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Sample records for factors drive norovirus

  1. Immunogenetic mechanisms driving norovirus GII.4 antigenic variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa C Lindesmith

    epitopes and consequently, antibody-driven receptor switching; thus, protective herd immunity is a driving force in norovirus molecular evolution.

  2. Norovirus - hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastroenteritis - norovirus; Colitis - norovirus; Hospital acquired infection - norovirus ... fluids ( dehydration ). Anyone can become infected with norovirus. Hospital patients who are very old, very young, or ...

  3. Institutional risk factors for norovirus outbreaks in Hong Kong elderly homes: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Krystal CK

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of the institutional outbreaks of norovirus in Hong Kong occur in elderly homes, the proportion being 69% in 2006. Residents in elderly homes are a special population seriously affected by norovirus infections, it is necessary to investigate the risk factors of the norovirus outbreaks in Hong Kong elderly homes at the facility level. Methods A cohort of 748 elderly homes was followed up from January 2005 to December 2007; each elderly home was treated as one observation unit and the outcome event was the norovirus outbreak. Cox regression models were fitted to estimate the rate ratio (RR and 95% confidence interval (CI for the potential risk factors. Results A total of 276 norovirus outbreaks were confirmed during the study period; the outbreak rate was 12.2 (95% CI: 9.9-14.6 per 100 home-years; elderly homes with a larger capacity (RR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.3-1.5 (per 30-resident increment, a higher staff-to-resident ratio (RR = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1-1.3 (per 1/30 increment and better wheelchair accessibility (RR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3-3.2 were found to have an elevated norovirus outbreak rate in Hong Kong elderly homes; Elderly homes with partitions between beds had a lower rate of norovirus outbreaks (RR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4-0.8. Conclusions Elderly home capacity, staff-to-resident ratio and wheelchair accessibility were risk factors for norovirus outbreaks in Hong Kong elderly homes. Partitions between beds were a protective factor of norovirus outbreaks. These results should be considered in the infection control in Hong Kong elderly homes.

  4. Norovirus gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodgame, Richard

    2007-03-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies have shown that norovirus is one of the most frequent causes of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequencing are the means by which the hundreds of norovirus strains have been identified, named, and classified into genogroups and genetic clusters. They are also the means by which a particular strain is traced from the source of an outbreak throughout its spread. These molecular techniques have been combined with classic epidemiology to investigate norovirus outbreaks in diverse settings, including hospitals, nursing homes, dining locations, schools, daycare centers, and vacation venues. Outbreaks are difficult to control because of the apparent ease of transmission through food, water, person-to-person contact, and environmental surfaces. Almost all patients with norovirus gastroenteritis recover completely, but hospital and nursing home outbreaks have been associated with morbidity and mortality. The diagnostic and management approach to an individual patient is to use clinical and epidemiologic findings to rule out "not norovirus." At the first sign that there is an outbreak, strict compliance with cleaning, disinfection, and work release guidelines is important to prevent further spread.

  5. Phylogenetic Analyses Suggest that Factors Other Than the Capsid Protein Play a Role in the Epidemic Potential of GII.2 Norovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohma, Kentaro; Lepore, Cara J.; Ford-Siltz, Lauren A.

    2017-01-01

    variants. Over the last three seasons, minor genotypes have displaced the GII.4 viruses as the predominant strains. One of these genotypes, GII.2, reemerged as predominant during 2016 to 2017. Here we show that factors such as minor changes in the polymerase may have driven the reemergence of GII.2 during the last season. A better understanding of norovirus diversity is important for the development of effective treatments against noroviruses. PMID:28529975

  6. Norovirus: Food Handlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Institutes of Health NoroCORE Food Virology For Food Workers Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... trabajadores del sector alimentario Norovirus and Working With Food CDC Vital Signs Report Preventing Norovirus Outbreaks, Food ...

  7. Advances in Norovirus Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Karst, Stephanie M.; Wobus, Christiane E.; Ian G Goodfellow; Green, Kim Y.; Virgin, Herbert W.

    2014-01-01

    Human noroviruses are a major cause of epidemic and sporadic gastroenteritis worldwide, and can chronically infect immunocompromised patients. Efforts to develop effective vaccines and antivirals have been hindered by the uncultivable nature and extreme genetic diversity of human noroviruses. Although they remain a particularly challenging pathogen to study, recent advances in norovirus animal models and in vitro cultivation systems have led to an increased understanding of norovirus molecula...

  8. The effect of malnutrition on norovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Danielle; Jones, Melissa K; Zhu, Shu; Kirkpatrick, Ericka; Ostrov, David A; Wang, Xiaoyu; Ukhanova, Maria; Sun, Yijun; Mai, Volker; Salemi, Marco; Karst, Stephanie M

    2014-03-04

    Human noroviruses are the primary cause of severe childhood diarrhea in the United States, and they are of particular clinical importance in pediatric populations in the developing world. A major contributing factor to the general increased severity of infectious diseases in these regions is malnutrition-nutritional status shapes host immune responses and the composition of the host intestinal microbiota, both of which can influence the outcome of pathogenic infections. In terms of enteric norovirus infections, mucosal immunity and intestinal microbes are likely to contribute to the infection outcome in substantial ways. We probed these interactions using a murine model of malnutrition and murine norovirus infection. Our results reveal that malnutrition is associated with more severe norovirus infections as defined by weight loss, impaired control of norovirus infections, reduced antiviral antibody responses, loss of protective immunity, and enhanced viral evolution. Moreover, the microbiota is dramatically altered by malnutrition. Interestingly, murine norovirus infection also causes changes in the host microbial composition within the intestine but only in healthy mice. In fact, the infection-associated microbiota resembles the malnutrition-associated microbiota. Collectively, these findings represent an extensive characterization of a new malnutrition model of norovirus infection that will ultimately facilitate elucidation of the nutritionally regulated host parameters that predispose to more severe infections and impaired memory immune responses. In a broad sense, this model may provide insight into the reduced efficacy of oral vaccines in malnourished hosts and the potential for malnourished individuals to act as reservoirs of emergent virus strains. IMPORTANCE Malnourished children in developing countries are susceptible to more severe infections than their healthy counterparts, in particular enteric infections that cause diarrhea. In order to probe the

  9. Foodborne Norovirus Outbreaks

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-09-17

    Dr. Aron Hall, a CDC epidemiologist specializing in noroviruses, discusses foodborne norovirus outbreaks.  Created: 9/17/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID); National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/17/2012.

  10. Norovirus translation requires an interaction between the C Terminus of the genome-linked viral protein VPg and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Liliane; Bailey, Dalan; Leen, Eoin N; Emmott, Edward P; Chaudhry, Yasmin; Roberts, Lisa O; Curry, Stephen; Locker, Nicolas; Goodfellow, Ian G

    2014-08-01

    Viruses have evolved a variety of mechanisms to usurp the host cell translation machinery to enable translation of the viral genome in the presence of high levels of cellular mRNAs. Noroviruses, a major cause of gastroenteritis in man, have evolved a mechanism that relies on the interaction of translation initiation factors with the virus-encoded VPg protein covalently linked to the 5' end of the viral RNA. To further characterize this novel mechanism of translation initiation, we have used proteomics to identify the components of the norovirus translation initiation factor complex. This approach revealed that VPg binds directly to the eIF4F complex, with a high affinity interaction occurring between VPg and eIF4G. Mutational analyses indicated that the C-terminal region of VPg is important for the VPg-eIF4G interaction; viruses with mutations that alter or disrupt this interaction are debilitated or non-viable. Our results shed new light on the unusual mechanisms of protein-directed translation initiation.

  11. A Membrane-Based Electro-Separation Method (MBES) for Sample Clean-Up and Norovirus Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Wei; Cannon, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis and foodborne illnesses in the United States. Enhanced methods for detecting noroviruses in food matrices are needed as current methods are complex, labor intensive and insensitive, often resulting in inhibition of downstream molecular detection and inefficient recovery. Membrane-based electro-separation (MBES) is a technique to exchange charged particles through a size-specific dialysis membrane from one solution to another using electric current as the driving force. Norovirus has a net negative surface charge in a neutrally buffered environment, so when placed in an electric field, it moves towards the anode. It can then be separated from the cathodic compartment where the sample is placed and then collected in the anodic compartment for downstream detection. In this study, a MBES-based system was designed, developed and evaluated for concentrating and recovering murine norovirus (MNV-1) from phosphate buffer. As high as 30.8% MNV-1 migrated from the 3.5 ml sample chamber to the 1.5 ml collection chamber across a 1 μm separation membrane when 20 V was applied for 30 min using 20 mM sodium phosphate with 0.01% SDS (pH 7.5) as the electrolyte. In optimization of the method, weak applied voltage (20 V), moderate duration (30 min), and low ionic strength electrolytes with SDS addition were needed to increase virus movement efficacy. The electric field strength of the system was the key factor to enhance virus movement, which could only be improved by shortening the electrodes distance, instead of increasing system applied voltage because of virus stability. This study successfully demonstrated the norovirus mobility in an electric field and migration across a size-specific membrane barrier in sodium phosphate electrolyte. With further modification and validation in food matrixes, a novel, quick, and cost-effective sample clean-up technique might be developed to separate norovirus particles from food

  12. Decoding norovirus infection in Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamaillard, Mathias; Cesaro, Annabelle; Lober, Pierre-Emmanuel; Hober, Didier

    2014-04-01

    Although a causing viral infectious agent remains untraceable in Crohn's disease, most recent genome-wide association studies have linked the FUT2 W143X mutation (resulting in asymptomatic norovirus infection) with the pathogenesis of Crohn's ileitis and with vitamin B12 deficiency (i.e., a known risk factor for Crohn's disease with ileal involvement). In line with these findings, host variations in additional genes involved in host response to norovirus infection (such as ATG16L1 and NOD2) predispose humans to Crohn's ileitis. One may therefore presume that asymptomatic norovirus infection may contribute to disruption of the stability of the gut microbiota leading to Crohn's ileitis. These paradigms highlight not only the need to revisit the potential transmissibility of Crohn's disease, but also potential safety issues of forthcoming clinical trials on human probiotic infusions in Crohn's ileitis by rigorous donors screening program.

  13. PMBLDC motor drive with power factor correction controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, G.J.; Ramachandran, Rakesh; Arun, N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a boost converter configuration, control scheme and design of single phase power factor controller for permanent magnet brushless DC motor (PMBLDCM) drive. PMBLDC motors are the latest choice of researchers, due to the high efficiency, silent operation, compact size, high...... reliability, and low maintenance requirements. The proposed Power Factor Controller topology improves power quality by improving performance of PMBLDCM drive, such as reduction of AC main current harmonics, near unity power factor. PFC converter forces the drive to draw sinusoidal supply current in phase...... with supply voltage. It uses a boost converter to obtain unity power factor with improved performance. The system includes a speed controller for PMBLDC drive and a voltage controller for boost converter.. The voltage or speed controllers can be realized using proportional integral (PI) controller...

  14. Recent advances in understanding noroviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartnicki, Eric; Cunha, Juliana Bragazzi; Kolawole, Abimbola O.; Wobus, Christiane E.

    2017-01-01

    Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis around the world. An individual living in the United States is estimated to develop norovirus infection five times in his or her lifetime. Despite this, there is currently no antiviral or vaccine to combat the infection, in large part because of the historical lack of cell culture and small animal models. However, the last few years of norovirus research were marked by a number of ground-breaking advances that have overcome technical barriers and uncovered novel aspects of norovirus biology. Foremost among them was the development of two different in vitro culture systems for human noroviruses. Underappreciated was the notion that noroviruses infect cells of the immune system as well as epithelial cells within the gastrointestinal tract and that human norovirus infection of enterocytes requires or is promoted by the presence of bile acids. Furthermore, two proteinaceous receptors are now recognized for murine norovirus, marking the first discovery of a functional receptor for any norovirus. Recent work further points to a role for certain bacteria, including those found in the gut microbiome, as potential modulators of norovirus infection in the host, emphasizing the importance of interactions with organisms from other kingdoms of life for viral pathogenesis. Lastly, we will highlight the adaptation of drop-based microfluidics to norovirus research, as this technology has the potential to reveal novel insights into virus evolution. This review aims to summarize these new findings while also including possible future directions. PMID:28163914

  15. Epidemiology of Norovirus Infection Among Immunocompromised Patients at a Tertiary Care Research Hospital, 2010–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Karin; Prevots, D. Rebecca; Binder, Alison M.; Parra, Gabriel I.; Strollo, Sara; Fahle, Gary A.; Behrle-Yardley, Allison; Johnson, Jordan A.; Levenson, Eric A.; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V.; Holland, Steven M.; Palmore, Tara N.; Green, Kim Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Noroviruses are a major cause of infectious gastroenteritis worldwide, and viruses can establish persistent infection in immunocompromised individuals. Risk factors and transmission in this population are not fully understood. Methods. From 2010 through 2013, we conducted a retrospective review among immunocompromised patients (n = 268) enrolled in research studies at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center and identified a subset of norovirus-positive patients (n = 18) who provided stool specimens for norovirus genotyping analysis. Results. Norovirus genome was identified by reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction in stools of 35 (13%) of the 268 immunocompromised patients tested, and infection prevalence was 21% (11 of 53) in persons with primary immune deficiencies and 12% (20 of 166) among persons with solid tumors or hematologic malignancies. Among 18 patients with norovirus genotyping information, norovirus GII.4 was the most prevalent genotype (14 of 18, 78%). Persistent norovirus infection (≥6 months) was documented in 8 of 18 (44%) individuals. Phylogenetic analysis of the GII.4 capsid protein sequences identified at least 5 now-displaced GII.4 variant lineages, with no evidence of their nosocomial transmission in the Clinical Center. Conclusions. Norovirus was a leading enteric pathogen identified in this immunocompromised population. Both acute and chronic norovirus infections were observed, and these were likely community-acquired. Continued investigation will further define the role of noroviruses in these patients and inform efforts toward prevention and treatment. PMID:27800529

  16. Treeline advance - driving processes and adverse factors

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The general trend of climatically-driven treeline advance is modified by regional, local and temporal variations. Treelines will not advance in a closed front parallel to the shift of any isotherm to higher elevations and more northern latitudes. The effects of varying topography on site conditions and the after-effects of historical disturbances by natural and anthropogenic factors may override the effects of slightly higher average temperatures. Moreover, the varying treeline-forming specie...

  17. Norovirus: U.S. Trends and Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from contaminated water and raspberries irrigated with contaminated water have caused norovirus outbreaks. Norovirus on Cruise Ships Over 90% of diarrheal disease outbreaks on cruise ships are caused by norovirus ( ...

  18. Treeline advance - driving processes and adverse factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.-K. Holtmeier

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The general trend of climatically-driven treeline advance is modified by regional, local and temporal variations. Treelines will not advance in a closed front parallel to the shift of any isotherm to higher elevations and more northern latitudes. The effects of varying topography on site conditions and the after-effects of historical disturbances by natural and anthropogenic factors may override the effects of slightly higher average temperatures. Moreover, the varying treeline-forming species respond in different ways to a changing climate. Forest advance upwards and northwards primarily depends on successful regeneration and survival of young growth rather than on increasing growth rates of mature trees. Every assessment of treeline response to future climate change must consider the effects of local site conditions and feedbacks of in-creasing tree population in modulating the climatically-driven change. Treeline-shift will influence regional and local climates, pedogenesis, plant communities, animal populations and biodiversity as well as having a considerable effect on economic changes in primary production. A better understanding of the functional relationships between the many treeline-relevant factors and treeline dynamics can be achieved only by extensive research at different scales within different climatic regions supported by as many as possible experimental studies in the field together with laboratory and remote sensing techniques.

  19. Factors affecting return to driving post-stroke.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tan, K M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Stroke can affect a person\\'s ability to drive, an important means of transportation in the developed world. AIMS: To determine percentage of patients and factors associated with return to driving post-stroke in a service with emphasis on driver assessment. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients discharged from the Stroke Service of our 470-bed teaching hospital from 1998 to 2002. RESULTS: Of 72 drivers pre-stroke, 54% recalled a driving assessment and 68% returned to driving. Younger patients (58.6 +\\/- 12.0 vs. 66.5 +\\/- 10.5, p = 0.008) with lower Modified Rankin Score (median 1 vs. 2, p = 0.0001) and normal cognition (55 vs. 43%, p = 0.45) were more likely to resume driving. More patients who were assessed returned to driving than those who were not (74 vs. 61%, p = 0.31). CONCLUSIONS: A relatively high level of return to driving can be achieved post-stroke with a pro-active approach to driver assessment and rehabilitation. A structured assessment and referral programme should be offered where appropriate.

  20. Norovirus in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-09

    Dr. Aron Hall, a CDC epidemiologist specializing in norovirus, discusses the impact of norovirus in the United States.  Created: 9/9/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 9/17/2013.

  1. Incidence of and factors associated with false positives in laboratory diagnosis of norovirus infection by amplification of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Ru Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR amplification of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp gene remains a used method for the rapid detection of norovirus (NV in clinical laboratories. The incidence of and factors associated with false positives in this assay have not been previously evaluated. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: After an NV outbreak caused by the GII.4 Sydney strain in 2012, we reanalysed 250 stool samples positive for NV by RdRp gene detection. True positives were confirmed in 154 (61.6% samples by successful amplification and sequencing confirmation of the viral protein 1 gene. Of the remaining 96 samples that underwent RT-PCR for the RdRp gene, 34 samples yielded PCR products of the expected length. However, the sequences of the amplicons belonged to the human genome, with 91-97% matched nucleotide sequences, indicating false positives. Multivariate analysis of the clinical features of the patients identified a positive stool culture for bacteria (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 9.07, 95% adjusted confidence interval [aCI] 2.17-37.92, P = .003 and the use of parenteral antibiotics (aOR 5.55, 95% aCI 1.21-24.73, P = .027 as significant and independent factors associated with false positives. CONCLUSION: Conventional RT-PCR targeting the RdRp gene of NV can lead to false positives in patients with bacterial enterocolitis by incidental amplification of DNA from a human source.

  2. Analysis of Korean Students' International Mobility by 2-D Model: Driving Force Factor and Directional Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Elisa L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the dynamics of Korean students' international mobility to study abroad by using the 2-D Model. The first D, "the driving force factor," explains how and what components of the dissatisfaction with domestic higher education perceived by Korean students drives students' outward mobility to seek…

  3. Serosurvey of veterinary conference participants for evidence of zoonotic exposure to canine norovirus – study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesquita João

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noroviruses have emerged as the leading cause of outbreaks and sporadic cases of acute gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Person-to-person contact and consumption of contaminated food are considered the most important ways of transmission of noroviruses however zoonotic transmission has been suggested. Recently, noroviruses have been found in dogs which, unlike bovine and swine noroviruses, may present a higher risk of zoonotic transfer, given to the often close contacts between humans and pet dogs in many societies across the world. The present paper describes a seroepidemiologic study aiming to provide information on the exposure level of humans to canine norovirus. Methods/Design A case–control study was designed to address the potential exposure to canine norovirus based on the presence of antibodies against canine norovirus. Sera from veterinarians (a population repeatedly in close contact with dogs will be collected in an annual Veterinary Sciences Congress in Portugal. In addition, sera from general population will be obtained and used as controls for comparative purposes. All sera will be tested for the presence of canine norovirus antibodies using a virus-like particle-based enzyme immune assay. Risk factors for canine norovirus antibodies presence in veterinarians will be investigated through the delivery of an anonymized questionnaire to the participants. Discussion The present study aims to identify seropositive individuals to canine norovirus and to assess risk profiles among veterinary professionals with occupational exposure to dogs. To our knowledge this is the first study providing information on the potential zoonotic risk of canine norovirus, thus allowing the development of preventive measures and ascertaining potential risks for Public Health resulting from contact to dogs.

  4. Detection and forecasting of oyster norovirus outbreaks: recent advances and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiao; Deng, Zhiqiang

    2012-09-01

    Norovirus is a highly infectious pathogen that is commonly found in oysters growing in fecally contaminated waters. Norovirus outbreaks can cause the closure of oyster harvesting waters and acute gastroenteritis in humans associated with consumption of contaminated raw oysters. Extensive efforts and progresses have been made in detection and forecasting of oyster norovirus outbreaks over the past decades. The main objective of this paper is to provide a literature review of methods and techniques for detecting and forecasting oyster norovirus outbreaks and thereby to identify the future directions for improving the detection and forecasting of norovirus outbreaks. It is found that (1) norovirus outbreaks display strong seasonality with the outbreak peak occurring commonly in December-March in the U.S. and April-May in the Europe; (2) norovirus outbreaks are affected by multiple environmental factors, including but not limited to precipitation, temperature, solar radiation, wind, and salinity; (3) various modeling approaches may be employed to forecast norovirus outbreaks, including Bayesian models, regression models, Artificial Neural Networks, and process-based models; and (4) diverse techniques are available for near real-time detection of norovirus outbreaks, including multiplex PCR, seminested PCR, real-time PCR, quantitative PCR, and satellite remote sensing. The findings are important to the management of oyster growing waters and to future investigations into norovirus outbreaks. It is recommended that a combined approach of sensor-assisted real time monitoring and modeling-based forecasting should be utilized for an efficient and effective detection and forecasting of norovirus outbreaks caused by consumption of contaminated oysters.

  5. A Membrane-Based Electro-Separation Method (MBES for Sample Clean-Up and Norovirus Concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Kang

    Full Text Available Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis and foodborne illnesses in the United States. Enhanced methods for detecting noroviruses in food matrices are needed as current methods are complex, labor intensive and insensitive, often resulting in inhibition of downstream molecular detection and inefficient recovery. Membrane-based electro-separation (MBES is a technique to exchange charged particles through a size-specific dialysis membrane from one solution to another using electric current as the driving force. Norovirus has a net negative surface charge in a neutrally buffered environment, so when placed in an electric field, it moves towards the anode. It can then be separated from the cathodic compartment where the sample is placed and then collected in the anodic compartment for downstream detection. In this study, a MBES-based system was designed, developed and evaluated for concentrating and recovering murine norovirus (MNV-1 from phosphate buffer. As high as 30.8% MNV-1 migrated from the 3.5 ml sample chamber to the 1.5 ml collection chamber across a 1 μm separation membrane when 20 V was applied for 30 min using 20 mM sodium phosphate with 0.01% SDS (pH 7.5 as the electrolyte. In optimization of the method, weak applied voltage (20 V, moderate duration (30 min, and low ionic strength electrolytes with SDS addition were needed to increase virus movement efficacy. The electric field strength of the system was the key factor to enhance virus movement, which could only be improved by shortening the electrodes distance, instead of increasing system applied voltage because of virus stability. This study successfully demonstrated the norovirus mobility in an electric field and migration across a size-specific membrane barrier in sodium phosphate electrolyte. With further modification and validation in food matrixes, a novel, quick, and cost-effective sample clean-up technique might be developed to separate norovirus particles

  6. Students’ driving behaviour as a risk factor of road accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zografakis-Sfakianakis M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionRoad accidents are considered to be a public health problem since they have been massively adverse consequences in demography. Since there is a human loss, especially of young people, the problem should be investigated extensively. The driving behaviour (either alone or in combination with other factors is the most important cause of road accidents for 80-90%.Purpose Investigating students’ driving behaviour (culture of a technological educational institute and how positively or negatively they take actions, preventing themselves of accidents.Material and Method400 questionnaires were supplemented. The questionnaire was consisted of 18 closed type questions, created by the research group using bibliographical sources. The data were analyzed using the x2 test, in all cases, statistical significant was considered the two-tailed P<0,05.Results A 21,7% of students has driven the previous 7 days having consumed alcohol while 57% has been passengers. Men’s alcohol consumption has showed increased infringement (93,3% in relation to women (6,7%. (x2=53,983; p <0,001. In other crucial provisions of road traffic regulation, violation was found which exceeds 50% (speeding, wrong lane driving, etc.. The highest percentage, without a safety belt or a helmet -never or and rarely - are male drivers (x2=12,074; P=0,017.It was found that a particularly large percentage of students (61% were involved in a traffic accident. From those, who have been involved in a traffic accident, as drivers (97 students, as guilty pleaded 26,8%, while non-guilty 73,2%. Statistically males were a high majority (x2=23,425; p <0,001. The traffic accident occurred during their student years in percentage of 47,5%. 18,8% of students have been transferred to hospital as a casualty of a traffic accident. ConclusionIt is confirmed once again that the concepts of 'dangerous driving behaviour" and "young" are compatible. Male students have increased risk behaviour, mainly

  7. Fungal community dynamics and driving factors during agricultural waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Man; Zhang, Jiachao; Xu, Yuxin; Xiao, Hua; An, Wenhao; Xi, Hui; Xue, Zhiyong; Huang, Hongli; Chen, Xiaoyang; Shen, Alin

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to identify the driving factors behind fungal community dynamics during agricultural waste composting. Fungal community abundance and structure were determined by quantitative PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis combined with DNA sequencing. The effects of physico-chemical parameters on fungal community abundance and structure were evaluated by least significant difference tests and redundancy analysis. The results showed that Cladosporium bruhnei, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Scytalidium thermophilum, Tilletiopsis penniseti, and Coprinopsis altramentaria were prominent during the composting process. The greatest variation in the distribution of fungal community structure was statistically explained by pile temperature and total organic carbon (TOC) (P composting.

  8. Human Noroviruses and Sporadic Gastroenteritis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-05

    In this podcast, Dan Rutz speaks with Dr. Manish Patel, a medical officer with the Division of Viral Diseases at CDC, about an article in August 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases reporting on nororviruses. Dr. Patel reviewed 235 studies and identified 31 original studies about noroviruses. Norovirus is the leading cause of epidemic gastroenteritis.  Created: 8/5/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 7/30/2008.

  9. What factors are driving increasing demand for community nursing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalk, Daniel; Legg, Alison

    2017-01-02

    Demand for district nursing services is increasing significantly. With increasing economic pressures, services are struggling to meet increases in demand, and are looking to become more proactive in planning for future demand. Traditional quantitative forecasting methods have limited use, because of the complexity of inter-linking factors that potentially drive demand for community services. Qualitative system dynamics approaches can be useful to model the complex interplay of causal factors leading to an effect, such as increased demand for services, and identify particular areas of concern for future focus. We ran a facilitated qualitative system dynamics workshop with representatives working across community nursing services in Cornwall. The generated models identified 7 key areas of concern that could be significantly contributing to demand for district nursing services. We outline the identified problem areas in this paper, and discuss potential recommendations to reduce their effects based on causal links identified in the models.

  10. UNIVERSITIES AND INCUBATORS: KEY FACTORS DRIVING ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Mahlmann Kipper

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic diversification is an utterly important factor for regions that are directly or indirectly related to any productive mechanisms and seek to strengthen their foundations for the generation of jobs and income. Within this context, to invest in business preparation and maturation, especially in the ones related to the technological area, turns out to be an interesting mean of diversifying a regional economy that is facing the risk of stagnation. This study considers the importance of the role taken on by universities and their incubators in driving entrepreneurship and supporting the creation of new companies and the innovative capacity of a country through knowledge transfer amongst universities and companies, generating benefits and socioeconomic progress in a country. It also conducts a case study on a company of the information technology area, recently incubated and whose major objective consists in becoming part of this economic diversification basis.

  11. Identification of environmental determinants for spatio-temporal patterns of norovirus outbreaks in Korea using a geographic information system and binary response models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hwi; Lee, Dong Hoon; Joo, Yongsung; Zoh, Kyung Duk; Ko, Gwangpyo; Kang, Joo-Hyon

    2016-11-01

    Although norovirus outbreaks are well-recognized to have strong winter seasonality relevant to low temperature and humidity, the role of artificial human-made features within geographical areas in norovirus outbreaks has rarely been studied. The aim of this study is to assess the natural and human-made environmental factors favoring the occurrence of norovirus outbreaks using nationwide surveillance data. We used a geographic information system and binary response models to examine whether the norovirus outbreaks are spatially patterned and whether these patterns are associated with specific environmental variables including service levels of water supply and sanitation systems and land-use types. The results showed that small-scale low-tech local sewage treatment plants and winter sports areas were statistically significant factors favoring norovirus outbreaks. Compactness of the land development also affected the occurrence of norovirus outbreaks; transportation, water, and forest land-uses were less favored for effective transmission of norovirus, while commercial areas were associated with an increased rate of norovirus outbreaks. We observed associations of norovirus outbreaks with various outcomes of human activities, including discharge of poorly treated sewage, overcrowding of people during winter season, and compactness of land development, which might help prioritize target regions and strategies for the management of norovirus outbreaks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Factors Driving Live Discharge From Hospice: Provider Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolin, Rachel; Hanson, Laura C; Rosenblum, Sarah F; Stearns, Sally C; Holmes, George M; Silberman, Pam

    2017-06-01

    The proportion of patients disenrolling from hospice before death has increased over the decade with significant variations across hospice types and regions. Such trends have raised concerns about live disenrollment's effect on care quality. Live disenrollment may be driven by factors other than patient preference and may create discontinuities in care, disrupting ongoing patient-provider relationships. Researchers have not explored when and how providers make this decision with patients. The objective of this study was to ascertain provider perspectives on key drivers of live discharge from the Medicare hospice program. We conducted semistructured telephone interviews with 18 individuals representing 14 hospice providers across the country. Transcriptions were coded and analyzed using a template analysis approach. Analysis generated four themes: 1) difficulty estimating patient prognosis, 2) fear of Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services audits, 3) rising market competition, and 4) challenges with inpatient contracting. Participants emphasized challenges underlying each decision to discharge patients alive, stressing that there often exists a gray line between appropriate and inappropriate discharges. Discussions also focused on scenarios in which financial motivations drive enrollment and disenrollment practices. This study provides significant contributions to existing knowledge about hospice enrollment and disenrollment patterns. Results suggest that live discharge patterns are often susceptible to market and regulatory forces, which may have contributed to the rising national rate. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Epidemiology of Norovirus Infection Among Immunocompromised Patients at a Tertiary Care Research Hospital, 2010–2013

    OpenAIRE

    Bok, Karin; Prevots, D. Rebecca; Binder, Alison M.; Parra, Gabriel I.; Strollo, Sara; Fahle, Gary A.; Behrle-Yardley, Allison; Johnson, Jordan A.; Levenson, Eric A.; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V.; Holland, Steven M.; Palmore, Tara N.; Green, Kim Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background.  Noroviruses are a major cause of infectious gastroenteritis worldwide, and viruses can establish persistent infection in immunocompromised individuals. Risk factors and transmission in this population are not fully understood. Methods.  From 2010 through 2013, we conducted a retrospective review among immunocompromised patients (n = 268) enrolled in research studies at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center and identified a subset of norovirus-positive patients (n = 18...

  14. Norovirus transmission on cruise ship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakbaeva, Elmira T; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Beard, R Suzanne; Bulens, Sandra N; Mullins, James; Monroe, Stephan S; Bresee, Joseph; Sassano, Patricia; Cramer, Elaine H; Glass, Roger I

    2005-01-01

    An outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis affected passengers on two consecutive cruises of ship X and continued on 4 subsequent cruises despite a 1-week sanitization. We documented transmission by food and person-to-person contact; persistence of virus despite sanitization onboard, including introductions of new strains; and seeding of an outbreak on land.

  15. Reverse genetics mediated recovery of infectious murine norovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Armando; Ureña, Luis; Thorne, Lucy; Yunus, Muhammad A; Goodfellow, Ian

    2012-06-24

    Human noroviruses are responsible for most cases of human gastroenteritis (GE) worldwide and are recurrent problem in environments where close person-to-person contact cannot be avoided (1, 2). During the last few years an increase in the incidence of outbreaks in hospitals has been reported, causing significant disruptions to their operational capacity as well as large economic losses. The identification of new antiviral approaches has been limited due to the inability of human noroviruses to complete a productive infection in cell culture (3). The recent isolation of a murine norovirus (MNV), closely related to human norovirus (4) but which can be propagated in cells (5) has opened new avenues for the investigation of these pathogens (6, 7). MNV replication results in the synthesis of new positive sense genomic and subgenomic RNA molecules, the latter of which corresponds to the last third of the viral genome (Figure 1). MNV contains four different open reading frames (ORFs), of which ORF1 occupies most of the genome and encodes seven non-structural proteins (NS1-7) released from a polyprotein precursor. ORF2 and ORF3 are contained within the subgenomic RNA region and encode the capsid proteins (VP1 and VP2, respectively) (Figure 1). Recently, we have identified that additional ORF4 overlapping ORF2 but in a different reading frame is functional and encodes for a mitochondrial localised virulence factor (VF1) (8). Replication for positive sense RNA viruses, including noroviruses, takes place in the cytoplasm resulting in the synthesis of new uncapped RNA genomes. To promote viral translation, viruses exploit different strategies aimed at recruiting the cellular protein synthesis machinery (9-11). Interestingly, norovirus translation is driven by the multifunctional viral protein-primer VPg covalently linked to the 5' end of both genomic and subgenomic RNAs (12-14). This sophisticated mechanism of translation is likely to be a major factor in the limited

  16. Factors Driving Changes To Remuneration Policy And Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bussin

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop an in-depth understanding of the relative importance of the factors driving change to remuneration policy decision making and the impact on organisations. Data from 148 organisations was analysed and subjected to rigorous statistical analysis. The results show that the most potent drivers of remuneration policy are retention of key staff, financial results and organisation strategy. The greatest changes to remuneration policy were in the areas of variable pay, merit/performance related pay, market position, total package and job evaluation/ broadbanding policy. A strong correlation was found between the extent of change in Remuneration policy and impact on the organisation. This suggests that the greater the change in Remuneration policy the greater the impact on the organisation. OpsommingDie doel van hierdie studie is om die relatiewe belangrikheid van die faktore wat verandering in die vergoeding besluitnemingsbeleid dryf asook die impak wat dit op organisasie het in diepte te verstaan. Data van 148 organisasies is geanaliseer onderworpe aan streng statisiese analises. Die resultaat wys dat die mees kritieke drywers vir vergoedingsbeleid die volgende is: retensie van sleutelpersoneel, finansiële resultate en organisasie strategie. Die grootste veranderinge in vergoedsbeleid was in die volgende areas: veranderlike betaling, meriete/prestasie verwante betaling, markposisie, totale pakket en rolevaluasie/‘broadband’ beleid? Sterk korrelasie is gevind tussen die vlak van verandering in die vergoedingsbeleid en die impak op die organisasie. Dit wys onder andere uit hoe groter die verandering in vergoedingsbeleid, hoe groter die impak op die organisasie.

  17. Pathogenesis of Noroviruses, Emerging RNA Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Karst

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Human noroviruses in the family Caliciviridae are a major cause of epidemic gastroenteritis. They are responsible for at least 95% of viral outbreaks and over 50% of all outbreaks worldwide. Transmission of these highly infectious plus-stranded RNA viruses occurs primarily through contaminated food or water, but also through person-to-person contact and exposure to fomites. Norovirus infections are typically acute and self-limited. However, disease can be much more severe and prolonged in infants, elderly, and immunocompromised individuals. Norovirus outbreaks frequently occur in semi-closed communities such as nursing homes, military settings, schools, hospitals, cruise ships, and disaster relief situations. Noroviruses are classified as Category B biodefense agents because they are highly contagious, extremely stable in the environment, resistant to common disinfectants, and associated with debilitating illness. The number of reported norovirus outbreaks has risen sharply since 2002 suggesting the emergence of more infectious strains. There has also been increased recognition that noroviruses are important causes of childhood hospitalization. Moreover, noroviruses have recently been associated with multiple clinical outcomes other than gastroenteritis. It is unclear whether these new observations are due to improved norovirus diagnostics or to the emergence of more virulent norovirus strains. Regardless, it is clear that human noroviruses cause considerable morbidity worldwide, have significant economic impact, and are clinically important emerging pathogens. Despite the impact of human norovirus-induced disease and the potential for emergence of highly virulent strains, the pathogenic features of infection are not well understood due to the lack of a cell culture system and previous lack of animal models. This review summarizes the current understanding of norovirus pathogenesis from the histological to the molecular level, including

  18. Predictors of persistent diarrhea in norovirus enteritis after solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Pearlie P; van Duin, David; Sonderup, Jessica L; Grant, Wendy J; Kalil, Andre C; Florescu, Diana F

    2016-11-01

    Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients may develop protracted diarrheal illness from norovirus. We performed a retrospective chart review between January 2010 and April 2014 to identify predictors of persistent diarrhea in transplant recipients with norovirus enteritis. A total of 152 SOT recipients with mean age of 31.5 years (SD 23.1) were included: 43.4% male, 34.2% pediatric patients. Allograft types were abdominal 136 (89.5%) (kidney [39.5%], liver-small bowel [23%], other [27%]) and thoracic 16 (10.5%). The median time to diagnosis of first norovirus enteritis episode from date of transplantation was 1.7 (0.3-5.3) years. At time of presentation, diarrhea was present in 141 (93%). Thirty percent had persistent diarrhea at 2 weeks. Hospitalization was required for treatment in 121 (80%) of episodes with the mean length of stay of 10±15.2 days. Most (91%) infections were due to norovirus genogroup II, and gastrointestinal coinfections were seen in 23 (19%) norovirus enteritis episodes. Nausea at time of diagnosis (P=.002) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in the preceding 90 days (P=.036) were identified as independent risk factors for persistent diarrhea using univariate and multivariable logistic regression. Our study shows that nausea on presentation and prior CMV infection were associated with persistent diarrhea in patients with norovirus enteritis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Preventing Norovirus Outbreaks PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-03

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the June 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Norovirus infects about 20 million Americans each year. Learn how to protect yourself and your family from this very contagious, potentially serious illness.  Created: 6/3/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 6/3/2014.

  20. What Factors Influence the Relationship Between Feedback on Cognitive Performance and Subsequent Driving Self-Regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Michelle L; Vance, David E; Ball, Karlene K

    2016-06-01

    Recent research indicates that providing feedback about cognitive abilities (i.e., UFOV® test performance) may change driving self-regulation; however, 42% of participants who received negative feedback failed to increase driving self-regulation (Ackerman, Ball, Crowe, Owsley, Vance, & Wadley, 2011). The current study extends those findings, using the same sample (N = 129) to investigate factors that may influence the relationship between feedback regarding cognitive abilities and driving self-regulation. Feedback by age and feedback by number of eye conditions showed significant interactions, and feedback by baseline driving exposure interaction approached significance. Older participants (80-94; n = 38) who received negative feedback significantly increased subsequent avoidance of challenging driving conditions relative to baseline. Participants with no reported eye conditions (n = 36) who received negative feedback significantly increased subsequent driving avoidance, and participants below median baseline driving exposure (n = 66) tended to increase subsequent driving avoidance. These results identify individual level factors that may influence the relationship between feedback regarding cognitive abilities and self-regulation and have implications for encouraging older adults to make informed decisions about appropriate driving behavior.

  1. Biological, Psychological, and Sociocultural Factors Contributing to the Drive for Muscularity in Weight-Training Men

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Catharina; Rollitz, Laura; Voracek, Martin; Hennig-Fast, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    The drive for muscularity and associated behaviors (e.g., exercising and dieting) are of growing importance for men in Western societies. In its extreme form, it can lead to body image concerns and harmful behaviors like over-exercising and the misuse of performance-enhancing substances. Therefore, investigating factors associated with the drive for muscularity, especially in vulnerable populations like bodybuilders and weight trainers can help identify potential risk and protective factors f...

  2. Influence of School Year on Seasonality of Norovirus Outbreaks in Developed Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babenko, Oksana; Honish, Lance

    2017-01-01

    Factors affecting the seasonal distribution of norovirus outbreaks are not well understood. This study examined whether grade school settings at the start of the school year may be a factor. We searched Ovid Medline from January 2002 to June 2014 for studies that provided all reported norovirus outbreaks in a developed country by month for a minimum of three years. Historical school years were obtained from verifiable sources. The start of the norovirus seasonal outbreak peak and peak outbreak month were determined for each study and compared to the start month of school. Northern hemisphere and southern hemisphere countries had a different norovirus seasonality and different school year structures (traditional compared to year round). In the two studies that provided outbreaks by age, outbreaks among children started several months before outbreaks in the adult population. The median number of months between school start and start of the seasonal outbreak peak was two months (interquartile range [IQR] = 2.0–3.0), while the median number of months between school start and peak outbreak month was four months (IQR = 3.0–4.0). These findings suggest the possibility the school setting at the start of the school year may be a factor in the seasonality of norovirus. PMID:28167970

  3. Factors Driving Learner Success in Online Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Phu; Cao, Vien; Vu, Lan; Cepero, Jude

    2014-01-01

    This study examined factors that contributed to the success of online learners in an online professional development course. Research instruments included an online survey and learners' activity logs in an online professional development course for 512 in-service teachers. The findings showed that there were several factors affecting online…

  4. HCG variants, the growth factors which drive human malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Laurence A

    2012-01-01

    The term human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) refers to a group of 5 molecules, each sharing the common amino acid sequence but each differing in meric structure and carbohydrate side chain structure. The 5 molecules are each produced by separate cells and each having separate biological functions. hCG and sulfated hCG are hormones produced by placental syncytiotrophoblast cells and pituitary gonadotrope cells. Hyperglycosylated hCG is an autocrine produced by placental cytotrophoblast cells. Hyperglycosylated hCG drives malignancy in placental cancers, and in testicular and ovarian germ cell malignancies. hCGβ and hyperglycosylated hCGβ are autocrines produce by most advanced malignancies. These molecules, particularly the malignancy promoters are presented in this review on hCG and cancer. hCGβ and hyperglycosylated hCGβ are critical to the growth and invasion, or malignancy of most advanced cancers. In many ways, while hCG may appear like a nothing, a hormone associated with pregnancy, it is not, and may be at the center of cancer research. PMID:22206043

  5. Factors driving the location investment decision of South African MNEs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kirstam

    and business practices, and reduces the uncertainty and risk of the new market. Perceived ... foreign consumer factors relatively important in FDI decision making. .... The current study explored the psychic distance concept in a South African.

  6. Factors Driving Learner Success in Online Professional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phu Vu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined factors that contributed to the success of online learners in an online professional development course. Research instruments included an online survey and learners’ activity logs in an online professional development course for 512 in-service teachers. The findings showed that there were several factors affecting online learners’ success in online professional development. In addition, there were also significant differences between successful and unsuccessful online learners in terms of course login frequency and learning activities viewed.

  7. Disinfection kinetics of murine norovirus using chlorine and chlorine dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Mi Young; Kim, Ju-Mi; Ko, Gwangpyo

    2010-05-01

    We determined the disinfection efficiency of chlorine and chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) using murine norovirus (MNV) and coliphage MS2 as surrogates for human norovirus. Experiments were performed in oxidant demand-free buffer (pH 7.2) at 5 degrees C and 20 degrees C. The extent of virus inactivation by a disinfectant was quantified using three different analytical methods: plaque, short template real-time TaqMan reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and long template RT-PCR assays. Rapid inactivation of MNV by both chlorine and chlorine dioxide was observed by the plaque assay. According to the efficiency factor Hom model, Ct values of 0.314mg/Lmin and 0.247mg/Lmin were required for a 4-log reduction of MNV at 5 degrees C by chlorine and chlorine dioxide, respectively. Lower Ct values were required at 20 degrees C. Both long template and short template RT-PCR assays significantly underestimated the virus inactivation compared to the plaque assay. Our study demonstrates that adequate treatment of water with either chlorine or ClO(2) is likely to effectively control the waterborne transmission of human norovirus.

  8. Biological, Psychological, and Sociocultural Factors Contributing to the Drive for Muscularity in Weight-Training Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Catharina; Rollitz, Laura; Voracek, Martin; Hennig-Fast, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    The drive for muscularity and associated behaviors (e.g., exercising and dieting) are of growing importance for men in Western societies. In its extreme form, it can lead to body image concerns and harmful behaviors like over-exercising and the misuse of performance-enhancing substances. Therefore, investigating factors associated with the drive for muscularity, especially in vulnerable populations like bodybuilders and weight trainers can help identify potential risk and protective factors for body image problems. Using a biopsychosocial framework, the aim of the current study was to explore different factors associated with drive for muscularity in weight-training men. To this purpose, German-speaking male weight trainers (N = 248) completed an online survey to determine the extent to which biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors contribute to drive for muscularity and its related attitudes and behaviors. Using multiple regression models, findings showed that media ideal body internalization was the strongest positive predictor for drive for muscularity, while age (M = 25.9, SD = 7.4) held the strongest negative association with drive for muscularity. Dissatisfaction with muscularity, but not with body fat, was related to drive for muscularity. The fat-free mass index, a quantification of the actual degree of muscularity of a person, significantly predicted drive for muscularity-related behavior but not attitudes. Body-related aspects of self-esteem, but not global self-esteem, were significant negative predictors of drive for muscularity. Since internalization of media body ideals presented the highest predictive value for drive for muscularity, these findings suggest that media body ideal internalizations may be a risk factor for body image concerns in men, leading, in its most extreme form to disordered eating or muscle dysmorphia. Future research should investigate the relations between drive for muscularity, age, body composition

  9. Biological, Psychological, and Sociocultural Factors Contributing to the Drive for Muscularity in Weight-Training Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Catharina; Rollitz, Laura; Voracek, Martin; Hennig-Fast, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    The drive for muscularity and associated behaviors (e.g., exercising and dieting) are of growing importance for men in Western societies. In its extreme form, it can lead to body image concerns and harmful behaviors like over-exercising and the misuse of performance-enhancing substances. Therefore, investigating factors associated with the drive for muscularity, especially in vulnerable populations like bodybuilders and weight trainers can help identify potential risk and protective factors for body image problems. Using a biopsychosocial framework, the aim of the current study was to explore different factors associated with drive for muscularity in weight-training men. To this purpose, German-speaking male weight trainers (N = 248) completed an online survey to determine the extent to which biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors contribute to drive for muscularity and its related attitudes and behaviors. Using multiple regression models, findings showed that media ideal body internalization was the strongest positive predictor for drive for muscularity, while age (M = 25.9, SD = 7.4) held the strongest negative association with drive for muscularity. Dissatisfaction with muscularity, but not with body fat, was related to drive for muscularity. The fat-free mass index, a quantification of the actual degree of muscularity of a person, significantly predicted drive for muscularity-related behavior but not attitudes. Body-related aspects of self-esteem, but not global self-esteem, were significant negative predictors of drive for muscularity. Since internalization of media body ideals presented the highest predictive value for drive for muscularity, these findings suggest that media body ideal internalizations may be a risk factor for body image concerns in men, leading, in its most extreme form to disordered eating or muscle dysmorphia. Future research should investigate the relations between drive for muscularity, age, body composition

  10. Modeling and Simulation of a Novel Switched Reluctance Motor Drive System with Power Factor Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Venkatesan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a novel Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM drive system with power factor improvement. Recently, many of the converters with variable speed drives have no input power factor correction circuits. This results in harmonic pollution of the utility supply, which should be avoided. The effect of power factor variation in terms of harmonic content is also analyzed in this study. The different operations like single pulse, soft chopping and hard chopping modes are done with and without a power factor controller. This study describes the buck - boost converter topology with above said methods for SRM drive. The boost converter is used to improve the input sinusoidal current and the buck converter is used to regulate the dc source voltage. The proposed topologies were simulated using MATLAB / Simulink software package and the results were obtained. The computer simulation results support the proposed methods.

  11. Driving with pets as a risk factor for motor vehicle collisions among older drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunck, Hallie; Owsley, Cynthia; MacLennan, Paul A; McGwin, Gerald

    2013-09-01

    Increasing rates of distraction-related motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) continue to raise concerns regarding driving safety. This study sought to evaluate a novel driving-related distraction, driving with a pet, as a risk factor for MVCs among older, community dwelling adults. Two thousand licensed drivers aged 70 and older were identified, of whom 691 reported pet ownership. Comparing pet owners who did and did not drive with their pets, neither overall MVC rates (rate ratio [RR] 0.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.75-1.26) nor at-fault MVC rates (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.57-1.24) were elevated. However, those who reported always driving with a pet in the vehicle had an elevated MVC rate (RR 1.89, 95% CI 1.10-3.25), as compared to those who did not drive with a pet. The MVC rate was not increased for those reporting only sometimes or rarely driving with a pet in the vehicle. The current study demonstrates an increased risk of MVC involvement in those older drivers who always take a pet with them when they drive a vehicle. When confronted with an increased cognitive or physical workload while driving, elderly drivers in prior studies have exhibited slower cognitive performance and delayed response times in comparison to younger age groups. Further study of pet-related distracted driving behaviors among older drivers as well as younger populations with respect to driver safety and performance is warranted to appropriately inform the need for policy regulation on this issue.

  12. 75 FR 82132 - ITS Joint Program Office; Human Factors for IntelliDrive SM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... ITS Joint Program Office; Human Factors for IntelliDrive \\SM\\ (HFID); Public Meeting; Notice of Public.... ACTION: Notice. The U.S. Department of Transportation ITS Joint Program Office (ITS JPO) and the National... trucks. At this meeting, ITS JPO and NHTSA will provide an overview of the entire Human Factors...

  13. Ultrasensitive norovirus detection using DNA aptasensor technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Giamberardino

    Full Text Available DNA aptamers were developed against murine norovirus (MNV using SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment. Nine rounds of SELEX led to the discovery of AG3, a promising aptamer with very high affinity for MNV as well as for lab-synthesized capsids of a common human norovirus (HuNoV outbreak strain (GII.3. Using fluorescence anisotropy, AG3 was found to bind with MNV with affinity in the low picomolar range. The aptamer could cross-react with HuNoV though it was selected against MNV. As compared to a non-specific DNA control sequence, the norovirus-binding affinity of AG3 was about a million-fold higher. In further tests, the aptamer also showed nearly a million-fold higher affinity for the noroviruses than for the feline calicivirus (FCV, a virus similar in size and structure to noroviruses. AG3 was incorporated into a simple electrochemical sensor using a gold nanoparticle-modified screen-printed carbon electrode (GNPs-SPCE. The aptasensor could detect MNV with a limit of detection of approximately 180 virus particles, for possible on-site applications. The lead aptamer candidate and the aptasensor platform show promise for the rapid detection and identification of noroviruses in environmental and clinical samples.

  14. Factors driving and influencing the development of serious games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Møller

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There are a large variety of serious games aimed at infusing knowledge into both teams and organizations. Some games aims at supporting the team in a given project or development process, whereas others aim at widening the knowledge, skills and competences in an organization on a more general level. In the serious game literature most focus and attention is given to the design and development of digital games. However in Denmark, at least, there has been a growing industry of analogue serious games and serious game facilitation, which give evidence to the fact that not all development in the area of serious games happens in terms of the digital versions. This paper investigate these new analog serious games and learning tools in the Danish market with focus on the drivers and influencing factors during their development and the effort of making a business out of the serious games. Empirically, the paper is based on close interaction and semi-structured interviews with some of the key serious game developers in Denmark (plus one in the US, some of them with a portfolio of up to ten serious games. Besides from uncovering some of the basic motivations to design and develop serious games, the paper will show, how the game developers’ interaction with the end-users and their different business strategies, influences the way the game is developed.

  15. Screening Driving Transcription Factors in the Processing of Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzhong Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Construction of the transcriptional regulatory network can provide additional clues on the regulatory mechanisms and therapeutic applications in gastric cancer. Methods. Gene expression profiles of gastric cancer were downloaded from GEO database for integrated analysis. All of DEGs were analyzed by GO enrichment and KEGG pathway enrichment. Transcription factors were further identified and then a global transcriptional regulatory network was constructed. Results. By integrated analysis of the six eligible datasets (340 cases and 43 controls, a bunch of 2327 DEGs were identified, including 2100 upregulated and 227 downregulated DEGs. Functional enrichment analysis of DEGs showed that digestion was a significantly enriched GO term for biological process. Moreover, there were two important enriched KEGG pathways: cell cycle and homologous recombination. Furthermore, a total of 70 differentially expressed TFs were identified and the transcriptional regulatory network was constructed, which consisted of 566 TF-target interactions. The top ten TFs regulating most downstream target genes were BRCA1, ARID3A, EHF, SOX10, ZNF263, FOXL1, FEV, GATA3, FOXC1, and FOXD1. Most of them were involved in the carcinogenesis of gastric cancer. Conclusion. The transcriptional regulatory network can help researchers to further clarify the underlying regulatory mechanisms of gastric cancer tumorigenesis.

  16. MAIN FACTORS DRIVING SOCIAL PUBLIC SERVICES IN INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela, GHENTA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Literature and the latest reports point out that not only in Europe, but all over the world there is a growing demand for social services. As social needs have diversified, the number of potential users of social services has increased and this has generated increased complexity of social services. This paper highlights some of the results of a study conducted by the author in the doctoral studies program. One of the aims of this study was to identify the main factors that cause the current configuration of social services at global level. The research analysed the demographic changes and the impact of the crisis in social services for Europe, the United States of America (USA and Japan based on statistical data provided by the national statistics institutes for the regions considered. The results highlight the necessity of continuous development and reconfiguration of social services in order to meet the social and economic demands and to ensure a better organisation of these type of services.

  17. Socioeconomic driving factors of nitrogen load from food consumption and preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen; Fei, Jinling; Hayashi, Yoshitsugu; Yasunari, Tetsuzo

    2014-09-01

    To diagnose environmental nitrogen (N) load from food consumption and to suggest preventive measures, this study identified relationships between nitrogen load from food consumption and driving factors by examining six representative countries and regions for the period 1970-2009 as an example. The logarithmic mean Divisia index technique was used to disassemble nitrogen load growth into four driving factors: population, economic activity, food intensity of the economy, and nitrogen content of food. In all study areas, increased economic activity was the main factor driving nitrogen load increase. The positive effect of population growth was relatively small but not negligible and changes in food intensity had a decreasing effect on nitrogen load. Changes in nitrogen content of food varied between areas. Broad strategies to reduce and mitigate nitrogen loading and decouple nitrogen load from economic growth in both developed and developing countries are suggested.

  18. TRANSMISSION OF NOROVIRUS WITHIN HOUSEHOLDS IN QUININDE, ECUADOR

    OpenAIRE

    Gastañaduy, Paul A.; Vicuña, Yosselin; Salazar, Fabian; Broncano, Nely; Gregoricus, Nicole; Vinjé, Jan; Chico,Martha; Parashar, Umesh D; Cooper,Philip J; Lopman, Ben

    2015-01-01

    We studied the transmission of norovirus infection in households in Quininde, Ecuador. Among household contacts of norovirus positive children with diarrhea, norovirus negative children with diarrhea and asymptomatic controls, infection attack rates were 33%, 8% and 18%, respectively (N = 45, 36, 83). Infection attack rates were higher when index children had a higher viral load.

  19. Transmission of Norovirus Within Households in Quininde, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastañaduy, Paul A; Vicuña, Yosselin; Salazar, Fabian; Broncano, Nely; Gregoricus, Nicole; Vinjé, Jan; Chico, Martha; Parashar, Umesh D; Cooper, Philip J; Lopman, Ben

    2015-09-01

    We studied the transmission of norovirus infection in households in Quininde, Ecuador. Among household contacts of norovirus positive children with diarrhea, norovirus negative children with diarrhea and asymptomatic controls, infection attack rates were 33%, 8% and 18%, respectively (N = 45, 36, 83). Infection attack rates were higher when index children had a higher viral load.

  20. Factors Driving the Adoption of M-Learning: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Li, Hongxiu; Carlsson, Christer

    2010-01-01

    Even if m-learning is spreading rapidly in many regions of the world, research addressing the driving factors of m-learning adoption is in short supply. Built on the Technology Acceptance Model, this paper proposes a hypothesized model of m-learning adoption. Employing structural equation modeling technology, the model was assessed based on the…

  1. Understanding the Factors Driving M-Learning Adoption: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Han, Shengnan; Li, Hongxiu

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: By surveying current literature, the purposes of this paper are twofold: to identify current situation of mobile learning (m-learning) adoption and specify the challenges and to identify the factors driving m-learning adoption. Design/methodology/approach: The paper reviews literature related to: m-learning applications and challenging…

  2. An Empirical Study of Factors Driving the Adoption of Mobile Learning in Omani Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrab, Mohamed; Al Shibli, Ibtisam; Badursha, Nabeela

    2016-01-01

    Mobile learning (M-learning) provides a new learning channel in which learners can access content and just in time information as required irrespective of the time and location. Even though M-learning is fast evolving in many regions of the world, research addressing the driving factors of M-learning adoption is in short supply. This article…

  3. Hand on the wheel, mind on the mobile: an analysis of social factors contributing to texting while driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Steven J

    2015-02-01

    In an era defined by social technology, mobile phones provide constant connection to others. However, they also present a very dangerous situation when people choose to use their mobile phones while driving. In particular, exchanging text messages while driving has resulted in numerous accidents and fatalities. The purpose of this study is to examine social factors that lead people to text while driving. Specifically, using a multivariate logistic regression analysis of data from a 2010 survey by the Pew Research Center, variables for general mobile talk, driving while talking on a mobile, using the Internet on a mobile, sexting, and various motivations for texting were examined to determine factors that increase the likelihood of texting while driving. The findings suggest that people engage in mobile multiplexing (i.e., communication using two or more media on the mobile) while driving. Additionally, exchanging text messages in public, and consequently texting while driving, has become normalized. Furthermore, people are socialized into such behaviors through observing others texting while driving and using a mobile recklessly while driving. Finally, a number of motivations for texting were found to increase the likelihood of texting while driving significantly. Ultimately, the author contends that texting while driving has become a cultural artifact in the United States, which conflicts with driver safety as well as laws prohibiting texting while driving. The findings of this study could inform future awareness campaigns and technology developers to help establish a safer driving environment within the multitasking culture.

  4. Spatiotemporal dataset on Chinese population distribution and its driving factors from 1949 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lizhe; Chen, Lajiao

    2016-07-01

    Spatio-temporal data on human population and its driving factors is critical to understanding and responding to population problems. Unfortunately, such spatio-temporal data on a large scale and over the long term are often difficult to obtain. Here, we present a dataset on Chinese population distribution and its driving factors over a remarkably long period, from 1949 to 2013. Driving factors of population distribution were selected according to the push-pull migration laws, which were summarized into four categories: natural environment, natural resources, economic factors and social factors. Natural environment and natural resources indicators were calculated using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) techniques, whereas economic and social factors from 1949 to 2013 were collected from the China Statistical Yearbook and China Compendium of Statistics from 1949 to 2008. All of the data were quality controlled and unified into an identical dataset with the same spatial scope and time period. The dataset is expected to be useful for understanding how population responds to and impacts environmental change.

  5. POWER FACTOR CORRECTION IN PERMANENT MAGNET BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR DRIVE USING SINGLE-PHASE CUK CONVERTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANJEEV SINGH

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Permanent magnet brushless DC motor (PMBLDCM drives are being employed in many variable speed applications due to their high efficiency, silent operation, compact size, high reliability, ease of control, and low maintenance requirements. These drives have power quality problems and poor power factor at input AC mains as they are mostly fed through diode bridge rectifier based voltage source inverters. To overcome such problems a single-phase single-switch power factor correction AC-DC converter topology based on a Cuk converter is proposed to feed voltage source inverters based PMBLDCM. It focuses on the analysis, design and performance evaluation of the proposed PFC converter topology for a 1.5 kW, 1500 rpm, 400 V PMBLDCM drive used for an air-conditioning system. The proposed PFC converter topology is modelled and its performance is simulated in Matlab-Simulink environment and results show an improved power quality and good power factor in wide speed range of the drive.

  6. Thermal inactivation of human norovirus surrogates in spinach and measurement of its uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Hayriye; D'souza, Doris H; Davidson, P Michael

    2014-02-01

    Leafy greens, including spinach, have potential for human norovirus transmission through improper handling and/or contact with contaminated water. Inactivation of norovirus prior to consumption is essential to protect public health. Because of the inability to propagate human noroviruses in vitro, murine norovirus (MNV-1) and feline calicivirus (FCV-F9) have been used as surrogates to model human norovirus behavior under laboratory conditions. The objectives of this study were to determine thermal inactivation kinetics of MNV-1 and FCV-F9 in spinach, compare first-order and Weibull models, and measure the uncertainty associated with the process. D-values were determined for viruses at 50, 56, 60, 65, and 72 °C in 2-ml vials. The D-values calculated from the first-order model (50 to 72 °C) ranged from 0.16 to 14.57 min for MNV-1 and 0.15 to 17.39 min for FCV-9. Using the Weibull model, the tD for MNV-1 and FCV-F9 to destroy 1 log (D ≈ 1) at the same temperatures ranged from 0.22 to 15.26 and 0.27 to 20.71 min, respectively. The z-values determined for MNV-1 were 11.66 ± 0.42 °C using the Weibull model and 10.98 ± 0.58 °C for the first-order model and for FCV-F9 were 10.85 ± 0.67 °C and 9.89 ± 0.79 °C, respectively. There was no difference in D- or z-value using the two models (P > 0.05). Relative uncertainty for dilution factor, personal counting, and test volume were 0.005, 0.0004, and ca. 0.84%, respectively. The major contribution to total uncertainty was from the model selected. Total uncertainties for FCV-F9 for the Weibull and first-order models were 3.53 to 7.56% and 11.99 to 21.01%, respectively, and for MNV-1, 3.10 to 7.01% and 13.14 to 16.94%, respectively. Novel and precise information on thermal inactivation of human norovirus surrogates in spinach was generated, enabling more reliable thermal process calculations to control noroviruses. The results of this study may be useful to the frozen food industry in designing blanching processes for

  7. DSP Implementation of a Power Factor Correction Strategy for BLDC Motor Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vijayarajeswaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper develops a power factor correction mechanism for a brushless dc permanent magnet (BLDC-PM motor drive system through the use of a front end boost converter. It evolves a wave shaping mechanism to arrive at the sinusoidal nature for the input current in an effort to improve the input power factor. The theory is articulated using a closed loop algorithm to revolve around the operating range of the drive motor. The performance is evaluated on a MATLAB platform to elucidate the viability of the scheme in addition to highlighting its speed regulating capability. It steals the role of a Digital Signal Processor (DSP to implement the proposed methodology and there from validate the results with a view to illustrate its practical applicability.

  8. Studying Driving Risk Factors using Multi-Source Mobile Computing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbiao Hu

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, the overall research framework used in this research is presented, which mainly includes data collection, data processing, calibration and analysis methodology. A preliminary case study — including data summary statistics and correlation analysis — is also presented. The results of our study will further existing knowledge about driving exposure factors that are closely linked to crash risk, and provide the foundation for advanced forms of Usage Based Insurance.

  9. Vital Signs-Preventing Norovirus Outbreaks

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-03

    This podcast is based on the June 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Norovirus infects about 20 million Americans each year. Learn how to protect yourself and your family from this very contagious, potentially serious illness.  Created: 6/3/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 6/3/2014.

  10. Norovirus infections : disease, antibody responses and susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rockx, Barry Hubertus Gerardus

    2004-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoV; previously know as Norwalk-like Caliciviruses) are a common cause of gastroenteritis in humans of all ages. In the Netherlands an estimated 500.000 infection occur each year, including a unknown number of (large-scale) foodborne infections. Their very high incidence leading to a

  11. Quality factor enhancement of Nano electromechanical systems by capacitive driving beyond the resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Barois, T; Poncharal, P; Vincent, Philippe; Ayari, A

    2016-01-01

    Nano electromechanical systems are considered as ultra sensitive devices for mass and force detection. Capacitive actuation is widely used in these devices but is known to degrade the quality factor of the resonator due to DC electrostatic damping. We report the enhancement of the quality factor of SiC vibrating nanowires detected nano optomechanically and electrically by applying an AC capacitive driving at a frequency above both the resonance frequency and the electrical cutoff frequency. Self-oscillations are demonstrated for optimal conditions. We developed an analytical model of the phenomenon and showed that it can lead to an improvement of the force sensitivity. * anthony.ayari@univ-lyon1.fr 1

  12. Global Economic Burden of Norovirus Gastroenteritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Bartsch

    Full Text Available Despite accounting for approximately one fifth of all acute gastroenteritis illnesses, norovirus has received comparatively less attention than other infectious pathogens. With several candidate vaccines under development, characterizing the global economic burden of norovirus could help funders, policy makers, public health officials, and product developers determine how much attention and resources to allocate to advancing these technologies to prevent and control norovirus.We developed a computational simulation model to estimate the economic burden of norovirus in every country/area (233 total stratified by WHO region and globally, from the health system and societal perspectives. We considered direct costs of illness (e.g., clinic visits and hospitalization and productivity losses.Globally, norovirus resulted in a total of $4.2 billion (95% UI: $3.2-5.7 billion in direct health system costs and $60.3 billion (95% UI: $44.4-83.4 billion in societal costs per year. Disease amongst children <5 years cost society $39.8 billion, compared to $20.4 billion for all other age groups combined. Costs per norovirus illness varied by both region and age and was highest among adults ≥55 years. Productivity losses represented 84-99% of total costs varying by region. While low and middle income countries and high income countries had similar disease incidence (10,148 vs. 9,935 illness per 100,000 persons, high income countries generated 62% of global health system costs. In sensitivity analysis, the probability of hospitalization had the largest impact on health system cost estimates ($2.8 billion globally, assuming no hospitalization costs, while the probability of missing productive days had the largest impact on societal cost estimates ($35.9 billion globally, with a 25% probability of missing productive days.The total economic burden is greatest in young children but the highest cost per illness is among older age groups in some regions. These large

  13. Prevalence of Rotavirus Genogroup A and Norovirus Genogroup II in Bassaseachic Falls National Park Surface Waters in Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Gardea, Ma. Carmen E.; Tamez-Guerra, Patricia; Gomez-Flores, Ricardo; Mendieta-Mendoza, Aurora; Zavala-Díaz de la Serna, Francisco Javier; Contreras-Cordero, Juan Francisco; Erosa-de la Vega, Gilberto; Pérez-Recoder, María Concepción; Sánchez-Ramírez, Blanca; González-Horta, Carmen; Infante-Ramírez, Rocío

    2017-01-01

    In areas lacking potable water treatment, drinking contaminated water may represent a public health threat. In addition to enteropathogenic bacteria and parasites, fecal contamination in water environments is associated with the transmission of enteric viruses and other causal agents of infectious disease. Rotavirus and norovirus are the main enteric viral agents responsible for diarrheic outbreaks. The aim of the present study was to detect seasonal variation of rotavirus and norovirus in the surface water at Bassaseachic Falls National Park during 2013. Rivers and streams within and nearby this park were sampled once in each season during 2013. Viral concentration was carried out by a handmade filtration equipment, using a commercial electropositive membrane coupled with the virus absortion elution technique (VIRADEL©). Detection of rotavirus and norovirus was performed by SYBR Green reverse transcription-real time polymerase chain reaction (SYBR GREEN© RT-qPCR) analyses. Norovirus genogroup II was detected in samples collected in June and October 2013. In the case of rotavirus, genogroup A was detected in March and June. The presence of rotavirus and norovirus was related to viral acute diarrhea in children less than five years of age, who were inhabiting the sampled areas. This may indicates that the contaminated water was potentially a risk factor for regional diarrheic outbreaks. PMID:28475152

  14. Driver crash risk factors and prevalence evaluation using naturalistic driving data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingus, Thomas A; Guo, Feng; Lee, Suzie; Antin, Jonathan F; Perez, Miguel; Buchanan-King, Mindy; Hankey, Jonathan

    2016-03-08

    The accurate evaluation of crash causal factors can provide fundamental information for effective transportation policy, vehicle design, and driver education. Naturalistic driving (ND) data collected with multiple onboard video cameras and sensors provide a unique opportunity to evaluate risk factors during the seconds leading up to a crash. This paper uses a National Academy of Sciences-sponsored ND dataset comprising 905 injurious and property damage crash events, the magnitude of which allows the first direct analysis (to our knowledge) of causal factors using crashes only. The results show that crash causation has shifted dramatically in recent years, with driver-related factors (i.e., error, impairment, fatigue, and distraction) present in almost 90% of crashes. The results also definitively show that distraction is detrimental to driver safety, with handheld electronic devices having high use rates and risk.

