-05

    Few studies have been performed up to now on the emission factors and congener profiles of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) emitted from off-road diesel engines. This investigation elucidates the emission factors and congener profiles of various POPs, namely polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in the exhausts of a diesel generator fueled with different waste cooking oil-based biodiesel (WCO-based biodiesel) blends. The PCDD/Fs contributed 87.2% of total dioxin-like toxicity (PCDD/Fs+PCBs+PBDD/Fs) in the exhaust, while the PCBs and PBDD/Fs only contributed 8.2% and 4.6%, respectively. Compared with petroleum diesel, B20 (20vol% WCO-based biodiesel+80vol% diesel) reduced total toxicity by 46.5% for PCDD/Fs, 47.1% for PCBs, and 24.5% for PBDD/Fs, while B40 (40vol% WCO-based biodiesel+60vol% diesel) reduced it by 89.5% for PCDD/Fs, 57.1% for PCBs, and 63.2% for PBDD/Fs in POP emission factors. The use of WCO-based biodiesel not only solves the problem of waste oil disposal, but also lowers POP emissions from diesel generators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Quiet engine program flight engine design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapproth, J. F.; Neitzel, R. E.; Seeley, C. T.

    1974-01-01

    The results are presented of a preliminary flight engine design study based on the Quiet Engine Program high-bypass, low-noise turbofan engines. Engine configurations, weight, noise characteristics, and performance over a range of flight conditions typical of a subsonic transport aircraft were considered. High and low tip speed engines in various acoustically treated nacelle configurations were included.

  4. Engineering Review Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grems, III, Edward G. (Inventor); Henze, James E. (Inventor); Bixby, Jonathan A. (Inventor); Roberts, Mark (Inventor); Mann, Thomas (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A disciplinal engineering review computer information system and method by defining a database of disciplinal engineering review process entities for an enterprise engineering program, opening a computer supported engineering item based upon the defined disciplinal engineering review process entities, managing a review of the opened engineering item according to the defined disciplinal engineering review process entities, and closing the opened engineering item according to the opened engineering item review.

  5. Human CD34+ cells engineered to express membrane-bound tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand target both tumor cells and tumor vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavazza, Cristiana; Carlo-Stella, Carmelo; Giacomini, Arianna; Cleris, Loredana; Righi, Marco; Sia, Daniela; Di Nicola, Massimo; Magni, Michele; Longoni, Paolo; Milanesi, Marco; Francolini, Maura; Gloghini, Annunziata; Carbone, Antonino; Formelli, Franca; Gianni, Alessandro M

    2010-03-18

    Adenovirus-transduced CD34+ cells expressing membrane-bound tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (CD34-TRAIL+ cells) exert potent antitumor activity. To further investigate the mechanism(s) of action of CD34-TRAIL+ cells, we analyzed their homing properties as well as antitumor and antivascular effects using a subcutaneous myeloma model in immunodeficient mice. After intravenous injection, transduced cells homed in the tumor peaking at 48 hours when 188 plus or minus 25 CD45+ cells per 10(5) tumor cells were detected. Inhibition experiments showed that tumor homing of CD34-TRAIL+ cells was largely mediated by vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and stromal cell-derived factor-1. Both CD34-TRAIL+ cells and soluble (s)TRAIL significantly reduced tumor volume by 40% and 29%, respectively. Computer-aided analysis of TdT-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling-stained tumor sections demonstrated significantly greater effectiveness for CD34-TRAIL+ cells in increasing tumor cell apoptosis and necrosis over sTRAIL. Proteome array analysis indicated that CD34-TRAIL+ cells and sTRAIL activate similar apoptotic machinery. In vivo staining of tumor vasculature with sulfosuccinimidyl-6-(biotinamido) hexanoate-biotin revealed that CD34-TRAIL+ cells but not sTRAIL significantly damaged tumor vasculature, as shown by TdT-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling+ endothelial cells, appearance of hemorrhagic areas, and marked reduction of endothelial area. These results demonstrate that tumor homing of CD34-TRAIL+ cells induces early vascular disruption, resulting in hemorrhagic necrosis and tumor destruction.

  6. Robot engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Seul

    2006-02-01

    This book deals with robot engineering, giving descriptions of robot's history, current tendency of robot field, work and characteristic of industrial robot, essential merit and vector, application of matrix, analysis of basic vector, expression of Denavit-Hartenberg, robot kinematics such as forward kinematics, inverse kinematics, cases of MATLAB program, and motion kinematics, robot kinetics like moment of inertia, centrifugal force and coriolis power, and Euler-Lagrangian equation course plan, SIMULINK position control of robots.

  7. Robot engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Seul

    2006-02-15

    This book deals with robot engineering, giving descriptions of robot's history, current tendency of robot field, work and characteristic of industrial robot, essential merit and vector, application of matrix, analysis of basic vector, expression of Denavit-Hartenberg, robot kinematics such as forward kinematics, inverse kinematics, cases of MATLAB program, and motion kinematics, robot kinetics like moment of inertia, centrifugal force and coriolis power, and Euler-Lagrangian equation course plan, SIMULINK position control of robots.

  8. Planetary engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, James B.; Sagan, Carl

    1991-01-01

    Assuming commercial fusion power, heavy lift vehicles and major advances in genetic engineering, the authors survey possible late-21st century methods of working major transformations in planetary environments. Much more Earthlike climates may be produced on Mars by generating low freezing point greenhouse gases from indigenous materials; on Venus by biological conversion of CO2 to graphite, by canceling the greenhouse effect with high-altitude absorbing fine particles, or by a sunshield at the first Lagrangian point; and on Titan by greenhouses and/or fusion warming. However, in our present state of ignorance we cannot guarantee a stable endstate or exclude unanticipated climatic feedbacks or other unintended consequences. Moreover, as the authors illustrate by several examples, many conceivable modes of planetary engineering are so wasteful of scarce solar system resources and so destructive of important scientific information as to raise profound ethical issues, even if they were economically feasible, which they are not. Global warming on Earth may lead to calls for mitigation by planetary engineering, e.g., emplacement and replenishment of anti-greenhouse layers at high altitudes, or sunshields in space. But here especially we must be concerned about precision, stability, and inadvertent side-effects. The safest and most cost-effective means of countering global warming - beyond, e.g., improved energy efficiency, CFC bans and alternative energy sources - is the continuing reforestation of approximately 2 times 107 sq km of the Earth's surface. This can be accomplished with present technology and probably at the least cost.