  15. Norovirus infections in preterm infants: wide variety of clinical courses

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann Kathrin; Olbertz Dirk; Kramer Axel; Armbrust Sven; Fusch Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Norovirus is an important cause of nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis in all ages. Atypical courses are described. Clinical symptoms are diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, abdominal cramps, fever and malaise. Apart from three recent short reports we describe for the first time an outbreak of norovirus in a tertiary Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Findings The typical symptoms of norovirus infection are in part also seen in premature born infants but with a different pattern and a h...

  16. Structural Basis for Norovirus Inhibition and Fucose Mimicry by Citrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansman, Grant S.; Shahzad-ul-Hussan, Syed; McLellan, Jason S.; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Georgiev, Ivelin; Shimoike, Takashi; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Bewley, Carole A.; Kwong, Peter D. (NIAID)

    2012-01-20

    Human noroviruses bind with their capsid-protruding domains to histo-blood-group antigens (HBGAs), an interaction thought to direct their entry into cells. Although human noroviruses are the major cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks, development of antivirals has been lacking, mainly because human noroviruses cannot be cultivated. Here we use X-ray crystallography and saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance (STD NMR) to analyze the interaction of citrate with genogroup II (GII) noroviruses. Crystals of citrate in complex with the protruding domain from norovirus GII.10 Vietnam026 diffracted to 1.4 {angstrom} and showed a single citrate bound at the site of HBGA interaction. The citrate interaction was coordinated with a set of capsid interactions almost identical to that involved in recognizing the terminal HBGA fucose, the saccharide which forms the primary conserved interaction between HBGAs and GII noroviruses. Citrate and a water molecule formed a ring-like structure that mimicked the pyranoside ring of fucose. STD NMR showed the protruding domain to have weak affinity for citrate (460 {mu}M). This affinity, however, was similar to the affinities of the protruding domain for fucose (460 {mu}M) and H type 2 trisaccharide (390 {mu}M), an HBGA shown previously to be specifically recognized by human noroviruses. Importantly, competition STD NMR showed that citrate could compete with HBGA for norovirus binding. Together, the results suggest that citrate and other glycomimetics have the potential to block human noroviruses from binding to HBGAs.

  17. Structural basis for norovirus inhibition and fucose mimicry by citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansman, Grant S; Shahzad-Ul-Hussan, Syed; McLellan, Jason S; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Georgiev, Ivelin; Shimoike, Takashi; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Bewley, Carole A; Kwong, Peter D

    2012-01-01

    Human noroviruses bind with their capsid-protruding domains to histo-blood-group antigens (HBGAs), an interaction thought to direct their entry into cells. Although human noroviruses are the major cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks, development of antivirals has been lacking, mainly because human noroviruses cannot be cultivated. Here we use X-ray crystallography and saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance (STD NMR) to analyze the interaction of citrate with genogroup II (GII) noroviruses. Crystals of citrate in complex with the protruding domain from norovirus GII.10 Vietnam026 diffracted to 1.4 Å and showed a single citrate bound at the site of HBGA interaction. The citrate interaction was coordinated with a set of capsid interactions almost identical to that involved in recognizing the terminal HBGA fucose, the saccharide which forms the primary conserved interaction between HBGAs and GII noroviruses. Citrate and a water molecule formed a ring-like structure that mimicked the pyranoside ring of fucose. STD NMR showed the protruding domain to have weak affinity for citrate (460 μM). This affinity, however, was similar to the affinities of the protruding domain for fucose (460 μM) and H type 2 trisaccharide (390 μM), an HBGA shown previously to be specifically recognized by human noroviruses. Importantly, competition STD NMR showed that citrate could compete with HBGA for norovirus binding. Together, the results suggest that citrate and other glycomimetics have the potential to block human noroviruses from binding to HBGAs.

  18. A review of the main driving factors of forest fire ignition over Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganteaume, Anne; Camia, Andrea; Jappiot, Marielle; San-Miguel-Ayanz, Jesus; Long-Fournel, Marlène; Lampin, Corinne

    2013-03-01

    Knowledge of the causes of forest fires, and of the main driving factors of ignition, is an indispensable step towards effective fire prevention policies. This study analyses the factors driving forest fire ignition in the Mediterranean region including the most common human and environmental factors used for modelling in the European context. Fire ignition factors are compared to spatial and temporal variations of fire occurrence in the region, then are compared to results obtained in other areas of the world, with a special focus on North America (US and Canada) where a significant number of studies has been carried out on this topic. The causes of forest fires are varied and their distribution differs among countries, but may also differ spatially and temporally within the same country. In Europe, and especially in the Mediterranean basin, fires are mostly human-caused mainly due arson. The distance to transport networks and the distance to urban or recreation areas are among the most frequently used human factors in modelling exercises and the Wildland-Urban Interface is increasingly taken into account in the modelling of fire occurrence. Depending on the socio-economic context of the region concerned, factors such as the unemployment rate or variables linked to agricultural activity can explain the ignition of intentional and unintentional fires. Regarding environmental factors, those related to weather, fuel and topography are the most significant drivers of ignition of forest fires, especially in Mediterranean-type regions. For both human and lightning-caused fires, there is a geographical gradient of fire ignition, mainly due to variations in climate and fuel composition but also to population density for instance. The timing of fires depends on their causes. In populated areas, the timing of human-caused fires is closely linked to human activities and peaks in the afternoon whereas, in remote areas, the timing of lightning-caused fires is more linked to

  19. Spatiotemporal Modeling of Urban Growth Predictions Based on Driving Force Factors in Five Saudi Arabian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah F. Alqurashi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of four driving forces, including elevation, slope, distance to drainage and distance to major roads, on urban expansion in five Saudi Arabian cities: Riyadh, Jeddah, Makkah, Al-Taif and Eastern Area. The prediction of urban probabilities in the selected cities based on the four driving forces is generated using a logistic regression model for two time periods of urban change in 1985 and 2014. The validation of the model was tested using two approaches. The first approach was a quantitative analysis by using the Relative Operating Characteristic (ROC method. The second approach was a qualitative analysis in which the probable urban growth maps based on urban changes in 1985 is used to test the performance of the model to predict the probable urban growth after 2014 by comparing the probable maps of 1985 and the actual urban growth of 2014. The results indicate that the prediction model of 2014 provides a reliable and consistent prediction based on the performance of 1985. The analysis of driving forces shows variable effects over time. Variables such as elevation, slope and road distance had significant effects on the selected cities. However, distance to major roads was the factor with the most impact to determine the urban form in all five cites in both 1985 and 2014.

  20. Trend Prediction and Decomposed Driving Factors of Carbon Emissions in Jiangsu Province during 2015–2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decai Tang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available According to the economic and energy consumption statistics in Jiangsu Province, we combined the GM (1, 1 grey model and polynomial regression to forecast carbon emissions. Historical and projected emissions were decomposed using the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI approach to assess the relative contribution of different factors to emission variability. The results showed that carbon emissions will continue to increase in Jiangsu province during 2015–2020 period and cumulative carbon emissions will increase by 39.5487 million tons within the forecast period. The growth of gross domestic product (GDP per capita plays the greatest positive role in driving carbon emission growth. Furthermore, the improvement of energy usage efficiency is the primary factor responsible for reducing carbon emissions. Factors of population, industry structure adjustment and the optimization of fuel mix also help to reduce carbon emissions. Based on the LMDI analysis, we provide some advice for policy-makers in Jiangsu and other provinces in China.

  1. Dominant climatic factor driving annual runoff change at catchments scale over China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With global climate changes intensifying, the hydrological response to climate changes has attracted more attentions. It is beneficial not only for hydrology and ecology but also for water resources planning and management to reveal the impacts of climate change on runoff. It is of great significance of climate elasticity of runoff to estimate the impacts of climatic factors on runoff. In addition, there are large spatial variations in climate type and geography characteristics over China. To get a better understanding the spatial variation of runoff response to climate variables change and detect the dominant climatic factor driving annual runoff change, we chose the climate elasticity method proposed by Yang and Yang (2011, where the impact of the catchment characteristics on runoff was represented by a parameter n. The results show that the dominant climatic factor driving annual runoff is precipitation in the most part of China, net radiation in the lower reach of Yangtze River Basin, the Pearl River Basin, the Huai River Basin and the southeast area, and wind speed in part of the northeast China.

  2. [Change of resource environmental bearing capacity of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and its driving factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ke; Wang, Li-qun

    2015-12-01

    Based on the evaluation index system established for measuring the resource environmental bearing capacity (REBC), this paper measured the REBC of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region by applying the state space model and analyzed their driving factors by using the Tobit model. The results showed that the REBC of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region was in the available state and at the rising stage as well during 2000-2012. The social economic growth had great pressure on the resources and environment. The bearing ratios of the REBCs of Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei all presented a U curve and located at low levels, which meant that there was high REBC potential in these regions. Both of the permanent population and the urban residents 'Engel' s coefficient were the influence factors of the REBC of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. The population problem was likely to become the bottleneck to restrict the regional social and economic development, and also threaten the resources and environment. The specific driving factors of the REBC were different in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei. For example, energy consumption per unit of GDP only had significant impact on Tianjin. At last, the paper proposed that the three regions should complement each other in resources and environment, social development, and economic structure, also the REBC should be taken a reference in decision and policy making.

  3. Risk factors of mobile phone use while driving in Queensland: Prevalence, attitudes, crash risk perception, and task-management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo-Trespalacios, Oscar; King, Mark; Haque, Md Mazharul; Washington, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Distracted driving is one of the most significant human factor issues in transport safety. Mobile phone interactions while driving may involve a multitude of cognitive and physical resources that result in inferior driving performance and reduced safety margins. The current study investigates characteristics of usage, risk factors, compensatory strategies in use and characteristics of high-frequency offenders of mobile phone use while driving. A series of questions were administered to drivers in Queensland (Australia) using an on-line questionnaire. A total of 484 drivers (34.9% males and 49.8% aged 17-25) participated anonymously. At least one of every two motorists surveyed reported engaging in distracted driving. Drivers were unable to acknowledge the increased crash risk associated with answering and locating a ringing phone in contrast to other tasks such as texting/browsing. Attitudes towards mobile phone usage were more favourable for talking than texting or browsing. Lowering the driving speed and increasing the distance from the vehicle in front were the most popular task-management strategies for talking and texting/browsing while driving. On the other hand, keeping the mobile phone low (e.g. in the driver's lap or on the passenger seat) was the favourite strategy used by drivers to avoid police fines for both talking and texting/browsing. Logistic regression models were fitted to understand differences in risk factors for engaging in mobile phone conversations and browsing/texting while driving. For both tasks, exposure to driving, driving experience, driving history (offences and crashes), and attitudes were significant predictors. Future mobile phone prevention efforts would benefit from development of safe attitudes and increasing risk literacy. Enforcement of mobile phone distraction should be re-engineered, as the use of task-management strategies to evade police enforcement seems to dilute its effect on the prevention of this behaviour. Some

  4. Research on Spatial-Temporal Characteristics and Driving Factor of Agricultural Carbon Emissions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yun; ZHANG Jun-biao; HE Ya-ya

    2014-01-01

    Macroscopic grasp of agricultural carbon emissions status, spatial-temporal characteristics as well as driving factors are the basic premise in further research on China’s agricultural carbon emissions. Based on 23 kinds of major carbon emission sources including agricultural materials inputs, paddy ifeld, soil and livestock breeding, this paper ifrstly calculated agricultural carbon emissions from 1995 to 2010, as well as 31 provinces and cities in 2010 in China. We then made a decomposed analysis to the driving factors of carbon emissions with logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) model. The results show:(1) The amount of agricultural carbon emissions is 291.1691 million t in 2010. Compared with 249.5239 million t in 1995, it increased by 16.69%, in which, agricultural materials inputs, paddy ifeld, soil, enteric fermentation, and manure management accounted for 33.59, 22.03, 7.46, 17.53 and 19.39%of total agricultural carbon emissions, respectively. Although the amount exist ups and downs, it shows an overall trend of cyclical rise; (2) There is an obvious difference among regions:the amount of agricultural carbon emissions from top ten zones account for 56.68%, while 9.84%from last 10 zones. The traditional agricultural provinces, especially the major crop production areas are the main source regions. Based on the differences of carbon emission rations, 31 provinces and cities are divided into ifve types, namely agricultural materials dominant type, paddy ifeld dominant type, enteric fermentation dominant type, composite factors dominant type and balanced type. The agricultural carbon emissions intensity in west of China is the highest, followed by the central region, and the east zone is the lowest; (3) Compared with 1995, efifciency, labor and structure factors cut down carbon emissions by 65.78, 27.51 and 3.19%, respectively;while economy factor increase carbon emissions by 113.16%.

  5. APP-dependent glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor gene expression drives neuromuscular junction formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanga, Serena; Zanou, Nadège; Audouard, Emilie; Tasiaux, Bernadette; Contino, Sabrina; Vandermeulen, Gaëlle; René, Frédérique; Loeffler, Jean-Philippe; Clotman, Frédéric; Gailly, Philippe; Dewachter, Ilse; Octave, Jean-Noël; Kienlen-Campard, Pascal

    2016-05-01

    Besides its crucial role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, the knowledge of amyloid precursor protein (APP) physiologic functions remains surprisingly scarce. Here, we show that APP regulates the transcription of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). APP-dependent regulation of GDNF expression affects muscle strength, muscular trophy, and both neuronal and muscular differentiation fundamental for neuromuscular junction (NMJ) maturation in vivo In a nerve-muscle coculture model set up to modelize NMJ formation in vitro, silencing of muscular APP induces a 30% decrease in secreted GDNF levels and a 40% decrease in the total number of NMJs together with a significant reduction in the density of acetylcholine vesicles at the presynaptic site and in neuronal maturation. These defects are rescued by GDNF expression in muscle cells in the conditions where muscular APP has been previously silenced. Expression of GDNF in muscles of amyloid precursor protein null mice corrected the aberrant synaptic morphology of NMJs. Our findings highlight for the first time that APP-dependent GDNF expression drives the process of NMJ formation, providing new insights into the link between APP gene regulatory network and physiologic functions.-Stanga, S., Zanou, N., Audouard, E., Tasiaux, B., Contino, S., Vandermeulen, G., René, F., Loeffler, J.-P., Clotman, F., Gailly, P., Dewachter, I., Octave, J.-N., Kienlen-Campard, P. APP-dependent glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor gene expression drives neuromuscular junction formation.

  6. Spatially varying relationships between land-cover change and driving factors at multiple sampling scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shihong; Wang, Qiao; Guo, Luo

    2014-05-01

    Modeling the relationships between environment, human activity, and natural conditions is very important for understanding human-environment interactions. This study aims at examining how these relationships vary over spatial sampling scales and investigating the spatially varying relationships between land-cover changes and driving factors, as well as the variations in the relationships at different sampling scales in the Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Qinghai Province, P.R. China. Regular sampling methods are used first to generate eight sets of data points at different scales, and then the values for land-cover changes and the factors are extracted for these data points. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) model is applied to analyze the relationships between land-cover changes and the factors at different sampling scales. The results indicate that the influences of the factors (e.g. the signs, significances, and values of coefficients) change greatly over different sampling scales; similarly, for different types of land-cover changes, the contributions of the factors also vary. Generally, roads, rivers, and lakes contribute greatly to land-cover changes, while villages, temples, and elevations contribute less. A possible reason is that the densities of roads, rivers, and lakes is much greater than those of villages and temples, and the populations in temples and villages are too small to have much effect on land-cover changes. The results demonstrate that the sampling scales have an important influence on the relationships between land-cover change and the factors.

  7. Temporal-spatial variations and driving factors analysis of coastal reclamation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Weiqing; Hu, Beibei; He, Mengxuan; Liu, Baiqiao; Mo, Xunqiang; Li, Hongyuan; Wang, Zhongliang; Zhang, Yu

    2017-05-01

    Coastal reclamation is the gain of land from the sea or coastal wetlands for agricultural purposes, industrial use or port expansions. Large-scale coastal land reclamation can have adverse effects on the coastal environment, including loss of marine habitats and deterioration of coastal water quality. In recent decades, coastal land reclamation has occurred extensively to meet the increasing needs of rapid economic development and urbanization in China. The overall objective of this study is to understand the coastal reclamation status of China from 1979 to 2014 and analyzed its driving factors for mitigating negative ecological effects. The data of coastal reclamation were done with the ERDAS Imagine V9.2 platform and ArcGIS software based on remote images including Landsat, SPOT, ZY-2 and ZY-3. Potential driving factors for sea reclamation were selected based on statistics bulletins and the knowledge of experts in coastal management. In order to understand the relationships among possible impact factors and coastal reclamation, the Partial Least-Squares Regression models was constructed. The analysis results indicated that the total area of reclamation was 11162.89 km2 based on remote sensing images between 1979 and 2014. Shandong Province is the largest reclamation area, reaching 2736.54 km2, and the reclamation is mainly concentrated in Zhejiang, Jiangsu and Liaoning, where the reclamation areas were all more than 1000 km2. According to the remote sensing images, there are three coastal reclamation hotspot regions including Bohai bay (in which is located Liaoning, Tianjin and Hebei), Jiangsu province coastal area and Hangzhou bay (in Zhejiang province). A large scale land reclamation plan of more than 5880 km2 has been made by local government and 2469 km2 has approved by the State Council. From the analyzed results, there is a significant collinearity between these indicators, and no significant correlation between the area of reclamation and selected

  8. Microcontroller–Based Modified SEPIC Converter for Driving Lamp with Power Factor Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Yamuna

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A methodological study of electronic ballast for electrode less lamps including design and development issues is presented in this paper. The ballast is intended to feed a 300 W ultra violet lamp at 100 kHz with dimming feature. The proposed topology is composed of a Single-Ended Primary Inductance Converter (SEPIC, used as power factor correction (PFC stage, integrated with a resonant half-bridge inverter, used as lamp power control (PC stage. The integration of both stages is proposed in this paper, in order to reduce the number of active switches, as well as to simplify the required driving and control circuitry for this application. The implemented topology attained very high power factor (0.9982, and low line current total harmonic distortion (THD (1.86%, without using electromagnetic interference (EMI filter, while the measured efficiency was 90% at nominal lamp power.

  9. Fecal Viral Concentration and Diarrhea in Norovirus Gastroenteritis

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Nelson; Chan, Martin C.W.; Wong, Bonnie; Choi, K. W.; Sin, Winnie; Lui, Grace; Chan, Paul K. S.; Lai, Raymond W. M.; Cockram, C S; Joseph J Y Sung; Leung, Wai K

    2007-01-01

    Fecal viral concentrations of 40 patients infected with norovirus genogroup GII.4 correlated with diarrhea duration and frequency of vomiting. Higher viral concentration and older age were independently associated with prolonged diarrhea (>4 days). These findings provide information on the pathogenesis and transmission of norovirus infections.

  10. Norovirus genotype profiles associated with foodborne transmission, 1999–2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Verhoef; J. Hewitt (Joanne); L. Barclay (Leslie); S.M. Ahmed (Sharia M.); R. Lake (Rob); A.J. Hall (Aron J.); B.A. Lopman (Benjamin A.); A. Kroneman; H. Vennema (Harry); J. Vinjé (Jan); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWorldwide, noroviruses are a leading cause of gastroenteritis. They can be transmitted from person to person directly or indirectly through contaminated food, water, or environments. To estimate the proportion of foodborne infections caused by noroviruses on a global scale, we used norov

  11. Six Tips to Help Prevent the Spread of Norovirus

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-27

    Dr. Aron Hall, a CDC epidemiologist specializing in noroviruses, discusses six tips to help prevent the spread of norovirus.  Created: 8/27/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Viral Diseases (DVD).   Date Released: 8/27/2013.

  12. Norovirus Prevention (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-12

    If you’re suffering from vomiting and diarrhea, you might be among the millions of Americans who get sick from norovirus each year. In this podcast, Dr. Aron Hall discusses ways to prevent norovirus outbreaks from contaminated food.  Created: 6/12/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 6/12/2014.

  13. Enhanced hygiene measures and norovirus transmission during an outbreak.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne, J.C.; Teunis, P.; Morroy, G.; Wijkmans, C.J.; Oostveen, S.; Duizer, E.; Kretzschmar, M.; Wallinga, J.

    2009-01-01

    Control of norovirus outbreaks relies on enhanced hygiene measures, such as handwashing, surface cleaning, using disposable paper towels, and using separate toilets for sick and well persons. However, little is known about their effectiveness in limiting further spread of norovirus infections. We

  14. Norovirus Prevention (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-12

    Nearly one in 15 people in the U.S. gets sick from norovirus each year and up to 800 die. This podcast discusses the importance of hand washing, and other ways to prevent the spread of noroviruses.  Created: 6/12/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 6/12/2014.

  15. Comparative survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Murine Norovirus on spinach plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Outbreaks resulting from the consumption of leafy greens contaminated with E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., and norovirus have occurred. It is unclear how the stress response factor rpoS in E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. affects their survival on spinach. Purpose: A comparison ...

  16. Beyond job security and money: driving factors of motivation for government doctors in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite many efforts from government to address the shortage of medical officers (MOs) in rural areas, rural health centres continue to suffer from severe shortage of MOs. Lack of motivation to join and continue service in rural areas is a major reason for such shortage. In the present study, we aimed to assess and rank the driving factors of motivation important for in-service MOs in their current job. Methods The study participants included ninety two in-service government MOs from three states in India. The study participants were required to rank 14 factors of motivation important for them in their current job. The factors for the study were selected using Herzberg’s two-factor theory of motivation and the data were collected using an instrument that has an established reliability and validity. Test of Kendall’s coefficient of concordance (W) was carried out to assess the agreement in ranks assigned by participants to various motivation factors. Next, we studied the distributions of ranks of different motivating factors using standard descriptive statistics and box plots, which gave us interesting insights into the strength of agreement of the MOs in assigning ranks to various factors. And finally to assess whether MOs are more intrinsically motivated or extrinsically motivated, we used Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Results The (W) test indicated statistically significant (P factors than to extrinsic factors. The study results indicate that job security was the most important factor related to motivation, closely followed by interesting work and respect and recognition. Among the top five preferred factors, three were intrinsic factors indicating a great importance given by MOs to factors beyond money and job security. Conclusion To address the issue of motivation, the health departments need to pay close attention to devising management strategies that address not only extrinsic but also intrinsic factors of motivation. The study results may be

  17. Beyond job security and money: driving factors of motivation for government doctors in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Bhaskar; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

    2014-02-21

    Despite many efforts from government to address the shortage of medical officers (MOs) in rural areas, rural health centres continue to suffer from severe shortage of MOs. Lack of motivation to join and continue service in rural areas is a major reason for such shortage. In the present study, we aimed to assess and rank the driving factors of motivation important for in-service MOs in their current job. The study participants included ninety two in-service government MOs from three states in India. The study participants were required to rank 14 factors of motivation important for them in their current job. The factors for the study were selected using Herzberg's two-factor theory of motivation and the data were collected using an instrument that has an established reliability and validity. Test of Kendall's coefficient of concordance (W) was carried out to assess the agreement in ranks assigned by participants to various motivation factors. Next, we studied the distributions of ranks of different motivating factors using standard descriptive statistics and box plots, which gave us interesting insights into the strength of agreement of the MOs in assigning ranks to various factors. And finally to assess whether MOs are more intrinsically motivated or extrinsically motivated, we used Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The (W) test indicated statistically significant (P motivational importance to intrinsic factors than to extrinsic factors. The study results indicate that job security was the most important factor related to motivation, closely followed by interesting work and respect and recognition. Among the top five preferred factors, three were intrinsic factors indicating a great importance given by MOs to factors beyond money and job security. To address the issue of motivation, the health departments need to pay close attention to devising management strategies that address not only extrinsic but also intrinsic factors of motivation. The study results may be useful

  18. Risk Factors for first time Drink-Driving Convictions among Young Males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens; Soothill, Keith; Francis, Brian

    2008-01-01

    -driving conviction increased substantially in rural areas compared to metropolitan areas. The study concludes that disadvantages during adolescence, including parental substance abuse, having a teenage mother, and domestic violence, are associated with a first-time drink-driving conviction....

  19. Identification of immune and viral correlates of norovirus protective immunity through comparative study of intra-cluster norovirus strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Zhu

    Full Text Available Whether or not primary norovirus infections induce protective immunity has become a controversial issue, potentially confounded by the comparison of data from genetically distinct norovirus strains. Early human volunteer studies performed with a norovirus-positive inoculum initially led to the conclusion that primary infection does not generate long-term, protective immunity. More recently though, the epidemiological pattern of norovirus pandemics has led to the extrapolation that primary norovirus infection induces herd immunity. While these are seemingly discordant observations, they may in fact reflect virus strain-, cluster-, or genogroup-specific differences in protective immunity induction. Here, we report that highly genetically related intra-cluster murine norovirus strains differ dramatically in their ability to induce a protective immune response: Primary MNV-3 infection induced robust and cross-reactive protection, whereas primary MNV-1 infection induced modest homotypic and no heterotypic protection. In addition to this fundamental observation that intra-cluster norovirus strains display remarkable differences in protective immunity induction, we report three additional important observations relevant to norovirus:host interactions. First, antibody and CD4⁺ T cells are essential to controlling secondary norovirus infections. Second, the viral minor structural protein VP2 regulates the maturation of antigen presenting cells and protective immunity induction in a virus strain-specific manner, pointing to a mechanism by which MNV-1 may prevent the stimulation of memory immune responses. Third, VF1-mediated regulation of cytokine induction also correlates with protective immunity induction. Thus, two highly genetically-related norovirus strains displayed striking differences in induction of protective immune responses, strongly suggesting that the interpretation of norovirus immunity and vaccine studies must consider potential virus

  20. Driving factors of carbon dioxide emissions and the impact from Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunewald, Nicole [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics; Martinez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada [Jaume I Univ. (Spain). International Economics Institute

    2009-08-15

    In the last two decades increasing attention has been paid to the relationship between environmental degradation and economic development. According to the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis this relationship may be described by an inverted-U curve. However, recent evidence rejects the EKC hypothesis for GHG emissions in a broad sense. In this paper we aim to investigate whether the EKC behavior for CO2 emissions could be proved on the behalf of institutional regulations. We analyze the driving factors of CO2 for developed and developing countries to test the theory of the EKC in the context of environmental regulations using a static and dynamic panel data model. We consider the Kyoto Protocol and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The results from this study indicate that the Kyoto obligations have a reducing effect on CO2 emissions in developed and developing countries. (orig.)

  1. Aberrant driving behaviour: homogeneity of a four-factor structure in samples differing in age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmö, P-A

    2002-06-20

    Four samples, representing a broad age range, were compared in confirmatory factor analyses with respect to a four-factor model of aberrant driving behaviour. With the restrictions imposed on the data by the model, an approximate fit was obtained for all four samples. Additional analyses, which tested equality of factor loadings and correlations for different age groups, also indicated that the model was a good fit. Separate analyses on male and female respondents yielded similar results. Although earlier results have shown that aberrant driving behaviours are differentially related to age and gender, the findings suggest that structural differences in relation to age and gender may be of minor importance. The four-factor model of aberrant driving behaviour sufficiently meets statistical criteria in a model-generating phase. In addition, it is an appropriate solution to apply on data obtained from respondents varying in age and gender.

  2. Crystallography of a Lewis-binding norovirus, elucidation of strain-specificity to the polymorphic human histo-blood group antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutao Chen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Noroviruses, an important cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans, recognize the histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs as host susceptible factors in a strain-specific manner. The crystal structures of the HBGA-binding interfaces of two A/B/H-binding noroviruses, the prototype Norwalk virus (GI.1 and a predominant GII.4 strain (VA387, have been elucidated. In this study we determined the crystal structures of the P domain protein of the first Lewis-binding norovirus (VA207, GII.9 that has a distinct binding property from those of Norwalk virus and VA387. Co-crystallization of the VA207 P dimer with Le(y or sialyl Le(x tetrasaccharides showed that VA207 interacts with these antigens through a common site found on the VA387 P protein which is highly conserved among most GII noroviruses. However, the HBGA-binding site of VA207 targeted at the Lewis antigens through the α-1, 3 fucose (the Lewis epitope as major and the β-N-acetyl glucosamine of the precursor as minor interacting sites. This completely differs from the binding mode of VA387 and Norwalk virus that target at the secretor epitopes. Binding pocket of VA207 is formed by seven amino acids, of which five residues build up the core structure that is essential for the basic binding function, while the other two are involved in strain-specificity. Our results elucidate for the first time the genetic and structural basis of strain-specificity by a direct comparison of two genetically related noroviruses in their interaction with different HBGAs. The results provide insight into the complex interaction between the diverse noroviruses and the polymorphic HBGAs and highlight the role of human HBGA as a critical factor in norovirus evolution.

  3. Development of real-world driving cycles and estimation of emission factors for in-use light-duty gasoline vehicles in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwa, Mei-Yin; Yu, Tai-Yi

    2014-07-01

    This investigation adopts vehicle tracking manner to establish real-world driving patterns and estimates emission factors with dynamometers with 23 traffic-driving variables for 384 in-use light-duty passenger vehicles during non-rush hour. Adequate numbers of driving variables were decided with factor analysis and cluster analysis. The dynamometer tests were performed on FTP75 cycle and five local driving cycles derived from real-world speed profiles. Results presented that local driving cycles and FTP75 cycle were completely different in driving characteristic parameters of typical driving cycles and emission factors. The highest values of emission factor ratios of local driving cycle and FTP75 cycle for CO, NMHC, NO x , CH4, and CO2 were 1.38, 1.65, 1.58, 1.39, and 1.14, respectively.

  4. Driving factors for torrential mass-movements occurrence in the Western Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiranti, Davide; Cremonini, Roberto; Asprea, Irene; Marco, Federica

    2016-02-01

    To understand the behaviour of torrential processes in the alpine environment, the conditions mainly responsiblefor the occurrence of these phenomena have to be identified and distinguished(classified) aspredisposing and triggering factors. In this regard, this study is aimed to understanding which factors lead to the occurrence of a given torrential processes in alpine catchments in the Western Alps, where information on past events are exhaustive and characterized by a long historical series. More than 769 documented torrential eventsoccurred from 1728 to 2015 within 78 catchments. Datasets concerning climate, geology and morphology, land use and the presence of historical landslide activity have been elaborated as input for multivariate statistical analysis to characterize the behaviour of the catchments. The results pinpoint the factors that mainly drive the type of torrential dominant process occurring in a given catchment, its occurrence probability, and its frequency. This study has demonstrated that catchments characterized by a significant percentage of outcropping rocks show a greater occurrence of torrential processes, especially hyperconcentrated flows and debris flows; on the contrary highly vegetated catchments are typically subject to water flows. This result can be a useful tool for the evaluation of hazards related to this specific phenomenon, making it possible to predict the most likely torrential processes that can be generated in a specific basin, given the characteristics of outcropping rock and vegetation cover.

  5. Driving factors for torrential mass-movements occurrence in the Western Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide eTiranti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To understand the behaviour of torrential processes in the alpine environment, the conditions mainly responsiblefor the occurrence of these phenomena have to be identified and distinguished(classified aspredisposing and triggering factors. In this regard, this study is aimed to understanding which factors lead to the occurrence of a given torrential processes in alpine catchments in the Western Alps, where information on past events are exhaustive and characterized by a long historical series. More than 769 documented torrential eventsoccurred from 1728 to 2015 within 78 catchments. Datasets concerning climate, geology and morphology, land use and the presence of historical landslide activity have been elaborated as input for multivariate statistical analysis to characterize the behaviour of the catchments. The results pinpoint the factors that mainly drive the type of torrential dominant process occurring in a given catchment, its occurrence probability, and its frequency. This study has demonstrated that catchments characterized by a significant percentage of outcropping rocks show a greater occurrence of torrential processes, especially hyperconcentrated flows and debris flows; on the contrary highly vegetated catchments are typically subject to water flows. This result can be a useful tool for the evaluation of hazards related to this specific phenomenon, making it possible to predict the most likely torrential processes that can be generated in a specific basin, given the characteristics of outcropping rock and vegetation cover.

  6. Identifying Potential Norovirus Epidemics in China via Internet Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Jiang, Tao; Cai, Gaofeng; Jiang, Zhenggang; Chen, Yongdi; Wang, Zhengting; Gu, Hua; Chai, Chengliang

    2017-01-01

    Background Norovirus is a common virus that causes acute gastroenteritis worldwide, but a monitoring system for norovirus is unavailable in China. Objective We aimed to identify norovirus epidemics through Internet surveillance and construct an appropriate model to predict potential norovirus infections. Methods The norovirus-related data of a selected outbreak in Jiaxing Municipality, Zhejiang Province of China, in 2014 were collected from immediate epidemiological investigation, and the Internet search volume, as indicated by the Baidu Index, was acquired from the Baidu search engine. All correlated search keywords in relation to norovirus were captured, screened, and composited to establish the composite Baidu Index at different time lags by Spearman rank correlation. The optimal model was chosen and possibly predicted maps in Zhejiang Province were presented by ArcGIS software. Results The combination of two vital keywords at a time lag of 1 day was ultimately identified as optimal (ρ=.924, Ptimes during the outbreak. In addition to Jiaxing Municipality, Hangzhou Municipality might have had some potential epidemics in the study time from the predicted model. Conclusions Although there are limitations with early warning and unavoidable biases, Internet surveillance may be still useful for the monitoring of norovirus epidemics when a monitoring system is unavailable. PMID:28790023

  7. Different norovirus genotypes in patients with gastroenteritis in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rashidi, Amirah; Chehadeh, Wassim; Szücs, György G; Albert, M John

    2013-09-01

    Norovirus is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. The importance of this virus infection in Kuwait is not known. Eight out of 100 stool samples (8.0%) from children up to 5 years of age with gastroenteritis studied during 2006-2007 from one hospital, and 6 out of 70 stool samples (8.5%) from similar children studied from another hospital during 2010-2011 were positive for norovirus by RT-PCR. Out of these 170 samples studied from both hospitals, 10 samples were positive for norovirus when tested by ELISA. Phylogenetic tree analysis of norovirus strains showed that 50% of the norovirus strains belonged to genotype GII.4, and the predominant strain was GII.4 2006b. Other detected genotypes were GII.12, GII.b, GII.3, GII.8, and GII.7. This study highlights the importance of screening for norovirus infection in acute gastroenteritis and having a reporting system to understand better the epidemiology of norovirus infection in Kuwait.

  8. Structural Analysis of Histo-Blood Group Antigen Binding Specificity in a Norovirus GII.4 Epidemic Variant: Implications for Epochal Evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanker, Sreejesh; Choi, Jae-Mun; Sankaran, Banumathi; Atmar, Robert L.; Estes, Mary K.; Prasad, B.V. Venkataram (Baylor); (LBNL)

    2012-03-23

    Susceptibility to norovirus (NoV), a major pathogen of epidemic gastroenteritis, is associated with histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), which are also cell attachment factors for this virus. GII.4 NoV strains are predominantly associated with worldwide NoV epidemics with a periodic emergence of new variants. The sequence variations in the surface-exposed P domain of the capsid protein resulting in differential HBGA binding patterns and antigenicity are suggested to drive GII.4 epochal evolution. To understand how temporal sequence variations affect the P domain structure and contribute to epochal evolution, we determined the P domain structure of a 2004 variant with ABH and secretor Lewis HBGAs and compared it with the previously determined structure of a 1996 variant. We show that temporal sequence variations do not affect the binding of monofucosyl ABH HBGAs but that they can modulate the binding strength of difucosyl Lewis HBGAs and thus could contribute to epochal evolution by the potentiated targeting of new variants to Lewis-positive, secretor-positive individuals. The temporal variations also result in significant differences in the electrostatic landscapes, likely reflecting antigenic variations. The proximity of some of these changes to the HBGA binding sites suggests the possibility of a coordinated interplay between antigenicity and HBGA binding in epochal evolution. From the observation that the regions involved in the formation of the HBGA binding sites can be conformationally flexible, we suggest a plausible mechanism for how norovirus disassociates from salivary mucin-linked HBGA before reassociating with HBGAs linked to intestinal epithelial cells during its passage through the gastrointestinal tract.

  9. Virucidal Efficacy of a Hydrogen Peroxide Nebulization Against Murine Norovirus and Feline Calicivirus, Two Surrogates of Human Norovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonta, William; Mauroy, Axel; Farnir, Frederic; Thiry, Etienne

    2016-12-01

    Human noroviruses (HuNoV) are amongst the leading causes of acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis in humans and can be transmitted via person-to-person contact, via contact with contaminated surfaces or by consumption of contaminated food. Contaminated surfaces in healthcare settings contribute to the transmission of viruses. No-touch automated room disinfection systems might prevent such a spread of contamination and thus their virucidal effect needs to be evaluated. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a nebulization system spraying hydrogen peroxide on two main surrogates of HuNoV, namely murine norovirus (MNV) and feline calicivirus (FCV). The viruses were dried on cover glasses and on stainless steel discs and exposed to nebulization. The number of infectious viral particles and genomic copies before and after the nebulization was compared. The efficacy in reducing infectivity of both surrogates was demonstrated. For the infectious viral titre of MNV and FCV, a log10 reduction factor ≥4.84 and 4.85 was observed after nebulization, respectively, for tests on cover glasses and ≥3.90 and 5.30, respectively, for tests on stainless steel discs. Only low reductions in genomic copy numbers were observed for both surrogates. The nebulization of hydrogen peroxide showed a clear virucidal effect on both HuNoV surrogates, MNV and FCV, on two different carriers and the use of nebulization should be promoted in complementarity with conventional disinfection methods in healthcare settings and food processing facilities to reduce viral load and spread of contamination.

  10. Noroviruses on surfaces: Detection, transfer and inactivation

    OpenAIRE

    Rönnqvist, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are a leading cause of foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide and spread easily among humans via the faecal-oral route. A low infective dose, a high viral load in the vomit and faeces of infected persons, a lack of long-term immunity following previous infection, and a high environmental stability of the viruses all enhance the spreading of HuNoV in the population. The aim of this doctoral thesis is to investigate the prevalence of HuNoVs on environmental surfaces...

  11. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the risk posed by pathogens in food of non-animal origin. Part 2 (Salmonella and Norovirus in tomatoes)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Tomatoes may be minimally processed to obtain ready-to-eat products, and these steps include selection, washing, cleaning, stem removal, cutting, packaging and storage. Epidemiological data from the EU have identified one salmonellosis outbreak and one Norovirus outbreak associated with tomato consumption between 2007 and 2012. Risk factors for tomato contamination by Salmonella and Norovirus were considered in the context of the whole food chain. Available estimates of the Salmonella and Nor...

  12. Spore-killing meiotic drive factors in a natural population of the fungus Podospora anserina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, van der M.; Debets, A.J.M.; Oosterhof, J.; Slakhorst, S.M.; Thijssen, J.A.G.M.; Hoekstra, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    In fungi, meiotic drive is observed as spore killing. In the secondarily homothallic ascomycete Podospora anserina it is characterized by the abortion of two of the four spores in the ascus. We have identified seven different types of meiotic drive elements (Spore killers). Among 99 isolates from na

  13. [Eco-efficiency change and its driving factors in Tongling City of Anhui Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Chen; Wang, Yuan; Zhu, Xiao-Dong; Wu, Xiao-Qing; Wang, Ke; Ren, Ke-Xiu; Lu, Gen-Fa

    2011-02-01

    This paper first applied material flow analysis (MFA) to construct three levels of regional eco-efficiency indicators, i.e., regional direct eco-efficiency (RDE), regional total eco-efficiency (RTE), and holistic eco-efficiency (HE), and adopted the newly developed data envelopment analysis (DEA) to evaluate the eco-efficiency of Tongling City during the period of 1990-2008. We also applied Malmquist productivity index (MPI) to explore the eco-efficiency change between two following years and its driving factors. The main results were summarized as 1) though the RDE of Tongling City in 1990-2008 kept an increasing trend, its mean eco-efficiency was not high (close to 0.8 in 80% of the years), being lower than that of the RTE and HE, and 2) the RDE change was closely relevant to the improvement in resource management and the technical input in environmental protection in recent years. In order to further improve the RDE of the City, it would be necessary to raise its eco-efficiency via expanding raw material input, reducing domestic extraction, promoting resources productivity, and taking more measures on environmental protection facilities construction.

  14. Molecular epidemiological characteristics of norovirus gastroenteritis outbreaks in Guangdong province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUI LI; LING FANG; LI RONG ZOU; CHANG WEN KE; PING HUANG; JI CHENG HUANG

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the molecular epidemiological characteristics of norovirus gastroenteritis outbreaks in Guangdong. During October 2003 and December 2004, fecal and anal swabs specimens collected from 13 outbreaks of non-bacterial gastroenteritis were tested for norovirus. Specimens were detected by RT-PCR and sequenced. The descriptive data were also collected. Eight in 13 outbreaks of gastroenteritis were positive for norovirus. All of 8 virus strains were identified as genogroup Ⅱ but belonged to 3 genotypes. Six strains were G Ⅱ-4 genotype. Norovirus is a major cause of outbreaks of nonbacterial gastroenteritis in Guangdong province and has a wide distribution. The illness happended from late autumn to winter. The prevalent strains were genogroup Ⅱ virus.

  15. ObStruct: a method to objectively analyse factors driving population structure using Bayesian ancestry profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velimir Gayevskiy

    Full Text Available Bayesian inference methods are extensively used to detect the presence of population structure given genetic data. The primary output of software implementing these methods are ancestry profiles of sampled individuals. While these profiles robustly partition the data into subgroups, currently there is no objective method to determine whether the fixed factor of interest (e.g. geographic origin correlates with inferred subgroups or not, and if so, which populations are driving this correlation. We present ObStruct, a novel tool to objectively analyse the nature of structure revealed in Bayesian ancestry profiles using established statistical methods. ObStruct evaluates the extent of structural similarity between sampled and inferred populations, tests the significance of population differentiation, provides information on the contribution of sampled and inferred populations to the observed structure and crucially determines whether the predetermined factor of interest correlates with inferred population structure. Analyses of simulated and experimental data highlight ObStruct's ability to objectively assess the nature of structure in populations. We show the method is capable of capturing an increase in the level of structure with increasing time since divergence between simulated populations. Further, we applied the method to a highly structured dataset of 1,484 humans from seven continents and a less structured dataset of 179 Saccharomyces cerevisiae from three regions in New Zealand. Our results show that ObStruct provides an objective metric to classify the degree, drivers and significance of inferred structure, as well as providing novel insights into the relationships between sampled populations, and adds a final step to the pipeline for population structure analyses.

  16. Categorizing the Driving Affecting Factors on Iran’s Carpet Industry competitiveness by Fuzzy Topsis Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Haghshenas Kashani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most prominent and important problems of Iran industries is the lack of competitiveness and the major reason among several various reasons is due to the absence of a defined approach for competitiveness. During this study, by testing an integrated model and presenting it as the research final model, we are trying to categorize the driving affecting factors on Iran’s carpet industry competitiveness. Thus, one of the new Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM techniques – Fuzzy Topsis- was applied. The components of research conceptual model which has 3 main criteria (internal resources, market situation, and innovation strength and 44 sub criteria was categorized by Fuzzy Topsis technique. Accordingly, “market share”, “e-commerce”, “knowledge creation’, “industry reliability”, and “exporters expertise and skills” were recognized as the most important sub criteria and simultaneously “customers satisfaction”, “employees’ education”, “international certifications”, and “fundamental researches” were recognized as the least momentous and effective sub criteria. These results represent that Iran’s hand-made carpet industry has still some difficulties in applying marketing knowledge such as: on line marketing, e-commerce, and making merchants familiar to these techniques. In addition, paying excessive attention to the quality, durability, and appearance of the Iranian carpets make managers to ignore some other factors such as customer satisfaction. Among the main criteria, market-based perspective was chosen as the most leading and significant criterion. In other words, the approach of position improvement in the international markets is recommended for this industry.

  17. Categorizing the Driving Affecting Factors on Iran’s Carpet Industry competitiveness by Fuzzy Topsis Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Haghshenas

    2011-07-01

    One of the most prominent and important problems of Iran industries is the lack of competitiveness and the major reason among several various reasons is due to the absence of a defined approach for competitiveness. During this study, by testing an integrated model and presenting it as the research final model, we are trying to categorize the driving affecting factors on Iran’s carpet industry competitiveness. Thus, one of the new Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM techniques – Fuzzy Topsis- was applied. The components of research conceptual model which has 3 main criteria (internal resources, market situation, and innovation strength and 44 sub criteria was categorized by Fuzzy Topsis technique. Accordingly, “market share”, “e-commerce”, “knowledge creation’, “industry reliability”, and “exporters expertise and skills” were recognized as the most important sub criteria and simultaneously “customers satisfaction”, “employees’ education”, “international certifications”, and “fundamental researches” were recognized as the least momentous and effective sub criteria. These results represent that Iran’s hand-made carpet industry has still some difficulties in applying marketing knowledge such as: on line marketing, e-commerce, and making merchants familiar to these techniques. In addition, paying excessive attention to the quality, durability, and appearance of the Iranian carpets make managers to ignore some other factors such as customer satisfaction. Among the main criteria, market-based perspective was chosen as the most leading and significant criterion. In other words, the approach of position improvement in the international markets is recommended for this industry.

  18. Norovirus infections in preterm infants: wide variety of clinical courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmermann Kathrin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Norovirus is an important cause of nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis in all ages. Atypical courses are described. Clinical symptoms are diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, abdominal cramps, fever and malaise. Apart from three recent short reports we describe for the first time an outbreak of norovirus in a tertiary Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Findings The typical symptoms of norovirus infection are in part also seen in premature born infants but with a different pattern and a huge variety of clinical courses. Vomiting is not the main symptom of norovirus infection in premature infants but distended abdomen and other symptoms such as apnea, gastric remainders or sepsis like appearance. The course in premature born patients could be explained by an immunocompromised mice model. Extensive hygienic measures were necessary to control the outbreak without closing the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Conclusion Norovirus infection in premature infants shows an impressive pattern of a wide variety of clinical courses. Only the consequent use of different hygienic pattern can lead to elimination of norovirus.

  19. The histone demethylase Jmjd3 sequentially associates with the transcription factors Tbx3 and Eomes to drive endoderm differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kartikasari, Apriliana E R; Zhou, Josie X; Kanji, Murtaza S

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell differentiation depends on transcriptional activation driven by lineage-specific regulators as well as changes in chromatin organization. However, the coordination of these events is poorly understood. Here, we show that T-box proteins team up with chromatin modifying enzymes to drive...... feedback loop. In addition, Eomes activates a transcriptional network of core regulators of endodermal differentiation. Our results demonstrate that Jmjd3 sequentially associates with two T-box factors, Tbx3 and Eomes to drive stem cell differentiation towards the definitive endoderm lineage....

  20. [Factors of the drive for thinness and dieting: from the viewpoint of impression management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tomohiro

    2012-12-01

    Thinness is considered as one type of adornment; as such, it has a psychological function for others. Thus the drive for thinness and dieting were investigated from the viewpoint of impression management. Study 1 investigated a model that the need for approval affects dieting through the outcome expectancies of others' evaluations and the drive for thinness. The results of structural equation modeling indicated high validity for this model. Study 2 investigated the moderating role of self-esteem in the relationship between positive/negative outcome expectancies of others' evaluations and the drive for thinness. The results showed that self-esteem did not act as a moderator between the two components and the drive for thinness.

  1. Human Factors of Automated Driving: Predicting the Effects of Authority Transitions on Traffic Flow Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varotto, S.F.; Hoogendoorn, R.G.; Van Arem, B.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2014-01-01

    Automated driving potentially has a significant impact on traffic flow efficiency. Automated vehicles, which possess cooperative capabilities, are expected to reduce congestion levels for instance by increasing road capacity, by anticipating traffic conditions further downstream and also by accelera

  2. Burden of Norovirus and Rotavirus in Children After Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction, Cochabamba, Bolivia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McAtee, Casey L; Webman, Rachel; Gilman, Robert H; Mejia, Carolina; Bern, Caryn; Apaza, Sonia; Espetia, Susan; Pajuelo, Mónica; Saito, Mayuko; Challappa, Roxanna; Soria, Richard; Ribera, Jose P; Lozano, Daniel; Torrico, Faustino

    2016-01-01

    .... Norovirus and rotavirus are the two major viral enteropathogens of childhood. This study describes the prevalence of norovirus and rotavirus 2 years after widespread rotavirus vaccination in Cochabamba, Bolivia...

  3. Probabilistic quantitative microbial risk assessment model of norovirus from wastewater irrigated vegetables in Ghana using genome copies and fecal indicator ratio conversion for estimating exposure dose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owusu-Ansah, Emmanuel de-Graft Johnson; Sampson, Angelina; Amponsah, Samuel K.

    2017-01-01

    The need to replace the commonly applied fecal indicator conversions ratio (an assumption of 1:10− 5 virus to fecal indicator organism) in Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) with models based on quantitative data on the virus of interest has gained prominence due to the different...... physical and environmental factors that might influence the reliability of using indicator organisms in microbial risk assessment. The challenges facing analytical studies on virus enumeration (genome copies or particles) have contributed to the already existing lack of data in QMRA modelling. This study...... to estimate the norovirus count. In all scenarios of using different water sources, the application of the fecal indicator conversion ratio underestimated the norovirus disease burden, measured by the Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), when compared to results using the genome copies norovirus data...

  4. Resource availability as driving factor of the reproductive mode in soil microarthropods (Acari, Oribatida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Wehner

    Full Text Available The availability of high quality resources is an important factor driving community structure and reproductive mode of animals. Parthenogenetic reproduction prevails when resources are available in excess, whereas sexuality correlates with resource shortage. We investigated the effect of resource availability on the community structure of oribatid mites in a laboratory experiment. Availability of food resources was increased by addition of glucose to leaf litter and reduced by leaching of nutrients from leaf litter. Experimental systems were incubated at three different temperatures to establish different regimes of resource exploitation. Community structure of oribatids and numbers of eggs per female were measured over a period of ten months. We expected the density of oribatid mites to decline in the reduced litter quality treatment but to increase in the glucose treatment. Both effects were assumed to be more pronounced at higher temperatures. We hypothesized sexual species to be less affected than parthenogenetic species by reduced resource quality due to higher genetic diversity allowing more efficient exploitation of limited resources, but to be outnumbered by parthenogenetic species in case of resource addition due to faster reproduction. In contrast to our hypotheses, both sexual and parthenogenetic oribatid mite species responded similarly with their densities declining uniformly during incubation. The parthenogenetic Brachychthoniidae and Tectocepheus dominated early in the experiment but were replaced later by parthenogenetic Desmonomata and Rhysotritia. In parthenogenetic species the number of eggs per female increased during the experiment while the number of eggs in sexual females remained constant or decreased slightly; in general, egg numbers were higher in sexual than in parthenogenetic species. The results indicate that for sustaining oribatid mite populations other resources than litter and associated saprotrophic

  5. Atmospheric evaporative demand observations, estimates and driving factors in Spain (1961-2011)

    KAUST Repository

    Azorin-Molina, Cesar

    2015-04-01

    We analyzed the spatio-temporal evolution of evaporation observations from Piché atmometers (1961-2011; 56 stations) and Pan evaporimeters (1984-2011; 21 stations) across Spain, and compared both measurements with evaporation estimates obtained by four physical models: i.e., Food and Agricultural Organization-56 Penman-Monteith, Food and Agricultural Organization-Pan, PenPan and Penman, based on climate data. In this study we observed a positive and statistically significant correlation between Piché and Pan evaporation measurements during the common period (1984-2011; 19 stations), mainly in summer. When evaporation observations and estimates were compared, we detected positive and statistically significant correlations with the four methods, except for winter. Among the four physical models, the FAO-Pan showed the best fitting to both Piché and Pan evaporation measurements; the PenPan model overestimated evaporation rates; and the FAO-Penman-Monteith and Penman methods underestimated evaporation observations. We also observed a better spatial agreement between Pan evaporation and estimates than that obtained by Piché measurements. Annual and seasonal trends of evaporation estimates show a statistically significant increase for 1961-2011, which do not agree with long-term Piché evaporation trends; e.g. a discontinuity was found around the 1980s. Radiative and aerodynamic driving factors suggest that this discontinuity, and the observed evaporation trends across Spain could be associated with the abrupt increase in air temperature observed during last few decades (i.e., global warming). Further investigations using available Piché evaporation observations for other regions are needed to better understand physical components influencing long-term trends of evaporation.

  6. Ambient air quality trends and driving factor analysis in Beijing, 1983-2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ju Zhang; Zhiyun Ouyang; Hong Miao; Xiaoke Wang

    2011-01-01

    The rapid development in Beijing,the capital of China,has resulted in serious air pollution problems.Meanwhile great efforts have been made to improve the air quality,especially since 1998.The variation in air quality under the interaction of pollution and control in this mega city has attracted much attention.We analyzed the changes in ambient air quality in Beijing since the 1980's using the Daniel trend test based on data from long-term monitoring stations.The results showed that different pollutants displayed three trends:a decreasing trend,an increasing trend and a fiat trend.SO2,dustfall,B[a]P,NO2 and PM10 fit decreasing trend pattern,while NOx showed an increasing trend,and CO,ozone pollution,total suspended particulate (TSP),as well as Pb fit the flat trend.The cause of the general air pollution in Beijing has changed from being predominantly related to coal burning to mixed traffic exhaust and coal burning related pollution.Seasonally,the pollution level is typically higher during the heating season from November to the following March.The interaction between pollution sources change and implementation of air pollution control measures was the main driving factor that caused the variation in air quality.Changes of industrial structure and improved energy efficiency,the use of clean energy and preferred use of clean coal,reduction in pollution sources,and implementation of advanced environmental standards have all contributed to the reduction in air pollution,particularly since 1998.

  7. Scientific Opinion on the risk posed by pathogens in food of non-animal origin. Part 2 (Salmonella and Norovirus in berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Berries are a perishable food which can be consumed as fresh or minimally-processed as well as a frozen ingredient added to many foods. Strawberries, raspberries, blackberries and blueberries are the most commonly consumed in the EU. Risk factors for berry contamination by Salmonella and Norovirus were considered in the context of the whole food chain. Available estimates of the prevalence of these pathogens in berries were evaluated together with mitigation options relating to prevention of contamination and the relevance of microbiological criteria. It was concluded that each farm environment represents a unique combination of risk factors that can influence occurrence and persistence of pathogens in berry production. Appropriate implementation of food safety management systems including Good Agricultural Practices (GAP, Good Hygiene Practices (GHP and Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP, should be primary objectives of berry producers. There is currently insufficient evidence to justify the establishment of microbiological criteria for Salmonella for fresh or frozen berries. Outbreaks associated with Norovirus in frozen raspberries and strawberries are an emerging public health risk, although it is not known if in these outbreaks contamination occurred at minimal processing or during primary production. It is currently not possible to assess the suitability of an EU-wide Norovirus Hygiene Criterion at primary production for raspberries and strawberries. Microbiological criteria for Norovirus in berries are useful for validation and verification of food safety management systems, including HACCP-based processes and procedures, and can be used to communicate to food business operators and other stakeholders what is acceptable or unacceptable, however there is insufficient data to provide a risk base for establishing a Process Hygiene and Food Safety Criteria for Norovirus in berries. Collection of appropriate data and subsequent risk

  8. Risk groups for clinical complications of norovirus infections: an outbreak investigation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattner, F; Sohr, D; Heim, A; Gastmeier, P; Vennema, H; Koopmans, M

    2006-01-01

    Norovirus infections have been described as self-limiting diseases of short duration. An investigation of a norovirus outbreak in a university hospital provided evidence for severe clinical features in patients with several underlying diseases. Clinical outcomes of norovirus infection were defined.

  9. Unspecified gastroenteritis illness and deaths in the elderly associated with norovirus epidemics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asten, L. van; Siebenga, J.; Wijngaard, C. van den; Verheij, R.; Vliet, H. van; Kretzschmar, M.; Boshuizen, H.; Pelt, W. van; Koopmans, M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: New variant strains of norovirus have emerged worldwide in recent years, evolving by mutation much like influenza viruses. These strains have been associated with a notable increase in the number of annual norovirus outbreaks. However, the impact of such increased norovirus activity on m

  10. Unspecified gastroenteritis illness and deaths in the elderly associated with norovirus epidemics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asten, van L.; Siebenga, J.; Wijngaard, van den C.; Verheij, R.; Vliet, van H.; Kretzschmar, M.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Pelt, van W.; Koopmans, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: New variant strains of norovirus have emerged worldwide in recent years, evolving by mutation much like influenza viruses. These strains have been associated with a notable increase in the number of annual norovirus outbreaks. However, the impact of such increased norovirus activity on m

  11. Norovirus surveillance among callers to foodborne illness complaint hotline, Minnesota, USA, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saupe, Amy A; Kaehler, Dawn; Cebelinski, Elizabeth A; Nefzger, Brian; Hall, Aron J; Smith, Kirk E

    2013-08-01

    Norovirus is the leading cause of foodborne disease in the United States. During October 2011-January 2013, we conducted surveillance for norovirus infection in Minnesota among callers to a complaint-based foodborne illness hotline who reported diarrhea or vomiting. Of 241 complainants tested, 127 (52.7%) were positive for norovirus.

  12. Psychological Factors related with Driving under the Influence of Alcohol and Substance Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin Budak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Driving under the influence of alcohol and substance use is an important traffic problem that caused many people in the world to lose their lieves. Many features that are important in terms of driving adversely affected under the influence of alcohol and substance and therefore impaired driving behavior arises in drivers. The most effective way to fight for prevent this impaired driver behavier is the restrictions and regulations imposed on drivers in traffic related to alcohol and drug use. Nevertheless, in the literature, some drivers continue to impaired driving function with a risky traffic behavior, in which the driver personality (risk-taking, thrill-seeking, self-control, psychopathological (substance abuse, personality disorders, mood disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, anger and aggression, and many other neuropsychological features are considered to have a relationship with this situation. In this article psychological, psychopathological and neuropsychological studies have examined regarding drive under the influence of alcohol and drug. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(3.000: 333-347

  13. The virucidal effects against murine norovirus and feline calicivirus F4 as surrogates for human norovirus by the different additive concentrations of ethanol-based sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasaka, Tempei; Shimizu-Onda, Yuko; Hayakawa, Satoshi; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    Since human norovirus is non-cultivable, murine norovirus and feline calicivirus have been used as surrogates. In this study, the virucidal effects of ethanol-based sanitizers with different concentrations of additives (malic acid/sodium malate, glycerin-fatty acid ester) against murine norovirus and feline calicivirus F4 were examined. The ethanol-based sanitizers at pH 7 showed sufficient virucidal effects, but glycerin-fatty acid ester included in ethanol-based sanitizers at pH 4 or 6 reduced the virucidal effects against murine norovirus. The ethanol-based sanitizers containing malic acid/sodium malate inactivated feline calicivirus F4 in shorter time, but there is no difference between ethanol-based sanitizers with and without glycerin-fatty acid ester. Traditionally, feline calicivirus has been used for long time as a surrogate virus for human norovirus. However, this study suggested that murine norovirus and feline calicivirus F4 had different sensitivity with the additive components of ethanol-based sanitizers. Therefore, using feline calicivirus alone as a surrogate for human norovirus may not be sufficient to evaluate the virucidal effect of sanitizers on food-borne infections caused by human norovirus. Sanitizers having virucidal effects against at least both murine norovirus and feline calicivirus may be more suitable to inactivate human norovirus.

  14. Common-mode Voltage Reduction in a Motor Drive System with a Power Factor Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adabi, J.; Boora, A.A.; Zare, F.;

    2012-01-01

    to reduce shaft voltage in a three-phase AC motor drive system. In this topology, the AC-DC diode rectifier influences the common-mode voltage generated by the inverter because the placement of the neutral point is changing in different rectifier circuit states. A pulse width modulation technique......Common-mode voltage generated by a power converter in combination with parasitic capacitive couplings is a potential source of shaft voltage in an AC motor drive system. In this study, a three-phase motor drive system supplied with a single-phase AC-DC diode rectifier is investigated in order...... is presented by a proper placement of the zero vectors to reduce the common-mode voltage level, which leads to a cost-effective shaft voltage reduction technique without load current distortion, while keeping the switching frequency constant. Analysis, simulations and experimental implementation have been...

  15. Driving factors of carbon dioxide emissions in China: an empirical study using 2006-2010 provincial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Chen, Zhan-Ming; Xiao, Hongwei; Yang, Wei; Liu, Danhe; Chen, Bin

    2016-04-01

    The rapid urbanization of China has increased pressure on its environmental and ecological well being. In this study, the temporal and spatial profiles of China's carbon dioxide emissions are analyzed by taking heterogeneities into account based on an integration of the extended stochastic impacts using a geographically and temporally weighted regression model on population, affluence, and technology. Population size, urbanization rate, GDP per capita, energy intensity, industrial structure, energy consumption pattern, energy prices, and economy openness are identified as the key driving factors of regional carbon dioxide emissions and examined through the empirical data for 30 provinces during 2006-2010. The results show the driving factors and their spillover effects have distinct spatial and temporal heterogeneities. Most of the estimated time and space coefficients are consistent with expectation. According to the results of this study, the heterogeneous spatial and temporal effects should be taken into account when designing policies to achieve the goals of carbon dioxide emissions reduction in different regions.

  16. Driving factors of carbon dioxide emissions in China: an empirical study using 2006-2010 provincial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Chen, Zhan-Ming; Xiao, Hongwei; Yang, Wei; Liu, Danhe; Chen, Bin

    2017-03-01

    The rapid urbanization of China has increased pressure on its environmental and ecological well being. In this study, the temporal and spatial profiles of China's carbon dioxide emissions are analyzed by taking heterogeneities into account based on an integration of the extended stochastic impacts using a geographically and temporally weighted regression model on population, affluence, and technology. Population size, urbanization rate, GDP per capita, energy intensity, industrial structure, energy consumption pattern, energy prices, and economy openness are identified as the key driving factors of regional carbon dioxide emissions and examined through the empirical data for 30 provinces during 2006‒2010. The results show the driving factors and their spillover effects have distinct spatial and temporal heterogeneities. Most of the estimated time and space coefficients are consistent with expectation. According to the results of this study, the heterogeneous spatial and temporal effects should be taken into account when designing policies to achieve the goals of carbon dioxide emissions reduction in different regions.

  17. What factors drive heterogeneity of preferences for micro-health insurance in rural Malawi?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiiro, Gilbert Abotisem; Torbica, Aleksandra; Kwalamasa, Kassim; De Allegri, Manuela

    2016-11-01

    Investigating the factors that drive differences in preferences for health insurance products among rural populations is a relevant policy issue that has so far received little attention. This study used a discrete choice experiment to explore heterogeneity of preferences for a prospective micro-health insurance (MHI) product in Malawi. Through an extensive qualitative study, six attributes, each associated with three levels, were derived and used to construct a D-efficient design. The attributes included unit of enrollment, management structure, health service benefit package, copayment levels, transportation coverage and monthly premium. The experiment was interviewer administered to a stratified random sample of household heads and their spouse(s). Using mixed logit and generalized multinomial logit models, respondent characteristics were interacted with MHI attributes to explore heterogeneity of preferences. The results showed that those in the higher age group (≥55 years) and those from households with higher household expenditure had significantly higher preferences for comprehensive and medium benefit packages than for a basic package. Those from households that incurred any healthcare expenditure within the past 4 weeks had lower preferences for the core family as a unit of enrollment than the individual, and higher preferences for coverage of transport costs. Women and non-micro-finance members had higher preferences for 25% copayment than for 50% copayment. There was evidence of scale heterogeneity signifying that the observed preference variations could have resulted from scale and variance differences, rather than real variations in the taste of respondents. To attract the relatively older and wealthier, prospective MHI should offer comprehensive health services benefit packages. Premium exemptions or subsidies should also be offered to the poor. Lower copayments can provide an incentive for women and non-micro-finance members, whilst coverage of

  18. Lewis histo-blood group α1,3/α1,4 fucose residues may both mediate binding to GII.4 noroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Waqas; Frank, Martin; Koppisetty, Chaitanya A K; Larson, Göran; Nyholm, Per-Georg

    2012-09-01

    Human noroviruses cause recurrent epidemics of gastroenteritis known to be dominated by the clinically important GII.4 genotype which recognizes human Secretor gene-dependent ABH histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as attachment factors. There is increasing evidence that GII.4 noroviruses have undergone evolutionary changes to recognize Lewis antigens and non-Secretor saliva. In this study, we have investigated the possibilities of the Lewis α1,3/α1,4 fucoses as mediators of binding of GII.4 noroviruses to Lewis antigens. The study was carried out using molecular dynamics simulations of Lewis type-1 and type-2 chain HBGAs in complex with VA387 P domain dimers in explicit water. Based on the computer simulations, we suggest the possibility of two receptor binding modes for Lewis HBGAs: the "Secretor pose" with the Secretor Fucα1,2 in the binding site and the "Lewis pose" with the Lewis Fucα1,3/α1,4 residues in the binding site. This was further supported by an extensive GlyVicinity analysis of the Protein Data Bank with respect to the occurrence of the Lewis and Secretor poses in complexes of Lewis antigens with lectins and antibodies as well as GII norovirus strains. The Lewis pose can also explain the interactions of GII.4 norovirus strains with Le(x) and SLe(x) structures. Moreover, the present model suggests binding of complex branched polysaccharides, with the Lewis antigens at the nonreducing end, to P domain dimers of GII.4 strains. Our results are relevant for understanding the evolution of norovirus binding specificities and for in silico design of future antiviral therapeutics.

  19. Factors Affecting the Ability of the Stroke Survivor to Drive Their Own Recovery outside of Therapy during Inpatient Stroke Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Wen Eng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To explore factors affecting the ability of the stroke survivor to drive their own recovery outside of therapy during inpatient rehabilitation. Method. One-on-one, in-depth interviews with stroke survivors (n=7 and their main carer (n=6, along with two focus groups with clinical staff (n=20. Data was thematically analysed according to group. Results. Stroke survivors perceived “dealing with loss,” whilst concurrently “building motivation and hope” for recovery affected their ability to drive their own recovery outside of therapy. In addition, they reported a “lack of opportunities” outside of therapy, with subsequent time described as “dead and wasted.” Main carers perceived stroke survivors felt “out of control … at everyone’s mercy” and lacked knowledge of “what to do and why” outside of therapy. Clinical staff perceived the stroke survivor’s ability to drive their own recovery was limited by the lack of “another place to go” and the “passive rehab culture and environment.” Discussion. To enable the stroke survivor to drive their own recovery outside of therapy, there is a need to increase opportunities for practice and promote active engagement. Suggested strategies include building the stroke survivor’s motivation and knowledge, creating an enriched environment, and developing daily routines to provide structure outside of therapy time.

  20. Size-resolved particle number emission patterns under real-world driving conditions using positive matrix factorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Sáez, Aida; Viana, Mar; Barrios, Carmen C; Rubio, Jose R; Amato, Fulvio; Pujadas, Manuel; Querol, Xavier

    2012-10-16

    A novel on-board system was tested to characterize size-resolved particle number emission patterns under real-world driving conditions, running in a EURO4 diesel vehicle and in a typical urban circuit in Madrid (Spain). Emission profiles were determined as a function of driving conditions. Source apportionment by Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was carried out to interpret the real-world driving conditions. Three emission patterns were identified: (F1) cruise conditions, with medium-high speeds, contributing in this circuit with 60% of total particle number and a particle size distribution dominated by particles >52 nm and around 60 nm; (F2) transient conditions, stop-and-go conditions at medium-high speed, contributing with 25% of the particle number and mainly emitting particles in the nucleation mode; and (F3) creep-idle conditions, representing traffic congestion and frequent idling periods, contributing with 14% to the total particle number and with particles in the nucleation mode (conditions. Differences between real-world emission patterns and regulatory cycles (NEDC) are also presented, which evidence that detecting particle number emissions real-world driving conditions.