  9. Planetary engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, James B.; Sagan, Carl

    Assuming commercial fusion power, heavy lift vehicles and major advances in genetic engineering, the authors survey possible late-21st century methods of working major transformations in planetary environments. Much more Earthlike climates may be produced on Mars by generating low freezing point greenhouse gases from indigenous materials; on Venus by biological conversion of CO2 to graphite, by canceling the greenhouse effect with high-altitude absorbing fine particles, or by a sunshield at the first Lagrangian point; and on Titan by greenhouses and/or fusion warming. However, in our present state of ignorance we cannot guarantee a stable endstate or exclude unanticipated climatic feedbacks or other unintended consequences. Moreover, as the authors illustrate by several examples, many conceivable modes of planetary engineering are so wasteful of scarce solar system resources and so destructive of important scientific information as to raise profound ethical issues, even if they were economically feasible, which they are not. Global warming on Earth may lead to calls for mitigation by planetary engineering, e.g., emplacement and replenishment of anti-greenhouse layers at high altitudes, or sunshields in space. But here especially we must be concerned about precision, stability, and inadvertent side-effects. The safest and most cost-effective means of countering global warming - beyond, e.g., improved energy efficiency, CFC bans and alternative energy sources - is the continuing reforestation of approximately 2 times 107 sq km of the Earth's surface. This can be accomplished with present technology and probably at the least cost.

  10. Web Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Bebo

    2003-06-23

    Web Engineering is the application of systematic, disciplined and quantifiable approaches to development, operation, and maintenance of Web-based applications. It is both a pro-active approach and a growing collection of theoretical and empirical research in Web application development. This paper gives an overview of Web Engineering by addressing the questions: (a) why is it needed? (b) what is its domain of operation? (c) how does it help and what should it do to improve Web application development? and (d) how should it be incorporated in education and training? The paper discusses the significant differences that exist between Web applications and conventional software, the taxonomy of Web applications, the progress made so far and the research issues and experience of creating a specialization at the master's level. The paper reaches a conclusion that Web Engineering at this stage is a moving target since Web technologies are constantly evolving, making new types of applications possible, which in turn may require innovations in how they are built, deployed and maintained.

  11. Choosing nuclear engineering: A survey of nuclear engineering undergraduates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shillenn, J.K.; Klevans, E.H.

    1988-01-01

    Maintaining a reliable pool of qualified nuclear engineering graduates depends on the ability of nuclear engineering undergraduate programs to recruit students. With the prospect of declining enrollments in nuclear engineering it is important for nuclear engineering programs to know what factors influence students to choose nuclear engineering as an undergraduate major and why they choose a particular undergraduate program. This type of information can be very important to nuclear engineering programs that develop recruiting strategies. To provide some insight into this area, a questionnaire was designed and given to undergraduate nuclear engineering students at Pennsylvania State University. The purpose of the survey was to provide information on the reasons that students picked nuclear engineering as a career and chose to attend Penn State. The questionnaire was given to 27 students in their junior year during the spring semester of 1987 and again to 35 junior students during the spring semester of 1988. There was little difference except as noted between the two groups on their responses to the questionnaire. A partial listing of the survey results is provided

  12. Increased production of functional recombinant human clotting factor IX by baby hamster kidney cells engineered to overexpress VKORC1, the vitamin K 2,3-epoxide-reducing enzyme of the vitamin K cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajih, Nadeem; Hutson, Susan M; Owen, John; Wallin, Reidar

    2005-09-09

    Some recombinant vitamin K-dependent blood coagulation factors (factors VII, IX, and protein C) have become valuable pharmaceuticals in the treatment of bleeding complications and sepsis. Because of their vitamin K-dependent post-translational modification, their synthesis by eukaryotic cells is essential. The eukaryotic cell harbors a vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylation system that converts the proteins to gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing proteins. However, the system in eukaryotic cells has limited capacity, and cell lines overexpressing vitamin K-dependent clotting factors produce only a fraction of the recombinant proteins as fully gamma-carboxylated, physiologically competent proteins. In this work we have used recombinant human factor IX (r-hFIX)-producing baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells, engineered to stably overexpress various components of the gamma-carboxylation system of the cell, to determine whether increased production of functional r-hFIX can be accomplished. All BHK cell lines secreted r-hFIX into serum-free medium. Overexpression of gamma-carboxylase is shown to inhibit production of functional r-hFIX. On the other hand, cells overexpressing VKORC1, the reduced vitamin K cofactor-producing enzyme of the vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylation system, produced 2.9-fold more functional r-hFIX than control BHK cells. The data are consistent with the notion that VKORC1 is the rate-limiting step in the system and is a key regulatory protein in synthesis of active vitamin K-dependent proteins. The data suggest that overexpression of VKORC1 can be utilized for increased cellular production of recombinant vitamin K-dependent proteins.

  13. Global Software Engineering: A Software Process Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Ita; Casey, Valentine; Burton, John; McCaffery, Fergal

    Our research has shown that many companies are struggling with the successful implementation of global software engineering, due to temporal, cultural and geographical distance, which causes a range of factors to come into play. For example, cultural, project managementproject management and communication difficulties continually cause problems for software engineers and project managers. While the implementation of efficient software processes can be used to improve the quality of the software product, published software process models do not cater explicitly for the recent growth in global software engineering. Our thesis is that global software engineering factors should be included in software process models to ensure their continued usefulness in global organisations. Based on extensive global software engineering research, we have developed a software process, Global Teaming, which includes specific practices and sub-practices. The purpose is to ensure that requirements for successful global software engineering are stipulated so that organisations can ensure successful implementation of global software engineering.

  14. Engines, fuels and pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvi, G.

    1992-01-01

    The article points out the close relationship among engines, fuels and polluting emissions, and outlines an overall picture of future trends. The technical trade literature shows that diesel engines may undergo strong future development, due to their more favourable energy converting and less polluting characteristics. With regard to petrol injection engines, their improved construction under extremely close tolerances will result in a severe tightening-up of fuel specifications (with or without lead), so as to prevent the deposition of residues at the inlet (manifolds, injectors, valves, and combustion chamber), and their ensuing adverse effects on vehicle handling especially during the 'warm-up' stage. Recent checkups and tests run in the USA have evidenced that automotive engine-derived pollution in towns is in fact considerably more severe than that derived from mathematical models based on 'average emission factors' determined on a laboratory scale (roller bench tests, vaporization tests etc.). The entire body of regulations issued so far becomes questionable, and supplementary studies based on road-tests have been proposed. The paper's discussion is concluded with statistical data showing traffic pollution caused by VOCs (volatile organic compounds)

  15. Bone engineering in dog mandible: Coculturing mesenchymal stem cells with endothelial progenitor cells in a composite scaffold containing vascular endothelial growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khojasteh, Arash; Fahimipour, Farahnaz; Jafarian, Mohammad; Sharifi, Davoud; Jahangir, Shahrbanoo; Khayyatan, Fahimeh; Baghaban Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza

    2017-10-01

    We sought to assess the effects of coculturing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the repair of dog mandible bone defects. The cells were delivered in β-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds coated with poly lactic co-glycolic acid microspheres that gradually release vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The complete scaffold and five partial scaffolds were implanted in bilateral mandibular body defects in eight beagles. The scaffolds were examined histologically and morphometrically 8 weeks after implantation. Histologic staining of the decalcified scaffolds demonstrated that bone formation was greatest in the VEGF/MSC scaffold (63.42 ± 1.67), followed by the VEGF/MSC/EPC (47.8 ± 1.87) and MSC/EPC (45.21 ± 1.6) scaffolds, the MSC scaffold (34.59 ± 1.49), the VEGF scaffold (20.03 ± 1.29), and the untreated scaffold (7.24 ± 0.08). Hence, the rate of new bone regeneration was highest in scaffolds containing MSC, either mixed with EPC or incorporating VEGF. Adding both EPC and VEGF with the MSC was not necessary. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1767-1777, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Materials Science and Engineering |

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering? What Is Materials Science and Engineering? MSE combines engineering, physics and chemistry to solve problems in nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, energy, manufacturing, and more ,' which could replace steel. Materials Science and Mechanical Engineering Professors work together to

  17. Engineering N-terminal domain of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-3 to be a better inhibitor against tumour necrosis factor-alpha-converting enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meng-Huee; Verma, Vandana; Maskos, Klaus; Nath, Deepa; Knäuper, Vera; Dodds, Philippa; Amour, Augustin; Murphy, Gillian

    2002-01-01

    We previously reported that full-length tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP-3) and its N-terminal domain form (N-TIMP-3) displayed equal binding affinity for tissue necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-converting enzyme (TACE). Based on the computer graphic of TACE docked with a TIMP-3 model, we created a number of N-TIMP-3 mutants that showed significant improvement in TACE inhibition. Our strategy was to select those N-TIMP-3 residues that were believed to be in actual contact with the active-site pockets of TACE and mutate them to amino acids of a better-fitting nature. The activities of these mutants were examined by measuring their binding affinities (K(app)(i)) and association rates (k(on)) against TACE. Nearly all mutants at position Thr-2 exhibited slightly impaired affinity as well as association rate constants. On the other hand, some Ser-4 mutants displayed a remarkable increase in their binding tightness with TACE. In fact, the binding affinities of several mutants were less than 60 pM, beyond the sensitivity limits of fluorimetric assays. Further studies on cell-based processing of pro-TNF-alpha demonstrated that wild-type N-TIMP-3 and one of its tight-binding mutants, Ser-4Met, were capable of inhibiting the proteolytic shedding of TNF-alpha. Furthermore, the Ser-4Met mutant was also significantly more active (P<0.05) than the wild-type N-TIMP-3 in its cellular inhibition. Comparison of N-TIMP-3 and full-length TIMP-3 revealed that, despite their identical TACE-interaction kinetics, the latter was nearly 10 times more efficient in the inhibition of TNF-alpha shedding, with concomitant implications for the importance of the TIMP-3 C-terminal domain in vivo. PMID:11988096

  18. Influence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and hydrocortisone on the co-culture of mature adipocytes and endothelial cells for vascularized adipose tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Birgit; Czaja, Alina Maria; Kluger, Petra Juliane

    2016-05-01

    The composition of vascularized adipose tissue is still an ongoing challenge as no culture medium is available to supply adipocytes and endothelial cells appropriately. Endothelial cell medium is typically supplemented with epidermal growth factor (EGF) as well as hydrocortisone (HC). The effect of EGF on adipocytes is discussed controversially. Some studies say it inhibits adipocyte differentiation while others reported of improved adipocyte lipogenesis. HC is known to have lipolytic activities, which might result in mature adipocyte dedifferentiation. In this study, we evaluated the influence of EGF and HC on the co-culture of endothelial cells and mature adipocytes regarding their cell morphology and functionality. We showed in mono-culture that high levels of HC promoted dedifferentiation and proliferation of mature adipocytes, whereas EGF seemed to have no negative influence. Endothelial cells kept their typical cobblestone morphology and showed a proliferation rate comparable to the control independent of EGF and HC concentration. In co-culture, HC promoted dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes, which was shown by a higher glycerol release. EGF had no negative impact on adipocyte morphology. No negative impact on endothelial cell morphology and functionality could be seen with reduced EGF and HC supplementation in co-culture with mature adipocytes. Taken together, our results demonstrate that reduced levels of HC are needed for co-culturing mature adipocytes and endothelial cells. In co-culture, EGF had no influence on mature adipocytes. Therefore, for the composition of vascularized adipose tissue constructs, the media with low levels of HC and high or low levels of EGF can be used. © 2016 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  19. Engineering justice transforming engineering education and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Leydens, Jon A

    2018-01-01

    Using social justice as a catalyst for curricular transformation, Engineering Justice presents an examination of how politics, culture, and other social issues are inherent in the practice of engineering. It aims to align engineering curricula with socially just outcomes, increase enrollment among underrepresented groups, and lessen lingering gender, class, and ethnicity gaps by showing how the power of engineering knowledge can be explicitly harnessed to serve the underserved and address social inequalities. This book is meant to transform the way educators think about engineering curricula through creating or transforming existing courses to attract, retain, and motivate engineering students to become professionals who enact engineering for social justice. Engineering Justice offers thought-provoking chapters on: why social justice is inherent yet often invisible in engineering education and practice; engineering design for social justice; social justice in the engineering sciences; social justice in human...