  1. Driving factors of aerosol concentration changes in the foothills of Central Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivekäs, Niku; Hooda, Rakesh; Hyvärinen, Antti-Pekka; Collaud-Coen, Martine; O'Connor, Ewan; Pietikäinen, Joni-Pekka; Backman, John; Vakkari, Ville; Lihavainen, Heikki

    2017-04-01

    Because of their short residence time in the atmosphere and uneven sources, the concentration, composition and properties of aerosol particles at a given location vary strongly depending on the air mass history and atmospheric mixing properties. Therefore detailed analysis is needed before a representative picture of the amount or composition of aerosol particles can be obtained. In this study we have analyzed 10 years (2005 - 2014) of aerosol data from Mukteshwar, a high-altitude site at 2180 m elevation in the foothills of Central Himalayas. The site is located on a mountain ridge with valleys on both sides. On larger scale the area consists of is low (peaks 1500 - 2500 m) mountains between the Gangetic Plains (100-200 m) and the actual Himalayas (peaks 6000 - 8000 m). The site is located in monsoon climate with most of the annual precipitation falling during the monsoon months (July and August). The data includes a variety of physical and optical properties of aerosols. We have analyzed the data for diurnal, weekly, and annual cycles, and for inter-annual variability and trends. We have also tried to identify the driving factors behind these changes. There were clear diurnal cycles in aerosol particle concentrations during all seasons apart for monsoon. All external aerosol parameters showed 1.5 - 2 times higher values during afternoon than during night time. This was linked to the diurnal pattern of turbulent mixing layer height, bringing polluted air from the valleys to the site. The timing of the pattern was consistent with increased turbulence, increased water vapor concentration in the air and change of wind direction at the site. The aerosol internal properties did not show a clear diurnal cycle. There were some weak indications of a weekday-weekend cycle during some months for some aerosol parameters, but no consistent patterns were found. The seasonal cycles of all external aerosol parameters were very clear. Every year the monsoon rains removed most of

  2. Norovirus infection in Belarus: occurrence and molecular epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paklonskayal, Natallia Uladzimirauna; Amvrosieva, Tamara Vasil'evna; Dziadziulia, Kanstantsin Leanidavich; Baranouskaya, Natallia Mikalaeuna; Kishkurno, Elena Petrovna; Kluiko, Nina Leonidovna

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the study is to analyze molecular epidemiologic surveillance for norovirus infection in Belarus over the past five years (2009-2013). Laboratory diagnostics was carried out by RT-PCR in 684 patients. Two regions of norovirus genome, localized in RNA-polymerase and capsid protein genes, were used for phylogenetic analysis. Noroviruses were predominant causative agents in adults and second only to rotaviruses in children, they also prevailed among aetiological agents of outbreaks (66.7% of outbreaks). In 2009-2013, the major norovirus genotype was GII.4 (58.3% of all genotyped isolates). Genovariant GII.4 2006b circulated in 2009 and 2010, genovariant GII.4 2009 New Orleans - in 2010 and 2012. In addition to GII.4, genotypes GII.6 (16.6%), GII.2 (4.1%), GII.3 (2.2%), and recombinant genotypes GII.g-GII.12 and GII.g-GII.1 (10.4% and 8.3%, respectively) circulated in Belarus. The findings indicate a significant contribution of noroviruses in development of sporadic morbidity and outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in Belarus. Outbreaks or prominent increases of sporadic morbidity were mostly due to the emergence of a new genotype, or an epidemic genovariant.

  3. Viability and heat resistance of murine norovirus on bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Michiko; Takahashi, Hajime; Kuda, Takashi; Kimura, Bon

    2016-01-04

    Contaminated bread was the cause of a large-scale outbreak of norovirus disease in Japan in 2014. Contamination of seafood and uncooked food products by norovirus has been reported several times in the past; however the outbreak resulting from the contamination of bread products was unusual. A few reports on the presence of norovirus on bread products are available; however there have been no studies on the viability and heat resistance of norovirus on breads, which were investigated in this study. ce:italic>/ce:italic> strain 1 (MNV-1), a surrogate for human norovirus, was inoculated directly on 3 types of bread, but the infectivity of MNV-1 on bread samples was almost unchanged after 5days at 20°C. MNV-1 was inoculated on white bread that was subsequently heated in a toaster for a maximum of 2min. The results showed that MNV-1 remained viable if the heating period was insufficient to inactivate. In addition, bread dough contaminated with MNV-1 was baked in the oven. Our results indicated that MNV-1 may remain viable on breads if the heating duration or temperature is insufficient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Norovirus prevalence in ‘pathogen negative’ gastroenteritis in children from periurban areas in Lima, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Fulton P.; Ochoa, Theresa J.; Ruiz, Joaquim; Medina, Anicia M.; Ecker, Lucie; Mercado, Erik; Gil, Ana I.; Huicho, Luis; Lanata, Claudio F.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Norovirus was detected in 17.4% of 224 diarrhoeal samples from children younger than 24 months of age in Lima, in whom all common pathogens had been excluded (pathogen negative). Norovirus was identified more frequently in children older than 12 months of age than in younger children (34% vs 8%, P<0.001). Among norovirus-positive samples, genogroup II was the predominant group (92%). Compared with rotavirus, norovirus episodes tended to be of shorter duration and less severe. The role of norovirus as a cause of diarrhoea and the ascertainment of its severity in developing countries needs further confirmation by future epidemiological studies. PMID:21962615

  5. Noroviruses as a Cause of Diarrhea in Immunocompromised Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell and Solid Organ Transplant Recipients

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Xunyan; Van, John N.; Munoz, Flor M.; Revell, Paula A; Kozinetz, Claudia A.; Krance, Robert A.; Atmar, Robert L.; Estes, Mary K.; Hoonmo L Koo

    2015-01-01

    Case reports describe significant norovirus gastroenteritis morbidity in immunocompromised patients. We evaluated norovirus pathogenesis in prospectively enrolled solid organ (SOT) and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients with diarrhea who presented to Texas Children’s Hospital and submitted stool for enteric testing. Noroviruses were detected by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Clinical outcomes of norovirus diarrhea and non-norovirus diarrhea patients...

  6. Genetic and environmental risk factors in congenital heart disease functionally converge in protein networks driving heart development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kasper Lage; Greenway, Steven C.; Rosenfeld, Jill A.

    2012-01-01

    in protein networks driving the development of specific anatomical structures (e.g., outflow tract, ventricular septum, and atrial septum) that are malformed by CHD. This integrative analysis of CHD risk factors and responses suggests a complex pattern of functional interactions between genomic variation...... CHD risk factors and responses, we compiled and integrated comprehensive datasets from studies of CHD in humans and model organisms. We examined two alternative models of potential functional relationships between genes in these datasets: direct convergence, in which CHD risk factors significantly...... and directly impact the same genes and molecules and functional convergence, in which risk factors significantly impact different molecules that participate in a discrete heart development network. We observed no evidence for direct convergence. In contrast, we show that CHD risk factors functionally converge...

  7. Norovirus Genotypes in Hospital Settings - Differences between Nosocomial and Community-Acquired Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franck, Kristina Træholt; Nielsen, Rikke Thoft; Holzknecht, Barbara Juliane;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:  Norovirus is a major cause of gastroenteritis and hospital outbreaks, leading to substantial morbidity and direct healthcare expenses as well as indirect societal costs. The aim of the study was to estimate the proportion of nosocomial norovirus infections among inpatients tested...... positive for norovirus in Denmark, 2002-2010, and to study the distribution of norovirus genotypes among inpatients with nosocomial and community-acquired norovirus infections, respectively. METHODS:  Admission and stool sampling dates from 3656 NoV infected patients were used to estimate the proportion...... of nosocomial infections. The associations between nosocomial infection and patient age, gender, and norovirus genotype GII.4 were examined. RESULTS:  Of the 3656 inpatients, 63% were classified as having nosocomial infections. Among these 9 capsid and 8 polymerase norovirus genotypes were detected whereas...

  8. Norovirus Polymerase Fidelity Contributes to Viral Transmission In Vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arias Esteban, Armando; Thorne, Lucy; Ghurburrun, Elsa

    2016-01-01

    Intrahost genetic diversity and replication error rates are intricately linked to RNA virus pathogenesis, with alterations in viral polymerase fidelity typically leading to attenuation during infections in vivo. We have previously shown that norovirus intrahost genetic diversity also influences...... viral pathogenesis using the murine norovirus model, as increasing viral mutation frequency using a mutagenic nucleoside resulted in clearance of a persistent infection in mice. Given the role of replication fidelity and genetic diversity in pathogenesis, we have now investigated whether polymerase...... fidelity can also impact virus transmission between susceptible hosts. We have identified a high-fidelity norovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase mutant (I391L) which displays delayed replication kinetics in vivo but not in cell culture. The I391L polymerase mutant also exhibited lower transmission rates...

  9. An outbreak of norovirus linked to oysters in Tasmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodo, Kerryn L; Veitch, Mark G K; Green, Michelle L

    2014-03-31

    Norovirus is the most commonly reported virus in shellfish related gastroenteritis outbreaks. In March 2013 an investigation was conducted following the receipt of reports of gastroenteritis after the consumption of oysters at private functions in Tasmania. Cases were ascertained through general practitioners, emergency departments, media releases and self-reporting. Of the 306 cases identified in Tasmania, ten faecal specimens were collected for laboratory testing and eight were positive for norovirus (GII.g). The most common symptoms were vomiting (87%), diarrhoea (85%), myalgia (82%) and fever (56%). The implicated oysters were traced to a single lease from which they were harvested and distributed locally and interstate. Nationally 525 cases were identified from Tasmania (306), Victoria (209), New South Wales (8) and Queensland (2). This report highlights the consequences of norovirus outbreaks in shellfish, even with rapid identification, trace back and removal of the implicated product from the market.

  10. Non-thermal inactivation of Noroviruses in food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velebit, B.; Petronijević, R.; Bošković, T.

    2017-09-01

    An increased incidence of foodborne illnesses caused by Norovirus and consumer demand for fresh, convenient, and safe foods have prompted research into alternative antiviral processing technologies. Chlorine dioxide, UV treatment and thermal processing are standard antinoroviral technologies that have been employed for a while; however, they tend to be non-effective in modern processing due to residue concerns (ClO2), shadowing effects (UV) and low-energy efficiency (heat treatment). Alternative technologies have been validated such as ozone treatment, high pressure processing and pulse electric fields. Although these techniques are promising, none of them individually can deem food free of Norovirus. Further research on the effects on Norovirus in various food matrices is required. Good manufacturing practices and proper sanitation procedures remain the “gold” safety tools in food business.

  11. Detection of noroviruses in foods: a study on virus extraction procedures in foods implicated in outbreaks of human gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutjes, Saskia A; Lodder-Verschoor, Froukje; van der Poel, Wim H M; van Duijnhoven, Yvonne T H P; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2006-08-01

    Disease outbreaks in which foods are epidemiologically implicated as the common source are frequently reported. Noroviruses and enteric hepatitis A viruses are among the most prevalent causative agents of foodborne diseases. However, the detection of these viruses in foods other than shellfish is often time-consuming and unsuccessful. In this study, three virus concentration methods were compared: polyethylene glycol (PEG) plus NaCl, ultracentrifugation, and ultrafiltration. Two RNA extraction methods, TRIzol and RNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen), were compared for detection of viruses in whipped cream and lettuce (as representatives of the dairy and vegetable-fruit food groups, respectively). A seeding experiment with canine calicivirus was conducted to determine the efficiency of each virus extraction procedure. The PEG-NaCl-TRIzol method was most efficient for the detection of viruses in whipped cream and the ultracentrifugation-RNeasy-Mini Kit procedure was best for detection on lettuce. Based on the seeding experiments, food items implicated in norovirus-associated gastroenteritis outbreaks were subjected to the optimal procedure for a specific composition and matrix. No noroviruses were detected in the implicated food items, possibly because the concentration of virus on the food item was too low or because of the presence of inhibitory factors. For each food group, a specific procedure is optimal. Inhibitory factors should be controlled in these procedures because they influence virus detection in food.

  12. An outbreak of norovirus-associated acute gastroenteritis associated with contaminated barrelled water in many schools in Zhejiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Minyang; Song, Jianqiang; He, Fan; Qiu, Yinwei; Wu, Haocheng; Lu, Qinbao; Feng, Yan; Lin, Junfen; Chen, Enfu; Chai, Chengliang

    2017-01-01

    Objectives More than 900 students and teachers at many schools in Jiaxing city developed acute gastroenteritis in February 2014. An immediate epidemiological investigation was conducted to identify the pathogen, infection sources and route of transmission. Methods The probable cases and confirmed cases were defined as students or teachers with diarrhoea or vomiting present since the term began in February 2014. An active search was conducted for undiagnosed cases among students and teachers. Details such as demographic characteristics, gastrointestinal symptoms, and drinking water preference and frequency were collected via a uniform epidemiological questionnaire. A case-control study was implemented, and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Rectal swabs from several patients, food handlers and barrelled water factory workers, as well as water and food samples, were collected to test for potential bacteria and viruses. Results A total of 924 cases fit the definition of the probable case, including 8 cases of laboratory-confirmed norovirus infection at 13 schools in Jiaxing city between February 12 and February 21, 2014. The case-control study demonstrated that barrelled water was a risk factor (OR: 20.15, 95% CI: 2.59–156.76) and that bottled water and boiled barrelled water were protective factors (OR: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.13–0.70, and OR: 0.36, 95% CI: 0.16–0.77). A total of 11 rectal samples and 8 barrelled water samples were detected as norovirus-positive, and the genotypes of viral strains were the same (GII). The norovirus that contaminated the barrelled water largely came from the asymptomatic workers. Conclusions This acute gastroenteritis outbreak was caused by barrelled water contaminated by norovirus. The outbreak was controlled after stopping the supply of barrelled water. The barrelled water supply in China represents a potential source of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks due to the lack of surveillance and supervision

  13. Diagnosing norovirus-associated infectious intestinal disease using viral load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tam Clarence C

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR is the main method for laboratory diagnosis of norovirus-associated infectious intestinal disease (IID. However, up to 16% of healthy individuals in the community, with no recent history of IID, may be RT-PCR positive; so it is unclear whether norovirus is actually the cause of illness in an IID case when they are RT-PCR positive. It is important to identify the pathogen causing illness in sporadic IID cases, for clinical management and for community based incidence studies. The aim of this study was to investigate how faecal viral load can be used to determine when norovirus is the most likely cause of illness in an IID case. Methods Real-time RT-PCR was used to determine the viral load in faecal specimens collected from 589 IID cases and 159 healthy controls, who were infected with genogroup II noroviruses. Cycle threshold (Ct values from the real-time RT-PCR were used as a proxy measure of viral load. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC analysis was used to identify a cut-off in viral load for attributing illness to norovirus in IID cases. Results One hundred and sixty-nine IID cases and 159 controls met the inclusion criteria for the ROC analysis. The optimal Ct value cut-off for attributing IID to norovirus was 31. The same cut-off was selected when using healthy controls, or IID cases who were positive by culture for bacterial pathogens, as the reference negative group. This alternative reference negative group can be identified amongst specimens routinely received in clinical virology laboratories. Conclusion We demonstrated that ROC analysis can be used to select a cut-off for a norovirus real time RT-PCR assay, to aid clinical interpretation and diagnose when norovirus is the cause of IID. Specimens routinely received for diagnosis in clinical virology laboratories can be used to select an appropriate cut-off. Individual laboratories can use this method to

  14. Personality, Driving Behavior and Mental Disorders Factors as Predictors of Road Traffic Accidents Based on Logistic Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Salman Alavi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of variables such as personality traits, driving behavior and mental illness on road traffic accidents among the drivers with accidents and those without road crash. Methods: In this cohort study, 800 bus and truck drivers were recruited. Participants were selected among drivers who referred to Imam Sajjad Hospital (Tehran, Iran during 2013-2015. The Manchester driving behavior questionnaire (MDBQ, big five personality test (NEO personality inventory and semi-structured interview (SADS were used. After two years, we surveyed all accidents due to human factors that involved the recruited drivers. The data were analyzed using the SPSS software by performing the descriptive statistics, t-test, and multiple logistic regression analysis methods. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: In terms of controlling the effective and demographic variables, the findings revealed significant differences between the two groups of drivers that were and were not involved in road accidents. In addition, it was found that depression and anxiety could increase the odds ratio (OR of road accidents by 2.4- and 2.7-folds, respectively (P=0.04, P=0.004. It is noteworthy to mention that neuroticism alone can increase the odds of road accidents by 1.1-fold (P=0.009, but other personality factors did not have a significant effect on the equation. Conclusion: The results revealed that some mental disorders affect the incidence of road collisions. Considering the importance and sensitivity of driving behavior, it is necessary to evaluate multiple psychological factors influencing drivers before and after receiving or renewing their driver’s license.

  15. Personality, Driving Behavior and Mental Disorders Factors as Predictors of Road Traffic Accidents Based on Logistic Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Seyyed Salman; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Souri, Hamid; Mohammadi Kalhori, Soroush; Jannatifard, Fereshteh; Sepahbodi, Ghazal

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of variables such as personality traits, driving behavior and mental illness on road traffic accidents among the drivers with accidents and those without road crash. Methods: In this cohort study, 800 bus and truck drivers were recruited. Participants were selected among drivers who referred to Imam Sajjad Hospital (Tehran, Iran) during 2013-2015. The Manchester driving behavior questionnaire (MDBQ), big five personality test (NEO personality inventory) and semi-structured interview (schizophrenia and affective disorders scale) were used. After two years, we surveyed all accidents due to human factors that involved the recruited drivers. The data were analyzed using the SPSS software by performing the descriptive statistics, t-test, and multiple logistic regression analysis methods. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: In terms of controlling the effective and demographic variables, the findings revealed significant differences between the two groups of drivers that were and were not involved in road accidents. In addition, it was found that depression and anxiety could increase the odds ratio (OR) of road accidents by 2.4- and 2.7-folds, respectively (P=0.04, P=0.004). It is noteworthy to mention that neuroticism alone can increase the odds of road accidents by 1.1-fold (P=0.009), but other personality factors did not have a significant effect on the equation. Conclusion: The results revealed that some mental disorders affect the incidence of road collisions. Considering the importance and sensitivity of driving behavior, it is necessary to evaluate multiple psychological factors influencing drivers before and after receiving or renewing their driver’s license. PMID:28293047

  16. Brote de norovirus en Mallorca asociado al consumo de ostras Norovirus outbreak in Majorca (Spain associated with oyster consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antònia Galmés Truyols

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la investigación de un brote de gastroenteritis por norovirus asociado al consumo de ostras. Se encuestaron 346 expuestos (266 afectados. Solamente se enviaron 14 muestras de heces de pacientes al Centro Nacional de Microbiología. Se mandaron ostras recogidas en el lugar de producción al Centro Nacional de Alimentación. Las ostras cumplían los parámetros microbiológicos de calidad aplicables antes de la comercialización, que no incluyen investigación de virus. El análisis epidemiológico asoció la aparición de la enfermedad al consumo de ostras (odds ratio [OR]=60,4; intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%]: 26,2-139,3 y de navajas (OR=3,13; IC95%: 1,4-6,9. Los análisis microbiológicos identificaron norovirus en los afectados, pero no en las ostras que habían estado sometidas a un tiempo mayor de depuración que las consumidas. Es necesario un control riguroso de los alimentos de especial riesgo para la transmisión de norovirus y disponer de recursos de laboratorio para investigar brotes alimentarios por norovirus.We describe investigation into an outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis associated with oyster consumption. A survey was conducted in 346 exposed persons, 266 of whom were cases. Only 14 feces samples from patients were sent to the National Microbiology Laboratory. Oysters collected at the production site were sent to the National Food Center. The oysters met the microbiological quality standard required before sale, which did not include virus investigation. Epidemiological analysis showed an association between gastroenteritis and consumption of oysters (OR=60.4; 95% CI: 26.2-139.3 and razor shells (OR=3.13; 95% CI: 1.4-6.9. Microbiological analysis confirmed norovirus in affected individuals but not in the oysters that had been tested after a longer purification period than those consumed. Food with a special risk of norovirus transmission should be strictly monitored. Investigators should dispose of the

  17. Risk and threat factors in prior representations of driving situations among powered two-wheeler riders and car drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragot-Court, Isabelle; Mundutéguy, Christophe; Fournier, Jean-Yves

    2012-11-01

    Our research objective is to contribute to gaining a better understanding of the difficulties inherent to managing interactions between power two-wheeler riders and car drivers. 132 power two-wheeler riders and 94 car drivers have been asked what they perceive as being riskiest in driving situations for the representatives of their generic reference group. From all the answers produced, only those which provide information on risk factors related to the other and the occurrence of interferences due to the dynamic situation have been retained and analysed. The results provide a partial explanation of the difficulties related to the two types of users' taking each other into account. On the one hand, the frequency with which the other is mentioned as a source of risk is linked to the concept of conspicuity. This interpretation is related to the relative frequency of the interactions and the difference of real and perceived vulnerability between the users. On the other hand, the specific risk factors attributed to the other illustrates a mutual misunderstanding or ignorance of the driving situation's determinants. These include various practices among users which can be related to the physical and dynamic characteristics of their vehicle and their level of familiarity with other users. The potential road safety consequences of prior representations of risk factors among users are presented and suggestions for improving road user safety are proposed.

  18. Proneural Transcription Factor Atoh1 Drives Highly Efficient Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Into Dopaminergic Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagal, Jonathan; Zhan, Xiping; Xu, Jinchong; Tilghman, Jessica; Karuppagounder, Senthilkumar S.; Chen, Li; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.; Laterra, John

    2014-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are a promising cell resource for various applications in regenerative medicine. Highly efficient approaches that differentiate human PSCs into functional lineage-specific neurons are critical for modeling neurological disorders and testing potential therapies. Proneural transcription factors are crucial drivers of neuron development and hold promise for driving highly efficient neuronal conversion in PSCs. Here, we study the functions of proneural transcription factor Atoh1 in the neuronal differentiation of PSCs. We show that Atoh1 is induced during the neuronal conversion of PSCs and that ectopic Atoh1 expression is sufficient to drive PSCs into neurons with high efficiency. Atoh1 induction, in combination with cell extrinsic factors, differentiates PSCs into functional dopaminergic (DA) neurons with >80% purity. Atoh1-induced DA neurons recapitulate key biochemical and electrophysiological features of midbrain DA neurons, the degeneration of which is responsible for clinical symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Atoh1-induced DA neurons provide a reliable disease model for studying PD pathogenesis, such as neurotoxin-induced neurodegeneration in PD. Overall, our results determine the role of Atoh1 in regulating neuronal differentiation and neuron subtype specification of human PSCs. Our Atoh1-mediated differentiation approach will enable large-scale applications of PD patient-derived midbrain DA neurons in mechanistic studies and drug screening for both familial and sporadic PD. PMID:24904172

  19. Bacterial histo-blood group antigens contributing to genotype-dependent removal of human noroviruses with a microfiltration membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasiri, Mohan; Hashiba, Satoshi; Miura, Takayuki; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Nakagomi, Osamu; Ishii, Satoshi; Okabe, Satoshi; Sano, Daisuke

    2016-05-15

    We demonstrated the genotype-dependent removal of human norovirus particles with a microfiltration (MF) membrane in the presence of bacteria bearing histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs). Three genotypes (GII.3, GII.4, and GII.6) of norovirus-like particles (NoVLPs) were mixed with three bacterial strains (Enterobacter sp. SENG-6, Escherichia coli O86:K61:B7, and Staphylococcus epidermidis), respectively, and the mixture was filtered with an MF membrane having a nominal pore size of 0.45 μm. All NoVLP genotypes were rejected by the MF membrane in the presence of Enterobacter sp. SENG-6, which excreted HBGAs as extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). This MF membrane removal of NoVLPs was not significant when EPS was removed from cells of Enterobacter sp. SENG-6. GII.6 NoVLP was not rejected with the MF membrane in the presence of E. coli O86:K61:B7, but the removal of EPS of E. coli O86:K61:B7 increased the removal efficiency due to the interaction of NoVLPs with the exposed B-antigen in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of E. coli O86:K61:B7. No MF membrane removal of all three genotypes was observed when S. epidermidis, an HBGA-negative strain, was mixed with NoVLPs. These results demonstrate that the location of HBGAs on bacterial cells is an important factor in determining the genotype-dependent removal efficiency of norovirus particles with the MF membrane. The presence of HBGAs in mixed liquor suspended solids from a membrane bioreactor (MBR) pilot plant was confirmed by immune-transmission electron microscopy, which implies that bacterial HBGAs can contribute to the genotype-dependent removal of human noroviruses with MBR using MF membrane.

  20. Analysis of the individual factors affecting mobile phone use while driving in France: socio-demographic characteristics, car and phone use in professional and private contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusque, Corinne; Alauzet, Aline

    2008-01-01

    In France, as in many other countries, phoning while driving is legally restricted because of its negative impact on driving performance which increases accident risk. Nevertheless, it is still a frequently observed practice and one which has not been analyzed in detail. This study attempts to identify the profiles of those who use mobile phones while at the wheel and determine the forms taken by this use. A representative sample of 1973 French people was interviewed by phone on their driving practices and mobile phone use in everyday life and their mobile phone use while driving. Logistics regressions have been conducted to highlight the explanatory factors of phoning while driving. Strong differences between males and females have been shown. For the male population, age is the main explanatory factor of phoning while driving, followed by phone use for work-related reasons and extensive mobile phone use in everyday life. For females, high mileage and intensive use of mobile phone are the only two explanatory factors. We defined the intensive phone use at the wheel group as drivers who receive or send at least five or more calls per day while driving. There is no socio-demographic variable related to this practice. Car and phone uses in everyday life are the only explanatory factors for this intensive mobile use of the phone at the wheel.

  1. Epidemiology of foodborne norovirus outbreaks, United States, 2001-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Aron J; Eisenbart, Valerie G; Etingüe, Amy Lehman; Gould, L Hannah; Lopman, Ben A; Parashar, Umesh D

    2012-10-01

    Noroviruses are the leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States. To better guide interventions, we analyzed 2,922 foodborne disease outbreaks for which norovirus was the suspected or confirmed cause, which had been reported to the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention during 2001-2008. On average, 365 foodborne norovirus outbreaks were reported annually, resulting in an estimated 10,324 illnesses, 1,247 health care provider visits, 156 hospitalizations, and 1 death. In 364 outbreaks attributed to a single commodity, leafy vegetables (33%), fruits/nuts (16%), and mollusks (13%) were implicated most commonly. Infected food handlers were the source of 53% of outbreaks and may have contributed to 82% of outbreaks. Most foods were likely contaminated during preparation and service, except for mollusks, and occasionally, produce was contaminated during production and processing. Interventions to reduce the frequency of foodborne norovirus outbreaks should focus on food workers and production of produce and shellfish.

  2. Transfer of noroviruses between fingers and fomites and food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuladhar, E.; Hazeleger, W.C.; Koopmans, M.; Zwietering, M.H.; Duizer, E.; Beumer, R.R.

    2013-01-01

    Human norovirus (NoV) contaminated hands are important routes for transmission. Quantitative data on transfer during contact with surfaces and food are scarce but necessary for a quantitative risk assessment. Therefore, transfer of MNV1 and human NoVs GI.4 and GII.4 was studied by artificially

  3. Inactivation of Tulane virus, a novel surrogate for human norovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the major cause of non-bacterial epidemics of gastroenteritis. Due to the inability to cultivate HuNoVs and the lack of an efficient small animal model, surrogates are used to study HuNoV biology. Two such surrogates, the feline calicivirus (FCV) and the murine norovir...

  4. Cell Culture Assay for Human Noroviruses [response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straub, Tim M.; Honer Zu Bentrup, Kerstin; Orosz Coghlan, Patricia; Dohnalkova, Alice; Mayer, Brooke K.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Valdez, Catherine O.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.; Gerba, Charles P.; Abbaszadegan, Morteza A.; Nickerson, Cheryl A.

    2007-07-01

    We appreciate the comments provided by Leung et al., in response to our recently published article “In Vitro Cell Culture Infectivity Assay for Human Noroviruses” by Straub et al. (1). The specific aim of our project was to develop an in vitro cell culture infectivity assay for human noroviruses (hNoV) to enhance risk assessments when they are detected in water supplies. Reverse transcription (RT) qualitative or quantitative PCR are the primary assays for waterborne NoV monitoring. However, these assays cannot distinguish between infectious vs. non-infectious virions. When hNoV is detected in water supplies, information provided by our infectivity assay will significantly improve risk assessment models and protect human health, regardless of whether we are propagating NoV. Indeed, in vitro cell culture infectivity assays for the waterborne pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum that supplement approved fluorescent microscopy assays, do not result in amplification of the environmentally resistant hard-walled oocysts (2). However, identification of life cycle stages in cell culture provides evidence of infectious oocysts in a water supply. Nonetheless, Leung et al.’s assertion regarding the suitability of our method for the in vitro propagation of high titers of NoV is valid for the medical research community. In this case, well-characterized challenge pools of virus would be useful for developing and testing diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. As further validation of our published findings, we have now optimized RT quantitative PCR to assess the level of viral production in cell culture, where we are indeed finding significant increases in viral titer. The magnitude and time course of these increases is dependent on both virus strain and multiplicity of infection. We are currently preparing a manuscript that will discuss these findings in greater detail, and the implications this may have for creating viral challenge pools

  5. The Comparison and Modeling of the Driving Factors of Urban Expansion for Thirty-Five Big Cities in the Three Regions in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Guangjin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a national- and regional-scale urban growth model (NRUGM of China based on panel data analysis. Through the panel analysis, population growth, road construction, salary increment per capita, and secondary industry product increment were proven to be the major driving factors for national-scale urban expansion. According to Seventh Five-Year Plan, China had been divided into three regions, Eastern China, Middle China, and Western China, by their geographic position and economic development. We studied the relationship between urban expansion and the driving factors for the three regions between 1990 and 2010 in China. The driving factors of urban expansion were different for the different regions and periods. Population growth and road construction were identified as the two major factors driving urban expansion for Eastern China. Secondary industry and economic development had become the major driving factors for urban expansion over the last twenty years in Middle China. Over the same period, for Western China, economic growth had become the major driving factor for urban expansion. Our results have significant policy implications for China. The macrocontrol of the central government should utilize different policies to adjust urban expansion in the different regions.

  6. Comparative Virucidal Efficacy of Seven Disinfectants Against Murine Norovirus and Feline Calicivirus, Surrogates of Human Norovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonta, William; Mauroy, Axel; Farnir, Frederic; Thiry, Etienne

    2016-03-01

    Human noroviruses (HuNoV) are the leading cause of acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis in humans and can be transmitted either by person-to-person contact or by consumption of contaminated food. A knowledge of an efficient disinfection for both hands and food-contact surfaces is helpful for the food sector and provides precious information for public health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of seven disinfectants belonging to different groups of biocides (alcohol, halogen, oxidizing agents, quaternary ammonium compounds, aldehyde and biguanide) on infectious viral titre and on genomic copy number. Due to the absence of a cell culture system for HuNoV, two HuNoV surrogates, such as murine norovirus and feline calicivirus, were used and the tests were performed in suspension, on gloves and on stainless steel discs. When, as criteria of efficacy, a log reduction >3 of the infectious viral titre on both surrogates and in the three tests is used, the most efficacious disinfectants in this study appear to be biocidal products B, C and D, representing the halogens, the oxidizing agents group and a mix of QAC, alcohol and aldehyde, respectively. In addition, these three disinfectants also elicited a significant effect on genomic copy number for both surrogate viruses and in all three tests. The results of this study demonstrate that a halogen compound, oxidizing agents and a mix of QAC, alcohol and aldehyde are advisable for HuNoV disinfection of either potentially contaminated surfaces or materials in contact with foodstuffs.

  7. Liver-derived systemic factors drive β-cell hyperplasia in insulin resistant states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Ouaamari, Abdelfattah; Kawamori, Dan; Dirice, Ercument; Liew, Chong Wee; Shadrach, Jennifer L.; Hu, Jiang; Katsuta, Hitoshi; Hollister-Lock, Jennifer; Qian, Weijun; Wagers, Amy J.; Kulkarni, Rohit N.

    2013-02-21

    Integrative organ cross-talk regulates key aspects of energy homeostasis and its dysregulation may underlie metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. To test the hypothesis that cross-talk between the liver and pancreatic islets modulates β-cell growth in response to insulin resistance, we used the Liver-specific Insulin Receptor Knockout (LIRKO) mouse, a unique model that exhibits dramatic islet hyperplasia. Using complementary in vivo parabiosis and transplantation assays, and in vitro islet culture approaches, we demonstrate that humoral, non-neural, non-cell autonomous factor(s) induce β-cell proliferation in LIRKO mice. Furthermore, we report that a hepatocyte-derived factor(s) stimulates mouse and human β-cell proliferation in ex vivo assays, independent of ambient glucose and insulin levels. These data implicate the liver as a critical source of β-cell growth factors in insulin resistant states.

  8. Norovirus P particle efficiently elicits innate, humoral and cellular immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Fang

    Full Text Available Norovirus (NoV P domain complexes, the 24 mer P particles and the P dimers, induced effective humoral immunity, but their role in the cellular immune responses remained unclear. We reported here a study on cellular immune responses of the two P domain complexes in comparison with the virus-like particle (VLP of a GII.4 NoV (VA387 in mice. The P domain complexes induced significant central memory CD4(+ T cell phenotypes (CD4(+ CD44(+ CD62L(+ CCR7(+ and activated polyclonal CD4(+ T cells as shown by production of Interleukin (IL-2, Interferon (IFN-γ, and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-α. Most importantly, VA387-specific CD4(+ T cell epitope induced a production of IFN-γ, indicating an antigen-specific CD4(+ T cell response in P domain complex-immunized mice. Furthermore, P domain complexes efficiently induced bone marrow-derived dendritic cell (BMDC maturation, evidenced by up-regulation of co-stimulatory and MHC class II molecules, as well as production of IL-12 and IL-1β. Finally, P domain complex-induced mature dendritic cells (DCs elicited proliferation of specific CD4(+ T cells targeting VA387 P domain. Overall, we conclude that the NoV P domain complexes are efficiently presented by DCs to elicit not only humoral but also cellular immune responses against NoVs. Since the P particle is highly effective for both humoral and cellular immune responses and easily produced in Escherichia coli (E. coli, it is a good choice of vaccine against NoVs and a vaccine platform against other diseases.

  9. Static and Evolving Norovirus Genotypes: Implications for Epidemiology and Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karangwa, Consolee K.; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V.

    2017-01-01

    Noroviruses are major pathogens associated with acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Their RNA genomes are diverse, with two major genogroups (GI and GII) comprised of at least 28 genotypes associated with human disease. To elucidate mechanisms underlying norovirus diversity and evolution, we used a large-scale genomics approach to analyze human norovirus sequences. Comparison of over 2000 nearly full-length ORF2 sequences representing most of the known GI and GII genotypes infecting humans showed a limited number (≤5) of distinct intra-genotypic variants within each genotype, with the exception of GII.4. The non-GII.4 genotypes were comprised of one or more intra-genotypic variants, with each variant containing strains that differed by only a few residues over several decades (remaining “static”) and that have co-circulated with no clear epidemiologic pattern. In contrast, the GII.4 genotype presented the largest number of variants (>10) that have evolved over time with a clear pattern of periodic variant replacement. To expand our understanding of these two patterns of diversification (“static” versus “evolving”), we analyzed using NGS the nearly full-length norovirus genome in healthy individuals infected with GII.4, GII.6 or GII.17 viruses in different outbreak settings. The GII.4 viruses accumulated mutations rapidly within and between hosts, while the GII.6 and GII.17 viruses remained relatively stable, consistent with their diversification patterns. Further analysis of genetic relationships and natural history patterns identified groupings of certain genotypes into larger related clusters designated here as “immunotypes”. We propose that “immunotypes” and their evolutionary patterns influence the prevalence of a particular norovirus genotype in the human population. PMID:28103318

  10. Molecular characteristics of noroviruses genogroup I and genogroup II detected in patients with acute gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Heejin; Oh, Seah; Seung, Hyunjung; Jo, Sukju

    2015-03-01

    Noroviruses are the leading cause of epidemic gastroenteritis, including foodborne outbreak, in Korea. The prevalence of human noroviruses was studied in diarrheal stool samples of patients with acute gastroenteritis by conventional duplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Diarrheal stool samples were collected from 1,685 patients from the local hospitals in Seoul. The prevalence of the noroviruses was 22.8% (222/972 patients) in 2012 and 11.2% (80/713 patients) in 2013, with a total of 17.9% (302/1,685 patients). Genotyping was performed on 302 norovirus-positive stool samples to reveal 5.6% prevalence of genogroup I (GI) (17/302) and 94.4% prevalence of genogroup II (GII) (285/302). The patients with norovirus-associated acute gastroenteritis mostly showed prevalence of GII norovirus, especially GII.4 (64.6%; 195/302).

  11. Discrepancies between Antigen and Polymerase Chain Reaction Tests for the Detection of Rotavirus and Norovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Jae-Seok

    2016-05-01

    We compared the results of an antigen test (ELISA) with those of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of rotavirus and norovirus in stool specimens. Rotavirus and norovirus antigen-positive stool specimens were collected, and rotavirus and norovirus PCRs were performed on these specimens. Of the 325 rotavirus antigen-positive specimens, 200 were positive for both assays and 125 were PCR negative. Of 286 norovirus antigen-positive specimens, 51 were PCR negative. Comparison of the lower limit of detection showed that rotavirus PCR was 16 times more sensitive and norovirus PCR was over 4,000 times more sensitive than the ELISA. Discrepant results between ELISA and PCR were common, and the possibility of false-positive and false-negative results should be considered with rotavirus and norovirus assays.

  12. Factors influencing the probability of an incident at a junction: results from an interactive driving simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jennifer; Barham, Philip; Black, Ian

    2002-11-01

    Using data generated from a fixed-base interactive driving simulator, which was used to evaluate a driver decision aid, a model is built to predict the probability of an incident (i.e. an accident or a 'near miss') occurring as a result of a right-turn across left-hand traffic at an unsignalised junction. This can be considered to be the product of two separate probabilities, the first being the probability that the gap between a pair of vehicles in the traffic stream is accepted, and the second the probability that the time needed to cross the on-coming stream of traffic causes the time-to-collision with the nearest vehicle in this traffic stream to be less than a second. The model is developed from the results of experimental trials involving a sample of drivers, the majority of whom were aged 60 years or older, in order to demonstrate the effect of various parameters on these probabilities. The parameters considered include the size of the gap between successive vehicles, vehicle characteristics such as size, colour and velocity, driver characteristics such as age and sex, and both daytime and night-time conditions.

  13. Factors driving deforestation in common-pool resources in northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Verdin, Gustavo; Kim, Yeon-Su; Hospodarsky, Denver; Tecle, Aregai

    2009-01-01

    The theory of collective action has been extensively used to explain the relationship between common-based property regimes and the conservation of natural resources. However, there are two key components of the theory that literature reports as puzzles in which no consensus exists about their effect on the performance of common-pool resources. These are group size and heterogeneity. This study analyzes the effects of these two key components on the effectiveness of community-based forestry, called ejidos, to protect their forest resources in northern Mexico. We used a multinomial logit model to determine the contribution of 16 explanatory variables to the dependent variable, a measure of success of ejidos defined by the presence of deforested, degraded, or forested conditions. The results show that corn yield, marginality, percent of forest area, total population, a forest value index, distance to markets, roads and towns, were all statistically significant in driving deforested conditions. Deforestation becomes more attractive for poor communities and as corn yield and distance to towns, roads, and markets decrease. In general, group size and heterogeneity had no significant effects on the presence of deforested conditions. Deforestation is driven by resource-specific characteristics, such as location and soil productivity, not by ejidos' attributes, such as total area or number of members. We argue that current institutional policies focusing on the structure of property right arrangements should be shifted (1) to provide better technology for land cultivation; (2) to reduce the marginality problem in poor communities; and (3) to strengthen local institutions.

  14. Spatial distribution of wind erosion and its driving factors in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on remote sensing and geographic information system, the spatial distribution of nation-wide wind erosion is studied, and the 1:100 000 national map of soil erosion by wind in China is made. Wind speed, soil dryness, NDVI, soil texture and the slope of land surface are the key factors to wind erosion. The relations between wind erosion and each factor are discussed. The method of principal component is used to pick up the information included in the five factors, and the wind erosion dynamic index (WEDI) is established. Its comparison with the RS/GIS derived data shows that WEDI can reflect the potential capacity of soil erosion by wind. The dynamic process of the wind erosion is studied to reveal the distribution of the most intense wind erosion regions and the dominant factors in these regions. All these studies may greatly help the mitigation of wind erosion of soil.

  15. The development, factor structure and psychometric properties of driving self-regulation scales for older adults: Has self-regulation evolved in the last 15 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ides Y; Smith, Simon S; Sullivan, Karen A

    2015-07-01

    The term driving self-regulation is typically used to describe the practice of drivers who avoid driving in situations that they regard as unsafe because of perceived physical impairment. Older adults report using this strategy to improve safety while retaining mobility. Self-regulation is typically assessed using the driving avoidance items from the driving habits questionnaire (DHQ) and the driver mobility questionnaire (DMQ-A). However, the psychometric properties of these measures are not well understood. Using data from 277 older drivers, exploratory factor analysis was used to test the homogeneity of three driving self-regulation scales: the DHQ, DMQ-A, and an extended DMQ-A. Good internal consistency for each of the scales was identified (all αs≥.9). A one factor solution was identified for two of the measures (DHQ, DMQ-A) and a two factor solution accounting for over 70% of the score variance was identified for the third measure. The two factors assessed situations that may be avoided while driving because of the "external" (e.g., weather-related) or "internal" (e.g., passenger-related) driving environments, respectively. The findings suggest that the interpretation of an overall summated scale score, or single-item interpretations, may not be appropriate. Instead, driving self-regulation may be a multifaceted construct comprised of distinct dimensions that have not been identified previously but can be reliably measured. These data have implications for our understanding of driving self-regulation by older adults and the way in which this behavior is measured. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Conserved Interaction between a C-Terminal Motif in Norovirus VPg and the HEAT-1 Domain of eIF4G Is Essential for Translation Initiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eoin N Leen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Translation initiation is a critical early step in the replication cycle of the positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome of noroviruses, a major cause of gastroenteritis in humans. Norovirus RNA, which has neither a 5´ m7G cap nor an internal ribosome entry site (IRES, adopts an unusual mechanism to initiate protein synthesis that relies on interactions between the VPg protein covalently attached to the 5´-end of the viral RNA and eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs in the host cell. For murine norovirus (MNV we previously showed that VPg binds to the middle fragment of eIF4G (4GM; residues 652-1132. Here we have used pull-down assays, fluorescence anisotropy, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC to demonstrate that a stretch of ~20 amino acids at the C terminus of MNV VPg mediates direct and specific binding to the HEAT-1 domain within the 4GM fragment of eIF4G. Our analysis further reveals that the MNV C terminus binds to eIF4G HEAT-1 via a motif that is conserved in all known noroviruses. Fine mutagenic mapping suggests that the MNV VPg C terminus may interact with eIF4G in a helical conformation. NMR spectroscopy was used to define the VPg binding site on eIF4G HEAT-1, which was confirmed by mutagenesis and binding assays. We have found that this site is non-overlapping with the binding site for eIF4A on eIF4G HEAT-1 by demonstrating that norovirus VPg can form ternary VPg-eIF4G-eIF4A complexes. The functional significance of the VPg-eIF4G interaction was shown by the ability of fusion proteins containing the C-terminal peptide of MNV VPg to inhibit in vitro translation of norovirus RNA but not cap- or IRES-dependent translation. These observations define important structural details of a functional interaction between norovirus VPg and eIF4G and reveal a binding interface that might be exploited as a target for antiviral therapy.

  17. RNA Populations in Immunocompromised Patients as Reservoirs for Novel Norovirus Variants

    OpenAIRE

    Vega, Everardo; Donaldson, Eric; Huynh, Jeremy; Barclay, Leslie; Lopman, Ben; Baric, Ralph; Luke F Chen; Vinjé, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. The majority of norovirus outbreaks are caused by genogroup II.4 (GII.4). Novel GII.4 strains emerge every 2 to 4 years and replace older variants as the dominant norovirus. Novel variants emerge through a combination of recombination, genetic drift, and selection driven by population immunity, but the exact mechanism of how or where is not known. We detected two previously unknown novel GII.4 variants, termed GII...

  18. Modelling Estimates of Norovirus Disease in Patients with Chronic Medical Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Verstraeten; Baoguo Jiang; John G Weil; Lin, Jennifer H.

    2016-01-01

    Background The burden of disease due to norovirus infection has been well described in the general United States population, but studies of norovirus occurrence among persons with chronic medical conditions have been limited mostly to the immunocompromised. We assessed the impact of norovirus gastroenteritis on health care utilization in US subjects with a range of chronic medical conditions. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study using MarketScan data from July 2002 to December 20...

  19. Fibroblast growth factor-2 drives and maintains progressive corneal neovascularization following HSV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, H R; Carr, M M; Bryant, K; Chucair-Elliott, A J; Carr, D Jj

    2017-04-05

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection of the cornea induces vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A)-dependent lymphangiogenesis that continues to develop well beyond the resolution of infection. Inflammatory leukocytes infiltrate the cornea and have been implicated to be essential for corneal neovascularization, an important clinically relevant manifestation of stromal keratitis. Here we report that cornea infiltrating leukocytes including neutrophils and T cells do not have a significant role in corneal neovascularization past virus clearance. Antibody-mediated depletion of these cells did not impact lymphatic or blood vessel genesis. Multiple pro-angiogenic factors including IL-6, angiopoietin-2, hepatocyte growth factor, fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), VEGF-A, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 were expressed within the cornea following virus clearance. A single bolus of dexamethasone at day 10 post infection (pi) resulted in suppression of blood vessel genesis and regression of lymphatic vessels at day 21 pi compared to control-treated mice. Whereas IL-6 neutralization had a modest impact on hemangiogenesis (days 14-21 pi) and lymphangiogenesis (day 21 pi) in a time-dependent fashion, neutralization of FGF-2 had a more pronounced effect on the suppression of neovascularization (blood and lymphatic vessels) in a time-dependent, leukocyte-independent manner. Furthermore, FGF-2 neutralization suppressed the expression of all pro-angiogenic factors measured and preserved visual acuity.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication 5 April 2017; doi:10.1038/mi.2017.26.

  20. The study on LUCC and its human drive factors in Quanzhou City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, JianShun; Zhong, KaiWen; Zhang, JinQian; Chen, SongLin

    2008-10-01

    Based on the 1988 and 2000 remote sensing data and the "3S" technology, we not only attempt to analyze the dynamic change form the structure of quantity and spatial change of Land Use in Quanzhou City, but also use the representatively correlation method to explain the interrelation between this change of Land Use and the social economic factors, by the CANCORR program of SPSS. Furthermore, according to the viewpoint of Humanism, we try to find out the function of the social power factors, the social culture factors which conclude natural view, axiology, dietetically custom, habitation fashion and consumed tropism .etc and the developing industries of local color on the Land Use change. From this research, the result show: 1) the structure of quantity of Land Use change remarkably from county to county, the most reducing quantity of paddy field, dry land and garden plot are separately the county of DeHua, HuiAn and NanAn. And the most driver factor is the developing industries of local color; 2) the type change of Land Use caused by the production value of extractive industry, light industry and the third industry, basic contracture investment, output of tea and fruit, convenient extent of road and income of per farmer and so on in Quanzhou City between 1988 and 2000. In a word, the dynamic change of Land Use impact by more factors we have mentioned, and it's extend is more and more multistage, especially in Quanzhou City. As we study, the dynamic change of Land Use is enslaved to human factors in Quanzhou City.

  1. Inactivation of norovirus and surrogates by natural phytochemicals and bioactive substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Seungbo; You, Hyun Ju; Kim, Ye Won; Lee, Ariel; Ko, Gwang Pyo; Lee, Sung-Joon; Song, Moon Jung

    2015-01-01

    Human norovirus is the leading cause of sporadic gastroenteritis, which is responsible for more than 90% of all nonbacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks. While norovirus infections typically cause mild and self-limiting symptoms lasting 24-48 h, chronic persistent infections can cause severe symptoms. Although recent advances have been made in understanding the molecular characteristics of norovirus infection, no norovirus-specific antiviral drugs, or vaccines are available. Conventional intervention methods used to inactivate norovirus, such as treatment with disinfecting agents (e.g. ethanol, hypochlorite, and quaternary ammonium formulations), have shown a lack of efficacy against human norovirus when they are applied to foods and in food preparation processes. Therefore, alternative antiviral or inactivating agents such as phytochemicals have received attention as potential norovirus inhibitors due to their relatively low toxicity and lack of side effects, which allows them to be prepared as food-safe formulations. Evidence from studies using viral surrogates suggests that numerous phytochemicals and foods containing flavonoids and polyphenols have anti-norovirus activity, and future studies will be necessary to confirm the effectiveness of such compounds against human norovirus and the molecular mechanisms through which they produce antiviral effects.

  2. Mechanisms of GII.4 norovirus persistence in human populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa C Lindesmith

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Noroviruses are the leading cause of viral acute gastroenteritis in humans, noted for causing epidemic outbreaks in communities, the military, cruise ships, hospitals, and assisted living communities. The evolutionary mechanisms governing the persistence and emergence of new norovirus strains in human populations are unknown. Primarily organized by sequence homology into two major human genogroups defined by multiple genoclusters, the majority of norovirus outbreaks are caused by viruses from the GII.4 genocluster, which was first recognized as the major epidemic strain in the mid-1990s. Previous studies by our laboratory and others indicate that some noroviruses readily infect individuals who carry a gene encoding a functional alpha-1,2-fucosyltransferase (FUT2 and are designated "secretor-positive" to indicate that they express ABH histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs, a highly heterogeneous group of related carbohydrates on mucosal surfaces. Individuals with defects in the FUT2 gene are termed secretor-negative, do not express the appropriate HBGA necessary for docking, and are resistant to Norwalk infection. These data argue that FUT2 and other genes encoding enzymes that regulate processing of the HBGA carbohydrates function as susceptibility alleles. However, secretor-negative individuals can be infected with other norovirus strains, and reinfection with the GII.4 strains is common in human populations. In this article, we analyze molecular mechanisms governing GII.4 epidemiology, susceptibility, and persistence in human populations. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Phylogenetic analyses of the GII.4 capsid sequences suggested an epochal evolution over the last 20 y with periods of stasis followed by rapid evolution of novel epidemic strains. The epidemic strains show a linear relationship in time, whereby serial replacements emerge from the previous cluster. Five major evolutionary clusters were identified, and representative ORF2 capsid

  3. ATP hydrolysis by a domain related to translation factor GTPases drives polymerization of a static bacterial morphogenetic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaing, Jean-Philippe; Nagy, Attila; Anantharaman, Vivek; Aravind, L; Ramamurthi, Kumaran S

    2013-01-08

    The assembly of static supramolecular structures is a culminating event of developmental programs. One such structure, the proteinaceous shell (called the coat) that surrounds spores of the bacterium Bacillus subtilis, is composed of about 70 different proteins and represents one of the most durable biological structures known. The coat is built atop a basement layer that contains an ATPase (SpoIVA) that forms a platform required for coat assembly. Here, we show that SpoIVA belongs to the translation factors class of P-loop GTPases and has evolutionarily lost the ability to bind GTP; instead, it uses ATP hydrolysis to drive its self-assembly into static filaments. We demonstrate that ATP hydrolysis is required by every subunit for incorporation into the growing polymer by inducing a conformational change that drives polymerization of a nucleotide-free filament. SpoIVA therefore differs from other self-organizing polymers (dynamic cytoskeletal structures and static intermediate filaments) in that it uses ATP hydrolysis to self-assemble, not disassemble, into a static polymer. We further show that polymerization requires a critical concentration that we propose is only achieved once SpoIVA is recruited to the surface of the developing spore, thereby ensuring that SpoIVA polymerization only occurs at the correct subcellular location during spore morphogenesis.

  4. Does positive selection drive transcription factor binding site turnover? A test with Drosophila cis-regulatory modules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Z He

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Transcription factor binding site(s (TFBS gain and loss (i.e., turnover is a well-documented feature of cis-regulatory module (CRM evolution, yet little attention has been paid to the evolutionary force(s driving this turnover process. The predominant view, motivated by its widespread occurrence, emphasizes the importance of compensatory mutation and genetic drift. Positive selection, in contrast, although it has been invoked in specific instances of adaptive gene expression evolution, has not been considered as a general alternative to neutral compensatory evolution. In this study we evaluate the two hypotheses by analyzing patterns of single nucleotide polymorphism in the TFBS of well-characterized CRM in two closely related Drosophila species, Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans. An important feature of the analysis is classification of TFBS mutations according to the direction of their predicted effect on binding affinity, which allows gains and losses to be evaluated independently along the two phylogenetic lineages. The observed patterns of polymorphism and divergence are not compatible with neutral evolution for either class of mutations. Instead, multiple lines of evidence are consistent with contributions of positive selection to TFBS gain and loss as well as purifying selection in its maintenance. In discussion, we propose a model to reconcile the finding of selection driving TFBS turnover with constrained CRM function over long evolutionary time.

  5. Sampling intensity and normalizations: Exploring cost-driving factors in nationwide mapping of tree canopy cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Tipton; Gretchen Moisen; Paul Patterson; Thomas A. Jackson; John Coulston

    2012-01-01

    There are many factors that will determine the final cost of modeling and mapping tree canopy cover nationwide. For example, applying a normalization process to Landsat data used in the models is important in standardizing reflectance values among scenes and eliminating visual seams in the final map product. However, normalization at the national scale is expensive and...

  6. What Are the Social, Psychological, and Cognitive Factors That Drive Individuals to Entrepreneurship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMattina, Lina M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was two-fold; first, to uncover the social, psychological, and cognitive factors core to the entrepreneurial individual; and secondly, to provide accurate data to be used in curriculum development to fill the existing educational gap that exists in the current literature regarding understanding the inner workings of the…

  7. Spatially dependent biotic and abiotic factors drive survivorship and physical structure of green roof vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisio, Jason M; Palmer, Matthew I; Giampieri, Mario A; Tuininga, Amy R; Lewis, James D

    2017-01-01

    Plant survivorship depends on biotic and abiotic factors that vary at local and regional scales. This survivorship, in turn, has cascading effects on community composition and the physical structure of vegetation. Survivorship of native plant species is variable among populations planted in environmentally stressful habitats like urban roofs, but the degree to which factors at different spatial scales affect survivorship in urban systems is not well understood. We evaluated the effects of biotic and abiotic factors on survivorship, composition, and physical structure of two native perennial species assemblages, one characterized by a mixture of C4 grasses and forbs (Hempstead Plains, HP) and one characterized by a mixture of C3 grasses and forbs (Rocky Summit, RS), that were initially sown at equal ratios of growth forms (5:1:4; grass, N-fixing forb and non-N-fixing forb) in replicate 2-m(2) plots planted on 10 roofs in New York City (New York, USA). Of 24 000 installed plants, 40% survived 23 months after planting. Within-roof factors explained 71% of variation in survivorship, with biotic (species identity and assemblage) factors accounting for 54% of the overall variation, and abiotic (growing medium depth and plot location) factors explaining 17% of the variation. Among-roof factors explained 29% of variation in survivorship and increased solar radiation correlated with decreased survivorship. While growing medium properties (pH, nutrients, metals) differed among roofs there was no correlation with survivorship. Percent cover and sward height increased with increasing survivorship. At low survivorship, cover of the HP assemblage was greater compared to the RS assemblage. Sward height of the HP assemblage was about two times greater compared to the RS assemblage. These results highlight the effects of local biotic and regional abiotic drivers on community composition and physical structure of green roof vegetation. As a result, initial green roof plant

  8. Indoor imitation experimental study on driving factors of rainfall-runoff process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shifeng; LIU Changming; XIA Jun; TAN Ge; LI Lin; LIU Caitang; ZHOU Changqing; GUO Lei

    2005-01-01

    The driving actions of rainfall-runoff process can be attributed to two aspects. The first is the influence of precipitation process, and the second is that of the ground pad. The research results of 179 indoor experiments conducted to imitate rainfall-runoff process indicate that both precipitation duration and intensity play important roles in affecting confluence lag time,which is obviously inconsistent with the traditional hypotheses. The nonlinear relationship is of great significance to the confluence curve especially when the precipitation duration is less than the total confluence time or the precipitation intensity is small. Therefore it can be concluded that the unit hydrograph (UH) can be applied to rainfall-runoff process imitation in the humid areas in the south China region. However, the UH application should be strictly modified in accordance with precipitation conditions in the arid and semiarid region of north China where the precipitation duration is short and the intensity is unstable. It will be hard to get ideal imitation results if the UH is applied blindly without considering specific conditions in the north China region. This also explains the unsatisfactory imitation results caused by using various hydrological models in the north China region. When the precipitation duration is short, and the watershed has not reached total watershed concentration, the characteristics of confluence change greatly, which reflects the actual situation in the north China region. Therefore necessary nonlinear corrections should be made when UH is applied. If the duration is longer than the total confluence time and the balance between pondage and discharge is stricken, the imitation research results will be applicable to both rainfall-runoff relation with longer duration in the south China region and the basic theoretical research on runoff generation and concentration. On conditions of adequate rainfall, peak discharge is in linear relationship with intensity

  9. A food-borne outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by norovirus GII in a university located in Xiamen City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhinan Guo

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: The outbreak of gastroenteritis was caused mainly by bread products contaminated with norovirus GII. A food handler with an asymptomatic norovirus GII infection was the possible source of infection.

  10. What factors drive interest rate spread of commercial banks? Empirical evidence from Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Were

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper empirically investigates the determinants of interest rate spread in Kenya's banking sector based on panel data analysis. The findings show that bank-specific factors play a significant role in the determination of interest rate spreads. These include bank size, credit risk as measured by non-performing loans to total loans ratio, return on average assets and operating costs, all of which positively influence interest rate spreads. On the other hand, higher bank liquidity ratio has a negative effect on the spreads. On average, big banks have higher spreads compared to small banks. The impact of macroeconomic factors such as real economic growth is insignificant. The effect of the monetary policy rate is positive but not highly significant. The results largely reflect the structure of the banking industry, in which a few big banks control a significant share of the market.

  11. Assessing What Factors Are Driving the Army Civilian Acquisition Multigenerational Workforce Age/Experience Mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-06

    values , personality traits, and work attitudes. Therefore, the researcher places value in the generational characteristics that were postulated and have...different set of life values and work-related motivational factors, which guides their employment desires and behaviors. Leaving Government jobs in 2 to 4...Department of the Army acquisition personnel audience. This audience has direct, personal knowledge about their own employment plans and trends

  12. Identifying driving factors for the establishment of cooperative GMO-free zones in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Consmuller, Nicola; Beckmann, Volker; Petrick, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Since the end of the quasi-moratorium on genetically modified organisms (GMO) in the European Union in 2004, the establishment of GMO-free zones has become an EU wide phenomenon. In contrast to other European countries, Germany follows the concept of cooperative GMO-free zones where neighbouring farmers contractually refrain from GMO cultivation. In this article, we address the question which underlying factors could account for the establishment of cooperative GMO-free zones in Germany. Draw...

  13. Climate drives fire synchrony but local factors control fire regime change in northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larissa L. Yocom Kent; Peter Z. Fulé; Peter M. Brown; Julián Cerano-Paredes; Eladio Cornejo-Oviedo; Citlali Cortés Montaño; Stacy A. Drury; Donald A. Falk; Jed Meunier; Helen M. Poulos; Carl N. Skinner; Scott L. Stephens; José Villanueva-Díaz

    2017-01-01

    The occurrence of wildfire is influenced by a suite of factors ranging from “top-down” influences (e.g., climate) to “bottom-up” localized influences (e.g., ignitions, fuels, and land use). We carried out the first broad-scale assessment of wildland fire patterns in northern Mexico to assess the relative influence of top-down and bottom-up drivers of fire in a...

  14. Nitric oxide drives embryonic myogenesis in chicken through the upregulation of myogenic differentiation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzato, Denise; Assi, Emma; Moscheni, Claudia; Brunelli, Silvia; De Palma, Clara; Cervia, Davide; Perrotta, Cristiana; Clementi, Emilio

    2014-01-15

    The muscle-specific variant of neuronal nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS-I), is developmentally regulated in mouse suggesting a role of NO during myogenesis. In chick embryo, a good model of development, we found that the expression of NOS-I is up-regulated, but only in the early phase of development. Through a pharmacological intervention in ovo we found that NO signalling plays a relevant role during embryonic development. The inhibition of NOS-I decreased the growth of embryo, in particular of muscle tissue, while the restoring of physiological NO levels, via administration of a NO donor, reversed this effect. We found a selective action of NO, produced by NOS-I, on regulatory factors involved in myogenic differentiation in the early phase of chick embryo development: inhibition of NO generation leads to a decreased expression of the Myocyte enhancer factor 2a (Mef2a), Mef2c, Myogenin and Myosin, which was reversed by the administration of a NO donor. NO had no effects on Myf5 and MyoD, the myogenic regulatory factors necessary for myogenic determination. The action of NO on the myogenic regulatory factors was mediated via generation of cyclic GMP (cGMP) and activation of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase G (PKG). Finally we found in myoblasts in vitro that the activation of Mef2c was the key event mediating the NO-induced modulation of myogenesis. Our results identify NO produced by NOS-I as a key messenger in the early phase of embryonic development of chicken, acting as a critical determinant of myogenesis through its physiological cGMP/PKG pathway.

  15. Toward Finding Driving Communications Factors in the System of Systems Survivability Simulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    of the investigation (Xing Wan, Zhu, Sanchez, & Kaymal, 2013). The Lasso method is a type of least squares regression analysis in which a penalty is...various real-world models. Another reason for the experiment is to be able to compare results of the stepwise linear regression with the Lasso method in...Design, Factor Screening, Survivability Lethality and Vulnerability Assessment, Supersaturated Design, Stepwise Regression 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 77

  16. Factors That Drives Young Adult Consumers’ Online Purchase Intention in Social Media Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Rahman Zahari; Elinda Esa; Muhammad Hakimi Baharudin; Muhammad Iqbal Amat Paijan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the drivers of online purchase intentions using social media as a medium. This study was able to obtain a sample size of 232 respondents using the stratified sampling method. The data collected then was analyzed using exploratory factor analysis, a reliability test, and the multiple regressions. In the proposed model, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, trust, enjoyment, and perceived security are postulated to influence the online purchase int...

  17. Befriending Risky Peers: Factors Driving Adolescents' Selection of Friends with Similar Marijuana Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Haye, Kayla; Green, Harold D; Pollard, Michael S; Kennedy, David P; Tucker, Joan S

    2015-10-01

    Adolescents often befriend peers who are similar to themselves on a range of demographic, behavioral, and social characteristics, including substance use. Similarities in lifetime history of marijuana use have even been found to predict adolescent friendships, and we examine whether this finding is explained by youth's selection of friends who are similar on a range of more proximate, observable characteristics that are risk factors for marijuana use. Using two waves of individual and social network data from two high schools that participated in Add Health (N = 1,612; 52.7% male), we apply longitudinal models for social networks to test whether or not several observable risky attributes (psychological, behavioral, and social) predict adolescent friendship choices, and if these preferences explain friend's similarities on lifetime marijuana use. Findings show that similarities on several risk factors predict friendship choices, however controlling for this, the preference to befriend peers with a similar history of marijuana use largely persists. The results highlight the range of social selection processes that lead to similarities in marijuana use among friends and larger peer groups, and that also give rise to friendship groups whose members share similar risk factors for substance use. Friends with high "collective risk" are likely to be important targets for preventing the onset and social diffusion of substance use in adolescents.

  18. To Communicate or Not to Communicate: Factors Predicting Passengers' Intentions to Ask a Driver to Stop Text Messaging While Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Interpersonal communication is important in health campaigns. This research examined factors that are associated with passengers' intentions to communicate no texting with a texting driver in a scenario where the driver is their friend. Based on survey data collected from 546 college students, results showed that students' attitudes toward communication about no texting while driving were predicted by their utilitarian (i.e., safety), value-expressive, and ego-defensive motivations, in addition to being predicted by self-efficacy and norms. Additional results revealed that empathic concern was correlated with the value-expressive motivation and anticipated guilt. Anticipated guilt, together with attitudes, norms, and efficacy, predicted communication intentions. Results revealed that including attitude functions (motivations) in the reasoned action model could help propose and test theory-based predictions in interpersonal communication and health behaviors.

  19. Sf-PHB2, A new transcription factor, Drives WSSV Ie1 Gene Expression via a 12-bp DNA Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Guoda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The WSSV immediate early gene ie1 is highly expressed throughout viral infection cycle and may play a central role in initiating viral replication during infection. Results Here, a detailed characterization of the ie1 promoter was performed using deletion and mutation analyses to elucidate the role of the individual promoter motifs. Three results were obtained: 1 the ie1 promoter is a classical eukaryotic promoter that contains the initiator element (Inr and TATA box responsible for the basal promoter activity; 2 mutation or truncation of a predicted Sp1 site decreased the level of promoter activity by about 3-fold, indicating that the Sp1 site is an important cis-element of the promoter; and 3 truncation of a 12-bp sequence that resides at -78/-67 of the ie1 promoter decreased the level of promoter activity by about 14-fold, indicating that the 12-bp motif is a critical upstream element of the ie1 promoter for binding of a strong transcription factor to drive the ie1 gene expression in the cells. Further, the 12-bp DNA binding protein was purified from the nuclear proteins of Sf9 cells using DNA affinity chromatography, and was identified as a homologue of the prohibitin2 protein (named as Sf-PHB2 using mass spectrometry. Furthermore, the DNA binding activity of Sf-PHB2 was verified using a super shift analysis. Conclusion These results support that the Sf-PHB2 is a novel transcription factor that drives WSSV ie1 gene expression by binding to the 12-bp DNA element.