  20. Effect of temperature change at inlet of engine on the corrected performance of turbofan engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozu, Masao; Yajima, Satoshi [Defence Agency, Tokyo, JapanIshikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1989-06-10

    Theoretical consideration on the effect of inlet temperature change of engine on the engine performance was conducted, and soundness of the result was appreciated by applying it to the experimental result of turbofan engine. As the theoretical consideration, premises of Buckingham's fundamental theorem was corrected by Reynolds Number and by the consideration on the effect of inlet temperature on gas constant and specific heat ratio. By using the result, correction factors were calculated from the experimental result of an actual turbo-fan engine. The correction factors were applied to the other engine test result and confirmed satisfactory soundness. 4 refs., 11 figs.

  1. Microprocessor engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Holdsworth, B

    2013-01-01

    Microprocessor Engineering provides an insight in the structures and operating techniques of a small computer. The book is comprised of 10 chapters that deal with the various aspects of computing. The first two chapters tackle the basic arithmetic and logic processes. The third chapter covers the various memory devices, both ROM and RWM. Next, the book deals with the general architecture of microprocessor. The succeeding three chapters discuss the software aspects of machine operation, while the last remaining three chapters talk about the relationship of the microprocessor with the outside wo

  2. Engineering of PDMS surfaces for use in microsystems for capture and isolation of complex and biomedically important proteins: epidermal growth factor receptor as a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Aaron M; Ozer, Byram H; Wiepz, Gregory J; Bertics, Paul J; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2008-08-01

    Elastomers based on poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) are promising materials for fabrication of a wide range of microanalytical systems due to their mechanical and optical properties and ease of processing. To date, however, quantitative studies that demonstrate reliable and reproducible methods for attachment of binding groups that capture complex receptor proteins of relevance to biomedical applications of PDMS microsystems have not been reported. Herein we describe methods that lead to the reproducible capture of a transmembrane protein, the human epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, onto PDMS surfaces presenting covalently immobilized antibodies for EGF receptor, and subsequent isolation of the captured receptor by mechanical transfer of the receptor onto a chemically functionalized surface of a gold film for detection. This result is particularly significant because the physical properties of transmembrane proteins make this class of proteins a difficult one to analyze. We benchmark the performance of antibodies to the human EGF receptor covalently immobilized on PDMS against the performance of the same antibodies physisorbed to conventional surfaces utilized in ELISA assays through the use of EGF receptor that was (32)P-radiolabeled in its autophosphorylation domain. These results reveal that two pan-reactive antibodies for the EGF receptor (clones H11 and 111.6) and one phosphospecific EGF receptor antibody (clone pY1068) capture the receptor on both PDMS and ELISA plates. When using H11 antibody to capture EGF receptor and subsequent treatment with a stripping buffer (NaOH and sodium dodecylsulfate) to isolate the receptor, the signal-to-background obtained using the PDMS surface was 82 : 1, exceeding the signal-to-background measured on the ELISA plate (<48 : 1). We also characterized the isolation of captured EGF receptor by mechanical contact of the PDMS surface with a chemically functionalized gold film. The efficiency of mechanical transfer of the

  3. Internet Search Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Fatmaa El Zahraa Mohamed Abdou

    2004-01-01

    A general study about the internet search engines, the study deals main 7 points; the differance between search engines and search directories, components of search engines, the percentage of sites covered by search engines, cataloging of sites, the needed time for sites appearance in search engines, search capabilities, and types of search engines.

  4. The Impact of Engineering Identification and Stereotypes on Undergraduate Women's Achievement and Persistence in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brett D.; Ruff, Chloe; Paretti, Marie C.

    2013-01-01

    Women almost always comprise a minority in engineering programs and a smaller percentage of women pursue engineering than other science and technology majors. The culture of engineering departments and negative stereotypes of women's engineering and mathematical ability have been identified as factors that inhibit women's entry into…

  5. Stone cladding engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sousa Camposinhos, Rui de

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents new methodologies for the design of dimension stone based on the concepts of structural design while preserving the excellence of stonemasonry practice in façade engineering. Straightforward formulae are provided for computing action on cladding, with special emphasis on the effect of seismic forces, including an extensive general methodology applied to non-structural elements. Based on the Load and Resistance Factor Design Format (LRDF), minimum slab thickness formulae are presented that take into consideration stress concentrations analysis based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) for the most commonly used modern anchorage systems. Calculation examples allow designers to solve several anchorage engineering problems in a detailed and objective manner, underlining the key parameters. The design of the anchorage metal parts, either in stainless steel or aluminum, is also presented.

  6. Engineering Encounters: Teaching Educators about Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tank, Kristina M.; Raman, D. Raj; Lamm, Monica H.; Sundararajan, Sriram; Estapa, Anne

    2017-01-01

    This column presents ideas and techniques to enhance science teaching. This month's issue describes preservice elementary teachers learning engineering principles from engineers. Few elementary teachers have experience with implementing engineering into the classroom. While engineering professional development opportunities for inservice teachers…

  7. An engineering context for software engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Riehle, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    New engineering disciplines are emerging in the late Twentieth and early Twenty-first Century. One such emerging discipline is software engineering. The engineering community at large has long harbored a sense of skepticism about the validity of the term software engineering. During most of the fifty-plus years of software practice, that skepticism was probably justified. Professional education of software developers often fell short of the standard expected for conventional engineers; so...