  20. Costs and cost-driving factors for acute treatment of adults with status epilepticus: A multicenter cohort study from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortland, Lena-Marie; Alfter, Anne; Bähr, Oliver; Carl, Barbara; Dodel, Richard; Freiman, Thomas M; Hubert, Kristina; Jahnke, Kolja; Knake, Susanne; von Podewils, Felix; Reese, Jens-Peter; Runge, Uwe; Senft, Christian; Steinmetz, Helmuth; Rosenow, Felix; Strzelczyk, Adam

    2016-12-01

    To provide first data on inpatient costs and cost-driving factors due to nonrefractory status epilepticus (NSE), refractory status epilepticus (RSE), and super-refractory status epilepticus (SRSE). In 2013 and 2014, all adult patients treated due to status epilepticus (SE) at the university hospitals in Frankfurt, Greifswald, and Marburg were analyzed for healthcare utilization. We evaluated 341 admissions in 316 patients (65.7 ± [standard deviation]18.2 years; 135 male) treated for SE. Mean costs of hospital treatment were €14,946 (median €5,278, range €776-€152,911, €787 per treatment day) per patient per admission, with a mean length of stay (LOS) of 19.0 days (median 14.0, range 1-118). Course of SE had a significant impact on mean costs, with €8,314 in NSE (n = 137, median €4,597, €687 per treatment day, 22.3% of total inpatient costs due to SE), €13,399 in RSE (n = 171, median €7,203, €638/day, 45.0% of total costs, p costs, p cost-driving factors were SRSE, ventilation, and LOS of >14 days. Overall mortality at discharge was 14.4% and significantly higher in RSE/SRSE (20.1%) than in NSE (5.8%). Acute treatment of SE, and particularly SRSE and ventilation, are associated with high hospital costs and prolonged LOS. Extrapolation to the whole of Germany indicates that SE causes hospital costs of >€200 million per year. Along with the demographic change, incidence of SE will increase and costs for hospital treatment and sequelae of SE will rise. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  1. Recovery optimization and survival of human norovirus surrogates, feline calicivirus and murine norovirus on carpet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, David; Fraser, Angela; Huang, Guohui; Jiang, Xiuping

    2017-09-01

    Carpet been attributed to prolonged and reoccurring outbreaks of human noroviruses (HuNoV), the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Viral recovery from environmental surfaces, such as carpet, remains undeveloped. Our aim was to determine survival of HuNoV surrogates on an understudied environmental surface, carpet. First, we measured the zeta potential and absorption capacity of wool and nylon carpet fibers, then developed a mini-spin column elution method (MSC), and lastly characterized the survival of HuNoV surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV), over 60 days under 30 and 70% relative humidity (RH) on two types of carpet and one glass surface. Carpet surface charge was negative between relevant pH values (7 - 9). Additionally, wool could absorb ca. 2X more liquid than nylon. Percent recovery efficiency with the MSC ranged from 4.34 to 20.89% and 30.71 to 54.14% for FCV and MNV on carpet fibers, respectively, after desiccation. Overall, elution buffer type did not significantly affect recovery. Infectious FCV or MNV survived between <1 and 15 or 3 and 15 days, respectively. However, MNV survived longer under some conditions and at significantly (P <0.05) higher titers compared to FCV. Albeit, surrogates followed similar survival trends, i.e. both survived longest on wool then nylon and glass while 30% RH provided a more hospitable environment compared to 70% RH. RT-qPCR signals for both surrogates were detectable for the entire study but FCV genomic copies experienced significantly higher reductions (<3.80 log10 copies) on all surfaces compared to MNV (<1.10 log10 copies).IMPORTANCE Human noroviruses (HuNoV) are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Classical symptoms of illness include vomiting and diarrhea which could lead to severe dehydration and death. HuNoV are transmitted by the fecal-oral or vomitus-oral route via person-to-person, food, water, and/or environmental surfaces. Published laboratory

  2. Factors driving mortality and growth at treeline: a 30-year experiment of 92 000 conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeito, Ignacio; Dawes, Melissa A; Rixen, Christian; Senn, Josef; Bebi, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Understanding the interplay between environmental factors contributing to treeline formation and how these factors influence different life stages remains a major research challenge. We used an afforestation experiment including 92 000 trees to investigate the spatial and temporal dynamics of tree mortality and growth at treeline in the Swiss Alps. Seedlings of three high-elevation conifer species (Larix decidua, Pinus mugo ssp. uncinata, and Pinus cembra) were systematically planted along an altitudinal gradient at and above the current treeline (2075 to 2230 m above sea level [a.s.l.]) in 1975 and closely monitored during the following 30 years. We used decision-tree models and generalized additive models to identify patterns in mortality and growth along gradients in elevation, snow duration, wind speed, and solar radiation, and to quantify interactions between the different variables. For all three species, snowmelt date was always the most important environmental factor influencing mortality, and elevation was always the most important factor for growth over the entire period studied. Individuals of all species survived at the highest point of the afforestation for more than 30 years, although mortality was greater above 2160 m a.s.l., 50-100 m above the current treeline. Optimal conditions for height growth differed from those for survival in all three species: early snowmelt (ca. day of year 125-140 [where day 1 is 1 January]) yielded lowest mortality rates, but relatively later snowmelt (ca. day 145-150) yielded highest growth rates. Although snowmelt and elevation were important throughout all life stages of the trees, the importance of radiation decreased over time and that of wind speed increased. Our findings provide experimental evidence that tree survival and height growth require different environmental conditions and that even small changes in the duration of snow cover, in addition to changes in temperature, can strongly impact tree survival and

  3. Driving factors behind O/N interbank interest rates – the Hungarian experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Szilárd Erhart

    2005-01-01

    This study examines overnight (O/N) interest rates which constitute the short end of the yield curve and the factors which have an impact on such rates. The MNB, unlike several other central banks, does not have a direct overnight interest rate target; it does, however, limit the divergence of O/N interest rates from its policy rate with the settings of its operational framework. First, the MNB’s regulations on compulsory reserves allow banks to apply averaging in the reserve maintenance peri...

  4. Drive Stands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrical Systems Laboratory (ESL)houses numerous electrically driven drive stands. A drive stand consists of an electric motor driving a gearbox and a mounting...

  5. Profile of a drunk driver and risk factors for drunk driving. Findings in roadside testing in the province of Uusimaa in Finland 1990-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portman, M; Penttilä, A; Haukka, J; Rajalin, S; Eriksson, C J P; Gunnar, T; Koskimaa, H; Kuoppasalmi, K

    2013-09-10

    The aim of the present study was to define the profile of a drunk driver and to determine risk factors for drunk driving by analyzing data on both sober and drunk drivers. Systematic roadside surveys have been carried out in Southern Finland for over 18 years, with 20,000-30,000 drivers breath tested annually. During the study period, 1241 drunk drivers were caught (legal blood alcohol limit 0.50‰). The comparison material consisted of 3407 sober drivers. The surveys were designed to further investigate demographic features and driving habits of drivers. The prevalence of drunk driving has been 0.2% over the time period, with only random variations. According to the data, a typical drunk driver is a man aged 40-49 who has a valid driving license and drives his own car, usually alone, with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 1.0‰. He has a job and is married or cohabiting. The profile remained consistent throughout the study period. The risk of drunk driving was found to be five times higher for men than for women. Divorcees and widow(er)s had a substantially higher risk factor for being caught drunk driving than married drivers. Drunk drivers are most likely to be caught by roadside testing on Saturday mornings. During the study period the blood alcohol limit for aggravated drunk driving was lowered in 1994 from 1.5 to 1.2‰. In 2004 the taxation of alcohol beverages was reduced by 30%. Neither of these measures affected the prevalence of drunk driving or the mean BAC of drunk drivers (p=0.63). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The transcription factor Ets21C drives tumor growth by cooperating with AP-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toggweiler, Janine; Willecke, Maria; Basler, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Tumorigenesis is driven by genetic alterations that perturb the signaling networks regulating proliferation or cell death. In order to block tumor growth, one has to precisely know how these signaling pathways function and interplay. Here, we identified the transcription factor Ets21C as a pivotal regulator of tumor growth and propose a new model of how Ets21C could affect this process. We demonstrate that a depletion of Ets21C strongly suppressed tumor growth while ectopic expression of Ets21C further increased tumor size. We confirm that Ets21C expression is regulated by the JNK pathway and show that Ets21C acts via a positive feed-forward mechanism to induce a specific set of target genes that is critical for tumor growth. These genes are known downstream targets of the JNK pathway and we demonstrate that their expression not only depends on the transcription factor AP-1, but also on Ets21C suggesting a cooperative transcriptional activation mechanism. Taken together we show that Ets21C is a crucial player in regulating the transcriptional program of the JNK pathway and enhances our understanding of the mechanisms that govern neoplastic growth. PMID:27713480

  7. Metabolic factors-triggered inflammatory response drives antidepressant effects of exercise in CUMS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weina; Wang, Hongmei; Wang, Yangkai; Li, Haipeng; Ji, Liu

    2015-08-30

    Chronic stress is a potential contributing factor for depression, accompanying with metabolic and inflammatory response. Exercise is considered as a treatment for depression, but mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects still remain unknown. The objectives of present study were to confirm that metabolic factors-triggered inflammatory response mediates the antidepressant actions of exercise in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rats. It has been found that CUMS stimulated expression of ghrelin and its receptor Ghsr, but inhibited expression of leptin and its receptor LepRb. Ghrelin, via binding to Ghsr, induced phosphorylation of GSK-3β on Tyr216 and decreased phosphorylation on Ser9, thus increasing GSK-3β activity. Conversely, ghrelin binding to Ghsr decreased STAT3 activity, through decreasing phosphorylation of STAT3 on Tyr705 and increasing Ser727 phosphorylation. Negatively correlated with ghrelin, leptin binding to LepRb had opposite effects on the activity of GSK-3β and STAT3 via phosphorylation. In addition, decreased leptin level initiated NLRP3 activity via LepRb. Furthermore, GSK-3β inhibited STAT3 activation, thus promoting the expression of NLRP3. Meanwhile, swim improved metabolic and inflammatory response both in CUMS and control rats. Our findings suggest that exercise not only ameliorates metabolic disturbance and inflammatory response in depression, but also contributes to metabolic and inflammatory function in normal conditions.

  8. Epidermal growth-factor-induced transcript isoform variation drives mammary cell migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang J Köstler

    Full Text Available Signal-induced transcript isoform variation (TIV includes alternative promoter usage as well as alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation of mRNA. To assess the phenotypic relevance of signal-induced TIV, we employed exon arrays and breast epithelial cells, which migrate in response to the epidermal growth factor (EGF. We show that EGF rapidly--within one hour--induces widespread TIV in a significant fraction of the transcriptome. Importantly, TIV characterizes many genes that display no differential expression upon stimulus. In addition, similar EGF-dependent changes are shared by a panel of mammary cell lines. A functional screen, which utilized isoform-specific siRNA oligonucleotides, indicated that several isoforms play essential, non-redundant roles in EGF-induced mammary cell migration. Taken together, our findings highlight the importance of TIV in the rapid evolvement of a phenotypic response to extracellular signals.

  9. Using Open Data to Detect Organized Crime Threats—Factors Driving Future Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This work provides an innovative look at the use of open data for extracting information to detect and prevent crime, and also explores the link between terrorism and organized crime. In counter-terrorism and other forms of crime prevention, foresight about potential threats is vitally important......, counter-terrorism and crime science. It will also be of interest to those in related fields such as applications of computer science and data mining, public policy, and business intelligence......., such as communication between organized crime networks and radicalization towards terrorism, is driven by a combination of political, economic, social, technological, legal and environmental factors. The contributions to this volume represent a major step by researchers to systematically collect, filter, interpret...

  10. Is intra-abdominal hypertension a missing factor that drives multiple organ dysfunction syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Roberts, Derek J; De Waele, Jan; Laupland, Kevin

    2014-03-19

    In a recent issue of Critical Care, Cheng and colleagues conducted a rabbit model study that demonstrated that intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) may damage both gut anatomy and function. With only 6 hours of IAH at 25 mmHg, these authors observed an 80% reduction in mucosal blood flow, an exponential increase in mucosal permeability, and erosion and necrosis of the jejunal villi. Such dramatic findings should remind all caring for the critically ill that IAH may severely damage the normal gut barrier functions and thus may be reasonably expected to facilitate bacterial and mediator translocation. The potential contribution of IAH as a confounding factor in the efficacy of selective decontamination of the digestive tract should be considered.

  11. Factors That Drives Young Adult Consumers’ Online Purchase Intention in Social Media Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahman Zahari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore the drivers of online purchase intentions using social media as a medium. This study was able to obtain a sample size of 232 respondents using the stratified sampling method. The data collected then was analyzed using exploratory factor analysis, a reliability test, and the multiple regressions. In the proposed model, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, trust, enjoyment, and perceived security are postulated to influence the online purchase intention. It is found that perceived security and trust plus with perceived usefulness and enjoyment have positively influence the online purchase intention among young adults. However, perceived ease of use has no significant influence on online purchase intention. The findings in this study can be adopted as outlines for businesses as well as individuals who intent to exploit online business through social media.

  12. Factors driving changes in freshwater mussel (Bivalvia, Unionida) diversity and distribution in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieritz, Alexandra; Lopes-Lima, Manuel; Bogan, Arthur E; Sousa, Ronaldo; Walton, Samuel; Rahim, Khairul Adha A; Wilson, John-James; Ng, Pei-Yin; Froufe, Elsa; McGowan, Suzanne

    2016-11-15

    Freshwater mussels (Bivalvia, Unionida) fulfil important ecosystem functions and are one of the most threatened freshwater taxa globally. Knowledge of freshwater mussel diversity, distribution and ecology in Peninsular Malaysia is extremely poor, and the conservation status of half of the species presumed to occur in the region has yet to be assessed. We conducted the first comprehensive assessment of Peninsular Malaysia's freshwater mussels based on species presence/absence and environmental data collected from 155 sites spanning all major river catchments and diverse habitat types. Through an integrative morphological-molecular approach we recognised nine native and one widespread non-native species, i.e. Sinanodonta woodiana. Two species, i.e. Pilsbryoconcha compressa and Pseudodon cambodjensis, had not been previously recorded from Malaysia, which is likely a result of morphological misidentifications of historical records. Due to their restriction to single river catchments and declining distributions, Hyriopsis bialata, possibly endemic to Peninsular Malaysia, Ensidens ingallsianus, possibly already extinct in the peninsula, and Rectidens sumatrensis, particularly require conservation attention. Equally, the Pahang, the Perak and the north-western river catchments are of particular conservation value due to the presence of a globally unique freshwater mussel fauna. Statistical relationships of 15 water quality parameters and mussel presence/absence identified acidification and nutrient pollution (eutrophication) as the most important anthropogenic factors threatening freshwater mussel diversity in Peninsular Malaysia. These factors can be linked to atmospheric pollution, deforestation, oil-palm plantations and a lack of functioning waste water treatment, and could be mitigated by establishing riparian buffers and improving waste water treatment for rivers running through agricultural and residential land.

  13. Interacting factors driving a major loss of large trees with cavities in a forest ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmayer, David B; Blanchard, Wade; McBurney, Lachlan; Blair, David; Banks, Sam; Likens, Gene E; Franklin, Jerry F; Laurance, William F; Stein, John A R; Gibbons, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Large trees with cavities provide critical ecological functions in forests worldwide, including vital nesting and denning resources for many species. However, many ecosystems are experiencing increasingly rapid loss of large trees or a failure to recruit new large trees or both. We quantify this problem in a globally iconic ecosystem in southeastern Australia--forests dominated by the world's tallest angiosperms, Mountain Ash (Eucalyptus regnans). Tree, stand and landscape-level factors influencing the death and collapse of large living cavity trees and the decay and collapse of dead trees with cavities are documented using a suite of long-term datasets gathered between 1983 and 2011. The historical rate of tree mortality on unburned sites between 1997 and 2011 was >14% with a mortality spike in the driest period (2006-2009). Following a major wildfire in 2009, 79% of large living trees with cavities died and 57-100% of large dead trees were destroyed on burned sites. Repeated measurements between 1997 and 2011 revealed no recruitment of any new large trees with cavities on any of our unburned or burned sites. Transition probability matrices of large trees with cavities through increasingly decayed condition states projects a severe shortage of large trees with cavities by 2039 that will continue until at least 2067. This large cavity tree crisis in Mountain Ash forests is a product of: (1) the prolonged time required (>120 years) for initiation of cavities; and (2) repeated past wildfires and widespread logging operations. These latter factors have resulted in all landscapes being dominated by stands ≤72 years and just 1.16% of forest being unburned and unlogged. We discuss how the features that make Mountain Ash forests vulnerable to a decline in large tree abundance are shared with many forest types worldwide.

  14. Comparison of methods for detection of norovirus in oysters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Saadbye, Peter; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    In the absence of culture methods for noroviruses, detection in foods relies on molecular techniques such as Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) on extracted viral RNA followed by PCR product confirmation by hybridisation and/or sequencing. However, in order to obtain......V was detected by a single round RT-PCR approach using the primers JV13i and JV12y. The second most efficient method was a method using chloroform extraction and polyethylene precipitation....

  15. Foodborne norovirus outbreak: the role of an asymptomatic food handler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pintó Rosa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In July 2005 an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis occurred on a residential summer camp in the province of Barcelona (northeast of Spain. Forty-four people were affected among residents and employees. All of them had in common a meal at lunch time on 13 July (paella, round of beef and fruit. The aim of this study was to investigate a foodborne norovirus outbreak that occurred in the residential summer camp and in which the implication of a food handler was demonstrated by laboratory tests. Methods A retrospective cohort study was designed. Personal or telephone interview was carried out to collect demographic, clinical and microbiological data of the exposed people, as well as food consumption in the suspected lunch. Food handlers of the mentioned summer camp were interviewed. Ten stool samples were requested from symptomatic exposed residents and the three food handlers that prepared the suspected food. Stools were tested for bacteries and noroviruses. Norovirus was detected using RT-PCR and sequence analysis. Attack rate, relative risks (RR and its 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated to assess the association between food consumption and disease. Results The global attack rate of the outbreak was 55%. The main symptoms were abdominal pain (90%, nausea (85%, vomiting (70% and diarrhoea (42.5%. The disease remitted in 24-48 hours. Norovirus was detected in seven faecal samples, one of them was from an asymptomatic food handler who had not eaten the suspected food (round of beef, but cooked and served the lunch. Analysis of the two suspected foods isolated no pathogenic bacteria and detected no viruses. Molecular analysis showed that the viral strain was the same in ill patients and in the asymptomatic food handler (genotype GII.2 Melksham-like. Conclusions In outbreaks of foodborne disease, the search for viruses in affected patients and all food handlers, even in those that are asymptomatic, is essential. Health

  16. [Responses of canopy stomatal conductance of Acacia mangium forest to environmental driving factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ping; Rao, Xingquan; Ma, Ling; Cai, Xi'an; Zeng, Xiaoping

    2006-07-01

    Employing Granierś probes, this paper measured the sap flow of 14 sample trees in an Acacia mangium forest on the Heshan hilly lands of Guangdong Province, and recorded the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), air relative humidity (RH) , and air temperature (T) above the forest canopy. The whole-tree transpiration (E), stand transpiration (Et), and mean canopy stomatal conductance (gc) were calculated, and the relationships between tree morphological characters and whole-tree water use as well as the responses of gc to PAR and vapor pressure deficit (D) were analyzed. The results showed that the whole-tree transpiration had logarithmical positive correlations with tree diameter at breast height (DBH) (P < 0.0001) , sapwood area (P < 0.0001) and canopy size (P = 0.0007), and an exponential positive correlation with tree height (P = 0. 014). The maximum gc (gc max) changed with PAR hyperbolically (P < 0.0001), and with D logarithmically (P < 0.0001). The sap flow measurement system used in this study was reliable and accurate in estimating the transpiration of whole-tree and stand and the canopy stomatal conductance, being an effective tool in studying the relationships between forest water use and environmental factors.

  17. Public healthcare expenditure in Spain: measuring the impact of driving factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Moreno, Ángela; Urbanos-Garrido, Rosa M; Thuissard-Vasallo, Israel John

    2013-06-01

    To assess the impact of demography, health status, death related costs and some macroeconomic variables on the evolution of health expenditure. We follow the methodology used by the Ageing Working Group (AWG) of the European Union to simulate expenditure projections on the basis of healthcare expenditure profiles for age-sex population groups. We estimate the profiles using data from Hospital Discharges Statistics and the Spanish National Health Survey. The differences between the compression of morbidity scenario and the expansion of morbidity scenario range from 1.35 to 1.57 points of GDP in 2060. The overestimation of healthcare expenditure when death related costs are ignored ranges from 0.04 to 0.11 percentage points, depending on the health status hypothesis. Moreover, the effect of death related cost diminishes as health status improves. Our results support the fact that intensity of healthcare use, instead of ageing, is the main driver of health expenditure. Thus, the concern of keeping expenditure under control should be focused on factors such as the population's health status, economic growth and development, new technologies and medical progress, and the organization and management of the healthcare system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hepatocyte growth factor signaling in intrapancreatic ductal cells drives pancreatic morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M Anderson

    Full Text Available In a forward genetic screen for regulators of pancreas development in zebrafish, we identified donut(s908 , a mutant which exhibits failed outgrowth of the exocrine pancreas. The s908 mutation leads to a leucine to arginine substitution in the ectodomain of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF tyrosine kinase receptor, Met. This missense mutation impedes the proteolytic maturation of the receptor, its trafficking to the plasma membrane, and diminishes the phospho-activation of its kinase domain. Interestingly, during pancreatogenesis, met and its hgf ligands are expressed in pancreatic epithelia and mesenchyme, respectively. Although Met signaling elicits mitogenic and migratory responses in varied contexts, normal proliferation rates in donut mutant pancreata together with dysmorphic, mislocalized ductal cells suggest that met primarily functions motogenically in pancreatic tail formation. Treatment with PI3K and STAT3 inhibitors, but not with MAPK inhibitors, phenocopies the donut pancreatic defect, further indicating that Met signals through migratory pathways during pancreas development. Chimera analyses showed that Met-deficient cells were excluded from the duct, but not acinar, compartment in the pancreatic tail. Conversely, wild-type intrapancreatic duct and "tip cells" at the leading edge of the growing pancreas rescued the donut phenotype. Altogether, these results reveal a novel and essential role for HGF signaling in the intrapancreatic ducts during exocrine morphogenesis.

  19. An ecological overview on the factors that drives to Trypanosoma cruzi oral transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Noya, Belkisyolé Alarcón; González, Oscar Noya

    2015-11-01

    American trypanosomiasis is one of the few native parasites of this continent. As a zoonosis, Trypanosoma cruzi infects about 180 species out of 25 families of mammals. Its regular transmission is through triatomines, which can easily transmit parasites either by the skin route (contamination of mammals skin with their feces) or by oral route (ingestion of food contaminated with complete triatomines or their feces) and additionally through haematogenous via (congenital and transfusional) and by tissues (transplants). The oral route, which seems to be the ancestral form of transmission to wild and domestic mammals, has recently become more important after the success achieved in the control of domicile vectors using residual pesticides. From its initial diagnosis in 1967, tens of oral outbreaks have been diagnosed mostly in the Brazilian Amazon and subsequently in other four countries in South America. Environmental imbalance caused by man through the invasion and deforestation of woodlands, results in reduction of biodiversity of mammals as food source for triatomines, affecting the "dilution effect" of T. cruzi in the nature increasing the risk of human infection. On the other hand, triatomines invade houses looking for new blood sources. One of the consequences of domiciliated triatomines is the food contamination spread, especially in home-made juices, which has been the source of infection of most oral outbreaks. Other biotic and abiotic factors help to explain the recent increase of oral transmission outbreaks of Chagas disease, distributed in nine eco-regions of America.

  20. Factors driving semi-aquatic predator occurrence in traditional cattle drinking pools: conservation issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoul Manenti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In several cases, human impact on water bodies and on their freshwater communities is detrimental, but in some cases the human activity may favour and enhance the biodiversity of small water bodies, as traditional cattle drinking pools. Despite their small size, small water bodies may constitute hot spot of biodiversity often representing the only lentic aquatic biotope in landscapes where superficial water lacks or flows in lotic environments like creeks and streams. Predators are good indicators of biodiversity in ponds and give information of food chain web complexity. In particular, semi-aquatic predators like amphibians and dragonflies may account for a substantial percentage of energy flow between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, we evaluated the conservation value of traditional cattle drinking pools building by assessing the factors determining the occurrence and distribution of the semi-aquatic predators. From April to August 2015, we investigated 30 distinct pools recording several abiotic and biotic environmental variables. We detected 4 semi-aquatic predators: Salamandra salamandra larvae, Triturus carnifex, Aeshna sp. larvae and Libellula sp. larvae. Abiotic features played a major role in shaping the predator community that resulted linked to stable, with no dryness period, and large drinking pools. Invertebrate prey biomass was not particularly important, while vegetation cover and occurrence of unpalatable tadpoles were the most important biotic features of the pools. Our study provides novel evidence on the importance of cattle drinking pools management to preserve biodiversity especially in areas where traditional pastoral activity is disappearing.

  1. The Theory of Planned Behavior, Past Behavior, Situational Factors, and Self-Identity Factors Drive Indonesian Enterpreneurs to Be Indebtedness

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    Shine Pintor S. Patiro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the factors affecting borrowing intention among young entrepreneur of Indonesia TDA community based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB. About 100 questionnaires were accepted and analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM in determining the relationships. The results show that borrowing intention amongst young entrepreneur of Indonesia TDA community is influenced by attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavior control, self identity, situational temptation, and past behavior. The young entrepreneur of Indonesia TDA community believe that they have complete control of their behavior in borrowing as they perceived to be equipped with the knowledge about the personal financing. In addition, because of their experience in students’ loans since undergraduates’ level, the result explains why situational temptation were found to be a significant predictor. The findings offer implications for researchers and government.

  2. Cysteine protease activation and apoptosis in Murine norovirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettayebi Khalil

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noroviruses are the leading cause of viral gastroenteritis. Because a suitable in vitro culture system for the human virus has yet to be developed, many basic details of the infection process are unknown. Murine norovirus (MNV serves as a model system for the study of norovirus infection. Recently it was shown that infection of RAW 264.7 cells involved a novel apoptotic pathway involving survivin. Results Using a different set of approaches, the up-regulation of caspases, DNA condensation/fragmentation, and membrane blebbing, all of which are markers of apoptosis, were confirmed. Live cell imaging and activity-based protein profiling showed that activation of caspase-like proteases occurred within two hours of infection, followed by morphological changes to the cells. MNV infection in the presence of caspase inhibitors proceeded via a distinct pathway of rapid cellular necrosis and reduced viral production. Affinity purification of activity-based protein profiling targets and identification by peptide mass fingerprinting showed that the cysteine protease cathepsin B was activated early in infection, establishing this protein as an upstream activator of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Conclusion This work adds cathepsin B to the noncanonical programmed cell death induced by MNV, and provides data suggesting that the virus may induce apoptosis to expand the window of time for viral replication. This work also highlights the significant power of activity-based protein profiling in the study of viral pathogenesis.

  3. In Vitro Cell Culture Infectivity Assay for Human Noroviruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straub, Tim M.; Honer Zu Bentrup, Kerstin A.; Orosz Coghlan, Patricia A.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Mayer, Brooke K.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Valdez, Catherine O.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.; Gerba, Charles P.; Abbaszadegan, Morteza; Nickerson, Cheryl A.

    2007-01-30

    Human noroviruses (NoV) cause severe, self-limiting gastroenteritis that typically lasts 24 - 48 hours. The true nature of NoV pathogenesis remains unknown due to the lack of suitable tissue culture or animal models. Here we show, for the first time, that NoV can infect and replicate in an organoid, three-dimensional (3-D) model of human small intestinal epithelium (INT-407). Cellular differentiation for this model was achieved by growing the cells in 3-D on porous collagen I-coated microcarrier beads under conditions of physiological fluid shear in rotating wall vessel bioreactors. Microscopy, PCR, and fluorescent in-situ hybridization were employed to provide evidence of NoV infection. CPE and norovirus RNA was detected at each of the five cell passages for both genogroup I and II viruses. Our results demonstrate that the highly differentiated 3-D cell culture model can support the natural growth of human noroviruses, whereas previous attempts using differentiated monolayer cultures failed.

  4. Untangling Risk in Water Supply Systems: What Factors Drive Long-term Adaptation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeff, H. B.; Lin, L.; Band, L. E.; Reed, P. M.; Characklis, G. W.

    2016-12-01

    Deeply uncertain factors like climate change, the hydrologic impacts of urbanization, forest evolution, and long-term demand forecasts make water supply planning a `wicked' problem. The traditional technique of assessing risk based on historical observations can be inadequate in the face of environmental non-stationarity. However, competing models and limited observational data make it difficult for decision makers and experts to agree on how much uncertainty should be built into analyses of risk, particularly at the timescales relevant to long-term investments in water infrastructure. Further, the physical connectivity of these deeply uncertain processes create inter-related systems, amplifying the challenges of a `worst case scenario'. The development of adaptive systems and planning processes provide solutions that have been shown to meet technical, environmental, and social objectives at lower costs. Instead of developing plans with fixed targets for the timing of actions, adaptive plans develop risk metrics and thresholds that are able to integrate new information to determine when conditions reach a `tipping point' which necessitates action. It is an open question as to how new information can be best integrated into the decision-making process (i.e. how much weight do we give new observations relative to the historical record), but a better understanding of the way the relevant systems are expected to evolve and change over time could inform these decisions. In this study, we use linked, dynamic models of temperature and precipitation changes, forest evolution, urbanization, hydrology, and water demand to develop scenarios for an adaptive water management framework that uses risk-based metrics to make short- and long-term decisions. The impact of individual environmental processes on the adaptive capability of this management framework is evaluated through problem formulations that successively increase the complexity of the uncertainty scenarios. Although

  5. Analysis of the Influencing Factors and Key Driving Force concerning the Efficiency of Green Supply Chain of Fruits and Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingtang; LI; Zhong; QIAO

    2014-01-01

    Like the general green supply chain,the green supply chain of fruits and vegetables also requires low negative effects of the environment and high resource utilization rate,as well as the healthiness and freshness of fruits and vegetables.Currently,the level of development of the green supply chain of fruits and vegetables is low in China,and the freshness of fruits and vegetables can not be well maintained,so there is an urgent need to improve the operational efficiency of the green supply chain of fruits and vegetables.The operational efficiency of the green supply chain of fruits and vegetables is affected by many factors,and the most important factor is the incomplete consistency between the individual interests of supply chain members and the overall interests of supply chain.Therefore,the key driving force to improve the efficiency of green supply chain of fruits and vegetables is to build the scientific and rational collaborative decision-making mechanism of supply chain,in order to solve the problems concerning the green supply chain of fruits and vegetables,such as risk sharing,cost control and revenue allocation,thereby achieving the coordinated development of the green supply chain of fruits and vegetables.

  6. Analysis of energy-related CO2 emissions and driving factors in five major energy consumption sectors in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Erqian; Ren, Lijun; Sun, Haoyu

    2016-10-01

    Continual growth of energy-related CO2 emissions in China has received great attention, both domestically and internationally. In this paper, we evaluated the CO2 emissions in five major energy consumption sectors which were evaluated from 1991 to 2012. In order to analyze the driving factors of CO2 emission change in different sectors, the Kaya identity was extended by adding several variables based on specific industrial characteristics and a decomposition analysis model was established according to the LMDI method. The results demonstrated that economic factor was the leading force explaining emission increase in each sector while energy intensity and sector contribution were major contributors to emission mitigation. Meanwhile, CO2 emission intensity had no significant influence on CO2 emission in the short term, and energy consumption structure had a small but growing negative impact on the increase of CO2 emissions. In addition, the future CO2 emissions of industry from 2013 to 2020 under three scenarios were estimated, and the reduction potential of CO2 emissions in industry are 335 Mt in 2020 under lower-emission scenario while the CO2 emission difference between higher-emission scenario and lower-emission scenario is nearly 725 Mt. This paper can offer complementary perspectives on determinants of energy-related CO2 emission change in different sectors and help to formulate mitigation strategies for CO2 emissions.

  7. Ionic liquid pretreatment of biomass for sugars production: Driving factors with a plausible mechanism for higher enzymatic digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Tirath; Gaur, Ruchi; Dixit, Pooja; Gupta, Ravi P; Kagdiyal, V; Kumar, Ravindra; Tuli, Deepak K

    2016-09-20

    In this study, five ionic liquids (ILs) have been explored for biomass pretreatment for the production of fermentable sugar. We also investigated the driving factors responsible for improved enzymatic digestibility of various ILs treated biomass along with postulating the plausible mechanism thereof. Post pretreatment, mainly two factors impacted the enzymatic digestibility (i) structural deformation (cellulose I to II) along with xylan/lignin removal and (ii) properties of ILs; wherein, K-T parameters, viscosity and surface tension had a direct influence on pretreatment. A systematic investigation of these parameters and their impact on enzymatic digestibility is drawn. [C2mim][OAc] with β-value 1.32 resulted 97.7% of glucose yield using 10 FPU/g of biomass. A closer insight into the cellulose structural transformation has prompted a plausible mechanism explaining the better digestibility. The impact of these parameters on the digestibility can pave the way to customize the process to make biomass vulnerable to enzymatic attack.

  8. Transcription factor hlh-2/E/Daughterless drives expression of α integrin ina-1 during DTC migration in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meighan, Christopher M; Kann, Allison P; Egress, Emily R

    2015-09-01

    Integrins are involved in a vast number of cell behaviors due to their roles in adhesion and signaling. The regulation of integrin expression is of particular interest as a mechanism to drive developmental events and for the role of altered integrin expression profiles in cancer. Dynamic regulation of the expression of integrin receptors is required for the migration of the distal tip cell (DTC) during gonadogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans. α integrin ina-1 is required for DTC motility, yet is up-regulated by an unknown mechanism. Analysis of the promoter for α integrin ina-1 identified two E-box sequences that are required for ina-1 expression in the DTC. Knockdown of transcription factor hlh-2, an established E-box binding partner and ortholog of E/Daughterless, prevented expression of a transcriptional fusion of the ina-1 promoter to RFP and blocked DTC migration. Similarly, knockdown of hlh-2 also prevented expression of a translational fusion of the genomic ina-1 gene to GFP while blocking DTC migration. Knockdown of HLH-2 binding partner MIG-24 also reduced ina-1 expression and DTC migration. Overall, these results show that the transcription factor hlh-2 is required for up-regulation of ina-1 at the onset of DTC migration.

  9. Phosphorylation of a WRKY transcription factor by two pathogen-responsive MAPKs drives phytoalexin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Guohong; Meng, Xiangzong; Liu, Yidong; Zheng, Zuyu; Chen, Zhixiang; Zhang, Shuqun

    2011-04-01

    Plant sensing of invading pathogens triggers massive metabolic reprogramming, including the induction of secondary antimicrobial compounds known as phytoalexins. We recently reported that MPK3 and MPK6, two pathogen-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinases, play essential roles in the induction of camalexin, the major phytoalexin in Arabidopsis thaliana. In search of the transcription factors downstream of MPK3/MPK6, we found that WRKY33 is required for MPK3/MPK6-induced camalexin biosynthesis. In wrky33 mutants, both gain-of-function MPK3/MPK6- and pathogen-induced camalexin production are compromised, which is associated with the loss of camalexin biosynthetic gene activation. WRKY33 is a pathogen-inducible transcription factor, whose expression is regulated by the MPK3/MPK6 cascade. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays reveal that WRKY33 binds to its own promoter in vivo, suggesting a potential positive feedback regulatory loop. Furthermore, WRKY33 is a substrate of MPK3/MPK6. Mutation of MPK3/MPK6 phosphorylation sites in WRKY33 compromises its ability to complement the camalexin induction in the wrky33 mutant. Using a phospho-protein mobility shift assay, we demonstrate that WRKY33 is phosphorylated by MPK3/MPK6 in vivo in response to Botrytis cinerea infection. Based on these data, we conclude that WRKY33 functions downstream of MPK3/MPK6 in reprogramming the expression of camalexin biosynthetic genes, which drives the metabolic flow to camalexin production in Arabidopsis challenged by pathogens.

  10. DRIVING AND LIMITING FACTORS IN THE FARM MANAGEMENT BY YOUNG FARMERS IN THE CONTEXT OF SURVEY RESEARCH

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    Barbara Kiełbasa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to identify driving and limiting factors of farm management in a region of fragmented agriculture. The paper presents the results of the research conducted in the South-Eastern Poland (Macroregion of Małopolska and Pogórze. The survey was conducted in 2014 in the farms managed by young farmers, i.e. the benefi ciaries of the measure “Setting up of young farmers” from the RDP 2007–2013, with the use of a survey method with a questionnaire interview. The research was empirical, and its main goal was to present a case study of the farm management by young farmers in terms of specifi c management barriers. The results of the studies pointed to the fragmented agrarian structure as the one of the biggest barriers of the eff ective farm management. The young farmers pointed that fragmented agrarian structure signifi cantly impedes the purchase or lease of agricultural land, and the farm development in the same way. The survey pointed to the factors that contribute to the young farmers: the entrepreneurial attitude, activity and creativity, training, the management knowledge and better access to the Common Agricultural Policy instruments.

  11. Intervention methods to control the transmission of noroviruses and other enteric and respiratory viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuladhar, E.

    2014-01-01

    Intervention methods to control the transmission of noroviruses and other enteric and respiratory viruses Era Tuladhar Abstract Human noroviruses are the leading cause of acute and outbreak associated gastroenteritis worldwide. The outbreaks occur often in

  12. Surface plasmon resonance biosensor for detection of feline calicivirus, a surrogate for norovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The human noroviruses are the most common non-bacterial cause of gastroenteritis and are responsible for as much as 50% of all gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. Norovirus (NoV), a single stranded RNA virus, is highly contagious with an infectious dose of less than 100 viral particles. While techn...

  13. Burden of Norovirus and Rotavirus in Children after Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction, Cochabamba, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAtee, Casey L.; Webman, Rachel; Gilman, Robert H.; Mejia, Carolina; Bern, Caryn; Apaza, Sonia; Espetia, Susan; Pajuelo, Mónica; Saito, Mayuko; Challappa, Roxanna; Soria, Richard; Ribera, Jose P.; Lozano, Daniel; Torrico, Faustino

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of rotavirus vaccine in the field may set the stage for a changing landscape of diarrheal illness affecting children worldwide. Norovirus and rotavirus are the two major viral enteropathogens of childhood. This study describes the prevalence of norovirus and rotavirus 2 years after widespread rotavirus vaccination in Cochabamba, Bolivia. Stool samples from hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and outpatients aged 5–24 months without AGE were recruited from an urban hospital serving Bolivia's third largest city. Both viruses were genotyped, and norovirus GII.4 was further sequenced. Norovirus was found much more frequently than rotavirus. Norovirus was detected in 69/201 (34.3%) of specimens from children with AGE and 13/71 (18.3%) of those without diarrhea. Rotavirus was detected in 38/201 (18.9%) of diarrheal specimens and 3/71 (4.2%) of non-diarrheal specimens. Norovirus GII was identified in 97.8% of norovirus-positive samples; GII.4 was the most common genotype (71.4% of typed specimens). Rotavirus G3P[8] was the most prevalent rotavirus genotype (44.0% of typed specimens) and G2P[4] was second most prevalent (16.0% of typed specimens). This community is likely part of a trend toward norovirus predominance over rotavirus in children after widespread vaccination against rotavirus. PMID:26598569

  14. Intervention methods to control the transmission of noroviruses and other enteric and respiratory viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuladhar, E.

    2014-01-01

    Intervention methods to control the transmission of noroviruses and other enteric and respiratory viruses Era Tuladhar Abstract Human noroviruses are the leading cause of acute and outbreak associated gastroenteritis worldwide. The outbreaks occur often in hospitals

  15. Inactivation of HAV and norovirus surrogates within raw shellfish and other foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    High pressure processing can inactivate hepatitis A virus, (HAV) and the human norovirus surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV), in foods such as oysters, strawberries, and green onions. A 5-min 400-Megapascals (MPa) treatment at 5 degrees C and a 1–min 400-MPa treatment at ...

  16. Critical review of norovirus surrogates in food safety research: rationale for considering volunteer studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The inability to propagate human norovirus (NoV) or to clearly differentiate infectious from noninfectious virus particles have led to the use of surrogate viruses, like feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus-1 (MNV), which are propagatable in cell culture. The use of surrogates is predicate...

  17. Standardized positive controls for detection of norovirus by reverse transcription PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh SeHwan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Norovirus is one of the most common causes of nonbacterial gastroenteritis in humans. Rapid spread by contaminated food and person-to-person transmission through the fecal-oral route are characteristics of norovirus epidemiology and result in high morbidity in vulnerable patient populations. Therefore, detection of norovirus is a major public health concern. Currently, the most common method for detecting and differentiating among norovirus strains in clinical and environmental samples is reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR. Standardized positive controls used in RT-PCR assays to detect norovirus are designed to overcome the problem of false-negative results due to PCR inhibitors and suboptimal reaction conditions. Results In the current study, four types of RNA transcripts were produced from plasmids: norovirus GI-5 and GII-4 capsid regions with human rotavirus (VP7 gene derived fragment insertions, and norovirus GI-6 and GII-4 capsid regions with hepatitis A virus (VP1/P2A gene derived fragment insertions. These size-distinguishable products were used as positive controls under the RT-PCR assay conditions used to detect NoV in stool and groundwater samples. Their reliability and reproducibility was confirmed by multiple sets of experiments. Conclusions These standardized products may contribute to the reliable and accurate diagnosis by RT-PCR of norovirus outbreaks, when conducted by laboratories located in different regions.

  18. Emergence of the GII-4 Norovirus Sydney2012 strain in England, winter 2012-2013.

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    David J Allen

    Full Text Available Norovirus is the commonest cause of acute gastrointestinal disease and is the main aetiological agent of outbreaks of gastroenteritis, particularly in semi-closed environments. Norovirus infections in England typically peak between December and March each year. The most commonly detected norovirus strains belong to the genetically diverse genogroup-II genotype-4 (GII-4 genocluster and in the previous two norovirus winter seasons the majority of GII-4 strains in circulation worldwide have been genetically similar to the GII-4 strain New Orleans 1805/2009/USA. At the beginning of the 2012/13 season a genetically distinct GII-4 strain (Sydney 2012/NSW0514/2012/AU was described which emerged worldwide during the winter of 2012/13. Here we describe the emergence of norovirus strains genetically related to Sydney2012 in England during the 2012/13 season to replace NewOrleans2009 strains as the most commonly detected variant of GII-4 norovirus in England. Furthermore, we demonstrate that whilst the emergence of Sydney2012 coincided with an early peak in the number of norovirus outbreaks, there was not an overall increase in norovirus activity compared to the previous season. Finally, we show that the Sydney2012 strain is associated with distinct genetic changes compared to the NewOrleans2009 strain, and these changes may have contributed to the emergence of the Sydney2012 strain.

  19. Burden of norovirus in healthcare facilities and strategies for outbreak control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kambhampati; M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); B.A. Lopman (Benjamin A.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractNorovirus is the most frequently occurring cause of community-acquired acute gastroenteritis in people of all ages. It is also one of the most frequent causes of outbreaks in healthcare settings, affecting both long-term care facilities and acute care hospitals. Whereas norovirus gastroe

  20. Burden of Norovirus and Rotavirus in Children After Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction, Cochabamba, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAtee, Casey L; Webman, Rachel; Gilman, Robert H; Mejia, Carolina; Bern, Caryn; Apaza, Sonia; Espetia, Susan; Pajuelo, Mónica; Saito, Mayuko; Challappa, Roxanna; Soria, Richard; Ribera, Jose P; Lozano, Daniel; Torrico, Faustino

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of rotavirus vaccine in the field may set the stage for a changing landscape of diarrheal illness affecting children worldwide. Norovirus and rotavirus are the two major viral enteropathogens of childhood. This study describes the prevalence of norovirus and rotavirus 2 years after widespread rotavirus vaccination in Cochabamba, Bolivia. Stool samples from hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and outpatients aged 5-24 months without AGE were recruited from an urban hospital serving Bolivia's third largest city. Both viruses were genotyped, and norovirus GII.4 was further sequenced. Norovirus was found much more frequently than rotavirus. Norovirus was detected in 69/201 (34.3%) of specimens from children with AGE and 13/71 (18.3%) of those without diarrhea. Rotavirus was detected in 38/201 (18.9%) of diarrheal specimens and 3/71 (4.2%) of non-diarrheal specimens. Norovirus GII was identified in 97.8% of norovirus-positive samples; GII.4 was the most common genotype (71.4% of typed specimens). Rotavirus G3P[8] was the most prevalent rotavirus genotype (44.0% of typed specimens) and G2P[4] was second most prevalent (16.0% of typed specimens). This community is likely part of a trend toward norovirus predominance over rotavirus in children after widespread vaccination against rotavirus.

  1. Atmospheric cold plasma iactivation of norovirus surrogates and native microbiota on blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cold plasma (CP) is an emerging, novel, nonthermal technology that can be used for surface decontamination of foods. This study investigated CP technology for the nonthermal inactivation of the human norovirus surrogates, Tulane virus (TV) and Murine Norovirus (MNV), as well as for background microb...

  2. Prevalence and Molecular Genotyping of Noroviruses in Market Oysters, Mussels, and Cockles in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittigul, Leera; Thamjaroen, Anyarat; Chiawchan, Suwat; Chavalitshewinkoon-Petmitr, Porntip; Pombubpa, Kannika; Diraphat, Pornphan

    2016-06-01

    Noroviruses are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis associated with bivalve shellfish consumption. This study aimed to detect and characterize noroviruses in three bivalve shellfish species: oysters (Saccostrea forskali), cockles (Anadara nodifera), and mussels (Perna viridis). The virus concentration procedure (adsorption-twice elution-extraction) and a molecular method were employed to identify noroviruses in shellfish. RT-nested PCR was able to detect known norovirus GII.4 of 8.8 × 10(-2) genome copies/g of digestive tissues from oyster and cockle concentrates, whereas in mussel concentrates, the positive result was seen at 8.8 × 10(2) copies/g of digestive tissues. From August 2011 to July 2012, a total of 300 shellfish samples, including each of 100 samples from oysters, cockles, and mussels were collected and tested for noroviruses. Norovirus RNA was detected in 12.3 % of shellfish samples. Of the noroviruses, 7.7 % were of the genogroup (G) I, 2.6 % GII, and 2.0 % were mixed GI and GII. The detection rate of norovirus GI was 2.1 times higher than GII. With regards to the different shellfish species, 17 % of the oyster samples were positive, while 14.0 and 6.0 % were positive for noroviruses found in mussels and cockles, respectively. Norovirus contamination in the shellfish occurred throughout the year with the highest peak in September. Seventeen norovirus-positive PCR products were characterized upon a partial sequence analysis of the capsid gene. Based on phylogenetic analysis, five different genotypes of norovirus GI (GI.2, GI.3, GI.4, GI.5, and GI.9) and four different genotypes of GII (GII.1, GII.2, GII.3, and GII.4) were identified. These findings indicate the prevalence and distribution of noroviruses in three shellfish species. The high prevalence of noroviruses in oysters contributes to the optimization of monitoring plans to improve the preventive strategies of acute gastroenteritis.

  3. Case Study: Norovirus Outbreak in Pardis Town in January 2014

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    K Naddafi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: In the outbreak of infectious diseases, the on time epidemiological, environmental, and laboratorial investigations result in rapid diagnosis of cause and source of the outbreaks and decrease the diseases spread and public health loss. Following the outbreak of gastroenteritis in Pardis Town in January 2014, this research was conducted to identify the cause, source, and route of transmission of the outbreak. Materials and methods: First, the descriptive epidemiological study was conducted using checklist and the stool samples were prepared and analyzed. The drinking water quality in Pardis during and before the outbreak was obtained from National Environmental Health Network. The community water supply system consisting of watershed, water resources, pipelines, storage reservoirs, disinfection systems, and distribution network were inspected and sampling and detection of thermotolerant coliforms and norovirus in water samples were performed according to the Standard Methods. Results: There were 6,027 patients with symptoms of nausea, vomiting, cramps, mild diarrhea, and mild fever. The distribution of the disease in all age groups, gender, ethnicity, and location was uniform. Out of nine stool specimens, molecular testing of norovirus in six samples was positive. Hazards identified in the water supply system consisted of a water pipe fracture occurred two days before the outbreak, illegal connection of landscape irrigation system to the drinking water supply network, the use of unprotected Fellman wells as the resource of water supply, and discharge of domestic wastewater into the water resource upstream of the Fellman wells. The water samples taken from the Fellman wells had fecal contamination (11 out of 12 samples, but because of weakness and limited experience in identifying norovirus in water samples, norovirus was not detected in the raw water samples. Conclusion: This study showed that the pathogen came from a

  4. Role of noroviruses as aetiological agents of diarrhoea in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayukekbong, James Ayukepi; Mesumbe, Henry Nzike; Oyero, Olufunmilayo G; Lindh, Magnus; Bergström, Tomas

    2015-08-01

    Diarrhoea is considered to be the second leading cause of death due to infections among children  developing countries may vary from those in developed countries. Noroviruses are considered to be the most common cause of acute diarrhoea in both children and adults in industrialized countries. On the other hand, there is a lack of comprehensive epidemiological evidence from developing countries that norovirus is a major cause of diarrhoea. In these regions, asymptomatic norovirus infections are very common, and similar detection rates have been observed in patients with diarrhoea and asymptomatic persons. This review summarizes the current knowledge of norovirus infection in developing countries and seeks to position infections with noroviruses among those of other enteropathogens in terms of disease burden in these regions.

  5. Inhibition of norovirus replication by morpholino oligomers targeting the 5′-end of the genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Karin; Cavanaugh, Victoria J.; Matson, David O.; González-Molleda, Lorenzo; Chang, Kyeong-Ok; Zintz, Carmelann; Smith, Alvin W.; Iversen, Patrick; Green, Kim Y.; Campbell, Ann E.

    2013-01-01

    Noroviruses are an important cause of non-bacterial epidemic gastroenteritis, but no specific antiviral therapies are available. We investigated the inhibitory effect of phosphorodiamidiate morpholino oligomers (PMOs) targeted against norovirus sequences. A panel of peptide-conjugated PMOs (PPMOs) specific for the murine norovirus (MNV) genome was developed, and two PPMO compounds directed against the first AUG of the ORF1 coding sequence near the 5′-end of the genome proved effective in inhibiting MNV replication in cells. A consensus PPMO (designated Noro 1.1), designed to target the corresponding region of several diverse human norovirus genotypes, decreased the efficiency of protein translation in a cell-free luciferase reporter assay and inhibited Norwalk virus protein expression in replicon-bearing cells. Our data suggest that PPMOs directed against the relatively conserved 5′-end of the norovirus genome may show broad antiviral activity against this genetically diverse group of viruses. PMID:18783811

  6. DISTRIBUTION OF A NEW VARIANT GII.b/HILVERSUM OF NOROVIRUS IN RETAIL MYTILUS GALLOPROVINCIALIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Tantillo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Norovirus is a common cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks associated with consumption of raw shellfish. The majority of norovirus infections world-wide are due to genogroup II noroviruses. Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis at the end of the commercial chain, the points of purchase, were sampled and screened by an hemi-nested RT-PCR specific for genogroup II noroviruses. Noroviral RNA was detected in 10% of the samples, with the lower frequency being observed in samples obtained from hypermarkets (8% rather than in samples from open-air markets and fish shops (16% and 12%, respectively, suggesting more efficient systems of purification and control being enacted by shellfish producers and suppliers of large retail chains. By sequence analysis, the strains were characterized as norovirus variant GII.b/Hilversum.

  7. Hydrogen Peroxide Vapor Decontamination in a Patient Room Using Feline Calicivirus and Murine Norovirus as Surrogate Markers for Human Norovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmdahl, Torsten; Walder, Mats; Uzcátegui, Nathalie; Odenholt, Inga; Lanbeck, Peter; Medstrand, Patrik; Widell, Anders

    2016-05-01

    To determine whether hydrogen peroxide vapor (HPV) could be used to decontaminate caliciviruses from surfaces in a patient room. Feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV) were used as surrogate viability markers to mimic the noncultivable human norovirus. Cell culture supernatants of FCV and MNV were dried in triplicate 35-mm wells of 6-well plastic plates. These plates were placed in various positions in a nonoccupied patient room that was subsequently exposed to HPV. Control plates were positioned in a similar room but were never exposed to HPV. Virucidal activity was measured in cell culture by reduction in 50% tissue culture infective dose titer for FCV and by both 50% tissue culture infective dose titer and plaque reduction for MNV. Neither viable FCV nor viable MNV could be detected in the test room after HPV treatment. At least 3.65 log reduction for FCV and at least 3.67 log reduction for MNV were found by 50% tissue culture infective dose. With plaque assay, measurable reduction for MNV was at least 2.85 log units. The successful inactivation of both surrogate viruses indicates that HPV could be a useful tool for surface decontamination of a patient room contaminated by norovirus. Hence nosocomial spread to subsequent patients can be avoided.

  8. The Role of River Morphodynamic Disturbance and Groundwater Hydrology As Driving Factors of Riparian Landscape Patterns in Mediterranean Rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivaes, Rui; Pinheiro, António N; Egger, Gregory; Ferreira, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Fluvial disturbances, especially floods and droughts, are the main drivers of the successional patterns of riparian vegetation. Those disturbances control the riparian landscape dynamics through the direct interaction between flow and vegetation. The main aim of this work is to investigate the specific paths by which fluvial disturbances, distributed by its components of groundwater hydrology (grndh) and morphodynamic disturbance (mrphd), drive riparian landscape patterns as characterized by the location (position in the river corridor) and shape (physical form of the patch) of vegetation patches in Mediterranean rivers. Specifically, this work assesses how the different components of fluvial disturbances affect these features in general and particularly in each succession phase of riparian vegetation. grndh and mrphd were defined by time and intensity weighted indexes calculated, respectively, from the mean annual water table elevations and the annual maximum instantaneous discharge shear stresses of the previous decade. The interactions between riparian landscape features and fluvial disturbances were assessed by confirmatory factor analysis using structural equation modeling. Two hypothetical models for patch location and shape were conceptualized and tested against empirical data collected from 220 patches at four different study sites. Both models were successfully fitted, meaning that they adequately depicted the relationships between the variables. Furthermore, the models achieved a good adjustment for the observed data, based on the evaluation of several approximate fit indexes. The patch location model explained approximately 80% of the patch location variability, demonstrating that the location of the riparian patches is primarily driven by grndh, while the mrphd had very little effect on this feature. In a multigroup analysis regarding the succession phases of riparian vegetation, the fitted model explained more than 68% of the variance of the data

  9. The Classical Assumption Test to Driving Factors of Land Cover Change in the Development Region of Northern Part of West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainiyah, Nur; Deliar, Albertus; Virtriana, Riantini

    2016-06-01

    Land cover changes continuously change by the time. Many kind of phenomena is a simple of important factors that affect the environment change, both locally and also globally. To determine the existence of the phenomenon of land cover change in a region, it is necessary to identify the driving factors that can cause land cover change. The relation between driving factors and response variables can be evaluated by using regression analysis techniques. In this case, land cover change is a dichotomous phenomenon (binary). The BLR's model (Binary Logistic Regression) is the one of kind regression analysis which can be used to describe the nature of dichotomy. Before performing regression analysis, correlation analysis is carried it the first. Both correlation test and regression tests are part of a statistical test or known classical assumption test. From result of classical assumption test, then can be seen that the data used to perform analysis from driving factors of the land cover changes is proper with used by BLR's method. Therefore, the objective of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of methods in assessing the relation between driving factors of land cover change that assumed can affect to land cover change phenomena. This research will use the classical assumed test of multiple regression linear analysis, showing that BLR method is efficiency and effectiveness solution for researching or studying in phenomenon of land cover changes. So it will to provide certainty that the regression equation obtained has accuracy in estimation, unbiased and consistent.

  10. Size-resolved particle number emission patterns under real-world driving conditions using positive matrix factorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domínguez-Sáez, A.; Viana, M.; Barrios, C.C.; Rubio, J.R.; Amato, F.; Pujadas, M.; Querol, X.

    2012-01-01

    A novel on-board system was tested to characterize size-resolved particle number emission patterns under real-world driving conditions, running in a EURO4 diesel vehicle and in a typical urban circuit in Madrid (Spain). Emission profiles were determined as a function of driving conditions. Source ap

  11. [Acoustic evoked driving reactions in the EEG and their conditioning related to the personality factor extraversion-introversion (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidmayer, I; Schulter, G

    1980-12-01

    Clicks were delivered in trains of 2,5 s duration at click repetition rates of 5 or 8/s to provoke rhythmical activity in the vertex-EEG ('driving response') and to condition the driving response to neutral stimuli in a discrimination paradigm. The Eysenck Personality Inventory was administered to define an independent personality variable, i.e. extraversion-introversion; the interaction of background activity, driving and conditioned driving response with the personality dimension was analyzed. In the background EEG there was a significant difference in the absolute power of the fast alpha-band between introverts and extraverts. Driving was only observed in the fundamental frequency of acoustic stimulation, not in the first harmonic. There was no interaction between driving response and extraversion-introversion or resting EEG activity. Classical conditioning of the driving response was successful with introverts only. Results were interpreted within the framework of Eysenck's personality theory. The possibility to study neurophysiological correlates of memory processes in humans by means of conditioned driving responses is discussed.

  12. Driving factors of interactions between the exchange rate market and the commodity market: A wavelet-based complex network perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shaobo; An, Haizhong; Chen, Zhihua; Liu, Xueyong

    2017-08-01

    In traditional econometrics, a time series must be in a stationary sequence. However, it usually shows time-varying fluctuations, and it remains a challenge to execute a multiscale analysis of the data and discover the topological characteristics of conduction in different scales. Wavelet analysis and complex networks in physical statistics have special advantages in solving these problems. We select the exchange rate variable from the Chinese market and the commodity price index variable from the world market as the time series of our study. We explore the driving factors behind the behavior of the two markets and their topological characteristics in three steps. First, we use the Kalman filter to find the optimal estimation of the relationship between the two markets. Second, wavelet analysis is used to extract the scales of the relationship that are driven by different frequency wavelets. Meanwhile, we search for the actual economic variables corresponding to different frequency wavelets. Finally, a complex network is used to search for the transfer characteristics of the combination of states driven by different frequency wavelets. The results show that statistical physics have a unique advantage over traditional econometrics. The Chinese market has time-varying impacts on the world market: it has greater influence when the world economy is stable and less influence in times of turmoil. The process of forming the state combination is random. Transitions between state combinations have a clustering feature. Based on these characteristics, we can effectively reduce the information burden on investors and correctly respond to the government's policy mix.

  13. Mechanisms Driving Galling Success in a Fragmented Landscape: Synergy of Habitat and Top-Down Factors along Temperate Forest Edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelch, Nina-S; Neves, Frederico S; Fernandes, G Wilson; Wirth, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Edge effects play key roles in the anthropogenic transformation of forested ecosystems and their biota, and are therefore a prime field of contemporary fragmentation research. We present the first empirical study to address edge effects on the population level of a widespread galling herbivore in a temperate deciduous forest. By analyzing edge effects on abundance and trophic interactions of beech gall midge (Mikiola fagi Htg.), we found 30% higher gall abundance in the edge habitat as well as lower mortality rates due to decreased top-down control, especially by parasitoids. Two GLM models with similar explanatory power (58%) identified habitat specific traits (such as canopy closure and altitude) and parasitism as the best predictors of gall abundance. Further analyses revealed a crucial influence of light exposure (46%) on top-down control by the parasitoid complex. Guided by a conceptual framework synthesizing the key factors driving gall density, we conclude that forest edge proliferation of M. fagi is due to a complex interplay of abiotic changes and trophic control mechanisms. Most prominently, it is caused by the microclimatic regime in forest edges, acting alone or in synergistic concert with top-down pressure by parasitoids. Contrary to the prevailing notion that specialists are edge-sensitive, this turns M. fagi into a winner species in fragmented temperate beech forests. In view of the increasing proportion of edge habitats and the documented benefits from edge microclimate, we call for investigations exploring the pest status of this galling insect and the modulators of its biological control.

  14. Analysis of Spatial Disparities and Driving Factors of Energy Consumption Change in China Based on Spatial Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualin Xie

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The changes of spatial pattern in energy consumption have an impact on global climate change. Based on the spatial autocorrelation analysis and the auto-regression model of spatial statistics, this study has explored the spatial disparities and driving forces in energy consumption changes in China. The results show that the global spatial autocorrelation of energy consumption change in China is significant during the period 1990–2010, and the trend of spatial clustering of energy consumption change is weakened. The regions with higher energy consumption change are significantly distributed in the developed coastal areas in China, while those with lower energy consumption change are significantly distributed in the less developed western regions in China. Energy consumption change in China is mainly caused by transportation industry and non-labor intensive industry. Rapid economic development and higher industrialization rate are the main causes for faster changes in energy consumption in China. The results also indicate that spatial autoregressive model can reveal more influencing factors of energy consumption changes in China, in contrast with standard linear model. At last, this study has put forward the corresponding measures or policies for dealing with the growing trend of energy consumption in China.

  15. Study protocol for a matter of heart: a qualitative study of patient factors driving overuse of cardiac catheterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwig, Anna; Weltermann, Birgitta

    2017-09-03

    Overuse of cardiac catheterisation (CC) for stable coronary artery disease (CAD) is documented in Germany and other regions, although percutaneous coronary interventions do not provide a benefit over medical therapy for stable patients. Various studies investigated health system, physician and patient factors driving non-adherence to guidelines which recommend a stepwise approach with invasive procedures only in case of signs of ischaemia in non-invasive testing. In a larger-scale project, we aim to better understand the patients' perspective in order to develop an intervention that enhances patient's acceptance of this stepwise diagnostic approach for stable CAD. As a first step, this qualitative study aims to identify patient factors that prevent and promote the described overuse. The exploratory qualitative interview study will include about 20 patients with stable CAD and a history of acute coronary syndrome from two German teaching practices. Narrative, structured interviews designed to last 30 to 90 min will be conducted. The interviews will be analysed using qualitative content analysis by Mayring. The analysis will address the following questions: (1) What are reasons for stable patients to undergo CC? (2) How do patients deal with their heart disease (secondary prevention)? (3) Which processes do patients describe regarding decision-making for non-invasive and invasive coronary procedures? (4) What information needs exist on behalf of patients to better understand the stepwise diagnostic approach outlined in guidelines and thereby avoid low-appropriate CCs? Based on these data, empirical typification will be conducted. Ethical approval for the study was obtained. All participants will provide written informed consent. Data will be pseudonymised for analysis. The findings will contribute to the development of an appropriate intervention. Results will be disseminated by conference presentations and journal publications. © Article author(s) (or their

  16. Zeta Potential and Aggregation of Virus-Like Particle of Human Norovirus and Feline Calicivirus Under Different Physicochemical Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samandoulgou, Idrissa; Fliss, Ismaïl; Jean, Julie

    2015-09-01

    Although the spread of human norovirus reportedly depends on its ability to bind to food materials, the mechanism of the phenomenon remains unknown. Since protein size and electrical charge are reportedly important parameters in their adsorption, the current work is focused on determining human noroviruses isoelectric point (IEP), electrical charge and aggregate size at different pH, ionic strength (IS), and temperature. Using the baculovirus expression vector system, we produced and purified virus-like particles (VLPs) of GI.1 and GII.4 noroviruses and feline calicivirus, determined their IEP, and examined their size and electrical charge using a Zetasizer Nano ZS apparatus. Shape and size were also visualized using transmission electron microscopy. IEPs were found close to pH 4. Net charge increased as the pH deviated from the IEP. VLPs were negatively charged at all IS tested and showed a gradual decrease in charge with increasing IS. At low temperature, VLPs were 20-45 nm in diameter at pH far from their IEP and under almost all IS conditions, while aggregates appeared at or near the IEP. At increased temperatures, aggregates appeared at or near the IEP and at high IS. Aggregation at the IEP was also confirmed by microscopy. This suggests that electrostatic interactions would be the predominant factor in VLPs adhesion at pH far from 4 and at low ionic strength. In contrast, non-electrostatic interactions would prevail at around pH 4 and would be reinforced by aggregates, since size generally favors multiple bonding with sorbents.

  17. Stress-related psychosocial factors at work, fatigue, and risky driving behavior in bus rapid transport (BRT) drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Useche, Sergio A; Ortiz, Viviola Gómez; Cendales, Boris E

    2017-07-01

    There is consistent scientific evidence that professional drivers constitute an occupational group that is highly exposed to work related stressors. Furthermore, several recent studies associate work stress and fatigue with unsafe and counterproductive work behaviors. This study examines the association between stress-related work conditions of Bus Rapid Transport (BRT) drivers and risky driving behaviors; and examines whether fatigue is a mechanism that mediates the association between the two. A sample of 524 male Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) operators were drawn from four transport companies in Bogotá, Colombia. The participants answered a survey which included an adapted version of the Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) for BRT operators, as well as the Effort-Reward Imbalance and Job Content Questionnaires, the Subjective Fatigue subscale of the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS) and the Need for Recovery after Work Scale (NFR). Utilizing Structural Equation Models (SEM) it was found that risky driving behaviors in BRT operators could be predicted through job strain, effort-reward imbalance and social support at work. It was also found that fatigue and need for recovery fully mediate the associations between job strain and risky driving, and between social support and risky driving, but not the association between effort/reward imbalance (ERI) and risky driving. The results of this study suggest that a) stress related working conditions (Job Strain, Social Support and ERI) are relevant predictors of risky driving in BRT operators, and b) that fatigue is the mechanism which links another kind of stress related to working conditions (job strain and low social support) with risky driving. The mechanism by which ERI increases risky driving in BRT operators remains unexplained. This research suggests that in addition to the individual centered stress-reduction occupational programs, fatigue management interventions aimed to changing some working conditions may reduce

  18. Drugged Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Google Plus Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu ... misuse of prescription drugs can make driving a car unsafe—just like driving after drinking alcohol. Drugged ...

  19. The relationship of drive for muscularity to sociocultural factors, self-esteem, physical attributes gender role, and social comparison in middle school boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolak, Linda; Stein, Jonathan A

    2006-06-01

    This study examines the relationship of three sociocultural factors-media influence, peer teasing, and parent teasing/comments and three potential moderator variables-self-esteem, social comparison, and endorsement of male strength and athleticism-to drive for muscularity in middle school boys. There were 287 seventh and eighth grade boys who completed a questionnaire measuring these variables as well as body mass index (BMI) and pubertal status. Results indicated that media influence and male physical attributes endorsement were particularly important correlates of drive for muscularity. These findings have implications for programs designed to prevent body dissatisfaction among adolescent boys.

  20. Carlow virus, a 2002 GII.4 variant Norovirus strain from Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kearney, Karen

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Noroviruses are the leading cause of infectious non-bacterial gastroenteritis in Ireland (population 4 million). Due to the number of outbreaks, its massive impact on the Irish health service and its seasonality, Norovirus has gained public notoriety as The Winter Vomiting Bug. The increase in cases in Ireland in the 2002-2003 season coincided with the emergence of two new Genogroup II genotype 4 variant clusters of Norovirus worldwide. RESULTS: Little research has been done on the epidemiology or molecular biology of Norovirus strains in Ireland. In an effort to combat this discrepancy, we cloned a full length human norovirus genome as a cDNA clone (J3) which can produce full length transcripts in vitro. A polymerase mutant cDNA clone (X1), in addition to a sub genomic cDNA clone (1A) were produced for use in future work. Carlow virus (Hu\\/NoV\\/GII\\/Carlow\\/2002\\/Ire) genome is 7559 nts in length, excluding the 3-end poly A tail and represents the first Norovirus strain from Ireland to be sequenced. CONCLUSION: Carlow virus is a member of the Farmington Hills variant cluster of Genogroup II genotype 4 noroviruses.

  1. Multisite outbreak of norovirus associated with a franchise restaurant--Kent County, Michigan, May 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-14

    The majority of cases of foodborne gastroenteritis in the United States are caused by noroviruses. This report summarizes an investigation by the Kent County Health Department (KCHD) in Michigan into three norovirus outbreaks and a cluster of community cases that were associated with a national submarine sandwich franchise restaurant during May 3-9, 2005. The investigation identified a potential source, a food handler who had returned to work within a few hours of having symptoms of gastrointestinal illness while he was still excreting norovirus in his stools. To prevent norovirus outbreaks, food service workers should be educated regarding norovirus transmission and control. In 2005, new guidelines for state health departments regarding norovirus containment were published by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA); guidelines for local health departments in Michigan were issued by the state's Department of Community Health and Department of Agriculture. The new guidelines for Michigan recommend that food service workers with suspected norovirus not return to work until they are asymptomatic for 48-72 hours.

  2. Enhanced detection and study of murine norovirus-1 using a more efficient microglial cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yuanan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Noroviruses are the predominant cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. To facilitate prevention and control, a norovirus isolated from mice can provide a model to understand human noroviruses. To establish optimal viral infectivity conditions for murine noroviruses, several cell lines of hematopoietic lineage, including murine BV-2, RAW 264.7, and TIB, as well as human CHME-5, were tested comparatively for their sensitivity to murine norovirus-1. Results Except for CHME-5, all three murine-derived cell lines were susceptible to MNV infection. Viral infection of these cells was confirmed by RT-PCR. Using both viral plaque and replication assays, BV-2 and RAW 264.7 cells were determined to have comparable sensitivities to MNV-1 infection. Comparisons of cell growth characteristics, general laboratory handling and potential in-field applications suggest the use of BV-2 to be more advantageous. Conclusion Results obtained from these studies demonstrate that an immortalized microglial cell line can support MNV-1 replication and provides a more efficient method to detect and study murine noroviruses, facilitating future investigations using MNV-1 as a model to study, detect, and control Human Norovirus.

  3. Carlow Virus, a 2002 GII.4 variant Norovirus strain from Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menton John

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noroviruses are the leading cause of infectious non-bacterial gastroenteritis in Ireland (population 4 million. Due to the number of outbreaks, its massive impact on the Irish health service and its seasonality, Norovirus has gained public notoriety as The Winter Vomiting Bug. The increase in cases in Ireland in the 2002–2003 season coincided with the emergence of two new Genogroup II genotype 4 variant clusters of Norovirus worldwide. Results Little research has been done on the epidemiology or molecular biology of Norovirus strains in Ireland. In an effort to combat this discrepancy, we cloned a full length human norovirus genome as a cDNA clone (J3 which can produce full length transcripts in vitro. A polymerase mutant cDNA clone (X1, in addition to a sub genomic cDNA clone (1A were produced for use in future work. Carlow virus (Hu/NoV/GII/Carlow/2002/Ire genome is 7559 nts in length, excluding the 3-end poly A tail and represents the first Norovirus strain from Ireland to be sequenced. Conclusion Carlow virus is a member of the Farmington Hills variant cluster of Genogroup II genotype 4 noroviruses.

  4. Epidemiology of foodborne Norovirus outbreaks in Catalonia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godoy Pere

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noroviruses are one of the principal biological agents associated with the consumption of contaminated food. The objective of this study was to analyse the size and epidemiological characteristics of foodborne outbreaks of gastroenteritis in Catalonia, a region in the northeast of Spain. Methods In all reported outbreaks of gastroenteritis associated with food consumption, faecal samples of persons affected were analysed for bacteria and viruses and selectively for parasites. Study variables included the setting, the number of people exposed, age, sex, clinical signs and hospital admissions. The study was carried out from October 2004 to October 2005. Results Of the 181 outbreaks reported during the study period, 72 were caused by Salmonella and 30 by norovirus (NoV; the incidence rates were 14.5 and 9.9 per 100,000 person-years, respectively. In 50% of the NoV outbreaks and 27% of the bacterial outbreaks (p = 0.03 the number of persons affected was ≥10; 66.7% of NoV outbreaks occurred in restaurants; no differences in the attack rates were observed according to the etiology. Hospitalizations were more common (p = 0.03 in bacterial outbreaks (8.6% than in NoV outbreaks (0.15%. Secondary cases accounted for 4% of cases in NoV outbreaks compared with 0.3% of cases in bacterial outbreaks (p Conclusion Norovirus outbreaks were larger but less frequent than bacterial outbreaks, suggesting that underreporting is greater for NoV outbreaks. Food handlers should receive training on the transmission of infections in diverse situations. Very strict control measures on handwashing and environmental disinfection should be adopted in closed or partially-closed institutions.

  5. Analysis of contemporary HIV/AIDS health care costs in Germany: Driving factors and distribution across antiretroviral therapy lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treskova, Marina; Kuhlmann, Alexander; Bogner, Johannes; Hower, Martin; Heiken, Hans; Stellbrink, Hans-Jürgen; Mahlich, Jörg; Schulenburg, Johann-Matthias Graf von der; Stoll, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    To analyze contemporary costs of HIV health care and the cost distribution across lines of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). To identify variations in expenditures with patient characteristics and to identify main cost determinants. To compute cost ratios between patients with varying characteristics.Empirical data on costs are collected in Germany within a 2-year prospective observational noninterventional multicenter study. The database contains information for 1154 HIV-infected patients from 8 medical centers.Means and standard deviations of the total costs are estimated for each cost fraction and across cART lines and regimens. The costs are regressed against various patient characteristics using a generalized linear model. Relative costs are calculated using the resultant coefficients.The average annual total costs (SD) per patient are &OV0556;22,231.03 (8786.13) with a maximum of &OV0556;83,970. cART medication is the major cost fraction (83.8%) with a mean of &OV0556;18,688.62 (5289.48). The major cost-driving factors are cART regimen, CD4-T cell count, cART drug resistance, and concomitant diseases. Viral load, pathology tests, and demographics have no significant impact. Standard non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based regimens induce 28% lower total costs compared with standard PI/r regimens. Resistance to 3 or more antiretroviral classes induces a significant increase in costs.HIV treatment in Germany continues to be expensive. Majority of costs are attributable to cART. Main cost determinants are CD4-T cells count, comorbidity, genotypic antiviral resistance, and therapy regimen. Combinations of characteristics associated with higher expenditures enhance the increasing effect on the costs and induce high cost cases.

  6. Mechanisms Driving Galling Success in a Fragmented Landscape: Synergy of Habitat and Top-Down Factors along Temperate Forest Edges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina-S Kelch

    Full Text Available Edge effects play key roles in the anthropogenic transformation of forested ecosystems and their biota, and are therefore a prime field of contemporary fragmentation research. We present the first empirical study to address edge effects on the population level of a widespread galling herbivore in a temperate deciduous forest. By analyzing edge effects on abundance and trophic interactions of beech gall midge (Mikiola fagi Htg., we found 30% higher gall abundance in the edge habitat as well as lower mortality rates due to decreased top-down control, especially by parasitoids. Two GLM models with similar explanatory power (58% identified habitat specific traits (such as canopy closure and altitude and parasitism as the best predictors of gall abundance. Further analyses revealed a crucial influence of light exposure (46% on top-down control by the parasitoid complex. Guided by a conceptual framework synthesizing the key factors driving gall density, we conclude that forest edge proliferation of M. fagi is due to a complex interplay of abiotic changes and trophic control mechanisms. Most prominently, it is caused by the microclimatic regime in forest edges, acting alone or in synergistic concert with top-down pressure by parasitoids. Contrary to the prevailing notion that specialists are edge-sensitive, this turns M. fagi into a winner species in fragmented temperate beech forests. In view of the increasing proportion of edge habitats and the documented benefits from edge microclimate, we call for investigations exploring the pest status of this galling insect and the modulators of its biological control.

  7. Mechanisms Driving Galling Success in a Fragmented Landscape: Synergy of Habitat and Top-Down Factors along Temperate Forest Edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelch, Nina-S.; Neves, Frederico S.; Fernandes, G. Wilson

    2016-01-01

    Edge effects play key roles in the anthropogenic transformation of forested ecosystems and their biota, and are therefore a prime field of contemporary fragmentation research. We present the first empirical study to address edge effects on the population level of a widespread galling herbivore in a temperate deciduous forest. By analyzing edge effects on abundance and trophic interactions of beech gall midge (Mikiola fagi Htg.), we found 30% higher gall abundance in the edge habitat as well as lower mortality rates due to decreased top-down control, especially by parasitoids. Two GLM models with similar explanatory power (58%) identified habitat specific traits (such as canopy closure and altitude) and parasitism as the best predictors of gall abundance. Further analyses revealed a crucial influence of light exposure (46%) on top-down control by the parasitoid complex. Guided by a conceptual framework synthesizing the key factors driving gall density, we conclude that forest edge proliferation of M. fagi is due to a complex interplay of abiotic changes and trophic control mechanisms. Most prominently, it is caused by the microclimatic regime in forest edges, acting alone or in synergistic concert with top-down pressure by parasitoids. Contrary to the prevailing notion that specialists are edge-sensitive, this turns M. fagi into a winner species in fragmented temperate beech forests. In view of the increasing proportion of edge habitats and the documented benefits from edge microclimate, we call for investigations exploring the pest status of this galling insect and the modulators of its biological control. PMID:27310599

  8. Nitrous oxide emissions from intensive agricultural systems: Variations between crops and seasons, key driving variables, and mean emission factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbie, K. E.; McTaggart, I. P.; Smith, K. A.

    1999-11-01

    Emissions of nitrous oxide from intensively managed agricultural fields were measured over 3 years. Exponential increases in flux occurred with increasing soil water- filled pore space (WFPS) and temperature; increases in soil mineral N content due to fertilizer application also stimulated emissions. Fluxes were low when any of these variables was below a critical value. The largest fluxes occurred when WFPS values were very high (70-90%), indicating that denitrification was the major process responsible. The relationships with the driving variables showed strong similarities to those reported for very different environments: irrigated sugar cane crops, pastures, and forest in the tropics. Annual emissions varied widely (0.3-18.4 kg N2O-N ha-1). These variations were principally due to the degree of coincidence of fertilizer application and major rainfall events. It is concluded therefore that several years' data are required from any agricultural ecosystem in a variable climate to obtain a robust estimate of mean N2O fluxes. The emissions from small-grain cereals (winter wheat and spring barley) were consistently lower (0.2-0.7 kg N2O-N per 100 kg N applied) than from cut grassland (0.3-5.8 kg N2O- N per 100 kg N). Crops such as broccoli and potatoes gave emissions of the same order as those from the grassland. Although these differences between crop types are not apparent in general data comparisons, there may well be distinct regional differences in the relative and absolute emissions from different crops, due to local factors relating to soil type, weather patterns, and agricultural management practices. This will only be determined by more detailed comparative studies.

  9. Early diagenesis and clay mineral adsorption as driving factors of metal pollution in sediments: the case of Aveiro Lagoon (Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Maria Virgínia Alves; Mane, Miguel Ângelo; Frontalini, Fabrizio; Santos, José Francisco; da Silva, Frederico Sobrinho; Terroso, Denise; Miranda, Paulo; Figueira, Rubens; Laut, Lazaro Luiz Mattos; Bernardes, Cristina; Filho, João Graciano Mendonça; Coccioni, Rodolfo; Dias, João M Alveirinho; Rocha, Fernando

    2015-07-01

    This work aims to define the factors driving the accumulation of metals in the sediment of the lagoon of Aveiro (Portugal). The role of initial diagenetic processes in controlling trace metal retention in surface sediment is traced by mineralogy, magnetic susceptibility and geochemical analyses. Although several studies have focused on the metal distribution in this polihaline and anthropized coastal lagoon, most of them have been solely focused on the total metal concentrations. This study instead represents the first attempt to evaluate in a vast area of the Aveiro Lagoon the role of biogeochemical processes in metal availability and distribution in three extracted phases: exchangeable cations adsorbed by clay and elements co-precipitated with carbonates (S1), organic matter (S2) and amorphous Mn hydroxides (S3). According to the sediment guideline values, the sediment is polluted by, for instance, As and Hg in the inner area of the Murtosa Channel, Pb in the Espinheiro Channel, Aveiro City canals and Aveiro Harbour, and Zn in the northern area of the Ovar Channel. These sites are located near the source areas of pollutants and have the highest total available concentrations in each extracted phase. The total available concentrations of all toxic metals are however associated, firstly, with the production of amorphous Mn hydroxides in most of the areas and, secondly, with adsorption by organic compounds. The interplay of the different processes implies that not all of the sites near pollution sources have polluted surface sediment. The accumulation of metals depends on not only the pollution source but also the changing in the redox state of the sediments that may cause alterations in the sediment retention or releasing of redox-sensitive metals. Results of this work suggest that the biogeochemical processes may play a significant role in the increase of the pollutants in the sediment of the Aveiro Lagoon.

  10. Electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    ENERGY CONVERSION IN ELECTRIC DRIVESElectric Drives: A DefinitionApplication Range of Electric DrivesEnergy Savings Pay Off RapidlyGlobal Energy Savings Through PEC DrivesMotor/Mechanical Load MatchMotion/Time Profile MatchLoad Dynamics and StabilityMultiquadrant OperationPerformance IndexesProblemsELECTRIC MOTORS FOR DRIVESElectric Drives: A Typical ConfigurationElectric Motors for DrivesDC Brush MotorsConventional AC MotorsPower Electronic Converter Dependent MotorsEnergy Conversion in Electric Motors/GeneratorsPOWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS (PECs) FOR DRIVESPower Electronic Switches (PESs)The

  11. Complete Nucleotide Sequence Analysis of the Norovirus GII.4 Sydney Variant in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Ji-Sun Park; Sung-Geun Lee; Ji-Young Jin; Han-Gil Cho; Weon-Hwa Jheong; Soon-Young Paik

    2015-01-01

    Norovirus is the primary cause of acute gastroenteritis in individuals of all ages. In Australia, a new strain of norovirus (GII.4) was identified in March 2012, and this strain has spread rapidly around the world. In August 2012, this new GII.4 strain was identified in patients in South Korea. Therefore, to examine the characteristics of the epidemic norovirus GII.4 2012 variant in South Korea, we conducted KM272334 full-length genomic analysis. The genome of the gg-12-08-04 strain consisted...

  12. Interplay among Drosophila transcription factors Ets21c, Fos and Ftz-F1 drives JNK-mediated tumor malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Külshammer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cancer initiation and maintenance of the transformed cell state depend on altered cellular signaling and aberrant activities of transcription factors (TFs that drive pathological gene expression in response to cooperating genetic lesions. Deciphering the roles of interacting TFs is therefore central to understanding carcinogenesis and for designing cancer therapies. Here, we use an unbiased genomic approach to define a TF network that triggers an abnormal gene expression program promoting malignancy of clonal tumors, generated in Drosophila imaginal disc epithelium by gain of oncogenic Ras (RasV12 and loss of the tumor suppressor Scribble (scrib1. We show that malignant transformation of the rasV12scrib1 tumors requires TFs of distinct families, namely the bZIP protein Fos, the ETS-domain factor Ets21c and the nuclear receptor Ftz-F1, all acting downstream of Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK. Depleting any of the three TFs improves viability of tumor-bearing larvae, and this positive effect can be enhanced further by their combined removal. Although both Fos and Ftz-F1 synergistically contribute to rasV12scrib1 tumor invasiveness, only Fos is required for JNK-induced differentiation defects and Matrix metalloprotease (MMP1 upregulation. In contrast, the Fos-dimerizing partner Jun is dispensable for JNK to exert its effects in rasV12scrib1 tumors. Interestingly, Ets21c and Ftz-F1 are transcriptionally induced in these tumors in a JNK- and Fos-dependent manner, thereby demonstrating a hierarchy within the tripartite TF network, with Fos acting as the most upstream JNK effector. Of the three TFs, only Ets21c can efficiently substitute for loss of polarity and cooperate with RasV12 in inducing malignant clones that, like rasV12scrib1 tumors, invade other tissues and overexpress MMP1 and the Drosophila insulin-like peptide 8 (Dilp8. While rasV12ets21c tumors require JNK for invasiveness, the JNK activity is dispensable for their growth. In conclusion, our

  13. Interplay among Drosophila transcription factors Ets21c, Fos and Ftz-F1 drives JNK-mediated tumor malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külshammer, Eva; Mundorf, Juliane; Kilinc, Merve; Frommolt, Peter; Wagle, Prerana; Uhlirova, Mirka

    2015-10-01

    Cancer initiation and maintenance of the transformed cell state depend on altered cellular signaling and aberrant activities of transcription factors (TFs) that drive pathological gene expression in response to cooperating genetic lesions. Deciphering the roles of interacting TFs is therefore central to understanding carcinogenesis and for designing cancer therapies. Here, we use an unbiased genomic approach to define a TF network that triggers an abnormal gene expression program promoting malignancy of clonal tumors, generated in Drosophila imaginal disc epithelium by gain of oncogenic Ras (Ras(V12)) and loss of the tumor suppressor Scribble (scrib(1)). We show that malignant transformation of the ras(V12)scrib(1) tumors requires TFs of distinct families, namely the bZIP protein Fos, the ETS-domain factor Ets21c and the nuclear receptor Ftz-F1, all acting downstream of Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK). Depleting any of the three TFs improves viability of tumor-bearing larvae, and this positive effect can be enhanced further by their combined removal. Although both Fos and Ftz-F1 synergistically contribute to ras(V12)scrib(1) tumor invasiveness, only Fos is required for JNK-induced differentiation defects and Matrix metalloprotease (MMP1) upregulation. In contrast, the Fos-dimerizing partner Jun is dispensable for JNK to exert its effects in ras(V12)scrib(1) tumors. Interestingly, Ets21c and Ftz-F1 are transcriptionally induced in these tumors in a JNK- and Fos-dependent manner, thereby demonstrating a hierarchy within the tripartite TF network, with Fos acting as the most upstream JNK effector. Of the three TFs, only Ets21c can efficiently substitute for loss of polarity and cooperate with Ras(V12) in inducing malignant clones that, like ras(V12)scrib(1) tumors, invade other tissues and overexpress MMP1 and the Drosophila insulin-like peptide 8 (Dilp8). While ras(V12)ets21c tumors require JNK for invasiveness, the JNK activity is dispensable for their growth. In

  14. Antiviral Effect of Korean Red Ginseng Extract and Ginsenosides on Murine Norovirus and Feline Calicivirus as Surrogates for Human Norovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Hwa; Lee, Bog-Hieu; Jung, Ji-Youn; Cheon, Doo-Sung; Kim, Kyung-Tack; Choi, Changsun

    2011-01-01

    Korean red ginseng has been studied various biological activities such as immune, anti-oxidative, anti-microbial, and anticancer activities but antiviral mechanism needs further studies. In this study, we aimed to examine the antiviral effects of Korea red ginseng extract and ginsenosides on norovirus surrogate, including murine norovirus (MNV) and feline calicivirus (FCV). We evaluated the pre-, co-, and post-treatment effects of Korean red ginseng (KRG), ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1. To measure the antiviral effect and cytotoxicity of KRG extract, and ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1, we treated Crandell-Reese Feline Kidney for FCV or RAW264.7 cells for MNV with concentrations of 0, 5, 6.7, 10, 20 ug/mL total saponin. There was cytotoxic effect in the highest concentration 20 ug/mL of KRG extract so this concentration was excluded in this study. The FCV titer was significantly reduced to 0.23-0.83 log10 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50)/mL in groups pre-treated with red ginseng extract or ginsenosides. The titer of MNV was significantly reduced to 0.37-1.48 log10 TCID50/mL in groups pre-treated with red ginseng extract or ginsenosides. However, there was no observed antiviral effect in groups co-treated or post-treated with KRG and its constituents. Our data suggest that KRG extract has an antiviral effect against norovirus surrogates. The antiviral mechanisms of KRG and ginsenosides should be addressed in future studies. PMID:23717088

  15. Signos Vitales de los CDC Cómo prevenir los brotes de norovirus (Vital Signs-Preventing Norovirus Outbreaks)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-03

    Este podcast se basa en la edición de junio del 2014 del informe Signos Vitales de los CDC. Los norovirus infectan cada año a cerca de 20 millones de personas en los Estados Unidos. Sepa cómo protegerse y proteger a su familia de esta enfermedad que es muy contagiosa y potencialmente grave.  Created: 6/3/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 6/3/2014.

  16. Brote de norovirus en Mallorca asociado al consumo de ostras Norovirus outbreak in Majorca (Spain) associated with oyster consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Antònia Galmés Truyols; Jaume Giménez Duran; Antonio Nicolau Riutort; Gabriel Arbona Cerdá; Catalina Bosch Isabel; Margarita Portell Arbona; Joana Vanrell Berga

    2011-01-01

    Se describe la investigación de un brote de gastroenteritis por norovirus asociado al consumo de ostras. Se encuestaron 346 expuestos (266 afectados). Solamente se enviaron 14 muestras de heces de pacientes al Centro Nacional de Microbiología. Se mandaron ostras recogidas en el lugar de producción al Centro Nacional de Alimentación. Las ostras cumplían los parámetros microbiológicos de calidad aplicables antes de la comercialización, que no incluyen investigación de virus. El análisis epidemi...

  17. The sweet quartet: Binding of fucose to the norovirus capsid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koromyslova, Anna D; Leuthold, Mila M; Bowler, Matthew W; Hansman, Grant S

    2015-09-01

    Human noroviruses bind histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) and this interaction is thought to be important for an infection. We identified two additional fucose-binding pockets (termed fucose-3/4 sites) on a genogroup II human (GII.10) norovirus-protruding (P) dimer using X-ray crystallography. Fucose-3/4 sites were located between two previously determined HBGA binding pockets (termed fucose-1/2 sites). We found that four fucose molecules were capable of binding altogether at fucose-1/2/3/4 sites on the P dimer, though the fucose molecules bound in a dose-dependent and step-wise manner. We also showed that HBGA B-trisaccharide molecules bound in a similar way at the fucose-1/2 sites. Interestingly, we discovered that the monomers of the P dimer were asymmetrical in an unliganded state and when a single B-trisaccharide molecule bound, but were symmetrical when two B-trisaccharide molecules bound. We postulate that the symmetrical dimers might favor HBGA binding interactions at fucose-1/2 sites.

  18. Characterization and control of surfactant-mediated Norovirus interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Brittany S; Velev, Orlin D

    2015-11-28

    Understanding of the colloidal interactions of Norovirus particles in aqueous medium could provide insights on the origins of the notorious stability and infectivity of these widespread viral agents. We characterized the effects of solution pH and surfactant type and concentration on the aggregation, dispersion, and disassembly of Norovirus virus-like particles (VLPs) using dynamic light scattering, electrophoretic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. Owing to net negative surface charge of the VLPs at neutral pH, low concentrations of cationic surfactant tend to aggregate the VLPs, whereas low concentrations of anionic surfactant tend to disperse the particles. Increasing the concentration of these surfactants beyond their critical micelle concentration leads to virus capsid disassembly and breakdown of aggregates. Non-ionic surfactants, however, had little effect on virus interactions and likely stabilized them additionally in suspension. The data were interpreted on the basis of simple models for surfactant binding and re-charging of the virus capsid. We used zeta potential data to characterize virus surface charge and interpret the mechanisms behind these demonstrated surfactant-virus interactions. The fundamental understanding and control of these interactions will aid in practical formulations for virus inactivation and removal from contaminated surfaces.

  19. A Gastroenteritis Outbreak Caused by Noroviruses in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiannis Alamanos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In June 2006, an outbreak alert regarding cases of acute gastroenteritis in a region in North Eastern Greece (population 100,882 inhabitants, triggered investigations to guide control measures. The outbreak started the first days of June, and peaked in July. A descriptive epidemiological study, a virological characterization of the viral agent identified from cases as well as a phylogenetic analysis was performed. From June 5 to September 3, 2006 (weeks 23–44, 1,640 cases of gastroenteritis (45.2% male and 54.8% female, aged 3 months to 89 years were reported. The overall attack rate for the period was 16.3 cases/1,000 inhabitants. About 57% of cases observed were under the age of 15 years. Αnalysis of faecal samples identified Norovirus GII strains. Fifteen different Norovirus GII strains were recorded, presenting a homology of 94.8% (86–97% to GII strains obtained from GenBank. The long duration of the outbreak suggests an important role of person-to-person transmission, while the emergence of the outbreak was possibly due to contaminated potable water, although no viruses were detected in any tested water samples. This outbreak underscores the need for a national surveillance system for acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks.

  20. 因子分析在汽车行驶工况构建过程中的应用%Application of Factor Analysis in Driving Cycle Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石琴; 郑与波

    2011-01-01

    针对汽车行驶工况构建过程,提出了因子分析结合模糊聚类的工况构建方法,并利用该方法建立了城市道路代表性行驶工况.采用因子分析法对大量运动学片段的特征参数进行压缩,选出能代表原始片段大部分特征信息的3个公因子来进行模糊聚类分析;由聚类分析的结果,根据相关系数理论从每一类片段中提取代表性片段来构建典型行驶工况.合肥市行驶工况试验数据分析结果表明:典型行驶工况的速度-加速度矩阵与试验数据的平均误差为13.01%,构建工况能综合反映合肥市道路的交通状况.%As for the reseach of construction process of vehicle driving cycle, a method of factor analysis combined with fuzzy clustering was proposed herein,and a representative driving cycle was developed urban roads by this method. The method of factor analysis was applied to reduce the characteristic parameters of many microtrips, all microtrips were classified by using 3 common factors that can represent most of the features of the original microtrips; Based on the results of cluster analysis and the correlation coefficient theory, some representive microtrips were extracted from each type of microtrips to construct a typical driving cycle. The application of the driving cycle model to the roads in Hefei city shows that the average error in obtained typical driving cycles is 13.01% compared with the experimental data in terms of V-A matrix of the typical driving cycle. So the typical driving cycle can reflect Hefei road traffic condition comprehensively.

  1. Norovirus Narita 104 Virus-Like Particles Expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana Induce Serum and Mucosal Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lolita George Mathew

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Narita 104 virus is a human pathogen belonging to the norovirus (family Caliciviridae genogroup II. Noroviruses cause epidemic gastroenteritis worldwide. To explore the potential of developing a plant-based vaccine, a plant optimized gene encoding Narita 104 virus capsid protein (NaVCP was expressed transiently in Nicotiana benthamiana using a tobacco mosaic virus expression system. NaVCP accumulated up to approximately 0.3 mg/g fresh weight of leaf at 4 days postinfection. Initiation of hypersensitive response-like symptoms followed by tissue necrosis necessitated a brief infection time and was a significant factor limiting expression. Transmission electron microscopy of plant-derived NaVCP confirmed the presence of fully assembled virus-like particles (VLPs. In this study, an optimized method to express and partially purify NaVCP is described. Further, partially purified NaVCP was used to immunize mice by intranasal delivery and generated significant mucosal and serum antibody responses. Thus, plant-derived Narita 104 VLPs have potential for use as a candidate subunit vaccine or as a component of a multivalent subunit vaccine, along with other genotype-specific plant-derived VLPs.

  2. Norovirus Narita 104 Virus-Like Particles Expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana Induce Serum and Mucosal Immune Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Lolita George; Herbst-Kralovetz, Melissa M.; Mason, Hugh S.

    2014-01-01

    Narita 104 virus is a human pathogen belonging to the norovirus (family Caliciviridae) genogroup II. Noroviruses cause epidemic gastroenteritis worldwide. To explore the potential of developing a plant-based vaccine, a plant optimized gene encoding Narita 104 virus capsid protein (NaVCP) was expressed transiently in Nicotiana benthamiana using a tobacco mosaic virus expression system. NaVCP accumulated up to approximately 0.3 mg/g fresh weight of leaf at 4 days postinfection. Initiation of hypersensitive response-like symptoms followed by tissue necrosis necessitated a brief infection time and was a significant factor limiting expression. Transmission electron microscopy of plant-derived NaVCP confirmed the presence of fully assembled virus-like particles (VLPs). In this study, an optimized method to express and partially purify NaVCP is described. Further, partially purified NaVCP was used to immunize mice by intranasal delivery and generated significant mucosal and serum antibody responses. Thus, plant-derived Narita 104 VLPs have potential for use as a candidate subunit vaccine or as a component of a multivalent subunit vaccine, along with other genotype-specific plant-derived VLPs. PMID:24949472

  3. Occupational driving as a risk factor for low back pain in active-duty military service members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Jeffrey B; Orchowski, Joseph R; Scher, Danielle L; Owens, Brett D; Burks, Robert; Belmont, Philip J

    2014-04-01

    Although occupational driving has been associated with low back pain, little has been reported on the incidence rates for this disorder. To determine the incidence rate and demographic risk factors of low back pain in an ethnically diverse and physically active population of US military vehicle operators. Retrospective database analysis. All active-duty military service members between 1998 and 2006. Low back pain requiring visit to a health-care provider. A query was performed using the US Defense Medical Epidemiology Database for the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code for low back pain (724.20). Multivariate Poisson regression analysis was used to estimate the rate of low back pain among military vehicle operators and control subjects per 1,000 person-years, while controlling for sex, race, rank, service, age, and marital status. A total of 8,447,167 person-years of data were investigated. The overall unadjusted low back pain incidence rate for military members whose occupation is vehicle operator was 54.2 per 1,000 person-years. Compared with service members with other occupations, motor vehicle operators had a significantly increased adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) for low back pain of 1.15 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-1.17). Female motor vehicle operators, compared with males, had a significantly increased adjusted IRR for low back pain of 1.45 (95% CI 1.39-1.52). With senior enlisted as the referent category, the junior enlisted rank group of motor vehicle operators had a significantly increased adjusted IRR for low back pain: 1.60 (95% CI 1.52-1.70). Compared with Marine service members, those motor vehicle operators in both the Army, 2.74 (95% CI 2.60-2.89), and the Air Force, 1.98 (95% CI 1.84-2.14), had a significantly increased adjusted IRR for low back pain. The adjusted IRRs for the less than 20-year and more than 40-year age groups, compared with the 30- to 39-year age group, were 1.24 (1

  4. Pile Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Machine-oriented structural engineering firm TERA, Inc. is engaged in a project to evaluate the reliability of offshore pile driving prediction methods to eventually predict the best pile driving technique for each new offshore oil platform. Phase I Pile driving records of 48 offshore platforms including such information as blow counts, soil composition and pertinent construction details were digitized. In Phase II, pile driving records were statistically compared with current methods of prediction. Result was development of modular software, the CRIPS80 Software Design Analyzer System, that companies can use to evaluate other prediction procedures or other data bases.

  5. Literature Reference for Noroviruses (Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2004. 42(10): 4679–4685)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procedures are described for analysis of clinical samples and may be adapted for of solid, particulate, aerosol, and water samples. This method is an assay for detection and quantitation of norovirus using real-time reverse transcription-PCR.

  6. 77 FR 19534 - Medical Devices; Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Classification of Norovirus Serological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 866 Medical Devices; Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Classification of Norovirus Serological Reagents; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug...

  7. Evidence for asymptomatic norovirus infection transmission associated with swimming at a tropical beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimming in fecally-contaminated natural waterbodies can result in gastrointestinal (GI) infections and associated symptoms. However, the pathogenic microorganisms responsible are often unidentified because studies nearly always rely on self-reported symptoms. Noroviruses have be...

  8. The Influence of Exercise to the Brain - drived Neurotrophic Factor%运动对脑源性神经营养因子(BDNF)的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高自军; 秦爱华; 侯天德; 许世岩

    2006-01-01

    运动刺激可诱导脑源性神经营养因子(brain-drived neurotrophic factor BDNF)的基因表达上调,合成分泌增多;可促进脑损伤后的恢复、提高抑郁症的治疗效果、预防老年痴呆和增强记忆;对脑的健康有良好影响.

  9. A Review of Electronic Inductor Technique for Power Factor Correction in Three-Phase Adjustable Speed Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davari, Pooya; Yang, Yongheng; Zare, Firuz

    2016-01-01

    (SiC) power devices. Moreover, the influence of partial loading on component sizing in Adjustable Speed Drives (ASDs) is studied. Finally the analytical loss modelling of power switches is utilized for efficiency measurement. The theoretical analyses are verified by experimental benchmarking in an ASD...

  10. A Review of Electronic Inductor Technique for Power Factor Correction in Three-Phase Adjustable Speed Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davari, Pooya; Yang, Yongheng; Zare, Firuz;

    2016-01-01

    Electronic Inductor (EI) techniques are promising approaches for improving the grid-side current quality, and they are suitable for motor drive applications. In this paper, different EI topologies are investigated from the efficiency perspective, including the effect of employing Silicon Carbide...

  11. The Vast and Varied Global Burden of Norovirus: Prospects for Prevention and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopman, Benjamin A; Steele, Duncan; Kirkwood, Carl D; Parashar, Umesh D

    2016-04-01

    Globally, norovirus is associated with approximately one-fifth of all diarrhea cases, with similar prevalence in both children and adults, and is estimated to cause over 200,000 deaths annually in developing countries. Norovirus is an important pathogen in a number of high-priority domains: it is the most common cause of diarrheal episodes globally, the principal cause of foodborne disease outbreaks in the United States, a key health care-acquired infection, a common cause of travel-associated diarrhea, and a bane for deployed military troops. Partly as a result of this ubiquity and burden across a range of different populations, identifying target groups and strategies for intervention has been challenging. And, on top of the breadth of this public health problem, there remain important gaps in scientific knowledge regarding norovirus, especially with respect to disease in low-income settings. Many pathogens can cause acute gastroenteritis. Historically, rotavirus was the most common cause of severe disease in young children globally. Now, vaccines are available for rotavirus and are universally recommended by the World Health Organization. In countries with effective rotavirus vaccination programs, disease due to that pathogen has decreased markedly, but norovirus persists and is now the most common cause of pediatric gastroenteritis requiring medical attention. However, the data supporting the precise role of norovirus in low- and middle-income settings are sparse. With vaccines in the pipeline, addressing these and other important knowledge gaps is increasingly pressing. We assembled an expert group to assess the evidence for the global burden of norovirus and to consider the prospects for norovirus vaccine development. The group assessed the evidence in the areas of burden of disease, epidemiology, diagnostics, disease attribution, acquired immunity, and innate susceptibility, and the group considered how to bring norovirus vaccines from their current state of

  12. Frequency of Adenoviruses, Rotaviruses and Noroviruses Among Diarrhea Samples Collected From Infants of Zabol, Southeastern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Sharifi-Rad, Javad; Hoseini Alfatemi, Seyedeh Mahsan; Sharifi-Rad, Mehdi; Miri, Abdolhossein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Viruses are one of the major reasons of gastrointestinal disease worldwide, and commonly infect children less than five years of age in developing countries. Objectives: The current study aimed to determine the frequency of adenoviruses, rotaviruses and noroviruses among diarrhea samples collected from infants of Zabol, south-east of Iran. This study is the first investigation of adenoviruses, rotaviruses and noroviruses among diarrhea samples in Zabol. Patients and Methods: In th...

  13. [Recurrent epidemics of gastroenteritis caused by norovirus GI.3 in a small hotel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soini, Jani; Hemminki, Kaisa; Pirnes, Aija; Roivainen, Merja; Al-Hello, Haider; Maunula, Leena; Kauppinen, Ari; Miettinen, Likka; Smit, Pieter W; Huusko, Sari; Toikkanen, Salla; Rimhanen-Finne, Ruska

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent cases of gastroenteritis occurred in a small hotel. The causative agent of disease could not be detected. The cause and the source of the disease were established through epidemiological investigations and laboratory diagnosis. The causative agent of the disease was norovirus GI.3. Norovirus GI was detected in the water from the well and on surfaces at the hotel. Both epidemiological investigations and laboratory diagnostics are needed in resolving epidemics. Continuous development of laboratory methods is important.

  14. Preclinical dose-ranging studies of a novel dry powder norovirus vaccine formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Michael J; Ni, Yawei; Finger-Baker, Isaac; Ball, Jordan P; Hahn, Jessica; DiMarco, Ashley V; Kobs, Dean; Horne, Bobbi; Talton, James D; Cobb, Ronald R

    2016-03-14

    Norovirus is the primary cause of viral gastroenteritis in humans with multiple genotypes currently circulating worldwide. The development of a successful norovirus vaccine is contingent on its ability to induce both systemic and mucosal antibody responses against a wide range of norovirus genotypes. Norovirus virus-like particles (VLPs) are known to elicit systemic and mucosal immune responses when delivered intranasally. Incorporation of these VLPs into an intranasal powder vaccine offers the advantage of simplicity and induction of neutralizing systemic and mucosal antibodies. Nasal immunization, which provides the advantage of ease of administration and a mucosal delivery mechanism, faces the real issue of limited nasal residence time due to mucociliary clearance. Herein, we describe a novel dry powder (GelVac™) formulation of GI or GII.4 norovirus VLPs, two dominant circulating genotypes, to identify the optimal antigen dosages based on systemic and mucosal immune responses in guinea pigs. Systemic and mucosal immunogenicity of each of the VLPs was observed in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, a boosting effect was observed after the second dosing of each VLP antigen. With the GelVac™ formulation, a total antigen dose of ≥ 15 μg was determined to be the maximally immunogenic dose for both GI and GII.4 norovirus VLPs based on evaluation for 56 days. Taken together, these results indicate that norovirus VLPs could be used as potential vaccine candidates without using an immunostimulatory adjuvant and provide a basis for the development of a GelVac™ bivalent GI/GII.4 norovirus VLP vaccine.

  15. Norovirus-related chronic diarrhea in a patient treated with alemtuzumab for chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Ronchetti, Anne-Marie; Henry, Benoit; Ambert-Balay, Katia; Pothier, Pierre; Decroocq, Justine; Leblond, Véronique; Roos-Weil, Damien

    2014-01-01

    Background Norovirus infection is increasingly recognized as an important cause of persistent gastroenteritis in immunocompromised hosts and can be a potential cause of morbidity in these populations. Case presentation Here, we report a case of norovirus-related chronic diarrhea occurring in a 62-year-old immunocompromised patient treated with alemtuzumab for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Despite different therapeutic strategies including tapering of immunosuppressive therapy and immunoglobul...

  16. Efficacy and Mechanisms of Murine Norovirus Inhibition by Pulsed-Light Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Vimont, Allison; Fliss, Ismaïl; Jean, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed light is a nonthermal processing technology recognized by the FDA for killing microorganisms on food surfaces, with cumulative fluences up to 12 J cm−2. In this study, we investigated its efficacy for inactivating murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1) as a human norovirus surrogate in phosphate-buffered saline, hard water, mineral water, turbid water, and sewage treatment effluent and on food contact surfaces, including high-density polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, and stainless steel, free or i...

  17. Modeling and Mapping Oyster Norovirus Outbreak Risks in Gulf of Mexico Using NASA MODIS Aqua Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Z.; Wang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Norovirus is a highly infectious virus and the leading cause of foodborne disease outbreaks such as oyster norovirus outbreaks. Currently, there is no vaccine to prevent norovirus infection and no drug to treat it. This paper presents an integrated modeling and mapping framework for predicting the risk of norovirus outbreaks in oyster harvesting waters in the Northern Gulf of Mexico coast. The framework involves (1) the construction of three novel remote sensing algorithms for the retrieval of sea surface salinity, sea surface temperature, and gage height (tide level) using NASA MODIS Aqua data; (2) the development of probability-based Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model for the prediction of oyster norovirus outbreak risk, and (3) the application of the Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA) for mapping norovirus outbreak risks in oyster harvesting areas in the Northern Gulf of Mexico using the remotely sensed NASA data, retrieved data from the three remote sensing algorithms, and the ANN model predictions. The three remote sensing algorithms are able to correctly retrieve 94.1% of sea surface salinity, 94.0% of sea surface temperature, and 77.8% of gage height observed along the US coast, including the Pacific coast, the Gulf of Mexico coast, and the Atlantic coast. The gage height, temperature, and salinity are the three most important explanatory variables of the ANN model in terms of spatially distributed input variables. The ANN model is capable of hindcasting/predicting all oyster norovirus outbreaks occurred in oyster growing areas along the Gulf of Mexico coast where environmental data are available. The integrated modeling and mapping framework makes it possible to map daily risks of norovirus outbreaks in all oyster harvesting waters and particularly the oyster growing areas where no in-situ environmental data are available, greatly improving the safety of seafood and reducing outbreaks of foodborne disease.

  18. Not all minds wander equally: The influence of traits, states and road environment factors on self-reported mind wandering during everyday driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdett, Bridget R D; Charlton, Samuel G; Starkey, Nicola J

    2016-10-01

    Inattention is a road safety problem, but few studies have focused specifically on mind wandering during everyday driving. This paper explores differences in self-reported mind wandering according to driver demographic characteristics (including age and gender), cognitive traits (such as tendency toward cognitive failure or mindful attention), states (such as feeling tired or stressed) and road environment factors (such as route familiarity). Five hundred and two participants (113 male, average age 44.4 years, SD=14.0years) completed a series of questionnaires (Mindful Attention and Awareness Scale (MAAS), Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ) and Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ)), as well as study-specific questions about mind wandering during different personal states and across a range of road and traffic situations. All respondents reported mind wandering during driving at least some of the time. Mind wandering was more likely to be reported on familiar roads than on unfamiliar roads and when drivers are tired. Drivers who reported relatively more mind wandering were younger, reported less mindful attention in daily life, more cognitive failures, and more driving violations and lapses. Together, the findings suggest that mind wandering is common in everyday driving, however any link with crash risk remains unclear. Future research using self-report and naturalistic methods could provide more insight into relationships between mind wandering, error and crash risk.

  19. Norovirus proteinase-polymerase and polymerase are both active forms of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belliot, Gaël; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V; Chang, Kyeong-Ok; Babu, Vijay; Uche, Uzo; Arnold, Jamie J; Cameron, Craig E; Green, Kim Y

    2005-02-01

    In vitro mapping studies of the MD145 norovirus (Caliciviridae) ORF1 polyprotein identified two stable cleavage products containing the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domains: ProPol (a precursor comprised of both the proteinase and polymerase) and Pol (the mature polymerase). The goal of this study was to identify the active form (or forms) of the norovirus polymerase. The recombinant ProPol (expressed as Pro(-)Pol with an inactivated proteinase domain to prevent autocleavage) and recombinant Pol were purified after synthesis in bacteria and shown to be active RdRp enzymes. In addition, the mutant His-E1189A-ProPol protein (with active proteinase but with the natural ProPol cleavage site blocked) was active as an RdRp, confirming that the norovirus ProPol precursor could possess two enzymatic activities simultaneously. The effects of several UTP analogs on the RdRp activity of the norovirus and feline calicivirus Pro(-)Pol enzymes were compared and found to be similar. Our data suggest that the norovirus ProPol is a bifunctional enzyme during virus replication. The availability of this recombinant ProPol enzyme might prove useful in the development of antiviral drugs for control of the noroviruses associated with acute gastroenteritis.

  20. Prevalence of Rotavirus, Adenovirus, Norovirus, and Astrovirus Infections and Coinfections among Hospitalized Children in Northern France▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Adissa; Talmud, Déborah; Lejeune, Benoît; Jovenin, Nicolas; Renois, Fanny; Payan, Christopher; Leveque, Nicolas; Andreoletti, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    From January to December 2007, 973 stool specimens were prospectively collected from children hospitalized for gastroenteritis signs or from neonates and premature cases who were born in two French hospital settings in the north of France. They were tested by rapid enzyme immunoassay (EIA) analyses for rotavirus and adenovirus and by two commercially available ELISA tests for the detection of norovirus and astrovirus. The overall rates of prevalence for rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus, and astrovirus were 21, 13, 5, and 1.8%, respectively, and they did not significantly differ between the two hospital settings (P = 0.12). Mixed virus infections were detected in 32 (3.3%) of the 973 study children and were associated with norovirus in 21 (66%) infants, including 5 premature cases. From fall to spring, norovirus infections accounted for 52% of documented gastroenteritidis viral infections at a time when rotavirus was epidemic, resulting in mixed norovirus and rotavirus gastrointestinal tract infections. Of the 367 documented viral gastroenteritis cases, 15 (4.1%) were identified as nosocomial infections, 5 of which occurred in premature cases. These findings highlight the need to implement norovirus and astrovirus ELISA detection assays in association with rapid EIA rotavirus and adenovirus detection assays for the clinical diagnosis and the nosocomial prevention of gastroenteritis viral infections in pediatric departments. PMID:20305010

  1. Norovirus and Sapovirus Epidemiology and Strain Characteristics among Navajo and Apache Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Lindsay R; O'Brien, Katherine L; Weatherholtz, Robert C; Reid, Raymond; Goklish, Novalene; Santosham, Mathuram; Parashar, Umesh; Vinjé, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Norovirus and sapovirus are important causes of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) among American Indian infants. We investigated the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of norovirus and sapovirus in American Indian infants who have historically experienced a high burden of AGE compared to other US populations. Stool samples were collected from 241 children with AGE (cases) and from 343 infants without AGE (controls) ≤9 months of age from 2002-2004. Cases experienced forceful vomiting and/or 3 or more watery or looser-than-normal stools in 24 hours. Stools were tested by real-time RT-PCR for norovirus GI, GII and GIV and sapovirus GI, GII, GIV and GV. Positive samples were genotyped after sequencing conventional RT-PCR products. Norovirus was identified in 76 (31.5%) of the cases and 70 (20.4%) of the controls (pSapovirus GI and GII genotypes were identified in 8 (3.3%) of cases and 8 (2.3%) of controls and a single GIV virus was detected in a control. The same norovirus and sapovirus genotypes were circulating in the general U.S. population in the same time period. The high detection rate of norovirus in healthy controls suggests significant asymptomatic transmission in young infants in these communities.

  2. Human Norovirus and Its Surrogates Induce Plant Immune Response in Arabidopsis thaliana and Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markland, Sarah M; Bais, Harsh; Kniel, Kalmia E

    2017-08-01

    Human norovirus is the leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide with the majority of outbreaks linked to fresh produce and leafy greens. It is essential that we thoroughly understand the type of relationship and interactions that take place between plants and human norovirus to better utilize control strategies to reduce transmission of norovirus in the field onto plants harvested for human consumption. In this study the expression of gene markers for the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) plant defense pathways was measured and compared in romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 plants that were inoculated with Murine Norovirus-1, Tulane Virus, human norovirus GII.4, or Hank's Balanced Salt Solution (control). Genes involving both the SA and JA pathways were expressed in both romaine lettuce and A. thaliana for all three viruses, as well as controls. Studies, including gene expression of SA- and JA-deficient A. thaliana mutant lines, suggest that the JA pathway is more likely involved in the plant immune response to human norovirus. This research provides the first pieces of information regarding how foodborne viruses interact with plants in the preharvest environment.

  3. Natural infection of murine norovirus in conventional and specific pathogen-free (SPF laboratory mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo eOhsugi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Noroviruses cause most cases of acute viral gastroenteritis worldwide. The lack of a cell culture infection model for human norovirus necessitates the use of molecular methods and/or viral surrogate models amenable to cell culture to predict norovirus inactivation. Murine norovirus (MNV may be used to construct a small animal model for studying the biology and pathogenesis of noroviruses because MNV is the only norovirus that replicates in cell culture and a small animal model. However, recent studies have shown that natural MNV infection is widespread in laboratory mouse colonies. We investigated MNV infection in both conventional and specific pathogen-free (SPF genetically modified mice from Japan and the US, and commercial mice from several animal breeders in Japan, using serological and molecular techniques. MNV antibodies were detected in 67.3% of conventional mice and 39.1% of SPF mice from Japan and 62.5% of conventional mice from the US. MNV antibodies were also found in 20% of commercial SPF C57BL/6 mice from one of three breeders. Partial gene amplification of fecal isolates from infected animals showed that the isolates were homologous to reported MNV sequences. These results suggest that both conventional and SPF laboratory mice, including commercial mice, are widely infected with MNV, which might require considerable attention as an animal model of human disease.

  4. Human norovirus binding to select bacteria representative of the human gut microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almand, Erin A.; Outlaw, Janie; Jaykus, Lee-Ann

    2017-01-01

    Recent reports describe the ability of select bacterial strains to bind human norovirus, although the specificity of such interactions is unknown. The purpose of this work was to determine if a select group of bacterial species representative of human gut microbiota bind to human norovirus, and if so, to characterize the intensity and location of that binding. The bacteria screened included naturally occurring strains isolated from human stool (Klebsiella spp., Citrobacter spp., Bacillus spp., Enterococcus faecium and Hafnia alvei) and select reference strains (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter cloacae). Binding in PBS was evaluated to three human norovirus strains (GII.4 New Orleans 2009 and Sydney 2012, GI.6) and two surrogate viruses (Tulane virus and Turnip Crinkle Virus (TCV)) using a suspension assay format linked to RT-qPCR for quantification. The impact of different overnight culture media prior to washing on binding efficiency in PBS was also evaluated, and binding was visualized using transmission electron microscopy. All bacteria tested bound the representative human norovirus strains with high efficiency (90% binding efficiency) (p>0.05); there was selective binding for Tulane virus and no binding observed for TCV. Binding efficiency was highest when bacteria were cultured in minimal media (90% bound), but notably decreased when cultured in enriched media (1–3 log10 unbound or 0.01 –structures, without apparent localization. The findings reported here further elucidate and inform the dynamics between human noroviruses and enteric bacteria with implications for norovirus pathogenesis. PMID:28257478

  5. Current Status of Norovirus Infections in Children in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Munalula Munjita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Noroviruses are a leading cause of acute sporadic gastroenteritis worldwide. In Sub-Saharan Africa, information regarding norovirus infections in children is scarce. A systematic review of studies performed between 1993 and June 2015 was conducted to establish the genotypic distribution and prevalence of norovirus infections in children (≤17 in Sub-Saharan Africa. Analysis of data from 19 studies involving 8,399 samples from children with symptomatic and nonsymptomatic gastroenteritis revealed prevalence of 12.6% (range 4.6% to 32.4%. The prevalence of norovirus infections was higher in symptomatic children (14.2% than asymptomatic children (9.2%. Genogroup II (GII was the most prevalent genogroup accounting for 76.4% of all the reported norovirus infections. The rest of the infections were GI (21.7% and GI/GII (1.9%. The most common genotypes were GII.4 (65.2%, GI.7 (33.3%, and GI.3 (21.3%. These statistics were calculated from studies carried out in 12 out of 48 Sub-Saharan African countries. Therefore, more studies involving several countries are required to determine fully the epidemiology of noroviruses and their contribution to childhood diarrhoea in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  6. Analysis of Spatial Disparities and Driving Factors of Energy Consumption Change in China Based on Spatial Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Hualin Xie; Guiying Liu; Qu Liu; Peng Wang

    2014-01-01

    The changes of spatial pattern in energy consumption have an impact on global climate change. Based on the spatial autocorrelation analysis and the auto-regression model of spatial statistics, this study has explored the spatial disparities and driving forces in energy consumption changes in China. The results show that the global spatial autocorrelation of energy consumption change in China is significant during the period 1990–2010, and the trend of spatial clustering of energy consumption ...

  7. Susceptibilidad de cerdos criados artesanalmente a infecciones por norovirus humanos en zonas rurales de Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredman González

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Norovirus es la mayor causa de gastroenteritis viral en el mundo, genética y antigénicamente las cepas humanas y porcinas se relacionan. La información se limita en zonas rurales donde los cerdos domésticos están expuestos a heces humana que facilitan la transmisión. La presencia de antígenos de grupos histo-sanguíneos (HBGAs se conocen como factores de susceptibilidad para NoV en seres humanos y para modelo de lechones libre de gérmenes, pero su papel en la susceptibilidad en ambientes domésticos es desconocido. La investigación estableció la seroprevalencia en cerdos domésticos de tres cepas de norovirus humano en formato VLP (partículas virales sintéticas; y la distribución de HBGAs en relación con los títulos de anticuerpos IgG y la caracterización adicional de la cepa GII.4-VLP de NoV por bloqueo de unión a mucinas gástricas de cerdo (PGM. La mayoría de cerdos fueron seropositivos a los tres VLPs (58-70%. La seropositividad y la reactividad cruzada aumentó significativamente con la edad; los sueros de cerdos no bloquearon la unión del NoV GII.4 VLP (Dijon a PGM lo que sugiere que no hay infección previa con este genotipo. La mayoría de cerdos fueron H-positivo (84%, un factor de susceptibilidad para infecciones humanas, pero los títulos de anticuerpos de IgG fueron mayores en H-negativo (GMT = 247 que en cerdos H-positivo (GMT = 57, esta diferencia en los títulos de anticuerpos sólo se observó en cerdos ≤ 1 mes. Los datos serológicos demuestran que la población porcina está expuesta a infecciones por NoV, y la asociación de HBGAs requiere otros estudios.

  8. Recovery and Disinfection of Two Human Norovirus Surrogates, Feline Calicivirus and Murine Norovirus, from Hard Nonporous and Soft Porous Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeargin, Thomas; Fraser, Angela; Huang, Guohui; Jiang, Xiuping

    2015-10-01

    Human norovirus is a leading cause of foodborne disease and can be transmitted through many routes, including environmental exposure to fomites. In this study, both the recovery and inactivation of two human norovirus surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV), on hard nonporous surfaces (glass) and soft porous surfaces (polyester and cotton) were evaluated by both plaque assay and reverse transcription quantitative PCR method. Two disinfectants, sodium hypochlorite (8.25%) and accelerated hydrogen peroxide (AHP, at 4.25%) were evaluated for disinfection efficacy. Five coupons per surface type were used to evaluate the recovery of FCV and MNV by sonication and stomaching and the disinfection of each surface type by using 5 ml of disinfectant for a contact time of 5 min. FCV at an initial titer of ca. 7 log PFU/ml was recovered from glass, cotton, and polyester at 6.2, 5.4, and 3.8 log PFU/ml, respectively, compared with 5.5, 5.2, and 4.1 log PFU/ml, respectively, for MNV with an initial titer of ca. 6 log PFU/ml. The use of sodium hypochlorite (5,000 ppm) was able to inactivate both FCV and MNV (3.1 to 5.5 log PFU/ml) below the limit of detection on all three surface types. AHP (2,656 ppm) inactivated FCV (3.1 to 5.5 log PFU/ml) below the limit of detection for all three surface types but achieved minimal inactivation of MNV (0.17 to 1.37 log PFU/ml). Reduction of viral RNA by sodium hypochlorite corresponded to 2.72 to 4.06 log reduction for FCV and 2.07 to 3.04 log reduction for MNV on all three surface types. Reduction of viral RNA by AHP corresponded to 1.89 to 3.4 log reduction for FCV and 0.54 to 0.85 log reduction for MNV. Our results clearly indicate that both virus and surface types significantly influence recovery efficiency and disinfection efficacy. Based on the performance of our proposed testing method, an improvement in virus recovery will be needed to effectively validate virus disinfection of soft porous surfaces.

  9. Survival of norovirus surrogate on various food-contact surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, An-Na; Park, Shin Young; Bae, San-Cheong; Oh, Mi-Hwa; Ha, Sang-Do

    2014-09-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is an environmental threat to humans, which spreads easily from one infected person to another, causing foodborne and waterborne diseases. Therefore, precautions against NoV infection are important in the preparation of food. The aim of this study was to investigate the survival of murine norovirus (MNV), as a NoV surrogate, on six different food-contact surfaces: ceramic, wood, rubber, glass, stainless steel, and plastic. We inoculated 10(5) PFU of MNV onto the six different surface coupons that were then kept at room temperature for 28 days. On the food-contact surfaces, the greatest reduction in MNV was 2.28 log10 PFU/coupon, observed on stainless steel, while the lowest MNV reduction was 1.29 log10 PFU/coupon, observed on wood. The rank order of MNV reduction, from highest to lowest, was stainless steel, plastic, rubber, glass, ceramic, and wood. The values of d R (time required to reduce the virus by 90%) on survival plots of MNV determined by a modified Weibull model were 277.60 h (R(2) = 0.99) on ceramic, 492.59 h (R(2) = 0.98) on wood, 173.56 h on rubber (R(2) = 0.98), 97.18 h (R(2) = 0.94) on glass, 91.76 h (R(2) = 0.97) on stainless steel, and 137.74 h (R(2) = 0.97) on plastic. The infectivity of MNV on all food-contact surfaces remained after 28 days. These results show that MNV persists in an infective state on various food-contact surfaces for long periods. This study may provide valuable information for the control of NoV on various food-contact surfaces, in order to prevent foodborne disease.

  10. Inactivation of murine norovirus by chemical biocides on stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinmann Jörg

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human norovirus (NoV causes more than 80% of nonbacterial gastroenteritis in Europe and the United States. NoV transmission via contaminated surfaces may be significant for the spread of viruses. Therefore, measures for prevention and control, such as surface disinfection, are necessary to interrupt the dissemination of human NoV. Murine norovirus (MNV as a surrogate for human NoV was used to study the efficacy of active ingredients of chemical disinfectants for virus inactivation on inanimate surfaces. Methods The inactivating properties of different chemical biocides were tested in a quantitative carrier test with stainless steel discs without mechanical action. Vacuum-dried MNV was exposed to different concentrations of alcohols, peracetic acid (PAA or glutaraldehyde (GDA for 5 minutes exposure time. Detection of residual virus was determined by endpoint-titration on RAW 264.7 cells. Results PAA [1000 ppm], GDA [2500 ppm], ethanol [50% (v/v] and 1-propanol [30% (v/v] were able to inactivate MNV under clean conditions (0.03% BSA on the carriers by ≥ 4 log10 within 5 minutes exposure time, whereas 2-propanol showed a reduced effectiveness even at 60% (v/v. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in virus reduction whatever interfering substances were used. When testing with ethanol, 1- and 2-propanol, results under clean conditions were nearly the same as in the presence of dirty conditions (0.3% BSA plus 0.3% erythrocytes. Conclusion Products based upon PAA, GDA, ethanol and 1-propanol should be used for NoV inactivation on inanimate surfaces. Our data provide valuable information for the development of strategies to control NoV transmission via surfaces.

  11. Interactions between Human Norovirus Surrogates and Acanthamoeba spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Tun-Yun; Gibson, Kristen E

    2015-06-15

    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the most common cause of food-borne disease outbreaks, as well as virus-related waterborne disease outbreaks in the United States. Here, we hypothesize that common free-living amoebae (FLA)-ubiquitous in the environment, known to interact with pathogens, and frequently isolated from water and fresh produce-could potentially act as reservoirs of HuNoV and facilitate the environmental transmission of HuNoVs. To investigate FLA as reservoirs for HuNoV, the interactions between two Acanthamoeba species, A. castellanii and A. polyphaga, as well as two HuNoV surrogates, murine norovirus type 1 (MNV-1) and feline calicivirus (FCV), were evaluated. The results showed that after 1 h of amoeba-virus incubation at 25°C, 490 and 337 PFU of MNV-1/ml were recovered from A. castellanii and A. polyphaga, respectively, while only few or no FCVs were detected. In addition, prolonged interaction of MNV-1 with amoebae was investigated for a period of 8 days, and MNV-1 was demonstrated to remain stable at around 200 PFU/ml from day 2 to day 8 after virus inoculation in A. castellanii. Moreover, after a complete amoeba life cycle (i.e., encystment and excystment), infectious viruses could still be detected. To determine the location of virus associated with amoebae, immunofluorescence experiments were performed and showed MNV-1 transitioning from the amoeba surface to inside the amoeba over a 24-h period. These results are significant to the understanding of how HuNoVs may interact with other microorganisms in the environment in order to aid in its persistence and survival, as well as potential transmission in water and to vulnerable food products such as fresh produce.

  12. Llama nanoantibodies with therapeutic potential against human norovirus diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaicoechea, Lorena; Aguilar, Andrea; Parra, Gabriel I; Bok, Marina; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V; Canziani, Gabriela; Green, Kim Y; Bok, Karin; Parreño, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    Noroviruses are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis, but no vaccines or therapeutic drugs are available. Llama-derived single chain antibody fragments (also called VHH) are small, recombinant monoclonal antibodies of 15 kDa with several advantages over conventional antibodies. The aim of this study was to generate recombinant monoclonal VHH specific for the two major norovirus (NoV) genogroups (GI and GII) in order to investigate their potential as immunotherapy for the treatment of NoV diarrhea. To accomplish this objective, two llamas were immunized with either GI.1 (Norwalk-1968) or GII.4 (MD2004) VLPs. After immunization, peripheral blood lymphocytes were collected and used to generate two VHH libraries. Using phage display technology, 10 VHH clones specific for GI.1, and 8 specific for GII.4 were selected for further characterization. All VHH recognized conformational epitopes in the P domain of the immunizing VP1 capsid protein, with the exception of one GII.4 VHH that recognized a linear P domain epitope. The GI.1 VHHs were highly specific for the immunizing GI.1 genotype, with only one VHH cross-reacting with GI.3 genotype. The GII.4 VHHs reacted with the immunizing GII.4 strain and showed a varying reactivity profile among different GII genotypes. One VHH specific for GI.1 and three specific for GII.4 could block the binding of homologous VLPs to synthetic HBGA carbohydrates, saliva, and pig gastric mucin, and in addition, could inhibit the hemagglutination of red blood cells by homologous VLPs. The ability of Nov-specific VHHs to perform well in these surrogate neutralization assays supports their further development as immunotherapy for NoV treatment and immunoprophylaxis.

  13. Seroprevalence of antibodies against noroviruses among students in a Chinese military medical university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ying-chun; Nie, Jun; Zhang, Xu-fu; Li, Zhi-feng; Bai, Yang; Zeng, Zhi-rong; Yu, Shou-yi; Farkas, Tibor; Jiang, Xi

    2004-10-01

    Noroviruses (NVs) are important causes of nonbacterial gastroenteritis in humans, but the role of NVs as a cause of diseases in the Chinese people, particularly in Chinese military personnel, remains unclear. This study investigated antibody prevalence and factors that associate with the prevalence of antibody to NVs among students attending a military medical university. Serum specimens were tested by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for immunoglobulin G antibody to recombinant capsid antigens of three NVs (rNorwalk, rMxV, and rVA387). Of 588 serum samples tested, the antibody prevalence was 88.9, 54.1, or 90.0% for the three antigens, respectively. There were significant differences in the prevalence of antibody to rMxV between blood types (P military, with the highest rates for students from rural areas, lower rates for students from small towns or villages, and the lowest rates for students from large cities. The numbers of students who did not have antibody to any of the three antigens were highest for students from the large cities, lower for students from small towns or villages, and lowest for students from rural areas. The distribution of ABO blood types did not differ among the three groups. These data suggest that NVs are prevalent in China and that both genetic and environmental factors play a role in NV infection.

  14. Distracted Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Distracted Driving Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Each day in the United States, over 8 people are killed and 1,161 injured in crashes ...

  15. DRIVING GREEN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China is promoting environmentally friendly cars to save energy and protect the environment While people enjoy the pleasure and convenience of driving, they are also creating and breathing more and more toxic

  16. Population-Based Incidence Rates of Diarrheal Disease Associated with Norovirus, Sapovirus, and Astrovirus in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shioda, Kayoko; Cosmas, Leonard; Audi, Allan; Gregoricus, Nicole; Vinjé, Jan; Parashar, Umesh D; Montgomery, Joel M; Feikin, Daniel R; Breiman, Robert F; Hall, Aron J

    2016-01-01

    Diarrheal diseases remain a major cause of mortality in Africa and worldwide. While the burden of rotavirus is well described, population-based rates of disease caused by norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus are lacking, particularly in developing countries. Data on diarrhea cases were collected through a population-based surveillance platform including healthcare encounters and household visits in Kenya. We analyzed data from June 2007 to October 2008 in Lwak, a rural site in western Kenya, and from October 2006 to February 2009 in Kibera, an urban slum. Stool specimens from diarrhea cases of all ages who visited study clinics were tested for norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus by RT-PCR. Of 334 stool specimens from Lwak and 524 from Kibera, 85 (25%) and 159 (30%) were positive for norovirus, 13 (4%) and 31 (6%) for sapovirus, and 28 (8%) and 18 (3%) for astrovirus, respectively. Among norovirus-positive specimens, genogroup II predominated in both sites, detected in 74 (87%) in Lwak and 140 (88%) in Kibera. The adjusted community incidence per 100,000 person-years was the highest for norovirus (Lwak: 9,635; Kibera: 4,116), followed by astrovirus (Lwak: 3,051; Kibera: 440) and sapovirus (Lwak: 1,445; Kibera: 879). For all viruses, the adjusted incidence was higher among children aged sapovirus: 5,556 in Lwak and 4,378 in Kibera; astrovirus: 11,113 in Lwak and 2,814 in Kibera) compared to cases aged ≥5 years. Although limited by a lack of controls, this is the first study to estimate the outpatient and community incidence rates of norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus across the age spectrum in Kenya, suggesting a substantial disease burden imposed by these viruses. By applying adjusted rates, we estimate approximately 2.8-3.3 million, 0.45-0.54 million, and 0.77-0.95 million people become ill with norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus, respectively, every year in Kenya.

  17. Challenges of culturing human norovirus in three-dimensional organoid intestinal cell culture models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efstathia Papafragkou

    Full Text Available Human noroviruses are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Recently, cell culture systems have been described using either human embryonic intestinal epithelial cells (Int-407 or human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (Caco-2 growing on collagen-I porous micro carrier beads in a rotating bioreactor under conditions of physiological fluid shear. Here, we describe the efforts from two independent laboratories to implement this three dimensional (3D cell culture system for the replication of norovirus. Int-407 and Caco-2 were grown in a rotating bioreactor for up to 28 days. Prior to infection, cells were screened for the presence of microvilli by electron microscopy and stained for junction proteins (zonula occludens-1, claudin-1, and β-catenin. Differentiated 3D cells were transferred to 24-well plates and infected with bacteria-free filtrates of various norovirus genotypes (GI.1, GI.3, GI.8, GII.2, GII.4, GII.7, and GII.8. At 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h post inoculation, viral RNA from both cells and supernatants were collected and analyzed for norovirus RNA by real-time reverse transcription PCR. Despite observations of high expression of junction proteins and microvilli development in stained thin sections, our data suggest no significant increase in viral titer based on norovirus RNA copy number during the first 48 h after inoculation for the different samples and virus culture conditions tested. Our combined efforts demonstrate that 3D cell culture models using Int-407 or Caco-2 cells do not support norovirus replication and highlight the complexity and difficulty of developing a reproducible in vitro cell culture system for human norovirus.

  18. Herd immunity to GII.4 noroviruses is supported by outbreak patient sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Jennifer L; Lindesmith, Lisa C; Donaldson, Eric F; Saxe, Lauryn; Baric, Ralph S; Vinjé, Jan

    2009-06-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) of genogroup II, cluster 4 (GII.4), are the most common cause of outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. During the past 13 years, GII.4 NoVs caused four seasons of widespread activity globally, each associated with the emergence of a new strain. In this report, we characterized the most recent epidemic strain, GII.4-2006 Minerva, by comparing virus-like particle (VLP) antigenic relationships and histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) binding profiles with strains isolated earlier. We also investigated the seroprevalence and specificity of GII.4 antibody in the years prior to, during, and following the GII.4 pandemic of 1995 and 1996 using a large collection of acute- and convalescent-phase serum pairs (n = 298) collected from 34 outbreaks. In a surrogate neutralization assay, we measured the blockade of HBGA binding using a panel of GII.4 VLPs representing strains isolated in 1987, 1997, 2002, and 2006 and a GII.3 VLP representing a strain isolated in the mid-1990s. Serum titers required for 50% HBGA blockade were compared between populations. In general, blockade of GII.4 VLP-HBGA binding was greater with convalescent-phase outbreak sera collected near the time of origin of the VLP strain. Heterotypic genotypes did not contribute to herd immunity against GII.4 NoVs based on their inability to block GII.4 VLP binding to HBGA. However, previous exposure to GII.4 NoV followed by infection by GII.3 NoV appeared to evoke an immune response to GII.4 NoV. These results support the hypothesis that herd immunity is a driving force for GII.4 evolution in the U.S. population. The data also suggest that complex patterns of cross-protection may exist across NoV genotypes in humans.

  19. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the risk posed by pathogens in food of non-animal origin. Part 2 (Salmonella and Norovirus in tomatoes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    the suitability of an EU-wide E. coli Process Hygiene Criterion. There are Food Safety Criteria for the absence of Salmonella in 25 g samples of ready-to-eat pre-cut tomatoes as well as in unpasteurised tomato juice placed on the market during their shelf life. A Food Safety Criterion for Salmonella in whole...... consumption between 2007 and 2012. Risk factors for tomato contamination by Salmonella and Norovirus were considered in the context of the whole food chain. Available estimates of the Salmonella and Norovirus occurrence in tomatoes were evaluated together with mitigation options relating to prevention...... of contamination and the relevance of microbiological criteria. It was concluded that each farm environment represents a unique combination of risk factors that can influence occurrence and persistence of pathogens in tomato production. Appropriate implementation of food safety management systems including Good...

  20. Structure-Guided Design and Optimization of Dipeptidyl Inhibitors of Norovirus 3CL Protease. Structure-Activity Relationships and Biochemical, X-ray Crystallographic, Cell-Based, and In Vivo Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankanamalage, Anushka C. Galasiti; Kim, Yunjeong; Weerawarna, Pathum M.; Uy, Roxanne Adeline Z.; Damalanka, Vishnu C.; Mandadapu, Sivakoteswara Rao; Alliston, Kevin R.; Mehzabeen, Nurjahan; Battaile, Kevin P.; Lovell, Scott; Chang, Kyeong-Ok; Groutas, William C.

    2015-01-01

    Norovirus infection constitutes the primary cause of acute viral gastroenteritis. There are currently no vaccines or norovirus-specific antiviral therapeutics available for the management of norovirus infection. Norovirus 3C-like protease is essential for viral replication, consequently, inhibition of this enzyme is a fruitful avenue of investigation that may lead to the emergence of anti-norovirus therapeutics. We describe herein the optimization of dipeptidyl inhibitors of norovirus 3C-like protease using iterative SAR, X-ray crystallographic, and enzyme and cell-based studies. We also demonstrate herein in vivo efficacy of an inhibitor using the murine model of norovirus infection. PMID:25761614

  1. EVALUATION OF MURINE NOROVIRUS, FELINE CALICIVIRUS, POLIOVIRUS, AND MS2 AS SURROGATES FOR HUMAN NOROVIRUS IN a Model of Viral Persistence in SURFACE Water AND GROUNDWATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human noroviruses (NoV) are a significant cause of non bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide with contaminated drinking water a potential transmission route. The absence of a cell culture infectivity model for NoV necessitates the use of molecular methods and/or viral surrogate mod...