  8. System for measuring engine exhaust constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carduner, K.R.; Colvin, A.D.; Leong, D.Y.W.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a system for measuring an automotive engine exhaust constituent. It comprises: a meter for determining the mass of air flowing through the engine and for generating an engine airflow signal corresponding to the airflow; sample handling apparatus; diluent adding means; processor means. This patent also describes a method for using an analyzer to determine the amount of lubricating oil consumed by an automotive engine. It comprises: determining the amount of sulfur dioxide within the room air being drawn into the engine; maintaining a constant total flow comprised of a constant fraction of the engine's exhaust gas and a diluent gas through the analyzer, while: determining the amount of sulfur dioxide contained within the engine's exhaust, determining the amount of sulfur dioxide contained within the engine's exhaust, while operating the engine on room air; determining an efficiency factor for the analyzer; and using the efficiency factor and the concentration of sulfur in the engine oil and the amounts of sulfur dioxide determined in steps a and d to determine the amount of lubrication oil leaving the engine through its exhaust

  9. Mechanical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Division provides the other NAC divisions with design and construction services. Items of special mechanical significance are discussed here. The projects which received major design attention during the past year were: a coupling capacitor for SPC2; a bending magnet and solenoid for ECR ion source; a scanner for outer orbits of the SSC; a scattering chamber for an experimental beamline; a beam swinger; a rotary target magazine for isotope production; a robot arm for isotope production; an isotope transport system and a target cooling system for isotope production. The major projects that were under construction are: a magnetic spectrometer; a second injector cyclotron (SPC2) and extensions to the high-energy beamlines. 4 figs

  10. Engineering viscoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Gutierrez-Lemini, Danton

    2014-01-01

    Engineering Viscoelasticity covers all aspects of the thermo- mechanical response of viscoelastic substances that a practitioner in the field of viscoelasticity would need to design experiments, interpret test data, develop stress-strain models, perform stress analyses, design structural components, and carry out research work. The material in each chapter is developed from the elementary to the advanced, providing the background in mathematics and mechanics that are central to understanding the subject matter being presented. The book examines how viscoelastic materials respond to the application of loads, and provides practical guidelines to use them in the design of commercial, military and industrial applications. This book also: ·         Facilitates conceptual understanding by progressing in each chapter from elementary to challenging material ·         Examines in detail both differential and integral constitutive equations, devoting full chapters to each type and using both forms in ...

  11. Engineering electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, David T; Hartnett, James P; Hughes, William F

    1973-01-01

    The applications involving electromagnetic fields are so pervasive that it is difficult to estimate their contribution to the industrial output: generation of electricity, power transmission lines, electric motors, actuators, relays, radio, TV and microwave transmission and reception, magnetic storage, and even the mundane little magnet used to hold a paper note on the refrigerator are all electromagnetic in nature. One would be hard pressed to find a device that works without relaying on any electromagnetic principle or effect. This text provides a good theoretical understanding of the electromagnetic field equations but also treats a large number of applications. In fact, no topic is presented unless it is directly applicable to engineering design or unless it is needed for the understanding of another topic. In electrostatics, for example, the text includes discussions of photocopying, ink-jet printing, electrostatic separation and deposition, sandpaper production, paint spraying, and powder coating. In ma...

  12. Regenerative engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Laurencin, Cato T

    2013-01-01

    Regenerative Engineering: The Future of Medicine Saadiq F. El-Amin III , MD , PhD; Joylene W.L. Thomas, MD ; Ugonna N. Ihekweazu, MD ; Mia D. Woods, MS; and Ashim Gupta, MSCell Biology Gloria Gronowicz, PhD and Karen Sagomonyants, DMDStem Cells and Tissue Regeneration Kristen Martins-Taylor, PhD; Xiaofang Wang, MD , PhD; Xue-Jun Li, PhD; and Ren-He Xu, MD , PhDIntroduction to Materials Science Sangamesh G. Kumbar, PhD and Cato T. Laurencin, MD , PhDBiomaterials A. Jon Goldberg, PhD and Liisa T. Kuhn, PhDIn Vitro Assessment of Cell-Biomaterial Interactions Yong Wang, PhDHost Response to Biomate

  13. Collaborative Engineering Environments. Two Examples of Process Improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spee, J.B.R.M.; Bijwaard, D.; Laan, D.J.

    Companies are recognising that innovative processes are determining factors in competitiveness. Two examples from projects in aircraft development describe the introduction of collaborative engineering environments as a way to improve engineering processes. A multi-disciplinary simulation

  14. Engineering: Defining and differentiating its unique culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotte, Mary K.

    The world of work for engineering professionals is changing. At a rapid pace, experienced engineers are exiting the workforce due to retirement of the Baby Boomer generation, while at the same time the problems facing engineers are increasingly complex and frequently global in nature. For firms to protect their knowledge assets, they must ensure that acquired understandings are shared among their engineering work groups. Engineering teaching and learning in the workplace (i.e., knowledge sharing), is a social activity that resides in a social context governed by the professional engineering culture. This quantitative study uses Hofstede's Organizational Cultural Values Model (Hofstede, Neuijen, Ohayv, & Sanders, 1990) to examine dimensions of engineering culture in the workplace, producing a central tendency profile of engineering's cultural practices. Further, it explores through hypotheses if demographic differentiators, including birth generation, gender, race, industry sector of employment, and engineering discipline, play roles in forming engineering cultural practices. Results both corroborate aspects of Hofstede's model and assert new understandings relative to factors influencing dimensions of engineering practice. Outcomes are discussed in terms of their potential impact on industrial knowledge sharing and formation of beneficial engineering cultures.

  15. Shell Buckling Knockdown Factors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor (SBKF) Project, NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Assessment #: 07-010-E, was established in March of 2007 by the NESC in...

  16. The competencial factor like an engine venture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Olaz Capitán

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to establish the connections in the triad woman, entrepreneurship and competences from a holistic perspective in order to mean what are the key competences and how they contribute to the development of entrepreneurship from a gender perspective. The concept of qualifications will be analyzed as a substrate of the competences issues for articulating an explicative model that allows its objectification.

  17. Ergonomics in nuclear and human factors engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muench, E.; Schultheiss, G.F.

    1988-01-01

    The work situation including man-machine-relationships in nuclear power plants is described. The overview gives only a compact summary of some important ergonomic parameters, i.e. human body dimension, human load, human characteristics and human knowledge. (DG)

  18. Emplacement engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Ernest E [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    Emplacement Engineering can be defined as that portion of a nuclear explosive project that is concerned with the emplacement of the explosive. This definition would then include virtually everything except the design and fabrication of the explosive and the post-shot-effects program. For future commercial application, the post-shot-effects program will essentially disappear. This emplacement portion of a nuclear explosive project constitutes a large fraction of the total project cost, but it has largely been overshadowed by the explosive and explosive-effects portions. As we move into commercial applications. Emplacement Engineering must receive more attention from both industry and government. To place emplacement costs in their proper relationship with total projects costs, we have performed a study of commercial underground nuclear explosive applications such as gas stimulation. Although there are many intangibles in such a study, we have been able to at least obtain some feel for the relative fractional costs of the non-explosive costs compared with the explosive costs. This study involved estimating the cost elements for applications using a single explosive at 5,000 ft, 10,000 ft, and 15,000 ft. For each depth, the cost estimates were made for a range of emplacement hole and explosive diameters. Results of these estimates for explosive-related costs, hole-related costs, and total costs are shown for the three depths. Note that the explosive package outside diameter is assumed as 2 inches less than the hole (or casing) inside diameter for all cases. For the 5,000-ft application the explosive-related costs dominate, and of particular importance is the indicated diameter for minimum total cost which occurs at approximately a 17.5-in. hole (15.5-in. explosive). The hole-related costs are in 'the same range as the explosive-related costs for the 10,000-ft application. For this case, the minimum total cost occurs at approximately a 14-in. hole (12-in. explosive

  19. Engineers and Bildung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Bo

    2006-01-01

    and Bildung. In this chapter, this relation in investigated. In the first part, I present three engineers and their careers. In the second part, the concept of Bildung is analyzed, and in the third part, it is the conceptual relation between Bildung, engineers, and engineering work that is of concern.......What is an engineer? Or maybe better: how are engineers, and how are they “gebilded” in order to be able to be called engineers? In order to shed some light on this question we could ask: How is the relation between engineering and the making of an engineer, or the relation between engineering...

  20. Engineering Sustainability: A Technical Approach to Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Marc A.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability is a critically important goal for human activity and development. Sustainability in the area of engineering is of great importance to any plans for overall sustainability given 1) the pervasiveness of engineering activities in societies, 2) their importance in economic development and living standards, and 3) the significant impacts that engineering processes and systems have had, and continue to have, on the environment. Many factors that need to be considered and appropriate...

  1. Industrial Education. "Small Engines".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parma City School District, OH.

    Part of a series of curriculum guides dealing with industrial education in junior high schools, this guide provides the student with information and manipulative experiences on small gasoline engines. Included are sections on shop adjustment, safety, small engines, internal combustion, engine construction, four stroke engines, two stroke engines,…

  2. Biosystems Engineering in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Marques da Silva, José Rafael; Silva, Luis Leopoldo; Cruz, Vasco Fitas

    2008-01-01

    The paper gives the definition of Biosystems Engineering in Portugal; Possible revisions of the core curriculum presented in the FEANI report; the current situation of Biosystems Engineering in Portugal; The impacts of the transition to Biosystems Engineering; The need for a transition to Biosystems Engineering;Opportunities to the Biosystems Engineer in the labour market.

  3. Metabolic Engineering X Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, Evan [American Institute of Chemical Engineers

    2015-05-07

    The International Metabolic Engineering Society (IMES) and the Society for Biological Engineering (SBE), both technological communities of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), hosted the Metabolic Engineering X Conference (ME-X) on June 15-19, 2014 at the Westin Bayshore in Vancouver, British Columbia. It attracted 395 metabolic engineers from academia, industry and government from around the globe.

  4. The Social Engineering Personality Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uebelacker, Sven; Quiel, Susanne

    We explore ICT security in a socio-technical world and focus in particular on the susceptibility to social engineering attacks. We pursue the question if and how personality traits influence this susceptibility. This allows us to research human factors and their potential impact on the physical and

  5. Genetic Engineering and Crop Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Helen C.; Frost, S.

    1991-01-01

    With a spotlight upon current agricultural difficulties and environmental dilemmas, this paper considers both the extant and potential applications of genetic engineering with respect to crop production. The nonagricultural factors most likely to sway the impact of this emergent technology upon future crop production are illustrated. (JJK)

  6. Requirements engineering: foundation for software quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daneva, Maia; Pastor, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Welcome to the proceedings of the 22nd edition of REFSQ: the International Working Conference on Requirements Engineering – Foundation for Software Quality! Requirements engineering (RE) has been recognized as a critical factor that impacts the quality of software, systems, and services. Since the

  7. Generation NXT: Building Young Engineers with LEGOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, T.; Gale, R.; Lowe, L. A.; Medina, V.; Beutlich, E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes key success factors for the implementation and development of a LEGO robotics engineering outreach program for elementary school students in West Texas. The outreach program not only aims at getting young students excited about engineering but at the same time aims at improving retention rates among electrical and computer…

  8. Meta Search Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garman, Nancy

    1999-01-01

    Describes common options and features to consider in evaluating which meta search engine will best meet a searcher's needs. Discusses number and names of engines searched; other sources and specialty engines; search queries; other search options; and results options. (AEF)

  9. NDE in biomedical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagwat, Aditya; Kumar, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical Engineering (BME) is an interdisciplinary field, marking the conjunction of Medical and Engineering disciplines. It combines the design and problem solving skills of engineering with medical and biological sciences to advance health care treatment, including diagnosis, monitoring, and therapy

  10. Standing detonation wave engine

    KAUST Repository

    Kasimov, Aslan

    2015-01-01

    A detonation engine can detonate a mixture of fuel and oxidizer within a cylindrical detonation region to produce work. The detonation engine can have a first and a second inlet having ends fluidly connected from tanks to the detonation engine

  11. Engineering Encounters: Blasting off with Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Emily A.; Childs, Gregory T.; Cannaday, E. Ashley; Roehrig, Gillian H

    2014-01-01

    What better way to engage young students in physical science concepts than to have them engineer flying toy rockets? The integration of engineering into science classrooms is advocated by the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS) and researchers alike (Brophy et al. 2008), as engineering provides: (1) A "real-world…

  12. Environmental Engineering in Mining Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamud-Lopez, Manuel Maria; Menendez-Aguado, Juan Maria

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the current profile of the environmental engineer and the programming of the subject "Environmental Engineering and Technology" corresponding to the studies of Mining Engineering at the University of Oviedo in Spain, is discussed. Professional profile, student knowledge prior to and following instruction as well as…

  13. Modular Engineering Concept at Novo Nordisk Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moelgaard, Gert; Miller, Thomas Dedenroth

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the concept of a new engineering method at Novo Nordisk Engineering: Modular Engineering (ME). Three tools are designed to support project phases with different levels of detailing and abstraction. ME supports a standard, cross-functional breakdown of projects that facilitates...