  2. The Where is Norovirus Control Lost (WINCL) Study: an enhanced surveillance project to identify norovirus index cases in care settings in the UK and Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jennie; Haig, Caroline E; McCowan, Colin; Leanord, Alistair; Loveday, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Background: Norovirus outbreaks have a significant impact on all care settings; little is known about the index cases from whom these outbreaks initiate. Aim: To identify and categorise norovirus outbreak index cases in care settings. Methods: A mixed-methods, multi-centre, prospective, enhanced surveillance study identified and categorised index cases in acute and non-acute care settings. Results: From 54 participating centres, 537 outbreaks were reported (November 2013 to April 2014): 383 (71.3%) in acute care facilities (ACF); 115 (21.4%) in residential or care homes (RCH) and 39 (7.3%) in other care settings (OCS). Index cases were identified in 424 (79%) outbreaks. Of the 245 index cases who were asymptomatic on admission and not transferred within/into the care setting, 123 (50%) had been an inpatient/resident for 4 days. Four themes emerged: missing the diagnosis, care service under pressure, delay in outbreak control measures and patient/resident location and proximity. Conclusion: The true index case is commonly not identified as the cause of a norovirus outbreak with at least 50% of index cases being misclassified. Unrecognised norovirus cross-transmission occurs frequently suggesting that either Standard Infection Control Precautions (SICPs) are being insufficiently well applied, and or SICPs are themselves are insufficient to prevent outbreaks.

  3. EVALUATION OF MURINE NOROVIRUS, FELINE CALICIVIRUS, POLIOVIRUS, AND MS2 AS SURROGATES FOR HUMAN NOROVIRUS IN a Model of Viral Persistence in SURFACE Water AND GROUNDWATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human noroviruses (NoV) are a significant cause of non bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide with contaminated drinking water a potential transmission route. The absence of a cell culture infectivity model for NoV necessitates the use of molecular methods and/or viral surrogate mod...

  4. Genetic Diversity of Norovirus and Sapovirus in Hospitalized Infants with Sporadic Cases of Acute Gastroenteritis in Chiang Mai, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansman, Grant S.; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Maneekarn, Niwat; Peerakome, Supatra; Khamrin, Pattara; Tonusin, Supin; Okitsu, Shoko; Nishio, Osamu; Takeda, Naokazu; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    Stool specimens from hospitalized infants with sporadic gastroenteritis in Chiang Mai, Thailand, between July 2000 and July 2001 were examined for norovirus and sapovirus by reverse transcription-PCR and sequence analysis. These viruses were identified in 13 of 105 (12%) specimens. One strain was found to be a recombinant norovirus. PMID:15004104

  5. Francisella tularensis elicits IL-10 via a PGE₂-inducible factor, to drive macrophage MARCH1 expression and class II down-regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Hunt

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is a bacterial pathogen that uses host-derived PGE₂ to subvert the host's adaptive immune responses in multiple ways. Francisella-induced PGE₂ acts directly on CD4 T cells to blunt production of IFN-γ. Francisella-induced PGE₂ can also elicit production of a >10 kDa soluble host factor termed FTMØSN (F. tularensismacrophage supernatant, which acts on IFN-γ pre-activated MØ to down-regulate MHC class II expression via a ubiquitin-dependent mechanism, blocking antigen presentation to CD4 T cells. Here, we report that FTMØSN-induced down-regulation of MØ class II is the result of the induction of MARCH1, and that MØ expressing MARCH1 "resistant" class II molecules are resistant to FTMØSN-induced class II down-regulation. Since PGE₂ can induce IL-10 production and IL-10 is the only reported cytokine able to induce MARCH1 expression in monocytes and dendritic cells, these findings suggested that IL-10 is the active factor in FTMØSN. However, use of IL-10 knockout MØ established that IL-10 is not the active factor in FTMØSN, but rather that Francisella-elicited PGE₂ drives production of a >10 kDa host factor distinct from IL-10. This factor then drives MØ IL-10 production to induce MARCH1 expression and the resultant class II down-regulation. Since many human pathogens such as Salmonella typhi, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Legionella pneumophila also induce production of host PGE₂, these results suggest that a yet-to-be-identified PGE₂-inducible host factor capable of inducing IL-10 is central to the immune evasion mechanisms of multiple important human pathogens.

  6. 网络品牌忠诚驱动因素分类研究%Classification Research on the Driving Factors of Cyber-Brand Loyalty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐昕; 黄永兴

    2011-01-01

    将网络品牌分为传统品牌的网络延伸和网络新品牌两种形式,通过分析网络品牌忠诚的动态形成过程,构建了网络品牌忠诚驱动要素研究模型。实证研究发现,网络品牌的符号因素、属性因素、精神因素、价值观因素、传播因素、体验因素都与网络品牌忠诚正相关,但两类网络品牌忠诚的关键驱动因素存在差别。体验因素、价值观因素和属性因素是网络新品牌忠诚的关键驱动因素,而属性因素、体验因素和传播因素对网络化的传统品牌忠诚度有重要影响。%Classifing the internet brands into the extended traditional brands and new internet brands. It analyzes the dynamic formation process of the Internet brands and sets up a research model of driving factors of the loyalty degree of Internet brands. The empirical result finds that all the six factors of symbols, properties, spirits, values, spreading and experience are the driving factors of the Internet brand loyalty, but the key driving factors differ as for the two types of Internet brands loyalty. The factor of experience imposes the most significant influence on the brand loyalty with regard to the new Internet brands, followed by the factors of values and properties. While as per the extended traditional brands, the factors of properties, spreading and experience have an important effect on the brand loyalty degree.

  7. Dementia and driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, D; Neubauer, K; Boyle, M; Gerrard, J; Surmon, D; Wilcock, G K

    1992-04-01

    Many European countries test cars, but not their drivers, as they age. There is evidence to suggest that human factors are more important than vehicular factors as causes of motor crashes. The elderly also are involved in more accidents per distance travelled than middle-aged drivers. As the UK relies on self-certification of health by drivers over the age of 70 years, we examined the driving practices of patients with dementia attending a Memory Clinic. Nearly one-fifth of 329 patients with documented dementia continued to drive after the onset of dementia, and impaired driving ability was noted in two-thirds of these. Their families experienced great difficulty in persuading patients to stop driving, and had to invoke outside help in many cases. Neuropsychological tests did not help to identify those who drove badly while activity of daily living scores were related to driving ability. These findings suggest that many patients with dementia drive in an unsafe fashion after the onset of the illness. The present system of self-certification of health by the elderly for driver-licensing purposes needs to be reassessed.

  8. Complete Nucleotide Sequence Analysis of the Norovirus GII.4 Sydney Variant in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Sun Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Norovirus is the primary cause of acute gastroenteritis in individuals of all ages. In Australia, a new strain of norovirus (GII.4 was identified in March 2012, and this strain has spread rapidly around the world. In August 2012, this new GII.4 strain was identified in patients in South Korea. Therefore, to examine the characteristics of the epidemic norovirus GII.4 2012 variant in South Korea, we conducted KM272334 full-length genomic analysis. The genome of the gg-12-08-04 strain consisted of 7,558 bp and contained three open reading frame (ORF composites throughout the whole genome: ORF1 (5,100 bp, ORF2 (1,623 bp, and ORF3 (807 bp. Phylogenetic analyses showed that gg-12-08-04 belonged to the GII.4 Sydney 2012 variant, sharing 98.92% nucleotide similarity with this variant strain. According to SimPlot analysis, the gg-12-08-04 strain was a recombinant strain with breakpoint at the ORF1/2 junction between Osaka 2007 and Apeldoorn 2008 strains. This study is the first report of the complete sequence of the GII.4 Sydney 2012 strain in South Korea. Therefore, this may represent the standard sequence of the norovirus GII.4 2012 variant in South Korea and could therefore be useful for the development of norovirus vaccines.

  9. Complete nucleotide sequence analysis of the norovirus GII.4 Sydney variant in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Sun; Lee, Sung-Geun; Jin, Ji-Young; Cho, Han-Gil; Jheong, Weon-Hwa; Paik, Soon-Young

    2015-01-01

    Norovirus is the primary cause of acute gastroenteritis in individuals of all ages. In Australia, a new strain of norovirus (GII.4) was identified in March 2012, and this strain has spread rapidly around the world. In August 2012, this new GII.4 strain was identified in patients in South Korea. Therefore, to examine the characteristics of the epidemic norovirus GII.4 2012 variant in South Korea, we conducted KM272334 full-length genomic analysis. The genome of the gg-12-08-04 strain consisted of 7,558 bp and contained three open reading frame (ORF) composites throughout the whole genome: ORF1 (5,100 bp), ORF2 (1,623 bp), and ORF3 (807 bp). Phylogenetic analyses showed that gg-12-08-04 belonged to the GII.4 Sydney 2012 variant, sharing 98.92% nucleotide similarity with this variant strain. According to SimPlot analysis, the gg-12-08-04 strain was a recombinant strain with breakpoint at the ORF1/2 junction between Osaka 2007 and Apeldoorn 2008 strains. This study is the first report of the complete sequence of the GII.4 Sydney 2012 strain in South Korea. Therefore, this may represent the standard sequence of the norovirus GII.4 2012 variant in South Korea and could therefore be useful for the development of norovirus vaccines.

  10. Predictive Model for Inactivation of Feline Calicivirus, a Norovirus Surrogate, by Heat and High Hydrostatic Pressure▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckow, Roman; Isbarn, Sonja; Knorr, Dietrich; Heinz, Volker; Lehmacher, Anselm

    2008-01-01

    Noroviruses, which are members of the Caliciviridae family, represent the leading cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis in developed countries; such norovirus infections result in high economic costs for health protection. Person-to-person contact, contaminated water, and foods, especially raw shellfish, vegetables, and fruits, can transmit noroviruses. We inactivated feline calicivirus, a surrogate for the nonculturable norovirus, in cell culture medium and mineral water by heat and high hydrostatic pressure. Incubation at ambient pressure and 75°C for 2 min as well as treatment at 450 MPa and 15°C for 1 min inactivated more than 7 log10 PFU of calicivirus per ml in cell culture medium or mineral water. The heat and pressure time-inactivation curves obtained with the calicivirus showed tailing in the logarithmic scale. Modeling by nth-order kinetics of the virus inactivation was successful in predicting the inactivation of the infective virus particles. The developed model enables the prediction of the calicivirus reduction in response to pressures up to 500 MPa, temperatures ranging from 5 to 75°C, and various treatment times. We suggest high pressure for processing of foods to reduce the health threat posed by noroviruses. PMID:18156330

  11. Characterization and inhibition of norovirus proteases of genogroups I and II using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kyeong-Ok [Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, KS 66506 (United States); Takahashi, Daisuke; Prakash, Om [Department of Biochemistry, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); Kim, Yunjeong, E-mail: ykim@vet.ksu.edu [Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, KS 66506 (United States)

    2012-02-20

    Noroviruses are the major cause of food- or water-borne gastroenteritis outbreaks in humans. The norovirus protease that cleaves a large viral polyprotein to nonstructural proteins is essential for virus replication and an attractive target for antiviral drug development. Noroviruses show high genetic diversity with at least five genogroups, GI-GV, of which GI and GII are responsible for the majority of norovirus infections in humans. We cloned and expressed proteases of Norwalk virus (GI) and MD145 virus (GII) and characterized the enzymatic activities with fluorescence resonance energy transfer substrates. We demonstrated that the GI and GII proteases cleaved the substrates derived from the naturally occurring cleavage site in the open reading frame (ORF) 1 of G1 norovirus with similar efficiency, and that enzymatic activity of both proteases was inhibited by commercial protease inhibitors including chymostatin. The interaction of chymostatin to Norwalk virus protease was validated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.

  12. Analysis of Multi-Scale Changes in Arable Land and Scale Effects of the Driving Factors in the Loess Areas in Northern Shaanxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Zhong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, statistical data on the national economic and social development, including the year-end actual area of arable land, the crop yield per unit area and 10 factors, were obtained for the period between 1980 and 2010 and used to analyze the factors driving changes in the arable land of the Loess Plateau in northern Shaanxi, China. The following areas of arable land, which represent different spatial scales, were investigated: the Baota District, the city of Yan’an, and the Northern Shaanxi region. The scale effects of the factors driving the changes to the arable land were analyzed using a canonical correlation analysis and a principal component analysis. Because it was difficult to quantify the impact of the national government policies on the arable land changes, the contributions of the national government policies to the changes in arable land were analyzed qualitatively. The primary conclusions of the study were as follows: between 1980 and 2010, the arable land area decreased. The trends of the year-end actual arable land proportion of the total area in the northern Shaanxi region and Yan’an City were broadly consistent, whereas the proportion in the Baota District had no obvious similarity with the northern Shaanxi region and Yan’an City. Remarkably different factors were shown to influence the changes in the arable land at different scales. Environmental factors exerted a greater effect for smaller scale arable land areas (the Baota District. The effect of socio-economic development was a major driving factor for the changes in the arable land area at the city and regional scales. At smaller scales, population change, urbanization and socio-economic development affected the crop yield per unit area either directly or indirectly. Socio-economic development and the modernization of agricultural technology had a greater effect on the crop yield per unit area at the large-scales. Furthermore, the qualitative analysis

  13. 企业缺陷管理的驱动因素和使能因素分析%Analysis on Business Defect Management Driving and Enabling Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁莹莹

    2016-01-01

    Analyze business defect management driving and enabling factors from the organizational level , the team level and the individual level. Driving factors on the organizational level include the support of senior managers, incentive and control mechanism, subjective norm and perceived behavior. Driving factors on the team level include team creativity, team supervision, team work, team self reflection and team learning capability. Driving factors on the individual level include employee self-efficacy, proactive behavior, employee creativity, organizational climate and organizational psychological ownership. Enabling factors include trust, communication, coordination and organization culture. Regression analysis model verified driving and enabling factors at different levels. The results showed that the support of senior managers, incentive and control mechanism, subjective norm and perceived behavior all have signifi-cant positive effects on the defect management. Team creativity, team supervision, team work, team self reflection and team learning capability have significant positive effects on the defect management. Employee self-efficacy, proactive behavior, employee creativity, organizational climate and organizational psychological ownership all have significant positive effects on the defect management. Trust , communication, coordination and organization culture also have significant positive effects on the defect management.%文章从组织层面、团队层面和个体层面分析企业缺陷管理的驱动因素和使能因素。组织层面的驱动因素包括高层管理者的支持、激励机制、主观规范和知觉行为控制,团队层面的驱动因素包括团队创造力、团队监督、团队努力、团队自省和团队学习能力,个体层面的驱动因素包括员工自我效能感、员工前摄行为、员工创造力、组织氛围和组织心理所有权。企业缺陷管理的使能因素主要包括信任、沟通机制、协

  14. Driving anger in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullman, Mark J M; Stephens, Amanda N; Yong, Michelle

    2014-10-01

    The present study examined the types of situations that cause Malaysian drivers to become angry. The 33-item version of the driver anger scale (Deffenbacher et al., 1994) was used to investigate driver anger amongst a sample of 339 drivers. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the fit of the original six-factor model (discourtesy, traffic obstructions, hostile gestures, slow driving, illegal driving and police presence), after removing one item and allowing three error pairs to covary, was satisfactory. Female drivers reported more anger, than males, caused by traffic obstruction and hostile gestures. Age was also negatively related to five (discourtesy, traffic obstructions, hostile gestures, slow driving and police presence) of the six factors and also to the total DAS score. Furthermore, although they were not directly related to crash involvement, several of the six forms of driving anger were significantly related to the crash-related conditions of: near misses, loss of concentration, having lost control of a vehicle and being ticketed. Overall the pattern of findings made in the present research were broadly similar to those from Western countries, indicating that the DAS is a valid measure of driving anger even among non-European based cultures.

  15. ANALYSIS ON LAND-USE CHANGE AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC DRIVING FACTORS IN HAINAN ISLAND DURING 50 YEARS FROM 1950 TO 1999

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Land-use change is an important part of global change research (IGBP, 1990 - 1992). But the majorityof researches focus on the natural driving force of land use change. In this paper, the authors studied the relationship between socio-economic driving factors and land-use change with time series in Hainan Island. Based on the study for theevolution of administrative system and policies in Hainan Island and the comprehensive analysis on the social economy data and changes of social policies, the socio-economic policies, human activities and land use of Hainan can be dividedinto three periods with different characters: period from 1950 to 1978 characterized by the planning economic system, peried from 1978 to 1988 characterized by the transfer of economic system and adoption of open policy, new stage from 1988to 1998 with high growing speed.On the other hand the authors describe the character of the periods and land-use changeprocess affected by socio-economic factors. This paper provides an important method for evaluating the development andchanges of Hainam social economy during the 50 years from 1950 to 1999 and forecasting the development of Hainan social economy in future.

  16. Death Drive

    OpenAIRE

    Stühler, Rebekka Hellstrøm

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this project is to investigate why the Freudian term Death Drive is not acknowledged in modern psychological therapy. On basis of psychoanalytical theory and through a literary analysis, the project will present a discussion of the significance and presence of the term within these practises.

  17. Adaptive system for automatic stabilization of the power factor for electric drives of separation device by means of serially connected capacitors bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisevich, V. D.; Juromskiy, V. M.

    2016-09-01

    A method for designing adaptive systems for automatic extremum search to stabilize the power factor of local electric power system of electric is considered. It consists in application of the serially connected capacitors compensating the reactive component of the total electric power of in parallel connected centrifugal machines usually called as an aggregate. Operation of the system just demands measuring voltage at the output of the static frequency converter for electric drives. The proposed control system is designed to stabilize the power factor close to unity in a case of alteration of parameters of a separation cascade or a single separation device in an aggregate. Such system can be operated continuously or connected occasionally depending on a technological situation. In addition, it totally excludes the phenomenon of overcompensation.

  18. Clinical usefulness of oral immunoglobulins in lung transplant recipients with norovirus gastroenteritis: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gairard-Dory, A-C; Dégot, T; Hirschi, S; Schuller, A; Leclercq, A; Renaud-Picard, B; Gourieux, B; Kessler, R

    2014-12-01

    Viral gastroenteritis causing diarrhea is a common complication observed in lung transplant recipients. Differently from the mild and typically self-limited disease seen in immunocompetent subjects, immunocompromised patients frequently have a more severe course. Norovirus and rotavirus are among the leading causes of severe gastroenteritis in transplant recipients. Specific treatment is unavailable, although good supportive treatment can significantly reduce morbidity. Previous studies have suggested that oral immunoglobulins may be used for the treatment of acute viral gastroenteritis after solid-organ transplantation. Herein, we conducted a retrospective chart review of 12 lung transplant recipients with norovirus-induced gastroenteritis who were treated with oral immunoglobulins for 2 days. Eleven patients were successfully treated, whereas 1 subject was only mildly improved. Four patients had at least 1 recurrence. No significant adverse effects were observed. We conclude that oral immunoglobulins may be clinically useful for lung transplant recipients with norovirus-induced gastroenteritis.

  19. Multiple norovirus outbreaks among workplace canteen users in Finland, July 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makary, P; Maunula, L; Niskanen, T; Kuusi, M; Virtanen, M; Pajunen, S; Ollgren, J; Tran Minh, N N

    2009-03-01

    Multiple gastroenteritis outbreaks occurred between 25 and 31 July 2006 in 10 workplace canteens in south-western Finland. One vegetable processing plant provided raw vegetables to all the canteens. We conducted cohort studies in the three most visited canteens and environmental investigations in the kitchens and the plant. Patients' stools, food, water and environmental samples were tested for enteric bacteria and viruses. Of the three canteens, 150/273 respondents (response rate 82%) had gastroenteritis. Consumption of mixed raw vegetables was significantly associated with the illness but no single vegetable explains the outbreak. An identical norovirus GII.1 genotype was detected from all genotyped patient samples. Water, food, and environmental samples were negative for norovirus. The facilities had appropriate hygienic conditions and no staff member had gastroenteritis prior to the outbreak. Tracing back the vegetables to the farm level proved unsuccessful. This was the largest foodborne norovirus outbreak in Finland.

  20. The rise of pathogens: predation as a factor driving the evolution of human pathogens in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erken, Martina; Lutz, Carla; McDougald, Diane

    2013-05-01

    Bacteria in the environment must survive predation from bacteriophage, heterotrophic protists, and predatory bacteria. This selective pressure has resulted in the evolution of a variety of defense mechanisms, which can also function as virulence factors. Here we discuss the potential dual function of some of the mechanisms, which protect against heterotrophic protists, and how predation pressure leads to the evolution of pathogenicity. This is in accordance with the coincidental evolution hypothesis, which suggests that virulence factors arose as a response to other selective pressures, for example, predation rather than for virulence per se. In this review we discuss some of those environmental factors that may be associated with the rise of pathogens in the marine environment. In particular, we will discuss the role of heterotrophic protists in the evolution of virulence factors in marine bacteria. Finally, we will discuss the implications for expansion of current pathogens and emergence of new pathogens.

  1. Occurrence of Noroviruses and Their Correlation with Microbial Indicators in Raw Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavarmanesh, Masoud; Alum, Absar; Abbaszadegan, Morteza

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the microbiological quality of raw cow's milk in a collection center in the city of Mashhad, Iran. A total of 19 raw cow's milk samples were collected and simultaneously analyzed for male-specific (F(+)) coliphage and Escherichia coli using culture-based methods and for enteric viruses by reverse transcriptase semi-nested PCR using primer sets specific for human norovirus Group I (HNV-GI), human norovirus Group II (HNV-GII), and enteroviruses (EV). Seven out of 19 (36.8%) raw milk samples tested positive for human noroviruses (HNV). The genotypes detected were HNV-GI and HNV-GII. Three positive samples contained both genotypes, and 2 samples were positive for either of HNV-GI and HNV-GII. No sample tested positive for EV. The correlation between the occurrence of HNV and the microbial indicators was studied. The statistical analysis using first- and second-order regression revealed that there is no correlation between F(+) coliphage and E. coli. Similarly, no correlation was noticed between the occurrence of F(+) coliphages and HNV. However, frequency distribution analysis indicated that 3 out of 4 (75%) of raw milk samples containing F(+) coliphage at a concentration higher than 10(4) pfu/100 ml were also positive for noroviruses. The limited data on the occurrence of noroviruses in raw milk suggest a poor sanitation and hygiene practices at the facility and indicate a possible correlation between the viral indicator at high concentration and human noroviruses; however, this analysis needs further investigation in a larger scale study.

  2. Norovirus regulation of the innate immune response and apoptosis occurs via the product of the alternative open reading frame 4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora McFadden

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Small RNA viruses have evolved many mechanisms to increase the capacity of their short genomes. Here we describe the identification and characterization of a novel open reading frame (ORF4 encoded by the murine norovirus (MNV subgenomic RNA, in an alternative reading frame overlapping the VP1 coding region. ORF4 is translated during virus infection and the resultant protein localizes predominantly to the mitochondria. Using reverse genetics we demonstrated that expression of ORF4 is not required for virus replication in tissue culture but its loss results in a fitness cost since viruses lacking the ability to express ORF4 restore expression upon repeated passage in tissue culture. Functional analysis indicated that the protein produced from ORF4 antagonizes the innate immune response to infection by delaying the upregulation of a number of cellular genes activated by the innate pathway, including IFN-Beta. Apoptosis in the RAW264.7 macrophage cell line was also increased during virus infection in the absence of ORF4 expression. In vivo analysis of the WT and mutant virus lacking the ability to express ORF4 demonstrated an important role for ORF4 expression in infection and virulence. STAT1-/- mice infected with a virus lacking the ability to express ORF4 showed a delay in the onset of clinical signs when compared to mice infected with WT virus. Quantitative PCR and histopathological analysis of samples from these infected mice demonstrated that infection with a virus not expressing ORF4 results in a delayed infection in this system. In light of these findings we propose the name virulence factor 1, VF1 for this protein. The identification of VF1 represents the first characterization of an alternative open reading frame protein for the calicivirus family. The immune regulatory function of the MNV VF1 protein provide important perspectives for future research into norovirus biology and pathogenesis.

  3. Scientific Opinion on the risk posed by pathogens in food of non-animal origin. Part 2 (Salmonella and Norovirus in leafy greens eaten raw as salads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Leafy greens eaten raw as salads are minimally processed and widely consumed foods. Risk factors for leafy greens contamination by Salmonella spp. and Norovirus were considered in the context of the whole food chain including agricultural production and processing. Available estimates of the prevalence of these pathogens (together with the use of Escherichia coli as an indicator organism in leafy greens were evaluated. Specific mitigation options relating to contamination of leafy greens were considered and qualitatively assessed. It was concluded that each farm environment represents a unique combination of numerous characteristics that can influence occurrence and persistence of pathogens in leafy greens production. Appropriate implementation of food safety management systems, including Good Agricultural Practices (GAP, Good Hygiene Practices (GHP and Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP, should be primary objectives of leafy green producers. The relevance of microbiological criteria applicable to production, processing and at retail/catering were considered. The current legal framework does not include microbiological criteria applicable at primary production which will validate and verify GAP and GHP. It is proposed to define a criterion at primary production of leafy greens which is designated as Hygiene Criterion, and E. coli was identified as suitable for this purpose. A Process Hygiene Criterion for E. coli in leafy green packaging plants or fresh cutting plants was considered and will also give an indication of the degree to which GAP, GHP, GMP or HACCP programs have been implemented. A Food Safety Criterion for Salmonella in leafy greens could be used as a tool to communicate to producers and processors that Salmonella should not be present in the product. Studies on the prevalence and infectivity of Norovirus are limited, and quantitative data on viral load are scarce making establishment of microbiological criteria for Norovirus on

  4. Dimensions of driving anger and their relationships with aberrant driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingru; Chan, Alan H S; Zhang, Wei

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between driving anger and aberrant driving behaviours. An internet-based questionnaire survey was administered to a sample of Chinese drivers, with driving anger measured by a 14-item short Driving Anger Scale (DAS) and the aberrant driving behaviours measured by a 23-item Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ). The results of Confirmatory Factor Analysis demonstrated that the three-factor model (hostile gesture, arrival-blocking and safety-blocking) of the DAS fitted the driving anger data well. The Exploratory Factor Analysis on DBQ data differentiated four types of aberrant driving, viz. emotional violation, error, deliberate violation and maintaining progress violation. For the anger-aberration relation, it was found that only "arrival-blocking" anger was a significant positive predictor for all four types of aberrant driving behaviours. The "safety-blocking" anger revealed a negative impact on deliberate violations, a finding different from previously established positive anger-aberration relation. These results suggest that drivers with different patterns of driving anger would show different behavioural tendencies and as a result intervention strategies may be differentially effective for drivers of different profiles.

  5. Nucleotidylylation of the VPg Protein of a Human Norovirus by its Proteinase-Polymerase Precursor Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Belliot, Gaël; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V.; Chang, Kyeong-Ok; McPhie, Peter; Green, Kim Y.

    2008-01-01

    Caliciviruses have a positive strand RNA genome covalently-linked at the 5’-end to a small protein, VPg. This study examined the biochemical modification of VPg by the ProPol form of the polymerase of human norovirus strain MD145 (GII.4). Recombinant norovirus VPg was shown to be nucleotidylylated in the presence of Mn2+ by MD145 ProPol. Phosphodiesterase I treatment of the nucleotidylylated VPg released the incorporated UMP, which was consistent with linkage of RNA to VPg via a phosphodieste...

  6. Norovirus Proteinase-Polymerase and Polymerase Are Both Active Forms of RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase

    OpenAIRE

    Belliot, Gaël; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V.; Chang, Kyeong-Ok; Babu, Vijay; Uche, Uzo; Arnold, Jamie J.; Cameron, Craig E.; Green, Kim Y.

    2005-01-01

    In vitro mapping studies of the MD145 norovirus (Caliciviridae) ORF1 polyprotein identified two stable cleavage products containing the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domains: ProPol (a precursor comprised of both the proteinase and polymerase) and Pol (the mature polymerase). The goal of this study was to identify the active form (or forms) of the norovirus polymerase. The recombinant ProPol (expressed as Pro−Pol with an inactivated proteinase domain to prevent autocleavage) and r...

  7. Series of Norovirus Outbreaks Caused by Consumption of Green Coral Lettuce, Denmark, April 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Luise; Rasmussen, Lasse Dam; Jensen, Tenna

    2016-01-01

    green coral lettuce (Lollo Bionda lettuce) had been consumed in all settings. In a cohort study including 234 participants a dish containing green lettuce was associated with illness. Norovirus of Genogroup I (GI) was detected in samples from 28 patients comprising eight of the outbreaks. Sequencing...... showed GI.P2-GI.2. GI norovirus was detected in one of 20 examined lettuce heads. All lettuce consumed was supplied by the same packer who in turn had bought the lettuce from a wholesaler in France. The two lots of lettuce came from two different growers in different parts of France. Green coral lettuce...

  8. Population-Based Incidence Rates of Diarrheal Disease Associated with Norovirus, Sapovirus, and Astrovirus in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayoko Shioda

    Full Text Available Diarrheal diseases remain a major cause of mortality in Africa and worldwide. While the burden of rotavirus is well described, population-based rates of disease caused by norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus are lacking, particularly in developing countries.Data on diarrhea cases were collected through a population-based surveillance platform including healthcare encounters and household visits in Kenya. We analyzed data from June 2007 to October 2008 in Lwak, a rural site in western Kenya, and from October 2006 to February 2009 in Kibera, an urban slum. Stool specimens from diarrhea cases of all ages who visited study clinics were tested for norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus by RT-PCR.Of 334 stool specimens from Lwak and 524 from Kibera, 85 (25% and 159 (30% were positive for norovirus, 13 (4% and 31 (6% for sapovirus, and 28 (8% and 18 (3% for astrovirus, respectively. Among norovirus-positive specimens, genogroup II predominated in both sites, detected in 74 (87% in Lwak and 140 (88% in Kibera. The adjusted community incidence per 100,000 person-years was the highest for norovirus (Lwak: 9,635; Kibera: 4,116, followed by astrovirus (Lwak: 3,051; Kibera: 440 and sapovirus (Lwak: 1,445; Kibera: 879. For all viruses, the adjusted incidence was higher among children aged <5 years (norovirus: 22,225 in Lwak and 17,511 in Kibera; sapovirus: 5,556 in Lwak and 4,378 in Kibera; astrovirus: 11,113 in Lwak and 2,814 in Kibera compared to cases aged ≥5 years.Although limited by a lack of controls, this is the first study to estimate the outpatient and community incidence rates of norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus across the age spectrum in Kenya, suggesting a substantial disease burden imposed by these viruses. By applying adjusted rates, we estimate approximately 2.8-3.3 million, 0.45-0.54 million, and 0.77-0.95 million people become ill with norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus, respectively, every year in Kenya.

  9. Factors driving the development of healthcare waste management in the United Kingdom over the past 60 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townend, William K; Cheeseman, Christopher; Edgar, Jen; Tudor, Terry

    2009-06-01

    Since the creation of the National Health Service (NHS) in the United Kingdom in 1948 there have been significant changes in the way waste materials produced by healthcare facilities have been managed due to a number of environmental, legal and social drivers. This paper reviews the key changes in legislation and healthcare waste management that have occurred in the UK between 1948 and the present time. It investigates reasons for the changes and how the problems associated with healthcare wastes have been addressed. The reaction of the public to offensive disposal practices taking place locally required political action by the UK government and subsequently by the European legislature. The relatively new UK industry of hazardous healthcare waste management has developed rapidly over the past 25 years in response to significant changes in healthcare practices. The growth in knowledge and appreciation of environmental issues has also been fundamental to the development of this industry. Legislation emanating from Europe is now responsible for driving change to UK healthcare waste management. This paper examines the drivers that have caused the healthcare waste management to move forward in the 60 years since the NHS was formed. It demonstrates that the situation has moved from a position where there was no overall strategy to the current situation where there is a strong regulatory framework but still no national strategy. The reasons for this situation are examined and based upon the experience gained; suggestions are made for the benefit of countries with systems for healthcare waste management still in the early stages of development or without any provisions at all.

  10. An Efficient Method of Noroviruses Recovery from Oysters and Clams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Deqing; MA Liping; ZHAO Feng; YAO Lin; SU Laijin; LI Xinguang

    2013-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are widespread causes of nonbacterial gastroenteritis.Outbreaks of NoVs caused diseases are commonly ascribed to the consumption of contaminated shellfish.The concentration and RNA extraction of NoVs are crucial steps of detecting NoVs in shellfish.This study aimed to select a simple,rapid and highly efficient recovery method of NoVs detection with real-time RT-PCR.Four methods of recovering GI.3 and GII.4 NoVs from spiked digestive tissues of oysters and clams,respectively,were compared,of them,the method involving proteinase K and PEG 8000 was found the most efficient.With this method,9.3% and 13.1% of GI.3 and GII.4 NoVs were recovered from oysters and 9.6% and 12.3% of GI.3 and GII.4 NoVs were recovered from clams,respectively.This method was further used to detect NoVs in 84 oysters (Crassostrea gigas) and 86 clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) collected from 10 coastal cities in China from Jan.2011 to Feb.2012.The NoVs isolation rates were 10.47% of clams (9/86) and 7.14% of oysters (6/84).All the detected NoVs belonged to genotype GII.The NoVs recovery method selected is efficient for NoVs detection in oysters and clams.

  11. An efficient method of noroviruses recovery from oysters and clams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Deqing; Ma, Liping; Zhao, Feng; Yao, Lin; Su, Laijin; Li, Xinguang

    2013-03-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are widespread causes of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Outbreaks of NoVs caused diseases are commonly ascribed to the consumption of contaminated shellfish. The concentration and RNA extraction of NoVs are crucial steps of detecting NoVs in shellfish. This study aimed to select a simple, rapid and highly efficient recovery method of NoVs detection with real-time RT-PCR. Four methods of recovering GI.3 and GII.4 NoVs from spiked digestive tissues of oysters and clams, respectively, were compared, of them, the method involving proteinase K and PEG 8000 was found the most efficient. With this method, 9.3% and 13.1% of GI.3 and GII.4 NoVs were recovered from oysters and 9.6% and 12.3% of GI.3 and GII.4 NoVs were recovered from clams, respectively. This method was further used to detect NoVs in 84 oysters ( Crassostrea gigas) and 86 clams ( Ruditapes philippinarum) collected from 10 coastal cities in China from Jan. 2011 to Feb. 2012. The NoVs isolation rates were 10.47% of clams (9/86) and 7.14% of oysters (6/84). All the detected NoVs belonged to genotype GII. The NoVs recovery method selected is efficient for NoVs detection in oysters and clams.

  12. Inactivation of murine norovirus and feline calicivirus during oyster fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong Joo; Lee, Min Hwa; Seo, Jina; Ha, Sang-Do; Choi, Changsun

    2014-12-01

    Fermented seafood is popular in Asian countries. This study examined the survival of feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV) during oyster fermentation. Oysters spiked with FCV and MNV were fermented with 5% or 10% salt at 18 °C for 15 days, and MNV and FCV titers, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) populations, pH, and enzymatic activity were measured at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 15 days post-fermentation (DPF). Reductions in MNV and FCV were greater in 5% NaCl-supplemented oysters than in 10% NaCl-supplemented oysters. In 5% NaCl oysters, MNV and FCV titers significantly decreased by 1.60 log and 3.01 log, respectively, at 15 DPF. Populations of LAB increased from 3.62 log10 colony-forming units/g at 0 DPF to 8.77 log10 colony-forming units/g at 15 DPF during oyster fermentation supplemented with 5% NaCl supplementation, and the pH decreased gradually from 5.38 at 0 DPF to 4.17 at 15 DPF. During oyster fermentation, α-amylase, proteinase, and lipase were produced at higher levels in 5% salted oysters than in 10% salted oysters (P oysters could contribute to a reduction in foodborne viruses.

  13. Recombinant porcine norovirus identified from piglet with diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Quan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noroviruses (NoVs are members of the family Caliciviridae and are emerging enteric pathogens of humans and animals. Some porcine NoVs are genetically similar to human strains and are classified into GII, like most epidemic human NoVs. So far, PoNoV have been exclusively detected in fecal samples of adult pig without clinical signs. Results Result showed that 2 of the 12 evaluated fecal samples were positive for PoNoVs, one of which was positive for PoNoV alone, and the other was coinfected with porcine circovirus and PoNoV. Phylogenetic and recombination analysis showed that the PoNoV positive alone strain was a recombinant new genotype strain. Experimental infection of miniature pigs with fecal suspensions confirmed that this strain can cause gastroenteritis in piglets. Conclusion This is the first report that recombinant new genotype PoNoV exised in pig herd of China, which cause diarrhea in pigs in nature condition. This find raised questions about the putative epidemiologic role of PoNoV.

  14. Population Change and Its Driving Factors in Rural, Suburban, and Urban Areas of Wisconsin, USA, 1970–2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangqing Chi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Population growth (or decline is influenced by many factors that fall into the broad realms of demographic characteristics, socioeconomic conditions, transportation infrastructure, natural amenities, and land use and development across space and time. This paper adopts an integrated spatial regression approach to investigate the spatial and temporal variations of these factors' effects on population change. Specifically, we conduct the analysis at the minor civil division level in Wisconsin, USA, from 1970 to 2000. The results suggest that the factors have varying effects on population change over time and across rural, suburban, and urban areas. Their effects depend upon the general trend of population redistribution processes, local dynamics, and areal characteristics. Overall, a systematic examination of population change should consider a variety of factors, temporal and spatial variation of their effects, and spatial spillover effects. The examination should have the flexibility to identify and incorporate influential factors at a given point in time and space, not to adhere to a single set of drivers in all circumstances. The findings have important implications for population predictions used for local and regional planning.

  15. The ubiquitous transcription factor CTCF promotes lineage-specific epigenomic remodeling and establishment of transcriptional networks driving cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois-Chevalier, Julie; Staels, Bart; Lefebvre, Philippe; Eeckhoute, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Cell differentiation relies on tissue-specific transcription factors (TFs) that cooperate to establish unique transcriptomes and phenotypes. However, the role of ubiquitous TFs in these processes remains poorly defined. Recently, we have shown that the CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is required for adipocyte differentiation through epigenomic remodelling of adipose tissue-specific enhancers and transcriptional activation of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG), the main driver of the adipogenic program (PPARG), and its target genes. Here, we discuss how these findings, together with the recent literature, illuminate a functional role for ubiquitous TFs in lineage-determining transcriptional networks.

  16. Coagulation factor Xa drives tumor cells into apoptosis through BH3-only protein Bim up-regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borensztajn, Keren S.; Bijlsma, Maarten F.; Groot, Angelique P.; Bruggemann, Lois W.; Versteeg, Henri H.; Reitsma, Pieter H.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Spek, C. Arnold

    2007-01-01

    Coagulation Factor (F)Xa is a serine protease that plays a crucial role during blood coagulation by converting prothrombin into active thrombin. Recently, however, it emerged that besides this role in coagulation, FXa induces intracellular signaling leading to different cellular effects. Here, we

  17. [Change of vegetation net primary productivity in Yellow River watersheds from 2001 to 2010 and its climatic driving factors analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Chen, Yun-Hao; Wang, Meng-Jie; Jiang, Wei-Guo; Hou, Peng; Li, Ying

    2014-10-01

    Based on the MODIS-NDVI remotely sensed imagery, this paper analyzed the spatial distribution of vegetation net primary production (NPP) calculated by CASA model in Yellow River watersheds from 2001 to 2010. Associated with the temperature and precipitation data in the same period, this article respectively analyzed the change trends of vegetation NPP in six ecosystems with different spatial and temporal scales, and the relationship between NPP and climate factors. The results indicated that in terms of spatial scale, the vegetation NPP gradually reduced from northwest to southeast, the average of annual NPP was 108.53 Tg C, and the spatial distribution of vegetation NPP was highly related with the land cover types. In terms of temporal scale, the vegetation NPP gradually increased from 2001 to 2010, but this change trend had large differences in these regions. On annual level, the vegetation NPP had no significant correlation with climate factors, but precipitation and temperature had considerable impacts on the vegetation NPP on monthly level. The correlations between NPP and climate factors were different in different ecosystems, so did the time lag effect of the climate factors. The air temperature response of the NPP variation was relatively sensitive in forest ecosystem and the precipitation response was significant in grassland and wetland ecosystems. Additionally, the precipitation response of the NPP variation in grassland ecosystem had time lag effect and so did the air temperature response in desert ecosystem.

  18. Epidemiology and Genetic Characterization of Noroviruses among Adults in an Endemic Setting, Peruvian Amazon Basin, 2004–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Sarah-Blythe; Reaves, Erik J.; Luna, C. Giannina; Silva, Maria E.; Rocha, Claudio; Heitzinger, Kristen; Saito, Mayuko; Apaza, Sonia; Espetia, Susan; Blazes, David L.; Tilley, Drake H.; Guzmán Aguilar, Rene C.; Gilman, Robert H.; Bausch, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Successful vaccination strategies against norovirus will require understanding the burden of disease and relevant genotypes in populations. However, few data are available from cohort studies of adults living in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Materials and Methods We conducted a nested case-control study within a Peruvian military cohort to characterize the burden of norovirus infection, predominant genotypes, and associated symptoms from 2004 through 2011. Randomly selected case and control stools were tested for norovirus, bacteria, and parasites. The odds ratio of the association between norovirus infection and diarrhea was estimated using multiple logistic regression and co-infection adjusted attributable fractions were calculated. Results Of the 3,818 cohort study participants, 624 developed diarrhea. Overall and norovirus-associated diarrhea incidence rates were 42.3 and 6.0 per 100 person-years, respectively. The most prevalent norovirus genogroup was GII (72.5%, 29/40), which was associated with diarrhea (AOR 3.4, 95% CI: 1.3–8.7, P = 0.012). The co-infection adjusted GII attributable fraction was 6.4%. Discussion Norovirus was a frequent cause of diarrhea in an adult population followed longitudinally in an LMIC setting. Vaccine strategies should consider targeting adults in endemic settings and special populations that could serve as community transmission sources. PMID:26161556

  19. Temporal dynamics of norovirus determined through monitoring of municipal wastewater by pyrosequencing and virological surveillance of gastroenteritis cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Shinobu; Masago, Yoshifumi; Tohma, Kentaro; Souma, Nao; Imagawa, Toshifumi; Suzuki, Akira; Liu, Xiaofang; Saito, Mayuko; Oshitani, Hitoshi; Omura, Tatsuo

    2016-04-01

    Norovirus is a leading etiological agent of viral gastroenteritis. Because of relatively mild disease symptoms and frequent asymptomatic infections, information on the ecology of this virus is limited. Our objective was to examine the genetic diversity of norovirus circulating in the human population by means of genotyping the virus in municipal wastewater. We investigated norovirus genogroups I and II (GI and GII) in municipal wastewater in Japan by pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR (qPCR) from November 2012 to March 2013. Virological surveillance for gastroenteritis cases was concurrently conducted in the same area. A total of fourteen distinct genotypes in total (GI.1, 3, 4, 6, 7, GII.2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 12, 13, 14, and 17), with up to eight genotypes detected per sample, were observed in wastewater using pyrosequencing; only four genotypes (GI.6, GII.4, 5, and 14) were obtained from clinical samples. Seventy-eight percent of norovirus-positive stool samples contained GII.4, but this genotype was not dominant in wastewater. The norovirus GII.4 Sydney 2012 variant, which appeared and spread during our study period, was detected in both the wastewater and clinical samples. These results suggest that an environmental approach using pyrosequencing yields a more detailed distribution of norovirus genotypes/variants. Thus, wastewater monitoring by pyrosequencing is expected to provide an effective analysis of the distribution of norovirus genotypes causing symptomatic and asymptomatic infections in human populations.

  20. Type I Interferon Receptor Deficiency in Dendritic Cells Facilitates Systemic Murine Norovirus Persistence Despite Enhanced Adaptive Immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Nice

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order for a virus to persist, there must be a balance between viral replication and immune clearance. It is commonly believed that adaptive immunity drives clearance of viral infections and, thus, dysfunction or viral evasion of adaptive immunity is required for a virus to persist. Type I interferons (IFNs play pleiotropic roles in the antiviral response, including through innate control of viral replication. Murine norovirus (MNoV replicates in dendritic cells (DCs and type I IFN signaling in DCs is important for early control of MNoV replication. We show here that the non-persistent MNoV strain CW3 persists systemically when CD11c positive DCs are unable to respond to type I IFN. Persistence in this setting is associated with increased early viral titers, maintenance of DC numbers, increased expression of DC activation markers and an increase in CD8 T cell and antibody responses. Furthermore, CD8 T cell function is maintained during the persistent phase of infection and adaptive immune cells from persistently infected mice are functional when transferred to Rag1-/- recipients. Finally, increased early replication and persistence are also observed in mixed bone marrow chimeras where only half of the CD11c positive DCs are unable to respond to type I IFN. These findings demonstrate that increased early viral replication due to a cell-intrinsic innate immune deficiency is sufficient for persistence and a functional adaptive immune response is not sufficient for viral clearance.

  1. Use of the Theoretical Domains Framework to evaluate factors driving successful implementation of the Accelerated Chest pain Risk Evaluation (ACRE) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoien, Wade; Page, Katie; Parsonage, William; Ashover, Sarah; Milburn, Tanya; Cullen, Louise

    2016-10-12

    The translation of healthcare research into practice is typically challenging and limited in effectiveness. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) identifies 12 domains of behaviour determinants which can be used to understand the principles of behavioural change, a key factor influencing implementation. The Accelerated Chest pain Risk Evaluation (ACRE) project has successfully translated research into practice, by implementing an intervention to improve the assessment of low to intermediate risk patients presenting to emergency departments (EDs) with chest pain. The aims of this paper are to describe use of the TDF to determine which factors successfully influenced implementation and to describe use of the TDF as a tool to evaluate implementation efforts and which domains are most relevant to successful implementation. A 30-item questionnaire targeting clinicians was developed using the TDF as a guide. Questions encompassed ten of the domains of the TDF: Knowledge; Skills; Social/professional role and identity; Beliefs about capabilities; Optimism; Beliefs about consequences; Intentions; Memory, attention and decision processes; Environmental context and resources; and Social influences. Sixty-three of 176 stakeholders (36 %) responded to the questionnaire. Responses for all scales showed that respondents were highly favourable to all aspects of the implementation. Scales with the highest mean responses were Intentions, Knowledge, and Optimism, suggesting that initial education and awareness strategies around the ACRE project were effective. Scales with the lowest mean responses were Environmental context and resources, and Social influences, perhaps highlighting that implementation planning could have benefitted from further consideration of the factors underlying these scales. The ACRE project was successful, and therefore, a perfect case study for understanding factors which drive implementation success. The overwhelmingly positive response suggests that it

  2. Variations on Soil Salinity and Sodicity and Its Driving Factors Analysis under Microtopography in Different Hydrological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over three million hectares of salt-affected soils characterized with high salinity and sodicity caused serious land degradation in Songnen Plain, northeast China. Soil salinity–sodicity heterogeneous distribution under microtopography is usually influenced by several environmental factors. The side direction movement of soil water driven by water from depression is the key factor that aggravates the soil salinization under microtopography in dry condition. In this study, the differences in surface soil salinity–sodicity (0–10 cm between dry year and wet year were compared, and the relationship between soil salinity–sodicity and environment factors such as ground elevation, surface ponding time, surface ponding depth, and soil moisture at four soil layers (0–10, 10–30, 30–60, and 60–100 cm were analyzed using redundancy analysis (RDA and simple correlation analysis (Pearson analysis for two different hydrological years. Analyzed soil salinity–sodicity parameters include soluble ions (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, CO32−, HCO3−, Cl− and SO42−, salt content (SC, electrical conductivity (EC, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, and pH. Results showed that values of SAR, Cl−, and SO42− were significantly higher in dry year than in wet year, while Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, and HCO3− showed the opposite results. Values of Na+, CO32−, and EC were significantly higher at higher ground elevation gradient (20–40 cm in dry year than wet year. Redundancy analysis indicated that spatial distributions and variations of salinity and sodicity in surface soil layer were related with environmental factors of ponding depth, ponding time and ground elevation in wet year, and they were related with ground elevation, ponding depth, ponding time, and soil moisture at 30–60 and 60–100 cm soil layer in dry year. Ponding depth and ground elevation rank first and second as the influential factors of the spatial distribution and variation of soil salinity

  3. A SYBR Green RT-PCR assay in single tube to detect human and bovine noroviruses and control for inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saegerman Claude

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noroviruses are single-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the family Caliciviridae. They are a major cause of epidemic and sporadic gastroenteritis in humans and clinical signs and lesions of gastroenteritis were reported in bovines. Due to their genetic proximity, potential zoonotic transmission or animal reservoir can be hypothesized for noroviruses. RT-PCR has become the "gold standard" for the detection of noroviruses in faecal and environmental samples. With such samples, the control for inhibition of the reaction during amplification and detection is crucial to avoid false negative results, which might otherwise not be detected. The aim of the reported method is to detect, with a SYBR Green technology, a broad range of noroviruses with a control for inhibition. Results A SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR assay was developed making use of a foreign internal RNA control added in the same tube. This assay is able to detect human and bovine noroviruses belonging to genogroups I, II and III and to distinguish between norovirus and internal control amplicons using melting curve analysis. A 10-fold dilution of samples appears to be the method of choice to remove inhibition. This assay was validated with human and bovine stool samples previously tested for norovirus by conventional RT-PCR. Conclusion This SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR assay allows the detection of the most important human and bovine noroviruses in the same assay, and avoids false negative results making use of an internal control. Melting curves allow the discrimination between the internal control and norovirus amplicons. It gives preliminary information about the species of origin. The sensitivity of the developed assay is higher than conventional RT-PCR and a 10-fold dilution of samples showed a better efficiency and reproducibility to remove RT-PCR inhibition than addition of bovine serum albumin.

  4. Evaluation of real-time RT-PCR assays for detection and quantification of norovirus genogroups I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupprom, Kitwadee; Chavalitshewinkoon-Petmitr, Porntip; Diraphat, Pornphan; Kittigul, Leera

    2017-02-20

    Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) is a promising molecular method for the detection of noroviruses. In this study, the performance of three TaqMan real-time RT-PCR assays was assessed, which were one commercially available real-time RT-PCR kit (assay A: Norovirus Real Time RT-PCR kit) and two in-house real-time RT-PCR assays (assay B: LightCycler RNA Master Hybprobe and assay C: RealTime ready RNA Virus Master). Assays A and B showed higher sensitivity than assay C for norovirus GI, while they all had the same sensitivity (10(3) DNA copies/mL) for GII DNA standard controls. Assay B had the highest efficiency for both genogroups. No cross-reactivity was observed among GI and GII noroviruses, rotavirus, hepatitis A virus, and poliovirus. The detection rates of these assays in GI and GII norovirus-positive fecal samples were not significantly different. However, the mean quantification cycle (Cq) value of assay B for GII was lower than assays A and C with statistical significance (P-value, 0.000). All three real-time RT-PCR assays could detect a variety of noroviruses including GI.2, GII.2, GII.3, GII.4, GII.6, GII.12, GII.17, and GII.21. This study suggests assay B as a suitable assay for the detection and quantification of noroviruses GI and GII due to good analytical sensitivity and higher performance to amplify norovirus on DNA standard controls and clinical samples.

  5. Efficacy of common disinfectant/cleaning agents in inactivating murine norovirus and feline calicivirus as surrogate viruses for human norovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Stephanie; Skura, Brenton; Petric, Martin; McIntyre, Lorraine; Gamage, Bruce; Isaac-Renton, Judith

    2015-11-01

    The efficacies of disinfection by sodium hypochlorite, accelerated hydrogen peroxide (AHP), and quaternary ammonium compound (QUAT) commonly used in health care facilities were determined using the surrogate viruses murine norovirus (MNV-1) and feline calicivirus (FCV). A virus suspension of known concentration (with or without a soil load) was deposited onto stainless steel discs under wet or dry load conditions and exposed to defined concentrations of the disinfectant/cleaning agent for 1-, 5-, or 10-minute contact time using the quantitative carrier test (QCT-2) method. Virus inactivation was determined by plaque assay. At an exposure time of 1 minute, sodium hypochlorite at 2,700 ppm was able to inactivate MNV-1 and FCV with a >5 log10 reduction. After 10 minutes, MNV-1 was inactivated by AHP at 35,000 ppm, whereas FCV was inactivated at 3,500 ppm. MNV-1 was not inactivated by QUAT at 2,800 ppm. A QUAT-alcohol formulation containing 2,000 ppm QUAT and 70% ethanol was effective in inactivating MNV-1 after 5 minutes, but resulted in only a <3 log10 reduction of FCV after 10 minutes. AHP and QUAT products were less effective than sodium hypochlorite for the inactivation of MNV-1 and FCV. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Driving mechanism for damping and g-factor in non-amorphous ferromagnetic CoFeZr ultrathin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Graët, C.; Spenato, D.; Beaulieu, N.; Dekadjevi, D. T.; Jay, J.-Ph.; Pogossian, S. P.; Warot-Fonrose, B.; Ben Youssef, J.

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate that an in-plane uniaxial anisotropy may be induced in non-amorphous soft CoFeZr films. We used broadband ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy and complex permeability spectra to investigate the spin dynamics in CoFeZr films. We report a systematic study of the FM thickness on the fundamental dynamic parameters such as the effective magnetisation, the g-factor and relaxation mechanisms. Our study reveals that the decrease of the effective magnetisation mesured with FMR with thickness is not due to perpendicular anisotropy but to low dimentionality. Moreover, we observed a decrease of the g-factor with thickness and a modification of the ratio of the orbital to the spin magnetic moment. These films exhibit good high-frequency performance red (i.e. high permeability in a broad frequency range and a low damping) at low thickness of about a few nanometers.

  7. Determination of the ISO face load factor in spur gear drives by the finite element modeling of gears and shafts

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The face load factor is a common coefficient used in gear design standards that takes into account the uneven distribution of load across the face width of the gears caused by the mesh misalignment. In this paper, a finite element model that includes the gears and the corresponding shafts is proposed. The results obtained from the application of finite element analysis to this model are compared with those obtained from application of the ISO Standard 6336 coefficient-based method (Method C)....

  8. Organic Versus Contractor Logistics Support For Depot-Level Repair: Factors That Drive Sub-Optimal Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    incentive. Under CLS, the vendor expects to make a profit. The amount of profit is determined by contract type ( Cost Plus , Firm Fixed Price , etc.) and...of the price calculation. In this sense, the price of the work equals the cost of the work. If the work and the labor efficiency were the same...understanding of cost and pricing motives in the maintenance support decision. Profit incentive is not the only factor influencing cost of maintenance

  9. Towards GMO-free landscapes? Identifying driving factors for the establishment of cooperative GMO-free zones in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Consmuller, Nicola; Beckmann, Volker; Petrick, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Since the end of the quasi-moratorium on genetically modified organisms (GMO) in the European Union in 2004, the establishment of GMO-free zones has become an EU wide phenomenon. In contrast to other European countries, Germany follows the concept of cooperative GMO-free zones where neighbouring farmers contractually refrain from GMO cultivation. In this article, we address the question which underlying factors could account for the establishment of cooperative GMO-free zones in Germany. Draw...

  10. A Synergy Effect of Trisodium Phosphate and Ethanol on Inactivation of Murine Norovirus 1 on Lettuce and Bell Pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Jin; Lee, Young-Duck; Kim, Kwang-Yup; Park, Jong-Hyun

    2015-12-28

    The synergy effect of trisodium phosphate (TSP) and ethanol against murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1), as a surrogate for human noroviruses, on fresh produces was evaluated. More than 2% (w/v) of TSP effectively inactivated MNV-1. The single treatment of 1% TSP or 30% ethanol for 30 min was not effective on MNV-1; however, cotreatment showed inactivation of MNV-1 on stainless steel and the produces of lettuce and bell pepper under 15 min. The results suggest that cotreatment of TSP and ethanol at a low concentration and a short time of exposure might be useful for the reduction of norovirus in some produce.

  11. Analysis of the Driving Factors and Contributions to Carbon Emissions of Energy Consumption from the Perspective of the Peak Volume and Time Based on LEAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Tian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Studying the driving factors and contributions of carbon emissions peak volume and time is essential for reducing the cumulative carbon emissions in developing countries with rapid economic development and increasing carbon emissions. Taking Jilin Province as a case study, four scenarios were set in this paper respectively: Business as Usual Scenario (BAU, Energy-Saving Scenario (ESS, Energy-Saving and Low-Carbon Scenario (ELS, and Low-Carbon Scenario (LCS. Furthermore, the carbon emissions were predicted according to the energy consumption based on the application of LEAP system. The research result showed that the peak time of carbon emissions would appear in 2045, 2040, 2035 and 2025 under the four different scenarios, respectively. The peak volumes would be 489.8 Mt, 395.2 Mt, 305.3 Mt and 233.6 Mt, respectively. The cumulative emissions by 2050 are respectively 15.632 Bt, 13.321 Bt, 10.971 Bt and 8.379 Bt. According to the forecasting, we analyzed the driving factors of and contributions to carbon emissions peak volume and time. On the premise of moderate economic growth, the “structural emission reduction”, namely the adjustment of industrial structure and energy structure, and “technology emission reduction”, namely the reduction of energy intensity and carbon emission coefficient could make the peak volume reduced by 20%–52% and cumulative carbon emissions (2050 reduced by 15%–46% on the basis of BAU. Meanwhile, controlling the industrial structure, energy structure and energy intensity could make carbon emissions reach the peak 5–20 years ahead of the time on the basis of BAU. Controlling GDP, industrial structure, energy structure, energy intensity and coefficient of carbon emissions is the feasible method to adjust the carbon emissions peak volume and time in order to reduce the cumulative emissions.

  12. Biological and chemical factors driving the temporal distribution of cyanobacteria and heterotrophic bacteria in a eutrophic lake (West Lake, China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hao; Xu, Jiahui; Lavoie, Michel; Fan, Xiaoji; Liu, Guangfu; Sun, Liwei; Fu, Zhengwei; Qian, Haifeng

    2017-02-01

    Physico-chemical parameters, hydrological conditions, and microbial interactions can affect the growth and persistence of cyanobacteria, but the interacting effects among these bloom-forming factors are still poorly known. This hampers our capacity to predict the occurrence of cyanobacterial bloom accurately. Here, we studied the relationship between temperature, N and P cycles, and the microbial community abundance and diversity at 0.5 m under the surface of West Lake (China) from January 21 to November 20, 2015, in order to better understand the key factors regulating temporal changes in the cyanobacterial community. Using high throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V3-V4 region, we studied the diversity and abundance of bacteria. In parallel, we measured physico-chemical parameters and followed the abundance of key genes involved in N fixation, denitrification, and nutrient uptake. Multivariate analyses suggest that P concentration and water temperature are the key factors controlling the outbreak of summer cyanobacterial bloom. RT-qPCR analyses of the bacterial community and measurements of the copy number of denitrification-related gene (nirK, nosZ, nirS) show that denitrification potential and denitrifying bacteria relative abundance (Pseudomonas and Bacillus) increased in concert with diazotrophic cyanobacterial genera (Anabaena, Nostoc, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae) and the common bloom-forming non-diazotrophic cyanobacterium genus Microcystis. The present study brings new insights on the complex interplay between physico-chemical parameters, heterotrophic bacterial community composition, nitrogen cycle, and cyanobacteria dominance in a eutrophic lake.

  13. Did socio-ecological factors drive the spatiotemporal patterns of pandemic influenza A (H1N1)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenbiao; Williams, Gail; Phung, Hai; Birrell, Frances; Tong, Shilu; Mengersen, Kerrie; Huang, Xiaodong; Clements, Archie

    2012-09-15

    Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) has a significant public health impact. This study aimed to examine the effect of socio-ecological factors on the transmission of H1N1 in Brisbane, Australia. We obtained data from Queensland Health on numbers of laboratory-confirmed daily H1N1 in Brisbane by statistical local areas (SLA) in 2009. Data on weather and socio-economic index were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and the Australian Bureau of Statistics, respectively. A Bayesian spatial conditional autoregressive (CAR) model was used to quantify the relationship between variation of H1N1 and independent factors and to determine its spatiotemporal patterns. Our results show that average increase in weekly H1N1 cases were 45.04% (95% credible interval (CrI): 42.63-47.43%) and 23.20% (95% CrI: 16.10-32.67%), for a 1 °C decrease in average weekly maximum temperature at a lag of one week and a 10mm decrease in average weekly rainfall at a lag of one week, respectively. An interactive effect between temperature and rainfall on H1N1 incidence was found (changes: 0.71%; 95% CrI: 0.48-0.98%). The auto-regression term was significantly associated with H1N1 transmission (changes: 2.5%; 95% CrI: 1.39-3.72). No significant association between socio-economic indexes for areas (SEIFA) and H1N1 was observed at SLA level. Our results demonstrate that average weekly temperature at lag of one week and rainfall at lag of one week were substantially associated with H1N1 incidence at a SLA level. The ecological factors seemed to have played an important role in H1N1 transmission cycles in Brisbane, Australia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Study on the Driving Factors of Food Production in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain Based on Path Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaqi; LIU; Jiazhen; LIU; Jinping; ZHANG; Yongjin; CHEN; Mengchen; XU; Chengxiang; WANG

    2015-01-01

    The effects of 14 factors on food production in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain are analyzed by path analysis in this paper,and then the linear regression models of them are established by SPSS software. The results show that electricity consumption for agriculture,growing area of crops,the affected area,annual average temperature and arable land area at the end of the year have great effects on food production. Finally some recommendations are put forward to improve the food production in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain such as improving the level of agricultural mechanization,stabilizing food production,preventing natural disasters and increasing the effective irrigation area.

  15. Climate and site management as driving factors for the atmospheric greenhouse gas exchange of a restored wetland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, Mathias; Friborg, Thomas; Schelde, Kirsten;

    2012-01-01

    The full atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) budget of a restored wetland in Western Denmark could be established for the years 2009–2011 from eddy covariance measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes. The water table in the wetland, being restored in 2002, was unregulated...... the atmosphere. However, in terms of the annual GHG budget (assuming that 1 g CH4 is equivalent to 25 g CO2 with respect to the greenhouse effect) the wetland was a sink in 2009, a source in 2010 and neutral in 2011. Complementary observations of meteorological factors and management activities were used...

  16. Analysis of streamflow variations in the Heihe River Basin, northwest China: Trends, abrupt changes, driving factors and ecological influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijing Zhang

    2015-03-01

    New Hydrological Insights for the Region: The findings of this study indicated that although the streamflow coming from the upper reaches have risen, those flowing to the lower reaches have declined significantly. Analysis of the correlation between climatic factors and streamflow variations and the assessment of the development of socioeconomics revealed that: (1 rising temperature and precipitation are the main cause to explain the increases in streamflow in the upper HRB; and (2 human activities in the middle reaches of the HRB rather than climate changes were primarily responsible for the water shortage and ecological deterioration of the lower HRB.

  17. Soil and plant factors driving the community of soil-borne microorganisms across chronosequences of secondary succession of chalk grasslands with a neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramae, Eiko; Gamper, Hannes; van Veen, Johannes; Kowalchuk, George

    2011-08-01

    Although soil pH has been shown to be an important factor driving microbial communities, relatively little is known about the other potentially important factors that shape soil-borne microbial community structure. This study examined plant and microbial communities across a series of neutral pH fields (pH=7.0-7.5) representing a chronosequence of secondary succession after former arable fields were taken out of production. These fields ranged from 17 to >66 years since the time of abandonment, and an adjacent arable field was included as a reference. Hierarchical clustering analysis, nonmetric multidimensional scaling and analysis of similarity of 52 different plant species showed that the plant community composition was significantly different in the different chronosequences, and that plant species richness and diversity increased with time since abandonment. The microbial community structure, as analyzed by phylogenetic microarrays (PhyloChips), was significantly different in arable field and the early succession stage, but no distinct microbial communities were observed for the intermediate and the late succession stages. The most determinant factors in shaping the soil-borne microbial communities were phosphorous and NH(4)(+). Plant community composition and diversity did not have a significant effect on the belowground microbial community structure or diversity. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A critical function for transforming growth factor-beta, interleukin 23 and proinflammatory cytokines in driving and modulating human T(H)-17 responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Elisabetta; Servant, Nicolas; Zollinger, Raphaël; Bogiatzi, Sofia I; Hupé, Philippe; Barillot, Emmanuel; Soumelis, Vassili

    2008-06-01

    Interleukin 17 (IL-17)-producing T helper 17 cells (T(H)-17 cells) have been described as a T helper cell subset distinct from T helper type 1 (T(H)1) and T(H)2 cells, with specific functions in antimicrobial defense and autoimmunity. The factors driving human T(H)-17 differentiation remain controversial. Using a systematic approach combining experimental and computational methods, we show here that transforming growth factor-beta, interleukin 23 (IL-23) and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta and IL-6) were all essential for human T(H)-17 differentiation. However, individual T(H)-17 cell-derived cytokines, such as IL-17, IL-21, IL-22 and IL-6, as well as the global T(H)-17 cytokine profile, were differentially modulated by T(H)-17-promoting cytokines. Transforming growth factor-beta was critical, and its absence induced a shift from a T(H)-17 profile to a T(H)1-like profile. Our results shed new light on the regulation of human T(H)-17 differentiation and provide a framework for the global analysis of T helper responses.

  19. A Novel NHE1-Centered Signaling Cassette Drives Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor–Dependent Pancreatic Tumor Metastasis and Is a Target for Combination Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Angela Cardone

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC is one of the most lethal cancers principally because of early invasion and metastasis. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is essential for PDAC development even in the presence of Kras, but its inhibition with erlotinib gives only a modest clinical response, making the discovery of novel EGFR targets of critical interest. Here, we revealed by mining a human pancreatic gene expression database that the metastasis promoter Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE1 associates with the EGFR in PDAC. In human PDAC cell lines, we confirmed that NHE1 drives both basal and EGF-stimulated three-dimensional growth and early invasion via invadopodial extracellular matrix digestion. EGF promoted the complexing of EGFR with NHE1 via the scaffolding protein Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor 1, engaging EGFR in a negative transregulatory loop that controls the extent and duration of EGFR oncogenic signaling and stimulates NHE1. The specificity of NHE1 for growth or invasion depends on the segregation of the transient EGFR/Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor 1/NHE1 signaling complex into dimeric subcomplexes in different lipid raftlike membrane domains. This signaling complex was also found in tumors developed in orthotopic mice. Importantly, the specific NHE1 inhibitor cariporide reduced both three-dimensional growth and invasion independently of PDAC subtype and synergistically sensitized these behaviors to low doses of erlotinib.

  20. A norovirus GII.P21 outbreak in a boarding school, Austria 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Ching Lin

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: The kebab prepared by norovirus-positive restaurant workers was the most likely source of the outbreak. It is recommended that food handlers comply strictly with hand hygiene and avoid bare-handed contact with ready-to-eat food to minimize the risk of food-borne infection.

  1. An outbreak of norovirus infection in a long-term care facility in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Gatti de Menezes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe a norovirus outbreak in a Brazilian longtermcare facility from July 8 to 29, 2005. Methods: In thefirst 48 to 72 hours after onset of symptoms in inpatients andemployees, the main infection control strategies were staffeducation, emphasis on hand washing, implementing contactprecautions up to 48-72 hours after resolution of symptoms,complete cleaning of the rooms and exclusion of symptomaticemployees from work until 48-72 hours after resolution of theirsymptoms. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of thenorovirus infections were described based on chart review.Results: The incidence among inpatients and employees was41.3% and 16.25%, respectively. The main symptom was diarrhea,affecting 100% of inpatients and employees. Forty-four percent ofspecimens were positive by RIDASCREEN® Norovirus analyses,and identified as norovirus genogroup GII. Seventy percent ofinpatients were women and their age range was 51-98 years.Inpatients had in average two comorbid conditions – 87.3% withcardiovascular or chronic pulmonary condition and 47.6% withdementia. There was not relapse or death. Conclusions: The earlyinfection-control measures associated to surveillance are requiredto keep long-term care facilities free of noroviruses and to protectthose who are most vulnerable.

  2. Transmission of norovirus among NBA players and staff, winter 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Rishi; Yen, Catherine; Wikswo, Mary; Gregoricus, Nicole A; Provo, Jace E; Parashar, Umesh D; Hall, Aron J

    2011-12-01

    In December 2010, 24 players and staff members from 13 National Basketball Association teams were affected with gastroenteritis symptoms. Four of 5 stool specimens from ill players and staff tested positive for norovirus genogroup II. We document evidence of transmission both within teams and, potentially, between teams in 2 instances.

  3. Epidemiological investigation of a norovirus GII.4 Sydney outbreak in a China elder care facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qing-ming; Zeng, Hua-tang; Dai, Chuan-wen; Zhang, Shun-xiang; Zhang, Zhen; Mei, Shu-jiang; He, Ya-qing; Ma, Han-wu

    2015-01-01

    An outbreak of norovirus GII.4/Sydney_2012 affected a China elder care facility in December 2012. A total of 39 elderly people and staff met the outbreak case definition. The attack rates in the elderly and the staff were 15.9% (31/195) and 23.2% (19/82), respectively, including 13 asymptomatic cases in the staff. The result of gene sequencing revealed that the outbreak was caused by norovirus GII.4 Sydney. The mode of transmission of this outbreak was proven to be person-to-person. The first case (a self-cared elder) was affected outside the elder care facility and was not isolated after returning. Norovirus was transmitted via close contact among the self-cared elderly. Then, through service-related close contact, the attendants promoted the cross-transmission between the self-cared elderly and the nursed elderly. The virus was also spread among the staff via daily contact. In the elder care facility, the asymptomatic cases in the attendants played an important role in the transmission of norovirus, which deserves high attention.

  4. Inactivation of norovirus surrogates on surfaces and raspberries by steam-ultrasound treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Uhrbrand, Katrine; Nørrung, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    treatment that combines pressurized steam and high-power ultrasound (steam-ultrasound) was assessed for its efficacy to inactivate human NoV surrogates: coliphage (MS2), feline calicivirus (FCV), and murine norovirus (MNV) inoculated on plastic surfaces and MS2 inoculated on fresh raspberries. The amounts...

  5. Alternative methods to determine infectivity of Tulane virus: a surrogate for human norovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culturable animal caliciviruses are widely-used as surrogates for human norovirus (HuNoV), which can not replicate in cells. The infectivity of a culturable virus was traditionally determined by plaque assay and/or 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) assay, both of which are time-consuming ...

  6. Global Spread of Norovirus GII.17 Kawasaki 308, 2014–2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Martin C.W.; Hu, Yunwen; Chen, Haili; Podkolzin, Alexander T.; Zaytseva, Ekaterina V.; Komano, Jun; Sakon, Naomi; Poovorawan, Yong; Vongpunsawad, Sompong; Thanusuwannasak, Thanundorn; Hewitt, Joanne; Croucher, Dawn; Collins, Nikail; Vinjé, Jan; Pang, Xiaoli L.; Lee, Bonita E.; de Graaf, Miranda; van Beek, Janko; Vennema, Harry; Koopmans, Marion P.G.; Niendorf, Sandra; Poljsak-Prijatelj, Mateja; Steyer, Andrej; White, Peter A.; Lun, Jennifer H.; Mans, Janet; Hung, Tin-Nok; Kwok, Kirsty; Cheung, Kelton; Lee, Nelson

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of complete capsid sequences of the emerging norovirus GII.17 Kawasaki 308 from 13 countries demonstrated that they originated from a single haplotype since the initial emergence in China in late 2014. Global spread of a sublineage SL2 was identified. A new sublineage SL3 emerged in China in 2016. PMID:28726618

  7. Host genetic resistance to symptomatic norovirus (GGII.4) infections in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindberg, Elin; Akerlind, Britt; Johnsen, Christina

    2007-01-01

    A total of 61 individuals involved in five norovirus outbreaks in Denmark were genotyped at nucleotides 428 and 571 of the FUT2 gene, determining secretor status, i.e., the presence of ABH antigens in secretions and on mucosa. A strong correlation (P = 0.003) was found between the secretor...

  8. Efficacy of oxidizing disinfectants at inactivating murine norovirus on ready-to-eat foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Maryline; Mattison, Kirsten; Fliss, Ismail; Jean, Julie

    2016-02-16

    Noroviruses are the leading cause of foodborne illness, and ready-to-eat foods are frequent vehicles of their transmission. Studies of the disinfection of fruits and vegetables are becoming numerous. It has been shown that strong oxidizing agents are more effective than other chemical disinfectants for inactivating enteric viruses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of oxidizing disinfectants (sodium hypochlorite, chloride dioxide and peracetic acid) at inactivating noroviruses on fruits and vegetables, using a norovirus surrogate, namely murine norovirus 3, which replicates in cell culture. Based on plaque assay, solutions of peracetic acid (85 ppm) and chlorine dioxide (20 ppm) reduced the infectivity of the virus in suspension by at least 3 log10 units after 1 min, while sodium hypochlorite at 50 ppm produced a 2-log reduction. On the surface of blueberries, strawberries and lettuce, chlorine dioxide was less effective than peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite, which reduced viral titers by approximately 4 logs. A surprising increase in the efficacy of sodium hypochlorite on surfaces fouled with artificial feces was noted.

  9. Propidium monoazide reverse transcription PCR and RT-qPCR for detecting infectious enterovirus and norovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presently there is no established cell line or small animal model that allows for the detection of infectious human norovirus. Current methods based on RT-PCR and RT-qPCR detect both infectious and non-infectious virus and thus the conclusions that may be drawn regarding the publ...

  10. Norovirus outbreak associated with a hotel in the west of Ireland, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, A; Fitzgerald, R; Whyte, D; Fitzgerald, A; Beggan, E; O'Connell, N; Greally, T

    2007-07-01

    An outbreak of gastrointestinal disease (nausea, vomiting or diarrhoea) occurred among a party of wedding guests, staff and other guests in a hotel in the west of Ireland, in October 2006. Upon notification, a multi-disciplinary outbreak control team was convened to investigate and control the outbreak. In all, 98 people were ascertained ill. The median duration of illness was 48 hours. The attack rate ranged between 48 and 85%. The hotel voluntarily notified health authorities and co-operated fully with investigation and control measures. Strict prevention and control measures were instituted promptly, including air ventilation, enhanced hand hygiene, isolation of cases, temporary "cooked food only", temporary alternative accommodation and specialised cleaning. Three cases of norovirus infection were laboratory-confirmed. There was no evidence of food- or water-borne transmission. Clinical and epidemiological findings indicated person-to-person transmission of norovirus. This report highlights the potential for large social gatherings to facilitate the spread of viral gastroenteritis by person-to-person transmission and via contaminated environment. Effective community management of this outbreak appears to have prevented its having an impact on local acute hospital services. The authors conclude that in addition to the existing national guidelines on the management of outbreaks of norovirus in healthcare settings, agreed guidelines for the management of norovirus outbreaks in the hotel and tourism industry are needed in Ireland.

  11. Climate and site management as driving factors for the atmospheric greenhouse gas exchange of a restored wetland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, Mathias; Friborg, Thomas; Schelde, Kirsten;

    2013-01-01

    The atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) budget of a restored wetland in western Denmark was established for the years 2009–2011 from eddy covariance measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes. The water table in the wetland, which was restored in 2002, was unregulated, and the veg......The atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) budget of a restored wetland in western Denmark was established for the years 2009–2011 from eddy covariance measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes. The water table in the wetland, which was restored in 2002, was unregulated...... the atmosphere. However, in terms of the full annual GHG budget (assuming that 1 g CH4 is equivalent to 25 g CO2 with respect to the greenhouse effect over a time horizon of 100 years) the wetland was a sink in 2009, a source in 2010 and neutral in 2011. Complementary observations of meteorological factors...

  12. Optimization of methods for detecting norovirus on various fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Yeon; Kwak, In-Shin; Hwang, In-Gyun; Ko, GwangPyo

    2008-11-01

    Methods for detecting norovirus (NoV) in food are crucial for investigation and prevention of outbreaks caused by NoV-contaminated food. However, current NoV detection methods have not been well examined or optimized. In this study, the effectiveness of various methods for eluting NoV from various fruit, concentrating the virus using polyethylene glycol (PEG), and extracting the viral RNA for subsequent assay by RT-PCR was optimized. First, six different buffers previously described for eluting NoV from fruit surfaces were evaluated. A known amount of NoV was spiked onto the surface of grapes, strawberries, and raspberries, and the virus was recovered with distilled water, 0.05 M glycine-0.14 M NaCl (pH 7.5), 2.9% tryptose phosphate broth-6% glycine, 100 mM Tris-HCl (pH 9.5), 50 mM glycine-50 mM MgCl(2) (pH 9.5), or 3% beef extract. Quantitation of the recovered virus using RT-PCR revealed that the most effective elution buffer was 3% beef extract. Secondly, to optimize a method for concentrating the recovered NoV, the key parameters of PEG precipitation, a typical method for concentrating enteric virus, were investigated. The influence of PEG molecular weight and the duration and temperature of the precipitation procedure were examined. NoV was concentrated most efficiently by precipitation when PEG (10,000) was used for 4h at room temperature. Finally, five different methods for nucleic acid extraction were evaluated. Among RNA extraction methods examined, QIAamp Viral RNA Mini kit showed the best recovery efficiency. Using the optimized method, approximately 6-80% of the seeded NoV was recovered from the various fruit.

  13. Natural and human-induced driving factors in the evolution of tidal channels: case studies in the Venice Lagoon (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzetto, Federica

    2013-04-01

    Coastal wetlands are largely affected by a complex variety of both natural and anthropogenic factors, which induce evident, often irreversible, geomorphological transformations. In particular, this research focuses on the main processes that influence the evolution of tidal channels in salt marshes and shows the results derived from the analysis of some case studies in the Venice Lagoon (northwestern Adriatic Sea, Italy). Here tidal network has been recognized as significantly sensitive to sea-level rise and tide oscillations (Rizzetto and Tosi, 2011; Rizzetto and Tosi, 2012), but it is also vulnerable to human impact. The sites were selected in areas characterized by low anthropogenic pressure to prevent strong human interferences from completely masking the effects of natural forces. The interpretation of a large number of high-resolution aerial photographs, taken since the mid 1930s, allowed identifying in detail tidal channel evolution, both in the long- and in the short-term. The observation of historical and recent topographic maps completed the study and provided other important data to define the modifications occurred in the past two centuries. The channel planform changes were determined through the morphometric analysis of the tidal network, carried out using a Geographic Information System software. These modifications were interpreted in the light of sea-level oscillations (i.e. relative sea-level rise and strength/frequency of high tides, which are increasing owing to climate changes), variations of sediment supply, and human activities occurred in the past century. The joint analysis of all the data allowed distinguishing the changes induced by both relative sea-level rise and high tides on planform pattern and evolution of tidal channels, and identifying the effects of human interferences, which magnified the impact of natural factors (e.g. groundwater exploitation responsible for high subsidence rates between 1950 and 1970 and, consequently, for an

  14. Virucidal effect of cold atmospheric gaseous plasma on feline calicivirus, a surrogate for human norovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboubakr, Hamada A; Williams, Paul; Gangal, Urvashi; Youssef, Mohammed M; El-Sohaimy, Sobhy A A; Bruggeman, Peter J; Goyal, Sagar M

    2015-06-01

    Minimal food-processing methods are not effective against foodborne viruses, such as human norovirus (NV). It is important, therefore, to explore novel nonthermal technologies for decontamination of foods eaten fresh, minimally processed and ready-to-eat foods, and food contact surfaces. We studied the in vitro virucidal activity of cold atmospheric gaseous plasma (CGP) against feline calicivirus (FCV), a surrogate of NV. Factors affecting the virucidal activity of CGP (a so-called radio frequency atmospheric pressure plasma jet) were the plasma generation power, the exposure time and distance, the plasma feed gas mixture, and the virus suspension medium. Exposure to 2.5-W argon (Ar) plasma caused a 5.55 log10 unit reduction in the FCV titer within 120 s. The reduction in the virus titer increased with increasing exposure time and decreasing exposure distance. Of the four plasma gas mixtures studied (Ar, Ar plus 1% O2, Ar plus 1% dry air, and Ar plus 0.27% water), Ar plus 1% O2 plasma treatment had the highest virucidal effect: more than 6.0 log10 units of the virus after 15 s of exposure. The lowest virus reduction was observed with Ar plus 0.27% water plasma treatment (5 log10 unit reduction after 120 s). The highest reduction in titer was observed when the virus was suspended in distilled water. Changes in temperature and pH and formation of H2O2 were not responsible for the virucidal effect of plasma. The oxidation of viral capsid proteins by plasma-produced reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the solution was thought to be responsible for the virucidal effect. In conclusion, CGP exhibits virucidal activity in vitro and has the potential to combat viral contamination in foods and on food preparation surfaces.

  15. Inhibition of histo-blood group antigen binding as a novel strategy to block norovirus infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Fu Zhang

    Full Text Available Noroviruses (NoVs are the most important viral pathogens that cause epidemic acute gastroenteritis. NoVs recognize human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs as receptors or attachment factors. The elucidation of crystal structures of the HBGA-binding interfaces of a number of human NoVs representing different HBGA binding patterns opens a new strategy for the development of antiviral compounds against NoVs through rational drug design and computer-aided virtual screening methods. In this study, docking simulations and virtual screening were used to identify hit compounds targeting the A and B antigens binding sites on the surface of the capsid P protein of a GII.4 NoV (VA387. Following validation by re-docking of the A and B ligands, these structural models and AutoDock suite of programs were used to screen a large drug-like compound library (derived from ZINC library for inhibitors blocking GII.4 binding to HBGAs. After screening >2 million compounds using multistage protocol, 160 hit compounds with best predicted binding affinities and representing a number of distinct chemical classes have been selected for subsequent experimental validation. Twenty of the 160 compounds were found to be able to block the VA387 P dimers binding to the A and/or B HBGAs at an IC50<40.0 µM, with top 5 compounds blocking the HBGA binding at an IC50<10.0 µM in both oligosaccharide- and saliva-based blocking assays. Interestingly, 4 of the top-5 compounds shared the basic structure of cyclopenta [a] dimethyl phenanthren, indicating a promising structural template for further improvement by rational design.

  16. Efficacy of three ethanol-based hand rubs against feline calicivirus, a surrogate virus for norovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, G; Grotheer, D; Steinmann, J

    2005-06-01

    We investigated the efficacy of three ethanol-based hand rubs (Sterillium Virugard, 95% ethanol; Sterillium Rub, 80% ethanol; Desderman N, 75.1% ethanol) against feline calicivirus (FCV), the surrogate virus for norovirus, on artificially contaminated hands of healthy volunteers. The ASTM E 1838-02 standard was used. Experiments were controlled with 70% ethanol and 70% propan-1-ol which were previously found to have maximal efficacy against FCV. In the first step, three different organic loads (5% fetal bovine serum, 5% faecal suspension and the tripartite ASTM load) were compared. A significant influence of the type of organic load was found (P<0.001, ANOVA). In the second step, the hand rubs were investigated with a 5% faecal suspension as a challenging organic load. The hand rub based on 95% ethanol was more effective than those based on 70% ethanol (mean log10 reduction factor: 2.17 vs. 1.56; P=0.17) and 70% propan-1-ol (mean RF: 1.63 vs. 0.95; P=0.0003). The hand rub based on 80% ethanol was also more effective than those based on 70% ethanol (mean RF: 1.25 vs. 1.03: P=0.20) and 70% propan-1-ol (mean RF: 1.43 vs. 1.09; P=0.03). The hand rub based on 75.1% ethanol was less effective than those based on 70% ethanol (mean RF: 1.07 vs. 1.27; P=0.47) and 70% propan-1-ol (mean RF: 0.78 vs. 0.97; P=0.35). Based on our data, ethanol has superior efficacy against FCV than propan-1-ol. In addition, a higher ethanol concentration in three commercially available hand rubs was associated with better efficacy against FCV.

  17. Understanding public responses to chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear incidents--driving factors, emerging themes and research gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Kristian; Amlôt, Richard; Rogers, M Brooke

    2014-11-01

    This paper discusses the management of public responses to incidents involving chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear materials (CBRN). Given the extraordinary technical and operational challenges of a response to a CBRN release including, but not limited to, hazard detection and identification, casualty decontamination and multi-agency co-ordination, it is not surprising that public psychological and behavioural responses to such incidents have received limited attention by scholars and practitioners alike. As a result, a lack of understanding about the role of the public in effective emergency response constitutes a major gap in research and practice. This limitation must be addressed as a CBRN release has the potential to have wide-reaching psychological and behavioural impacts which, in turn, impact upon public morbidity and mortality rates. This paper addresses a number of key issues: why public responses matter; how responses have been conceptualised by practitioners; what factors have been identified as influencing public responses to a CBRN release and similar extreme events, and what further analysis is needed in order to generate a better understanding of public responses to inform the management of public responses to a CBRN release. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Driving factors of the communities of phytophagous and predatory mites in a physic nut plantation and spontaneous plants associated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Wilton P; Sarmento, Renato A; Teodoro, Adenir V; Neto, Marçal P; Ignacio, Maíra

    2013-08-01

    Seasonal changes in climate and plant diversity are known to affect the population dynamics of both pests and natural enemies within agroecosystems. In Brazil, spontaneous plants are usually tolerated in small-scale physic nut plantations over the year, which in turn may mediate interactions between pests and natural enemies within this agroecosystem. Here, we aimed to access the influence of seasonal variation of abiotic (temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) and biotic (diversity of spontaneous plants, overall richness and density of mites) factors on the communities of phytophagous and predatory mites found in a physic nut plantation and its associated spontaneous plants. Mite sampling was monthly conducted in dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous leaves of spontaneous plants as well as in physic nut shrubs over an entire year. In the dry season there was a higher abundance of phytophagous mites (Tenuipalpidae, Tarsonemidae and Tetranychidae) on spontaneous plants than on physic nut shrubs, while predatory mites (Phytoseiidae) showed the opposite pattern. The overall density of mites on spontaneous plants increased with relative humidity and diversity of spontaneous plants. Rainfall was the variable that most influenced the density of mites inhabiting physic nut shrubs. Agroecosystems comprising spontaneous plants associated with crops harbour a rich mite community including species of different trophic levels which potentially benefit natural pest control due to increased diversity and abundance of natural enemies.

  19. Driving anger in Ukraine: Appraisals, not trait driving anger, predict anger intensity while driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, A N; Hill, T; Sullman, M J M

    2016-03-01

    Trait driving anger is often, but not always, found to predict both the intensity of anger while driving and subsequent crash-related behaviours. However, a number of studies have not found support for a direct relationship between one's tendency to become angry and anger reported while driving, suggesting that other factors may mediate this relationship. The present self-report study investigated whether, in anger provoking driving situations, the appraisals made by drivers influence the relationship between trait and state anger. A sample of 339 drivers from Ukraine completed the 33-item version of the Driver Anger Scale (DAS; Deffenbacher et al., 1994) and eight questions about their most recent experience of driving anger. A structural equation model found that the intensity of anger experienced was predicted by the negative evaluations of the situation, which was in turn predicted by trait driving anger. However, trait driving anger itself did not predict anger intensity; supporting the hypothesis that evaluations of the driving situation mediate the relationship between trait and state anger. Further, the unique structure of the DAS required to fit the data from the Ukrainian sample, may indicate that the anger inducing situations in Ukraine are different to those of a more developed country. Future research is needed to investigate driving anger in Ukraine in a broader sample and also to confirm the role of the appraisal process in the development of driving anger in both developed and undeveloped countries.

  20. Identification and Characterization of Single-Chain Antibodies that Specifically Bind GI Noroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Amy M; Huang, Wanzhi; Kou, Baijun; Estes, Mary K; Atmar, Robert L; Palzkill, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Norovirus infections commonly lead to outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis and spread quickly, resulting in many health and economic challenges prior to diagnosis. Rapid and reliable diagnostic tests are therefore essential to identify infections and to guide the appropriate clinical responses at the point-of-care. Existing tools, including RT-PCR and enzyme immunoassays, pose several limitations based on the significant time, equipment and expertise required to elicit results. Immunochromatographic assays available for use at the point-of-care have poor sensitivity and specificity, especially for genogroup I noroviruses, thus requiring confirmation of results with more sensitive testing methods. Therefore, there is a clear need for novel reagents to help achieve quick and reliable results. In this study, we have identified two novel single-chain antibodies (scFvs)-named NJT-R3-A2 and NJT-R3-A3-that effectively detect GI.1 and GI.7 virus-like particles (VLPs) through selection of a phage display library against the P-domain of the GI.1 major capsid protein. The limits of detection by each scFv for GI.1 and GI.7 are 0.1 and 0.2 ng, and 6.25 and 25 ng, respectively. They detect VLPs with strong specificity in multiple diagnostic formats, including ELISAs and membrane-based dot blots, and in the context of norovirus-negative stool suspensions. The scFvs also detect native virions effectively in norovirus-positive clinical stool samples. Purified scFvs bind to GI.1 and GI.7 VLPs with equilibrium constant (KD) values of 27 nM and 49 nM, respectively. Overall, the phage-based scFv reagents identified and characterized here show utility for detecting GI.1 and GI.7 noroviruses in multiple diagnostic assay formats with strong specificity and sensitivity, indicating promise for integration into existing point-of-care tests to improve future diagnostics.

  1. Prevalence and molecular characterization of human noroviruses and sapoviruses in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisay, Zufan; Djikeng, Appolinaire; Berhe, Nega; Belay, Gurja; Gebreyes, Wondwossen; Abegaz, Woldaregay Erku; Njahira, Moses N; Wang, Q H; Saif, Linda J

    2016-08-01

    Viral gastroenteritis is a major public health problem worldwide. In Ethiopia, very limited studies have been done on the epidemiology of enteropathogenic viruses. The aim of this study was to detect and characterize noroviruses (NoVs) and sapoviruses (SaVs) from acute gastroenteritis patients of all ages. Fecal samples were collected from diarrheic patients (n = 213) in five different health centers in Addis Ababa during June-September 2013. The samples were screened for caliciviruses by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using universal and genogroup-specific primer pairs. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using the sequences of the PCR products. Of the clinical samples, 25.3 % and 4.2 % were positive for NoV and SaV RNA, respectively. Among the norovirus positives, 22 were sequenced further, and diverse norovirus strains were identified: GI (n = 4), GII (n = 17) and GIV (n = 1). Most strains were GII (n = 17/22: 77.2 %), which were further divided into three different genotypes (GII.4, GII.12/GII.g recombinant-like and GII.17), with GII.17 being the dominant (7/17) strain detected. GI noroviruses, in particular GI.4 (n = 1), GI.5 (n = 2) and GI.8 (n = 1), were also detected and characterized. The GIV strain detected is the first from East Africa. The sapoviruses sequenced were also the first reported from Ethiopia. Collectively, this study showed the high burden and diversity of noroviruses and circulation of sapoviruses in diarrheic patients in Ethiopia. Continued surveillance to assess their association with diarrhea is needed to define their epidemiology, disease burden, and impact on public health.

  2. hERG1 channels drive tumour malignancy and may serve as prognostic factor in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastraioli, E; Perrone, G; Sette, A; Fiore, A; Crociani, O; Manoli, S; D'Amico, M; Masselli, M; Iorio, J; Callea, M; Borzomati, D; Nappo, G; Bartolozzi, F; Santini, D; Bencini, L; Farsi, M; Boni, L; Di Costanzo, F; Schwab, A; Onetti Muda, A; Coppola, R; Arcangeli, A

    2015-01-01

    Background: hERG1 channels are aberrantly expressed in human cancers. The expression, functional role and clinical significance of hERG1 channels in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is lacking. Methods: hERG1 expression was tested in PDAC primary samples assembled as tissue microarray by immunohistochemistry using an anti-hERG1 monoclonal antibody (α-hERG1-MoAb). The functional role of hERG1 was studied in PDAC cell lines and primary cultures. ERG1 expression during PDAC progression was studied in Pdx-1-Cre,LSL-KrasG12D/+,LSL-Trp53R175H/+ transgenic (KPC) mice. ERG1 expression in vivo was determined by optical imaging using Alexa-680-labelled α-hERG1-MoAb. Results: (i) hERG1 was expressed at high levels in 59% of primary PDAC; (ii) hERG1 blockade decreased PDAC cell growth and migration; (iii) hERG1 was physically and functionally linked to the Epidermal Growth Factor-Receptor pathway; (iv) in transgenic mice, ERG1 was expressed in PanIN lesions, reaching high expression levels in PDAC; (v) PDAC patients whose primary tumour showed high hERG1 expression had a worse prognosis; (vi) the α-hERG1-MoAb could detect PDAC in vivo. Conclusions: hERG1 regulates PDAC malignancy and its expression, once validated in a larger cohort also comprising of late-stage, non-surgically resected cases, may be exploited for diagnostic and prognostic purposes in PDAC either ex vivo or in vivo. PMID:25719829

  3. Driving factors for the evolution of species-specific echolocation call design in new world free-tailed bats (molossidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Jung

    Full Text Available Phylogeny, ecology, and sensorial constraints are thought to be the most important factors influencing echolocation call design in bats. The Molossidae is a diverse bat family with a majority of species restricted to tropical and subtropical regions. Most molossids are specialized to forage for insects in open space, and thus share similar navigational challenges. We use an unprecedented dataset on the echolocation calls of 8 genera and 18 species of New World molossids to explore how habitat, phylogenetic relatedness, body mass, and prey perception contribute to echolocation call design. Our results confirm that, with the exception of the genus Molossops, echolocation calls of these bats show a typical design for open space foraging. Two lines of evidence point to echolocation call structure of molossids reflecting phylogenetic relatedness. First, such structure is significantly more similar within than among genera. Second, except for allometric scaling, such structure is nearly the same in congeneric species. Despite contrasting body masses, 12 of 18 species call within a relatively narrow frequency range of 20 to 35 kHz, a finding that we explain by using a modeling approach whose results suggest this frequency range to be an adaptation optimizing prey perception in open space. To conclude, we argue that the high variability in echolocation call design of molossids is an advanced evolutionary trait allowing the flexible adjustment of echolocation systems to various sensorial challenges, while conserving sender identity for social communication. Unraveling evolutionary drivers for echolocation call design in bats has so far been hampered by the lack of adequate model organisms sharing a phylogenetic origin and facing similar sensorial challenges. We thus believe that knowledge of the echolocation call diversity of New World molossid bats may prove to be landmark to understand the evolution and functionality of species-specific signal design

  4. Factors driving James Cook University Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery graduates' choice of internship location and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Anna; Woolley, Torres; Sen Gupta, Tarun

    2014-04-01

    To identify the main reason James Cook University (JCU) Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery graduates chose their internship location and first four practice relocations. This cross-sectional study invited 261 JCU medical graduates to participate in an email or telephone survey. Graduates' main reason for choosing internship location and up to four subsequent relocations, post-graduate specialty training undertaken and practice location (either metropolitan or non-metropolitan) for graduates' internship year and current practice year (2012). Respondents (n=175; response rate=67%) reported personal factors as the primary driver for choosing their internship location, with 33% returning to 'near their family/home town', and 21% staying in the town they were based in Years 5 and 6. Professional reasons dominated for subsequent relocations, particularly 'long-term career ambitions'. Fifty-nine of the 175 (34%) JCU graduates had undertaken their internship in a metropolitan location (Australian Standard Geographical Classification Remoteness Area 1), while 80 (46%) currently (in 2012) practised in a metropolitan location. Internship location was not associated with later specialty training, but current metropolitan practice was associated with Surgical or Paediatrics training (P=0.007 and P=0.063, respectively), while current non-metropolitan practice was associated with General Practice and Rural Generalist training (P=0.010 and P=0.001, respectively). Personal decisions take precedence over professional career decisions for why JCU medical graduates chose their internship location, but subsequent relocations are driven by career ambitions, usually around specialty training requirements. These findings support establishing more post-graduate training opportunities in non-metropolitan settings for Surgical and Paediatric specialties as a retention strategy for a rural medical career. © 2014 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  5. Landscape Dynamics and Driving Factors in Da'an County of Jilin Province in Northeast China During 1956-2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zongming; ZHANG Yubo; ZHANG Bai; SONG Kaishan; GUO Zhixing; LIU Dianwei; LI Fang

    2008-01-01

    The landscape pattern of Da'an County,Northeast China has undergone significant changes since the 1950s as a result of climatic change and human activities.The aim of this paper is to quantitatively study landscape pattern and its spatial dynamics of Da'an County at the landscape level over the nearly 50-year span.Patch dynamics were examined according to land use and land cover change processes built from a series of images,as well as topographic maps,and temporal patterns built trom landscape pattern metrics.The transition matrix of landscape patch types and changes of various landscape metrics were applied.The results showed that,from 1956 to 2000,the landscape within the study area had undertaken a complicated evolution in landscape structure and composition.The outstanding characteristic is that saline-alkali land increased and grassland decreased.As some smaller patches amalgamated,the heterogeneity of patch decreased.All those changes were the synthetic result of both climatic and anthropogenic influences,but the predominant factor was different in different parts.In the southern part of the study area,the landscape pattern changes resulted from the modification of climate obviously,while in the northern part,the landscape pattern changes were mainly caused by human activities,such as the conversion between farmland and saline-alkali land.This phenomenon showed that human activities played more important role in the north than in the south of Da'an County.

  6. Constitutive Increases in Amygdalar Corticotropin-Releasing Factor and Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Drive an Anxious Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natividad, Luis A; Buczynski, Matthew W; Herman, Melissa A; Kirson, Dean; Oleata, Christopher S; Irimia, Cristina; Polis, Ilham; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Roberto, Marisa; Parsons, Loren H

    2017-10-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) mediates anxiogenic responses by activating CRF type 1 (CRF1) receptors in limbic brain regions. Anxiety is further modulated by the endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) system that attenuates the synaptic effects of stress. In the amygdala, acute stress activates the enzymatic clearance of the eCB N-arachidonoylethanolamine via fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), although it is unclear whether chronic dysregulation of CRF systems induces maladaptive changes in amygdalar eCB signaling. Here, we used genetically selected Marchigian Sardinian P (msP) rats carrying an innate overexpression of CRF1 receptors to study the role of constitutive upregulation in CRF systems on amygdalar eCB function and persistent anxiety-like effects. We applied behavioral, pharmacological, and biochemical methods to broadly characterize anxiety-like behaviors and amygdalar eCB clearance enzymes in msP versus nonselected Wistar rats. Subsequent studies examined the influence of dysregulated CRF and FAAH systems in altering excitatory transmission in the central amygdala (CeA). msPs display an anxious phenotype accompanied by elevations in amygdalar FAAH activity and reduced dialysate N-arachidonoylethanolamine levels in the CeA. Elevations in CRF-CRF1 signaling dysregulate FAAH activity, and this genotypic difference is normalized with pharmacological blockade of CRF1 receptors. msPs also exhibit elevated baseline glutamatergic transmission in the CeA, and dysregulated CRF-FAAH facilitates stress-induced increases in glutamatergic activity. Treatment with an FAAH inhibitor relieves sensitized glutamatergic responses in msPs and attenuates the anxiety-like phenotype. Pathological anxiety and stress hypersensitivity are driven by constitutive increases in CRF1 signaling that dysregulate N-arachidonoylethanolamine signaling mechanisms and reduce neuronal inhibitory control of CeA glutamatergic synapses. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published

  7. Norovirus infection: features of epidemiology and clinical and laboratory manifestations at the present stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Pronko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Among most significant for practical medicine infections, acute intestinal infections of viral etiology are becoming increasingly topical [2, 4]. According to domestic and foreign literature, up to 70 % of gastroenteritis occur during cold seasons of the year and are induced by viruses [3, 5]. The range of the factors producing viral diarrheas is rather wide. One of the comparatively new acute intestinal infections (AII producing factors is noroviruses [5, 6]. The prevalence of noroviruses has been little studied, and the clinical picture has been characterized insufficiently. This can be explained by insufficient diagnostics and registration of this infection [3, 6, 7]. Aim of the work: analysis of the morbidity and determination of clinical laboratory features of noroviral infection (NVI in children according to the data of the Regional Clinical Infectious Di­seases Hospital in Grodno. Materials and methods. A comprehensive clinical laboratory analysis of 1,105 case histories of children aged 1 month to 14 years with verified viral intestinal infection, who were admitted to Grodno Regional Clinical Infectious Diseases Hospital from January 2013 to December 2016, was carried out. The patients were divided according to the final clinical diagnosis in the following way: rotaviral infection (RVI was found in 676 (61.2 % individuals, adenoviral intestinal infection (AVI — in 212 (19.2 %, NVI was detected in 156 (14.1 % and enteroviral infection — in 61 (5.5 % persons. The examination was carried out according to the protocols approved by the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Belarus. Results. As our study showed, at the period analyzed the viral intestinal diseases amounted to 70.4 % of all the cases of diseases in the structure of AII in children. Patients hospitalized with viral diarrhea showed prevalence of RVI (61.2 %. NVI was the third by the incidence among viral diarrheas, and it was registered in 14.1 % of the cases

  8. Impact of genotype-specific herd immunity on the circulatory dynamism of norovirus: a 10-year longitudinal study of viral acute gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakon, Naomi; Yamazaki, Kenji; Nakata, Keiko; Kanbayashi, Daiki; Yoda, Tomoko; Mantani, Masanobu; Kase, Tetsuo; Takahashi, Kazuo; Komano, Jun

    2015-03-15

    Human norovirus is a major cause of viral acute gastroenteritis worldwide. However, the transition of endemic norovirus genotypes remains poorly understood. The characteristics of natural immunity against norovirus are unclear because few studies have been performed in the natural infection setting. This prospective 10-year surveillance study of acute gastroenteritis in the province of Osaka, Japan, revealed that norovirus spread shows temporal, geographic, and age group-specific features in the humans. Genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) was detected in most sporadic pediatric cases, as well as in foodborne and nursing home outbreaks, respectively. The dominant genotypes in outbreaks at childcare facilities and schools shifted every season and involved GI, GII.2, GII.3, GII.4, and GII.6. Evidence at both the facility and individual levels indicated that genotype-specific herd immunity lasted long enough to influence the endemic norovirus genotype in the next season. Thus, norovirus circulates through human populations in a uniquely dynamic fashion.

  9. The Application of New Molecular Methods in the Investigation of a Waterborne Outbreak of Norovirus in Denmark, 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Alphen, Lieke B.; Dorleans, Frederique; Schultz, Anna Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    in order to control the outbreak. Norovirus GII.4 New Orleans 2009 variant was detected in 15 of 17 individual stool samples from 14 households. Norovirus genomic material from water samples was detected and quantified and sequencing of longer parts of the viral capsid region (>1000 nt) were applied...... to patient and water samples. All five purposely selected water samples tested positive for norovirus GII in levels up to 1.8×104 genomic units per 200 ml. Identical norovirus sequences were found in all 5 sequenced stool samples and 1 sequenced water sample, a second sequenced water sample showed 1 nt (....1%) difference. In a cohort study, including 256 participants, cases were defined as residents of the area experiencing diarrhoea or vomiting onset on 12–14 December 2012. We found an attack rate of 51%. Being a case was associated with drinking tap-water on 12–13 December (relative risk = 6.0, 95%CI: 1...

  10. Climate and site management as driving factors for the atmospheric greenhouse gas exchange of a restored wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Herbst

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG budget of a restored wetland in western Denmark was established for the years 2009–2011 from eddy covariance measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 fluxes. The water table in the wetland, which was restored in 2002, was unregulated, and the vegetation height was limited through occasional grazing by cattle and grass cutting. The annual net CO2 uptake varied between 195 and 983 g m−2 and the annual net CH4 release varied between 11 and 17 g m−2. In all three years the wetland was a carbon sink and removed between 42 and 259 g C m−2 from the atmosphere. However, in terms of the full annual GHG budget (assuming that 1 g CH4 is equivalent to 25 g CO2 with respect to the greenhouse effect over a time horizon of 100 years the wetland was a sink in 2009, a source in 2010 and neutral in 2011. Complementary observations of meteorological factors and management activities were used to explain the large inter-annual variations in the full atmospheric GHG budget of the wetland. The largest impact on the annual GHG fluxes, eventually defining their sign, came from site management through changes in grazing duration and animal stocking density. These changes accounted for half of the observed variability in the CO2 fluxes and about two thirds of the variability in CH4 fluxes. An unusually long period of snow cover in 2010 had the second largest effect on the annual CO2 flux, whose interannual variability was larger than that of the CH4 flux. Since integrated CO2 and CH4 flux data from restored wetlands are still very rare, it is concluded that more long-term flux measurements are needed to quantify the effects of ecosystem disturbance, in terms of management activities and exceptional weather patterns, on the atmospheric GHG budget more

  11. Identification of driving factors of land degradation and deforestation in the Wildlife Reserve of Bontioli (Burkina Faso, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangbéni Dimobe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In Africa, protected areas can play an important role in mitigating the effects of climate change through carbon sequestration but they are threatened due to increasing land degradation and deforestation (LDD. The Total Wildlife Reserve of Bontioli (TWRB in Burkina Faso is one of the country’s refuges with high biodiversity. This reserve is seriously threatened by human activities, and little information is available about the on-site causes of degradation extent. This study was carried out to investigate drivers and extent of LDD in the TWRB. Household surveys, focus group discussions and field observations were used to identify socio-economic factors that influence land use and land cover (LULC changes. The socio-economic data were analyzed using rankings and binary logistic regression techniques. Logistic regression model was used to establish the relationship between socio-economic drivers and land cover change. Remote sensing and GIS techniques were used to analyze land use and LULC changes over 29 years, employing Landsat images of 1984, 2001 and 2013. We performed a supervised classification based on the maximum likelihood algorithm to derive vegetation maps. The results revealed significant (p <0.05 LULC change from one class of LULC to another. From 1984 to 2001, tree savannas, bare soils and agricultural lands increased by 17.55%, 18.79% and 21778.79%, respectively, while woodland, gallery forest, shrub savannas and water bodies decreased by 22.02%, 5.03%, 40.08% and 31.2%, respectively. From 2001 to 2013, gallery forests decreased by 14.33%, tree savannas by 22.30% and shrub savannas by 5.14%, while agricultural lands increased by 167.87% and woodlands by 3.21%. LDD occurred at a higher rate in areas bordering the reserve compared to the core-protected area and the inaccessible areas. Agricultural expansion and wood cutting activities were the main direct causes of LDD. Extensive land utilization for agriculture is a major threat to

  12. Driving factors of forest landscape change in Yiluo River basin%伊洛河流域森林景观变化驱动因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁国付; 丁圣彦

    2006-01-01

    The expansion of agriculture is posited as one of the main dynamics of forest landscape change globally, and the robust modeling of these processes is important for policy as well as academic concern. This paper concerns a relatively small area of Yiluo River catchment where considerable attention has been paid to slow down the process of the expansion of agriculture into the remaining natural forests. In the present study, we reconstructed the former forest landscape structure and elucidated the landscape change during a period of about 15 years. Three sets (1987, 1996 and 2002) of maps derived from Landsat-5 images were used for analyses. The result showed that there was a decrease in the area of the forest landscape from 995.60 km2 in 1987 to 650.50 km2 in 2002. Then we examined the degree to which forest landscape conversion could be attributed to a set of factors identified as significant at broader scales, namely topography, distribution of the village clusters (centroids), distance from villages (centroids), and distance from forest edge (1987). By using "spatial analysis" in Arc/gis 8.3, the correlation between forest landscape change and driving factors was constructed. This study found that forest landscape conversion in this region was largely explained by elevation, slope and proximity to village.

  13. Recent land-use and land-cover changes and its driving factors in a fire-prone area of southwestern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viedma, Olga; Moreno, José M; Güngöroglu, Cumhur; Cosgun, Ufuk; Kavgacı, Ali

    2017-07-15

    During the last decades, contrasted trends in forest fires among countries around the Mediterranean basin have been observed. In the northern/western countries, Land Use-Land Cover (LULC) changes led to more hazardous landscapes, with consequent increases in fires. This contrasted with fire trends in southern/eastern countries. The recent incidence of large fires in some of the latter prompted the question of whether they are now following the path of their neighbors decades earlier. In this study, we investigated recent LULC changes in southwestern Turkey, focusing on those that could affect fire, and the factors driving them. To this end, LULC maps at different time steps (1975, 1990, 2000 and 2010) were obtained from Landsat images, together with relevant socioeconomic data. Generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) were applied to assess the effects of socioeconomic and geophysical factors on the dominant LULC changes over time. Over the whole period studied, the most important LULC changes were deforestation followed by afforestation. Deforestation was positively related to high livestock density and proximity to villages and increased forest interfaces with other LULC types. We found no evidence that LULC changes were making the landscape more hazardous as there was a net decrease in fuels biomass and the landscape became more fragmented over time. However, despite the area being heavily used and relatively fragmented, large fires can occur driven by severe weather. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Viral Polymerase Inhibitor 2 '-C-Methylcytidine Inhibits Norwalk Virus Replication and Protects against Norovirus-Induced Diarrhea and Mortality in a Mouse Model

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Human noroviruses are a major cause of food-borne illness, accountable for 50% of all-etiologies outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis (in both developing and developed countries). There is no vaccine or antiviral drug for the prophylaxis or treatment of norovirus-induced gastroenteritis. We recently reported the inhibitory effect of 2'-C-methylcytidine (2CMC), a hepatitis C virus polymerase inhibitor, on the in vitro replication of murine norovirus (MNV). Here we evaluated the inhibitory effect...

  15. Detection and differentiation of norovirus genogroups I and II from clinical stool specimens using real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanan, Poornima; Espy, M J; Khare, Reeti; Binnicker, M J

    2017-04-01

    A real-time RT-PCR assay was designed to detect and differentiate norovirus genogroups I (GI) and II (GII), with primers and probes targeting the nonstructural polyprotein gene. Stool samples (n = 100) submitted for routine testing by the BioFire FilmArray® GI panel were also tested by the norovirus GI/GII real-time PCR assays. When compared to the FilmArray GI panel, the norovirus real-time PCR assay demonstrated a sensitivity of 77.5% (62/80) and specificity of 95% (19/20). Specimens yielding discordant results (n = 19) were tested at two outside laboratories for adjudication. Following discordant resolution, the adjusted sensitivity and specificity of the norovirus real-time PCR assays were 96.9% (63/65) and 100% (35/35), respectively. These results suggest that the real-time PCR assays are able to accurately detect and differentiate norovirus GI/GII from clinical stool specimens. Furthermore, our report highlights a potential issue with the specificity of the BioFire FilmArray® norovirus assay, which warrants additional investigation.

  16. Norovirus contamination levels in ground water treatment systems used for food-catering facilities in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bo-Ram; Lee, Sung-Geun; Park, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Kwang-Yup; Ryu, Sang-Ryeol; Rhee, Ok-Jae; Park, Jeong-Woong; Lee, Jeong-Su; Paik, Soon-Young

    2013-07-02

    This study aimed to inspect norovirus contamination of groundwater treatment systems used in food-catering facilities located in South Korea. A nationwide study was performed in 2010. Water samples were collected and, for the analysis of water quality, the temperature, pH, turbidity, and residual chlorine content were assessed. To detect norovirus genotypes GI and GII, RT-PCR and semi-nested PCR were performed with specific NV-GI and NV-GII primer sets, respectively. The PCR products amplified from the detected strains were then subjected to sequence analyses. Of 1,090 samples collected in 2010, seven (0.64%) were found to be norovirus-positive. Specifically, one norovirus strain was identified to have the GI-6 genotype, and six GII strains had the GII, GII-3, GII-4, and GII-17 genotypes. The very low detection rate of norovirus most likely reflects the preventative measures used. However, this virus can spread rapidly from person to person in crowded, enclosed places such as the schools investigated in this study. To promote better public health and sanitary conditions, it is necessary to periodically monitor noroviruses that frequently cause epidemic food poisoning in South Korea.

  17. Fluorinated TiO₂ as an ambient light-activated virucidal surface coating material for the control of human norovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Geun Woo; Cho, Min; Cates, Ezra L; Lee, David; Oh, Byung-Taek; Vinjé, Jan; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated the virucidal efficacy of light-activated fluorinated TiO₂ surface coatings on human norovirus and several surrogates (bacteriophage MS2, feline calcivirus (FCV), and murine norovirus (MNV)). Inactivation of viruses on surfaces exposed to a common fluorescent lamp was monitored and the effects of UVA intensity, temperature, and fluoride content were assessed. Destruction of RNA and capsid oxidation were evaluated for human norovirus inocula on the F-TiO₂ surfaces, while contact with the F-TiO₂ surface and exposure to residual UVA radiation of 10 μW cm(-2) for 60 min resulted in infectivity reductions for the norovirus surrogates of 2-3 log₁₀. Infectivity reductions on pristine TiO₂ surfaces in identical conditions were over 2 orders of magnitude lower. Under realistic room lighting conditions, MS2 infectivity declined below the lower detection limit after 12h. Reductions in RNA were generally low, with the exception of GII.4, while capsid protein oxidation likely played a larger role in infectivity loss. Inactivation of norovirus surrogates occurred significantly faster on F-TiO₂ compared to pristine TiO₂ surfaces. The material demonstrated antiviral action against human norovirus surrogates and was shown to effectively inhibit MS2 when exposed to residual UVA present in fluorescent room lighting conditions in a laboratory setting.

  18. Secretory pathway antagonism by calicivirus homologues of Norwalk virus nonstructural protein p22 is restricted to noroviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharp Tyler M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our previous report that the Norwalk virus nonstructural protein p22 is an antagonist of the cellular secretory pathway suggests a new aspect of norovirus/host interaction. To explore conservation of function of this highly divergent calicivirus protein, we examined the effects of p22 homologues from four human and two murine noroviruses, and feline calicivirus on the secretory pathway. Findings All human noroviruses examined induced Golgi disruption and inhibited protein secretion, with the genogroup II.4 Houston virus being the most potent antagonist. Genogroup II.6 viruses have a conserved mutation in the mimic of an Endoplasmic Reticulum export signal (MERES motif that is highly conserved in human norovirus homologues of p22 and is critical for secretory pathway antagonism, and these viruses had reduced levels of Golgi disruption and inhibition of protein secretion. p22 homologues from both persistent and nonpersistent strains of murine norovirus induced Golgi disruption, but only mildly inhibited cellular protein secretion. Feline calicivirus p30 did not induce Golgi disruption or inhibit cellular protein secretion. Conclusions These differences confirm a norovirus-specific effect on host cell secretory pathway antagonism by homologues of p22, which may affect viral replication and/or cellular pathogenesis.

  19. Secretory pathway antagonism by calicivirus homologues of Norwalk virus nonstructural protein p22 is restricted to noroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Tyler M; Crawford, Sue E; Ajami, Nadim J; Neill, Frederick H; Atmar, Robert L; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Utama, Budi; Estes, Mary K

    2012-09-03

    Our previous report that the Norwalk virus nonstructural protein p22 is an antagonist of the cellular secretory pathway suggests a new aspect of norovirus/host interaction. To explore conservation of function of this highly divergent calicivirus protein, we examined the effects of p22 homologues from four human and two murine noroviruses, and feline calicivirus on the secretory pathway. All human noroviruses examined induced Golgi disruption and inhibited protein secretion, with the genogroup II.4 Houston virus being the most potent antagonist. Genogroup II.6 viruses have a conserved mutation in the mimic of an Endoplasmic Reticulum export signal (MERES) motif that is highly conserved in human norovirus homologues of p22 and is critical for secretory pathway antagonism, and these viruses had reduced levels of Golgi disruption and inhibition of protein secretion. p22 homologues from both persistent and nonpersistent strains of murine norovirus induced Golgi disruption, but only mildly inhibited cellular protein secretion. Feline calicivirus p30 did not induce Golgi disruption or inhibit cellular protein secretion. These differences confirm a norovirus-specific effect on host cell secretory pathway antagonism by homologues of p22, which may affect viral replication and/or cellular pathogenesis.

  20. Food-borne norovirus-outbreak at a military base, Germany, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoehne Marina

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Norovirus is often transmitted from person-to-person. Transmission may also be food-borne, but only few norovirus outbreak investigations have identified food items as likely vehicles of norovirus transmission through an analytical epidemiological study. During 7-9 January, 2009, 36 persons at a military base in Germany fell ill with acute gastroenteritis. Food from the military base's canteen was suspected as vehicle of infection, norovirus as the pathogen causing the illnesses. An investigation was initiated to describe the outbreak's extent, to verify the pathogen, and to identify modes of transmission and source of infection to prevent further cases. Methods For descriptive analysis, ill persons were defined as members of the military base with acute onset of diarrhoea or vomiting between 24 December 2008, and 3 February 2009, without detection of a pathogen other than norovirus in stools. We conducted a retrospective cohort study within the headquarters company. Cases were military base members with onset of diarrhoea or vomiting during 5-9 January. We collected information on demographics, food items eaten at the canteen and contact to ill persons or vomit, using a self-administered questionnaire. We compared attack rates (AR in exposed and unexposed persons, using bivariable and multivariable logistic regression modelling. Stool specimens of ill persons and canteen employees, canteen food served during 5-7 January and environmental swabs were investigated by laboratory analysis. Results Overall, 101/815 (AR 12.4% persons fell ill between 24 December 2008 and 3 February 2009. None were canteen employees. Most persons (n = 49 had disease onset during 7-9 January. Ill persons were a median of 22 years old, 92.9% were male. The response for the cohort study was 178/274 (72.1%. Of 27 cases (AR 15.2%, 25 had eaten at the canteen and 21 had consumed salad. Salad consumption on 6 January (aOR: 8.1; 95%CI: 1.5-45.4 and 7

  1. Gaps in food safety professionals' knowledge about noroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosa, Katherine M; Cates, Sheryl C; Hall, Aron J; Brophy, Jenna E; Fraser, Angela

    2014-08-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are the most common etiologic agents of endemic and epidemic foodborne disease in the United States. Food safety professionals play an important role in protecting the public from foodborne illness. A survey of food safety professionals (n = 314) was conducted to characterize their knowledge of NoVs and to identify gaps in this knowledge. To recruit individuals, 25 professional organizations promoted the survey via their Web sites, newsletters, and/or e-mail distribution lists. The survey used true or false and open-ended questions to assess knowledge about NoVs, including attribution, transmission, and prevention and control strategies, including food handling practices. The online survey was available from mid-October 2012 to mid-January 2013. Of the 314 respondents, 66.2% correctly identified NoVs as one of the three most common causes of foodborne disease in the United States. Only 5.4% of respondents correctly identified the three most common settings for NoV infections, and 65.0% of respondents had the misperception that cruise ships are one of the three most common settings. Seventeen respondents (5.4%) answered all 20 true-or-false questions correctly, 33 respondents (10.5%) answered at least 19 of the 20 questions correctly, and 186 respondents (65.0%) answered at least 15 of the 20 questions correctly (i.e., a score of 75% or higher). The content domain in which respondents had the most incorrect answers was food handling practices. Thirty-eight percent of respondents incorrectly responded that it is safe for restaurant workers infected with NoVs to handle packaged food, food equipment, and utensils. About half of respondents did not know the recommended sanitizing solution for eliminating NoVs from a contaminated surface. The survey findings identified several important gaps in food safety professionals' knowledge of NoVs. The study results will inform the development of a Web-based educational module on NoVs to improve efforts to

  2. Factors Shaping the Decision of College Students to Walk or Drive under the Influence of Alcohol: A Test of Rational Choice Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Ashley; Monk-Turner, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Rational Choice theory was tested to better understand the differences in behaviour regarding walking and driving under the influence of alcohol. Methods: Students at a residential college campus in Virginia were surveyed. Findings: Results show that students were less likely to walk or drive while intoxicated if they believed such behaviour…

  3. Factors Shaping the Decision of College Students to Walk or Drive under the Influence of Alcohol: A Test of Rational Choice Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Ashley; Monk-Turner, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Rational Choice theory was tested to better understand the differences in behaviour regarding walking and driving under the influence of alcohol. Methods: Students at a residential college campus in Virginia were surveyed. Findings: Results show that students were less likely to walk or drive while intoxicated if they believed such behaviour…

  4. Development of a Nanobody-Based Lateral Flow Immunoassay for Detection of Human Norovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerflinger, Sylvie Y.; Tabatabai, Julia; Schnitzler, Paul; Farah, Carlo; Rameil, Steffen; Sander, Peter; Koromyslova, Anna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human noroviruses are the dominant cause of outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis. These viruses are usually detected by molecular methods, including reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Human noroviruses are genetically and antigenically diverse, with two main genogroups that are further subdivided into over 40 different genotypes. During the past decade, genogroup 2 genotype 4 (GII.4) has dominated in most countries, but recently, viruses belonging to GII.17 have increased in prevalence in a number of countries. A number of commercially available ELISAs and lateral flow immunoassays were found to have lower sensitivities to the GII.17 viruses, indicating that the antibodies used in these methods may not have a high level of cross-reactivity. In this study, we developed a rapid Nanobody-based lateral flow immunoassay (Nano-immunochromatography [Nano-IC]) for the detection of human norovirus in clinical specimens. The Nano-IC assay detected virions from two GII.4 norovirus clusters, which included the current dominant strain and a novel variant strain. The Nano-IC method had a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 86% for outbreak specimens. Norovirus virus-like particles (VLPs) representing four genotypes (GII.4, GII.10, GII.12, and GII.17) could be detected by this method, demonstrating the potential in clinical screening. However, further modifications to the Nano-IC method are needed in order to improve this sensitivity, which may be achieved by the addition of other broadly reactive Nanobodies to the system. IMPORTANCE We previously identified a Nanobody (termed Nano-85) that bound to a highly conserved region on the norovirus capsid. In this study, the Nanobody was biotinylated and gold conjugated for a lateral flow immunoassay (termed Nano-IC). We showed that the Nano-IC assay was capable of detecting at least four antigenically distinct GII genotypes, including the newly emerging GII.17. In the clinical

  5. Virucidal activity of a quaternary ammonium compound disinfectant against feline calicivirus: a surrogate for norovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Luis; Chiang, Michael

    2006-06-01

    Norovirus, formerly known as Norwalk virus, is an important cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks in hospitals, food services, schools, and cruise ships. Infection control practices by using disinfectants to eliminate noroviruses from surfaces and environmental samples reduce the morbidity and spread of virus outbreaks. There are not many commercial disinfectants effective against norovirus. Noroviruses cannot be cultivated in vitro. However, feline calicivirus can be used as a surrogate to determine disinfectant efficacy against noroviruses. Feline calicivirus was used in a virucidal effectiveness test protocol as a surrogate for norovirus to determine the virucidal efficacy of R-82, a quaternary ammonium compound disinfectant cleaner. Feline calicivirus suspensions containing at least 5% fetal bovine serum were dried on carriers and treated with 1:256 dilutions of R-82 disinfectant in water, with a hardness of 400 ppm as calcium carbonate, for 10 minutes. Hypochlorite concentrations of 100 +/- 10 and 1,000 +/- 10 ppm, respectively, were also analyzed as internal control standards. After contact period, the test agents were neutralized with 2 mL of appropriate neutralizer, and mixtures were scraped from carrier surfaces with a cell scraper. Selected dilutions of the neutralized inoculum/test agent mixtures were added to cultured cell monolayers of appropriate host cells. Postincubation, the infectious feline calicivirus was scored microscopically by observing virus-specific cytopathic effects produced by replicating infectious virus. The performance criterion was a minimum of 4-log(10) reduction in cytopathic effects of feline calicivirus. After a 10-minute contact time, formulation R-82 diluted 1:256 showed a 6.6- and 6.4-log(10) reductions in cytopathic effects of feline calicivirus during initial and confirmatory testing, respectively, demonstrating complete inactivation of the virus. A hypochlorite solution of 1,000 ppm exhibited similar log(10) reductions to the

  6. Plant virus emergence and evolution: origins, new encounter scenarios, factors driving emergence, effects of changing world conditions, and prospects for control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Roger A C

    2009-05-01

    This review focuses on virus-plant pathosystems at the interface between managed and natural vegetation, and describes how rapid expansion in human activity and climate change are likely to impact on plants, vectors and viruses causing increasing instability. It starts by considering virus invasion of cultivated plants from their wild ancestors in the centres of plant domestication in different parts of the world and subsequent long distance movement away from these centres to other continents. It then describes the diverse virus-plant pathosystem scenarios possible at the interface between managed and natural vegetation and gives examples that illustrate situations where indigenous viruses emerge to damage introduced cultivated plants and newly introduced viruses become potential threats to biodiversity. These examples demonstrate how human activities increasingly facilitate damaging new encounters between plants and viruses worldwide. The likely effects of climate change on virus emergence are emphasised, and the major factors driving virus emergence, evolution and greater epidemic severity at the interface are analysed and explained. Finally, the kinds of challenges posed by rapidly changing world conditions to achieving effective control of epidemics of emerging plant viruses, and the approaches needed to address them, are described.

  7. Engineering bacterial surface displayed human norovirus capsid proteins: A novel system to explore interaction between norovirus and ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengya eNiu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Human noroviruses (HuNoVs are major contributors to acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks. Many aspects of HuNoVs are poorly understood due to both the current inability to culture HuNoVs, and the lack of efficient small animal models. Surrogates for HuNoVs, such as recombinant viral like particles (VLPs expressed in eukaryotic system or P particles expressed in prokaryotic system, have been used for studies in immunology and interaction between the virus and its receptors. However, it is difficult to use VLPs or P particles to collect or isolate potential ligands binding to these recombinant capsid proteins. In this study, a new strategy was used to collect HuNoVs binding ligands through the use of ice nucleation protein (INP to display recombinant capsid proteins of HuNoVs on bacterial surfaces. The viral protein-ligand complex could be easily separated by a low speed centrifugation step. This system was also used to explore interaction between recombinant capsid proteins of HuNoVs and their receptors. In this system, the VP1 capsid encoding gene (ORF2 and the protruding domain (P domain encoding gene (3’ terminal fragment of ORF2 of HuNoVs GI.1 and GII.4 were fused with 5’ terminal fragment of ice nucleation protein encoding gene (inaQn. The results demonstrated that the recombinant VP1 and P domains of HuNoVs were expressed and anchored on the surface of Escherichia coli BL21 cells after the bacteria were transformed with the corresponding plasmids. Both cell surface displayed VP1 and P domains could be recognized by HuNoVs specific antibodies and interact with the viral histo-blood group antigens receptors. In both cases, displayed P domains had better binding abilities than VP1. This new strategy of using displayed HuNoVs capsid proteins on the bacterial surface could be utilized to separate HuNoVs binding components from complex samples, to investigate interaction between the virus and its receptors, as well as to develop an

  8. Study on Driving Factor of Biomass Power Industry Development in China%中国生物质发电产业发展动力因子研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵新刚; 刘平阔

    2012-01-01

    介绍了中国生物质发电产业的市场环境和政策环境。基于此,识别生物质发电产业发展的内生动力因子和外源动力因子,并利用计量经济学理论对动力因子的相关性进行分析。建立解释结构模型研究动力因子之间的关系,分析经济要素之间的作用机理。结果表明:所有的动力因子通过不同的途径和方式最终指向政策和资源禀赋因子;能源安全因子、环境保护因子、农村发展因子影响电力需求,投资影响电力供给;合理的要素成本价格需要科学的政策组合进行有效支持。%This paper describes the market and policy environment of biomass power industry, and recognizes the endogenous and exogenous driving factors of biomass power industry development,and analyzes the correlations between driving factors by the econometric theory. Then it uses the interpretative structural modeling to study the relationships between driving factors,and discusses the action mechanism between eco- nomic factors. The results show as follows: all of driving factors come to the factors of policy and resource endowment by different ways or means~ energy security factor, environmental, protection factor and rural development factor affect the demand for electricity in market, and investment affect power supply; reasonable cost price needs a scientific policy-mix to support effectively.

  9. Waterborne norovirus outbreak in a municipal drinking-water supply in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera-Montes, M; Brus Sjölander, K; Allestam, G; Hallin, E; Hedlund, K-O; Löfdahl, M

    2011-12-01

    During Easter 2009, almost 200 people resident in a small Swedish village fell ill with gastrointestinal symptoms. We conducted a retrospective cohort study and a molecular investigation in order to identify the source of the outbreak. Residents living in households connected to the public water network were at an increased risk of developing disease (relative risk 4·80, 95% confidence interval 1·68-13·73) compared to those with no connection to the public network. Norovirus genotype GI.3 was identified in stool samples from six patients and in a sample from the public water network. Contamination of one of the wells supplying the public water network was thought to be the source of the outbreak. This is a description of a norovirus outbreak linked to a municipal drinking-water supply in Sweden. Information from epidemiological and molecular investigations is of utmost importance to guide outbreak control measures and to prevent future outbreaks.

  10. Norovirus epidemiology in community and health care settings and association with patient age, denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franck, Kristina T; Fonager, Jannik; Ersbøll, Annette K;

    2014-01-01

    . In community and health care settings, we found an association between infection with GII.4 and increasing age. Norovirus GII.4 predominated in patients ≥60 years of age and in health care settings. A larger proportion of children than adults were infected with NoV GII.3 or GII.P21. Susceptibility to No......Norovirus (NoV) is a major cause of gastroenteritis. NoV genotype II.4 (GII.4) is the predominant genotype in health care settings but the reason for this finding is unknown. Stool samples containing isolates with a known NoV genotype from 2,109 patients in Denmark (patients consulting a general...... practitioner or outpatient clinic, inpatients, and patients from foodborne outbreaks) were used to determine genotype distribution in relation to age and setting. NoV GII.4 was more prevalent among inpatients than among patients in community settings or those who became infected during foodborne outbreaks...

  11. Inactivation Kinetics and Mechanism of a Human Norovirus Surrogate on Stainless Steel Coupons via Chlorine Dioxide Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeap, Jia Wei; Kaur, Simran; Lou, Fangfei; DiCaprio, Erin; Morgan, Mark; Linton, Richard; Li, Jianrong

    2015-10-16

    Acute gastroenteritis caused by human norovirus is a significant public health issue. Fresh produce and seafood are examples of high-risk foods associated with norovirus outbreaks. Food contact surfaces also have the potential to harbor noroviruses if exposed to fecal contamination, aerosolized vomitus, or infected food handlers. Currently, there is no effective measure to decontaminate norovirus on food contact surfaces. Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas is a strong oxidizer and is used as a decontaminating agent in food processing plants. The objective of this study was to determine the kinetics and mechanism of ClO2 gas inactivation of a norovirus surrogate, murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1), on stainless steel (SS) coupons. MNV-1 was inoculated on SS coupons at the concentration of 10(7) PFU/coupon. The samples were treated with ClO2 gas at 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 4 mg/liter for up to 5 min at 25°C and a relative humidity of 85%, and virus survival was determined by plaque assay. Treatment of the SS coupons with ClO2 gas at 2 mg/liter for 5 min and 2.5 mg/liter for 2 min resulted in at least a 3-log reduction in MNV-1, while no infectious virus was recovered at a concentration of 4 mg/liter even within 1 min of treatment. Furthermore, it was found that the mechanism of ClO2 gas inactivation included degradation of viral protein, disruption of viral structure, and degradation of viral genomic RNA. In conclusion, treatment with ClO2 gas can serve as an effective method to inactivate a human norovirus surrogate on SS contact surfaces.

  12. Vomiting as a Symptom and Transmission Risk in Norovirus Illness: Evidence from Human Challenge Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E Kirby

    Full Text Available In the US, noroviruses are estimated to cause 21 million cases annually with economic losses reaching $2 billion. Outbreak investigations frequently implicate vomiting as a major transmission risk. However, little is known about the characteristics of vomiting as a symptom or the amount of virus present in emesis.Emesis samples and symptomology data were obtained from previous norovirus human challenge studies with GI.1 Norwalk virus, GII.2 Snow Mountain virus, and a pilot study with GII.1 Hawaii virus. Viral titers in emesis were determined using strain-specific quantitative RT-PCR. In all four studies, vomiting was common with 40-100% of infected subjects vomiting at least once. However, only 45% of subjects with vomiting also had diarrhea. Most of the emesis samples had detectable virus and the mean viral titers were 8.0 x 105 and 3.9 x 104 genomic equivalent copies (GEC/ml for GI and GII viruses, respectively (p = 0.02. Sample pH was correlated with GII.2 Snow Mountain virus detection.Half of all subjects with symptomatic infection experienced vomiting and the average subject shed 1.7 x 108 GEC in emesis. Unlike shedding through stool, vomiting is more likely to result in significant environmental contamination, leading to transmission through fomites and airborne droplets. This quantitative data will be critical for risk assessment studies to further understand norovirus transmission and develop effective control measures. The correlation between sample pH and virus detection is consistent with a single site of virus replication in the small intestine and stomach contents becoming contaminated by intestinal reflux. Additionally, the frequency of vomiting without concurrent diarrhea suggests that epidemiology studies that enroll subjects based on the presence of diarrhea may be significantly underestimating the true burden of norovirus disease.

  13. Recombinant norovirus-specific scFv inhibit virus-like particle binding to cellular ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardy Michele E

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noroviruses cause epidemic outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness in all age-groups. The rapid onset and ease of person-to-person transmission suggest that inhibitors of the initial steps of virus binding to susceptible cells have value in limiting spread and outbreak persistence. We previously generated a monoclonal antibody (mAb 54.6 that blocks binding of recombinant norovirus-like particles (VLP to Caco-2 intestinal cells and inhibits VLP-mediated hemagglutination. In this study, we engineered the antigen binding domains of mAb 54.6 into a single chain variable fragment (scFv and tested whether these scFv could function as cell binding inhibitors, similar to the parent mAb. Results The scFv54.6 construct was engineered to encode the light (VL and heavy (VH variable domains of mAb 54.6 separated by a flexible peptide linker, and this recombinant protein was expressed in Pichia pastoris. Purified scFv54.6 recognized native VLPs by immunoblot, inhibited VLP-mediated hemagglutination, and blocked VLP binding to H carbohydrate antigen expressed on the surface of a CHO cell line stably transfected to express α 1,2-fucosyltransferase. Conclusion scFv54.6 retained the functional properties of the parent mAb with respect to inhibiting norovirus particle interactions with cells. With further engineering into a form deliverable to the gut mucosa, norovirus neutralizing antibodies represent a prophylactic strategy that would be valuable in outbreak settings.

  14. Genetic diversity among food-borne and waterborne norovirus strains causing outbreaks in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysén, Maria; Thorhagen, Margareta; Brytting, Maria; Hjertqvist, Marika; Andersson, Yvonne; Hedlund, Kjell-Olof

    2009-08-01

    A total of 101 food-borne and waterborne outbreaks that were caused by norovirus and that resulted in more than 4,100 cases of illness were reported to the Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control from January 2002 to December 2006. Sequence and epidemiological data for isolates from 73 outbreaks were analyzed. In contrast to health care-related outbreaks, no clear seasonality could be observed. Sequence analysis showed a high degree of genetic variation among the noroviruses detected. Genogroup II (GII) viruses were detected in 70% of the outbreaks, and of those strains, strains of GII.4 were the most prevalent and were detected in 25% of all outbreaks. The GII.4 variants detected in global outbreaks in health care settings during 2002, 2004, and 2006 were also found in the food-borne outbreaks. GI strains totally dominated as the cause of water-related (drinking and recreational water) outbreaks and were found in 12 of 13 outbreaks. In 14 outbreaks, there were discrepancies among the polymerase and capsid genotype results. In four outbreaks, the polymerase of the recombinant GII.b virus occurred together with the GII.1 or GII.3 capsids, while the GII.7 polymerase occurred together with the GII.6 and GII.7 capsids. Mixed infections were observed in six outbreaks; four of these were due to contaminated water, and two were due to imported frozen berries. Contaminated food and water serve as important reservoirs for noroviruses. The high degree of genetic diversity found among norovirus strains causing food-borne and waterborne infections stresses the importance of the use of broad reaction detection methods when such outbreaks are investigated.

  15. Inhibition of Murine Norovirus and Feline Calicivirus by Edible Herbal Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong Joo; Choi, Changsun

    2017-03-01

    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) cause foodborne and waterborne viral gastroenteritis worldwide. Because HuNoV culture systems have not been developed thus far, no available medicines or vaccines preventing infection with HuNoVs exist. Some herbal extracts were considered as phytomedicines because of their bioactive components. In this study, the inhibitory effects of 29 edible herbal extracts against the norovirus surrogates murine norovirus (MNV) and feline calicivirus (FCV) were examined. FCV was significantly inhibited to 86.89 ± 2.01 and 48.71 ± 7.38% by 100 μg/mL of Camellia sinensis and Ficus carica, respectively. Similarly, ribavirin at a concentration of 100 μM significantly reduced the titer of FCV by 77.69 ± 10.40%. Pleuropterus multiflorus (20 μg/mL) showed antiviral activity of 53.33 ± 5.77, and 50.00 ± 16.67% inhibition was observed after treatment with 20 μg/mL of Alnus japonica. MNV was inhibited with ribavirin by 59.22 ± 16.28% at a concentration of 100 μM. Interestingly, MNV was significantly inhibited with 150 µg/mL Inonotus obliquus and 50 μg/mL Crataegus pinnatifida by 91.67 ± 5.05 and 57.66 ± 3.36%, respectively. Treatment with 20 µg/mL Coriandrum sativum slightly reduced MNV by 45.24 ± 4.12%. The seven herbal extracts of C. sinensis, F. carica, P. multiflorus, A. japonica, I. obliquus, C. pinnatifida, and C. sativum may have the potential to control noroviruses without cytotoxicity.

  16. A large common-source outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis in a hotel in Singapore, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, P; Tay, J; Ang, L W; Tien, W S; Thu, M; Lee, P; Pang, Q Y; Tang, Y L; Lee, K Y; Maurer-Stroh, S; Gunalan, V; Cutter, J; Goh, K T

    2017-02-01

    An outbreak of gastroenteritis affected 453 attendees (attack rate 28·5%) of six separate events held at a hotel in Singapore. Active case detection, case-control studies, hygiene inspections and microbial analysis of food, environmental and stool samples were conducted to determine the aetiology of the outbreak and the modes of transmission. The only commonality was the food, crockery and cutlery provided and/or handled by the hotel's Chinese banquet kitchen. Stool specimens from 34 cases and 15 food handlers were positive for norovirus genogroup II. The putative index case was one of eight norovirus-positive food handlers who had worked while they were symptomatic. Several food samples and remnants tested positive for Escherichia coli or high faecal coliforms, aerobic plate counts and/or total coliforms, indicating poor food hygiene. This large common-source outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis was caused by the consumption of contaminated food and/or contact with contaminated crockery or cutlery provided or handled by the hotel's Chinese banquet kitchen.

  17. Nosocomial outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritidis with unusual clinical-epidemiological features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Arosio

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Literature reports about Norovirus outbreaks, especially in hospitals, have accumulated in the past years, including patients and health workers.This report describes a small outbreak by Norovirus which occurred in USC Urology with unusual clinical-epidemiological features.The clinical course was unusual, as it presented no vomiting and duration of diarrhoea was unusually long (4-6 days with the lack of involvement of health workers.The search for the virus was done with immunoassay method RIDASCREEN 2a generation on 11/19 patients (58% with gastroenteritis symptoms, and 3/11 samples (27% were positive. The molecular investigation by RT/PCR with diagnostic primers JV12 and JV13 on the polymerase region, carried out at the Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, gave negative results while the RT/PCR using primers GIISKR and GIISKF, which amplify a fragment of the capsid region, was positive in 4/11 samples (36% showing a correlation of 2/4 samples (50% with RIDASCREEN immunoassay test. Our observations confirm the usefulness of immunoassay tests and the need to extend the molecular methods using different diagnostic primers. In outbreaks of gastroenteritis the microbiologist should consider the detection of Norovirus in diagnostic routine, as a positive result requires prevention measures to avoid also the spreading by droplets when vomiting is present.

  18. Norovirus in bivalve molluscs: a study of the efficacy of the depuration system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Savini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Noroviruses are the most common viral agents of acute gastroenteritis in humans and are often associated with the consumption of either fresh or undercooked live bivalve molluscs. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of the water depuration systems in the presence of Norovirus contamination A total of 96 shellfish samples was examined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, as follows: 58 mussel samples (Mytilus galloprovincialis, 35 Manila clam samples (Tapes decussatus and 3 Pacific oyster samples (Crassostrea gigas. Of these, 67 were collected before and 29 following depuration. Viral RNA was detected in one of the 67 non-depurated samples examined (1.5%; 95% confidence interval: 0.36-7.92% and in one of the 29 depurated samples (3.4%; 95% confidence interval: 0.82-17.22%. There were no statistically significant differences between depurated and non-depurated samples which indicated that the purifying systems in place were not able to remove Norovirus contamination from the live bivalve molluscs.

  19. Factors driving customers to seek health care from pharmacies for acute respiratory illness and treatment recommendations from drug sellers in Dhaka city, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Fahmida; Sturm-Ramirez, Katharine; Mamun, Abdullah Al; Iuliano, A Danielle; Bhuiyan, Mejbah Uddin; Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Ahmed, Makhdum; Haider, Sabbir; Rahman, Mahmudur; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Background Pharmacies in Bangladesh serve as an important source of health service. A survey in Dhaka reported that 48% of respondents with symptoms of acute respiratory illness (ARI) identified local pharmacies as their first point of care. This study explores the factors driving urban customers to seek health care from pharmacies for ARI, their treatment adherence, and outcome. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 selected pharmacies within Dhaka from June to December 2012. Study participants were patients or patients’ relatives aged >18 years seeking care for ARI from pharmacies without prescription. Structured interviews were conducted with customers after they sought health service from drug sellers and again over phone 5 days postinterview to discuss treatment adherence and outcome. Results We interviewed 302 customers patronizing 76 pharmacies; 186 (62%) sought care for themselves and 116 (38%) sought care for a sick relative. Most customers (215; 71%) were males. The majority (90%) of customers sought care from the study pharmacy as their first point of care, while 18 (6%) had previously sought care from another pharmacy and 11 (4%) from a physician for their illness episodes. The most frequently reported reasons for seeking care from pharmacies were ease of access to pharmacies (86%), lower cost (46%), availability of medicine (33%), knowing the drug seller (20%), and convenient hours of operation (19%). The most commonly recommended drugs were acetaminophen dispensed in 76% (228) of visits, antihistamine in 69% (208), and antibiotics in 42% (126). On follow-up, most (86%) of the customers had recovered and 12% had sought further treatment. Conclusion People with ARI preferred to seek care at pharmacies rather than clinics because these pharmacies were more accessible and provided prompt treatment and medicine with no service charge. We recommend raising awareness among drug sellers on proper dispensing practices and enforcement of

  20. `People on the move and goods on the go` behavioral factors driving carbon-dioxide emissions for travel and freight in OECD countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, L. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Concern has been expressed in many government and private studies over the cost of externalitites from transportation, which include safety, air pollution, noise, competition for urban space, balance of payments associated with oil imports, and risks from importing oil. If the individual (s) benefiting at the time faced those costs, the travel (or shipment) behind the externality might not take place, or technology would be applied to reduce the extent of the problem. For large trucks and busses, the costs (per vehicle-km) are considerably higher. Expressed as per unit of travel (passenger kilometers) or per unit of freight, i.e., taking into account the utilization of the vehicle, the specific cost change because of economics of scale. Transportation is a valuable part of our economy, but it is no free lunch. Emissions of CO{sub 2} or carbon from road transport are also on government agendas is industrialized countries. Not surprisingly, CO{sub 2} emissions from travel and freight have increased in most industrialized countries faster than population, albeit less rapidly than GDP. This paper reviews some of the factors driving that increase. Whatever the `real` external costs of each mode, all studies suggest two important findings: First, these costs are sometimes comparable to, or higher than, direct fuel costs per kilometer at the margin; Second, the value attached to the externality for carbon emissions tends to be low compared to those associated with other problems. Hence this suggests that CO{sub 2} by itself may not `felt` as a strong stimulus for change, but that changes to deal with the other problems may affect traffic, and therefore CO{sub 2} emissions, profoundly. (EG) 51 refs.

  1. Real-time detection of noroviruses in surface water by use of a broadly reactive nucleic acid sequence-based amplification assay.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutjes, Saskia A; Berg, Harold H J L van den; Lodder, Willemijn J; Roda Husman, Ana Maria de

    2006-01-01

    Noroviruses are the most common agents causing outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis. Outbreaks originating from contaminated drinking water and from recreational waters have been described. Due to a lack of cell culture systems, noroviruses are detected mostly by molecular methods. Molecular detection

  2. The efficacy of X-ray does on murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1) in pure culture, half-shell oyster, salmon sushi, and tuna salad

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this investigation, we determined the efficacy of X-ray doses on reducing a human norovirus (HuNoV) surrogate [murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1)] in pure culture, half-shell oyster, salmon sushi and tuna salad. The pure culture (phosphate-buffer saline, pH 7.4), half-shell oyster, salmon sushi and tuna ...

  3. Application of porcine gastric mucin-conjugated magnetic beads and polyethylene glycol goncentration and detection of human noroviruses from green onion and grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To set up detection methods for norovirus in fruits and vegetables by using porcine gastric mucin-conjugated magnetic beads (PGM-MB) and polyethylene glycol 8000 (PEG8000) concentrating and detecting the norovirus in green onion and grape. Methods: The highest virus dilution given a posit...

  4. Evaluation of a rapid immunochromatographic assay for the detection of rotavirus, norovirus and adenovirus from children hospitalized with acute watery diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kas, Monalisa P; Maure, Tobias; Soli, Kevin W; Umezaki, Masahiro; Morita, Ayako; Bebes, Sauli; Jonduo, Marinjho H; Larkins, Jo-Ann; Luang-Suarkia, Dagwin; Siba, Peter M; Greenhill, Andrew R; Horwood, Paul F

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the IP-Triple I immunochromatographic rapid test for the detection of rotavirus, norovirus and adenovirus using stool samples from children with diarrhoea. The detection of norovirus and adenovirus was poor compared to polymerase chain reaction assays. However, high sensitivity (92%) and specificity (99%) were obtained for the detection of rotavirus.

  5. Brote de infección por norovirus del Grupo II en un centro de entrenamiento militar, Perú 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Ramos

    Full Text Available Reportamos un brote de norovirus (NoV ocurrido en un centro de entrenamiento militar peruano. Trece muestras de heces tomadas de casos iniciales resultaron positivas a NoV GII por RT-PCR. Se realizó un estudio caso-control para determinar factoresasociados a la infección. Se identificó 164 casos probables(tasa de ataqueclínica: 45,2%. El único factor asociado a la infecciónfue el "haber compartido habitación con un caso" (ORa=1,7; IC95% 1,1 a 2,7. Los hallazgos epidemiológicos sugieren que el virus fue propagado persona a persona. Futuras investigaciones de brotes de diarrea en el Perú deberían considerar al NoV como un agente etiológico

  6. Rotavirus Recombinant VP6 Nanotubes Act as an Immunomodulator and Delivery Vehicle for Norovirus Virus-Like Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappalainen, Suvi; Vesikari, Timo

    2016-01-01

    We have recently shown that tubular form of rotavirus (RV) recombinant VP6 protein has an in vivo adjuvant effect on the immunogenicity of norovirus (NoV) virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine candidate. In here, we investigated in vitro effect of VP6 on antigen presenting cell (APC) activation and maturation and whether VP6 facilitates NoV VLP uptake by these APCs. Mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 and dendritic cell line JAWSII were used as model APCs. Internalization of VP6, cell surface expression of CD40, CD80, CD86, and major histocompatibility class II molecules, and cytokine and chemokine production were analyzed. VP6 nanotubes were efficiently internalized by APCs. VP6 upregulated the expression of cell surface activation and maturation molecules and induced secretion of several proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. The mechanism of VP6 action was shown to be partially dependent on lipid raft-mediated endocytic pathway as shown by methyl-β-cyclodextrin inhibition on tumor necrosis factor α secretion. These findings add to the understanding of mechanism by which VP6 exerts its immunostimulatory and immunomodulatory actions and further support its use as a part of nonlive RV-NoV combination vaccine. PMID:27689099

  7. Epidemiological and virological investigation of a Norovirus outbreak in a resort in Puglia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coscia Maria

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the third large outbreak of Norovirus (NoV gastroenteritis reported in the Southern Italy region of Puglia. Methods A matched case control study was conducted, on 19 July 2005, for investigating risk factors, using a structured questionnaire on food consumption. A multivariate analysis was conducted to estimate the adjusted Odds Ratios. Laboratory and environmental investigation were also performed. Results On the day of the study 41 cases were identified and 41 controls were enrolled. Controls were matched for age and gender. The mean age of the cases was 26 years old, and 58% were female. The clinical pattern of the disease was characterised by the presence of diarrhoea (95%, vomiting (70%, abdominal pain (51% and fever (32%. Of the 41 cases included in the study, the majority (65% were residents of Northern Italian regions. No food samples were available for testing. The matched univariate analysis revealed that cases were more likely to have consumed raw mussels, eggs or ice cubes made of tap water than controls. In the multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis, having eaten raw mussels or ice became more strongly associated with illness. All of the 20 faecal samples collected were tested for NoVs. Eighteen stools (90% of total examined were positive by RT-PCR, and sequence analysis performed onto 3 samples confirmed the presence of a GGII NoV. No test specific for NoV was performed on water or food samples. Conclusion The most likely hypothesis supported by the findings of the epidemiological investigation was that illness was associated with raw mussels and ice, made with tap water. These hypothesis could not be confirmed by specific microbiologic testing for NoV in food or ice. The lack of clear knowledge of NoV as a major causative agent of epidemic outbreaks of gastroenteritis in Italy is due to the absence of timely reporting of the cases to the local public health offices and the

  8. Validation of a norovirus multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of norovirus GI and GII from faeces samples.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jones, S

    2011-01-01

    Norovirus is a leading cause of infectious non-bacterial gastroenteritis. The virus is highly contagious and has multiple modes of transmission, presenting a growing challenge to hospital-based healthcare. In this study, a total of 120 stool samples are tested for the presence of norovirus GI and GII by the Roche two-step Lightcycler 2.0 assay incorporating primers and probes produced by TIB Molbiol, and the results are compared with results from the National Virus Reference Laboratory. The Roche\\/TIB Molbiol assay produced 51 positive results and 69 negative results. Discrepancy analysis was performed for six conflicting results using a second real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay (Roche\\/TIB Molbiol) and this confirmed that four of the five discrepant positive results were true positives. A single discrepant negative result generated by the Roche assay remained negative using the second assay. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated to be 98%, 98.6%, 98.0% and 98.6%, respectively. Melting curve analysis was used to differentiate genogroups I and II and this showed that 92% of strains belonged to genogroup II.

  9. Local epidemiological surveillance of Norovirus infections in children hospitalized for gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Mattei

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of the Norovirus (NoVs infections, from October 2007 to April 2008, in children hospitalized for gastroenteritis. Materials and methods. From October 2007 to April 2008 faecal specimens were obtained from 220 infants and children (130 males, 90 males of whom 58 under 1, 60 between 1 and 2, 28 between 2 and 3, 74 between 3 and 12 years old, admitted for gastroenteritis to the Department of Paediatrics at the Campo di Marte’s Hospital in Lucca, Italy. All the specimens were examined both for the presence of bacteria (Salmonella spp, Shigella spp, Campylobacter spp, Yersinia spp, Aeromonas spp and enteropathogenic E. coli and for the presence of rotaviruses (HRVs and adenoviruses (AdVs. Sixty-eight frozen stool samples negative for bacteria and viruses were examined for NoVs. HRVs and AdVs were detected by the immunochromatographic test RIDAQUICK Rotavirus/Adenovirus Combi test (R-Biopharm, Germany. NoVs detection was carried out by the enzyme immunoassay RIDASCREEN Norovirus 3rd Generation EIA (R-Biopharm, Germany. In the RIDASCREEN Norovirus test, specific monoclonal antibodies against antigens of several different genotypes are used in a sandwich type method. In a validation study of the RIDASCREEN Norovirus ELISA 3rd Generation at the Institute of Virology of the University of Dresden, the test correlation with the RT PCR showed the following performance, sensitivity (83.0%, specificity (100.0%, PPV (100.0%, NPV (83.0%. Results. HRVs were detected in 41.8% (89/220, AdVs in 4.1% (9/220 and Enteropathogenic bacteria were detected only in 7 (3.2% patient. NoVs were detected in 18 of 68 studied cases (26.5%. Eighty-three of the NoVs and 49% of the HRVs infections occurred in children up two years old. Conclusions. The present results point out the importance of NoVs infections in childhood hospitalization, mainly in the first two years of life.The study shows the need

  10. Identification and Characterization of Single-Chain Antibodies that Specifically Bind GI Noroviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Amy M.; Huang, Wanzhi; Kou, Baijun; Estes, Mary K.; Atmar, Robert L.; Palzkill, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Norovirus infections commonly lead to outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis and spread quickly, resulting in many health and economic challenges prior to diagnosis. Rapid and reliable diagnostic tests are therefore essential to identify infections and to guide the appropriate clinical responses at the point-of-care. Existing tools, including RT-PCR and enzyme immunoassays, pose several limitations based on the significant time, equipment and expertise required to elicit results. Immunochromatographic assays available for use at the point-of-care have poor sensitivity and specificity, especially for genogroup I noroviruses, thus requiring confirmation of results with more sensitive testing methods. Therefore, there is a clear need for novel reagents to help achieve quick and reliable results. In this study, we have identified two novel single-chain antibodies (scFvs)—named NJT-R3-A2 and NJT-R3-A3—that effectively detect GI.1 and GI.7 virus-like particles (VLPs) through selection of a phage display library against the P-domain of the GI.1 major capsid protein. The limits of detection by each scFv for GI.1 and GI.7 are 0.1 and 0.2 ng, and 6.25 and 25 ng, respectively. They detect VLPs with strong specificity in multiple diagnostic formats, including ELISAs and membrane-based dot blots, and in the context of norovirus-negative stool suspensions. The scFvs also detect native virions effectively in norovirus-positive clinical stool samples. Purified scFvs bind to GI.1 and GI.7 VLPs with equilibrium constant (KD) values of 27 nM and 49 nM, respectively. Overall, the phage-based scFv reagents identified and characterized here show utility for detecting GI.1 and GI.7 noroviruses in multiple diagnostic assay formats with strong specificity and sensitivity, indicating promise for integration into existing point-of-care tests to improve future diagnostics. PMID:28095447

  11. Electronic Outbreak Surveillance in Germany: A First Evaluation for Nosocomial Norovirus Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauri, Anja M.; Westbrock, Hans-Jürgen; Claus, Herman; Geis, Steffen; Giernat, Siegfried; Forβbohm, Michael; Uphoff, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Background In Germany, surveillance for infectious disease outbreaks is integrated into an electronic surveillance system. For 2007, the national surveillance database contains case-based information on 201,224 norovirus cases, three-quarters of which are linked to outbreaks. We evaluated the data quality of the national database in reflecting nosocomial norovirus outbreak (NNO) data available in 19 Hessian local public health authorities (LPHAs) and the influence of differences between LPHA's follow-up procedures for laboratory notifications of Norovirus positive stool samples on outbreak underascertainment. Methods Data on NNO beginning in 2007 and notified to the 19 LPHAs were extracted from the national database, investigated regarding internal validity and compared to data collected from LPHAs for a study on NNO control. LPHAs were questioned whether they routinely contacted all persons for whom a laboratory diagnosis of norovirus infection was notified. The number of outbreaks per 1,000 hospital beds and the number of cases within NNOs for acute care and rehabilitation hospitals were compared between counties with and without complete follow-up. Results The national database contained information on 155 NNOs, including 3,115 cases. Cases were missed in the national database in 58 (37%) of the outbreaks. Information on hospitalisation was incorrect for an estimated 47% of NNO cases. Information on county of infection was incorrect for 24% (199/820) of cases being forwarded between LPHAs for data entry. Reported NNO incidence and number of NNO cases in acute care hospitals was higher in counties with complete follow-up (incidence-rate ratio (IRR) 2.7, 95% CI 1.4–5.7, p-value 0.002 and IRR 2.1, 95% CI 1.9–2.4, p-value 0.001, respectively). Conclusions Many NNOs are not notified by hospitals and differences in LPHA procedures have an impact on the number of outbreaks captured in the surveillance system. Forwarding of case-by-case data on Norovirus outbreak

  12. BROTES POR NOROVIRUS EN RESIDENCIAS Y CENTROS SANITARIOS DE CATALUÑA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere Godoy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos. La baja dosis infectiva y las múltiples vías de transmisión facilitan la presentación de brotes de norovirus. El objetivo fue comparar la incidencia de brotes por norovirus en hospitales y residencias en Cataluña. Métodos. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de la serie de brotes de norovirus en el período del 15/10/2004 al 30/10/2005. Se rellenó una encuesta epidemiológica para cada brote. Las variables fueron: número de expuestos, enfermos, mecanismo de transmisión, ámbito (centros sanitarios o residencias, región sanitaria, mes del año, y duración. Mediante técnicas de PCR se investigó la presencia de norovirus en muestras clínicas. Se calculó la incidencia en cada centro y la incidencia anual de brotes por centros. Las diferencias se determinaron con la prueba de c2 y la t de Student con un grado de significación (p inferior a 0,05. Resultados. Se detectaron 17 brotes, 6 en centros sanitarios y 11 en residencias. La tasa de ataque global fue del 33,4% (652/1951 y fue ligeramente superior en las residencias (35,2% que en los centros sanitarios (31,4%. El 94,1% (16/17 de los brotes se produjeron por transmisión persona a persona y sólo el 5,9% (1/17 por alimentos. La media de días entre el primer y último caso del brote fue de 11,4 (DE = 6,9. La duración media de los síntomas fue de 2,39 días (SD=1,6 y también fue superior en los pacientes hospitalizados 2,63 (SD=1,7 en comparación a los pacientes de residencias 1,97 (SD=1,7 (p < 0,0001. Conclusiones. Norovirus es responsable de un número importante de brotes por transmisión persona a persona. Se debe protocolizar su control para reducir su número y su duración.

  13. Detecting the norovirus season in Sweden using search engine data--meeting the needs of hospital infection control teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Michael; Wallensten, Anders; Zetterqvist, Inga; Hulth, Anette

    2014-01-01

    Norovirus outbreaks severely disrupt healthcare systems. We evaluated whether Websök, an internet-based surveillance system using search engine data, improved norovirus surveillance and response in Sweden. We compared Websök users' characteristics with the general population, cross-correlated weekly Websök searches with laboratory notifications between 2006 and 2013, compared the time Websök and laboratory data crossed the epidemic threshold and surveyed infection control teams about their perception and use of Websök. Users of Websök were not representative of the general population. Websök correlated with laboratory data (b = 0.88-0.89) and gave an earlier signal to the onset of the norovirus season compared with laboratory-based surveillance. 17/21 (81%) infection control teams answered the survey, of which 11 (65%) believed Websök could help with infection control plans. Websök is a low-resource, easily replicable system that detects the norovirus season as reliably as laboratory data, but earlier. Using Websök in routine surveillance can help infection control teams prepare for the yearly norovirus season.

  14. Factors Affecting the Impact of Off-Road Driving on Soils in an Area in the Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortjé, Gerhardus Petrus; van Hoven, Wouter; Laker, Michiel C.

    2012-12-01

    Studies on the effects of off-road driving on soils were conducted in the Makuleke Contractual Park of the Kruger National Park. The studies were conducted on three different soils with different textures and soil compactibilities. Traffic pressure was applied with a game drive vehicle loaded with 11 sand bags, each weighing 70 kg. This gave a total vehicle mass of 3,795 kg, simulating a vehicle fully laden with tourists. The study included: (i) comparing of the effects of four different tyre pressures; (ii) comparing the effects of 1-3 vehicle passes over the same tyre tracks; (iii) comparison of traffic effects under dry and wet soil moisture conditions, on soil compaction, respectively. After each pass penetration resistances were measured (a) on the tyre tracks, (b) between the tyre tracks and (c) at different distances outside the tyre tracks. As expected, vehicular traffic caused soil compaction below the wheel tracks. Lower tyre pressures caused less compaction than higher tyre pressures. Fewer vehicle passes also caused less compaction than more passes on the same tracks, but most compaction occurred during the first pass. Thus, driving on the same tracks more than once is less damaging than driving once on different tracks. Controlled traffic should be considered when developing management strategies for off-road driving in wildlife protected areas.

  15. Exposure to Movie Reckless Driving in Early Adolescence Predicts Reckless, but Not Inattentive Driving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelien Kostermans

    Full Text Available We examine the association between exposure to depictions of reckless driving in movies and unsafe driving, modeling inattentive and reckless driving as separate outcomes.Data were obtained by telephone from 1,630 US adolescents aged 10 to 14 years at baseline who were drivers at a survey 6 years later. Exposure to movie reckless driving was measured based on movies seen from a randomly selected list of 50 movie titles that had been content coded for reckless driving among characters. Associations were tested with inattentive and reckless driving behaviors in the subsequent survey-controlling for baseline age, sex, socioeconomic status, parental education, school performance, extracurricular activities, daily television and video/computer game exposure, number of movies watched per week, self-regulation and sensation seeking.Exposure to movie reckless driving was common, with approximately 10% of movie characters having driven recklessly. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a significant distinction between items tapping reckless and inattentive driving at the 6th wave. Age and exposure to movie reckless driving at baseline were directly associated with wave-6 reckless (but not inattentive driving. Additionally, growth in sensation seeking mediated a prospective relation between the total number of movies watched per week at baseline and reckless driving, independent of exposure to movie reckless driving. Males and high sensation seekers reported lower seatbelt usage and more reckless driving, whereas lower self-regulation predicted inattentive driving.In this study, exposure to movie reckless driving during early adolescence predicted adolescents' reckless driving, suggesting a direct modeling effect. Other aspects of movies were also associated with reckless driving, with that association mediated through growth in sensation seeking. Predictors of reckless driving were different from predictors of inattentive driving, with lower self

  16. Simultaneous comparison of murine norovirus, feline calicivirus, coliphage MS2, and GII.4 norovirus to evaluate the efficacy of sodium hypochlorite against human norovirus on a fecally soiled stainless steel surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Geun Woo; Sobsey, Mark D

    2011-09-01

    Free chlorine as hypochlorite is recommended to decontaminate fecally contaminated surfaces to control human norovirus (NoV). We evaluated the efficacy of sodium hypochlorite to decontaminate GII.4 NoV and three surrogates of human NoVs, feline calicivirus (FCV), murine norovirus (MNV), and coliphage MS2, on a fecally soiled stainless steel surface. Reduction of infectivity of FCV, MNV, and MS2 was measured by plaque assay and the decline of genomic copy numbers of GII.4 NoV by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Sodium hypochlorite solution at 5000 ppm could inactivate FCV by 3 log(10) plaque forming units after approximately 1.9 minutes of contact time, but required longer exposure times of 3.2 and 4.5 minutes to reduce MNV and MS2 by 3 log(10), respectively. However, detection of viral RNA by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay may not be reliable to estimate the effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite against human NoV. Of three NoV surrogates, FCV is not the most resistant of the virus tested for inactivation by hypochlorite and thus is not the worst-case model for estimating NoV inactivation. Although the use of 5000 ppm of hypochlorite for fecally soiled surfaces is effective, it may require longer exposure times of ≥3 minutes to control NoVs. Surface precleaning before hypochlorite disinfection is recommended to initially reduce the fecal organic load for better virus inactivation and should be a part of the environmental hygiene response measures during an NoV outbreak or where NoV fecal contamination of environmental surfaces is likely or suspected to be present.

  17. HARMONIC DRIVE SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr FOLĘGA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The variety of types and sizes currently in production harmonic drive is a problem in their rational choice. Properly selected harmonic drive must meet certain requirements during operation, and achieve the anticipated service life. The paper discusses the problems associated with the selection of the harmonic drive. It also presents the algorithm correct choice of harmonic drive. The main objective of this study was to develop a computer program that allows the correct choice of harmonic drive by developed algorithm.

  18. Life cycle costs of electric industrial drives. Reliability and energy consumption are decisive cost factors. Life-Cycle Costs elektrischer Industrieantriebe. Zuverlaessigkeit und Energieverbrauch als entscheidende Kostenfaktoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieniek, K. (BASF AG, Ludwigshafen (Germany))

    1999-06-01

    In the case of electric drives for the chemical industry, the purchase cost is only a fraction of the life cycle cost. The main criteria for engine assessment are reliability and energy consumption resp. performance. After the issuing of the US Energy Policy Act, the EC is discussion energy savings with the aid of high-performance electric motors.

  19. Analysis on vibration factors of main drive system of CSP hat rolling mill%CSP轧机主传动系统致振因素的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴继民; 吴炳胜

    2012-01-01

    The main drive system of CSP rolling mill abnormal vibration phenomena was analyzed to determine the causes of the vibration. At first, it was found that the mechanical gaps of the main drive system had a great impact on twist vibration of system, and then the rolling interface changes due to rolling torque on the vibration impact was analyzed. The MATLAB/Simulink software was used to simulate the rolling torque. The results show that the fluctuation of the rolling torque has a immediate impact on the vibration of the main drive system. The fluctuation of the friction coefficient impacting the main drive system vibration is due to the stead-state self-excited torsional vibration produced to the main drive system. By analyzing the electrical parameters controlled by the inverter and the main drive system torsional vibration impact, it concludes that the harmonics torque is generated by the electromagnetic harmonics, so that the main drive system can produce the torsional response. At last, a series of measures on the theoretical basis to inhibit the abnormal vibration were provides.%对CSP轧机主传动系统异常振动现象进行分析,为了确定引起振动的原因,分析了主传动系统机械间隙的存在对振动产生的影响,以及轧制界面因轧制力矩的变化对振动产生影响.通过MATLAB的Simulink软件对轧制力矩进行仿真发现,轧制力矩的波动对主传动系统振动的产生有直接影响;摩擦系数的波动对主传动系统振动产生的影响,是对主传动系统产生稳态的自激扭转振动;在对变频器控制的电气参数与主传动系统扭振的影响分析得出,由电磁谐波产生的谐波转矩,使主传动系统产生相应的扭振响应.最后在理论上提出了一系列抑制振动的措施.

  20. Acute myositis associated with concurrent infection of rotavirus and norovirus in a 2-year-old girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Yamamoto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rotavirus and norovirus are common pathogens associated with gastroenteritis in children. Although rotavirus occasionally induces central nervous system disease, only 3 cases with rotavirus-induced acute myositis have been reported in the English literature. We recently treated a female patient with acute myositis associated with gastroenteritis induced by concurrent infection with rotavirus and norovirus. Having suffered from gastroenteritis for 3 days, she suddenly developed myositis affecting her lower extremities with concomitant creatine kinase elevation. Herein, we present our patient and review the previous cases including those reported in the Japanese literature.

  1. ISO TS/15216; an international standard method for the detection and quantification of norovirus in high risk foodstuffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lowther, James; Schultz, Anna Charlotte

    a major safety risk. The introduction of testing for norovirus into food hygiene legislation and standard operating procedures for investigating foodborne outbreaks is a priority for many national and international authorities. Until recently this has been prevented by the lack of availability......Norovirus is one of the principal agents of food-related gastroenteritis. Outbreaks have been associated with a number of different food vehicles, most notably bivalve molluscan shellfish and soft fruit. Contamination of prepared food through contact with infected food handlers also presents...

  2. STRESS; THE VULNERABILITY AND ASSOCIATION WITH DRIVING PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M.T. Shamsul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several factors may contribute to occurrence of road accidents which are human factors, vehicle factor, road factor and environmental factor. There has been recent evidence of a relationship between road accidents and emotional distress as well as fatigue. Monotonous and complex road environments are the road factor that relates to the internal factor within driver. The overall aim of this study was to compare driving stress, fatigue and driving error between complex and monotonous driving. This experimental study was carried out to measure the stress level, fatigue status and driving performance among hundred male drivers (20-59 years with driving experience more than one year. Cortisol concentration from respondents’ saliva was obtained to measure the stress level due to the driving test. Cortisols were measured using Salimetrics cortisol Enzyme Immunoassay kit (ELISA. Fatigue status was measured by using EEG test to the respondents while conducted the simulator driving test. Driving performance was measured based on the recorded data of Running-of-the Roads (RORI and Large Speed Variation (LSV index from the simulator system. This study found that there was a significant difference (p<0.05 between cortisol levels, EEG value and driving errors of monotonous and complex driving. Salivary cortisol level was found higher during monotonous driving compared to complex driving. Theta wave which indicates sleepy and fatigue condition was found higher on monotonous driving compared to other brainwaves which is alpha and beta state. RORI and LSV index was higher recorded during driving in complex road environments. The main implications of this study for road safety shows that monotonous driving had significantly induced driving stress and fatigue while complex driving lead to higher driving errors. Human factors and road factors could possibly put drivers in a higher risk to be involved in road accidents.

  3. Dynamic Performance and Its Driving Factor Structure of Product Supply-chain%动态产品供应链绩效及其驱动因素结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘进

    2012-01-01

    The constant change of the products supply - chain environment makes the performance goal system and its driving factors structure dynamically changing. So the products supply - chain was taken as research object and the product life cycle was taken as the division to the supply - chain environment. The theory model was established for the dynamic performance and its driving factor of product supply - chain. The empirical analysis shows that; with the development of supply - chain product in the life cycle, the operation strategy has the significant influence on the performance of the product supply - chain and their drive strength changes dynamically. The based strategy is the significant factor to the performance too, but the drive strength has certain stability.%由于产品供应链环境的不断变化使得供应链绩效目标体系及其驱动因素结构具有动态性,以产品供应链为研究对象,以产品生命周期来划分动态产品供应链环境,建立动态产品供应链绩效及其驱动因素结构模型.实证分析表明:随着供应链产品生命周期的演进,运作策略对产品供应链绩效影响显著且驱动力度动态变化,基础策略的影响显著但驱动力度具有一定的稳定性.

  4. The viral polymerase inhibitor 2'-C-methylcytidine inhibits Norwalk virus replication and protects against norovirus-induced diarrhea and mortality in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Pereira, Joana; Jochmans, Dirk; Debing, Yannick; Verbeken, Erik; Nascimento, Maria S J; Neyts, Johan

    2013-11-01

    Human noroviruses are a major cause of food-borne illness, accountable for 50% of all-etiologies outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis (in both developing and developed countries). There is no vaccine or antiviral drug for the prophylaxis or treatment of norovirus-induced gastroenteritis. We recently reported the inhibitory effect of 2'-C-methylcytidine (2CMC), a hepatitis C virus polymerase inhibitor, on the in vitro replication of murine norovirus (MNV). Here we evaluated the inhibitory effect of 2CMC on in vitro human norovirus replication through a Norwalk virus replicon model and in a mouse model by using AG129 mice orally infected with MNV. Survival, weight, and fecal consistency were monitored, and viral loads in stool samples and organs were quantified. Intestines were examined histologically. 2CMC reduced Norwalk virus replicon replication in a dose-dependent manner and was able to clear cells of the replicon. Treatment of MNV-infected AG129 mice with 2CMC (i) prevented norovirus-induced diarrhea; (ii) markedly delayed the appearance of viral RNA and reduced viral RNA titers in the intestine, mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, lungs, and stool; (iii) completely prevented virus-induced mortality; and (iv) resulted in protective immunity against a rechallenge. We demonstrate for the first time that a small-molecule inhibitor of norovirus replication protects from virus-induced disease and mortality in a relevant animal model. These findings pave the way for the development of potent and safe antivirals as prophylaxis and therapy of norovirus infection.

  5. Efficacy and mechanisms of murine norovirus inhibition by pulsed-light technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimont, Allison; Fliss, Ismaïl; Jean, Julie

    2015-04-01

    Pulsed light is a nonthermal processing technology recognized by the FDA for killing microorganisms on food surfaces, with cumulative fluences up to 12 J cm(-2). In this study, we investigated its efficacy for inactivating murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1) as a human norovirus surrogate in phosphate-buffered saline, hard water, mineral water, turbid water, and sewage treatment effluent and on food contact surfaces, including high-density polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, and stainless steel, free or in an alginate matrix. The pulsed-light device emitted a broadband spectrum (200 to 1,000 nm) at a fluence of 0.67 J cm(-2) per pulse, with 2% UV at 8 cm beneath the lamp. Reductions in viral infectivity exceeded 3 log10 in less than 3 s (5 pulses; 3.45 J cm(-2)) in clear suspensions and on clean surfaces, even in the presence of alginate, and in 6 s (11 pulses; 7.60 J cm(-2)) on fouled surfaces except for stainless steel (2.6 log10). The presence of protein or bentonite interfered with viral inactivation. Analysis of the morphology, the viral proteins, and the RNA integrity of treated MNV-1 allowed us to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the antiviral activity of pulsed light. Pulsed light appeared to disrupt MNV-1 structure and degrade viral protein and RNA. The results suggest that pulsed-light technology could provide an effective alternative means of inactivating noroviruses in wastewaters, in clear beverages, in drinking water, or on food-handling surfaces in the presence or absence of biofilms. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Molecular characterisation of noroviruses detected in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from harvesting areas in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henigman, Urška; Biasizzo, Majda; Vadnjal, Stanka; Toplak, Ivan; Gombač, Mitja; Steyer, Andrej; Poljšak Prijatelj, Mateja; Ambrožič, Mateja; Fonda, Irena; Kirbiš, Andrej; Barlič-Maganja, Darja

    2015-04-01

    Noroviruses are a leading cause of viral gastroenteritis in humans and are responsible for many outbreaks worldwide. Mussels are one of the most important foodstuffs connected with norovirus outbreaks, also resulting in multinational dimensions. Two hundred and thirty-eight (238) samples of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were collected in periods between the years 2006-2008 and 2010-2012 to study the prevalence of noroviruses (NoVs) from harvesting areas along the Adriatic coast of Slovenia. Between 2006 and 2008, 9.1% to 24.6% of mussel samples tested by specific GI and/or GII real-time RT-PCR methods were found to be positive for NoVs while between 2010 and 2012 the percentage of NoV positive samples varied from 12.5% to 22.2%. At the nucleotide level within the RdRp gene fragment the genetic diversity of NoVs detected in mussels ranged between 78.8-81.0% nucleotide identity among GII strains (92.1-99.6% within the GII.P4 genotype), 100% nucleotide identity among GI and 58.4-60.2% among GI and GII strains. Nine of the NoV strains detected from mussels were genotyped as GII.4, while two samples were within GI.P2 and one was a positive sample within genotype GII.P21. This study confirmed that mussels are a potential source of the NoV infection. The detected NoVs share the same topology on the phylogenetic tree within the NoV strains detected in water samples and human patients, not only from Slovenia but also from many different countries worldwide. We can assume that mussels in harvesting areas are not only contaminated from the surrounding area but also by contaminated water and sewage from large transport ships, which are regularly present in the area.

  7. Police enforcement and driving speed.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Speed limits are violated frequently in the Netherlands. As speed is an important factor in road crashes, the surveillance of driving speeds is one of the spearheads in the policy plans of the Dutch police. Different methods of speed enforcement have proved to be effective in reducing speed and cras

  8. Boerhaave's syndrome and tension pneumothorax secondary to Norovirus induced forceful emesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venø, Søren; Eckardt, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Boerhaave's syndrome or spontaneous esophageal perforation is a rare condition, with high mortality. We describe a case of Boerhaave's syndrome presenting with tension pneumothorax. The patient was infected with Norovirus and developed Boerhaave's syndrome, initially thought to be gastroenteritis...... but later developing with tension pneumothorax, and mediastinitis caused by esophageal perforation. The patient was treated with thoracotomy with primary suture and oesophageal stent placement. He had a long period of recovery and was discharged after 98 days. Boerhaaves syndrome is often delayed and must...

  9. Detection, quantification and genotyping of noroviruses in oysters implicated in disease outbreaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haefeli, Deborah; Gantenbein-Demarchi, Corinne; Böttiger, Blenda

    2012-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are a major cause of foodborne outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in humans. Transmission of NoV is commonly linked to the consumption of oysters as they accumulate viruses through filter feeding in faecal-contaminated water. The NoV genogroups (G)I, GII and GIV infect humans....... While GI and GII have often been verified as causative agents of oyster-transmitted illness, GIV is rarely detected and has so far not been confirmed in outbreaks related to oysters. The aim of this study was to determine whether NoVs from oysters implicated in a disease outbreak were linked to the GI...

  10. Sewage surveillance reveals the presence of canine GVII norovirus and canine astrovirus in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizasoain, A; Tort, L F L; García, M; Gómez, M M; Leite, J P G; Miagostovich, M P; Cristina, J; Berois, M; Colina, R; Victoria, Matías

    2015-11-01

    Canine norovirus (NoV) and astrovirus (AstV) were studied in 20 domestic sewage samples collected in two cities in Uruguay. Four samples were characterized as canine AstV after phylogenetic analysis clustering with strains detected in Italy and Brazil in 2008 and 2012, respectively. One sample was characterized as canine NoV and clustered with a strain detected in Hong Kong and recently classified as GVII. This study shows the occurrence of a canine NoV GVII strain for the first time in the American continent and also warns about possible zoonotic infection, since canine strains were detected in domestic sewage.

  11. Production of Brazilian human norovirus VLPs and comparison of purification methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Alves da Costa Lamounier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractNoroviruses (NVs are responsible for most cases of human nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Some parameters for the purification of NV virus-like particles (VLPs such as ease of production and yield were studied for future development of vaccines and diagnostic tools. In this study, VLPs were produced by the expression of the VP1 and VP2 gene cassette of the Brazilian NV isolate, and two purification methods were compared: cesium chloride (CsCl gradient centrifugation and ion-exchange chromatography (IEC. IEC produced more and purer VLPs of NV compared to CsCl gradient centrifugation.

  12. Exposure to Airborne Noroviruses and Other Bioaerosol Components at a Wastewater Treatment Plant in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrbrand, Katrine; Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Madsen, Anne Mette

    2011-01-01

    . The objective of the study was therefore to examine the exposure of the workers to aerosolised microorganisms. Sampling of inhalable endotoxin, bacteria, moulds and viruses was performed on one occasion using personal samplers. Noroviruses (NoVs) and endotoxin were detected at concentrations that could pose...... an occupational health risk and possibly contribute to the increased frequency of gastrointestinal illness among the workers and should therefore be investigated further. In addition, positive correlations between exposure to endotoxin, bacteria, moulds and NoVs were found and indicate that the exposure...

  13. The EVA Driving Factor Analysis of Listed Banks in China%我国上市商业银行EVA驱动因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺湘; 张子跃

    2015-01-01

    Consider the future development of banks in the long run,EVA can not only enhance the competi-tiveness of itself,but also can help banks improve the risk prevention level. This article starts with the research liter-ature review of EVA,analyzes the advantages of EVA evaluation,computes the value of EVA and REVA in 16 pub-lic banks,estimates the real value of economic value added in banks through scientific method. After computing the EVA and Return Rate,this article empirically explores the driving factors promoting banks economic added value increase from both internal and external aspects. The empirical results show that there is a positive relationship be-tween the scale of bank and REVA. However,the relationship between risk variables and REVA is negative. This in-dicates that banks should expand its scale properly,use the scale effect to promote economic added value. The most important is to reduce the risk of the bank,increase the adequacy of capital,minimize the liquidity risk and enhance the competitiveness of the bank. These are the very targets of EVA performance appraisal.%EVA从长远考虑银行的未来发展,不仅可以帮助银行业提升自己的竞争力,更重要的是帮助银行提高风险的防范水平。文章从EVA的研究文献综述入手,分析了银行运用EVA评价的优势,计算了16家上市银行的EVA值和REVA值,科学估量了银行的真实经济增加值。在计算了经济增加值和其回报率后,文章从内部因素和外部因素两方面,实证研究了推动银行经济增加值增加的因素,实证结果表明,银行规模与REVA同向变化,而与风险相关的变量则与REVA负相关,说明银行应当适度的扩大规模,利用规模效应来推动经济增加值,更重要的是降低银行的风险因素,增加资本充足率,降低流动性风险,提升银行的竞争能力,这正是采用EVA进行绩效考核所追求的目标。

  14. Factors driving spatial and temporal variation in production and production/biomass ratio of stream-resident brown trout (Salmo trutta) in Cantabrian streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobon-Cervia, J.; Gonzalez, G.; Budy, P.

    2011-01-01

    1.The objective was to identify the factors driving spatial and temporal variation in annual production (PA) and turnover (production/biomass) ratio (P/BA) of resident brown trout Salmo trutta in tributaries of the Rio Esva (Cantabrian Mountains, Asturias, north-western Spain). We examined annual production (total production of all age-classes over a year) (PA) and turnover (P/BA) ratios, in relation to year-class production (production over the entire life time of a year-class) (PT) and turnover (P/BT) ratio, over 14years at a total of 12 sites along the length of four contrasting tributaries. In addition, we explored whether the importance of recruitment and site depth for spatial and temporal variations in year-class production (PT), elucidated in previous studies, extends to annual production. 2.Large spatial (among sites) and temporal (among years) variation in annual production (range 1.9-40.3gm-2 per year) and P/BA ratio (range 0.76-2.4per year) typified these populations, values reported here including all the variation reported globally for salmonids streams inhabited by one or several species. 3.Despite substantial differences among streams and sites in all production attributes, when all data were pooled, annual (PA) and year-class production (PT) and annual (P/BA) and year-class P/BT ratios were tightly linked. Annual (PA) and year-class production (PT) were similar but not identical, i.e. PT=0.94 PA, whereas the P/BT ratios were 4+P/BA ratios. 4.Recruitment (Rc) and mean annual density (NA) were major density-dependent drivers of production and their relationships were described by simple mathematical models. While year-class production (PT) was determined (R2=70.1%) by recruitment (Rc), annual production (PA) was determined (R2=60.3%) by mean annual density (NA). In turn, variation in recruitment explained R2=55.2% of variation in year-class P/BT ratios, the latter attaining an asymptote at P/BT=6 at progressively higher levels of recruitment

  15. The identification of Malaysian driving styles using the multidimensional driving style inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karjanto Juffrizal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to investigate the driving styles within the geographical region of Malaysia. The first part of the study determined Malaysian drivers’ driving styles using the Multidimensional Driving Style Inventory approach. Respondents had various backgrounds in terms of age, gender and experience of driving. A statistical factor analysis was done for 338 respondents revealing four driving styles; careful, risky, anxious-dissociative and angry. In addition, a comparison with previous findings from Netherlands and Israel was also done in this study. The next part of the study focused on the associations of these driving styles with two personality traits (sensation seeking and desire for control, sociodemographic factors and experience of driving. The last part of the paper discusses the relevance of the study against the background of future automotive development.

  16. Driving After a Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Inspirational Stories Stroke Heroes Among Us Driving After Stroke Updated:Jul 23,2015 Can I drive after ... more tips for daily living . Let's Talk About Stroke Fact Sheets Our stroke fact sheets cover treatments, ...

  17. Electric Vehicle - Economical driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, VCE, Steen V.; Schøn, Henriette

    1999-01-01

    Instruct the reader in getting most satisfaction out of an EV, especially concerning driving and loading.......Instruct the reader in getting most satisfaction out of an EV, especially concerning driving and loading....

  18. Dementia and driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000028.htm Dementia and driving To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. If your loved one has dementia , deciding when they can no longer drive may ...

  19. Optimizing the charge profile: Considering users' driving profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Kley, Fabian; Dallinger, David; Wietschel, Martin

    2010-01-01

    PHEVs are discussed controversially. On the one hand, the evolutionary approach of a hybrid vehicle helps the consumer to adopt to electric driving, using the range extender when driving longer distances. On the other hand, PHEVs have a more complex propulsion system and a potentially low emission impact due to a low electric driving share. These factors, however, strongly depend on the consumers' driving and charging behavior. Therefore, this paper simulates realistic driving based on the na...

  20. Gear bearing drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Brian (Inventor); Mavroidis, Constantinos (Inventor); Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A gear bearing drive provides a compact mechanism that operates as an actuator providing torque and as a joint providing support. The drive includes a gear arrangement integrating an external rotor DC motor within a sun gear. Locking surfaces maintain the components of the drive in alignment and provide support for axial loads and moments. The gear bearing drive has a variety of applications, including as a joint in robotic arms and prosthetic limbs.

  1. Roadside survey on prevalence and related factors of drinking-driving in Changsha%长沙市酒后驾驶发生率及相关因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方丽; 肖水源; 潘忠

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解长沙市酒后驾驶的发生率及分布规律,分析酒后驾驶的相关因素.方法:采用多阶段随机抽样的方法,并结合交通管理部门提供的道路信息选择道路,设立调查点.调查日期从2008年2月至2009年3月,分为工作日、周末、节假日,调查时间分为日间13:00-17:00,夜间19:00-24:00.采用数码CA2000型呼气酒精测试仪进行呼气酒精检测,将血液酒精浓度(Blood Alcohol Concentration,BAC)>0 mg/100 mL为酒后驾驶.结果:(1)10403名驾驶员接受了呼气酒精测试和问卷调查,酒后驾驶率为3.71%,有208名饮酒驾驶(20 mg%≤BAC80 mg%).(2)酒后驾驶的单因素分析显示,夜间驾驶的比例高于日间,男性高于女性,45~54岁年龄段高于其他年龄段,未固定安全带的高于固定安全带的,驾车距离10 km以内的高于10 km及以上的,有饮酒习惯的高于无饮酒习惯的,有酒后驾驶史的高于无驾驶史的,认为少量饮酒后对驾驶机动车无影响的高于认为有影响的.(3)多因素Logistic回归结果显示,对酒后驾驶的影响有统计学意义的因素为夜间(OR=1.487),驾驶员为女性(OR=0.184)、45~54岁(OR=2.660)、固定安全带(OR=0.706)、车上有乘客(OR=1.424)、习惯饮酒(OR=4.134)、有酒后驾驶史(OR=2.766)、认为少量饮酒对驾车有影响(OR=0.602).结论:夜间,驾驶员为男性、45~54岁、不固定安全带、车上有乘客、习惯饮酒、有酒后驾驶史、认为少量饮酒对驾车没影响是酒后驾驶率趋高的相关因素.%Objective: To estimate the prevalence, distribution and related factors of drinking driving in Changsha City. Methods: Multi-stage randomized sampling method was employed. According to the road information provided by Road Traffic Management Department, the roads and survey locations were selected. During February 2008 to March 2009, in workdays, weekends and holidays, at 13: 00 - 17: 00 and 19: 00 - 24: 00,motor vehicle drivers of survey

  2. Outbreak of norovirus infection in a nursing home for the elderly in Malta, November-December 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grima, A; Gatt, A; Zahra, G; Gambin, A

    2009-01-29

    In norovirus outbreak in a nursing home in Malta in November and December 2008, 44 people were affected. 35 of 91 residents and nine of 44 employees were symptomatic. The overall attack rate among residents was 38.5% [corrected]. The outbreak lasted 17 days and the symptoms were mild.

  3. Detection of noroviruses in foods: a study on virus extraction procedures in foods implicated in outbreaks of human gastroenteritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutjes, Saskia A; Lodder-Verschoor, Froukje; Poel, Wim H M van der; Duynhoven, Yvonne T H P van; Roda Husman, Ana Maria de

    2006-01-01

    Disease outbreaks in which foods are epidemiologically implicated as the common source are frequently reported. Noroviruses and enteric hepatitis A viruses are among the most prevalent causative agents of foodborne diseases. However, the detection of these viruses in foods other than shellfish is of

  4. Multicenter evaluation of the revised RIDA® QUICK test (N1402) for rapid detection of norovirus in a diagnostic laboratory setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonckheere, Stijn; Botteldoorn, Nadine; Vandecandelaere, Patricia; Frans, Johan; Laffut, Wim; Coppens, Guy; Vankeerberghen, Anne; De Beenhouwer, Hans

    2017-02-12

    The updated RIDA® QUICK (N1402) immunochromatographic assay (R-Biopharm) for detection of norovirus was evaluated during a prospective, multicenter study using 771 stool samples from patients with gastroenteritis. Compared to real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-rtPCR) as gold standard, the RIDA® QUICK had an overall sensitivity of 72.8% (91/125) and a specificity of 99.5% (640/643). Genotype analysis of the polymerase (ORF1) and capsid (ORF2) region of the genome indicated that the RIDA® QUICK assay could detect a broad range of genotypes including new variants (15 of 125 positive samples) which were detected by an in-house SYBR®Green RT-rtPCR, but not by the RIDA® GENE PCR PG1415 (R-Biopharm) and mostly not by the RIDA® GENE PCR PG1405 and the Xpert® Norovirus assay (Cepheid). The RIDA® QUICK can be used to reliably confirm norovirus in stool samples, but a negative result does not definitively exclude the presence of norovirus.

  5. Antiviral Activity of Gold/Copper Sulfide Core/Shell Nanoparticles against Human Norovirus Virus-Like Particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Jenkins Broglie

    Full Text Available Human norovirus is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide in a plethora of residential and commercial settings, including restaurants, schools, and hospitals. Methods for easily detecting the virus and for treating and preventing infection are critical to stopping norovirus outbreaks, and inactivation via nanoparticles (NPs is a more universal and attractive alternative to other physical and chemical approaches. Using norovirus GI.1 (Norwalk virus-like particles (VLPs as a model viral system, this study characterized the antiviral activity of Au/CuS core/shell nanoparticles (NPs against GI.1 VLPs for the rapid inactivation of HuNoV. Inactivation of VLPs (GI.1 by Au/CuS NPs evaluated using an absorbance-based ELISA indicated that treatment with 0.083 μM NPs for 10 min inactivated ~50% VLPs in a 0.37 μg/ml VLP solution and 0.83 μM NPs for 10 min completely inactivated the VLPs. Increasing nanoparticle concentration and/or VLP-NP contact time significantly increased the virucidal efficacy of Au/CuS NPs. Changes to the VLP particle morphology, size, and capsid protein were characterized using dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and Western blot analysis. The strategy reported here provides the first reported proof-of-concept Au/CuS NPs-based virucide for rapidly inactivating human norovirus.

  6. Development of one-step Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) for the detection of norovirus in oysters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study was to develop a simple and rapid technique for detecting human norovirus (NoV). The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique was evaluated and found to be sensitive, highly specific, and useful for routine oyster testing. Reverse transcription-LAMP (RT-LAMP) pri...

  7. Antiviral Activity of Gold/Copper Sulfide Core/Shell Nanoparticles against Human Norovirus Virus-Like Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broglie, Jessica Jenkins; Alston, Brittny; Yang, Chang; Ma, Lun; Adcock, Audrey F; Chen, Wei; Yang, Liju

    2015-01-01

    Human norovirus is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide in a plethora of residential and commercial settings, including restaurants, schools, and hospitals. Methods for easily detecting the virus and for treating and preventing infection are critical to stopping norovirus outbreaks, and inactivation via nanoparticles (NPs) is a more universal and attractive alternative to other physical and chemical approaches. Using norovirus GI.1 (Norwalk) virus-like particles (VLPs) as a model viral system, this study characterized the antiviral activity of Au/CuS core/shell nanoparticles (NPs) against GI.1 VLPs for the rapid inactivation of HuNoV. Inactivation of VLPs (GI.1) by Au/CuS NPs evaluated using an absorbance-based ELISA indicated that treatment with 0.083 μM NPs for 10 min inactivated ~50% VLPs in a 0.37 μg/ml VLP solution and 0.83 μM NPs for 10 min completely inactivated the VLPs. Increasing nanoparticle concentration and/or VLP-NP contact time significantly increased the virucidal efficacy of Au/CuS NPs. Changes to the VLP particle morphology, size, and capsid protein were characterized using dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and Western blot analysis. The strategy reported here provides the first reported proof-of-concept Au/CuS NPs-based virucide for rapidly inactivating human norovirus.

  8. Diversity of murine norovirus in wild-rodent populations: species-specific associations suggest an ancient divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald B; McFadden, Nora; Blundell, Richard J; Meredith, Anna; Simmonds, Peter

    2012-02-01

    A survey of wild-rodent populations has revealed that murine norovirus (MNV) is present and diverse in wild-house mice Mus musculus. This virus is genetically similar to MNV infecting show mice and previously described variants circulating in laboratory mice. The detection of MNV in wild-mouse populations suggests that MNV infection of laboratory mice and show mice (from which laboratory mice are derived) derives from contact with or their origins from wild-mouse progenitors. The survey additionally identified frequent infection of wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) with genetically divergent variants of MNV. These viruses are distinct from previously described MNV variants, differing by 22-23 % over the complete genome sequence compared with a maximum of 13 % between M. musculus-derived strains. Comparison with other noroviruses reveals that the Apodemus MNV groups with MNV in genogroup V and shares the same overall genome organization, predicted lengths of proteins encoded by ORFs 1-3 and the existence of a conserved alternative reading frame in VP1 encoding a homologue of the MNV ORF4. Different Apodemus MNV isolates were as variable as MNV isolates and showed evidence for inter-isolate recombination. Our observation of species-specific associations of MNV variants in wild populations suggests that murine noroviruses have an ancient origin, a feature that they may share with other norovirus genogroups.

  9. Detection of noroviruses in foods: a study on virus extraction procedures in foods implicated in outbreaks of human gastroenteritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutjes, Saskia A; Lodder-Verschoor, Froukje; Poel, Wim H M van der; Duynhoven, Yvonne T H P van; Roda Husman, Ana Maria de

    2006-01-01

    Disease outbreaks in which foods are epidemiologically implicated as the common source are frequently reported. Noroviruses and enteric hepatitis A viruses are among the most prevalent causative agents of foodborne diseases. However, the detection of these viruses in foods other than shellfish is

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of a Recombinant GII.P16-GII.4 Norovirus Detected in Kawasaki City, Japan, in 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Yuki; Shimizu, Tomomi; Ishikawa, Mariko; Komane, Ayako; Okabe, Nobuhiko; Ryo, Akihide; Kimura, Hirokazu; Katayama, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    A recombinant norovirus, GII.P16-GII.4_Sydney2012, was first detected from nine patients with gastroenteritis in Kawasaki City, Japan, in 2016. The viral genome showed nucleotide sequence identities of 95.1% and 97.2% to the closest strains in the regions of 5′ terminus to ORF1 and ORF2 to 3′ terminus, respectively.

  11. Separate norovirus outbreaks linked to one source of imported frozen raspberries by molecular analysis, Denmark, 2010–2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, L.; Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Fonager, J.

    2015-01-01

    capsid P2 region. In one outbreak at a hospital canteen, frozen raspberries was associated with illness by cohort investigation (relative risk 6·1, 95% confidence interval 3·2–11). Bags of raspberries suspected to be the source were positive for genogroup I and II noroviruses, one typable virus...

  12. Wipes coated with a singlet-oxygen-producing photosensitizer are effective against human influenza virus but not against norovirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaelen, Katharina; Bouwknegt, Martijn; Rutjes, Saskia; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Duizer, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    Transmission of enteric and respiratory viruses, including human norovirus (hNoV) and human influenza virus, may involve surfaces. In food preparation and health care settings, surfaces are cleaned with wipes; however, wiping may not efficiently reduce contamination or may even spread viruses,

  13. Drive: Theory and Construct Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegling, Alex B; Petrides, K V

    2016-01-01

    This article explicates the theory of drive and describes the development and validation of two measures. A representative set of drive facets was derived from an extensive corpus of human attributes (Study 1). Operationalised using an International Personality Item Pool version (the Drive:IPIP), a three-factor model was extracted from the facets in two samples and confirmed on a third sample (Study 2). The multi-item IPIP measure showed congruence with a short form, based on single-item ratings of the facets, and both demonstrated cross-informant reliability. Evidence also supported the measures' convergent, discriminant, concurrent, and incremental validity (Study 3). Based on very promising findings, the authors hope to initiate a stream of research in what is argued to be a rather neglected niche of individual differences and non-cognitive assessment.

  14. Differential cleavage of the norovirus polyprotein precursor by two active forms of the viral protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Ulrike; Rudolph, Wolfram; Gebhardt, Julia; Rohayem, Jacques

    2007-07-01

    Protein translation in noroviruses requires translational processing of a polyprotein precursor by the viral protease. So far, the molecular mechanisms of catalytic cleavage by the viral protease are poorly understood. In this study, the catalytic activities and substrate specificities of the viral protease were examined in vitro by using synthetic peptides (11-15 residues) corresponding to the cleavage sites of the norovirus polyprotein. Both predicted forms of the viral protease, the 3C-like protease (3C(pro)) and the 3CD-like protease polymerase protein (3CD(propol)), displayed a specific trans cleavage activity of peptides bearing Gln-Gly at the scissile bond. In contrast, peptides bearing Glu-Gly at the scissile bond (p20/VPg and 3C(pro)/3D(pol) junctions) were resistant to trans-cleavage by 3C(pro) and 3CD(propol). Interestingly, the VPg/3C(pro) scissile bond (Glu-Ala) was cleaved only by 3CD(propol), and examination of relative cleavage efficiencies revealed significant differences in processing of peptides, indicating differential cleavage patterns for 3C(pro) and 3CD(propol).

  15. Enzyme kinetics of the human norovirus protease control virus polyprotein processing order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Jared; Korba, Brent; Medvedev, Alexei; Viswanathan, Prasanth

    2013-09-01

    The human norovirus (NoV) polyprotein is cleaved into mature non-structural proteins by both mature NoV protease (Pro, NS6) and its un-cleaved precursor (ProPol, NS6-7). Processing order is well-established with 'early' and 'late' cleavages, but the governing enzymatic mechanisms are unknown. Enzyme kinetics of a GII Pro and ProPol were analyzed using synthetic peptides representing the five natural polyprotein cleavage sites. The relative efficiency of cleavage of the individual peptides was consistent with established polyprotein processing order, and primarily correlated with enzyme turnover (kcat). Enzymatic efficiencies (kcat/Km) of ProPol at all five sites were equivalent to, or greater than, that of Pro. Binding affinities (Km) for the two least efficiently cleaved sites (p20/VPg, VPg/Pro) were 2-4-fold higher than the other sites. This work further defines the role of ProPol in NoV polyprotein cleavage, and demonstrates that human norovirus polyprotein processing order is primarily an inherent property of enzymatic activity. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Nucleotidylylation of the VPg protein of a human norovirus by its proteinase-polymerase precursor protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belliot, Gaël; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V; Chang, Kyeong-Ok; McPhie, Peter; Green, Kim Y

    2008-04-25

    Caliciviruses have a positive strand RNA genome covalently-linked at the 5'-end to a small protein, VPg. This study examined the biochemical modification of VPg by the ProPol form of the polymerase of human norovirus strain MD145 (GII.4). Recombinant norovirus VPg was shown to be nucleotidylylated in the presence of Mn2+ by MD145 ProPol. Phosphodiesterase I treatment of the nucleotidylylated VPg released the incorporated UMP, which was consistent with linkage of RNA to VPg via a phosphodiester bond. Mutagenesis analysis of VPg identified Tyrosine 27 as the target amino acid for this linkage, and suggested that VPg conformation was important for the reaction. Nucleotidylylation was inefficient in the presence of Mg2+; however the addition of full- and subgenomic-length MD145 RNA transcripts led to a marked enhancement of the nucleotidylylation efficiency in the presence of this divalent cation. Furthermore, evidence was found for the presence of an RNA element near the 3'-end of the polyadenylated genome that enhanced the efficiency of nucleotidylylation in the presence of Mg2+.

  17. Norovirus epidemiology in community and health care settings and association with patient age, Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Kristina T; Fonager, Jannik; Ersbøll, Annette K; Böttiger, Blenda

    2014-07-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is a major cause of gastroenteritis. NoV genotype II.4 (GII.4) is the predominant genotype in health care settings but the reason for this finding is unknown. Stool samples containing isolates with a known NoV genotype from 2,109 patients in Denmark (patients consulting a general practitioner or outpatient clinic, inpatients, and patients from foodborne outbreaks) were used to determine genotype distribution in relation to age and setting. NoV GII.4 was more prevalent among inpatients than among patients in community settings or those who became infected during foodborne outbreaks. In community and health care settings, we found an association between infection with GII.4 and increasing age. Norovirus GII.4 predominated in patients ≥ 60 years of age and in health care settings. A larger proportion of children than adults were infected with NoV GII.3 or GII.P21. Susceptibility to NoV infection might depend on patient age and infecting NoV genotype. Cohort studies are warranted to test this hypothesis.

  18. Bovine Norovirus: Carbohydrate Ligand, Environmental Contamination, and Potential Cross-Species Transmission via Oysters ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakhour, Maha; Maalouf, Haifa; Di Bartolo, Ilaria; Haugarreau, Larissa; Le Guyader, Françoise S.; Ruvoën-Clouet, Nathalie; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Ruggeri, Franco Maria; Pommepuy, Monique; Le Pendu, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoV) are major agents of acute gastroenteritis in humans and the primary pathogens of shellfish-related outbreaks. Previous studies showed that some human strains bind to oyster tissues through carbohydrate ligands that are similar to their human receptors. Thus, based on presentation of shared norovirus carbohydrate ligands, oysters could selectively concentrate animal strains with increased ability to overcome species barriers. In comparison with human GI and GII strains, bovine GIII NoV strains, although frequently detected in bovine feces and waters of two estuaries of Brittany, were seldom detected in oysters grown in these estuaries. Characterization of the carbohydrate ligand from a new GIII strain indicated recognition of the alpha-galactosidase (α-Gal) epitope not expressed by humans, similar to the GIII.2 Newbury2 strain. This ligand was not detectable on oyster tissues, suggesting that oysters may not be able to accumulate substantial amounts of GIII strains due to the lack of shared carbohydrate ligand and that they should be unable to contribute to select GIII strains with an increased ability to recognize humans. PMID:20709837

  19. Murine norovirus (MNV-1) exposure in vitro to the purine nucleoside analog Ribavirin increases quasispecies diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Timothy R; Baugher, Joseph D; Rippinger, Christine M; Pinekenstein, Rebecca; Kolawole, Abimbola O; Mehoke, Thomas S; Wobus, Christiane E; Feldman, Andrew B; Pineda, Fernando J; Schwab, Kellogg J

    2016-01-04

    Ribavirin is a pharmaceutical antiviral used for the treatment of RNA virus infections including norovirus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis E virus, Lassa virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and rhinovirus. Despite the drug's history and documented efficacy, the antiviral mechanism of Ribavirin remains unclear. Mechanisms proposed include depletion of the intracellular GTP pool, immunomodulatory effects, induction of error catastrophe, inhibition of viral polymerase activity, and/or inhibition of viral capping. In the present study, we leveraged deep sequencing data to demonstrate that Ribavirin increases murine norovirus (MNV-1) viral diversity. By serial passaging MNV-1 in RAW 264.7 cells for twenty generations in the presence of Ribavirin, we demonstrated statistically significant increases in both the number of unique haplotypes and the average pairwise difference (APD). Based on statistically significant differences in the probability of nucleotide mutations based on Roche 454 sequencing, we also demonstrated that single nucleotide substitutions are increased in the presence of Ribavirin. Finally, we demonstrated Ribavirin's impact on statistically significantly reducing the relative proportion of the dominant sequence within the quasispecies.

  20. Inactivation of Human Norovirus and Its Surrogates on Alfalfa Seeds by Aqueous Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Markland, Sarah; Kniel, Kalmia E

    2015-08-01

    Alfalfa sprouts have been associated with numerous foodborne outbreaks. Previous studies investigated the effectiveness of aqueous ozone on bacterially contaminated seeds, yet little is known about the response of human norovirus (huNoV). This study assessed aqueous ozone for the disinfection of alfalfa seeds contaminated with huNoV and its surrogates. The inactivation of viruses without a food matrix was also investigated. Alfalfa seeds were inoculated with huNoV genogroup II, Tulane virus (TV), and murine norovirus (MNV); viruses alone or inoculated on seeds were treated in deionized water containing 6.25 ppm of aqueous ozone with agitation at 22°C for 0.5, 1, 5, 15, or 30 min. The data showed that aqueous ozone resulted in reductions of MNV and TV infectivity from 1.66 ± 1.11 to 5.60 ± 1.11 log PFU/g seeds; for all treatment times, significantly higher reductions were observed for MNV (P water was similar to that of huNoV, whereas MNV had significantly greater reductions in genomic copies (P ozone-treated viruses alone, with significantly higher levels of inactivation (P ozone indicates that ozone may be a plausible substitute for chlorine as an alternative treatment for seeds. The behavior of TV was similar to that of huNoV, which makes it a promising surrogate for these types of scenarios.