  14. Magical Engineering Plastic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gwang Ung

    1988-01-15

    This book introduces engineering plastic about advantage of engineering plastic, plastic material from processing method, plastic shock, plastic until now, background of making of engineering plastic, wonderful engineering plastic science such as a high molecule and molecule, classification of high molecule, difference between metal and high molecule, heat and high molecule materials, and property of surface, engineering plastic of dream like from linseed oil to aramid, small dictionary of engineering plastic.

  15. Magical Engineering Plastic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gwang Ung

    1988-01-01

    This book introduces engineering plastic about advantage of engineering plastic, plastic material from processing method, plastic shock, plastic until now, background of making of engineering plastic, wonderful engineering plastic science such as a high molecule and molecule, classification of high molecule, difference between metal and high molecule, heat and high molecule materials, and property of surface, engineering plastic of dream like from linseed oil to aramid, small dictionary of engineering plastic.

  16. Engine Test Facility (ETF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Air Force Arnold Engineering Development Center's Engine Test Facility (ETF) test cells are used for development and evaluation testing of propulsion systems for...

  17. Contemporary engineering economics

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Chan S

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary Engineering Economics, 5/e, is intended for undergraduate engineering students taking introductory engineering economics while appealing to the full range of engineering disciplines for which this course is often required: industrial, civil, mechanical, electrical, computer, aerospace, chemical, and manufacturing engineering, as well as engineering technology. This edition has been thoroughly revised and updated while continuing to adopt a contemporary approach to the subject, and teaching, of engineering economics. This text aims not only to build a sound and comprehensive coverage of engineering economics, but also to address key educational challenges, such as student difficulty in developing the analytical skills required to make informed financial decisions.

  18. Solar engine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, K.K.; Bahrom Sanugi; Chen, L.C.; Chong, K.K.; Jasmy Yunus; Kannan, K.S.; Lim, B.H.; Noriah Bidin; Omar Aliman; Sahar Salehan; Sheikh Ab Rezan Sheikh A H; Tam, C.M.; Chen, Y.T.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the revolutionary solar engine system in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM). The solar engine is a single cylinder stirling engine driven by solar thermal energy. A first prototype solar engine has been built and demonstrated. A new-concept non-imaging focusing heliostat and a recently invented optical receiver are used in the demonstration. Second generation of prototype solar engine is described briefly. In this paper, the solar engine system development is reported. Measurement for the first prototype engine speed, temperature and specifications are presented. The benefits and potential applications for the future solar engine system, especially for the electricity generating aspect are discussed. (Author)

  19. Studying Design Engineers Use Of Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Restrepo-Giraldo, John Dairo

    2006-01-01

    Studying information usage by design engineers involves considering technical, social, cognitive and volitional factors. This makes it challenging, especially for researchers without a cognitive psychology background. This paper presents a summary of key findings in researching information use...

  20. Engineering a de Novo Transport Tunnel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Březovský, J.; Babková, P.; Degtjarik, Oksana; Fořtová, A.; Gora, A.; Iermak, Iuliia; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Dvořák, P.; Kutá Smatanová, Ivana; Prokop, Z.; Chaloupková, R.; Damborský, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 11 (2016), s. 7597-7610 ISSN 2155-5435 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : transport tunnel * protein engineering * protein design Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 10.614, year: 2016

  1. Engineering a de Novo Transport Tunnel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Březovský, J.; Babková, P.; Degtjarik, O.; Fořtová, A.; Gora, A.; Iermak, I.; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Dvořák, P.; Kutá Smatanová, I.; Prokop, Z.; Chaloupková, R.; Damborský, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 11 (2016), s. 7597-7610 ISSN 2155-5435 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : transport tunnel * protein engineering * protein design * activity * specificity Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 10.614, year: 2016

  2. Sound engineering for diesel engines; Sound Engineering an Dieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enderich, A.; Fischer, R. [MAHLE Filtersysteme GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The strong acceptance for vehicles powered by turbo-charged diesel engines encourages several manufacturers to think about sportive diesel concepts. The approach of suppressing unpleasant noise by the application of distinctive insulation steps is not adequate to satisfy sportive needs. The acoustics cannot follow the engine's performance. This report documents, that it is possible to give diesel-powered vehicles a sportive sound characteristic by using an advanced MAHLE motor-sound-system with a pressure-resistant membrane and an integrated load controlled flap. With this the specific acoustic disadvantages of the diesel engine, like the ''diesel knock'' or a rough engine running can be masked. However, by the application of a motor-sound-system you must not negate the original character of the diesel engine concept, but accentuate its strong torque characteristic in the middle engine speed range. (orig.)

  3. Anticancer effects of the engineered stem cells transduced with therapeutic genes via a selective tumor tropism caused by vascular endothelial growth factor toward HeLa cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Sun; Yi, Bo-Rim; Hwang, Kyung-A; Kim, Seung U; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of genetically engineered stem cells (GESTECs) expressing bacterial cytosine deaminase (CD) and/or human interferon-beta (IFN-β) gene against HeLa cervical cancer and the migration factors of the GESTECs toward the cancer cells. Anticancer effect of GESTECs was examined in a co-culture with HeLa cells using MTT assay to measure cell viability. A transwell migration assay was performed so as to assess the migration capability of the stem cells to cervical cancer cells. Next, several chemoattractant ligands and their receptors related to a selective migration of the stem cells toward HeLa cells were determined by real-time PCR. The cell viability of HeLa cells was decreased in response to 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC), a prodrug, indicating that 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), a toxic metabolite, was converted from 5-FC by CD gene and it caused the cell death in a co-culture system. When IFN-β was additionally expressed with CD gene by these GESTECs, the anticancer activity was significantly increased. In the migration assay, the GESTECs selectively migrated to HeLa cervical cancer cells. As results of real-time PCR, chemoattractant ligands such as MCP-1, SCF, and VEGF were expressed in HeLa cells, and several receptors such as uPAR, VEGFR2, and c-kit were produced by the GESTECs. These GESTECs transduced with CD gene and IFN-β may provide a potential of a novel gene therapy for anticervical cancer treatments via their selective tumor tropism derived from VEGF and VEGFR2 expressions between HeLa cells and the GESTECs.

  4. Space engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Harold L.

    1991-01-01

    Human productivity was studied for extravehicular tasks performed in microgravity, particularly including in-space assembly of truss structures and other large objects. Human factors research probed the anthropometric constraints imposed on microgravity task performance and the associated workstation design requirements. Anthropometric experiments included reach envelope tests conducted using the 3-D Acoustic Positioning System (3DAPS), which permitted measuring the range of reach possible for persons using foot restraints in neutral buoyancy, both with and without space suits. Much neutral buoyancy research was conducted using the support of water to simulate the weightlessness environment of space. It became clear over time that the anticipated EVA requirement associated with the Space Station and with in-space construction of interplanetary probes would heavily burden astronauts, and remotely operated robots (teleoperators) were increasingly considered to absorb the workload. Experience in human EVA productivity led naturally to teleoperation research into the remote performance of tasks through human controlled robots.

  5. Multidisciplinary systems engineering architecting the design process

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, James A; Demijohn, Russell

    2016-01-01

    This book presents Systems Engineering from a modern, multidisciplinary engineering approach, providing the understanding that all aspects of systems design, systems, software, test, security, maintenance and the full life-cycle must be factored in to any large-scale system design; up front, not factored in later. It lays out a step-by-step approach to systems-of-systems architectural design, describing in detail the documentation flow throughout the systems engineering design process. It provides a straightforward look and the entire systems engineering process, providing realistic case studies, examples, and design problems that will enable students to gain a firm grasp on the fundamentals of modern systems engineering.  Included is a comprehensive design problem that weaves throughout the entire text book, concluding with a complete top-level systems architecture for a real-world design problem.

  6. 2016 Milwaukee Engineering Research Conference | College of Engineering &

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomedical Engineering Concentration on Ergonomics M.S. Program in Computer Science Interdisciplinary Concentration on Energy Doctoral Programs in Engineering Non-Degree Candidate Departments Biomedical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Industry Advisory Council Civil & Environmental Engineering Civil &

  7. Nonlinearities in reservoir engineering: Enhancing quantum correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiangming; Hu, Qingping; Li, Lingchao; Huang, Chen; Rao, Shi

    2017-12-01

    There are two decisive factors for quantum correlations in reservoir engineering, but they are strongly reversely dependent on the atom-field nonlinearities. One is the squeezing parameter for the Bogoliubov modes-mediated collective interactions, while the other is the dissipative rates for the engineered collective dissipations. Exemplifying two-level atomic ensembles, we show that the moderate nonlinearities can compromise these two factors and thus enhance remarkably two-mode squeezing and entanglement of different spin atomic ensembles or different optical fields. This suggests that the moderate nonlinearities of the two-level systems are more advantageous for applications in quantum networks associated with reservoir engineering.

  8. Fundamental of biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sawhney, GS

    2007-01-01

    About the Book: A well set out textbook explains the fundamentals of biomedical engineering in the areas of biomechanics, biofluid flow, biomaterials, bioinstrumentation and use of computing in biomedical engineering. All these subjects form a basic part of an engineer''s education. The text is admirably suited to meet the needs of the students of mechanical engineering, opting for the elective of Biomedical Engineering. Coverage of bioinstrumentation, biomaterials and computing for biomedical engineers can meet the needs of the students of Electronic & Communication, Electronic & Instrumenta

  9. Studying Engineering Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The study of engineering practices has been the focus of Engineering Studies over the last three decades. Theses studies have used ethnographic and grounded methods in order to investigate engineering practices as they unfold in natural settings - in workplaces and engineering education. However......, engineering studies have not given much attention to conceptually clarifying what should be understood by 'engineering practices' and more precisely account for the composition and organization of the entities and phenomena that make up the practices. This chapter investigates and discusses how a 'practice...... will draw out some methodological consequences and discuss the ramifications of a practice theoretical approach for Engineering Studies....

  10. Social Engineering a General Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerica GREAVU-SERBAN

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Social engineering is considered to be a taboo subject in nowadays society. It involves the use of social skills or to obtain usernames, passwords, credit card data, or to compromise or altering the information and systems of an entity. Social engineering methods are numerous and people using it are extremely ingenious and adaptable. This technique takes advantage of the intrinsic nature of mankind, to manipulate and obtain sensitive information, persuading people into divulge it, using exceptional communication skills. Thus, five models of persuasion were identified, based on: simplicity, interest, incongruity, confidence and empathy, exploiting key factors which predispose people to fall victim to attacks of social engineering such as greed, self-interest, guilt or ignorance. It is well known fact that security is as strong as the weakest link in its chain (individuals therefore, beyond technical measures, staff training is the key to success in defending against such attacks.

  11. Document management in engineering construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Bing

    2008-01-01

    Document management is one important part of systematic quality management, which is one of the key factors to ensure the construction quality. In the engineering construction, quality management and document management shall interwork all the time, to ensure the construction quality. Quality management ensures that the document is correctly generated and adopted, and thus the completeness, accuracy and systematicness of the document satisfy the filing requirements. Document management ensures that the document is correctly transferred during the construction, and various testimonies such as files and records are kept for the engineering construction and its quality management. This paper addresses the document management in the engineering construction based on the interwork of the quality management and document management. (author)

  12. Concepts for Distributed Engine Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, Dennis E.; Thomas, Randy; Saus, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Gas turbine engines for aero-propulsion systems are found to be highly optimized machines after over 70 years of development. Still, additional performance improvements are sought while reduction in the overall cost is increasingly a driving factor. Control systems play a vitally important part in these metrics but are severely constrained by the operating environment and the consequences of system failure. The considerable challenges facing future engine control system design have been investigated. A preliminary analysis has been conducted of the potential benefits of distributed control architecture when applied to aero-engines. In particular, reductions in size, weight, and cost of the control system are possible. NASA is conducting research to further explore these benefits, with emphasis on the particular benefits enabled by high temperature electronics and an open-systems approach to standardized communications interfaces.

  13. Strategic Plan | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  14. News | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  15. Structures Laboratory | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  16. Contact | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  17. Johnson Controls | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  18. FAQ's | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  19. Current Students | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  20. Admissions - Undergraduate Students | College of Engineering & Applied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering